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Sample records for sorghum vulgare digitaria

  1. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sorghum Grains (Sorghum Vulgare

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    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical properties of sorghum grains (sorghum vulgare were studied at varying moisture contents of 13%, 20% and 30% (w.b. The four varieties of sorghum grains studied include; Dura, Guinea, Faterita and Kafir. Results indicate that the size ranges were 3.94mm - 4.83mm for Dura variety; 3.75mm - 4.54mm for Guinea variety; 3.21mm - 4.42mm for Kafir variety and 2.70mm - 4.14mm for Faterita variety. Irregularities in the shapes of the grains were observed but all approximated to a sphere. In the mechanical properties, at major diameter, Dura variety had highest rupture force of 1.16kN at 13% moisture content (w.b while the Guinea variety had the lowest rupture force of 0.955kN. In minor diameter, the Dura variety also recorded highest rupture force of 1.12kN at 13% moisture content (w.b while the Kafir variety had the lowest value of 0.952kN. Also at 20% moisture content, the Dura variety had highest rupture force of 1.025kN while the Guinea variety had the lowest rupture force of 0.965kN. The same trend applies in the varieties at 30% moisture content. This is because, increase in moisture content results to decrease in rupture force. And this implies that force beyond these points at these moisture contents may cause damage to the sorghum varieties.

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Sorghum vulgare [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sorghum vulgare 名詞 一般 * * * * モロコ...シ モロコシ モロコシ Thesaurus2015 200906063836088318 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Sorghum vulgare

  3. Using elevated CO2 to increase the biomass of a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. and to trigger hyperaccumulation of cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huibin; Tang Shirong; Zhang Ximei; Guo Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Tian Shuai; Smith, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    The most important challenge to use phytoremediation is how to improve its efficiency by increasing the accumulation of metals in plants, or by improving key plant biological traits that should enhance metal uptake. In this paper, we used open-top chambers to investigate the effects of elevated CO 2 (860 μL L -1 ) on biomass and Cs uptake by a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. growing on soils spiked with various levels of cesium (0, 300, 1500 and 3000 mg Cs kg -1 ). The results showed that elevated CO 2 not only increased aboveground biomass of the Sorghum and Trifolium species by 32-111%, and by 8-11%, respectively, compared to the ambient CO 2 treatment, but also caused more accumulation of Cs by Sorghum species (up to 73%) than Trifolium species (up to 43%). It was speculated that the increase in biomass and the improvement in Cs accumulation ability at elevated CO 2 could be related to lowered soil pH values, and changes in number and kind of microorganisms in the rhizospheres of the two tested species. This is the first report of a link among elevated CO 2 , increased biomass and hyperaccumulation of Cs by Sorghum and Trifolium species.

  4. Using elevated CO{sub 2} to increase the biomass of a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. and to trigger hyperaccumulation of cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Huibin [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Agro-Environmental Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Agro-product Safety of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Tang Shirong, E-mail: tangshir@hotmail.com [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Agro-Environmental Protection, The Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Agro-product Safety of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); Zhang Ximei; Guo Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Tian Shuai [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Institute of Agro-Environmental Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Agro-product Safety of the Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); Smith, Donald L. [Plant Science Department, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9 (Canada)

    2009-10-30

    The most important challenge to use phytoremediation is how to improve its efficiency by increasing the accumulation of metals in plants, or by improving key plant biological traits that should enhance metal uptake. In this paper, we used open-top chambers to investigate the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} (860 {mu}L L{sup -1}) on biomass and Cs uptake by a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. growing on soils spiked with various levels of cesium (0, 300, 1500 and 3000 mg Cs kg{sup -1}). The results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} not only increased aboveground biomass of the Sorghum and Trifolium species by 32-111%, and by 8-11%, respectively, compared to the ambient CO{sub 2} treatment, but also caused more accumulation of Cs by Sorghum species (up to 73%) than Trifolium species (up to 43%). It was speculated that the increase in biomass and the improvement in Cs accumulation ability at elevated CO{sub 2} could be related to lowered soil pH values, and changes in number and kind of microorganisms in the rhizospheres of the two tested species. This is the first report of a link among elevated CO{sub 2}, increased biomass and hyperaccumulation of Cs by Sorghum and Trifolium species.

  5. LAS ESPECIES COLOMBIANAS DEL GÉNERO DIGITARIA (POACEAE: PANICOIDEAE: PANICEAE

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    GIRALDO-CAÑAS DIEGO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sistemático, macro y micromorfológico de las especies colombianas del género Digitaria. Se analizan diversos aspectos relativos a la clasificación, la nomenclatura, las afinidades genéricas y la variación macro y micromorfológica de los caracteres, así como algunos aspectos anatómicos de la espiguilla y el antecio superior. El género Digitaria está representado en Colombia por 18 especies distribuidas en cinco secciones: Digitaria sect. Calvulae (una especie, Digitaria sect. Digitaria (siete especies, Digitaria sect. Ischaemum (tres especies, Digitaria sect. Ternatae (cuatro especies y Digitaria sect. Trichachne (tres especies. Dos especies son endémicas de Colombia (Digitaria cardenasiana y Digitaria andicola. Las especies Digitaria argillacea, Digitaria neesiana y Digitaria fragilis se excluyen de la flora de Colombia. Se presentan las claves para reconocer las secciones y las especies presentes en Colombia, así como también las descripciones de éstas, la iconografía, los usos, los nombres vulgares, la distribución geográfica y se comentan algunas observaciones morfológicas y ecológicas. Se documenta la presencia de espiguillas trifloras en el género Digitaria, situación observada en las especies Digitaria dioica y Digitaria nuda.

  6. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera, and comparative analyses with other grass genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Fjellheim, Siri; Guda, Chittibabu; Jansen, Robert K.; Luo, Hong; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Rognli, Odd Arne; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera to six published grass chloroplast genomes reveal that gene content and order are similar but two microstructural changes have occurred. First, the expansion of the IR at the SSC/IRa boundary that duplicates a portion of the 5′ end of ndhH is restricted to the three genera of the subfamily Pooideae (Agrostis, Hordeum and Triticum). Second, a 6 bp deletion in ndhK is shared by Agrostis, Hordeum, Oryza and Triticum, and this event supports the sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. Repeat analysis identified 19–37 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity of at least 90%. Seventeen of the 26 shared repeats are found in all the grass chloroplast genomes examined and are located in the same genes or intergenic spacer (IGS) regions. Examination of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified 16–21 potential polymorphic SSRs. Five IGS regions have 100% sequence identity among Zea mays, Saccharum officinarum and Sorghum bicolor, whereas no spacer regions were identical among Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, H. vulgare and A. stolonifera despite their close phylogenetic relationship. Alignment of EST sequences and DNA coding sequences identified six C–U conversions in both Sorghum bicolor and H. vulgare but only one in A. stolonifera. Phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes of 38 taxa using both maximum parsimony and likelihood methods provide moderate support for a sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. PMID:17534593

  7. Biorestauration of soil polluted by waste motor oil by biostimulation with vermicompost and phytoremediation with Sorghum vulgare inoculated by Bacillus cereus and Rhizobium etli

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    Juárez-Cisneros Gladys

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution by waste motor oil (WMO caused soil´s lost fertility. The aims of this research where a bioremediation of soil polluted by 10000 ppm of WMO for biostimulation with vermicompost (VC at 3 and 6 % (w/w follow by b phytoremediation (PR of the same soil to eliminate remaining WMO with Sorghum vulgare inoculated with Bacillus cereus and/or Rhizobium etli or Promoting Growth Plant Bacteria (PGPB. At the first step of assay WMO concentration was measured before and after bioremediation. At the second step the same soil phytoremediation was applied for remaining WHO sowing S. vulgare inoculated with PGPB, then at flowering stage its biomass and WHO final concentration was determined. Results showed that soil impacted by WMO biostimulated with VC at 3% was eliminated 8630 ppm of WMO. At the second phase in the same soil PR applied for remaining WMO which was reduced until 210 ppm. Soil polluted by remaining WMO applied PR using S. vulgare plus R. etli WMO was decreased at 260 ppm. While S. vulgare´s biomass inoculated with PGPB was higher compared to S. vulgare grown in soil not polluted by WMO according by ANOVA - Tukey (p > 0.05. These results suggested that soil polluted by WMO could be recovering by applying integrated BR and PR better than just using one type.

  8. Biorremediation of soil polluted by 75000 ppm of waste motor oil applying biostimulation and phytoremediation with Sorghum vulgare and Bacillus cereus or Burkholderia cepacia

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    Balderas-León Iván

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste motor oil (WMO pollutes soil and causing lost soil fertility. An alternative to solve this problem its bioremediation (BR by double and following biostimulation (BS with mineral solution (MS and a legume as green manure (GM then using phytoremediation (PR with growth promoting vegetal bacteria (GPVB like Bacillus cereus and Burkholderia cepacia to minimize remaining WMO. The aims of this research were: a bioremediation of polluted soil by 75000 ppm of WMO by biostimulation and then b Its phytoremediation for remaining WMO by Sorghum vulgare inoculated with B. cereus and B. cepacia. Soil polluted by high concentration WMO was biostimulated with MS, and then Phaseolus vulgaris treated by GPVB was incorporated as GM, finally to apply PR to eliminate WMO with S. vulgare with GPVB. Results indicate that soil bioremediated by biostimulation with MS, WMO decreased at 32500 ppm/30 days, and then with GM, WMO was reduced at 10100 ppm after/90 days. Finally, to apply phytoremediation using S. vulgare and GPVB at flowering, WMO was reduced from 2500 ppm to 800 ppm. For recovering soil impacted by high concentration WMO to apply both techniques double and following BS and PR are the best option than each technique separately.

  9. Comparison of fluoride effects on germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max and Sorghum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Brenda L; Lupo, Maela; Dri, Nicolas; Lombarte, Mercedes; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Fluorosis is a disease caused by over-exposure to fluoride (F). Argentina's rural lands have higher fluorine content than urban lands. Evidence confirms that plants grown in fluoridated areas could have higher F content. We compared F uptake and growth of crops grown in different F concentrations. The effect of 0-8 ppm F concentrations on maize, soybeans and sorghum germination and growth was compared. After 6 days seeding, the germination was determined, the roots and aerial parts lengths were measured, and vigor index was calculated. F content was measured in each part of the plants. Controls with equal concentrations of NaCl were carried out. Significant decrease in roots and aerial parts lengths, and in vigor index of maize and soybeans plants was observed with F concentrations greater than 2 ppm. This was not observed in sorghum seedlings. Also, the amount of F in all crops augmented as F increases, being higher in roots and ungerminated seeds. Sorghum was the crop with the highest F content. Fluoride decreased the germination and growth of maize and soybeans and therefore could influence on their production. Conversely, sorghum seems to be resistant to the action of F. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Glucuronoarabinoxylans from sorghum grain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, M.A.

    1996-01-01


    Water-unextractable cell wall materials (WUS) were prepared from raw, polished, and malted sorghum ( Sorghum vulgare cv. Fara Fara). Except for the amounts, hardly any difference could be observed between the WUS of these three raw materials. This means that cell wall

  11. Plant uptake of MBOCA (4,4'-methylene-bis (2-chloroaniline)). [Brassica oleracea L. ; Phaseolus vulgaris L. ; Beta vulgaris L. ; Sorghum vulgare Pers. ; Dactylis glomerata L. ; Daucus carrota L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorman, R; Penner, D

    1986-09-01

    (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA was absorbed by cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves, but did not move beyond the absorption point. Radio autographs of bean, sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and carrot (Daucus carrota L.) plants exposed to (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA via hydroponic culture showed considerable radioactivity associated with the roots with only limited translocation of (/sup 14/C) into upper plant parts. Bean and cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) plants grown in (/sup 14/C)-MBOCA amended soil translocated virtually no (/sup 14/C) into aerial parts, but again considerable radioactivity was found on roots. Radioactivity could not be rinsed off roots with water or acetone, and a small amount of radioactivity was observed in the xylem-phloem layer of the carrot root.

  12. Efeito alelopático de folhas de bamburral [Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit.] sobre a germinação de sementes de sorgo (Sorghum vulgare Pers., rabanete (Raphanus sativus L. e alface (Lactuca sativa L. Allelopathic effects of leaves of "bamburral" [Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit.] on the germination of seeds of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers. , radish (Raphanus sativus L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi à verificação do efeito alelopático de Hyptis. suaveolens na germinação de sorgo, alface e rabanete, bem como, a comprovação da existência de compostos com potencial alelopático. Sementes de sorgo, alface e rabanete foram semeadas em substrato constituído de areia, terra e adubo orgânico contendo folhas de H. suaveolens. As análises da germinação foram feitas considerando a protrusão da radícula para o término do evento germinativo. Foi calculado o IVG (índice de velocidade de germinação e %G (porcentagem de germinação. Os resultados mostraram que sorgo e a alface foram mais susceptíveis ao potencial alelopático de H. suaveolens, sendo que para o rabanete foi observado um efeito benéfico. Entre os tratamentos, o substrato esterilizado e não esterilizado mostraram diferenças entre si. A análise cromatográfica do óleo essencial presente nas folhas de H. suaveolens revelou a presença de compostos com potencial alelopático. Portanto, H. suaveolens, pode apresentar efeito alelopático positivo no IVG de sementes de rabanete e a presença de microorganismos pode ser necessária para que esse efeito alelopático aconteça.The aim of this study was to verify the allelopathic effect of H. suaveolens on the germination of sorghum, lettuce and radish, as well as to prove the existence of compounds with allelopathic potential. Seeds of sorghum, lettuce and radish were sown in substrate consisting of sand, soil and organic fertilizer containing leaves of H. suaveolens. The germination tests were performed considering the protrusion of the radicle for the conclusion of the germinative event. GSI (germination speed index and G% (percentage of germination were calculated. The results showed that sorghum and lettuce were more susceptible to the allelopathic potential of H. suaveolens, while for radishes a beneficial effect was observed. Between treatments, the sterilized and unsterilized

  13. Análise de crescimento de Digitaria insularis Growth analysis of Digitaria insularis

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    A.F.L. Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Digitaria insularis é uma espécie perene, que se reproduz por sementes e rizomas, sendo de difícil controle após a primeira floração. Visando definir técnicas para o manejo integrado dessa espécie, o seu crescimento foi avaliado em casa de vegetação, em recipiente plástico contendo 0,003 m³ de solo. Avaliações de altura, área foliar e massa seca foram realizadas em 15 épocas, entre 14 e 112 dias após a emergência (DAE, em intervalos regulares de sete dias. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As plantas foram fragmentadas em raiz + rizoma, colmo e folha. Posteriormente, determinou-se a área foliar e a massa seca das diferentes partes após secagem a 70 ºC em estufa com ventilação forçada, até massa constante. Os valores máximos de área foliar e a massa seca foram atingidos aos 98 e 105 DAE, respectivamente. As folhas apresentaram maior participação no acúmulo de massa seca total, seguida por raízes+rizomas, até os 105 DAE. O acúmulo de massa seca de Digitaria insularis foi lento até 45 DAE. A partir dessa época, verificou-se rápido acúmulo de massa seca nas raízes, o que pode ser atribuído à formação dos rizomas. Os valores da taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR foram decrescentes com o tempo, devido à maior alocação de fotoassimilados para estruturas formadas com o desenvolvimento da planta. Digitaria insularis apresenta crescimento lento até 45 DAE, sendo este rápido a partir dos 45 até os 105 DAE, sugerindo a possibilidade de bom controle cultural dessa espécie por culturas que tenham crescimento inicial rápido, grande área foliar e que cubram rapidamente o solo.Digitaria insularis is a perennial species that reproduces from seeds and rhizomes, being difficult to control after its first flowering. In order to define integrated management techniques to this species, its growth was evaluated under greenhouse conditions, using a pot filled

  14. Análise de crescimento de Digitaria insularis Growth analysis of Digitaria insularis

    OpenAIRE

    A.F.L. Machado; L.R. Ferreira; F.A. Ferreira; C.M.T. Fialho; L.D. Tuffi Santos; M.S. Machado

    2006-01-01

    Digitaria insularis é uma espécie perene, que se reproduz por sementes e rizomas, sendo de difícil controle após a primeira floração. Visando definir técnicas para o manejo integrado dessa espécie, o seu crescimento foi avaliado em casa de vegetação, em recipiente plástico contendo 0,003 m³ de solo. Avaliações de altura, área foliar e massa seca foram realizadas em 15 épocas, entre 14 e 112 dias após a emergência (DAE), em intervalos regulares de sete dias. Foi utilizado o delineamento experi...

  15. Nutritional and Health Benefits of Acha ( Digitaria exilis ) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Health Benefits of Acha ( Digitaria exilis ) in the Human Diet – A Review. ... gluten-free diet, an excellent meal for weight loss, good for the skin and also hair ... and the food industry to assist in funding the development of equipment that ...

  16. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european

  17. Digitaria Effusa (Gramineae), a new species from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    During an agrostological survey in the Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, Mr. J.B. Hacker (St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia) collected a remarkable undescribed species of Digitaria. Among the Asian taxa it is peculiar because of its montane provenance coupled with a combination of an inflorescence with

  18. Ecophysiology of seed germination in Digitaria insularis ((L.) Fedde)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça,Giovana Soares de; Martins,Cibele Chalita; Martins,Dagoberto; Costa,Neumárcio Vilanova da

    2014-01-01

    The invasive behaviour of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis) in cultivated areas is due to its strategy of aggressive regeneration, which is based on seed germination. Knowledge of the physiological ecology of this species can contribute to the development of management and control strategies. The aim of this research was to understand the effects of provenance, temperature and light on the germination of sourgrass seeds collected in the Brazilian state of São Paulo in the cities of Americana, B...

  19. Digitaria Effusa (Gramineae), a new species from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    During an agrostological survey in the Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, Mr. J.B. Hacker (St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia) collected a remarkable undescribed species of Digitaria. Among the Asian taxa it is peculiar because of its montane provenance coupled with a combination of an inflorescence with well-developed common axis with alternate racemes, the presence of a small lower glume, and the absence of any indument on the spikelet. Somewhat similar is D. wallichiana (Steud.) Stapf, also a monta...

  20. Phytotoxicity of sorgoleone found in grain Sorghum root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhellig, F A; Souza, I F

    1992-01-01

    Root exudates ofSorghum bicolor consist primarily of a dihydroquinone that is quickly oxidized to ap-benzoquinone named sorgoleone. The aim of this investigation was to determine the potential activity of sorgoleone as an inhibitor of weed growth. Bioassays showed 125μM sorgoleone reduced radicle elongation ofEragrostis tef. In liquid culture, 50-μM sorgoleone treatments stunted the growth ofLemna minor. Over a 10-day treatment period, 10μM sorgoleone in the nutrient medium reduced the growth of all weed seedlings tested:Abutilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium, Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, andEchinochloa crusgalli. These data show sorgoleone has biological activity at extremely low concentrations, suggesting a strong contribution toSorghum allelopathy.

  1. Análise de crescimento de Digitaria insularis

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,A.F.L.; Ferreira,L.R.; Ferreira,F.A.; Fialho,C.M.T.; Tuffi Santos,L.D.; Machado,M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Digitaria insularis é uma espécie perene, que se reproduz por sementes e rizomas, sendo de difícil controle após a primeira floração. Visando definir técnicas para o manejo integrado dessa espécie, o seu crescimento foi avaliado em casa de vegetação, em recipiente plástico contendo 0,003 m³ de solo. Avaliações de altura, área foliar e massa seca foram realizadas em 15 épocas, entre 14 e 112 dias após a emergência (DAE), em intervalos regulares de sete dias. Foi utilizado o delineamento experi...

  2. effects of nitrous acid on growth and yield of digitaria exilis (haller)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Digitaria exilis seeds have several economic uses with long shelf life and impressive nutritional qualities. The crop is ... This work assessed effect of Nitrous acid on growth and ... of 10 g each were weighed using Mettler balance (Model.

  3. (cucurbita pepo) and sorghum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    ... properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) flour blends fermented with pure strains of Lactobacillus ... good storage characteristics and affordable cost. (Akinrele ... (MRS), Nutrient agar (NA) and Potato dextrose.

  4. Pool of resistance mechanisms to glyphosate in Digitaria insularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco; Alves, Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar; González-Torralva, Fidel; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo Enrique; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia María; De Prado, Rafael; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Barro, Francisco; de Castro, María Dolores Luque

    2012-01-18

    Digitaria insularis biotypes resistant to glyphosate have been detected in Brazil. Studies were carried out in controlled conditions to determine the role of absorption, translocation, metabolism, and gene mutation as mechanisms of glyphosate resistance in D. insularis. The susceptible biotype absorbed at least 12% more (14)C-glyphosate up to 48 h after treatment (HAT) than resistant biotypes. High differential (14)C-glyphosate translocation was observed at 12 HAT, so that >70% of the absorbed herbicide remained in the treated leaf in resistant biotypes, whereas 42% remained in the susceptible biotype at 96 HAT. Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), glyoxylate, and sarcosine by >90% in resistant biotypes, whereas a small amount of herbicide (up to 11%) was degraded by the susceptible biotype up to 168 HAT. Two amino acid changes were found at positions 182 and 310 in EPSPS, consisting of a proline to threonine and a tyrosine to cysteine substitution, respectively, in resistant biotypes. Therefore, absorption, translocation, metabolism, and gene mutation play an important role in the D. insularis glyphosate resistance.

  5. Ecophysiology of seed germination in Digitaria insularis ((L. Fedde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Soares de Mendonça

    Full Text Available The invasive behaviour of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis in cultivated areas is due to its strategy of aggressive regeneration, which is based on seed germination. Knowledge of the physiological ecology of this species can contribute to the development of management and control strategies. The aim of this research was to understand the effects of provenance, temperature and light on the germination of sourgrass seeds collected in the Brazilian state of São Paulo in the cities of Americana, Botucatu and São José do Rio Preto and in the state of Paraná in the city of São Miguel do Iguaçu. The seeds were left to germinate at temperatures of 15, 25, 35 and 45 °C, both with and without light. The number of normal seedlings was recorded daily from seven to 60 days. After this period, the seeds together with substrate, were transferred to 25 ºC with light, and a daily count was made for all treatments until the end of germination (75 days after sowing. The seeds of D. insularis are positively photoblastic. Seed germination in this species depends on provenance. A temperature of 4 5 °C for germination is lethal to the seeds. The temperature of 35 °C in the presence of light is the most favourable condition for seed germination.

  6. (Arachis hypogaea) and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    as enzyme activities of Arachis hypogaea and Sorghum bicolor in crude oil contaminated soil. Crude oil ... Treatments without crude oil were ... replicates were made for each treatment. .... dead sections of leaf margins, burning and stunted or.

  7. Consumption of, and beliefs about fonio (digitaria exilis) in urban area in Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanou, N.; Koreissi, Y.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2009-01-01

    The study sought to determine beliefs and practices about neglected crops in West Africa, using fonio (Digitaria exilis) as a model to understand how obstacles impede the consumption of this cereal in Bamako, the capital city of Mali. This was a crosssectional study on food ethnography in three

  8. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) as a staple food in Mali : an approach to upgrade nutritional value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanou-Fogny, N.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background
    With the increasing nutritional and health problems related to the global food crisis, the potential contribution of traditional foods to alleviation of poverty, nutritional deficiencies and health issues has been emphasized. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) is the most ancient West

  9. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  10. Agronomic and morphological performance of sorghum (sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-03-30

    Mar 30, 2013 ... occasional frost limits growth and seed set of un- adapted cultivars (Arkel, 1979) making seed multiplication of un-adapted varieties unsuccessful. Previous studies have shown that sorghum cultivars adapted to high altitude, low rainfall areas. Journal of Applied Biosciences 63: 4720 – 4726. ISSN 1997– ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sorghum Sorghum bicolor Sorghum_bicolor_L.png Sorghum_bicolor_NL.png Sorghum_bicolor_S.png Sorg...hum_bicolor_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=L http://b...iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorg...hum+bicolor&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NS ...

  12. Introduction of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) into China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorghum is a plant, which has been intentionally introduced in China for foods needs. It is a plant of African origin, which is much cultivated in the northern hemisphere. For millions of people in the semiarid tropic temperature of Asia and Africa, sorghum is the most important staple food. Sorghum is becoming one of the ...

  13. Transgenic sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) developed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an important food and fodder crop. Fungal diseases such as anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum reduce sorghum yields. Genetic transformation can be used to confer tolerance to plant diseases such as anthracnose. The tolerance can be developed by introducing ...

  14. Light and temperature effects on the seed germination of four Digitaria weed species

    OpenAIRE

    MONDO, Vitor Henrique Vaz; CARVALHO, Saul Jorge Pinto de; DIAS, Ana Carolina Ribeiro; MARCOS FILHO, Júlio

    2010-01-01

    O Brasil é o país das Américas com maior número de espécies nativas do gênero Digitaria, conhecidas como plantas daninhas, constituindo problemas em várias culturas de expressão econômica e encontradas em várias regiões do território brasileiro, sob ampla variação de ambientes. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da temperatura e presença de luz na germinação de sementes de quatro espécies de plantas daninhas do gênero Digitaria. O experimento foi conduzido em câ...

  15. Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Umbelliferae) Attenuates Stress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-stress and memory-enhancing properties of F. vulgare extract in experimental rats. Methods: F. vulgare plant extract was obtained using Soxhlet extraction technique. The extract, at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, was administered orally with an orogastric tube. Urinary levels of ...

  16. Révision du genre Digitaria Haller (Poaceae) au Sénégal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le genre Digitaria Haller (Poaceae) constitue l'un des genres les plus diversifiés des Poaceae du Sénégal avec 19 espèces. Bien qu'il y ait une monographie mondiale du genre, la détermination des espèces reste difficile et repose essentiellement sur les caractères de l'appareil reproducteur. Ce travail, qui est une ...

  17. Sorghums: viable biomass candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, T A; Arthur, M F; Kresovich, S; Scantland, D A

    1980-01-01

    Agronomic studies conducted at Battelle's Columbus Division to evaluate biomass and sugar yields of sweet sorghum are described and the major findings are summarized. Development opportunities for using sorghum cultivars as a large-scale energy crop are discussed. With presently available cultivars, sweet sorghum should produce 3500 to 4000 liters ethanol per hectare from the fermentable sugars alone. Conversion of the stalk fibers into alcohol could increase production by another 1600 to 1900 liters per hectare with existing cultivars. These yields are approximately 30 to 40% greater per hectare than would be obtained from above average yields of grain and stalk fiber with corn. There is reason to believe, that with hybrid sweet sorghum, these yields could be further increased by as much as 30%. Diminishing land availability for agricultural crops necessitates that maximum yields be obtained. Over the next decade, imaginative technological innovations in sorghum harvesting, processing, and crop preservation, coupled with plant breeding research should help this crop realize its full potential as a renewable resource for energy production.

  18. Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sorghum plants mitigates the negative effect of drought stress, favoring this crop cultivation in areas of low water ... It is a salt and aluminum-tolerant crop, making areas suitable for ... its growth or decrease its metabolic activity and later, when water ..... and osmoregulation, but also in stabilizing the structures and enzyme ...

  19. Sorghum bi-color

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Biomass materials require reduction and densification for the purpose of handling and space requirements. Guinea corn (Sorghum bi-color) is a major source of biomass material in the tropic regions. The densification process involves some ... a closed-end die, the temperature and the use of binder.

  20. Sugarcane Aphid in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Logan

    2018-01-01

    This article is intended for readers in the production agriculture industry who deal with grain sorghum throughout the growing season. This publication will discuss the impacts of the sugarcane aphid in various crops and the ways to manage and identify them as they continue to advance north.

  1. Anatomical characterization of the leaf, stem and rhizome of Digitaria insularis

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, A.F.L.; Meira, R.M.S.; Ferreira, L.R.; Ferreira, F.A.; Tuffi Santos, L.D.; Fialho, C.M.T.; Machado, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A anatomia da folha, de colmo e do rizoma de Digitaria insularis foi investigada, visando identificar características que possam estar relacionadas à sua tolerância ao glyphosate. Sementes e rizomas de plantas adultas foram coletadas em campo, em área de plantio direto, onde o herbicida glyphosate vem sendo utilizado repetidamente há vários anos. As plantas provenientes dessas sementes e desses rizomas foram cultivadas em vasos com capacidade de 3 L, contendo solo de textura média, em casa de...

  2. Chemical control of different Digitaria insularis populations and management of a glyphosate-resistant population

    OpenAIRE

    CORREIA,N.M.; ACRA,L.T.; BALIEIRO,G.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to control different populations of Digitaria insularisby glyphosate herbicide, isolated and mixed, besides the combination of methods (chemical and mechanical) to manage resistant adult plants. Three experiments were conducted, one in pots which were maintained under non-controlled conditions and two under field conditions. In the experiment in pots, twelve populations of D. insularis were sprayed with isolated glyphosate (1.44 and 2.16 kg a.e. ha-1) and mixed (1.44 and 2.16...

  3. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  4. In planta transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An in planta transformation protocol for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using shoot apical meristem of germinating seedlings is reported in this study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, LBA4404 with pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1 were individually used for transformation. Since, the ...

  5. Manejo de rebrotes de Digitaria insularis no plantio direto de milho Management of Digitaria insularis sprouts under no-till corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Timossi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Com a dessecação da vegetação espontânea, nem sempre se consegue obter controle total das espécies daninhas, o que leva à perenização e ao aumento da importância daquelas selecionadas. Em área de plantio direto com predominância de rebrotes de Digitaria insularis, foi testado nicosulfuron isolado (60 g ha-1 e em mistura em tanque com atrazine (40 + 1.500 g ha-1, foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron-methyl (45 + 3 g ha-1 e mesotrione em mistura em tanque com atrazine (144 + 1.500 g ha-1 sob delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Cada parcela apresentava 6 x 4 m, contendo seis linhas de milho. A aplicação dos herbicidas foi feita com pulverizador costal na pressão constante de 30 lbf pol-2, com gasto de 200L ha-1 de calda. Foram avaliadas a eficácia e a intoxicação dos herbicidas aos 7, 15 e 30 dias após a aplicação na cultura. Na época da colheita, realizouse levantamento da cobertura vegetal reinfestante e do seu grau de dificuldade de colheita mecanizada, além da produtividade da cultura. Pode-se inferir que o melhor resultado para o manejo de rebrotes de D. insularis foi com a utilização de nicosulfuron isolado a 60 g ha-1.Total weed control is not always possible under no-till desiccation leading to perennial and increased number of weeds. In no-till cultivation areas with predominant occurrence of Digitaria insularis sprouts, nicosulfuron alone (60 g ha-1 and in tank mix with atrazine (40 + 1.500 g ha-1, foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron-methyl (45 + 3 g ha-1 and mesotrione in tank mix with atrazine (144 + 1.500 g ha-1 were tested in a randomized block design, with four replications. Each plot was 6 x 4 m, containing six corn culture rows. The herbicides were applied with a back spray at a constant pressure of 30 lbf pol-2, using 200 L ha-1 solution. Herbicide efficacy and toxicity were evaluated at 7, 15 and 30 days after application. During harvest, reinfesting plant cover and its degree of mechanized harvest

  6. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most...

  7. Advances in sorghum genetic mapping with implications for sorghum improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.

    1998-01-01

    Despite the importance of the sorghum crop, comprehensive genetic characterization has been limited. Therefore, the primary goal of this research program was to develop basic genetic tools to facilitate research in the genetics and breeding of sorghum. The first phase of this project consisted of constructing a genetic map based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). The ISU sorghum map was created through linkage analysis of 78 F2 plants of an intraspecific cross between inbred CK60 and accession PI229828. Subsequent mapping, efforts in several labs have enriched the sorghum map to the point where it now contains over 1,500 loci defined by RFLPs and many others defined by mutant phenotypes and QTLs. The ISU map consists of 201 loci distributed among 10 linkage groups covering 1299 cM. Comparison of sorghum and maize RFLP maps on the basis of common sets of DNA probes revealed a high degree of conservation as reflected by homology, copy number, and colinearity. Examples of conserved and rearranged locus orders were observed. The same sorghum population was used to map genetic factors (mutants and QTLS) for several traits including vegetative and reproductive morphology, maturity, insect, and disease resistance. Four QTLs for plant height, an important character for sorghum adaptation in temperate latitudes for grain production, were identified in a sample of 152 F2 plants whereas 6 QTLs were detected among their F3 progeny. These observations and assessments of other traits at 4 QTLs common to F2 plants and their F3 progeny indicate some of these regions correspond to loci (dw) previously identified on the basis of alleles with highly qualitative effects. Four of the six sorghum plant height QTLs seem to be orthologous to plant height QTLs in maize. Other possible instances of orthologous QTLs included regions for maturity and tillering. These observations suggest that the conservation of the maize and sorghum genomes encompasses sequence homology

  8. Traditional sorghum beer "ikigage"

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2010-01-01

    Samples of traditional sorghum beer Ikigage was collected in the southern province of Rwanda and analyzed for microbiological and physico-chemical contents. Ikigage contained total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (33.55 x 106 cfu/ml), yeast (10.15 x 106 cfu/ml), lactic acid bacteria (35.35 x 104 cfu/ml), moulds (4.12 x 104 cfu/ml), E. coli (21.90 x 103 cfu/ml), fecal streptococci (22.50 x 103 cfu/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (16.02 x 103 cfu/ml), total coliform (32.30 x 103 cfu/ml), eth...

  9. DIGITARIA EXILIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... Decision by the women to purchase or prepare fonio in the household could be favourably ... Women of reproductive age are mostly affected because of increasing needs during pregnancy ... Promotion of local and traditional.

  10. Manejo de rebrotes de Digitaria insularis no plantio direto de milho

    OpenAIRE

    Timossi,P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Com a dessecação da vegetação espontânea, nem sempre se consegue obter controle total das espécies daninhas, o que leva à perenização e ao aumento da importância daquelas selecionadas. Em área de plantio direto com predominância de rebrotes de Digitaria insularis, foi testado nicosulfuron isolado (60 g ha-1) e em mistura em tanque com atrazine (40 + 1.500 g ha-1), foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron-methyl (45 + 3 g ha-1) e mesotrione em mistura em tanque com atrazine (144 + 1.500 g ha-1) sob deline...

  11. Differential content of glyphosate and its metabolites in Digitaria insularis biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in controlled conditions to analyze the role of metabolism of glyphosate in Digitaria insularis (sourgrass biotypes with differential response to the herbicide. Contents of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA, glyoxylate, and sarcosine was detected in leaf tissues by using reversed-polarity capillarity electrophoresis. Glyphosate content in the A biotype increased from 19.7 up to 65.5 µg g fresh weight-1, whereas decreasing from 19.9 down to 5.0 µg g fresh weight-1 in the B biotype, from 48 up to 168 hours after treatment. At 168 hours after treatment, percentage of the sum of AMPA, glyoxylate, and sarcosine was > 56% in the B biotype, whereas a small percentage of metabolites (< 10% was found in the A biotype. Thus, the faster herbicide degradation in the B biotype is evidence that a differential metabolism of glyphosate can be conferring its lesser susceptibility to the herbicide.

  12. Management of Digitaria insularis sprouts under no-till corn cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Timossi, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Com a dessecação da vegetação espontânea, nem sempre se consegue obter controle total das espécies daninhas, o que leva à perenização e ao aumento da importância daquelas selecionadas. Em área de plantio direto com predominância de rebrotes de Digitaria insularis, foi testado nicosulfuron isolado (60 g ha-1) e em mistura em tanque com atrazine (40 + 1.500 g ha-1), foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron-methyl (45 + 3 g ha-1) e mesotrione em mistura em tanque com atrazine (144 + 1.500 g ha-1) sob deline...

  13. Microfungal spores (Ustilago maydis and U. digitariae) immobilised chitosan microcapsules for heavy metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargın, İdris; Arslan, Gulsin; Kaya, Murat

    2016-03-15

    Designing effective chitosan-based biosorbents from unexploited biomass for heavy metal removal has received much attention over the past decade. Ustilago, loose smut, is a ubiquitous fungal plant pathogen infecting over 4000 species including maize and weed. This study aimed to establish whether the spores of the phytopathogenic microfungi Ustilago spores can be immobilised in cross-linked chitosan matrix, and it reports findings on heavy metal sorption performance of chitosan/Ustilago composite microcapsules. Immobilisation of Ustilago maydis and U. digitariae spores (from maize and weed) in chitosan microcapsules was achieved via glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The cross-linked microcapsules were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Sorption capacities of chitosan-U. maydis and chitosan-U. digitariae microcapsules were investigated and compared to cross-linked chitosan beads: Cu(II): 66.72, 69.26, 42.57; Cd(II): 49.46, 53.96, 7.87; Cr(III): 35.88, 49.40, 43.68; Ni(II): 41.67, 33.46, 16.43 and Zn(II): 30.73, 60.81, 15.04mg/g, respectively. Sorption experiments were conducted as a function of initial metal ion concentration (2-10mg/L), contact time (60-480min), temperature (25, 35 and 45°C), amount of the sorbent (0.05-0.25g) and pH of the metal solution. The microcapsules with spores exhibited better performance over the plain chitosan beads, demonstrating their potential use in water treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental adaptibility of tansy ( Tanacetum vulgare L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological role of essential oils is reflected in the interaction of plants with environmental factors. Environmental adaptability of the plants can be assumed from essential oil contents. Essential oils are agents, which communicate with the plant environment. Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) was selected for laboratory research ...

  15. Environmental adaptibility of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Ecological role of essential oils is reflected in the interaction of plants with environmental factors. Environmental adaptability of the plants can be assumed from essential oil contents. Essential oils are agents, which communicate with the plant environment. Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) was selected for.

  16. Caracterização anatômica de folha, colmo e rizoma de Digitaria insularis Anatomical characterization of the leaf, stem and rhizome of Digitaria insularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.L. Machado

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia da folha, de colmo e do rizoma de Digitaria insularis foi investigada, visando identificar características que possam estar relacionadas à sua tolerância ao glyphosate. Sementes e rizomas de plantas adultas foram coletadas em campo, em área de plantio direto, onde o herbicida glyphosate vem sendo utilizado repetidamente há vários anos. As plantas provenientes dessas sementes e desses rizomas foram cultivadas em vasos com capacidade de 3 L, contendo solo de textura média, em casa de vegetação. Quando as plantas atingiram o estádio fenológico de pré-florescimento, foram coletadas três folhas totalmente expandidas por planta, entre o terceiro e o quinto nó. Simultaneamente, coletaram-se fragmentos dos rizomas e os entrenós recobertos pelas bainhas das folhas amostradas. As amostras foram fixadas em FAA50 e estocadas em etanol, para obtenção de cortes histológicos e montagem das lâminas, conforme metodologia usual. Para obtenção do índice estomático e da densidade estomática nas superfícies da epiderme, amostras das folhas foram diafanizadas, conforme método utilizado usualmente. Verificou-se que plantas provenientes de rizomas apresentavam maior índice estomático e maior número de estômatos por mm², maior espessura na epiderme das faces adaxial e abaxial e maior espessura da lâmina foliar. Foi observada coloração intensa nos rizomas submetidos ao Lugol, indicando presença de grande quantidade de amido, independentemente da origem do material.The anatomy of the leaf, stem and rhizome of Digitaria insularis was studied, evaluating characteristics that could be related to its tolerance to glyphosate. Seeds and rhizomes of adult plants were collected in the field, area of no-till system, where the herbicide glyphosate had been repeatedly used for several years. The plants derived from these seeds and rhizomes were cultivated in 0.003 m³ vases, containing soil, under a greenhouse conditions. When the plants

  17. Algunos aspectos de la biología y manejo de Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. En asociación con el cultivo del arroz y otras especies adventicias Sorne aspects of the biology and rnanagernt of Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop. in rice crop and other weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaza T. Guido A.

    1998-12-01

    Murdania nudiflora, con 42,5 %, y el grupo de las dicotiledóneas, con 39 %. Para las especies gramíneas, D.
    sanguina lis, 12,5 % y Echinochloa sp., 6 %. Las variables de mayor sensibilidad a la competencia interespecífica cultivo maleza fueron número promedio de macollas viables, con reducción del 25 %, a una densidad de una planta/m2; altura de planta, con reducción del 8,7; 21; y 23,5 %, a densidades de una, cinco y veinte plantas/m" de D. sanguinalis respectivamente. Los diferentes componentes de rendimiento del arroz se vieron afectados con densidades superiores a una planta por m2. Los resultados obtenidos, al estudiar los aspectos de la biología de Digitaria sanguinalis, tales como la cantidad de semillas en el banco de suelo, la sincronía de su ciclo biológico con el ciclo biológico de las plantas de cultivo y alta capacidad de competencia, señala, para su manejo, la
    planeación e implementación de tratamientos especílicos en los ciclos del cultivo de arroz.
    In the rice crop in Colombia there are 70 species of weed. The gramineae species are the plants in direct biological and economical competition with the crop. Echinochloa cotonum (L. Link, Oryza sativa L. (red rice Cyperus rotundus L. ,Rottboellia cochinchinensis U., Fimbristylis annua (Alt. Riets , Murdania nudiflora (L. Brenan and Digitaría sanguinalis (L. Scop., are the most common weeds in the rice crop. This work was necessary tor two reasons: there is no
    work presenting the biological aspects of D. sanguinalis, and also there is an increasing population of weed in sorghum and rice crops in Lerida in the region Tolima. The objectives were: to know Phenology development, to evaluate the seed bank and to know the competitive ellects of three densities (one, live and twenty ptantslrn- of Digitaria sanguinalis in the rice crop. Four stages were affected considerably in the rice plants by the presence of D. sanguinalis. Germination: D. sanguinalis needed three days of growth

  18. Development of Perennial Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Cox

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Perennial germplasm derived from crosses between Sorghum bicolor and either S. halepense or S. propinquum is being developed with the goal of preventing and reversing soil degradation in the world’s grain sorghum-growing regions. Perennial grain sorghum plants produce subterranean stems known as rhizomes that sprout to form the next season’s crop. In Kansas, breeding perennial sorghum involves crossing S. bicolor cultivars or breeding lines to S. halepense or perennial S. bicolorn × S. halepense breeding lines, selecting perennial plants from F2 or subsequent populations, crossing those plants with S. bicolor, and repeating the cycle. A retrospective field trial in Kansas showed that selection and backcrossing during 2002–2009 had improved grain yields and seed weights of breeding lines. Second-season grain yields of sorghum lines regrowing from rhizomes were similar to yields in the first season. Further selection cycles have been completed since 2009. Many rhizomatous lines that cannot survive winters in Kansas are perennial at subtropical or tropical locations in North America and Africa. Grain yield in Kansas was not correlated with rhizomatousness in either Kansas or Uganda. Genomic regions affecting rhizome growth and development have been mapped, providing new breeding tools. The S. halepense gene pool may harbor many alleles useful for improving sorghum for a broad range of traits in addition to perenniality.

  19. Comparaison du Pangola (Digitaria decumbens) et du Stargrass (Cynodon nlemfluensis) exploités par des ovins

    OpenAIRE

    Boval, Maryline

    1989-01-01

    A la Martinique l'utilisation comparée de Digitaria decumbens (Dd) et de Cynodon nlemfuensis (Cn) par des brebis allaitantes a été étudiée pendant une période d'observation de 6 mois. Le cheptel est à un taux élevé de 1 600 kg de poids vif par hectare et par an, obtenu par une fertilisation de 450 kg/ha/an en azote.

  20. 7339 BASELINE SURVEY ON FACTORS AFFECTING SORGHUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muuicathy

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... factors affecting sorghum production and the sorghum farming ... The informal seed system includes methods such as retaining seed on-farm from ..... Jaetzold R and H Schmidt Farm Management Handbook of Kenya, Ministry.

  1. Productivity and Competitiveness of Sorghum Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed that sorghum production in the study areas yielded profitable returns ... Keywords: Sorghum, Profitability, Competitiveness, Investment Potential, .... Guinness Ghana Brewery Limited to estimate cost and returns at the marketing sector ...

  2. Vulgarization of popular music tradition in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Božilović, Nikola

    2011-01-01

    The vulgarization of tradition in this paper implies the alteration, false representation, and adaptation of tradition in line with the interests of certain individuals or groups in power. The author observes popular music in Serbia (jazz, pop, rock) under a sociological magnifying glass, attempting to explain and motivate the thesis which proposes a valid historical foundation of popular culture and music in the social life of Serbia. In his opinion, this kind of tradition is being 'swept un...

  3. Resposta de diferentes populações de Digitaria insularis ao herbicida glyphosate Response of different Digitaria insularis populations to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M Correia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com estse trabalho avaliar o controle químico de diferentes populações de capim-amargoso (Digitaria insularis pelo herbicida glyphosate por meio de curva de dose-resposta, além de propor tratamentos alternativos para as populações mais tolerantes. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 5 x 9. As sementes de capim-amargoso foram coletadas em cinco locais: área de produção de grãos da Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Produção da UNESP, Jaboticabal (SP; área de produção comercial de grãos, localizada nos municípios de Campo Florido-MG e Rio Verde-GO; pomar de laranja, localizado no município de Matão (SP; e área não agrícola sem histórico da aplicação de glyphosate (Jaboticabal-SP. O glyphosate (0D, 1/4D, 1/2D, D, 2D, 4D e 8D, em que D é a dose recomendada de 1,5 kg ha-1 de equivalente ácido e as suas associações [glyphosate + fluazifop-p-butil (1,5 + 0,25 kg ha-1 e glyphosate (1,5 kg ha-1 com sequencial de diuron + paraquat (0,20 + 0,40 kg ha-1 + 0,2% de surfatante] foram pulverizados em plantas de sete a oito perfilhos e altura média de 20 cm. As populações de capim-amargoso de Campo Florido e Rio Verde foram consideradas suscetíveis; as de Jaboticabal e Matão, tolerantes; e a da área não agrícola, de sensibilidade intermediária. A associação de glyphosate ao fluazifop ou a sua aplicação com sequencial de diuron + paraquat foram eficazes no controle das populações mais tolerantes de capim-amargoso.The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical control of different sourgrass (Digitaria insularis populations by the herbicide glyphosate through dose-response curves, besides considering alternative treatments to control tolerant populations. A randomized block design was used with four replications, in a factorial scheme (5 x 9. Sourgrass seeds were colleted from five locations: a grain production area located at the educational

  4. EPSPS variability, gene expression, and enzymatic activity in glyphosate-resistant biotypes of Digitaria insularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, E; Barroso, A A M; Vasconcelos, T S; López-Rubio, A; Albrecht, A J P; Victoria Filho, R; Carrer, H

    2016-08-12

    Weed resistance to herbicides is a natural phenomenon that exerts selection on individuals in a population. In Brazil, glyphosate resistance was recently detected in Digitaria insularis. The objective of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of weed resistance in this plant, including genetic variability, allelism, amino acid substitutions, gene expression, and enzymatic activity levels. Most of these have not previously been studied in this species. D. insularis DNA sequences were used to analyze genetic variability. cDNA from resistant and susceptible plants was used to identify mutations, alleles, and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) expression, using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, EPSPS activity was measured. We found a decrease in genetic variability between populations related to glyphosate application. Substitutions from proline to threonine and tyrosine to cysteine led to a decrease in EPSPS affinity for the glyphosate. In addition, the EPSPS enzymatic activity was slightly higher in resistant plants, whereas EPSPS gene expression was almost identical in both biotypes, suggesting feedback regulation at different levels. To conclude, our results suggest new molecular mechanisms used by D. insularis to increase glyphosate resistance.

  5. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic wheat and sorghum events expressing the barley alanine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Pamela A; Quach, Truyen; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Dweikat, Ismail M; Soundararajan, Madhavan; Clemente, Tom

    2017-12-01

    The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements. Plants harboring the transgenic HvAlaAT alleles displayed increased alanine aminotransferase (alt) activity. The enhanced alt activity impacted height, tillering and significantly boosted vegetative biomass relative to controls in wheat evaluated under hydroponic conditions, where the phenotypic outcome across these parameters varied relative to time of year study was conducted. Constitutive expression of HvAlaAT translated to elevation in wheat grain yield under field conditions. In sorghum, expression of HvAlaAT enhanced enzymatic activity, but no changes in phenotypic outcomes were observed. Taken together these results suggest that positive agronomic outcomes can be achieved through enhanced alt activity in a C3 crop, wheat. However, the variability observed across experiments under greenhouse conditions implies the phenotypic outcomes imparted by the HvAlaAT allele in wheat may be impacted by environment.

  6. PAV markers in Sorghum bicolour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Xin; Liu, Zhiquan; Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genic presence/absence variants (PAVs) correlate closely to the phenotypic variation, impacting plant genome sizes and the adaption to the environment. To shed more light on their genome-wide patterns, functions and to test the possibility of using them as molecular markers, we analyzed...... enriched in stress responses and protein modification. We used 325 polymorphic PAVs in two sorghum inbred lines Ji2731 and E-Tian, together with 49 SSR markers, and constructed a genetic map, which consisted of 10 linkage groups corresponding to the 10 chromosomes of sorghum and spanned 1430.3 cM in length...

  7. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy crops. As a novel green regenerated high-energy crop with high utility value, high yield of biomass, the sweet sorghum is widely used and developed in China. Stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as the main substrate for ethanol ...

  8. Assessment of Genetic Variability in Sorghum Accessions (Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The polymorphic information content (PIC) of individual primer ranged from 0.34 to 0.70 with a mean value of 0.54 indicating enough ... Keywords: Sorghum; Simple Sequence Repeat markers; Genetic variation; Polymorphic Information Content;. Coefficient of ... based techniques include Restriction Fragment Length.

  9. Estimation of in situ mating systems in wild sorghum (Sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The high outcrossing rates of wild/weedy sorghum populations in Ethiopia indicate a high potential for crop genes (including transgenes) to spread within the wild pool. Therefore, effective risk management strategies may be needed if the introgression of transgenes or other crop genes from improved cultivars into wild or ...

  10. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originated from Crescent Fertile region as detected by seed storage proteins. RIM MZID FARHAT CHIBANI RAYDA BEN AYED MOHSEN HANANA JOELLE BREIDI RABIH KABALAN SAMIH EL-HAJJ HASSAN MACHLAB AHMED REBAI LAMIS ...

  11. a survey of sorghum downy mildew in sorghum in the sudano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Sahel savanna AEZs respectively) indicated that the disease was present only at the seedling stage ... In the southern guinea ... northern Nigeria, sorghum downy mildew in sorghum .... There was a significant (P>0.05) difference in SDM.

  12. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) brown midrib mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), with a high biomass yield and excellent tolerance to drought and low nutrition, has been recommended as one of the most competitive bioenergy crops. Brown midrib (bmr) mutant sorghum with reduced lignin content showed a high potential for the improvement of bioethanol ...

  13. Optimization of extraction of polyphenols from Sorghum Moench ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phenolic acid were assayed using high performance liquid (HPLC). ... quantification of antioxidants and phenolic compounds from Sorghum M, ... Keywords: Response surface methodology, Sorghum moench, Polyphenols, Antioxidants.

  14. Marrubium vulgare L.: A review on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santram Lodhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L. (family: Lamiaceae, also known as white horehound, is widely used as herbal remedy for chronic coughs and colds. It is used in various disorders related to skin, liver, gastric, heart and immune system. This review abridges phytochemical, pharmacological studies and medicinal uses of M. vulgare and provides scientific proof for various ethnobotanical claims in order to identify gaps, which will give impulsion for novel research on M. vulgare based herbal medicines. This review summarizes selected scientific evidence on phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of M. vulgare over the past 48 years (1968 to 2016. The work reported on M. vulgare was reviewed from various sources like books, internet source i.e. google search engine, pubmed, sciencedirect and chemical abstract. The exhaustive literature was studied and critical analysis was done according to their phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Phytochemical investigations on different parts of M. vulgare have been reported the presence of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins and volatile oils (0.05%. The aerial parts contain marrubiin, together with ursolic acid and choline. Pharmacological activities like, anti-nociceptive, anti-spasmodic, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-hepatotoxic activity have been reported. M. vulgare has therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, liver disorders, pain, cardiovascular, gastric and diabetic conditions. Aerial parts of M. vulgare is a good source of labdane type diterpene especially marrubiin which is present in high concentrations. However, further scientific studies are needed to explore clinical efficacy, toxicity and to explore the therapeutic effect of major secondary metabolites like diterpenes, phenylpropanoid and phenylethanoid glycosides of M. vulgare. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6

  15. A sorghum (Sorghum bicolor mutant with altered carbon isotope ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Rizal

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to engineer C4 photosynthetic traits into C3 plants such as rice demand an understanding of the genetic elements that enable C4 plants to outperform C3 plants. As a part of the C4 Rice Consortium's efforts to identify genes needed to support C4 photosynthesis, EMS mutagenized sorghum populations were generated and screened to identify genes that cause a loss of C4 function. Stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C of leaf dry matter has been used to distinguishspecies with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the identification of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor mutant with a low δ13C characteristic. A mutant (named Mut33 with a pale phenotype and stunted growth was identified from an EMS treated sorghum M2 population. The stable carbon isotope analysis of the mutants showed a decrease of 13C uptake capacity. The noise of random mutation was reduced by crossing the mutant and its wildtype (WT. The back-cross (BC1F1 progenies were like the WT parent in terms of 13C values and plant phenotypes. All the BC1F2 plants with low δ13C died before they produced their 6th leaf. Gas exchange measurements of the low δ13C sorghum mutants showed a higher CO2 compensation point (25.24 μmol CO2.mol-1air and the maximum rate of photosynthesis was less than 5μmol.m-2.s-1. To identify the genetic determinant of this trait, four DNA pools were isolated; two each from normal and low δ13C BC1F2 mutant plants. These were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Comparison of allele frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between the pools with contrasting phenotype showed that a locus in Chromosome 10 between 57,941,104 and 59,985,708 bps had an allele frequency of 1. There were 211 mutations and 37 genes in the locus, out of which mutations in 9 genes showed non-synonymous changes. This finding is expected to contribute to future research on the identification of the causal factor differentiating C4 from C3 species that can be used

  16. Effect of rotation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) with fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Macrophomina phaseolina densities and cowpea yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of charcoal rot, causes great damage to cowpea in the Sahel. One of the few options to manage the disease is by cropping nonhosts that may reduce the soil inoculum below a damage threshold level. To test this, fonio (Digitaria exilis) and millet (Pennisetum

  17. Fermentation characteristics of different purpose sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Behling Neto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum stands out among other plants recommended for ensiling due to its forage composition, its resistance to drought, and its planting range. New cultivars of grain and sweet sorghum that can be used for silage production are available, but there is little information regarding their ensiling characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics at the ensiling of different purpose sorghum cultivars, at two crop periods. The trial was carried out at the Plant Production Department of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, Rondônia, Brazil, and chemical analyses were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The experimental design used was a randomized block, in split-plot design, with four replicates. The plot treatments consisted of six sorghum cultivars grown for different purposes (grain sorghum: BRS 308 and BRS 310; forage sorghum: BR 655 and BRS 610; sweet sorghum: BRS 506 and CMSXS 647. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping seasons (first crop and second crop. The grain sorghum cultivar BRS 310 was the only one that had suitable dry matter content for ensiling; however, it was also the only one that did not show ideal water soluble carbohydrate content for ensiling. Nevertheless, all treatments presented pH below than 4.2 and ammonia nitrogen lower than 12% of total N, which indicates that the fermentation inside the silo had proceeded well. For sweet sorghum cultivars, higher ethanol and butyric acid content were observed for the first crop than for the second crop. All evaluated sorghum cultivars can be used for silage production, but the use of sweet sorghum is recommended at the second crop.

  18. Sorghum allelopathy--from ecosystem to molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Leslie A; Alsaadawi, Ibrahim S; Baerson, Scott R

    2013-02-01

    Sorghum allelopathy has been reported in a series of field experiments following sorghum establishment. In recent years, sorghum phytotoxicity and allelopathic interference also have been well-described in greenhouse and laboratory settings. Observations of allelopathy have occurred in diverse locations and with various sorghum plant parts. Phytotoxicity has been reported when sorghum was incorporated into the soil as a green manure, when residues remained on the soil surface in reduced tillage settings, or when sorghum was cultivated as a crop in managed fields. Allelochemicals present in sorghum tissues have varied with plant part, age, and cultivar evaluated. A diverse group of sorghum allelochemicals, including numerous phenolics, a cyanogenic glycoside (dhurrin), and a hydrophobic p-benzoquinone (sorgoleone) have been isolated and identified in recent years from sorghum shoots, roots, and root exudates, as our capacity to analyze and identify complex secondary products in trace quantities in the plant and in the soil rhizosphere has improved. These allelochemicals, particularly sorgoleone, have been widely investigated in terms of their mode(s) of action, specific activity and selectivity, release into the rhizosphere, and uptake and translocation into sensitive indicator species. Both genetics and environment have been shown to influence sorgoleone production and expression of genes involved in sorgoleone biosynthesis. In the soil rhizosphere, sorgoleone is released continuously by living root hairs where it accumulates in significant concentrations around its roots. Further experimentation designed to study the regulation of sorgoleone production by living sorghum root hairs may result in increased capacity to utilize sorghum cover crops more effectively for suppression of germinating weed seedlings, in a manner similar to that of soil-applied preemergent herbicides like trifluralin.

  19. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... were kernel weight per spike and thousand seed weight. ...... Ser. Biol. 17:65-70. CSA (2010) Area and production of crops (private peasant holdings, ... (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces in variable production system,. Ethiopia.

  20. Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil on growth performance, cecal microflora and serum antioxidant activity of broiler chickens. ... promoting effects and also displayed potent antibacterial effects against cecal E. coli.

  1. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  2. Radiation balance in the sweet sorghum crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, F.N. de; Mendez, M.E.G.; Martins, S.R.; Verona, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fluxes of incident solar radiation, reflected and net radiation were measured during the growing cicle of two fields of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), cus. BR-501 and BR-503, maintained under convenient irrigation level. Resultant data allowed to estimate the crop albedo as well as the estimates of Rn. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Structure and chemistry of the sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is grown around the world and often under harsh and variable environmental conditions. Combined with the high degree of genetic diversity present in sorghum, this can result in substantial variability in grain composition and grain quality. While similar to other cereal grains such as maize ...

  4. Genetic diversity in sorghum transpiration efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is the fifth most important grain crop and is becoming increasingly important as a biofuel feedstock due to its superior tolerance to water deficit stress. Sorghum is commonly grown under rain-fed conditions in the Southern Plains and other semi-arid regions in the world. Thus, its product...

  5. Haploid Barley from the Intergeneric Cross Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1984-01-01

    The intergeneric hybrid Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis was fairly easily obtained. During each growing season the intermediate, perennial hybrid yielded haploid tillers of H. vulgare. Late in one season few, hybrid tillers headed. The morphology, cytology and enzymatic patterns...

  6. Genetic Analysis of Recombinant Inbred Lines for Sorghum bicolor ? Sorghum propinquum

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D.; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K.; Auckland, Susan A.; Goff, Valorie H.; Rainville, Lisa K.; Burow, Gloria B.; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor ? Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor ? S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map ha...

  7. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eRiyazaddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1’s and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. Genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/ susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilised in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to sca (σ2s, dominance variance (σ2d, and lower predictability ratios than the variance due to gca (σ2g and additive variance (σ2a for shoot fly resistance traits indicated the predominance of dominance type of gene action, whereas trichome density, leaf

  8. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare essential oil from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vazirian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Essential oils are very complex mixture of components and their composition may vary in different species or varieties or even within the same variety. Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare is one of the most distributed subspecies within the genus Origanum and has been found to be a poor-oil, categorized in cymyl, bornane or sabinyl chemotypes with higher proportion of sesquiterpenes. In this experiment, the Iranian sample was studied for the chemical composition of the oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Methods: Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC/MS for determination of components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by radical scavenging ability (DPPH method and reducing power (FRAP assay. Results: The sample belonged to “thymol” chemotype with the main components as thymol (37.13%, gama-terpinene (9.67%, carvacrol (9.57%, carvacrol methyl ether (6.88, cis-alpha-bisabolene (6.80%, eucalyptol (3.82%, p-cymene (3.58% and elemol (2.04%. The oil of plant showed very strong antioxidant activity (IC50=2.5 µg/mL in DPPH method, which was stronger than the standard antioxidants (Vit E and BHA, p

  9. Nutrient content of sorghum beer strainings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum beer strainings were analysed for starch, protein, fat, crude fibre, ash, minerals and ... The importance of minerals in animal nutrition has been recognized for many ..... strainings is probably due to yeast activity during fermentation ...

  10. Genetic diversity among sorghum landraces and polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breeding program through marker-assisted selection. ... Keywords: Sorghum, diversity, stay-green trait, marker, polymorphism. ..... Na: Number of different alleles; Na Freq: Frequency of different alleles; Ne: Number of effective alleles; ...

  11. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  12. PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SORGHUM CULTIVARS 285

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    purpose crop providing staple food for human consumption ... Many people in Africa and Asia depend on sorghum as the stuff of life. ... needed for rice and maize and can be grown where ... food energy 394 calories. ... They produce acute and.

  13. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and w......Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned...

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN THE OBTAINING OF ETHANOL FROM Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Pedroso Cunha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Replacing the use of gasoline with ethanol in vehicles reduces by 90% CO2 emissions, this justifies the interest in the use of bioethanol as renewable energy. Besides sugar cane, cassava, maize and sugar beet special emphasis is being given to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench to produce ethanol for its productivity and resistance. The sorghum is grown in Rio Grande do Sul with a production of about 70,000 tons / year. Embrapa has a program to develop cultivars of sorghum from the time the Pro-Alcohol and currently 25 new varieties of sorghum are being evaluated. Several factors are relevant in the optimization of production such as increased productivity and reduced costs in the production of ethanol. This study aimed to survey recent data that will assess production parameters of ethanol from sorghum. Factors such as reducing the risk of bacterial contamination, the means conducive to fermentation processes or grain sorghum stalk through the use of pretreatment of the sample, have been of great importance because it is basically turning cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Superior genotypes of sweet sorghum for ethanol production are of utmost importance, as well as better ways to convert sugars into ethanol. Lignin, toxic against microorganisms, prevents the conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. The conversion of lignocellulosic ethanol compounds based on the hydrolysis of cellulose producing simple sugars and fermenting those sugars into ethanol through microbiology.

  15. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) seedling growth in marginal soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has b...

  16. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seedling growth in marginal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has ...

  17. The diversity of local sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Nusa Tenggara Timur province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkun, L.; Lalel, H. J. D.; Richana, N.; Pabendon, M. B.; Kleden, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important food crop in the dry land including Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) Province. This plant has a high adaptability to drought, can produce on marginal land, and is relatively resistant to pests and diseases. The study aims to collect and identify the species of local sorghum being cultivated by farmers, and the purposes of cultivation. In addition, this study will preserve germ plasm of local sorghum by providing bank seeds for the next growing season. A collection of local sorghum samples was conducted in 7 districts using survey and observation method. A total of 53 species of sorghum were collected, with various characteristics and different local names. Based on the skin color of the seeds, the accessions were grouped into white groups (26.42%), light yellow (15.09%), black (20.75%), brown (24.52%), and red (13.20 %). Sorghum is used for complementary food for rice, consumption in times of food insecurity, fodder, and as a fence for corn and rice. It is necessary to characterize the type of local sorghum that has the potential to be developed for food, industrial raw materials, and for functional food.

  18. Analysis of aluminium sensitivity in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, K.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve genotypes of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) differing in Al sensitivity were grown in an acid soil (with additions of lime or MgSO 4 ) and in nutrient solutions (with or without Al at constant pH) for periods between 14 and 35 days.

  19. Radioinduced variation in genetic improvement of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (l.). Moench)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez del Rio, E.

    1984-01-01

    A genetic variability study among 25 varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is presented. The populations are irradiated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 Krads of cobalt 60 as far as M 5 generation. An individual selection is done taking into consideration agronomic characteristics like precocity, type, size. height of the plant. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, U.; Craufurd, P.; Gowda, C.L.L.; Kumar, A.A.; Claessens, L.F.G.

    2012-01-01

    The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of Experts on

  1. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Tinoco; M. R. Martins; J. Cruz-Morais

    2007-01-01

    O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva co...

  2. Effect of Sources and Storage Conditions on Quality of Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The germination test of sorghum seeds varied highly significantly (P<0.001) from Kwimba. 74%, Chamwino .... Mean separation test was done using Least. Significance ... for QDS sorghum is 98%. One dot represents more than one sample.

  3. 76 FR 314 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. No. AMS-LS-10-0103] Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Opportunity to Participate in the Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information...

  4. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Key words: Sweet sorghum, grain sorghum, salinity, stem yield, ... The effect of salinity on the stem yield and sucrose was .... growth and polyamine metabolism in two citrus rootstocks with ... Growth and osmoregulation in two.

  5. Fermentation and enzyme treatments for sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fernanda Schons

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench is the fifth most produced cereal worldwide. However, some varieties of this cereal contain antinutritional factors, such as tannins and phytate that may form stable complexes with proteins and minerals which decreases digestibility and nutritional value. The present study sought to diminish antinutritional tannins and phytate present in sorghum grains. Three different treatments were studied for that purpose, using enzymes tannase (945 U/Kg sorghum, phytase (2640 U/Kg sorghum and Paecilomyces variotii (1.6 X 10(7 spores/mL; A Tannase, phytase and Paecilomyces variotii, during 5 and 10 days; B An innovative blend made of tanase and phytase for 5 days followed by a Pv increase for 5 more days; C a third treatment where the reversed order of B was used starting with Pv for 5 days and then the blend of tannase and phytase for 5 more days. The results have shown that on average the three treatments were able to reduce total phenols and both hydrolysable and condensed tannins by 40.6, 38.92 and 58.00 %, respectively. Phytase increased the amount of available inorganic phosphorous, on the average by 78.3 %. The most promising results concerning tannins and phytate decreases were obtained by the enzymes combination of tannase and phytase. The three treatments have shown effective on diminishing tannin and phytate contents in sorghum flour which leads us to affirm that the proposed treatments can be used to increase the nutritive value of sorghum grains destined for either animal feeds or human nutrition.

  6. Fermentation and enzyme treatments for sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schons, Patrícia Fernanda; Battestin, Vania; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) is the fifth most produced cereal worldwide. However, some varieties of this cereal contain antinutritional factors, such as tannins and phytate that may form stable complexes with proteins and minerals which decreases digestibility and nutritional value. The present study sought to diminish antinutritional tannins and phytate present in sorghum grains. Three different treatments were studied for that purpose, using enzymes tannase (945 U/Kg sorghum), phytase (2640 U/Kg sorghum) and Paecilomyces variotii (1.6 X 10(7) spores/mL); A) Tannase, phytase and Paecilomyces variotii, during 5 and 10 days; B) An innovative blend made of tanase and phytase for 5 days followed by a Pv increase for 5 more days; C) a third treatment where the reversed order of B was used starting with Pv for 5 days and then the blend of tannase and phytase for 5 more days. The results have shown that on average the three treatments were able to reduce total phenols and both hydrolysable and condensed tannins by 40.6, 38.92 and 58.00 %, respectively. Phytase increased the amount of available inorganic phosphorous, on the average by 78.3 %. The most promising results concerning tannins and phytate decreases were obtained by the enzymes combination of tannase and phytase. The three treatments have shown effective on diminishing tannin and phytate contents in sorghum flour which leads us to affirm that the proposed treatments can be used to increase the nutritive value of sorghum grains destined for either animal feeds or human nutrition.

  7. 108-110 Registration of Guta Barley (Hordeium vulgare L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adoption potential by the local farmers. Keywords: Guta; Barley (Hordeium vulgare L); Yield ... evaluated along with Aruso and Shage as the local and standard variety, respectively at altitudinal range of 2400- ... 6. Farmers Evaluation of the Variety. To evaluate the perception and preferences of the local farmers, farmers' ...

  8. Molecular characterization of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed to select drought tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars through identification of stress genes responsible for drought tolerance. Several barley genotypes were tested for drought resistance using specific molecular markers, nine out of all the genotypes were chosen for this study; five out of ...

  9. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) growing at Wollo Highland areas by using hordein and agro-morphological traits. Twenty (20) varieties were laid down in randomized complete block design (RCBD) design with three replications; they were ...

  10. Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease heterologous expressed in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    , (Hordeum vulgare) endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ Aα and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH and the protein expression...

  11. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.

    1989-01-01

    A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barely (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jabatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent...

  12. Omslaget - hvid okseøje (Leucanthemum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen redergør for den historiske baggrund for den illustration (tavle 994 fra Flora Danica, udgivet i 1790) af hvid okseøje (Leucanthemum vulgare), der er anvendt som illustration på festskriftets omslag. De illustratorer, der blev anvendt af Martin Vahl, udgiver af Flora Danica da tavle 994...

  13. Antibacterial activity of whole plant extract of Marrubium vulgare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-26

    Nov 26, 2007 ... Key words: Disc diffusion, antibacterial activity, Marrubium vulgare. INTRODUCTION .... Glossary of Indian Medicinal. Plants, CSIR, V ed. ... 22. E. coli MTCC 443. 0. 0. 0. 10. 15. 400. 25. P. vulgaris MTCC 426. 0. 0. 0. 11. 16.

  14. Sorghum yield and associated satellite-derived meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum yield and associated satellite-derived meteorological parameters in semi-arid Botswana. ... African Crop Science Journal ... Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) yield for five seasons (2005/6 to 2009/10) from the Botswana Department of Crop ... Key Words: Coefficient of determination, NDVI, Pearson correlation ...

  15. Morphological responses of forage sorghums to salinity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties to salinity and irrigation frequency were studied from December 2007 to December 2009. Two forage sorghum varieties (Speedfeed and KFS4) were grown under salinity levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 and irrigated when the leaf water potential ...

  16. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  17. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  18. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy ... government that only ''non-grain” materials can be used ... In this work, ... inoculated (10%, v/v) into fermentation medium prepared with the.

  19. Mapping and characterisation of the sorghum cell suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we reported the first secretomic study of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a naturally drought tolerant cereal crop. In this study, we used a gel-based proteomic approach in combination with mass spectrometry to separate and identify proteins secreted into the culture medium of sorghum cell suspensions, a first step ...

  20. Genetic architecture of kernel composition in global sorghum germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are...

  1. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.M.; Hons, F.M.; McBee, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  2. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  3. Field damage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) with reduced lignin levels by naturally occurring insect pests and pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutant lines of sorghum with low levels of lignin are potentially useful for bioenergy production, but may have problems with insects or disease. Field grown normal and low lignin bmr6 and bmr12 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were examined for insect and disease damage in the field, and insect damage in ...

  4. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...... sorghum plants. In each field, leaf samples were collected from five well-developed (performing) and five less-developed (non-performing) plants at 3-5 leaf stage, while at plant maturity leaf, stem and root samples were collected from the same plants and fungal endophytes were isolated. A total of 39...... fungal species belonging to 25 genera were isolated. The most represented genera included Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Curvularia, Nigrospora and Penicillium. The genera Fusarium and Penicillium occurred significantly higher in performing plants as compared to non-performing plants while the genera...

  5. Efficacy of herbicides applied to Digitaria horizontalis plants under different water conditions Eficácia de herbicidas aplicados em plantas de Digitaria horizontalis Submetidas a diferentes condições hídricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.R. Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This project aimed to relate the control efficiency of ACCase inhibiting herbicides applied post-emergence to Digitaria horizontalis plants under different soil water contents. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse, with the application of three different herbicides (fluazifop-p-butyl, haloxyfop-methyl, and sethoxydim + mineral oil Assist. The experimental design used for each herbicide was completely randomized, with four replications, consisting of a 3 x 4 factorial, with the combination of water management strategies (-0.03, -0.07 and -1.5 MPa and four doses of these products (100%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of the recommended dose. Herbicide application was made at two vegetative stages, 4-6 leaves and 2-3 tillers. The visual phytotoxicity evaluations were performed at 14 days after application and the plant dry weight at the end of the study was evaluated. The control efficiency was not affected by water management strategies when applied to the recommended dose of the herbicides in early stages of plant development (4-6 leaf stage. In late applications (2-3 tiller stage the plants held under drought stress showed less phytotoxicity.Este projeto objetivou relacionar a eficiência de controle de herbicidas inibidores da ACCase aplicados em pós-emergência em plantas de Digitaria horizontalis submetidas a diferentes teores de água no solo. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, com a aplicação de três diferentes herbicidas (fluazifop-p-butil, haloxyfop-methyl e sethoxydim + óleo mineral Assist. O delineamento experimental utilizado para cada herbicida foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, constituído de um fatorial 3 x 4, sendo a combinação de três manejos hídricos (-0,03, 0,07 e -1,5 MPa e quatro doses desses produtos (100, 50, 25 e 0% da dose recomendada. A aplicação dos herbicidas foi feita em dois estádios vegetativos: 4-6 folhas e 2-3 perfilhos. As avaliações visuais de fitotoxicidade

  6. Diurnal oscillation of SBE expression in sorghum endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chuanxin; Mutisya, J.; Rosenquist, S.; Baguma, Y.; Jansson, C.

    2009-01-15

    Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the sorghum SBEI, SBEIIA and SBEIIB genes, encoding, respectively, starch branching enzyme (SBE) I, IIA and IIB, in the developing endosperm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were studied. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones for sorghum was cloned and the SBEIIA cDNA was used together with gene-specific probes for sorghum SBEIIB and SBEI. In contrast to sorghum SBEIIB, which was expressed primarily in endosperm and embryo, SBEIIA was expressed also in vegetative tissues. All three genes shared a similar temporal expression profile during endosperm development, with a maximum activity at 15-24 days after pollination. This is different from barley and maize where SBEI gene activity showed a significantly later onset compared to that of SBEIIA and SBEIIB. Expression of the three SBE genes in the sorghum endosperm exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 24-h cycle.

  7. Effect of sowing date on grain quality of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IVHAA) while minerals; iron and zinc were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Significant site by variety by sowing date interactions at P < 0.05 level of probability were obtained for protein, iron and zinc content of sorghum ...

  8. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  9. Use of hybridization (F1 in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pataki Imre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In plants with bisexual flowers, the development of hybrids and F1 seed production is only possible by using cytoplasmatic male sterility. The discovery of such sterility and the maintainers has made it possible to utilize the phenomenon of heterosis to improve yields and yield components in forage sorghum. It has been shown that the best way to develop forage sorghum hybrids is to cross grain sorghum as the female parent and Sudan grass as the male. The objective of this study was to develop a forage sorghum hybrid for the production of green matter to be used either fresh or for silage. The sorghum hybrid developed in these efforts (Siloking is intended for multiple cutting, as the basal nodes produce buds and regrowth takes place. The performance of the new hybrid with respect to yield and quality was compared to that of the forage sorghum cultivar NS Džin. In a two-year study conducted under different growing conditions in four locations, Siloking produced an average green matter yield of 86.29 t ha-1 (two cuts, a dry matter yield of 25.34 t ha-1, and a crude protein content of 11.85 %. Siloking outperformed NS Džin in terms of yield and quality. .

  10. Effect of Harvesting Stage on Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Genotypes in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Owuor Oyier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting stage of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cane is an important aspect in the content of sugar for production of industrial alcohol. Four sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated for harvesting stage in a randomized complete block design. In order to determine sorghum harvest growth stage for bioethanol production, sorghum canes were harvested at intervals of seven days after anthesis. The genotypes were evaluated at different stages of development for maximum production of bioethanol from flowering to physiological maturity. The canes were crushed and juice fermented to produce ethanol. Measurements of chlorophyll were taken at various stages as well as panicles from the harvested canes. Dried kernels at 14% moisture content were also weighed at various stages. Chlorophyll, grain weight, absolute ethanol volume, juice volume, cane yield, and brix showed significant (p=0.05 differences for genotypes as well as the stages of harvesting. Results from this study showed that harvesting sweet sorghum at stages IV and V (104 to 117 days after planting would be appropriate for production of kernels and ethanol. EUSS10 has the highest ethanol potential (1062.78 l ha−1 due to excellent juice volume (22976.9 l ha−1 and EUSS11 (985.26 l ha−1 due to its high brix (16.21.

  11. Honey Antibacterial Effect Boosting Using Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Imtara, Hamada; Elamine, Youssef; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2018-01-01

    The appearance of new bacterial strains which cause pathogenic diseases and which are resistant to the most used antibiotics requires probing new antibacterial agents sources. Therefore, the main aim of the present work was to follow the antibacterial activity of honey samples from Palestine and Morocco, after the combination with Origanum vulgare L. essential oil, and figure out whether the honey physicochemical parameters and geographic origin influence the final activity. The results of th...

  12. Genetic dissection of bioenerrgy traits in sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Kresovich, Stephen; Murray, Seth; Pedersen, Jeffery; Rooney, William; Sattler, Scott.

    2012-06-15

    Specific Objectives: 1. To identify the gene(s) underlying a major QTL for stem sugar concentration located on chromosome 3. 2. To identify QTL for stem juice volume and stalk sugar concentration and to identify the underlying genes. 3. To classify 60 novel sorghum bmr mutants from the USDA TILLING population in allelic groups based on cell wall chemistry and allelism tests. 4. To select representative bmr mutants from each allelic group and selected NIR spectral mutants for their potential value as feedstock for ethanol production. 5. To clone and characterize those Bmr genes that represent loci other than Bmr12 and Bmr6 using a mapping and a candidate gene approach. Objective 1 The experiments for this objective are largely complete and the data have been analyzed. Data interpretation and follow-up experiments are still in progress. A manuscript is in preparation (Vermerris et al.; see publication list for full details). The main results are: 1) 16 cDNA libraries were prepared and sequenced at Cornell University. The libraries represent internode tissue and flag leaf tissue at booting, internode tissue and peduncle at soft-dough stage, from two plants per sampling time with the Rio allele for the QTL on chromosome 3, and two plants with the BTx623 allele on chromosome 3 (4 tissues x 2 genotypes x 2 replicates) 2) 480 million 86-nucleotide reads were generated from four lanes of Illuminia HiSeqII 3) 74% of the reads could be mapped to the sorghum transcriptome, indicative of good sequence quality 4) Of the 216 genes within the QTL, 17 genes were differentially expressed among plants with and without the Rio QTL. None of these 17 genes had obvious roles in sucrose metabolism 5) Clustering algorithms identified a group of 721 co-expressed genes. One of these genes is a sucrose synthase gene. This cluster also contains 10 genes from the QTL. 6) Among these co-expressed genes are regulatory genes for which knock-out lines in Arabidopsis have been obtained. Analysis of

  13. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...... explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  14. Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae OVICIDAL POTENTIAL ON GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control containing levamisole hydrochloride (0.2 mg/mL, distilled water and 70 ºGL grain alcohol at the same concentration of the extracts. Test results showed that the different O. vulgare extracts inhibited egg hatch of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes at a percentage that varied from 8.8 to 100%; dye and hydroalcoholic extract were the most promising inhibitors. In view of this ovicidal property, O. vulgare may be an important source of viable antiparasitic compounds for nematodiosis control in ruminants.

  15. Genome Evolution in the Genus Sorghum (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    PRICE, H. JAMES; DILLON, SALLY L.; HODNETT, GEORGE; ROONEY, WILLIAM L.; ROSS, LARRY; JOHNSTON, J. SPENCER

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The roles of variation in DNA content in plant evolution and adaptation remain a major biological enigma. Chromosome number and 2C DNA content were determined for 21 of the 25 species of the genus Sorghum and analysed from a phylogenetic perspective.

  16. Phylogenetic relationship among Kenyan sorghum germplasms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Kiboi

    phylogenetic relationships based on 10 DNA fragments at AltSB loci with SbMATE, ORF9 and MITE primers. .... estimate the overall genetic diversity in Kenyan sorghum lines: Cheprot et al. 3529 ..... EARN project and Generation Challenge (GCP), ... genetics and molecular biology of plant aluminum resistance and toxicity.

  17. Brown midrib sorghum deserves a look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage sorghum varieties have been developed to allow them to thrive under low moisture and poor soil conditions while producing adequate amounts of forage. In addition, newer varieties, such as the brown midrib (BMR) hybrids, can be alternatives to conventional varieties as they contain less lignin...

  18. PROTEIN ENRICHMENT OF SPENT SORGHUM RESIDUE USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    The optimum concentration of spent sorghum for protein enrichment with S. cerevisiae was 7.Sg/100 ml. Th.: protein ... production of single sell protein using Candida utilis and cassava starch effluem as substrate. ... wastes as substrates, Kluyveromyces fragilis and milk whey coconut water as substrate (Rahmat et al.,. 1995 ...

  19. Accumulation of heavy metals using Sorghum sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Vaňková, Radomíra; Song, J.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, JUN 2014 (2014), s. 15-24 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12162; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13029 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Sorghum * Cadmium * Zinc Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.340, year: 2014

  20. Variation of Transpiration Efficiency in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining freshwater resources, increasing population, and growing demand for biofuels pose new challenges for agriculture research. To meet these challenges, the concept “Blue Revolution” was proposed to improve water productivity in agriculture--“More Crop per Drop”. Sorghum is the fifth most imp...

  1. Variation in transpiration efficiency in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining freshwater resources, increasing population, and growing demand for biofuels pose new challenges for agriculture research. To meet these challenges, the concept “Blue Revolution” was proposed to improve water productivity in agriculture--“More Crop per Drop”. Sorghum is the fifth most imp...

  2. Performance of Sorghum Varieties under Variable Rainfall in Central Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msongaleli, Barnabas M; Tumbo, S D; Kihupi, N I; Rwehumbiza, Filbert B

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall variability has a significant impact on crop production with manifestations in frequent crop failure in semiarid areas. This study used the parameterized APSIM crop model to investigate how rainfall variability may affect yields of improved sorghum varieties based on long-term historical rainfall and projected climate. Analyses of historical rainfall indicate a mix of nonsignificant and significant trends on the onset, cessation, and length of the growing season. The study confirmed that rainfall variability indeed affects yields of improved sorghum varieties. Further analyses of simulated sorghum yields based on seasonal rainfall distribution indicate the concurrence of lower grain yields with the 10-day dry spells during the cropping season. Simulation results for future sorghum response, however, show that impacts of rainfall variability on sorghum will be overridden by temperature increase. We conclude that, in the event where harms imposed by moisture stress in the study area are not abated, even improved sorghum varieties are likely to perform poorly.

  3. Effect of heat moisture treatment (HMT) on product quality of sorghum starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryani, Kristinah; Hadiyanto, Handayani, Noera; Nugraheni, Dwi; Suryanto

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum is a cereal plant that rich of nutrition contents. The high content of carbohydrate in sorghum make this plant can be processed into one of the processed food i.e vermicelli. To give better quality, it is necessary to use flour substitution from sorghum starch. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of natural sorghum starch substitution, the addition of CMC, and a comparison of the natural starch with starch sorghum forage sorghum against solid losses value, rehydration weight and texture profiles. The variable used in this study: amount of natural sorghum starch subtituion (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%), the addition of CMC (0.1%; 0.2%; 0.3%; 0.4%; 0.5%) and substituting sorghum starch Natural: HMT sorghum starch (1: 1; 1: 2; 1: 3; 1: 4; 1: 5) and the quality parameters were evaluated. The result indicated that to substitute sorghum starch naturally at a rate of 50% had the best results with a value of solid losses 5.1% (white sorghum) 5.83% (red sorghum) and weighing rehydration 301.82% (white sorghums) 293.16% (red sorghum), the addition of CMC with 0.5% concentration of 3.96% solid losses value (red sorghum) 4:21% (white sorghums) and weight rehydration 252.71% (white sorghums) 244.45% (red sorghums).

  4. Experimental study on bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Dong Xicun; Li Wenjian; Xiao Guoqing; Ma Liang; Gao Feng

    2008-01-01

    As a substitute for food supplies, sweet sorghum juice with high grade has demonstrated out- standing advantage in fermentation. To obtain the optimized fermentation conditions, the growth, the bio- mass of bread yeast cultured in sweet sorghum juice and total residual sugar were investigated in the paper. The fermentation was performed and optimized in a 10-100 1 bio-reactor. The results show that the application of sweet sorghum juice in bread yeast production is very potential. (authors)

  5. Nutritional value of sorghum silage of different purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Behling Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sorghum is a crop that stands out as an alternative to corn due to lower soil fertility demand and increased tolerance to drought. Lack of information about the qualitative behaviour of sorghum hinders the recommendation of different purpose sorghum cultivars. The goal was to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of different purpose sorghum cultivar silages, at two cropping seasons. The trial was conducted at the Plant Production Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, and chemical analyses and in vitro incubation were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus. The experimental design was a randomized block with a split-plot arrangement and four replications. Plot treatments consisted of six different purpose sorghum cultivars (BRS 308 and BRS 310, grain sorghum; BR 655 and BRS 610, forage sorghum; and BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, sweet sorghum. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping periods (first crop and second crop. Forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 demonstrated higher non-fiber carbohydrate content and lower potentially digestible fibre content than the other cultivars did. Sweet sorghum cultivars had higher levels of water soluble carbohydrates and non-protein nitrogen based on protein, lower indigestible neutral detergent fibre content at second crop, and higher in vitro dry matter digestibility than the other cultivars. The silages of sweet sorghum cultivars BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, and forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 presented higher nutritional values.

  6. Separate Location of Parental Chromosomes in Squashed Metaphases of Hybrid between Hordeum vulgare L. and Four Polyploid, Alien Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    In 38 squashed, somatic metaphases of four hybrids between diploid Hordeum vulgare and two tetra-and two hexaploid alien species, each of the H. vulgare chromosomes was identifed, and differentiated from the chromosomes of the other parental species, by its Giemsa C-banding pattern. The H. vulgare...

  7. Achievements and problems in the weed control in grain sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor Moench.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gr. Delchev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chemical control has emerged as the most efficient method of weed control. Herbicides combinations and tank mixtures of herbicides with adjuvants, fertilizers, growth regulators, fungicides, insecticides are more effective than when applied alone on sorghum crops. Their combined use often leads to high synergistic effect on yield. The use of herbicide antidotes for the treatment of seeds in sorghum is a safe way to overcome its high sensitivity to many herbicides. Data regarding herbicide for chemical control of annual graminaceous weeds in sorghum crops are quite scarce even worldwide. Problem is the persistence of some herbicides used in the predecessors on succeeding crops, which is directly related to the weather conditions during their degradation. Most of the information on sorghum relates to the conventional technology for weed control. There is no information about the new Concep technology in grain sorghum. A serious problem is also the volunteers of the Clearfield and Express sun sunflower. They have resistance to herbicides different from that of conventional sunflower hybrids. There is no information yet in scientific literature on control of these volunteers.

  8. Cytogenetisch en embryologisch onderzoek aan kruisingen tussen Hordeum vulgare en H. bulbosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, W.

    1969-01-01

    Crosses between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and bulbous barleygrass ( H.bulbosum) could be valuable for the transfer of such properties as resistance to cold or diseases from H. bulbosum to H. vulgare. From the literature it was known that difficulties arose in the cross: seed abortion necessitating

  9. Genetic Dissection of Bioenergy-Related Traits in Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) under Danish Agro-Climatic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), a C4 African originated grass, ranks 5th most important crop worldwide, feeding over 500 million people in tropical regions as it withstands a wide panel of biotic and abiotic stresses. The small and simple diploid genome of sorghum was elected as the third...... plant for sequencing in 2009 promoting it as a C4 model plant. Among the very diverse genetic resources available for sorghum, sweet sorghum plants; amassing large quantities of juice-rich and sugar-rich stem, grain and vegetative biomass; have been enlightened as bioenergy crop as it can produced from...... a single plant food, feed and fuel. Sweet sorghum has gained interest in Europe to replace maize, for biogas and bioenergy productions, but this versatile crop is sensitive to chilling temperatures and little breeding efforts have been done toward its cold acclimation. The state-of-art of using...

  10. Sweet Sorghum Crop. Effect of the Compost Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, M. J.; Solano, M. L.; Carrasco, J.; Ciria, P.

    1998-01-01

    A 3 year-plot experiments were performed to determined the possible persistence of the positive effects of treating soil with compost. For this purpose, a sweet sorghum bagasse compost has been used. Experiments were achieved with sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. L. Moench) vr Dale as energy crop. Similar sorghum productivities were obtained both in plots with consecutive compost applications and in plots amended with mineral fertilizers. No residual effect after three years has been detected. It could be due to the low dose of compost application. (Author) 27 refs

  11. SILAGE QUALITY OF CORN AND SORGHUM ADDED WITH FORAGE PEANUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALKÍRIA GUIMARÃES CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn and sorghum are standard silage crops because of their fermentative characteristics. While corn and sorghum silages have lower crude protein (CP contents than other crops, intercropping with legumes can increase CP content. Furthermore, one way to increase CP content is the addition of legumes to silage. Consequently, the research objective was to evaluate the fermentative and bromatological characteristics of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor silages added with forage peanuts (Arachis pintoi. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage, sorghum silage, forage peanut silage, corn silage with 30% forage peanut, and sorghum silage with 30% forage peanut. The results showed that the corn and sorghum added with peanut helped to improve the silage fermentative and bromatological characteristics, proving to be an efficient technique for silage quality. The forage peanut silage had lower fermentative characteristics than the corn and sorghum silages. However, the forage peanut silage had a greater CP content, which increased the protein contents of the corn and sorghum silages when intercropped with forage peanuts.

  12. Mutation breeding of pearl millet and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, W W [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, University of Georgia, College of Agricultural Experiment Stations, Coastal Plain Station, Agronomy Department, Tifton, GA (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Pearl millet and sorghum are important food and feed crops grown mostly in semi-arid regions of the world. Although there exists a large amount of genetic variability in both species, it does not always satisfy the needs of plant breeders in improving varieties with regard to yield, quality, resistance or environmental adaptation. Plant breeders interested in using induced mutations for variety improvement will find in this review information about the techniques used by others. (author)

  13. Mutation breeding of pearl millet and sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Pearl millet and sorghum are important food and feed crops grown mostly in semi-arid regions of the world. Although there exists a large amount of genetic variability in both species, it does not always satisfy the needs of plant breeders in improving varieties with regard to yield, quality, resistance or environmental adaptation. Plant breeders interested in using induced mutations for variety improvement will find in this review information about the techniques used by others. (author)

  14. Manejo químico de plantas adultas de Digitaria insularis com glyphosate isolado e em mistura com chlorimuronethyl ou quizalofop-p-tefuril em área de plantio direto Chemical management of adult Digitaria insularis with glyphosate alone and mixture with chlorimuron-ethyl or quizalofop-p-tefuril in a no-tillage field

    OpenAIRE

    Núbia Maria Correia; Julio Cezar Durigan

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do herbicida glyphosate, isolado e em mistura com chlorimuron-ethyl ou quizalofop-p-tefuril, e o efeito da adição de óleo mineral à calda de glyphosate e chlorimuron-ethy no controle de plantas adultas de Digitaria insularis, em área sob sistema de plantio direto. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, em condições de campo, um de novembro de 2005 a fevereiro de 2006 e outro de novembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2007, em Jaboticabal (SP). O delineam...

  15. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Tinoco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva composição química. A extracção dos óleos essenciais foi efectuada por hidrodestilação e a sua análise foi feita por GC-FID e GC-MS. No óleo das folhas foram identificados como componentes maioritários os fenilpropanóides anetol, fenchona e estragol e o monoterpeno a-felandreno, enquanto que o óleo dos frutos apresentou como constituintes predominantes anetol e fenchona. A actividade antimicrobiana dos óleos foi avaliada face às estirpes Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces spp., Fusarium oxysporum e Penicillium sp.. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram actividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus, Saccharomyces spp. e Fusarium oxysporum.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare is a spontaneous plant of Mediterranean region that belongs to the Apiaceae family. Its essential oil is used as additives in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries mainly that one obtained from dried seeds. The main goal of this work were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves and unripe seeds of sweet fennel, collected in Évora-Alentejo, in face of their chemical composition. The extraction of the essentials oils was made by hydrodistillation. Chemical analyses were carried out by GC-FID and GCMS. Phenylpropanoides anethole, fenchone, estragole and the monoterpene aphellandrene were the most abundant compounds of leaves essential oil. Seeds essential oil showed as main components

  16. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  17. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Improved Sorghum Varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study indicated that age and distance to input market were negatively and significantly related to improved sorghum varieties whereas farm size and type of house owned were found to have been positively and significantly related to improved sorghum varieties. The results of the study confirm that ...

  18. Review of genetic basis of protein digestibility in Grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum, an ancient crop of the semiarid tropics, plays a key role in food and nutritional security for over half-a-billion people in Africa and Asia. In industrialized nations, sorghum is cultivated as animal feed and more recently as a feedstock for biofuel production and as health food alternativ...

  19. Performance evaluation of biomass sorghum in Hawaii and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although biomass sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has been identified as a high yielding bioenergy feedstock crop on the continental USA, there is lack of conclusive data on its performance in HI. The objective of this study was to (i) determine the adaptability and productivity of two biomass...

  20. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available isozyme of pI approximately 4.4-4.5, unlike the many isozymes all of higher pI in barley. However, like barley, sorghum beta-amylase was more temperature-labile than its alpha-amylase. Beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt was increased by germination time...

  1. Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations | Araujo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has been studied as an additional source of raw material for production or partial replacement of foods due to its high fiber concentration. Its consumption is associated with the prevention of some diseases and nutritional benefits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the partial ...

  2. Electrochemical evaluation of sweet sorghum fermentable sugar bioenergy feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redox active constituents of sorghum, e.g., anthocyanin, flavonoids, and aconitic acid, putatively contribute to its pest resistance. Electrochemical reactivity of sweet sorghum stem juice was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) for five male (Atlas, Chinese, Dale, Isidomba, N98) and three fema...

  3. Antimicrobial evaluation of red, phytoalexin-rich sorghum food biocolorant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akogou, Folachodé U.G.; Besten, Den Heidy M.W.; Polycarpe Kayodé, A.P.; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2018-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) extract is traditionally used as red biocolorant in West Africa to colour foods, among which wagashi, a soft cheese. This biocolorant is a source of the phytoalexin apigeninidin and phenolic acids, and users claim that it has preservative effects next to its colouring

  4. Registration of six grain sorghum pollinator (R) lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] pollinators [KS142R (Reg. No. PI XXXX), KS143R (Reg. No. PI XXXX), KS144R (Reg.No. PI XXXX), KS145R (Reg. No. PI XXXX), KS146R (Reg. No. PI XXXX) and KS147R (Reg. No. PI XXXX) were developed from random mating using a recurrent selection followed by pedigree...

  5. Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers. D. B. Apotikar, D. Venkateswarlu, R. B. Ghorade, R. M. Wadaskar, J. V. Patil and P. L. Kulwal. J. Genet. 90, 59–66. Table 1. List of SSR primers for sorghum. Primer code. Forward and reverse. Annealing temperature (°C). Product.

  6. Potential of multiseeded mutant (msd) to boost sorghum grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed number per plant is an important determinant of the grain yield in cereal and other crops. We have isolated a class of multiseeded (msd) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) mutants that are capable of producing three times the seed number and twice the seed weight per panicle as compared with t...

  7. Sorghum stem yield and soluble carbohydrates under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... The aim of this study was to select the most suitable cultivar for salty land in this geographical area. Two sweet sorghum cultivars (Keller and Sofra) and one grain sorghum cultivar (Kimia) were grown in greenhouse benches under four salinity levels of 2, 4, 8 and 12 dSm-1 to evaluate the effects of salinity.

  8. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave length) and 240.6 ...

  9. Evaluation of sorghum genotypes under drought stress conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) were studied in both drought and normal conditions. In each condition, the genotypes were evaluated using a split plot based randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index (STI), mean ...

  10. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danihelka, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 85-87 ISSN 1211-5258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : alien species * Czech Republic * neophyte Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  11. Digitaria exilis Stapf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 oct. 2015 ... stratégie de lutte contre l'insécurité alimentaire saisonnière en Afrique de l'Ouest (Vall et al, 2011).Au ... stratégie de lutte basée sur l'éthologie de ces insectes nuisibles. L'absence d'information sur les ..... L'importance numérique des insectes capturés traduit l'attirance du fonio pour les insectes. En effet ...

  12. Fermentation of sweet sorghum syrup to butanol in the presence of natural nutrients and inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum syrups represent a renewable raw material that can be available year-round for production of biofuels and biochemicals. Sweet sorghum sugars have been used as sources for butanol production in the past but most often the studies focused on sweet sorghum juice and not on sweet sorghum s...

  13. Evaluation of the multi-seeded (msd) mutant of sorghum for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], a cost effective crop in semiarid regions, is an underestimated supplement to corn in starch based ethanol production. Twenty three multi-seeded (msd) mutant sorghums and one wild type sorghum BTx623 were evaluated for ethanol production and effect of che...

  14. Metabolomic analysis of cooperative adaptation between co-cultured Bacillus cereus and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhu Ding

    Full Text Available The cooperative adaptation of subcultivated Bacillus cereus and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare significantly increased the productivity of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, the precursor of vitamin C. The mechanism of cooperative adaptation of the serial subcultivated B. cereus and K. vulgare was investigated in this study by culturing the two strains orthogonally on agar plates. It was found that the swarming distance of B. cereus along the trace of K. vulgare on the plate decreased after 150 days' subcultivation. Metabolomic analysis on these co-cultured B. cereus and K. vulgare strains showed that their cooperative adaptation was accomplished by three key events: (i the ability of nutrients (e.g., amino acids and purines searching and intaking, and proteins biosynthesis is increased in the evolved B. cereus; (ii the capability of protein degradation and amino acids transportation is enhanced in evolved K. vulgare; (iii the evolved B. cereus was found to provide more nutrients (mostly amino acids and purines to K. vulgare, thus strengthening the oxidation and energy generation of K. vulgare. Our results provided novel insights into the systems-level understanding of the cooperative adaptation between strains in synergistic consortium.

  15. Evaluation of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]) on several population density for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwarti; Efendi, R.; Massinai, R.; Pabendon, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]) crop management that is use for raw source of bioethanol for industrial purpose in Indonesia is less developed. The aim of this research was to evaluated sweet sorghum variety at several population to determine optimum density for juice production. Experiment design was set on split-plot design with three replications, conducted on August to December 2016 at the Indonesian Cereals Research Institute Research Station, Maros South Sulawesi. Main plot were six variation of plant row, and sub plot were three sweet sorghum varieties. Result of the study showed that plant population was high significanty affect to stalk weight, total biomass yield, leaf weight, and also significantly affect bagass weight and juice volume. Varieties were high significantly different in plant height, juice volume, and number of nodes. Super 1 variety on population at 166,667 plants/ha (P1) was obtained the highest juice volume (19,445 lHa-1), meanwhile the highest brix value obtained from Numbu at the same plants population. Furthermore juice volume had significant correlation with biomass weight at the r=0.73. Based on ethanol production, Super 2 and Numbu had the highest volume at 83.333 plants/ha density (P3) and Super 1 at 166.667 plants/ha density with the ethanol volume were 827.68 l Ha-1, 1116.50 l/ha and 993.62 l Ha-1 respectively.

  16. Genomic dissection of anthracnose resistant response in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is to use a genomics-based approaches to identify anthracnose resistance loci from diverse sorghum germplasm as an effort to the disease resistance mechanism of at least one of these genes. This information will provide plant breeders with a tool kit that can be used to maxi...

  17. In Vitro Screening for Drought Tolerance in Different Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Tsago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the complex environmental factors affecting growth and yield of sorghum in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. Sixteen elite sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L Moench genotypes were evaluated for their genetic potential to drought tolerance at callus induction and plant regeneration stage for drought tolerance. The non-ionic water soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG of molecular weight 6000 was used as osmoticum to simulate water stress. The factorial experiment was laid down in a completely randomized design which comprised of a combination of two factors (genotypes and five PEG stress level; 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% (w/v treatments. Data were recorded for callus induction efficiency, callus fresh weight, embryogenic callus percentage and plant regeneration percentage. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes, treatments and their interactions for the evaluated plant traits suggesting a great amount of variability for drought tolerance in sorghum. The correlation analysis also revealed strong and significant association between embryogenic callus percent and plant regeneration percent as well as between embryogenic callus percent and plant regeneration percent. By taking into consideration all the measured traits, Mann Whitney rank sum test revealed that 76T1#23 and Teshale followed by Meko, Gambella-1107 and Melkam showed better drought stress tolerance. Therefore they are recommended to be used as parents for genetic analysis, gene mapping and improvement of drought tolerance while Chelenko, Hormat and Raya appear to be drought sensitive.

  18. Biolistic mediated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) transformation via mannose and bialaphos based selection systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grootboom, AW

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of transformation. In sorghum, concerns about flow of herbicide and antibiotic resistance gene into genetically related wild and weedy species have a direct bearing on the choice of suitable selectable markers in many tropical and subtropical regions. The authors...

  19. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  20. Novel storage technologies for raw and clarified syrup biomass feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attention is currently focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for new, flexible biorefineries. Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) include stabiliz...

  1. Effect of emulsifiers on complexation and retrogradation characteristics of native and chemically modified White sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Hasnain, Abid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sorghum starches were chemically modified. ► Starch–lipid complexes were studied in the presence of emulsifiers. ► Type II complexes were also detected in native and oxidized starches on adding GMS. ► Starch–lipid complexes sharply reduced retrogradation in modified starches. - Abstract: The effect of emulsifiers on complexation and retrogradation characteristics of native and chemically modified white sorghum starches was studied. Complex forming tendency of white sorghum starch with commercially available emulsifiers GMS and DATEM improved after acetylation. Presence of emulsifiers reduced λ max (wavelength of maximum absorbance) both for native and modified sorghum starches suggesting lower availability of amylose chains to complex with iodine. In native white sorghum starch (NWSS) and oxidized white sorghum starch (OWSS), both Type I and Type II starch–lipid complexes were observed on addition of 1.0% GMS prior to gelatinization. Acetylated-oxidized white sorghum starch (AOWSS) formed weakest complexes among all the modified starches. The results revealed that antistaling characteristics of modified sorghum starches were enhanced when used in combination with emulsifiers. The most prominent decline in reassociative capability among modified starches was observed for acetylated starches.

  2. The productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Caixia; Xie, Gaodi; Li, Shimei; Ge, Liqiang; He, Tingting

    2010-01-01

    As one of the important non-grain energy crops, sweet sorghum has attracted the attention of scientific community and decision makers of the world since decades. But insufficient study has been done about the spatial suitability distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China. This paper attempts to probe into the spatial distribution and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum in China by ArcGIS methods. Data used for the analysis include the spatial data of climate, soil, topography and land use, and literatures relevant for sweet sorghum studies. The results show that although sweet sorghum can be planted in the majority of lands in China, the suitable unused lands for large-scale planting (unit area not less than 100 hm 2 ) are only as much as 78.6 x 10 4 hm 2 ; and the productive potentials of ethanol from these lands are 157.1 x 10 4 -294.6 x 10 4 t/year, which can only meet 24.8-46.4% of current demand for E10 (gasoline mixed with 10% ethanol) in China (assumption of the energy efficiency of E10 is equivalent to that of pure petroleum). If all the common grain sorghum at present were replaced by sweet sorghum, the average ethanol yield of 244.0 x 10 4 t/year can be added, and thus the productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol can satisfy 63.2-84.9% of current demand for E10 of China. In general, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Liaoning rank the highest in productive potentials of sweet sorghum ethanol, followed by Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, and some other provinces. It is suggested that these regions should be regarded as the priority development zones for sweet sorghum ethanol in China.

  3. Economic feasibility of producing sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linton, Joseph A.; Miller, J. Corey; Little, Randall D.; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Coble, Keith H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of producing sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States through representative counties in Mississippi. We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs to estimate sweet sorghum producers' breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. This breakeven cost for the sweet sorghum producer is used to estimate breakeven costs for the ethanol producer based on wholesale ethanol price, production costs, and transportation and marketing costs. Stochastic models are developed to estimate profits for sweet sorghum and competing crops in two representative counties in Mississippi, with sweet sorghum consistently yielding losses in both counties. -- Highlights: → We examine the economic feasibility of sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock. → We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs. → We estimate breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. → Stochastic models determine profits for sweet sorghum in two Mississippi counties.

  4. In vitro cytotoxicity of allelopathic plants Adonis vernalis L. Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. and Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Vanya; Dragoeva, Asya; Stoyanova, Zheni; Yordanova, Zhenia; Ali, Selime; Uzunov, Nikolay M.; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Rosato, Antonio; Enchev, Dobromir D.

    2018-03-01

    Medicinal plants produce various secondary metabolites as a part of their chemical defence and survival in nature. These compounds have a wide range of biological activities. Nowadays, medicinal plants are used as source of allelochemicals and new effective anticancer agents. Our previous studies revealed allelopathic potential of water extracts of Adonis vernalis L. (Ranunculaceae), Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. and Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda (Lamiaceae). Present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the same extracts in vitro on human hepatoma cell line SK-HEP-1. Cell proliferation/viability was assessed using Premixed WST-1 Cell Proliferation Reagent. Adonis water extract (1.83mg/ml) had notable negative influence on cancer cell line tested. Oregano (3.5 mg/ml) also exerted negative effect, but to a lesser degree. On the contrary, nepeta water extract (6.59 mg/ml) had an opposite effect, stimulating cell proliferation. One possible explanation could be the type of extraction: after treatment with nepeta methanol extract (6.59 mg/ml) cell viability was significantly reduced. In conclusion, Adonis vernalis and Nepeta nuda subsp. nuda possess metabolites with growth inhibitory effect on human hepatoma cell line SK-HEP-1. Further research is needed to clarify biological activity of lower concentrations which are appropriate to enable the design of new anticancer drugs.

  5. Diterpene synthases of the biosynthetic system of medicinally active diterpenoids in Marrubium vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerbe, Philipp; Chiang, Angela; Dullat, Harpreet

    2014-01-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose major bioactive compounds, marrubiin and other labdane-related furanoid diterpenoids, have potential applications as anti-diabetics, analgesics or vasorelaxants. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling of M. vulgare leaves identified five...... different candidate diterpene synthases (diTPSs) of the TPS-c and TPS-e/f clades. We describe the in vitro and in vivo functional characterization of the M. vulgare diTPS family. In addition to MvEKS ent-kaurene synthase of general metabolism, we identified three diTPSs of specialized metabolism: MvCPS3...

  6. Genetic analysis of recombinant inbred lines for Sorghum bicolor × Sorghum propinquum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wenqian; Jin, Huizhe; Franks, Cleve D; Kim, Changsoo; Bandopadhyay, Rajib; Rana, Mukesh K; Auckland, Susan A; Goff, Valorie H; Rainville, Lisa K; Burow, Gloria B; Woodfin, Charles; Burke, John J; Paterson, Andrew H

    2013-01-01

    We describe a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 161 F5 genotypes for the widest euploid cross that can be made to cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) using conventional techniques, S. bicolor × Sorghum propinquum, that segregates for many traits related to plant architecture, growth and development, reproduction, and life history. The genetic map of the S. bicolor × S. propinquum RILs contains 141 loci on 10 linkage groups collectively spanning 773.1 cM. Although the genetic map has DNA marker density well-suited to quantitative trait loci mapping and samples most of the genome, our previous observations that sorghum pericentromeric heterochromatin is recalcitrant to recombination is highlighted by the finding that the vast majority of recombination in sorghum is concentrated in small regions of euchromatin that are distal to most chromosomes. The advancement of the RIL population in an environment to which the S. bicolor parent was well adapted (indeed bred for) but the S. propinquum parent was not largely eliminated an allele for short-day flowering that confounded many other traits, for example, permitting us to map new quantitative trait loci for flowering that previously eluded detection. Additional recombination that has accrued in the development of this RIL population also may have improved resolution of apices of heterozygote excess, accounting for their greater abundance in the F5 than the F2 generation. The S. bicolor × S. propinquum RIL population offers advantages over early-generation populations that will shed new light on genetic, environmental, and physiological/biochemical factors that regulate plant growth and development.

  7. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dweikat, Ismail [University of Nebraska; Clemente, Thomas [University of Nebrask

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the

  8. Seed of sweet sorghum: studies on fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, F A; Onetto, E; Angeloro, H; Victorio Gugliucci, S

    1961-01-01

    Both the percentage of starch transformed by saccharification with malt and the alcohol fermentation efficiency for four varieties of sweet sorghum is determined, and it is compared with those of a corn sample. Seeds of the varieties with low peel content yield values comparable to those of corn. Seeds of the varieties with high peel content give values lower than those of the low peel content, but, if they are previously peeled, the yield of both, in terms of transformed starch and alcohol produced, is improved, the values approaching those obtained with corn.

  9. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  10. Carlos Jansen and the literary vulgarization for the youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Araujo Miranda Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the translations of Carlos Jansen for the youth, age group corresponding approximately to the contemporary concepts of preadolescence and adolescence, made at the end of the 19th century. Jansen was a pioneer in translating into Brazilian Portuguese works for the youth among which novels by Swift, Defoe, and Cervantes. His widely adapted versions had a pedagogical goal, serving as a reading material for children and adolescents attending schools. For this reason he was called a "vulgarizer" by critics of that period. The research encompassed the analysis of newspapers published between 1880 and 1899, available at the National Library's Hemeroteca Digital Brasileira, which provide data on the advertising and reception of his works. We intend to enrich historical research on children's literature in Brazil and analyse to what degree Jansen's pedagogical project has governed his translation practice.

  11. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids...

  12. Sensitivity of spoiling and pathogen food-related bacteria to Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Evandro Leite de; Stamford,Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Lima,Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Lamiaceae, has been known as plant specie with prominent biological properties for a long time. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil on various Gram-positive and Gram-negative spoiling and/or pathogen food-related bacteria, as well as to observe its antimicrobial effectiveness in a food conservation micromodel. The results showed a strong antibacterial activity of the assayed essential oil noted by large growt...

  13. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PROSPECTS OF SORGHUM CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose was to analyze the sorghum statement at world, EU and Romania level in order to establish the main trends in the future of this crop. Sorghum is an important cereal coming on the 5th position after maize, rice, wheat and barley at world level due to its importance in human nutrition, animal feed, in producing bioethanol and green energy, and due to its good impact on environment. It is cultivated on all the continents, in the tropical, subtropical and temperate areas due to its resistance to drought, production potential, low inputs and production cost. It is an alternative to maize crop being more utilized as substituent in animal diets. The world sorghum production reached 63,811 thousand metric tons in 2014, the main producers being the USA, Mexico, Nigeria, India, Argentina, Ethiopia, Sudan and China. The world consumption of sorghum reached 63,148 thousand metric tons and it is continuously increasing. The sorghum exports accounted for 7,690 thousand metric tons in 2014, of which the USA export represents 4,600 thousand metric tons. Besides the USA, other exporting countries are Argentina, Australia, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Uruguay, while the main importing countries are China, Japan, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the EU, Sudan. In 2014, the EU produced 576 thousand metric tons sorghum, imported 200 thousand metric tons, and consumed 770 thousand metric tons. The main EU producers of sorghum are France, Italy, Romania, Spain and Hungary. In 2012, Romania cultivated 20,000 ha with sorghum crop, 18 times more than in 2077. Also, in 2012, Romania produced 37.5 thousand tons of sorghum grains, by 31 times more than in 2007. The sorghum yield was 1,875 kg/ha by 66% higher in 2012 compared to 2007. Therefore, these figures show the increasing importance of sorghum crop at world level. Because Romania is situated in suitable geographical area for producing sorghum, it could increase production and become a more important supplier

  14. Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Irradiated Sorghum Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.D.; Farag, M.F. S. El-D.; Afify, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    Substitution of yellow corn with raw sorghum grains in chick diets resulted in decreases in live body weight, accumulative feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization as compared with reference diet. Relative to raw sorghum diet, inclusion of sorghum grains irradiated at 60 and 100 kGy and/or supplemented with PEG in chick diets resulted in increases in accumulative feed consumption an efficiency feed utilization. The study suggested that irradiation treatment up to 100 kGy up grade broiler chicks performance and the combinations between radiation and PEG treatments sustain the effect of each other

  15. Rate and Timing Effects of Growth Regulating Herbicides Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry E. Besançon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicamba and 2,4-D are among the most common and inexpensive herbicides used to control broadleaf weeds. However, different studies have pointed the risk of crop injury and grain sorghum yield reduction with postemergence applications of 2,4-D. No research data on grain sorghum response to 2,4-D or dicamba exists in the Southeastern United States. Consequently, a study was conducted to investigate crop growth and yield response to 2,4-D (100, 220, and 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 and dicamba (280 g acid equivalent ha−1 applied on 20 to 65 cm tall sorghum. Greater stunting resulted from 2,4-D applied at 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 or below 45 cm tall sorghum whereas lodging prevailed with 2,4-D at 330 g acid equivalent ha−1 and dicamba applied beyond 35 cm tall crop. Regardless of local environmental conditions, 2,4-D applied up to 35 cm tall did not negatively impact grain yield. There was a trend for yields to be somewhat lower when 2,4-D was applied on 45 or 55 cm tall sorghum whereas application on 65 cm tall sorghum systematically decreased yields. More caution should be taken with dicamba since yield reduction has been reported as early as applications made on 35 cm tall sorghum for a potentially dicamba sensitive cultivar.

  16. PENGARUH INFUS BUAH Foeniculum vulgare Mill PADA SIKLUS ESTRUS DAN BOBOT UTERUS TIKUS PUTIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa'roni Sa'roni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill (adas secara tradisional untuk obat dan campuran jamu pengatur haid. Diduga buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill mempunyai pengaruh pada sistem reproduksi. Oleh karena itu, kami melakukan penelitian pengaruh infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill pada siklus estrus dan bobot uterus tikus putih.Infus diberikan secara oral sekali sehari selama 12 hari dengan dosis setara dengan 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan. Selama pemberian bahan, siklus estrus diperiksa setiap hari dan pada hari ke-13 diotopsi dan ditimbang bobot uterusnya.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menghambat fase estrus (masa subur. Infus setara dengan serbuk 7 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan kelihatan dapat menghambat fase estrus yang sangat nyata dibandingkan dengan akuades. Infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menurunkan bobot uterus, tetapi secara statistik tidak berbeda nyata dengan akuades. Kata kunci: Obat tradisional; Foeniculum vulgare Mill; Sistem Reproduksi

  17. The Kraft Pulp And Paper Properties of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (Sorghum bicolor L Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potency of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor bagasse as raw material for pulp and paper using kraft pulping. The effects of alkali and sulfidity loading on kraft pulp and paper properties were also investigated. The pulping condition of the kraft pulp consisted of three levels of alkali loading (17, 19 and 22% and sulfidity loading (20, 22 and 24%. The maximum cooking temperature was 170°C for 4 h with a liquid to wood ratio of 10:1. Kraft pulping of this Numbu bagasse produced good pulp indicated by high screen yield and delignification selectivity with a low Kappa number (< 10. The unbleached pulp sheet produced a superior brightness level and a high burst index. The increase of active alkali loading tended to produce a negative effect on the pulp yield, Kappa number and paper sheet properties. Therefore, it is suggested to use a lower active alkaline concentration.

  18. Intake and digestibility of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench silages with different tannin contents in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Matos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and digestibility of three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench hybrid silages in sheep. The hybrids used were H1 -BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R, with tannin; H2 -(ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R, without tannin; and H3 -BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R, without tannin. The intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude protein (CP were measured. Eighteen crossbred sheep weighing 59.4 kg (±8.3 were used in the trial. A completely randomized design with three treatments (hybrids and six repetitions (sheep was used. There were no differences in the DM intake or apparent digestibility among the hybrids. Silage of hybrid BRS 610 displayed higher digestibility coefficients for CP, NDF, ADF, and GE compared with the other silages, which did not differ from each other. The neutral detergent fiber, ADF and digestible energy (DE intakes were similar among the hybrids silages. All of the hybrids resulted in a positive N balance in sheep. The levels of DE were superior in hybrid silage BRS 610 in comparison with the other hybrids. Sorghum hybrid BRS 610 silage exhibited superior nutritional value compared with the other hybrids, which is most likely in part due to the absence of tannins. Sorghum silage made with hybrid BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R presents superior gross energy, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility coefficients, as well as greater digestible energy levels than BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R and (ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R.

  19. Modification of Sorghum Starch-Cellulose Bioplastic with Sorghum Stalks Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Darni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the feasibility of bioplastics production by various ratio of sorghum starch and cellulose from red seaweed Eucheuma spinossum, and the use of glycerol as plasticizer and sorghum stalks as filler. Solid-liquid matrix transition should be far over the operating temperature of gelatinization and extracted at 95oC in order to avoid the loss of conductivity. The analyzed variables were starch and cellulose seaweed Eucheuma spinossum and the addition of variation of filler. Sorghum stalk could be expected to affect the mechanical and physical properties of bioplastics. A thin sheet of plastic (plastic film was obtained as a result that have been tested mechanically to obtain the best condition for the formulation of starch-cellulose 8.5:1.5 (g/g. From the result of morphological studies, the fillers in the mixture composites were more randomly in each product and the addition of filler can increase mechanical properties of bioplastics. Chemical modification had a major effect on the mechanical properties. The phenomena of degradation and thermoplasticization were visible at chemical changes that can be observed in FTIR spectrum test results.

  20. Effect of Fungicide Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan D. Fromme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in the upper Texas Gulf Coast and in central Louisiana during the 2013 through 2015 growing seasons to evaluate the effects of fungicides on grain sorghum growth and development when disease pressure was low or nonexistent. Azoxystrobin and flutriafol at 1.0 L/ha and pyraclostrobin at 0.78 L/ha were applied to the plants of two grain sorghum hybrids (DKS 54-00, DKS 53-67 at 25% bloom and compared with the nontreated check for leaf chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, and plant lodging during the growing season as well as grain mold, test weight, yield, and nitrogen and protein content of the harvested grain. The application of a fungicide had no effect on any of the variables tested with grain sorghum hybrid responses noted. DKS 53-67 produced higher yield, greater test weight, higher percent protein, and N than DKS 54-00. Results of this study indicate that the application of a fungicide when little or no disease is present does not promote overall plant health or increase yield.

  1. Mutation breeding in sorghum (sorghum bicolor L.) for improving plant as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H, Soeranto

    1998-01-01

    Mutation breeding using gamma irradiation in sorghum was aimed at improving the quality and production of sorghum plant as ruminant feed. Seeds of local sorghum variety Keris with moisture of about 14% were irradiated with gamma rays from Cobalt-60 source using the dose levels up to 0.5 kgy. The MI plant were grown in Pasar Jumat, the M2 and M3 were grown in Citayam experimental station. The M2 plants were harvested 40 days after sowing by cutting plants 20 cm above ground surface. Two weeks later observations for the ability of plants to produce new buds (buds variable). The plants green products in green products in from of their dry weight (product variable) were collected 40 days after harvesting and drying process in oven at 105 0 C for 24 hours. Plant selections with intensity of 20% were done for the bud variable among samples of M2 plants. Selection responses in the M3 were found to vary from the lowest at 0.5 kgy population (R s = 0.8507). The share of genetic factors to selection responses in bud variable varied from 7.25% at 0,5 kgy population to 22.35% at 0.3 kgy population. Selection for bud variable gave directly impact in increasing product variable in the M3. (author)

  2. Ethanol production from Sorghum bicolor using both separate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification, detoxification of inhibitors and fermentation of Sorghum bicolor straw for ethanol production ..... The authors wish to acknowledge financial support from ... Official energy statistics from.

  3. Productivity of Cassava, Sorghum and Groundnut Intercrop Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity of Cassava, Sorghum and Groundnut Intercrop Using Poultry Manure with Chemical Fertilizer Replacement Combinations. II Ibeawuchi, CI Duruigbo, LU Ihenacho, GO Ihejirika, MO Ofor, OP Obilo, JC Obiefuna ...

  4. Development of a Low Cost Machine for Improved Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dehullers are limited. Key Words: Sorghum, grain tempering, dehuller, dehulling efficiency ... obtained from the local market in Morogoro municipal were used to test the .... The hypothesis was accepted or rejected at 95% confidence level.

  5. Baseline survey on factors affecting sorghum production and use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Sorghum, which is closely related to maize in utilization, therefore, could be an alternative staple food crop in arid areas ...

  6. Performance of broiler chickens fed South African sorghum-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mabelebele, Monnye

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... availability of starch and protein in the sorghum. ... component of acid-insoluble ash, was included in the diet as an inert marker. ... Calculated analysis .... and carbohydrate-polyphenol interactions are the main factors affecting.

  7. Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Additionally, sorghum cell suspension cultures have been initiated from the friable ... proteomics technologies. The field of proteomics is .... air dried at room temperature and resuspended in 2 ml of urea buffer [9 M urea, 2 M ...

  8. Evaluation of Sorghum bicolor leaf base extract for gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Key words: Sorghum bicolor, gastrointestinal, motility, diarrhoea, jejunum, ileum, fundus. INTRODUCTION ..... the propulsive movement of charcoal meal through the .... A delay in gastric emptying will prevent speedy evacua-.

  9. Determination of the Efficiency of Some Essential Oil Compounds on the Development of Jonsongrass [(Sorghum halepense (L. Pers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe YAZLIK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jonsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L. Pers. (SORHA is one of the most troublesome perennial weeds caused important yield reductions in the agricultural and environmental problems in the non-agricultural fields. Using a combination of several control strategies is required because Sorha cannot be effectively controlled by a single control method. One of the methods that can be used for the control of Sorha is the usage of allelopathic chemicals. The efficiency of the plants [oregano (Origanum vulgare L., lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L. and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.] that have allelochemicals on the SORHA were examined with this study. Using rosemary oil at the high rate (16 μl 38.465 cm2 gave the best results and reduced dry weight at 41.0% when it was applied as pre-emergence. The same essential oil rate obtained from rosemary was the highest adversely effects on the Sorha growth (48.0% when it was used as post-emergence. Post-emergence application of all three volatile oils has provided more influence on the Sorha growth compared to the pre-emergence application.

  10. Cost to deliver sweet sorghum fermentables to a central plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cundiff, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The major obstacle to a sweet sorghum-for-ethanol industry in the Piedmont of Virginia is the short harvest season of eight weeks. A Piedmont harvesting system is described that will enable the Piedmont to compete with Louisiana in production of sweet sorghum for ethanol. The cost to supply feedstock (up to the point fermentation begins) for a one million GPY ethanol plant was estimated to be $2.35/gal expected ethanol yield. This amount compared favorably with two other options

  11. De novo transcriptome assembly of Sorghum bicolor variety Taejin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, also known as great millet, is one of the most popular cultivated grass species in the world. Sorghum is frequently consumed as food for humans and animals as well as used for ethanol production. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for sorghum variety Taejin by next-generation sequencing, obtaining 8.748 GB of raw data. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRX1715644. Using the Trinity program, we identified 222,161 transcripts from sorghum variety Taejin. We further predicted coding regions within the assembled transcripts by the TransDecoder program, resulting in a total of 148,531 proteins. We carried out BLASTP against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to annotate the functions of the identified proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome data for a sorghum variety derived from Korea, and it can be usefully applied to the generation of genetic markers.

  12. EVALUATION OF TWO VARIETIES OF SORGHUM FOR STARCH EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanis Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba, the wet milling process for the extraction of starch is made from corn, cereal which is currently imported, that is why it is required to substitute it for another grain of national production as it is the case of sorghum. Given the similarities of the two grains in their starch content and considering the potential of sorghum for the food industry, it is developed in this work an assessment process, taking into account two sorghum varieties: red (CIAPR-132 and white (UDG-110. In this sense, a factorial design of the type 2k-1 is made, where the independent variables of most influence in the laboratory process are considered, such as: (x1 type of sorghum, (x2 soaking time and (x3 solution concentration. It is considered that there is no interaction between them and it is taken as the response variable the starch yield in the extraction process. We conclude that the type of sorghum and soaking time are the most influential variables, obtaining the best results for white sorghum subjected for 48 hours to soak in a solution of SO2 at a concentration of 1800 ppm.

  13. Grain sorghum is a viable feedstock for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Bean, S; McLaren, J; Seib, P; Madl, R; Tuinstra, M; Shi, Y; Lenz, M; Wu, X; Zhao, R

    2008-05-01

    Sorghum is a major cereal crop in the USA. However, sorghum has been underutilized as a renewable feedstock for bioenergy. The goal of this research was to improve the bioconversion efficiency for biofuels and biobased products from processed sorghum. The main focus was to understand the relationship among "genetics-structure-function-conversion" and the key factors impacting ethanol production, as well as to develop an energy life cycle analysis model (ELCAM) to quantify and prioritize the saving potential from factors identified in this research. Genetic lines with extremely high and low ethanol fermentation efficiency and some specific attributes that may be manipulated to improve the bioconversion rate of sorghum were identified. In general, ethanol yield increased as starch content increased. However, no linear relationship between starch content and fermentation efficiency was found. Key factors affecting the ethanol fermentation efficiency of sorghum include protein digestibility, level of extractable proteins, protein and starch interaction, mash viscosity, amount of phenolic compounds, ratio of amylose to amylopectin, and formation of amylose-lipid complexes in the mash. A platform ELCAM with a base case showed a positive net energy value (NEV) = 25,500 Btu/gal EtOH. ELCAM cases were used to identify factors that most impact sorghum use. For example, a yield increase of 40 bu/ac resulted in NEV increasing from 7 million to 12 million Btu/ac. An 8% increase in starch provided an incremental 1.2 million Btu/ac.

  14. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  15. Apomictic frequency in sorghum R473

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, C.S.; Schertz, K.F.; Bashaw, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Apomixis has been reported in a few lines of sorghum, among them R473 which was originally reported to be an obligate apomict. Although this line has multiple embryo sacs, the frequency of apomictic seed formation has not been determined because a progeny test has not been possible. R473 does not cross as a female with other lines except when its own pollen is present. In the present study mutations were induced in R473 by hydrazine and irradiation. Crosses were made between male-sterile mutants as females and normal R473 as males. Plants of R473 produced F 1 hybrids sexually, thus indicating that they were not obligate apomicts. These F 1 's also reproduced sexually, as indicated by segregation for male sterility and male fertility in F 2 progenies. (orig.)

  16. Absorção e translocação do herbicida diuron por espécies suscetível e tolerante de capim-colchão (Digitaria spp. Absorption and translocation of the herbicide diuron by susceptible and tolerant species of crabgrass (Digitaria spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.P. Dias

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de comparar a tolerância de duas espécies de capim-colchão (Digitaria ciliaris e D. nuda ao diuron e avaliar se os processos de absorção e/ou translocação do herbicida estão envolvidos no mecanismo de tolerância. Para determinar o nível de tolerância das duas espécies de capim-colchão, plantas em estádio vegetativo de três folhas verdadeiras foram pulverizadas com diferentes doses do diuron. A partir dos resultados de massa seca das plantas coletadas aos 21 dias após aplicação (DAA, foi feito o ajuste das curvas de dose-resposta log-logístico. Os estudos de absorção e translocação do herbicida foram feitos utilizando 14C-diuron, medindo-se a radioatividade em diferentes partes das plantas a 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas após tratamento (HAT. Os resultados foram expressos em porcentagens obtidas em relação à radioatividade recuperada. A relação (T/S entre a dose necessária para redução do acúmulo de massa seca da planta (GR50 aos 21 DAA da espécie D. nuda e o GR50 da D. ciliaris foi de 2,7, comprovando a diferença de sensibilidade entre as espécies. Não houve diferenças nos resultados de absorção entre as espécies. A translocação foi mínima em ambas as espécies. No presente trabalho, concluiu-se que a absorção e/ou a translocação não foram os mecanismos de tolerância ao diuron presente na espécie de capim-colchão Digitaria nuda.The objective of this research was to compare the tolerance of two crabgrass species (Digitaria nuda and D. ciliaris to diuron and to evaluate whether absorption and/or translocation are involved in the mechanism of tolerance to the herbicide. In order to determine the tolerance of the crabgrass species, plants at the vegetative growth stage of three true leaves were sprayed with different rates of diuron. Dose-response curves were adjusted to plant dry biomatter at 21 days after application. The absorption and translocation studies were

  17. A novel amino acid substitution Trp574Arg in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Li, Mei; Gao, Xingxiang; Fang, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) is an annual monocotyledonous weed. In recent years, field applications of nicosulfuron have been ineffective in controlling crabgrass populations in Shandong Province, China. To investigate the mechanisms of resistance to nicosulfuron in crabgrass populations, the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene fragment covering known resistance-confering mutation sites was amplified and sequenced. Dose-response experiments suggested that the resistant population SD13 (R) was highly resistant to nicosulfuron (resistance index R/S = 43.7) compared with the sensitive population SD22 (S). ALS gene sequencing revealed a Trp574Arg substitution in the SD13 population, and no other known resistance-conferring mutations were found. In vitro ALS enzyme assays further confirmed that the SD13 population was resistant to all tested ALS-inhibiting herbicides. The resistance pattern experiments revealed that, compared with SD22, the SD13 population exhibited broad-spectrum resistance to nicosulfuron (43.7-fold), imazethapyr (11.4-fold) and flumetsulam (16.1-fold); however, it did not develop resistance to atrazine, mesotrione and topramezone. This study demonstrated that Trp574Arg substitution was the main reason for crabgrass resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Trp574Arg substitution in a weed species, and is the first report of target-site mechanisms of herbicide resistance for crabgrass. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  19. Honey Antibacterial Effect Boosting Using Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtara, Hamada; Elamine, Youssef; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2018-01-01

    The appearance of new bacterial strains which cause pathogenic diseases and which are resistant to the most used antibiotics requires probing new antibacterial agents sources. Therefore, the main aim of the present work was to follow the antibacterial activity of honey samples from Palestine and Morocco, after the combination with Origanum vulgare L. essential oil, and figure out whether the honey physicochemical parameters and geographic origin influence the final activity. The results of this study showed good geographical discrimination between the Palestinians and Moroccan honey samples. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities showed a significant correlation with honey color, melanoidins, and phenolic and flavonoids contents. Furthermore, the possible effect of honey physicochemical parameters on the gained antimicrobial activities was assessed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Some parameters showed a promising effect and seem to be important in the process of honey samples selection. Namely, melanoidins content, phenolic content, electrical conductivity, and mineral content were shown to be positively influencing the gained antibacterial activity after the combination with essential oil against the tested strains, although a significant negative correlation was seen with the FIC only in the case of Escherichia coli (ATB: 57).

  20. Honey Antibacterial Effect Boosting Using Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Imtara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of new bacterial strains which cause pathogenic diseases and which are resistant to the most used antibiotics requires probing new antibacterial agents sources. Therefore, the main aim of the present work was to follow the antibacterial activity of honey samples from Palestine and Morocco, after the combination with Origanum vulgare L. essential oil, and figure out whether the honey physicochemical parameters and geographic origin influence the final activity. The results of this study showed good geographical discrimination between the Palestinians and Moroccan honey samples. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities showed a significant correlation with honey color, melanoidins, and phenolic and flavonoids contents. Furthermore, the possible effect of honey physicochemical parameters on the gained antimicrobial activities was assessed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Some parameters showed a promising effect and seem to be important in the process of honey samples selection. Namely, melanoidins content, phenolic content, electrical conductivity, and mineral content were shown to be positively influencing the gained antibacterial activity after the combination with essential oil against the tested strains, although a significant negative correlation was seen with the FIC only in the case of Escherichia coli (ATB: 57.

  1. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and related enzymes such as phenol biosynthesizing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and phenol catabolizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) are determinants for sorghum utilization as human food because they influence product properties during and after sorghum

  2. Effect of diammonium phosphate application on strigolactone production and Striga hermonthica infection in three sorghum cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.; Mourik, van T.A.; Charnikova, T.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Striga hermonthica infection poses a major constraint to sorghum production in sub-Saharan Africa, and low soil fertility aggravates the S. hermonthica problem. Under mineral nutrient deficiency, the sorghum host secretes large quantities of strigolactones, signalling molecules, into the

  3. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Pensel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus.

  4. Next-generation sequencing technology for genetics and genomics of sorghum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Hong; Mocoeur, Anne Raymonde Joelle; Jing, Hai-Chun

    2014-01-01

    and grain sorghum. NGS has also been used to examine the transcriptomes of sorghum under various stress conditions. Besides identifying interesting transcriptonal adpatation to stress conditions, these study show that sugar could potentially act as an osmitic adjusting factor via transcriptional regulation....... Furthermore, miRNAs are found to be important adaptation to both biotic and abiotic stresses in sorghum. We discuss the use of NGS for further genetic improvement and breeding in sorghum....

  5. Gibberellin deficiency pleiotropically induces culm bending in sorghum: an insight into sorghum semi-dwarf breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ordonio, Reynante L.; Ito, Yusuke; Hatakeyama, Asako; Ohmae-Shinohara, Kozue; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Sazuka, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of symmetrical cell growth in the culm is important for proper culm development. So far, the involvement of gibberellin (GA) in this process has not yet been demonstrated in sorghum. Here, we show that GA deficiency resulting from any loss-of-function mutation in four genes (SbCPS1, SbKS1, SbKO1, SbKAO1) involved in the early steps of GA biosynthesis, not only results in severe dwarfism but also in abnormal culm bending. Histological analysis of the bent culm revealed that the intr...

  6. Identification of widely varying levels of resistance to meloidogyne incognita in sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a potential bioenergy crop that could be incorporated into annual cropping systems in the southern US, where it would likely be rotated with cotton. The desirability of including sweet sorghum in a cotton cropping system will be influenced by sweet sorghum’s host ...

  7. The environment strongly affects estimates of heterosis in hybrid sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has potential as a biofuel feedstock but hybrid cultivars are needed to support an industry based on this crop. The purpose of this study was to compare five inbred sweet sorghum lines and 15 hybrids derived from them, and to determine the extent of envir...

  8. Tapping the US historic sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has gained an important role as a viable alternative to fossil fuels and a more profitable option than maize and sugarcane. Nevertheless, the actual narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum breeding programs is limiting the development of new biofuel varietie...

  9. Analysis of sorghum wax and carnauba wax by reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is a genus in the grass family, which is used for both grain and forage production throughout the world. In the United States, sorghum grain is predominantly used as livestock feed, and in ethanol production. In recent years however, sorghum grain has been investigated for other industrial a...

  10. Problems, control, and opportunity of starch in the large scale processing of sugarcane and sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) crops are members of the grass (Poaceae) family, and consist of stalks rich in soluble sugars. The extracted juice from both of these crops contains insoluble starch, with much greater quantities occurring in sweet sorghum. ...

  11. Three sorghum serpin recombinant proteins inhibit midgut trypsin activity and growth of corn earworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genome contains at least 17 putative serpin (serine protease inhibitor) open reading frames, some of which are induced by pathogens. Recent transcriptome studies found that most of the putative serpins are expressed but their roles are unknown. Four sorghum serpins were...

  12. FEEDING BROWN MIDRIB FORAGE SORGHUM SILAGE AND CORN GLUTEN FEED TO LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib (BMR) forage sorghum contains less lignin , resulting in increased NDF digestibility compared to conventional sorghum . An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BMR forage sorghum silage in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). The objective was to determine the e...

  13. Comparison of sorghum classes for grain and forage yield and forage nutritive value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum represents a broad category of plants that includes those grown primarily for forage (FS) or grain. Sorghum sudan crosses (SS) are also considered sorghum. Each of these groups can be further classified as brown midrib (BMR), nonBMR, photoperiod sensitive (PS), and nonPS. In our study, sor...

  14. Biological and water-use efficiencies of sorghum-groundnut intercrop

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to compare water-use efficiency of sole crops and intercrops, 2 experiments were conducted in 2 consecutive years with sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on a loamy, Grossarenic Paleudult. In a randomized block, split-plot design, sorghum (SS), groundnut (GG), ...

  15. Diversity, users' perception and food processing of sorghum: implications for dietary iron and zinc supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the diversity of sorghum and its post-harvest processing into food. We studied the contribution that sorghum can make to Fe and Zn intake by poor people in Africa, using the situation in Benin as a study context. The culinary and sensory characteristics of sorghum crops and

  16. An economic analysis of sweet sorghum cultivation for ethanol production in North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, H.; Ren, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Zhu, Y.; Xie, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a promising non-food energy crop. The objective of this study was to determine the economic costs and input sensitivity of sweet sorghum compared to cotton, maize, and sunflower, at two saline-alkali sites in Shandong (Wudi County) and Inner Mongolia

  17. Efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, M.R.; Soumana, S.; Al-Khatib, K.; Kapran, I.; Toure, A.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Ochanda, N.W.; Salami, I.; Kayentao, M.; Dembele, S.

    2009-01-01

    Witchweed (Striga spp.) infestations are the greatest obstacle to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain production in many areas in Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of sorghum. Seeds of an

  18. The influence of time and severity of Striga infection on the Sorghum bicolor - Striga hermonthica association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ast, van A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Striga hermonthica , Sorghum bicolor , infection time, infection level, tolerance.This thesis presents the results of a study on the interaction between the parasitic weed Strigahermonthica (Del.) Benth. and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench). The main objective of the study was

  19. Lactic acid fermentation of two sorghum varieties is not affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate sorghum grain variety differences in lactic acid fermentation based on their differences in phenolic contents. The study wa s conductedas a 2 x 5 x 4 factorial design with three factors: Factor 1: Sorghum variety (white and red sorghum); Factor 2: Control treatment without lactic acid ...

  20. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils isolated from Thymbra capitata L. (Cav.) andOriganum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faleiro, Leonor; Miguel, Graça; Gomes, Sónia; Costa, Ludmila; Venâncio, Florencia; Teixeira, Adriano; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2005-10-19

    Antilisterial activities of Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare essential oils were tested against 41 strains of Listeria monocytogenes. The oil of T. capitata was mainly constituted by one component, carvacrol (79%), whereas for O. vulgare three components constituted 70% of the oil, namely, thymol (33%), gamma-terpinene (26%), and p-cymene (11%). T. capitata essential oil had a significantly higher antilisterial activity in comparison to O. vulgare oil and chloramphenicol. No significant differences in L. monocytogenes susceptibilities to the essential oils tested were registered. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. capitata essential oil and of carvacrol were quite similar, ranging between 0.05 and 0.2 microL/mL. Antioxidant activity was also tested, the essential oil of T. capitata showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than that of O. vulgare. Use of T. capitata and O. vulgare essential oils can constitute a powerful tool in the control of L. monocytogenes in food and other industries.

  1. Composition and antiproliferative effect of essential oil of Origanum vulgare against tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begnini, Karine Rech; Nedel, Fernanda; Lund, Rafael Guerra; Carvalho, Pedro Henrique de Azambuja; Rodrigues, Maria Regina Alves; Beira, Fátima Tereza Alves; Del-Pino, Francisco Augusto Burkert

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death and is responsible for one in eight deaths worldwide. The use of herbs as complementary medicine for cancer, especially advanced cancer, has recently increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro, the antiproliferative effect of Origanum vulgare against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29). The essential oil (EO) was extracted from a bought amount of O. vulgare dried leaves and analyzed in a gas chromatograph interfaced with a mass selective detector. The cytotoxicity test was performed by sulforhodamine B assay. The results show that the EO is composed mostly of 4-terpineol and induces a high cytotoxicity effect in HT-29. In the MCF-7 cell line the EO was less effective. In conclusion, this study showed that O. vulgare main component is 4-terpineol and was effective in inducing cancer cell growth inhibition.

  2. Epicoccum nigrum the new pathogen of sorghum seed in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen samples of sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. 'Alba', 'Gold', 'Prima' and 'Reform' were analyzed in the localities of Bački Petrovac and Čantavir in the period 2009-2011. Tipresence of species belonging to the genera Epicoccum, Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium was established in single and mixed infections. From the infected sorghum seed, monosporial cultures identified as Epicoccum nigrum based on morphology, proved their pathogenicity on artificially inoculated sorghum seedlings. Molecular identification was performed by PCR and amplification of the ITS region of ribosomal DNA. Gene sequences of selected isolates 291-09 (JQ619838 and 315-09 (JQ619839 exhibited 99-100% nucleotide identity with the sequences of 31 isolates of E. nigrum deposited in the GenBank. It obtained results represent the first detailed characterization of E. nigrum in Serbia. The presence of a large number of phytopathogenic fungi on sorghum seed should be further investigated in order to clarify their relationships and relative significance.

  3. Characterizing Sorghum Panicles using 3D Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonesome, M.; Popescu, S. C.; Horne, D. W.; Pugh, N. A.; Rooney, W.

    2017-12-01

    To address demands of population growth and impacts of global climate change, plant breeders must increase crop yield through genetic improvement. However, plant phenotyping, the characterization of a plant's physical attributes, remains a primary bottleneck in modern crop improvement programs. 3D point clouds generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) based structure from motion (SfM) are a promising data source to increase the efficiency of screening plant material in breeding programs. This study develops and evaluates methods for characterizing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) panicles (heads) in field plots from both TLS and UAS-based SfM point clouds. The TLS point cloud over experimental sorghum field at Texas A&M farm in Burleston County TX were collected using a FARO Focus X330 3D laser scanner. SfM point cloud was generated from UAS imagery captured using a Phantom 3 Professional UAS at 10m altitude and 85% image overlap. The panicle detection method applies point cloud reflectance, height and point density attributes characteristic of sorghum panicles to detect them and estimate their dimensions (panicle length and width) through image classification and clustering procedures. We compare the derived panicle counts and panicle sizes with field-based and manually digitized measurements in selected plots and study the strengths and limitations of each data source for sorghum panicle characterization.

  4. Morphological characteristics of BRS 501 sweet sorghum under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rezende Moreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] crop is distinguished from other crops for its tolerance to both water deficit and excess soil moisture, under very dry and/or very hot environmental situations in which the productivity of other cereals becomes uneconomical. This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of irrigation on root conformation at the initial development phase of sweet sorghum. So, BRS 501 cv. was subjected to four irrigation levels based on 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% of the field capacity (CC. The decreased availability of water in the soil negatively affected the majority of the characteristics under evaluation except for the relationship between the root system and the aerial part (SR/PA, average root diameter (DMR and specific root area (ARE. We concluded that the growth of sweet sorghum plants under evaluation is sensible to the decrease of water in the soil, as it is affected by low water availability. This methodology, common to other crops, can be used for saccharine sorghum in order to establish hydric availabilities in new experiments to discriminate the drought-tolerant cultivars.

  5. Phytochemical Analysis, Antibacterial Activity of Marrubium vulgare L against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeide Saeidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal medicines are the major remedy in traditional medical systems and made a great contribution in maintaining human health and in preventing many infectious diseases. The present study was carried out to determine the potential antibacterial effect of ethanol extracts and essential oil of Marrubium vulgare L. against Staphylococcus aureus which is antibiotic resistant. Materials and Methods: All 17 strains of S. aureus isolated from nose and throat sample from 160 healthy subjects, hospital staffs and inpatient in the city of Zabol (Amir Al-Momenin hospital, Zabol, south-eastern Iran were screened during years 2010-2011. In this study, the essential oil of Marrubium vulgare L. obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS in order to determine their chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil and extract. Results: Thirty-one components in the oil of Marrubium vulgare were identified. The results demonstrated that the major components of the essential oil were γ-Eudesmol (11%, Germacrene (10%, D-Citronelly formate (10%, β-Citronellol (8%, Geranyl tiglate (7.1%, Geranyl formate (6.02%. The least MIC value of extract M. vulgare was 2.5 mg/mL and the highest MIC value of essential oil M. vulgare was 2.5 mg/mL. Conclusion: This investigation showed that the M. vulgare essential oil and extract has a potent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. The present studies confirm the use of this essential oil and extract as antibacterial agent. Further research is required to evaluate the practical values of therapeutic applications.

  6. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  7. Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of selected elements of Echium vulgare L. flowers was investigated, with special attention to the structure of the nectaries and the stigma of the pistil as well as types of trichomes occurring on the surface of the calyx. The nectary had the shape of an uneven disc located around the lower region of the four-parted ovary of the pistil. The glandular cells formed a tier with a height of 330 μm and a radial width of 144 μm. Nectar was secreted onto the nectary surface through anomocytic stomata located at the level of other epidermal cells. Most of the stomata were open, with a different dimension of the pore. Their largest number was observed at the base of the nectary, and 462 stomata were noted on the whole surface of the nectary. The cuticle on the surface of the guard cells formed fine, circular striae. The subsidiary cells formed striated cuticular ornamentation, with the striae arranged radially in the direction of the stoma, whereas on the surface of other epidermal cells the striae formed an arrangement with different directions. The epidermis on the surface of the stigma formed regularly arranged papillae with a fan-shaped, expanded upper part which had corrugated outer walls, whereas the base of the cell formed a widened small column. The epidermis of the abaxial part of the calyx was covered by numerous non-glandular trichomes of different length which were made up of one or several cells. The glandular trichomes in the epidermis of the calyx grew with smaller density compared to the protective trichomes, and they were composed of a 1-2-celled stalk and a glandular head.

  8. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties adopt strongly contrasting strategies in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbaga, Chukwuma C; Stepien, Piotr; Johnson, Giles N

    2014-10-01

    Sorghum is one of the most drought tolerant crops but surprisingly, little is known about the mechanisms achieving this. We have compared physiological and biochemical responses to drought in two sorghum cultivars with contrasting drought tolerance. These closely related cultivars have starkly contrasting responses to water deficit. In the less tolerant Samsorg 40, drought induced progressive loss of photosynthesis. The more drought tolerant Samsorg 17 maintained photosynthesis, transpiration and chlorophyll content until the most extreme conditions. In Samsorg 40, there was a highly specific down-regulation of selected proteins, with loss of PSII and Rubisco but maintenance of PSI and cytochrome b6 f, allowing plants to maintain ATP synthesis. The nitrogen released allows for accumulation of glycine betaine and proline. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of specific reengineering of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to drought. In contrast, in Samsorg 17 we detected no substantial change in the photosynthetic apparatus. Rather, plants showed constitutively high soluble sugar concentration, enabling them to maintain transpiration and photosynthesis, even in extremely dry conditions. The implications for these strikingly contrasted strategies are discussed in relation to agricultural and natural systems. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Effect of salinity and silicon application on oxidative damage of sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) moench.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafi, M.; Nabati, J.; Masoumi, A.; Mehrgerdi, M.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Application of silicon (Si) to soil is considered as an alternative approach to alleviate salinity stress in crop plants. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Si application [control (without Si), 1.44 and 1.92 g.kg /sup -1/ soil on membrane stability index (MSI), relative water content (RWC), leaf proline, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, total phenols and dry matter accumulation of two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars under three levels of salinity of irrigation water (5.2, 10.5 and 23.1 dS m/sup -1/ . The results showed that leaf proline content, activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), Na/sup +/ concentration significantly increased only at high level of salinity, while, RWC Si caused an and dry matter accumulation were significantly decreased at all salinity levels. Soil application of 1.44 g.kg/sup -1/ increase in the activities of APX, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (PRO), glutathione reductase soil Si caused an increase in membrane stabilityindex, (GR), total antioxidant and total phenol contents and 1.92 g.kg/sup -1/ soluble sugar and total phenol contents, CAT, SOD and total antioxidant activity. Soluble sugars, total phenols, SOD and total antioxidant activity and dry matter accumulation in cv. Omidbakhsh were higher than those in cv. Sepideh. In conclusion, alleviation of salinity stress by exogenous application of Si was found to be associated partly with enhanced antioxidant activity. (author)

  10. Radiation induced mutations for breeding of sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretaudeau, A [Rural Polytechnic Inst., Katibougou, Koulikoro (Mali)

    1997-07-01

    Several sorghum cultivars of Mali were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays and compared with the Caudatum types. Radio-sensitivity studies suggested that the local types were less sensitive to radiation than the introduced types. Whereas the local varieties survived dose of 300 Gy, in Caudatum types, seed germination and growth were significantly reduced at 200 Gy. Several agronomically important mutants were obtained among the progeny of the local types. Some of the mutants were shorter and had improved panicle characteristics. Radiation-induced variation was observed in several characters such as plant height, resistance to lodging, plant architecture, drought tolerance, panicle length and compactness, seed size and color, seed quality (viterous or floury) and protein content, glume color and structure, flowering data (early and late maturity), and tillering capacity. One mutant was drought tolerant. Promising mutants were selected and are presently under evaluation in the National List Trials to confirm their potential and future release. Selected variants have been also crossed with local types to obtain promising material. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs.

  11. Radiation induced mutations for breeding of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretaudeau, A.

    1997-01-01

    Several sorghum cultivars of Mali were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays and compared with the Caudatum types. Radio-sensitivity studies suggested that the local types were less sensitive to radiation than the introduced types. Whereas the local varieties survived dose of 300 Gy, in Caudatum types, seed germination and growth were significantly reduced at 200 Gy. Several agronomically important mutants were obtained among the progeny of the local types. Some of the mutants were shorter and had improved panicle characteristics. Radiation-induced variation was observed in several characters such as plant height, resistance to lodging, plant architecture, drought tolerance, panicle length and compactness, seed size and color, seed quality (viterous or floury) and protein content, glume color and structure, flowering data (early and late maturity), and tillering capacity. One mutant was drought tolerant. Promising mutants were selected and are presently under evaluation in the National List Trials to confirm their potential and future release. Selected variants have been also crossed with local types to obtain promising material. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs

  12. An investigative study of indigenous sweet sorghum varieties for bioethanol production: the case of Kenya local sorghum varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangai, L.K.; Mbeo, C.O. [Kenya Industrial Research and Development Inst., Nairobi (Kenya); Kamau, C.K. [Kenya Agricurtural Research Inst.(s), Machakos (Kenya)

    2012-11-01

    There are over 500 sorghum genotypes grown locally in Kenya. This study was an investigation and selection of suitable sorghum genotypes for sustainable bio-ethanol production in Kenya. For the study, 500 genotypes of sorghum were planted and grown using the recommended agricultural practices. Random sampling of 230 genotypes was done and the samples analysed for juice and sugar content. The 26 best yielding genotypes were selected and grown again in duplicate for further detailed study. Data on date of flowering, pest resistance, {sup 0}brix, wet and dry weight, plant population, ratooning, grain yield and juice yield and juice sugar content were recorded and analyzed using GENstat. Sampling was done for each genotype when about 50% of the crop had flowered and there after, every 2 weeks until the grains dried. Crushing was done with a three roller mill crusher [8]. The sugar content was measured using a digital refractometer. Sugar yield obtained ranged between 10.3{sup 0}Brix and 19.3{sup 0}Brix and juice yield between 268 litres/hectare and 11390 litres/hectare. Five indigenous sorghum varieties, GBK-007130, GBK-007076, GBK-007102, GBK-007296, GBK-007098 were found to have the highest sugar and juice yields and were considered the most suitable sweet sorghum genotypes among those studied, for bio-ethanol production in Kenya.

  13. The application of secondary metabolites in the study of sorghum insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunming, Bai; Yifei, Liu; Xiaochun, Lu

    2018-03-01

    Insect attack is one of the main factors for limiting the production of rice and sorghum. To improve resistance to pests of rice and sorghum will be of great significance for meliorating their production and quality. However, the source and material of anti-pest was scarce. In this study, we will study on the expression patterns of hydrocyanic acid biosynthesis relative genes in sorghum firstly. And we will also genetically transform them into rice and sorghum by specific and constitutive promoters and verify their pest-resistant ability. Finally, high pest-resistant genetically modified new sorghum cultivars will be bred with favorable comprehensive agronomic traits.

  14. Atividade in vitro do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare frente à Sporothrix Schenckii In vitro activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare against Sporothrix schenckii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Cleff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro activity of the essential oil Origanum vulgare against Sporothrix schenckii was determined by the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. For this, seven samples of S. schenckii were studied, two isolated from two cases of human sporotrichosis and five isolated from cats. Analysis of the essential oil was carried out in a gas chromatograph (GC/FID for the identification and quantification of thymol and carvacrol (antifungal agents. MIC was obtained based on the microdilution method according to the adapted document NCCLS-M 27A2 for fitopharmacy. All the isolates presented sensibility to the essential oil. S. schenckii was inhibited in a concentration of 0.25% (250m l/ml. Chromatographic analysis showed that thymol concentration was bigger than carvacrol. The antifungal activity demonstrated by the essential oil of O. vulgare against S. Schenckii stimulates the accomplishment of more studies, including in vivo studies.

  15. Transcriptome Characterization and Functional Marker Development in Sorghum Sudanense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqin Li

    Full Text Available Sudangrass, Sorghum sudanense, is an important forage in warm regions. But little is known about its genome. In this study, the transcriptomes of sudangrass S722 and sorghum Tx623B were sequenced by Illumina sequencing. More than 4Gb bases were sequenced for each library. For Tx623B and S722, 88.79% and 83.88% reads, respectively were matched to the Sorghum bicolor genome. A total of 2,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected by RNA-Seq between the two libraries, including 849 up-regulated genes and 1,548 down-regulated genes. These DEGs could be divided into three groups by annotation analysis. A total of 44,495 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were discovered by aligning S722 reads to the sorghum reference genome. Of these SNPs, 61.37% were transition, and this value did not differ much between different chromosomes. In addition, 16,928 insertion and deletion (indel loci were identified between the two genomes. A total of 5,344 indel markers were designed, 15 of which were selected to construct the genetic map derived from the cross of Tx623A and Sa. It was indicated that the indel markers were useful and versatile between sorghum and sudangrass. Comparison of synonymous base substitutions (Ks and non-synonymous base substitutions (Ka between the two libraries showed that 95% orthologous pairs exhibited Ka/Ks<1.0, indicating that these genes were influenced by purifying selection. The results from this study provide important information for molecular genetic research and a rich resource for marker development in sudangrass and other Sorghum species.

  16. Changes in protein and starch digestibility in sorghum flour during heat-moisture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thanh-Hien; Bean, Scott; Hsieh, Chao-Feng; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) has been used to modify properties of sorghum starches. However, information is limited on the effects of HMT on the digestibility of starch and the concurrent changes in protein in sorghum flour. The objectives of this research were to identify heat-moisture conditions to increase the resistant starch (RS) content of sorghum flour and investigate changes in sorghum proteins and starch structure. Sorghum flours with different moisture contents (0, 125, 200, and 300 g kg -1 w.b.) were heated at three temperatures (100, 120 and 140 °C) and times (1, 2 and 4 h). HMT of sorghum flour increased its RS level. The flour treated at 200 g kg -1 moisture and 100 °C for 4 h had a high RS content (221 g kg -1 vs. 56 g kg -1 for the untreated flour). Starch was not gelatinized when sorghum flours heated at moisture content of 200 g kg -1 or below. Sorghum protein digestibility and solubility decreased during HMT. The increase in RS of sorghum flour upon HMT was attributed to enhanced amylose-lipid complexes and heat induced structural changes in its protein fraction. HMT can be used to increase RS content in sorghum flour without gelatinizing its starch, thereby providing sorghum flour with unique food applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Sweet Sorghum Alternative Fuel and Feed Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, Donald C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Dept.; Kaltenbach, C. Colin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2013-07-30

    The University of Arizona undertook a “pilot” project to grow sweet sorghum on a field scale (rather than a plot scale), produce juice from the sweet sorghum, deliver the juice to a bio-refinery and process it to fuel-grade ethanol. We also evaluated the bagasse for suitability as a livestock feed and as a fuel. In addition to these objectives we evaluated methods of juice preservation, ligno-cellulosic conversion of the bagasse to fermentable sugars and alternative methods of juice extraction.

  18. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain

  19. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PROSPECTS OF SORGHUM CROP

    OpenAIRE

    Agatha POPESCU; Reta CONDEI

    2014-01-01

    The paper purpose was to analyze the sorghum statement at world, EU and Romania level in order to establish the main trends in the future of this crop. Sorghum is an important cereal coming on the 5th position after maize, rice, wheat and barley at world level due to its importance in human nutrition, animal feed, in producing bioethanol and green energy, and due to its good impact on environment. It is cultivated on all the continents, in the tropical, subtropical and temperate areas due to ...

  20. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF A TINCTORIAL PLANT OF BENIN TRADITIONAL PHARMACOPOEIA: THE RED SORGHUM (Sorghum caudatum OF BENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASCAL D. C. AGBANGNAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The full phytochemical screening of red sorghum from Benin (Sorghum caudatum achieved in this work reveals the presence of leucoanthocyanins, flavonoides, free quinones, combined anthracene derivatives, sterols and terpenes in higher concentration in the leaf sheath and marrow of stem than in the seed. Catechin tannin content is 11.4% in the leaf sheath (slightly higher than that of red wine, 5.8% in the marrow and 2.8% in the seed. Gallic tannins, saponins and the mucilage present in the leaf sheath and marrow, are virtually absent in the seed. Marrow and leaf sheath extracts (1 g/50 mL showed a concentration of anthocyanins (147 mg/L and 213.5 mg/L similar to that of rosy wine and red wine with short maceration. The grain of sorghum is four times, respectively two times less rich in phenolic compounds than the leaf sheath and the marrow of stem.

  1. A Survey of Viral Diseases of Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Geun Min

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout year 2015 to 2016, 101 proso millet and 200 sorghum samples were collected from five provinces in South Korea. The samples were subjected to paired-end RNA sequencing and further analyzed by RT-PCR. The results indicated that Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV was detected from sorghum collected in Gyeongsang province. The other four viruses, including RBSDV, Rice stripe virus (RSV, Barley virus G (BVG, and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV, were detected from proso millet. Among four viruses, both RSV and RBSDV were identified high frequency from proso millet collected from Gyeongsang province. Otherwise, BVG was nearly equally identified from five provinces, suggesting that the virus was supposedly widespread nationwide. RBSDV was first identified from both proso millet and sorghum in South Korea. The other virus annotated CYDV identified proso millet was shown to have relatively low identities compared to CYDV previously reported, suggesting that the virus might be new member of Polerovirus.

  2. Comparison of brown midrib-6 and -18 forage sorghum with conventional sorghum and corn silage in diets of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A L; Grant, R J; Pedersen, J F; O'Rear, J

    2004-03-01

    Total mixed rations containing conventional forage sorghum, brown midrib (bmr)-6 forage sorghum, bmr-18 forage sorghum, or corn silage were fed to Holstein dairy cows to determine the effect on lactation, ruminal fermentation, and total tract nutrient digestion. Sixteen multiparous cows (4 ruminally fistulated; 124 d in milk) were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated Latin square design with 4-wk periods (21-d adaptation and 7 d of collection). Diets consisted of 40% test silage, 10% alfalfa silage, and 50% concentrate mix (dry basis). Acid detergent lignin concentration was reduced by 21 and 13%, respectively, for the bmr-6 and bmr-18 sorghum silages when compared with the conventional sorghum. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet. Production of 4% fat-corrected milk was greatest for cows fed bmr-6 (33.7 kg/d) and corn silage (33.3 kg/d), was least for cows fed the conventional sorghum (29.1 kg/d), and was intermediate for cows fed the bmr-18 sorghum (31.2 kg/d), which did not differ from any other diet. Total tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was greatest for the bmr-6 sorghum (54.4%) and corn silage (54.1%) diets and was lower for the conventional (40.8%) and bmr-18 sorghum (47.9%) diets. In situ extent of NDF digestion was greatest for the bmr-6 sorghum (76.4%) and corn silage (79.0%) diets, least for the conventional sorghum diet (70.4%), and intermediate for the bmr-18 sorghum silage diet (73.1%), which was not different from the other diets. Results of this study indicate that the bmr-6 sorghum hybrid outperformed the conventional sorghum hybrid; the bmr-18 sorghum was intermediate between conventional and bmr-6 in most cases. Additionally, the bmr-6 hybrid resulted in lactational performance equivalent to the corn hybrid used in this study. There are important compositional differences among bmr forage sorghum hybrids that need to be characterized to predict animal response accurately.

  3. Combining ability and mode of inheritance of stem thickness in forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench F1 hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pataki Imre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was determination of mode of inheritance, gene effects components of genetic variance, combining abilities, average contribution of lines and testers and their interactions in expression of stem thickness in forage sorghum F1 generation. Method line x tester was applied. Material comprised of eight genetically divergent A-inbred lines of grain sorghum three R lines-testers of Sudan grass and twenty-four F1 hybrids obtained by crossing lines with testers. Among tested genotypes there were significant differences in mean values of stem thickness. Analysis of variance of combining abilities showed that there were highly significant differences for general combining abilities (GCA and specific combining abilities (SCA non-additive component of genetic variance (dominance and epistasis had greater portion in total genetic variance for stem thickness. During the first research year, interaction between inbred maternal line with testers had the largest contribution in expression of stem thickness of F1 hybrid at both locations, while in the second year at location Rimski Šančevi the largest contribution belongs to lines and at location Mačvanski Prnjavor the largest contribution belongs to testers. Assessment of combining abilities showed that these inbred lines of grain sorghum can be used as mothers: SS-1 646, SS-1 688 and S-8 682 in breeding forage sorghum for thicker stem. According to SCA, promising forage sorghum hybrids are S-8 682 x ST-R lin H and P-21 656 x C-198. This research can be of importance for developing new high-yielding forage sorghum hybrids.

  4. Isolation, identification and activity of natural antioxidants from horehound (Marrubium vulgare L.) cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Salido, S.; Waard, de P.; Beek, van T.A.

    2012-01-01

    In an earlier screening of Lithuanian plants, horehound (Marrubium vulgare) showed good antioxidant activity and as this species is used in herbal teas and cough pastilles it was selected for further investigation. Some fractions of the aerial parts were strong scavengers of the model free radicals

  5. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamkant B. Badgujar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  6. 'Galega Vulgar' - yield indices and quality of elementary olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, F.; Vitorino, M.C.; Henriques, L.R.; Peres, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper shows the evolution of two olive yield indexes (humidity and fat) and three olive oil quality parameters (acidity, peroxid value and UV absorbances) for cv. Galega vulgar from the olive grove Quinta Senhora de Mercules, Castelo Branco, during the 1995/96 harvest. It shows also the evolution of fatty acid composition of the same olive oil [pt

  7. Complex Interspecific Hybridization in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the Possible Occurrence of Apomixis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Bengtsson, M.; Flink, J.

    1988-01-01

    Several complex hybrids were produced from the combination [(Hordeum lechleri, 6 .times. .times. H. procerum, 6 .times.) .times. H. vulgare, 2 .times.]. Crosses with six diploid barley lines resulted in triple hybrids, most of which had a full complement of barley chromosomes (no. 1-7), but were...

  8. Characterization of senscence-associated NAC transcription factors in Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podzimska, Dagmara Agata

    , such as yield, biomass production and nutrient quality, and NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) transcription factors are promising targets for the breeding. The aim of this thesis was thus to assess the role of NAC transcription factors in regulation of senescence in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and to contribute...

  9. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  10. Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A. Rather

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae commonly known as fennel is a well known and important medicinal and aromatic plant widely used as carminative, digestive, lactogogue and diuretic and in treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. Its seeds are used as flavourings in baked goods, meat and fish dishes, ice cream, alcoholic beverages and herb mixtures. Phenols, phenolic glycosides and volatile aroma compounds such as trans-anethole, estragole and fenchone have been reported as the major phytoconstituents of this species. Different pharmacological experiments in a number of in vitro and in vivo models have convincingly demonstrated the ability of F. vulgare to exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, antithrombotic and hepatoprotective activities, lending support to the rationale behind several of its therapeutic uses. Phenolic compounds isolated from F. vulgare are considered to be responsible for its antioxidant activity while the volatile aroma compounds make it an excellent flavouring agent. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the chemistry, pharmacology, traditional uses and safety of F. vulgare.

  11. Geography of genetic differentiation in the barley wild relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity require knowledge of the distribution and structure of genetic variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic...

  12. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF A TINCTORIAL PLANT OF BENIN TRADITIONAL PHARMACOPOEIA: THE RED SORGHUM (Sorghum caudatum) OF BENIN

    OpenAIRE

    PASCAL D. C. AGBANGNAN; CHRISTINE TACHON; HELENE BONIN; ANNA CHROSTOWKA; ERIC FOUQUET; DOMINIQUE C. K. SOHOUNHLOUE

    2012-01-01

    The full phytochemical screening of red sorghum from Benin (Sorghum caudatum) achieved in this work reveals the presence of leucoanthocyanins, flavonoides, free quinones, combined anthracene derivatives, sterols and terpenes in higher concentration in the leaf sheath and marrow of stem than in the seed. Catechin tannin content is 11.4% in the leaf sheath (slightly higher than that of red wine), 5.8% in the marrow and 2.8% in the seed. Gallic tannins, saponins and the mucilage present in the l...

  13. Application Of Database Program in selecting Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) Mutant Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H, Soeranto

    2000-01-01

    Computer database software namely MSTAT and paradox have been exercised in the field of mutation breeding especially in the process of selecting plant mutant lines of sorghum. In MSTAT, selecting mutant lines can be done by activating the SELECTION function and then followed by entering mathematical formulas for the selection criterion. Another alternative is by defining the desired selection intensity to the analysis results of subprogram SORT. Including the selected plant mutant lines in BRSERIES program, it will make their progenies be easier to be traced in subsequent generations. In paradox, an application program for selecting mutant lines can be made by combining facilities of Table, form and report. Selecting mutant lines with defined selection criterion can easily be done through filtering data. As a relation database, paradox ensures that the application program for selecting mutant lines and progeny trachings, can be made easier, efficient and interactive

  14. The Effect of Soil Fertilizers on Yield and Growth Traits of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental pollution and ecological damage, so application of biological fertilizers and selection the effective and compatible species in an special area, could be beneficial for sustainability of agroecosystems there. Nowadays, attention to the interrelation of plant-organism tended to interrelations between plant-organism-organism. Such nutritional relations, have ecological importance and important application in agriculture. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of chemical, organic and bio fertilizers on sorghum performance. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments include three kinds of biofertilizers and their integrations and vermicompost and chemical fertilizer as follow: 1- mycorhhiza arbuscular (G.mosseae + vermicompost 2- mycorhhiza+ Nitroxine® (included bacteria Azospirillum sp. and Azotobacter sp. 3- mycorhhiza arbuscular+ Rhizobium (Rhizobium sp. 4-mycorhhiza arbuscular + Chemical fertilizer NPK 5- mycorhhiza arbuscular 6-control. Mycorhhiza and chemical fertilizer were mixed with soil at the depth of 30 cm before planting. Seeds were inoculated with bio fertilizers and dried at shadow. First irrigation applied immediately after planting. In order to improve seedling emergence second irrigation was performed after 4 days and other irrigation was applied at regular intervals of 10 days. Studied traits were: height and percentage of root colonization, specific root length, seed yield, number of seeds in panicle, thousands seeds weight. To determine the specific root length (root length in a certain volume of soil at the end of the growing season, plants in each plot were sampled. Then the length of root of each sample was determined. Results and Discussion The results showed that although the treatments did not affect the height of stem significantly

  15. Inheritance and Heritability of Heat Tolerance in Several Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four sorghum parental lines, RTx430, BTx3197, RTx7000, and B35 and their F1 and reciprocals, and F2 progenies were evaluated during their reproductive phases to access the genetic basis of heat tolerance. Heat tolerance was measured under field and greenhouse conditions at College Station, Texas during 1990.

  16. growth and yield parameters of sorghum genotypes as affected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Field trial was conducted at Bayero University, Kano research farm with the aim of determining the effect of stem injection artificial inoculation technique on the growth and yield parameters of one hundred and four sorghum genotypes against head smut. The trial was laid on a randomized complete block design ...

  17. Extraction of antioxidant pigments from dye sorghum leaf sheaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Bara, C.A.; Dalode-Vieira, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Extraction of antioxidant biocolorant pigments from leaf sheaths of dye sorghum was optimized. Effects of temperature and ethanol concentration of the extraction solvent on the concentrations of the 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, total phenolics and total anthocyanins, and the colour parameters of the

  18. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  19. Genetic variability of sorghum landraces from lower Eastern Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reuben M. Muasya

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... from the farmers and four improved varieties were analyzed using 20 SSR markers. All markers were polymorphic with ... Levels and patterns of diversity within and between cultivated and wild sorghum gene pools ..... environmental heterogeneity and/or farmer preferences and random genetic drift (Neal, ...

  20. Repeated-batch ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . It was found that sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) containing 100 g l-1 of total sugar without nutrient supplement could be used as the low-cost IP medium instead of the typical IP medium or yeast extract malt extract (YM) medium. Ethanol ...

  1. Molecular markers associated with aluminium tolerance in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Emily Jepkosgei; Onkware, Augustino Osoro; Were, Beatrice Ang'iyo; Gudu, Samuel; Carlsson, Anders; Geleta, Mulatu

    2018-01-01

    Sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor , L. Moench) production in many agro-ecologies is constrained by a variety of stresses, including high levels of aluminium (Al) commonly found in acid soils. Therefore, for such soils, growing Al tolerant cultivars is imperative for high productivity. In this study, molecular markers associated with Al tolerance were identified using a mapping population developed by crossing two contrasting genotypes for this trait. Four SSR ( Xtxp34 , Sb5_236 , Sb6_34 , and Sb6_342 ), one STS ( CTG29_3b ) and three ISSR ( 811_1400 , 835_200 and 884_200 ) markers produced alleles that showed significant association with Al tolerance. CTG29_3b, 811_1400 , Xtxp34 and Sb5_ 236 are located on chromosome 3 with the first two markers located close to Alt SB , a locus that underlie the Al tolerance gene ( SbMATE ) implying that their association with Al tolerance is due to their linkage to this gene. Although CTG29_3b and 811_ 1400 are located closer to Alt SB , Xtxp34 and Sb5_236 explained higher phenotypic variance of Al tolerance indices. Markers 835_200 , 884_200 , Sb6_34 and Sb6_342 are located on different chromosomes, which implies the presence of several genes involved in Al tolerance in addition to S bMATE in sorghum. These molecular markers have a high potential for use in breeding for Al tolerance in sorghum.

  2. Comparative Energy Values Of Sorghum Distillers Waste, Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A balance trial aimed at determining the energy values of Sorghum Distiller's Wastes (SDW), Maize cob (MC) and Shea butter Waste (SBW) for barrows was conducted using a 4 x 4 Latin square cross- over experimental design. While feed intake was influenced (P < 0.05) by the test feed ingredients, the weight gained was ...

  3. Nutrient digestibility and performance of pigs fed sorghum varying in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (BPS)and a low polyphenol content class KM cultivar (NS)with maize .... phenol content was determined by the modified Jerumanis pro- ... sunflower oil cake meal (SOC) to formulate the six experimen- tal diets. Bird-proof sorghum of the cultivar SSK 32 with a polyphenol content of 1,42 % and NS of the cultivar NK 283.

  4. Sorghum Brown Midrib Mutants, Tools to Improve Biomass for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve sorghum for cellulosic bioenergy uses, brown midrib mutants are being investigated for their ability to increase the conversion efficiency of biomass. brown midrib 6 and 12 (bmr6 and 12) mutants affect monolignol biosynthesis resulting in reduced lignin content and altered lignin composi...

  5. Differential endophytic colonization of sorghum plant by eight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virulence of the conidia before and after endophytic growth phases were assessed using Galleria mellonella larvae mortality bioassay in-vitro. All the strains of the fungi colonised the sorghum plant. The strains of I. farinosa and B. bassiana were detected in the roots, the stem and the leaves while M. anisopliae was ...

  6. Discovery and utilization of sorghum genes (Ma5/Ma6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John E; Rooney, William L; Klein, Patricia E; Morishige, Daryl; Murphy, Rebecca; Brady, Jeff A

    2012-11-13

    Methods and composition for the production of non-flowering or late flowering sorghum hybrid. For example, in certain aspects methods for use of molecular markers that constitute the Ma5/Ma6 pathway to modulate photoperiod sensitivity are described. The invention allows the production of plants having improved productivity and biomass generation.

  7. Quantitative trait loci associated with anthracnose resistance in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    With an aim to develop a durable resistance to the fungal disease anthracnose, two unique genetic sources of resistance were selected to create genetic mapping populations to identify regions of the sorghum genome that encode anthracnose resistance. A series of quantitative trait loci were identifi...

  8. sorghum head bug infestation and mould infection on the grain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-01

    Aug 1, 2017 ... 1Department of Crop Science, P. O. Box LG44, Legon, Ghana ... 3CSIR- Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, Sorghum Improvement Section, P. O. Box TL 52,. Tamale, Ghana ...... Bramel-Cox, P.J. 1999. A pictorial guide.

  9. Intestinal growth and function of broiler chicks fed sorghum based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Margret Rukuni

    sorghum variety (CH, BT and SV) and maize included as the principal energy source. ... attributed to the ability of tannins to bind, coagulate and precipitate protein (Butler et ... be easily absorbed into the body because of their large molecular weight .... Treatment differences were identified by analysis of variance using the ...

  10. Effect of processing on β-carotene levels in sorghum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum, a staple food in Africa, does not contain adequate amounts of provitamin A carotenoids to address the problem of vitamin A deficiency which affects up to 31 million people on the continent1. One attempt to solve this problem is through...

  11. Determination of improved steeping conditions for sorghum malting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dewar, J

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various steeping conditions (time, temperature and aeration) on the quality of sorghum malt for brewing (in terms of diastatic power, free amino nitrogen and hot water extract) was examined. Steeping time and temperature had a highly...

  12. Yield Stability of Sorghum Hybrids and Parental Lines | Kenga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy-five sorghum hybrids and twenty parental lines were evaluated for two consecutive years at two locations. Our objective was to compare relative stability of grain yields among hybrids and parental lines. Mean grain yields and stability analysis of variance, which included linear regression coefficient (bi) and ...

  13. Award-winning machine boosts sorghum farming in Sudan | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Award-winning machine boosts sorghum farming in Sudan ... The new planter, developed by researchers at Sudan's Agricultural ... Senegal: Staying home at all costs ... This ICT4D article series features results from innovative research on participatory geographic information systems (P-GIS) in Africa.

  14. Biological hydrogen production from sweet sorghum by thermophilic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de T.; Budde, M.A.W.; Koukios, E.G.; Gylnos, A.; Reczey, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sweet sorghum cultivation was carried out in South-west Greece. The fresh biomass yield was about 126 t/ha. Stalks weight accounts for 82% of total crop weight while leaves and panicle account for 17% and 1%, respectively. The major components in variety 'Keller' stalks were, based on dry weight,

  15. Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Inclusion of sweet sorghum flour in bread formulations. Veronica Freitas Pires Araujo1, Wellingthon da Silva Guimaraes Junnyor1, Marco Antonio. Pereira da Silva1* ..... Revista Brasileira de Saúde e. Produção Animal.

  16. Anthracnose disease evaluation of sorghum germplasm from Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germplasm collections are important resources for sorghum improvement and 17 accessions from Honduras were inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated at the Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Isabela, Puerto Rico during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons to identify sources of ant...

  17. development of dual purpose sorghum: correlation and path

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (Table 3). Grain yield and stem sugar traits. The correlation coefficients between grain yield and. T. ABLE 2. Correlation coefficients between grain yield and stem sugar content with selected agronomic traits in sorghum. SBX. GY. SBW. DT50F. HDL. SJS. NLP. PHT. Stem brix (SBX). 1.000. Grain yield (GY). 0.071**. 1.000.

  18. Normal and hetero-yellow endosperm grain sorghum as substitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    housed in flat deck-type cages, 1,6 x 1 m, fitted with a self- feeder and an automatic water nipple. Temperatures in the ... adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Amino acid analyses, following acid hydrolysis in a .... the hetero-yellow endosperm type sorghum had the highest avarage daily gains (ADGs), whereas pigs fed the maize-.

  19. Infection biology and defence responses in sorghum against Colletotrichum sublineolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puttalingaiah, Basavaraju; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Shetty, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the infection biology of Colletotrichum sublineolum (isolate CP2126) and defence responses in leaves of resistant (SC146), intermediately resistant (SC326) and susceptible (BTx623) sorghum genotypes. Methods and Results: Infection biology and defence responses were studied...

  20. Genetic variability of tissue cultured Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate their performance for seedling traits at seedling stage (under hydroponics), plant water relations under water stress and ultimately grain yield, and to estimate the genetic variability of the regenerates, the parent plants of local sorghum cultivars in Kenya using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were ...

  1. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass production potential, excellent nitrogen usage efficiency, wide adaptability, drought resistance, and water lodging tolerance and salinity resistance. The ability to withstand severe drought conditions and its high water usage efficiency make sorghum a good renewable feedstock suitable for cultivation in arid regions, such as the southern US and many areas in Africa and Asia. Sorghum varieties include grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and biomass sorghum. Grain sorghum, having starch content equivalent to corn, has been considered as a feedstock for ethanol production. Its tannin content, however, may cause problems during enzyme hydrolysis. Sweet sorghum juice contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which are readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hence is a good substrate for ethanol fermentation. The enzyme invertase, however, needs to be added to convert sucrose to glucose and fructose if the juice is used for production of industrial chemicals in fermentation processes that employ microorganisms incapable of metabolizing sucrose. Biomass sorghum requires pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to generate fermentable sugars to be used in the subsequent fermentation process. This report reviews the current knowledge on bioconversion of sorghum to fuels and chemicals and identifies areas that deserve further studies.

  2. Fuel ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Sanette; Ndaba, Busiswa; Chiyanzu, Idan; Schabort, Corneels

    2014-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a hardy crop that can be grown on marginal land and can provide both food and energy in an integrated food and energy system. Lignocellulose rich sweet sorghum bagasse (solid left over after starch and juice extraction) can be converted to bioethanol using a variety of technologies. The largest barrier to commercial production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic material remains the high processing costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis and the use of acids and bases in the pretreatment step. In this paper, sweet sorghum bagasse was pretreated and hydrolysed in a single step using microwave irradiation. A total sugar yield of 820 g kg −1 was obtained in a 50 g kg −1 sulphuric acid solution in water, with a power input of 43.2 kJ g −1 of dry biomass (i.e. 20 min at 180 W power setting). An ethanol yield based on total sugar of 480 g kg −1 was obtained after 24 h of fermentation using a mixed culture of organisms. These results show the potential for producing as much as 0.252 m 3  tonne −1 or 33 m 3  ha −1 ethanol using only the lignocellulose part of the stalks, which is high enough to make the process economically attractive. - Highlights: • Different sweet sorghum cultivars were harvested at 3 and 6 months. • Sweet sorghum bagasse was converted to ethanol. • Microwave pretreatment and hydrolysis was done in a single step. • Sugar rich hydrolysates were converted to ethanol using co-fermentation

  3. Path analysis of the productive traits in Sorghum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikanović Jela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the phenotypic correlation coefficients between three Sorghum species, namely forage sorghum S. bicolor Moench. (c. NS-Džin, Sudan grass S. sudanense L. (c. Zora and interspecies hybrid S. bicolor x S. sudanense (c. Siloking. The analyses were performed on plant material samples taken from the first cutting, when plants were in the beginning phase of tasseling. The following morphologic traits were studied: plant height, number of leaves per plant, stem leaf weight and mean stem weight. Additionally, their direct and indirect effect on dependent variable green biomass yield was analyzed, for which path coefficients were calculated. This method enables more quality and full insight into relations existing among the studied traits, more precise establishment of cause-effect connections among them, as well as to separate direct from indirect effects of any particular trait on dependent variable, being biomass yield in this case. The analysis of phenotypic coefficients revealed differences in direct and indirect effect of certain traits on dependent variable. Sudan grass had the highest stem (2.281 m and most leaves per plant (7.917. Forage sorghum had the largest leaf weight per plant (49.05 g, while interspecies hybrid had the highest mean stem weight (80.798 g. Variations of these morphologic traits among species were found to be significant and very significant. Morphologic traits - stem height and weight significantly affected sorghum green biomass yield. Leaf number and leaf portion in total biomass were negatively correlated with yield. Cultivars differed significantly regarding morphologic and productive traits. Sudan grass had the lowest green biomass yield, while forage sorghum and interspecies hybrid had significant yield increase.

  4. Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Sorghum Plant Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, L.; Chen, Y.; Darnault, C. J. G.; Rauh, B.; Kresovich, S.; Korte, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are considered as the development of the modern science. However, besides with that wide application, nanoparticles arouse to the side effects on the environment and human health. As the catalyst of ceramics and fuel industry, Cerium (IV) oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) can be found in the environment following their use and life-cycle. Therefore, it is critical to assess the potential effects that CeO2 NPs found in soils may have on plants. In this study, CeO2 NPs were analyzed for the potential influence on the sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] (Reg. no. 126) (PI 154844) growth and traits. The objectives of this research were to determine whether CeO2 NPs impact the sorghum germination and growth characteristics. The sorghum was grown in the greenhouse located at Biosystems Research Complex, Clemson University under different CeO2 NPs treatments (0mg; 100mg; 500mg; 1000mg CeO2 NPs/Kg soil) and harvested around each month. At the end of the each growing period, above ground vegetative tissue was air-dried, ground to 2mm particle size and compositional traits estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy. Also, the NPK value of the sorghum tissue was tested by Clemson Agriculture Center. After the first harvest, the result showed that the height of above ground biomass under the nanoparticles stress was higher than that of control group. This difference between the control and the nanoparticles treatments was significant (F>F0.05; LSD). Our results also indicated that some of the compositional traits were impacted by the different treatments, including the presence and/or concentrations of the nanoparticles.

  5. Factors That Influence Technical Efficiency of Sorghum Production: A Case of Small Holder Sorghum Producers in Lower Eastern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaline Chepng’etich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the rural households in Kenya depend on agriculture as a source of food and livelihood. Agricultural productivity has been declining due to many factors resulting in increased food insecurity in the country. Consequently, there is a renewed interest in promoting drought-tolerant crops such as sorghum which thrives in the arid and semiarid lands of the developing world. However, performance of sorghum production among the smallholder farmers has still remained low. This study was thus carried out to identify factors that influence technical efficiency of sorghum production among smallholder farmers in Machakos and Makindu districts of the lower eastern Kenya. Collected data on farm and farmer characteristics were analysed by use of descriptive statistics and Tobit model. Result highlights show that technical efficiency was influenced positively by formal education level of the household, experience in sorghum farming, membership in farmers associations, use of hired labour, production advice, and use of manure. Surprisingly household size, meant to enhance labour, had a negative influence. To increase technical efficiency, efforts should focus on improving information flows on agronomic practices. Farmers should also be encouraged to form and actively participate in various farmers associations, which enhance learning and pooling of labour resources, hence improving technical efficiency.

  6. Improved Sugar Conversion and Ethanol Yield for Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Lines with Reduced Lignin Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignin is known to impede conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. In this study, forage sorghum plants carrying brown midrib (bmr) mutations, which reduce lignin contents, were evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks. The near isogenic lines evaluated were: wild-type, bmr-6, bmr-12, and bmr-6 bmr-12...

  7. Effect of NPK fertiliser on growth, flowering and yield of fonio (Digitaria exilis) in a coastal agro-ecological environment of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amekli, Yayra

    2013-07-01

    Fonio (Digitaria spp) is neglected and underutilised crop traditionally grown in the Sahelian savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana for its grain which is rich in crude protein, fibre and has medicinal properties. Decline in the production of the crop is attributed to poor agronomic and yield characteristics and changing agro-climatic conditions as a result of clobal warming which has rendered traditional growing areas too dry to surport cultivation of the crop. There is the need to explore the possibility of growing the crop in new agro-ecologies to sustain the production. The study was therefore conducted in Kwabenya-Atomic area which is located in the coastal savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana, to evaluate the adaptability of three fonio landraces (Yadema, Nomber and Nvoni) to the coastal zone, their growth and response to NPK 15:15:15 fertiliser treatment, apparent fertiliser nitrogen recovery (AFNR) as well as presence basic elements in the grains. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 during the major cropping season, using three fonio landraces grown at a planting distance of 0.05m x 0.45m. The experiment design used was the split plot in three replicates. Plants were sampled every two weeks throughout the growing season. Grain yield (GY) and its associated apparent fertiliser nitrogen recovery were significantly different (P≤ 0.05) among the fonio landraces during the cropping season with the landrace Nvoni producing the highest grain yield of 96 kg ha - 1 at NPK fertiliser rate of 60 kg ha - 1 and with a AFNR of 33.1%. The study also establised a positive correlation between biomass accumulation and grain yield. The efficiency of grain production per unit of fertiliser nitrogen (FN) increased, but at a diminishing rate with each traditional unit of FN. Additionally, ten essentials mineral elements (Na,Mg, K, Ca, I, CI, Cu, AI, Mn, and V) were detected among the grain of the three fonio landrace using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA

  8. Biorremediation of soil polluted by 75000 ppm of waste motor oil applying biostimulation and phytoremediation with Sorghum vulgare and Bacillus cereus or Burkholderia cepacia

    OpenAIRE

    Balderas-León Iván; Sánchez-Yáñez Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Waste motor oil (WMO) pollutes soil and causing lost soil fertility. An alternative to solve this problem its bioremediation (BR) by double and following biostimulation (BS) with mineral solution (MS) and a legume as green manure (GM) then using phytoremediation (PR) with growth promoting vegetal bacteria (GPVB) like Bacillus cereus and Burkholderia cepacia to minimize remaining WMO. The aims of this research were: a) bioremediation of polluted soil by 75000 ppm of WMO by biostimulation and t...

  9. Effects of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] Crude Extracts on Starch Digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI, and Resistant Starch (RS Contents of Porridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Lemlioglu-Austin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI, and Resistant Starch (RS of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA. The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héloïse Coté

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean, Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Héloïse; Boucher, Marie-Anne; Pichette, André; Legault, Jean

    2017-05-25

    Background: Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean), Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties.

  12. Aspectos anatômicos de plântulas Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Anatomical aspects of the Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A erva-doce, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae, é uma erva entouceirada, aromática que apresenta propriedades condimentares e medicinais; tem origem Européia e é amplamente cultivada em todo o Brasil. Devido à deficiência de informações relativas à organização estrutural de plântulas de espécies medicinais, o presente estudo teve como objetivo fornecer informações sobre a anatomia e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de F. vulgare. As sementes de erva-doce foram semeadas em areia e mantidas em casa de vegetação por 25 dias, sendo realizadas regas diárias. Foram selecionadas plântulas normais e de padrão uniforme, que tiveram raiz, zona de transição, caule, cotilédones e primeiras folhas seccionados à mão livre. Este material foi corado e montado em lâminas com glicerina para observação em microscópio. Em todos os órgãos da plântula de erva-doce a epiderme é unisseriada, cuticularizada e com estômatos; sendo que as duas últimas estruturas não são encontradas na raiz, porém esta apresenta pêlos unicelulares e cônicos. Os cotilédones e as folhas apresentam funções fotossintéticas e nutricionais, indicadas pela presença de grande quantidade de estômatos, cloroplastos e amido. A caracterização anatômica de plântulas de F. vulgare auxilia na identificação da espécie e no conhecimento da organização celular, fornecendo informações que auxiliam em estudos fisiológicos, taxonômicos e ecológicos.Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae, is a forming clumps herb and presents aromatic, medicinal and condimental properties. It has European origin and is widely cultivated and used in Brazil. Due to lack of information concerning the structural organization of seedlings of medicinal species, this study aimed to provide information about the anatomy and development of F. vulgare seedlings. The seeds fennel was sowed in sand and maintained in greenhouse for 25 days, with daily waterings. Were selected

  13. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

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    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  14. Mapping and validation of major quantitative trait loci for kernel length in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Shihang; Liu, Yujiao; Liu, Yaxi; You, Jing; Deng, Mei; Ma, Jian; Chen, Guangdeng; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Chunji; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-09-13

    Kernel length is an important target trait in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding programs. However, the number of known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling kernel length is limited. In the present study, we aimed to identify major QTLs for kernel length, as well as putative candidate genes that might influence kernel length in wild barley. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the barley cultivar Baudin (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the long-kernel wild barley genotype Awcs276 (H.vulgare ssp. spontaneum) was evaluated at one location over three years. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed using 1,832 genome-wide diversity array technology (DArT) markers, spanning a total of 927.07 cM with an average interval of approximately 0.49 cM. Two major QTLs for kernel length, LEN-3H and LEN-4H, were detected across environments and further validated in a second RIL population derived from Fleet (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and Awcs276. In addition, a systematic search of public databases identified four candidate genes and four categories of proteins related to LEN-3H and LEN-4H. This study establishes a fundamental research platform for genomic studies and marker-assisted selection, since LEN-3H and LEN-4H could be used for accelerating progress in barley breeding programs that aim to improve kernel length.

  15. Performance of elite grain sorghum varieties in the West Nile Agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Ouma, J.P. and Akuja, T.E. 2013. Agronomic and morphological performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) for the dry highlands of. Kenya. www.m.elewa.org. Schatz, B.G., Schneiter, A.A. and Gardner,. J.E. 1987. Effect of plant density on grain sorghum production in North. Dakota. pp. 16-17. Snider, J.L., Randy, L.R. and ...

  16. Arsenic-contaminated soils. Phytotoxicity studies with sunflower and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubun, Y.V.; Kosterin, P.V.; Zakharova, E.A.; Fedorov, E.E. [Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov (Russian Federation); Shcherbakov, A.A. [Saratov Military Inst. of Radiological, Chemical and Biological Defence, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Aim and Scope. Environmental pollution caused by arsenic (As) is a major ecological problem. There has been intense worldwide effort to find As-hyperaccumulating plants that can be used in phytoremediation - the green-plant-assisted removal of chemical pollutants from soils. For phytoremediation, it is natural to prefer cultivated rather than wild plants, because their agriculture is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and sugar sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum Pers.) for soil-As contents of 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, with sodium arsenite as a model contaminant. Methods. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days. Microfield experiments were conducted on experimental plots. To study the phytoremediation effect of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), we treated 1- and 3-day-old plant seedlings with water solutions of the auxins (concentrations of 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -7}, and 10{sup -9} g l{sup -1}). The soil and plant-biomass samples were analyzed for total As by using the color reaction of ammonium molybdate with As. Results and Discussion. Phytotoxicity studies showed that 100 mg as kg{sup -1} soil poisoned sunflower and sorghum growth by 50%. There was a linear correlation between soil-As content and As accumulation in the plants. Laboratory experiments showed that the soil-As content was reduced two- to threefold after sunflower had been grown with 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil for 30 days. Treatment of sunflower and sorghum seedlings with IAA and 2,4-D at a concentration of 10{sup -5} g l{sup -1} in microfield experiments enhanced the phytoremediation two- to fivefold as compared with untreated control plants. The best results were obtained with 3-day-old seedlings. Conclusion, Recommendation and Outlook. (a) Sunflower and sorghum are good candidates to remediate As-polluted soils. (b) Phytoremediation can be improved with IAA or 2

  17. Compartmentation of sucrose during radial transfer in mature sorghum culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vietor Donald M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sucrose that accumulates in the culm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and other large tropical andropogonoid grasses can be of commercial value, and can buffer assimilate supply during development. Previous study conducted with intact plants showed that sucrose can be radially transferred to the intracellular compartment of mature ripening sorghum internode without being hydrolysed. In this study, culm-infused radiolabelled sucrose was traced between cellular compartments and among related metabolites to determine if the compartmental path of sucrose during radial transfer in culm tissue was symplasmic or included an apoplasmic step. This transfer path was evaluated for elongating and ripening culm tissue of intact plants of two semidwarf grain sorghums. The metabolic path in elongating internode tissue was also evaluated. Results On the day after culm infusion of the tracer sucrose, the specific radioactivity of sucrose recovered from the intracellular compartment of growing axillary-branch tissue was greater (nearly twice than that in the free space, indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through symplasmic routes. In contrast, the sucrose specific radioactivity in the intracellular compartment of the mature (ripening culm tissue was probably less (about 3/4's than that in free space indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through routes that included an apoplasmic step. In growing internodes of the axillary branch of sorghum, the tritium label initially provided in the fructose moiety of sucrose molecules was largely (81% recovered in the fructose moiety, indicating that a large portion of sucrose molecules is not hydrolysed and resynthesized during radial transfer. Conclusion During radial transfer of sucrose in ripening internodes of intact sorghum plants, much of the sucrose is transferred intact (without hydrolysis and resynthesis and primarily through a path that includes an

  18. Peculiarities in covering the requirements for seed material of sorghum crops

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    С. І. Мельник

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the demand for sorghum seed material and sufficiency of domestic seeds. Results. The analysis of the State register for the period of 2002–2012 showed that there was the tendency not only towards increasing quantity of sorghum crops in general but their substitution by hybrids of foreign breeding. During the period from 2002 to 2017, 72 sorghum varieties were entered on the State register in total, among them only 12 varieties were of domestic breeding, the rest 60 was presented by foreign breeding institutions. Investigation results allowed to determine that the production of base and prebase seeds of sorghum in 2010 amounted to 1,3 t, in 2016 was 43 t. During the same period the production of sugar sorghum increased from 0,2 to 12,0 t, grass sorghum – from 4,0 to 83 t. In 2017, requirements of acreage of such crops as grass sorghum and broomcorn were completely satisfied by the amount of grown seeds. At the same time, the need for seeds of sorghum and sugar sorghum can not be covered completely at the expense of domestic varieties reproduction. In 2017, general demand for sorghum seeds was 400,5 t, among which only 42,0 t was of domestic production. The rest demand for seeds will be met at the expense of import of foreign breeding seeds into the country to be grown and prepared for sowing abroad. Conclusions. In the Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine, there are 72 sorghum varieties among them only 12 varieties were of domestic breeding, that is 17%, as compared to 83% of recommended great sorghum varieties of foreign breeding. In Ukraine, the area occupied by sorghum cultivation was 22,8 thou ha in 2005, up to 2017 it increased to 89,0 thou ha, and accordingly the demand for seeds run up from 102,6 to 400,5 t. The area occupied by the sugar sorghum in 2005 amounted to only 2,6 thou ha, in 2017 – 20,0 thou ha, that accordingly determined increase of demand for seed material from 13,0 to 99

  19. Predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with the traditional malting of sorghum grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Glover, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    dominated the microbiota from sorghum grains to malted sorghum. These isolates had technological properties comparable to those responsible for the acidification of sorghum beer (dolo, pito) wort produced from sorghum malt (previously studied), suggesting their potential for use as starter cultures....... Suitable isolates of L. fermentum are promising candidates to be used as starter cultures from the initial step of malting, that is, the steeping and are expected to inhibit the growth and survival of pathogens and spoilage microflora, and to control the lactic fermentation of dolo and pito wort or other...

  20. Direct conversion of sorghum carbohydrates to ethanol by a mixed microbial culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christakopoulos, Paul; Lianwu Li; Kekos, Dimitris; Macris, B.J. (National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    The carbohydrates of sweet sorghum were directly converted to ethanol by a mixed culture of Fusarium oxysporum F3 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2541. A number of factors affecting this bioconversion was studied. Optimum ethanol yields of 33.2 g/100 g of total sorghum carbohydrates, corresponding to 10.3 g/100 g of fresh stalks, were obtained. These values represented 68.6% of the theoretical yield based on total polysaccharides and exceeded that based on oligosaccharides of sorghum by 53.7%. The results demonstrated that more than half of the sorghum polysaccharides were directly fermented to ethanol, thus making the process worthy of further investigation. (author)

  1. Sorghum as an alternative of cultivation to maize; Sorghumhirse als Anbaualternative zum Mais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaekel, Kerstin; Theiss, Markus; Poetzschke, Karen [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie (LfULG), Dresden (Germany)] [and others

    2013-10-01

    Due to their high dry matter yield potential Sorghum bicolor and Sorghum bicolor x sudanense are well fitted as feedstock for biogas production. Similar to maize, both species show a high efficiency in their use of water (C4-plants). However, Sorghum has a higher drought tolerance in comparison with maize but is more sensitive to low temperatures. Hence a cultivation of Sorghum is recommendable especially in dry and relatively warm regions, including recultivated areas and even on loess soil, provided that the required temperatures are given. Due to the fact that Sorghum is not affected by the corn root worm, it also could gain relevance in regions were the cultivation of maize is restricted. Furthermore, Sorghum is usable as a catch crop as well as a main crop because of its variable sowing time. Catch crop cultivation, however, yields a significantly lower amount of dry matter and -quality which is a result of its shorter vegetation period. Owing to its higher crude fiber concentration Sorghum achieves a lower theoretically attainable specific methane yield (Weissbach) than maize. Thus only on rare occasions Sorghum does achieve methane yields per hectare that are comparable to maize. Eventually, the competitiveness of Sorghum greatly depends on provision of enhanced cultivars achieved through genetic improvement. (orig.)

  2. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veni Bharti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.

  3. The chemical defoliation of Ligitstrum vulgare L. and Spiraea x arguta Zab. shrubs in nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepan Marczyński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To defoliate Ligustrum vulgare and Spiraea x arguta – ethephon, KJ, Mg(ClO32•6H2O, CuSO4•5H2O and (NH42SO4 in various concentrations were used alone or in mixtures. Treating plants with potassium iodide gave the best results. KJ concentrations of 0.05-0,1% and 0.1-0.% were sufficient to defoliate Spiraea and Ligusturm respectively. Magnesium chlorate at concentration of 0.24 and 2% CuSO4 were also effective, the latter however, proved slight harmful to the plants. Spraying with defoliants on Sept. 26 gave better results than treating plants on Sept. 16. Chemical defoliation decreased negligibly the frost resistance of Ligusturm vulgare shrubs.

  4. Efeitos de hexazinone e diuron, e suas misturas, no controle de capim-de-colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop em cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp Effects of hexazinone and diuron and mixtures on crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop control on sugarcane (Saccharum spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. P. Cruz

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido em 1976 /77, um experimento de campo em área do Centro de Tecnologia da Copersucar, em Piracicaba, SP , com a finalidade de se conhecer o efeito dos herbicidas hexazinone e diuron , assim como o de suas misturas, no controle do capim-de -colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop em avançado estádio de desenvolvimento vegetativo infestando cultura de cana-deaçúcar (Saccharum spp. Os tratamentos constaram da aplicação pós - emergente de hexazinone a 0,30, 0,35, 0,45 e 0, 65 kg/h a; de diuro na 0, 88 , 1, 20 e 2, 50 kg/h a; de hexazinone -i - diuron a 0,30 0,88, 0,35 + 1 , 2 0 e 0 , 4 5 + 1 , 3 6 kg / ha . Foram incluídos mais dois tratamentos com herbicidas ( ter - bacila 0,9 6 kg/ ha e metribuzin a 1,5 0 kg/ ha e um sem herbicida, mantidos empreno limpo com o auxílio de enxada. Esses 13 tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Foram determinados também os efeitos dos tratamentos sobre a produção de cana -de-açúcar no campo e sobre suas características tecnológicas (Brix, Pol, Pureza, Fibra. Os melhores resultados de controle da gramínea , aos 15 dias da aplicação dos herbicidas , foram obtidos com a mistura de hexazinone a 0, 45 kg/h a com diuron a 1, 36 kg/h a. Hexazinon e a 0,6 4 kg /h a, aplicado isolado, também apresentou bons resultados de controle. Nos tratamentos com hexazinone apareceram sintomas de fitotoxicidade na cana-de-açúcar, os quais desapareceram posteriormente, sem interferir na produção. Os demais tratamentos também não foram prejudiciais à cana de-açúcar.A field experiment was carried out at the Centre of Technology of Copers ucar, Piracicaba , SP, to know the action of hexazinone and diuron and mixtures on crab grass (Digitaria sanguinali s (L . Scop control, at advanced stage of development in sugarcane crop. Treatments were post -emergence aplication of hexazinone at 0,30; 0,35; 0,45 and 0,64 kg/ha; diuron at 0,88; 1,20 ; 1,36 and 2, 50 kg/h a

  5. Germinação e emergência de plântulas para três espécies de gramíneas invasoras de cultura do gênero Digitaria Heister ex Haller Germination and seedling emergence for three weed grasses of the genus Digitaria Heister ex Haller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Barbosa

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relaciona a germinação de sementes com emergência de plântulas para as espécies Digitaria ciliaris (Retz. Koel, D. horizontalis Willd. e D. insularis (L. Fedde, as quais apresentam grande interesse científico e econômico por serem gramíneas invasoras muito agressivas e por apresentarem ampla distribuição geográfica na América tropical e subtropical. Os testes de germinação foram realizados mensalmente com sementes e cariopses armazenadas em câmara seca e submetidas ao processo de envelhecimento natural durante um período de 360 dias. O trabalho também foi realizado para verificar o efeito da profundidade de semeadura sobre a emergência de plântulas. Os resultados de porcentagem e de velocidade de germinação das sementes mostram forte inibição da germinação causada pelas brácteas que envolvem as cariopses. Entretanto, nos tratamentos com cariopses nuas a inibição da germinação, ainda, persiste, indicando que estas sementes necessitam de um período de tempo para o amadurecimento. Os resultados de emergência de plântulas mostram que as semeaduras realizadas nas superfícies e a 2 centímetros de profundidade apresentam as mais altas porcentagens de emergências de plântulas. A interpretação dos resultados de germinação e de emergência de plântulas mostram aspectos importantes do comportamento da germinação destas espécies e permite o seu controle racional em áreas cultivadas.This work deals with the germination of seeds and seedling emergence of Digitaria ciliaris (Retz. Koel., D. horizontalis Willd. and D. insularis (L. Fedde and shows significant scientific and economical interest since the three weed grasses are very agressive and present ample geographical distribution in the tropical and subtropical American continent. The germination tests were performed monthly with seeds and caryopsis stored in a dry room or submitted to natural aging over the period of 360 days. This work was

  6. Luxury as the opposite of vulgarity:a trio of perspectives on luxury brands

    OpenAIRE

    Reyneke, Mignon

    2011-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Luxury as the opposite of vulgarity: A trio of perspectives on luxury brands” considers luxury brands in a trio of contemporary contexts. Despite the academic research surrounding luxury brands being limited, the existent research most often studies luxury brands in a traditional retail context. That is, luxury is viewed from a perspective where the products are sold in luxury retail stores. However, the landscape that these brands function within has changed significan...

  7. Feminizing Wolbachia: a transcriptomics approach with insights on the immune response genes in Armadillidium vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chevalier Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolbachia are vertically transmitted bacteria known to be the most widespread endosymbiont in arthropods. They induce various alterations of the reproduction of their host, including feminization of genetic males in isopod crustaceans. In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the presence of Wolbachia is also associated with detrimental effects on host fertility and lifespan. Deleterious effects have been demonstrated on hemocyte density, phenoloxidase activity, and natural hemolymph septicemia, suggesting that infected individuals could have defective immune capacities. Since nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in Wolbachia-A. vulgare interactions and its secondary immunocompetence modulation, we developed a transcriptomics strategy and compared A. vulgare gene expression between Wolbachia-infected animals (i.e., “symbiotic” animals and uninfected ones (i.e., “asymbiotic” animals as well as between animals challenged or not challenged by a pathogenic bacteria. Results Since very little genetic data is available on A. vulgare, we produced several EST libraries and generated a total of 28 606 ESTs. Analyses of these ESTs revealed that immune processes were over-represented in most experimental conditions (responses to a symbiont and to a pathogen. Considering canonical crustacean immune pathways, these genes encode antimicrobial peptides or are involved in pathogen recognition, detoxification, and autophagy. By RT-qPCR, we demonstrated a general trend towards gene under-expression in symbiotic whole animals and ovaries whereas the same gene set tends to be over-expressed in symbiotic immune tissues. Conclusion This study allowed us to generate the first reference transcriptome ever obtained in the Isopoda group and to identify genes involved in the major known crustacean immune pathways encompassing cellular and humoral responses. Expression of immune-related genes revealed a modulation of host

  8. The Effect of Citrus Aurantium, Foeniculum Vulgare and Rosmarinus Officinalis Essential Oils on Peroxidase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Mohajerani (PhD); Afsaneh Aghae i ( MSc )

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: Peroxidases catalyze protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. The activity of these enzymes in nerve cells is involved in causing disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. This study investigated the effect of Citrus aurantium, Foeniculum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils on activity of peroxidase enzyme. Methods: All three medicinal plants were dried at room temperature. Their essential oil was extracted by steam distillation ...

  9. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine Groth; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine

    2009-01-01

    to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 A resolution and refined to an R (cryst) of 19.0% and an R (free) of 23.8%. The dimeric protein...

  10. Modernization vs. vulgarization in online fashion luxury : how is internet impacting luxury brand equity ?

    OpenAIRE

    Marrão, Ana Rita Galante de Abreu

    2016-01-01

    The Internet became an inherent part of people’s daily life and the major source of transformation in the relation between consumers and brands. However, in the luxury branding context, the introduction of prestige brands into a mass channel such as the Internet might bring the risk of vulgarization, loss of control over the brand, loss of the high-luxury appeal, jeopardizing brand equity. Hence, the present thesis paper proposes to answer the dilemma between the imperative of going online an...

  11. DEXTRINIZED SYRUPS OBTAINING THROUGH THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SORGHUM STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanis Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was the production of syrups dextrinized by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch red sorghum CIAPR-132 using α-amylase on solutions at different concentrations, with different concentrations of enzyme and enzyme hydrolysis time. The response variable was the dextrose equivalent in each obtained syrup (ED using the modified Lane-Eynon method. In some of the experiments, we used a full factorial design 23 and in others we worked with intermediate concentration and higher hydrolysis time with different levels of enzyme. The obtained products were syrups dextrinized ED between 10,25 and 33,97% (values we can find within the established ones for these types of syrups, which can be used for their functional properties as intermediates syrups or as raw material for different processes of the food industry. This allows you to set a pattern for the use of sorghum feedstock in unconventional obtaining products from its starch.

  12. Effect of lixiviated sediments affected with treated water on Selenastrum capricornutum, Printz and Origanum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Guadalupe E; Lopez, Martin H; Flores, Antonio M; Figueroa, Guadalupe T; De Leon, Fernando G

    2010-01-01

    Xochimilco is an area of Mexico City fulfilling important ecological functions. However, the water of the canal network in the lacustrine zone of Xochimilco is supplied by the water treatment plants of the city, implying a risk of accumulated contaminants in the sediments. This study reports the effect of lixiviates obtained from sediments collected in the canals of Xochimilco on the growth of the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and the angiosperm Origanum vulgare. Three factors were tested: (a) water source in terms of the effluent from the two water treatment plants (urban waste-water, located at Cerro de la Estrella (CE) and urban-rural waters at San Luis Tlaxialtemalco (SLT); (b) sampling season (January, dry season; May and September, rainy season; and (c) distances from the water discharge point in the Xochimilco's main canal (5200 and 1000 m for CE, and 0, 200 m for SLT). The chemical water properties analyzed were: pH, electrical conductivity, N-NO(3), N-NH(3), N(Total), P-PO(4) and P(Total). The alga was more sensitive to the contaminants than O. vulgare, showing growth inhibition of 93-100%. The effect of sampling season on the inhibition of algal growth was ordered as follows: September > May > January. Lixiviates obtained from sediment samples 200 and 1000 m from the main point of water discharge caused a higher algal growth inhibition than the samples obtained at the source point. Lixiviate promoted the growth of seedlings of O. vulgare.

  13. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Hăncianu, Monica; Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Spac, A; Cioană, Oana; Gille, Elvira; Stănescu, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    In our study, four samples of volatile oil from Foeniculum vulgare, cultivated in different pedoclimatic conditions, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and chemical composition. Organisms. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Candida albicans were included in the report. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The comparative inhibitory activity of volatile oil samples with other antimicrobial agents was quantitative determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Oil samples are the volatile oils extracted by steam distillation, from two ecological vegetative populations of Foeniculum vulgare. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils. All oil samples have a good activity against E. coli and S. aureus at low concentrations. Against B. cereus and P. aeruginosa these oil samples are less active. The oil samples were generally bactericidal at a concentration up to twofold or fourfold higher than the MIC value. Significantly synergic activity with amoxicillin or tetracycline showed all fennel samples against E. coli, Sarcina lutea and B. subtilis strains. Fennel oil samples have shown high activity against Candida albicans. No significant antimicrobial activity variations were observed for Foeniculum vulgare volatile oil samples obtained after two or three years cultivation period. The most important identified compounds in all samples of fennel volatile oils were trans-anethole, estragole, fenchone, limonene, alpha-pinene and gamma-terpinene.

  15. Effect of liquid liming on sorghum growth in an Ultisol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Camacho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of liquid lime on sorghum growth in an Ultisol. This research was conducted between August and November, 2011 at the Agricultural Research Center, San José, Costa Rica. In an Ultisol planted with sorghum, in pots of 800 ml, the following treatments where applied: control without lime, calcium carbonate at doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, magnesium oxide at doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, calcium carbonate + magnesium oxide at doses of 5 + 5 and 10 + 10 l/ha, respectively. Six weeks after planting, sorghum was harvested, measuring leaf area, dry and fresh weight of the aerial and root biomass, nutrient absorption and the soil chemical characteristics. Treatments using calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate + magnesium oxide obtained the best values of leaf area and the higher weight of the aerial and root biomass of sorghum. Even though there were no significant differences between liquid lime treatments, there were regarding control without lime and weight biomass variables. Liquid calcium carbonate significantly increased Ca absorption, and the calcium carbonate + magnesium oxide treatment at doses of 10 l/h showed the highest Mg absorption. All amendment treatments caused an improvement of the soil fertility, the most notable being the application of 20 l/ha of magnesium oxide that dropped the exchangeable acidity from 9.02 to 0.36 cmol(+/l, acidity saturation dropped from 95 to 3.3%, and pH increased from 5 to 5.7. It was concluded that the liquid liming amendments had a positive effect over the crop and the soil fertility.

  16. Impact of phenolic compounds and related enzymes in Sorghum varieties for resistance and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Barro, C.; Traore, A.S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Contents of phenolic compounds and related enzymes before and after sorghum grain germination were compared between varieties either resistant or susceptible to biotic (sooty stripe, sorghum midge, leaf anthracnose, striga, and grain molds) and abiotic (lodging, drought resistance, and photoperiod

  17. Increased growth and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense by endophytic Enterobacter sp. K3-2: Implications for Sorghum sudanense biomass production and phytostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; He, Lin-Yan; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 was isolated from the roots of Sorghum sudanense (an bioenergy plant) grown in a Cu mine wasteland soils and characterized. Strain K3-2 was identified as Enterobacter sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain K3-2 exhibited Cu resistance and produced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, and arginine decarboxylase. Pot experiments showed that strain K3-2 significantly increased the dry weight and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense grown in the Cu mine wasteland soils. Furthermore, increase in total Cu uptake (ranging from 49% to 95%) of the bacterial inoculated-Sorghum sudanense was observed compared to the control. Notably, most of Cu (83-86%) was accumulated in the roots of Sorghum sudanense. Furthermore, inoculation with strain K3-2 was found to significantly increase Cu bioconcentration factors and the proportions of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria in the root interiors and rhizosphere soils of Sorghum sudanense compared with the control. Significant decrease in the available Cu content was also observed in the rhizosphere soils of the bacterial-inoculated Sorghum sudanense. The results suggest that the endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 may be exploited for promoting Sorghum sudanense biomass production and Cu phytostabilization in the Cu mining wasteland soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical control of wild sorghum (sorghum arundinaceum Del. Stapf. in faba bean (vicia faba L.) in the Northern State of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedry, K. A. M.; Elamin, A. E. M.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at Merowe Research Station farm, in the Northern State, Sudan, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the damage inflicted by a wild sorghum species (Sorghum arundinaceum (Del.) Stapf. ) on the yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and to evaluate the efficacy of the post-emergence herbicide clodinafop-propargyl (Topik) on wild sorghum and its effect on faba bean yield. The wild sorghum reduced faba bean crop stand and straw and seed yields by 53% - 76%, 76% - 79% and 88% - 91%, respectively, compared with the hand-weeded control. Faba bean was tolerant to the herbicide. The herbicide, at all rates, effected complete (100%) and persistent control of the wild sorghum and resulted in faba bean seed yield comparable to the hand-weeded control. The lowest dose (0.075 kg a.i/ha) of the herbicide used was equal to 75% of the dose recommended for the control of wild sorghum in wheat. It is concluded that clodinafop-propargyl at 0.075 kg a.e/ha could be used in controlling wild sorghum in faba bean. At this rate, the marginal rate of return was about 35 which indicating that every monetary unit (SDG 1) invested in the mentioned treatment would be returned back, plus additional amount of 35 SDG.(Author)

  19. A Novel QTL for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Nordic Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Therése; Åhman, Inger; Manninen, Outi; Reitan, Lars; Christerson, Therese; Due Jensen, Jens; Krusell, Lene; Jahoor, Ahmed; Orabi, Jihad

    2017-01-01

    The powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a worldwide threat to barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare ) production. One way to control the disease is by the development and deployment of resistant cultivars. A genome-wide association study was performed in a Nordic spring barley panel consisting of 169 genotypes, to identify marker-trait associations significant for powdery mildew. Powdery mildew was scored during three years (2012-2014) in four different locations within the Nordic region. There were strong correlations between data from all locations and years. In total four QTLs were identified, one located on chromosome 4H in the same region as the previously identified mlo locus and three on chromosome 6H. Out of these three QTLs identified on chromosome 6H, two are in the same region as previously reported QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, whereas one QTL appears to be novel. The top NCBI BLASTn hit of the SNP markers within the novel QTL predicted the responsible gene to be the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, RPN1, which is required for innate immunity and powdery mildew-induced cell death in Arabidopsis . The results from this study have revealed SNP marker candidates that can be exploited for use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of genes for powdery mildew resistance in barley.

  20. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK BUAH ADAS (Foeniculum vulgare, Mill PADA Vibrio harveyi DAN Vibrio alginolyticus Antibacterial Activity of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill Extract on Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budianto Budianto

    2015-10-01

    Pada penelitian ini menggunakan ekstrak air dari buah adas untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Vibrio harveyi dan Vibrio alginolyticus dengan menggunakan metode uji Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC dan difusi cakram kertas. Hasil yang diperoleh pada uji MIC, konsentrasi terkecil untuk menghambat pertumbuhan adalah 0,060 g/ml, untuk kedua spesies bakteri. Variasi perlakuan pada uji cakram kertas yaitu konsentrasi A (0,065 g/ml, B (0,070 g/ml, C (0,075 g/ml, D (0,080 g/ml, E (0,085 g/ml, F (0,090 g/ml dan kontrol (0,000 g/ml, hasil yang diperoleh adalah konsentrasi 0,090 g/ml memiliki diameter zona hambat tertinggi sebesar 11,17 ± 0,5 mm (V. harveyi dan 12,53 ± 1,14 mm (V. alginolyticus, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa buah adas (F. vulgare Mill memiliki peranan ekologi yang sangat penting sebagai bahan pengobatan alternatif dalam pengendalian penyebaran penyakit Vibriosis yang disebabkan oleh V. harveyi dan V. alginolyticus. Kata kunci: Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, uji MIC dan difusi cakram kertas

  1. Lipids characterization of ultrasound and microwave processed germinated sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sadia; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nazir; Khan, Muhammad Kamran

    2017-06-27

    Cereal crops and oilseeds provide diverse pool of fatty acids with characteristic properties. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) provides the staple food with serving as main source of energy and protein. Germination of sorghum generally increases the nutritive value of seeds and the effects of germination on lipids composition of seeds vary greatly with processing conditions. Therefore, the current study was conducted to compare the effect of emerging processing techniques such as ultrasound (US) and microwave (MW) on fatty acids composition and oil yield of sorghum seeds before and after germination. Initially sorghum grains were soaked with 5% NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite) for surface sterilization. Afterwards, grains were soaked in excess water for 22 h at room temperature and were divided into four portions. The first portion (100 g grains) was subjected to germination without applying any microwave and ultrasonic treatment (T 0 ). Second portion was further divided into four groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 ) (100 g of each group) and grains were subjected to ultrasonic treatments using two different ultrasonic intensities (US 1 : 40%; US 2 : 60%) within range of 0-100% and with two different time durations (t US1 : 5 min; t US2 : 10 min) at constant temperature. Third portion was also divided into four groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 ) (100 g of each group) and exposed to microwave treatments at two different power levels (MW 1 : 450 watt; MW 2 : 700 watt) within the range of 100-900 W for two different time durations (t MW1 : 15 s; t MW2 : 30s). Similarly, fourth portion was divided into four groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 ) (100 g of each group). Each group was exposed to both MW (MW 1 , MW 2 ) (100-900 watt power) & US (US 1 , US 2 ) (0-100% intensity) treatments at two different time levels (t US , t MW ). Then, germination was carried out and pre-treated raw and pre-treated germinated sorghum grains were analyzed for total oil yield, fatty acid

  2. Sorghum yield after liming and combinations of phosphorus sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago C. Silveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phosphate fertilization has increased sorghum yield, but few studies are available on sorghum production and efficient fertilizer management related to liming and phosphorus (P sources. This work evaluates production, dry matter partitioning and agronomic efficiency (AEI in successive sorghum cycles after application of limestone and combinations of phosphorus sources. Two cycles were conducted in sequence in the same experimental field, in a 2 x 6 factorial scheme, corresponding to soil with or without liming and six combinations of P2O5 sources: control (0 kg ha-1 P2O5, 100% Itafós natural phosphate (NP, 75% NP + 25% single superphosphate (SS, 50% NP + 50% SS, 25% NP + 75% SS and 100% SS. Pots with capacity for 8 dm3 were used in a randomized block design with four replicates. The first cycle, conducted in the summer/autumn season, reached the highest dry matter production and P accumulation in treatments with higher SS proportions, leading to higher AEI. Subsequently, in the second cycle, conducted considering only the residual phosphate fertilization of the first cycle, highest dry matter production and AEI were obtained in the treatment with 100% or higher proportions of natural phosphate in the presence of liming, most likely due to the gradual release of P.

  3. Energy analysis of ethanol production from sweet sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, J.W. (Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Vaughan, D.H.; Cundiff, J.S. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Piedmont System is a collection of equipment for efficiently removing the juice from sweet sorghum stalks for the production of ethanol. The concept is to separate the whole stalks into pith and rind-leaf fractions, pass only the pith fraction through a screw press, and thus achieve an improvement in juice-expression efficiency and press capacity. An energy analysis was done for two options of this proposed harvesting/processing system: (Option 1) The juice is evaporated to syrup and used throughout the year to produce ethanol, and the by-products are used as cattle feed. (Option 2) The juice is fermented as it is harvested, and the by-products (along with other cellulosic materials) are used as feedstock for the remainder of the year. Energy ratios (energy output/energy input) of 0.9, 1.1 and 0.8 were found for sweet sorghum Option 1, sweet sorghum Option 2, and corn, respectively, as feedstocks for ethanol. If only liquid fuels are considered, the ratios are increased to 3.5, 7.9 and 4.5. (author).

  4. Efectividad de métodos de control de malezas en la producción de forraje del pasto Pangola (Digitaria decumbens Stent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valent\\u00EDn Alberto Esqueda-Esquivel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efectividad de métodos de con trol de ma le zas en la producción de forraje del pasto Pangola (Digitaria decumbens Stent. En el periodo de agosto de 1998 a agosto de 1999 se condujo un experimento en Emilio Carranza, municipio de Ve ga de Alatorre, Ve racruz, México, con el objeto de determinar el efec to de tra ta mien tos de con trol quí mi co y ma nual de ma le zas en la pro duc ción de fo rraje de zacate Pangola y en la den si dad de po bla ción de ma le zas presentes al inicio del siguiente ciclo de lluvias. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de blo ques completos al azar con cua tro re pe ti cio nes. Los tra tamien tos evaluados fueron: 1. Mezcla for mulada de picloram + 2,4-D (64 + 240 g/100 l agua 2. Mez cla for mu la da de pi cloram + flu ro xi pir (40 + 40 g/100 l agua 3. Con trol ma nual mediante chapeo con machete y 4. Testigo enhierbado. Las parcelas experimentales tuvieron 30 m de longitud y 10 m de anchura. Los tra ta mien tos 1, 2 y 3 se apli ca ron el 17 de agos to de 1998, cuan do la zar za de lo ma (Mimosa albida, que fue la es pe cie de ma le za do mi nan te te nía en tre 40 y 60 cm de al tu ra y la cobertura promedio de malezas del lote experimental, era de 57,9%. Se eva luó la co ber tu ra de ma le zas y pas to y el control de ma le zas a los 29, 60, 80, 114 y 154 días des pués de la aplicación de los tratamientos (DDA. También se determinó la producción de forraje de za ca te Pan go la a los 45, 80, 143 y 178 DDA. Con pi clo ram + flu ro xi pir y pi clo ram + 2,4-D, se controló más eficientemente a M. albida y el com ple jo de ma le zas her bá ceas que con el cha peo y se ob tu vo una produc ción significativamente mayor de ma teria seca de pas to. Ambos tratamientos herbicidas presentaron menor densidad de po bla ción de ma le zas en el si guien te ci clo de llu vias que el tratamiento con chapeo.

  5. Sorghum. A contribution to the diversification of the portfolio of energy plants; Sorghumhirsen. Ein Beitrag zur Diversifizierung des Energiepflanzenspektrums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-19

    Within the joint project 'Cultivation technology sorghum - A contribution to the diversification of the portfolio of energy plants' extensive investigations of the cultivation technology in sorghum were conducted. Within this joint project sorghum will be tested under various conditions according to its suitability as a raw material for the production of biogas. Additionally, the cultivation of sorghum in Germany shall be optimized under cultivation techniques and environmental aspects.

  6. Energy sorghum--a genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John; Morishige, Daryl; McCormick, Ryan; Truong, Sandra; Hilley, Josie; McKinley, Brian; Anderson, Robert; Olson, Sara N; Rooney, William

    2014-07-01

    Sorghum is emerging as an excellent genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops. Annual energy Sorghum hybrids also serve as a source of biomass for bioenergy production. Elucidation of Sorghum's flowering time gene regulatory network, and identification of complementary alleles for photoperiod sensitivity, enabled large-scale generation of energy Sorghum hybrids for testing and commercial use. Energy Sorghum hybrids with long vegetative growth phases were found to accumulate more than twice as much biomass as grain Sorghum, owing to extended growing seasons, greater light interception, and higher radiation use efficiency. High biomass yield, efficient nitrogen recycling, and preferential accumulation of stem biomass with low nitrogen content contributed to energy Sorghum's elevated nitrogen use efficiency. Sorghum's integrated genetics-genomics-breeding platform, diverse germplasm, and the opportunity for annual testing of new genetic designs in controlled environments and in multiple field locations is aiding fundamental discovery, and accelerating the improvement of biomass yield and optimization of composition for biofuels production. Recent advances in wide hybridization between Sorghum and other C4 grasses could allow the deployment of improved genetic designs of annual energy Sorghums in the form of wide-hybrid perennial crops. The current trajectory of energy Sorghum genetic improvement indicates that it will be possible to sustainably produce biofuels from C4 grass bioenergy crops that are cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effect of heavy metal and edta application on plant growth and phyto-extraction potential of sorghum (sorghum bicolor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacaha, N.; Shamas, R.; Bakht, J.; Rafi, A.; Farhatullah, M.; Gillani, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the phyto-extraction capacity of heavy metals by Sorghum. Sorghum bicolor was grown in soil artificially contaminated with different concentrations of lead (300, 350 and 400 mg/kg), chromium (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) and cadmium (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg). Five mM EDTA was applied, as chelating agent to the plants after 4 weeks of sowing. Plants were grown for a total of two months and fresh weight and dry weight of shoot and heavy metal accumulation were analyzed at six and eight weeks after sowing. The results revealed that application of cadmium, chromium and lead and EDTA adversely affected shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of S. bicolor at both time intervals. Heavy metals uptake increased with the increment of heavy metal by S. bicolor species. Application of 5mM EDTA enhanced the uptake of heavy metal. (author)

  8. High-polyphenol sorghum bran extract inhibits cancer cell growth through DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    As diet is one of the major controllable factors in cancer development, potentially chemopreventive foods are of significant interest to public health. One such food is sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), a cereal grain that contains varying concentrations of polyphenols. In a panel of 15 sorghum germplasm...

  9. Evaluation of selected sorghum lines and hybrids for resistance to grain mold and long smut fungi in Senegal, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain mold in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a major worldwide problem; damage caused by this fungal disease complex includes a reduction in yield (loss of seed mass), grain density, and germination. Long smut is another important fungal disease in sorghum and potential threat to food sec...

  10. Soil and Rhizosphere Populations of Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Associated with Field-grown Plants are Affected by Sorghum Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is valued for bioenergy, feed and food. Potential of sorghum genotypes to support differing populations of root- and soil-associated fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. or Fusarium spp., in two soils, was assessed. Pseudomonads and Fusarium spp. were assessed from root...

  11. The Effect of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM on Yield and Yield Components of Three Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehraban

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM on yield and yield components of three sorghum cultivars, a factorial experiment based randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out in 2007, at the Agricultural Research Center of Zahak, Iran. The treatments were different mycorrhiza species in three levels: without mycorrhiza (M1, Glomus etanicatum (M2 and G. mosseae(M3 and three cultivars of sorghum: local cultivars (C1, KGS25 (C2 and KGS29 (C3. The results showed that all of the traits measured were increased by inoculation of cultivars with mycorrhiza. The highest plant height (165.1 cm, stem diameter (1.61 cm, flag leaf length (27.22 cm, flag leaf width (3.67 cm and ear width (5.00 cm was obtained by inoculation of seed with Glumus etanicatum, and highest ear length (19.21 cm, ear number (2.51, seed number per ear (10252.11, 1000-seed weight (17.56 g and grain yield (1967.32 kg/ha by using Glumus mossea. The highest leaf width and length belonged to local cultivar, and the highest seed yield to KGS 29 cultivar. However, differences of other traits among sorghum cultivars were not significant. Based on the experimental results it can be concluded that highest grain yield may be obtained by inoculating seeds of KGS 29 with Glumus mossea.

  12. Efficient regeneration of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, from shoot-tip explant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamala, D; Devi, Prathibha

    2003-12-01

    Novel protocols for production of multiple shoot-tip clumps and somatic embryos of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were developed with long-term goal of crop improvement through genetic transformation. Multiple shoot-tip clumps were developed in vitro from shoot-tip explant of one-week old seedling, cultured on MS medium containing only BA (0.5, 1 or 2 mg/l) or both BA (1 or 2 mg/l) and 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) with bi-weekly subculture. Somatic embryos were directly produced on the enlarged dome shaped growing structures that developed from the shoot-tips of one-week old seedling explants (without any callus formation) when cultured on MS medium supplemented with both 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l). However, the supplementation of MS medium with only 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) induced compact callus without any plantlet regeneration. Each multiple shoot-clump was capable of regenerating more than 80 shoots via an intensive differentiation of both axillary and adventitious shoot buds, the somatic embryos were capable of 90% germination, plant conversion and regeneration. The regenerated shoots could be efficiently rooted on MS medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 1 mg/l). The plants were successfully transplanted to glasshouse and grown to maturity with a survival rate of 98%. Morphogenetic response of the explants was found to be genotypically independent.

  13. Preparation of Hulu-mur flavored carbonated beverage based on Feterita sorghum (Sorghum bicolor malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara F. A. Baidab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available  In this study, sorghum Feterita malt extract was used to prepare carbonated beverages flavored with traditional Hulu-mur spices extract.  The beverages produced were assessed for their physicochemical, sensory, and nutritional qualities. Malting (3–5 days of the Feterita grains showed significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences in proximate composition from that of unmalted grains. Protein and sugars increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 with increased the malting time (days, while there was a significant (P ≤ 0.05 reduction in oil and starch  content  during malting progress. The kilning temperature of 150°C for 20 minutes was found to produce the most acceptable Hulu-mur carbonated beverage analogue in terms of flavor and taste. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 were observed in physicochemical and nutritional qualities between the Hulu-mur analogue carbonated beverage and commercial non-alcoholic beverage. The Hulu-mur carbonated beverage analogue was rich in Na, K, Ca, and Fe (26.45, 21.84, 24.00, and 0.57 mg /100 g, respectively compared to levels of the same minerals in the non-alcoholic beverage (22.31, 8.19, 22.00 and 0.15 mg/100 g, respectively. The Hulu-mur analogue also had a higher calorific value (35.85 kcal /100 mL compared to the non-alcoholic beverage (32.96 kcal/100 mL.

  14. Endogenous phenolics and starch modifying enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to screen for biochemical determinants in sorghum varieties cultivated in Burkina Faso to identify the best sorghum varieties to be used as source of bioactive components or for specific local foods, e.g. "tô", thin porridges for infants, granulated foods "couscous",

  15. Production of biodiesel via the in situ transesterification of grain sorghum bran and DDGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acylglycerides in sorghum bran and distiller’s dried grains and solubles (DDGS) from sorghum post-fermentation stillage have been converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using an in-situ transesterification (IST) method. The reactions were conducted at 25 deg C or 40 deg C in the presence...

  16. Overexpression of SbMyb60 in sorghum bicolor impacts both primary and secondary metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few transcription factors have been identified in C4 grasses that either positively or negatively regulate monolignol biosynthesis. Previously, overexpression of SbMyb60 in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) was shown to induce monolignol synthesis, which led to elevated lignin deposition and al...

  17. Sorghum grain as human food in Africa: relevance of content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropic areas of the world, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa because of its good adaptation to hard environments and its good yield of production. Among important biochemical components for sorghum processing are levels of starch (amylose and amylopectin) and starch ...

  18. 75 FR 41392 - Sorghum Promotion and Research Program: Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... voting procedures, eligibility, disposition of forms and records, FSA's role, and reporting the results... means any harvested portion of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench or any related species of the genus Sorghum... of the forms and records. FSA would coordinate State and county FSA roles in conducting the...

  19. 75 FR 70573 - Sorghum Promotion and Research Program: Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... definitions, certification and voting procedures, eligibility, disposition of forms and records, the role of... means any harvested portion of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench or any related species of the genus Sorghum... disposition of the forms and records. FSA will coordinate State and county FSA roles in conducting the...

  20. Household production of sorghum beer in Benin: technological and socio-economic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.; Niehof, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the sorghum brewing microenterprises in Benin with emphasis on the beer quality, the social significance of the product as well as the income generated. Tchoukoutou, the Benin opaque sorghum beer, has important social functions as it fosters the cooperative spirit and remains an

  1. Effect of Excessive Soil Moisture Stress on Sweet Sorghum: Physiological Changes and Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.; Wang, Y.; Yu, H.; Zhu, K.; Zhang, Z.; Zou, F. L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a potential bioenergy feedstock. Research explaining the response of sweet sorghum to excessive soil moisture (EM) stress at different growth stage is limited. To investigate the effect of EM stress on sweet sorghum antioxidant enzymes, osmotic regulation, biomass, quality, and ethanol production, an experiment was conducted in a glasshouse at the National Sorghum Improvement Center, Shenyang, China. Sweet sorghum (cv. LiaoTian1) was studied in four irrigation treatments with a randomized block design method. The results showed that the protective enzyme, particularly the SOD, CAT and APX in it, was significantly affected by EM stress. EM stress deleteriously affected sweet sorghum growth, resulting in a remarkable reduction of aboveground biomass, stalk juice quality, stalk juice yield, and thus, decreased ethanol yield. EM stress also caused significant reduction in plant relative water content, which further decreased stalk juice extraction rate. Sweet sorghum grown under light, medium, and heavy EM treatments displayed 5, 19, and 30% fresh stalk yield reduction, which showed a significant difference compared to control. The estimated juice ethanol yield significantly declined from 1407 ha/sup -1/ (under optimum soil moisture) to 1272, 970, and 734 L ha/sup -1/ respectively. (author)

  2. Cover crop and nitrogen fertilization influence soil carbon and nitrogen under bioenergy sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crop and N fertilization may maintain soil C and N levels under sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) biomass harvested for bioenergy production. The effect of cover crops (hairy vetch [Vicia villosa Roth], rye [Secaele cereale L.], hairy vetch/rye mixture, and the control [no cover crop...

  3. The effect of alpha amylase enzyme on quality of sweet sorghum juice for chrystal sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwati, T.; Cahyaningrum, N.; Widodo, S.; Astiati, U. T.; Budiyanto, A.; Wahyudiono; Arif, A. B.; Richana, N.

    2018-01-01

    Sweet sorghum juice (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has characteristics similar to sugar cane juice and potentially used for sugar substitutes that can support food security. Nevertheless the sweet sorghum juicecontain starch which impede sorghum sugar crystallization. Therefore, research on the enzymatic process is needed to convert starch into reducing sugar. The experimental design used was the Factorial Randomized Design with the first factor was alpha amylase enzyme concentration (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 μL/100 mL) and second factor was incubation time (0, 30, 60, 90 minute) at temperature 100°C. The experiment was conducted on fresh sweet sorghum. The results showed that the addition of the alpha amylase enzyme increased the content of reducing sugar and decreased levels of starch. Elevating concentration of alpha amylase enzyme will increase the reducing sugar content in sweet sorghum juice. The optimum alpha amylase enzyme concentration to produce the highest total sugar was 80 μL/100 mL of sweet sorghum juice with the optimum incubation time was 90 minutes. The results of this study are expected to create a new sweetener for sugar substitution. From the economic prospective aspect, sorghum is a potential crop and can be relied upon to support the success of the food diversification program which further leads to the world food security

  4. Characterization of novel Brown midrib 6 mutations affecting lignin biosynthesis in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of lignin reduces the quality of lignocellulosic biomass for forage materials and feedstock for biofuels. In C4 grasses, the brown midrib phenotype has been linked to mutations to genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. For example, the Bmr6 gene in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has b...

  5. Response of Fusarium thapsinum to sorghum brown midrib lines and to phenolic metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation type: poster Presentation title: Response of Fusarium thapsinum to sorghum brown midrib lines and to phenolic metabolites Sorghum lines were bred for reduced lignin for cellulosic bioenergy uses, through the incorporation of brown midrib (bmr) bmr6 and/or 12 into two gen...

  6. Yield and forage value of a dual-purpose bmr-12 sorghum hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important crop for rainfed production systems with 2.7 million ha grown in the USA in 2013. The brown-midrib (bmr) mutations, especially bmr-12, have resulted in low stover lignin and high fiber digestibility without reducing grain yield in some sor...

  7. Alteration in Lignin Biosynthesis Restricts Growth of Fusarium Species in Brown Midrib Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve sorghum for bioenergy and forage uses, brown midrib6 (bmr6) and bmr12 near-isogenic genotypes were developed in different sorghum backgrounds. bmr6 and bmr12 grain had significantly reduced colonization by members of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex, compared with wild-type, as de...

  8. The role of phenylpropanoid pathway metabolites in resistance of sorghum to pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is being developed for diverse uses, including for bioenergy and food. In order to increase efficiency of ethanol production from plant materials, sorghum lines with reduced lignin were developed by incorporating two mutations in lignin biosynthesis pathway genes: brown midrib (bmr) 6 and bm...

  9. Translational genomics and marker assisted selection in sorghum case study using brown midrib (bmr) trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Translational genomics is a critical phase in harnessing the rich genomic data available for sorghum. There is a need to transform nucleotide variation data between sorghum germplasm such as that derived from RNA seq, genotype by sequencing (gbs) or whole genome resequencing thru translation and...

  10. Differences in fusarium species in brown midrib sorghum and in air populations in production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several Fusarium spp. cause sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grain mold, resulting in deterioration and mycotoxin production in the field and during storage. Fungal isolates from the air (2005 to 2006) and from leaves and grain from wild-type and brown midrib (bmr)-6 and bmr12 plants (2002 to 2003) were co...

  11. Inheritance and molecular mapping of anthracnose resistance genes present in sorghum line SC112-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) is one of the most destructive diseases of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) affecting all aerial tissues of the plant. The most effective strategy for its control is the incorporation of resistance genes. Therefore, the anthracnose resistance response pr...

  12. Simulating the probability of grain sorghum maturity before the first frost in northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expanding grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] production northward from southeastern Colorado is thought to be limited by shorter growing seasons due to lower temperatures and earlier frost dates. This study used a simulation model for predicting crop phenology (PhenologyMMS) to predict the ...

  13. Sorghum grain as human food in Africa: relevance of content of starch and amylase activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Sorghum is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropic areas of the world, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa because of its good adaptation to hard environments and its good yield of production. Among important biochemical components for sorghum processing are levels of starch (amylose and

  14. Evidence for an evolutionarily conserved interaction between cell wall biosynthesis and flowering in maize and sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Karen J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors that affect flowering vary among different plant species, and in the grasses in particular the exact mechanism behind this transition is not fully understood. The brown midrib (bm mutants of maize (Zea mays L., which have altered cell wall composition, have different flowering dynamics compared to their wild-type counterparts. This is indicative of a link between cell wall biogenesis and flowering. In order to test whether this relationship also exists in other grasses, the flowering dynamics in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench were investigated. Sorghum is evolutionarily closely related to maize, and a set of brown midrib (bmr mutants similar to the maize bm mutants is available, making sorghum a suitable choice for study in this context. Results We compared the flowering time (time to half-bloom of several different bmr sorghum lines and their wild-type counterparts. This revealed that the relationship between cell wall composition and flowering was conserved in sorghum. Specifically, the mutant bmr7 flowered significantly earlier than the corresponding wild-type control, whereas the mutants bmr2, bmr4, bmr6, bmr12, and bmr19 flowered later than their wild-type controls. Conclusion The change in flowering dynamics in several of the brown midrib sorghum lines provides evidence for an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that links cell wall biosynthesis to flowering dynamics. The availability of the sorghum bmr mutants expands the germplasm available to investigate this relationship in further detail.

  15. Supplemental irrigation for grain sorghum production in the US Eastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum is an important grain crop throughout the world and is generally considered drought tolerant. Recently, in the US eastern Coastal Plain region, there was an emphasis on increasing regional grain production with grain sorghum having an important role. The region soils have low water hol...

  16. Use of wood ash in the treatment of high tannin sorghum for poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conniek

    Abstract. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of wood ash treatment on the nutritional value of high tannin sorghum. High tannin sorghum was either soaked in wood ash slurry and then germinated for four days or soaked in wood ash extract and germinated for 28 hours or germinated after soaking in water.

  17. Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse for hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Koukios, E.G.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse, an energy crop residue, with NaOH for the production of fermentable substrates, was investigated. Optimal conditions for the alkaline pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse were realized at 10% NaOH (w/w dry matter). A delignification of 46% was then observed,

  18. Characterization of novel multi-seeded (msd) mutants of sorghum for increasing grain number

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tribe Andropogoneae of the Poaceae family exhibits highly branched inflorescence known as panicle or tassel. Characteristically, each spikelet in a panicle or tassel comprise of a combination of sessile/fertile and sterile florets. In sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), the existing cultivars ...

  19. Registration of four post-flowering drought tolerant grain sorghum lines with early season cold tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) germplasm lines— PSLS-SGCTB01 (Reg. No.), PSLS-SGCTR02 (Reg. No.), PSLS-SGCTB03 (Reg. No.) and PSLS-SGCTB04 (Reg. No.) — were developed by the USDA-ARS in Lubbock TX, in 2017. The primary purpose for the release of these lines is to provide an alternative germplasm ...

  20. Genetic analysis of male sterility genes in different A and B sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid seed production requires use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Without this system, hybrid seed production would not be economically feasible. There is, therefore, need for developing A and B sorghum lines, as an essential step for development of hybrid sorghum industry. A genetic study of male sterility in ...

  1. Aggressiveness of loose kernel smut isolate from Johnson grass on sorghum line BTx643

    Science.gov (United States)

    An isolate of loose kernel smut obtained from Johnson grass was inoculated unto six BTx643 sorghum plants in the greenhouse to determine its aggressiveness. All the BTx643 sorghum plants inoculated with the Johnson grass isolate were infected. Mean size of the teliospores from the Johnson grass, i...

  2. Identification of quantitative trait loci for popping traits and kernel characteristics in sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popped grain sorghum has developed a niche among specialty snack-food consumers. In contrast to popcorn, sorghum has not benefited from persistent selective breeding for popping efficiency and kernel expansion ratio. While recent studies have already demonstrated that popping characteristics are h...

  3. Mineral content in grains of seven food-grade sorghum hybrids grown in Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is a major crop used for food, feed and industrial purposes worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the mineral content in grains of seven white food-grade sorghum hybrids bred and adapted for growth in the central USA and grown in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. The ...

  4. Genetic diversity of sweet sorghum germplasm in Mexico using AFLP and SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity and genetic relationships between lines and varieties of the sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) germplasm bank of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research, Mexico, using AFLP and SSR markers. The molecular markers ...

  5. Use of wood ash in the treatment of high tannin sorghum for poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of wood ash treatment on the nutritional value of high tannin sorghum. High tannin sorghum was either soaked in wood ash slurry and then germinated for four days or soaked in wood ash extract and germinated for 28 hours or germinated after soaking in water. Chemical ...

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and nutritive value of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Sorghum grains were gamma irradiated at 0, 10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 KGy doses using cobalt-60 source. Irradiated and unirradiated sorghum samples were analyzed for crude fiber contents, total nitrogen, fat, ash and tannic acid. Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were also determined. In addition, digestibility coefficient received special attention. The irradiated sorghum grains were incorporated into basal diets and fed to rats during the digestion trials. The results indicated that gamma irradiation had no effects on total nitrogen, fat and ash contents of sorghum grains. Irradiation treatments of sorghum did not cause a pronounced effect on tannic acid content even those received the highest irradiation dose (200 kGy). Moreover, the irradiation treatments decreased the NDF content of sorghum especially those subjected to 100 or 200 kGy. On the other hand, the ADF and ADL values did not show a remarkable change due to irradiation treatments. Hemicellulose content was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose levels. Also, it was noticed that feeding rats on basal diets enriched with irradiated sorghum grains had a beneficial effects on digestibility coefficient. This trend was obvious with animals supplemented with sorghum grains subjected to the relatively high irradiation dose levels. 4 tabs

  7. Characteristics of African traditional beers brewed with sorghum malt: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyumugabe, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sorghum beers are produced in several countries of Africa, but variations in the manufacturing process may occur depending on the geographic localization. These beers are very rich in calories, B-group vitamins including thiamine, folic acid, riboflavin and nicotinic acid, and essential amino acids such as lysine. However, the traditional sorghum beer is less attractive than Western beers because of its poorer hygienic quality, organoleptic variations and shorter shelf life. Research into the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sorghum beers as well as their technologies have been performed and documented in several African countries. This review aims to summarize the production processes and compositional characteristics of African traditional sorghum beers (ikigage, merissa, doro, dolo, pito, amgba and tchoukoutou. It also highlights the major differences between these traditional beers and barley malt beer, consumed worldwide, and suggests adaptations that could be made to improve the production process of traditional sorghum beer.

  8. Quality and Quantity of Sorghum Hydroponic Fodder from Different Varieties and Harvest Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisdiana, R.

    2018-02-01

    This experiment was designed to compare different varieties and harvest time of sorghum hydroponic fodder based on nutrient content and biomass production. Experimental design for fodder productivity was completely randomized design with 2 x 3 factorial, i.e., sorghum varieties (KD 4 and Super-1) and time of harvesting the sorghum hydroponic fodder (8,12 and 16 d). Total biomass and DM production, were affected significantly (p<0.05) on harvest time. Total biomass and nutrient content were increased in longer harvest time. The nutrient content were increased with decreasing total value of DM. Super-1 varieties produce larger biomass and nutrient content higher than KD4 (p<0.05). Based on sorghum hidroponic fodder quality and quantity, sorghum hidroponic fodder with Super-1 varieties harvested at 12 d had a good quality of fodder and it can be alternative of technology providing quality forage and land saving with a short time planting period and continous production.

  9. The Effect of Salicylic Acid and Gibberellin on Seed Reserve Utilization, Germination and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Seeds Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayyeh Sheykhbaglou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming methods have been used to increases germination characteristics under stress conditions. The study aimed was to determine the effect of salicylic acid and gibberellin on seed reserve utilization, germination and enzyme activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was the seed treatments (unpriming, salicylic acid and gibberellin and the second factor was drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar. The results indicated that for these traits: germination percentage, germination index, weight of utilized (mobilized seed, seed reserve utilization efficiency, seedling dry weight and seed reserve depletion percentage was a significant treatment Ч drought interaction. Thus priming improved study traits in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Also, priming improves enzyme activity as compared to the unprimed seeds.

  10. Effects of the genotype and environment interaction on sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum varieties (Sorghum bicolor -{L.}- Moench grown in the lowland tropics of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Humberto Bernal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar production in sweet sorghums is affected by the environment. Therefore, in this study on the effects of the genotype x environment interaction on sugar accumulation, plant traits associated with the sugar content in the stem were evaluated in ten sorghum genotypes grown in six contrasting environments. The results indicated that the stem dry weight, juice sugar concentration (°Brix, stem sugar content and juice volume were controlled by the genetic constitution of the genotype, with a large environmental contribution to their expression. The results allowed for the identification of the sweet sorghum genotypes that have a high potential for the biofuel agroindustry due to their high sugar contents in the environmental conditions of Palmira, Espinal, Cerete and Codazzi. Humid tropical environments such as Gaitan and Villavicencio were less favorable for the competitive production of sweet sorghums for bioethanol due to their low levels of solar radiation and soil fertility.

  11. Giemsa C-banding in two polyploid, South American Hordeum species, H. tetraploidum and H. lechleri, and their aneuploid hybrids with H. vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von

    1986-01-01

    . The hybrids were stably aneuploid. Both had lost and acquired H. vulgare chromosomes. Thus, somatic elimination of chromosomes was combined with multiplication of chromosomes. The observations of stably aneuploid hybrids have implications for the exploitation of alien germplasm. The activity of non-H. vulgare...

  12. Impact of the Soak and the Malt on the Physicochemical Properties of the Sorghum Starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Starches were isolated from soaked and malted sorghum and studied to understand their physicochemical and functional properties. The swelling power (SP and the water solubility index (WSI of both starches were nearly similar at temperatures below 50 °C, but at more than 50 °C, the starch isolated from malted sorghum showed lower SP and high WSI than those isolated from raw and soaked sorghum. The pasting properties of starches determined by rapid visco-analyzer (RVA showed that malted sorghum starch had a lower viscosity peak value (86 BU/RVU than raw sorghum starch (454 BU/RVU. For both sorghum, X-ray diffractograms exhibited an A-type diffraction pattern, typical of cereal starches and the relative degrees of crystallinity ranged from 9.62 to 15.50%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC revealed that raw sorghum starch showed an endotherm with a peak temperature (Tp at 78.06 °C and gelatinization enthalpies of 2.83 J/g whereas five-day malted sorghum starch had a Tp at 47.22 °C and gelatinization enthalpies of 2.06 J/g. Storage modulus (G′ and loss modulus (G″ of all starch suspensions increased steeply to a maximum at 70 °C and then decreased with continuous heating. The structural analysis of malted sorghum starch showed porosity on the granule’s surface susceptible to the amylolysis. The results showed that physicochemical and functional properties of sorghum starches are influenced by soaking and malting methods.

  13. Nutritive value of diferents silage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cultivares - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.12853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique dos Santos Gomes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition values of silages from different sorghum cultivars are evaluated. Five 26-kg castrated crossbred lambs, housed in pens equipped with feces and urine collectors for the study of their metabolism, were employed in a 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. Treatments consisted of silage from five different sorghum cultivars: IPA 1011 and IPA 2564 (grain sorghum, IPA 2502 (dual purpose sorghum, IPA FS-25 and IPA 467 (forage sorghum. Protein level was corrected to 12% by adding a mixture of urea: ammonium sulfate (9:1. Treatments IPA 1011, IPA 2564 and IPA 2502 provided high intake of dry matter, total carbohydrate and total digestible nutrients, and low intake of neutral detergent fiber. Cultivars IPA 1011 and IPA 2564 provided high apparent crude protein digestibility coefficient, whereas cultivars IPA 1011 and IPA 2564 had high total digestible nutrient levels. All cultivars provided positive nitrogen. Owing to nutrient intake and digestibility values, grain sorghum silages evidenced high potential in ruminant nutrition.

  14. Pengujian Parameter Biji Sorghum dan Pengaruh Analisa Total Asam Laktat dan pH pada Tepung Sorghum Terfermentasi Menggunakan Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces Cereviceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelinda Angelina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L Moench, adalah sereal paling penting kelima setelah beras, jagung, barley dan gandum. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kemampuan substitusi biji sorghum terhadap tepung terigu bisa mencapai 50-75%, walaupun nilai protein pembentuk glutennya tidak dapat menyamai tepung terigu. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mempelajari pengaruh waktu fermentasi terhadap penurunan total asam laktat, nilai pH, dan jumlah total khamir (baker’s yeast tanpa menggunakan nutrient kimia tambahan . Analisa komposisi biji sorghum yang diinvestigasi dalam keadaan wet basis dari laboratorium menghasilkan kadar air, lemak, serat, protein, karbohidrat, dan abu masing-masing sebesar 12.85%, 3.10%, 0.56%, 5.87%, 75.82%, dan 1.79%. Untuk nilai energi total dengan metode bomb kalori didapatkan 4375.94 kcal/kg. Pengujian biji sorghum menghasilkan C-organik sebesar 12,47%. Berdasarkan analisa didapatkan hasil optimal dalam membuat tepung sorghum terfermentasi pada proses fermentasi 60 jam dengan jumlah yeast yang dihasilkan 1,7 x 105 sel/ml dengan kondisi yield % asam laktat 0,214%.

  15. Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. using a modified bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaouel, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study focuses on the description of the allelopathic interactions between wild and crop species that may occur in a given ecosystem. Objectives. The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. seedlings by water-soluble allelochemicals. Method. The allelopathic activities of five Tunisian barley genotypes (modern varieties and landraces, one Saudi Arabian barley landrace and great brome were assessed using a modified laboratory bioassay named "seedling-after-seedling agar method". Results. The barley or the great brome reduced, to a greater extent, the root growth compared to the shoot growth of receiver species. The response of the root system architecture of the great brome towards barley root exudates was studied in detail. All the measured root traits were highly sensitive to the presence of barley. In our conditions, the allelopathic activity of barley root exudates had no apparent relationship with the size of the root and a prominent action of genetic determinants in the allelopathic potential between genotypes is proposed. The alloinhibitory activity of barley or great brome root exudates deferred between the receiver species but was always higher than the autoinhibition potential. The autoinhibition in barley proved to depend on whether the genotypes used as donor and receiver are identical or different, suggesting a specific interaction of allelochemicals with the receiver plant. These molecules seem to be the main actors in the allelopathic barley potential as external factors such variations of pH have no evident relevance in the inhibition process. Conclusions. Barley and great brome exude molecules in their surroundings. This affects the growth of the receiver plants, suggesting that these compounds might contribute to the plant community dynamics.

  16. Effect of liquid amendments on sorghum growth in an ultisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, Manuel E.; Cabalceta-Aguilar, Gilberto; Molina-Rojas, Eloy

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the application of liquid amendments was evaluated in a Ultisol cultivated with sorghum. The research was conducted between August and November 2011 at the Centro de Investigaciones Agronomicas, San Jose, Costa Rica. In 800 ml pots of Ultisol seeded with sorghum, the following treatments were applied: control were lime, calcium carbonate in doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, magnesium oxide in doses of 10 and 20 l/ha, carbonate calcium + magnesium oxide in doses of 5 + 5 and 10 + 10 l/ha, respectively. The plants were harvested at six weeks, which were determined leaf area, dry and fresh weight of aerial and root biomass, nutrient absorption and soil chemical characteristics. The treatments of calcium carbonate and in mixture with magnesium oxide obtained the best values of leaf area and the highest values of fresh and dry weight both for both root and aerial part of the sorghum. Little significant differences were found between treatments of liquid lime but there were important differences with respect to the control with no lime with the variables of weight of biomass. Liquid calcium carbonate increased the Ca uptake significantly, and the treatment of carbon + oxides in doses of 10 l/ha showed the highest absorption of Mg. An improvement in soil fertility was caused by all treatments of amendments, the most outstanding being the treatment of magnesium oxide in doses of 20 l/ha, which decreased the exchangeable acidity from 9.02 to 0.36 cmol (+)/l, the percentage of acid saturation was low from 95 to 3.3% and the pH increased from 5.0 to 5.7. The net amendments had a positive effect on the indicator crop and soil fertility. (author) [es

  17. The Role of Brassinosteroids in the Development of Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sutherlin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current day seed sorghum stocks contain up to fourdwarf genes that minimize the size of vegetative partsand increase harvest index. To date, only the d3 dwarfgene has been characterized molecularly. The geneencodes a homolog of the Arabidopsis and maize ABCtransporter ABCB1, which is associated with polartransport of the plant growth hormone auxin. Themechanism behind the other dwarf mutations is currentlyunknown. Brassinosteroids (BRs have a profound effect ondevelopment of monocot species, as they are involved in celldivision, cell elongation, and sex determination. Mutationsin the biosynthesis or the reception of BRs result in shorter,stunted plants (dwarf. This project aims to determine therole of BRs in growth and development of sorghum.We developed a strategy to phenocopy a BR mutantby treating sorghum plants (Tx623 with the potentbrassinosteroid inhibitor propiconazole (PCZ. PCZis a chemical inhibitor of the rate-limiting step of BRbiosynthesis in plants. The compound is also usedcommercially as fungicide to treat turf grass diseases.After analyzing the growth retardation effect of PCZ, weperformed a phenotypic screen in a mutagenized sorghumcollection provided by Professors Clifford Weil andMitchell Tuinstra (Department of Agronomy.The results showed that the PCZ-treated plants hadreduced height (61% and 33% of control for 100μM PCZand 500μM PCZ, respectively and tiller number (control= 4.6, 100μM PCZ = 3.3, 500μM PCZ = 1.4. Surprisingly,yield (8.5g = control, 19.3g = 100μM PCZ, 20.7g = 500μMPCZ and harvest indices (seed yield/total biomass(control = 0.09, 100μM PCZ = 0.31, 500μM PCZ = 0.38were significantly greater in PCZ-treated plants.

  18. In vitro activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil against Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete Brum Cleff

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the essential oil extracted from Origanum vulgare against sixteen Candida species isolates. Standard strains tested comprised C. albicans (ATCC strains 44858, 4053, 18804 and 3691, C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019, C. krusei (ATCC 34135, C. lusitaniae (ATCC 34449 and C. dubliniensis (ATCC MY646. Six Candida albicans isolates from the vaginal mucous membrane of female dogs, one isolate from the cutaneous tegument of a dog and one isolate of a capuchin monkey were tested in parallel. A broth microdilution technique (CLSI was used, and the inoculum concentration was adjusted to 5 x 10(6 CFU mL-1. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. Susceptibility was expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC. All isolates tested in vitro were sensitive to O. vulgare essential oil. The chromatographic analysis revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were 4-terpineol (47.95%, carvacrol (9.42%, thymol (8.42% and □-terpineol (7.57%. C. albicans isolates obtained from animal mucous membranes exhibited MIC and MFC values of 2.72 µL mL-1 and 5 µL mL-1, respectively. MIC and MFC values for C. albicans standard strains were 2.97 µL mL-1 and 3.54 µL mL-1, respectively. The MIC and MFC for non-albicans species were 2.10 µL mL-1 and 2.97 µL mL-1, respectively. The antifungal activity of O. vulgare essential oil against Candida spp. observed in vitro suggests its administration may represent an alternative treatment for candidiasis.

  19. Water requirements of sorghum in lower Euphrates basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.

    1993-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted for two years during July 1987 and 1988 at the Research Station of ACSAD near Deir-Ezzor. The objectives of this study were to determine water requirements and consumptive use of sorghum (Var-IZRA'A3). The treatments were three levels of soil moisture content at 30-45 cm soil layer at which irrigation was implemented I 1 , I 2 , I 3 , representing 80%, 70% and 60% of field capacity respectively. The moisture content in the different layers of soil was measured by neutron probe except the 0-15 cm layer, which was determined gravimetrically. Some chemical and physical characteristics of soil, moisture content in the soil before irrigation, consumptive use, coefficient of consumptive use, productivity of sorghum, efficiencies of irrigation, water, K-coefficient, rate of irrigation, amount of total water added to each treatment during growth season, were studied. The results indicate that treatment I 1 has higher grain and biomass (fresh weight) yield than I 2 and I 3 . The yields were 3.142, 2.678, 2.242 ton grain/ha and 40.1, 38.2, 25,1 ton biomass/ha for I 1 , I 2 , I 3 respectively as the mean for two seasons. The mean water requirements (total water added) and consumptive use during the two years 1987 and 1988 were: 6520.0, 4922.0 m 3 /ha and 6022.5, 4836.0, 4001.0 m 3 /ha for treatments I 1 , I 2 , and I 3 respectively. Water use efficiencies were 0.52, 0.56, 0.56 Kg grain/m 3 water, water application efficiencies were 0.92, 0.86, 0.80 and coefficient of consumptive use was 1.9, 1.80, 1.79 m 3 water/Kg grain for the first, second and third treatments respectively. Generally, the final results indicate that treatment I 1 , gives the highest yield among the others, the yield of grain was 3075.0 and 3210.2 Kg/ha for first and second year respectively. Therefore, we may suggest the use of I 1 for sorghum irrigation in Deir-Ezzor area. The proper percentage of soil moisture content at 30-45 cm depth to start irrigation is 80% of field

  20. Two distinct classes of QTL determine rust resistance in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemin; Mace, Emma; Hunt, Colleen; Cruickshank, Alan; Henzell, Robert; Parkes, Heidi; Jordan, David

    2014-12-31

    Agriculture is facing enormous challenges to feed a growing population in the face of rapidly evolving pests and pathogens. The rusts, in particular, are a major pathogen of cereal crops with the potential to cause large reductions in yield. Improving stable disease resistance is an on-going major and challenging focus for many plant breeding programs, due to the rapidly evolving nature of the pathogen. Sorghum is a major summer cereal crop that is also a host for a rust pathogen Puccinia purpurea, which occurs in almost all sorghum growing areas of the world, causing direct and indirect yield losses in sorghum worldwide, however knowledge about its genetic control is still limited. In order to further investigate this issue, QTL and association mapping methods were implemented to study rust resistance in three bi-parental populations and an association mapping set of elite breeding lines in different environments. In total, 64 significant or highly significant QTL and 21 suggestive rust resistance QTL were identified representing 55 unique genomic regions. Comparisons across populations within the current study and with rust QTL identified previously in both sorghum and maize revealed a high degree of correspondence in QTL location. Negative phenotypic correlations were observed between rust, maturity and height, indicating a trend for both early maturing and shorter genotypes to be more susceptible to rust. The significant amount of QTL co-location across traits, in addition to the consistency in the direction of QTL allele effects, has provided evidence to support pleiotropic QTL action across rust, height, maturity and stay-green, supporting the role of carbon stress in susceptibility to rust. Classical rust resistance QTL regions that did not co-locate with height, maturity or stay-green QTL were found to be significantly enriched for the defence-related NBS-encoding gene family, in contrast to the lack of defence-related gene enrichment in multi-trait effect

  1. Instrumental neutron activities analysis of Marrubium vulgare L., a valuable medicinal herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Lab. of Exploration and Valorization of Steppe Ecosystem; Beladel, Brahim [Djelfa Univ. (Algeria). Dept. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    Twenty two chemical elements were identified by Instrumental neutron activation analysis in Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) a traditional medicine plant, used indigenously in Mediterranean basin to cure several diseases. The precision of the results was assessed by analyzing the certified reference material GBW 07605 (GSV-4) Tea leaves. Results showed that K was the dominant chemical element in studied plant (4.40%). The Ca and Fe mass fractions were also relatively high. However potential toxic elements in this Lamiaceae plant were within the safety limits suggested by WHO/FAO.

  2. Morphological differentiation of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Marrubium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L., commonly known as a white horehound or common horehound, belongs to the plant family Lamiaceae. It is a perennial aromatic herb which grows naturally in Europe, Asia, and America. Since ancient Egypt, this species has been known as a remedy for upper respiratory tract ailments. Nowadays, horehound is used in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases, biliary tract disorders, and for increasing the appetite and supporting the function of the stomach. The main biologically active substances in M. vulgare organs are: marrubiin, tannins, essential oils, and ursolic acid. The paper presents micromorphological analyses of non-glandular and glandular trichomes of M. vulgare. The research material was sampled from the plant collection in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin (51°14′ N, 22°34′ E. The above-ground parts of horehound were collected during the flowering period in July 2013. Using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the types and sizes of trichomes from the stem, leaf, calyx, and corolla were investigated. The results of the microscopic observations show that the surfaces of M. vulgare vegetative and reproductive organs are densely clothed with glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are of two main types: peltate and capitate. Peltate trichomes consist of a short stalk cell and a large head with secretory cells arranged in a circle. The height of a mature trichome is about 31.33 μm and the diameter of the head is 31.47 μm. The substance produced by secretory cells passes through the apical walls and accumulates within a space between the cuticle and the cell wall layer. Capitate long trichomes with a basal cell, long stalk, neck cell, and a unicellular head are 36.65 μm long and the diameter of the head is about 15.6 μm. There are two types of short capitate trichomes: with a bicellular head and a unicellular stalk and with

  3. The use of the oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil and hydrosol in green olive fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Musa Özcan; Derya Arslan; Ali Osman Aydar

    2008-01-01

    The effect of oregano the (Origanum vulgare L.) oil at the levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3% and oregano hydrosol on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the green olive (Edremit variety) fermentation was investigated. The initial pH of the oregano oil added samples were higher than the other treatments, which were above 5.8. The highest final acidity was observed in the hydrosol+brine combination (0.53%). The initial LAB population on the first day of the fermentati...

  4. Preliminar toxicological assesement of Ruta graveolens, Origanum vulgare and Persea americana on the preimplantational mouse embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in natural medicine makes it necessary to study plant properties as well as their possible secondary effects. In recent years the toxic effects of many medicinal plants on the preimplantational mouse embryo development have been studied. Many of them produce malformations and alterations in the embryonic development. Ruta graveolens "ruda", Origanum vulgare "oregano" and Persea americana "palta" are used in rural areas to menstrual colic and to provoke abortion (estrella, 1995. This study is aimed at assessing "in vivd'the effect of extracts of "oregano", "ruda" and "palta" to 20% on the morphology and growth of preimplantational mouse embryos.

  5. An Acylated Kaempferol Glycoside from Flowers of Foeniculum vulgare and F. Dulce

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Fathy M.; Shehata, Afaf H.; Khaleel, Amal E.; Ezzat, Shahera M.

    2002-01-01

    An acylated kaempferol glycoside, namely kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2”,3”-di-E-pcoumaroyl)-rhamnoside (1) was isolated from the flowers of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. It is thus isolated for the first time from family Apiaceae. In addition, the different organs of both plants afforded six flavonoid glycosides - namely afzelin (kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside) (2), quercitrin (3), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4), isoquercitrin (5), rutin (6), and miquelianin (quercetin-3...

  6. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Arisarum vulgare seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjer Kadri; Salah Eddine Djilani; Abdelouaheb Djilani

    2013-01-01

    Background.Arisarum vulgare is screened and its total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid contents were measured. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the methanol-water (7:3) extract of this plant is evalu- ated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfon- ic)) tests expressed by Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC). HPLC analyses are carried out to identify some polyphenols. The aim of this study is to identify, ...

  7. Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill obtained by different distillation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica-Dukić, N; Kujundzić, S; Soković, M; Couladis, M

    2003-04-01

    The influence of different hydrodistillation conditions was evaluated from the standpoint of essential oil yield, chemical composition and antifungal activity from seeds of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Three hydrodistillation conditions were considered. The main constituents of the oils were: (E)-anethole (72.27%-74.18%), fenchone (11.32%-16.35%) and methyl chavicol (3.78%-5.29%). The method of distillation significantly effected the essential oil yield and quantitative composition, although the antifungal activity of the oils against some fungi was only slightly altered. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum Desf. at Different Phenological Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Béjaoui, Afef; Chaabane, Hédia; Jemli, Maroua; Boulila, Abdennacer; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil (EO) of wild population of Origanum vulgare at different phenological stages, including vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, is reported. The oils of air-dried samples were obtained by hydrodistillation. The yield of oils (w/w%) at different stages were in the order of late vegetative (2.0%), early vegetative (1.7%), and flowering (0.6%) set. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...

  9. Manejo químico de plantas adultas de Digitaria insularis com glyphosate isolado e em mistura com chlorimuronethyl ou quizalofop-p-tefuril em área de plantio direto Chemical management of adult Digitaria insularis with glyphosate alone and mixture with chlorimuron-ethyl or quizalofop-p-tefuril in a no-tillage field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Maria Correia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do herbicida glyphosate, isolado e em mistura com chlorimuron-ethyl ou quizalofop-p-tefuril, e o efeito da adição de óleo mineral à calda de glyphosate e chlorimuron-ethy no controle de plantas adultas de Digitaria insularis, em área sob sistema de plantio direto. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, em condições de campo, um de novembro de 2005 a fevereiro de 2006 e outro de novembro de 2006 a janeiro de 2007, em Jaboticabal (SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial, com quatro repetições. No primeiro experimento, foram avaliadas oito combinações (Fator A entre o glyphosate (0,72; 1,44; 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1 e o chlorimuron-ethyl (0 e 10 g ha-1, três doses (Fator B de óleo mineral (0; 0,5 e 1,0 L ha-1 e uma testemunha mantida infestada sem a aplicação de herbicida. No segundo, foram estudadas seis associações (Fator A entre o glyphosate (1,44; 2,16 e 2,88 kg ha-1 e o quizalofop-p-tefuril (0 e 120 g ha-1 e um tratamento de quizalofop-p-tefuril (120 g ha-1 isolado, combinados com aplicações sequenciais (Fator B de glyphosate (0; 0,72 e 1,44 kg ha-1, pulverizado 15 dias após a primeira a aplicação, além de uma testemunha infestada sem a aplicação de herbicida. Nas avaliações iniciais, no experimento de 2005/ 2006, em plantas pulverizadas com as maiores doses de glyphosate, isolado ou em mistura ao chlorimuron, havia injúrias visuais severas, com classificação do controle de bom (71% a 80% a muito bom (81% a 90%. Com o decorrer do tempo, as plantas rebrotaram revelando seu potencial de recuperação e a ineficácia dos herbicidas no controle definitivo desta espécie. A adição de óleo mineral à calda de glyphosate e chlorimuron não contribuiu para o controle de D. insularis. No outro experimento, o quizalofop isolado e a sua associação ao glyphosate, combinados à aplicação sequencial de 1,44 kg ha-1 de glyphosate

  10. Steers performance fed diets with Alexander grass silage (Urochloa plantaginea x sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flânia Mônego Argenta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the parameters related to feedlot beef steers fed with Alexander grass silage or sorghum silage as roughage source. Twelve animals with initial average of weight and age of 245 kg and 20 months, respectively, belonging to Nellore (N, Charolais (C, 21/32 N 11/32 C, 21/32 C 11/32 N; 43/64 N 21/64 C and 43/64 C 21/64 N genetic groups were used. The ration was composed by a roughage:concentrate relation of 50:50 (dry matter basis, offered at ease. The dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber daily intake didn’t differ between roughage sources, being the medium values of 10.18; 1.28; 0.20; 4.96 and 2.51 kg/day, respectively. However, the ether extract intake by metabolic size and by corporal weight percentage were higher for the one that consumed sorghum silage, obtaining values of 2.74 and 2.36 g/metabolic size and 0.06 and 0.05 kg/100 kg of live weight. The same behavior was observed for digestible energy intake, presenting values of 364.87 and 302.83 g/metabolic size and 8.10 and 7.02 kg/100 kg of live weight. The daily average gain, final corporal score and feed conversion weren’t influenced by roughage type, being the values of 1.31 kg; 4.05 points and 7.78 kg of DM/kg of weight gain, respectively. The Alexander grass silage is a feasible alternative as its substitution in relation to sorghum silage.

  11. Phenolic Compositions and Antioxidant Activities Differ Significantly among Sorghum Grains with Different Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Shen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum grains with different applications had different phenolic profiles, which were corresponded to various antioxidant capacities. In this study, total phenolic, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids contents, as well as contents of individual phenolic compounds from sorghum grains with various applications were determined, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated. Total phenolic contents (TPC and total proanthocyanidins contents (TPAC showed strong correlation with antioxidant activities (r > 0.95, p < 0.01. Hongyingzi (S-1, one of the brewing sorghums, showed the highest level of TPC and TPAC, while white grain sorghum (S-8 had the lowest. Except for black grain sorghum (S-7, that contained the highest contents of ferulic acid, brewing sorghum grains contained the higher contents of the most individual phenolic compounds, especially the variety S-1. The correlation among individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities indicated that the free forms of protocatechuic acid (r = 0.982 of FRAPassay, p < 0.01 and taxifolin (r = 0.826 of FRAP assay, p < 0.01 may be the main functional compounds. These results indicate that brewing sorghum grains can also be utilized as effective materials for functional foods.

  12. Technical Feasibility and Comprehensive Sustainability Assessment of Sweet Sorghum for Bioethanol Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Under dual pressures of energy and environmental security, sweet sorghum is becoming one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuel production. In the present study, the technical feasibility of sweet sorghum production was assessed in eight agricultural regions in China using the Sweet Sorghum Production Technique Maturity Model. Three top typical agricultural zones were then selected for further sustainability assessment of sweet sorghum production: Northeast China (NEC, Huang-Huai-Hai Basin (HHHB and Ganxin Region (GX. Assessment results demonstrated that NEC exhibited the best sustainable production of sweet sorghum, with a degree of technical maturity value of 0.8066, followed by HHHB and GX, with corresponding values of 0.7531 and 0.6594, respectively. Prospective economic profitability analysis indicated that bioethanol production from sweet sorghum was not feasible using current technologies in China. More efforts are needed to dramatically improve feedstock mechanization logistics while developing new bioethanol productive technology to reduce the total cost. This study provides insight and information to guide further technological development toward profitable industrialization and large-scale sweet sorghum bioethanol production.

  13. Double row spacing and drip irrigation as technical options in energy sorghum management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Roncucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two row spacing configurations and four water supply levels was investigated on sweet and fibre sorghum in Central Italy for two consecutive years. Results highlighted the influence of both irrigation and row spatial configuration on crop productivity. Indeed, several studies have pointed out the positive response of sorghum to irrigation in Mediterranean climate, as in this environment water stress represents one of the main limiting factors on crop productivity. On the other hand, few attempts have been made to explore the role of row spacing on energy sorghum productivity. Results outlined an average increase in sorghum dry biomass yield ranging from +23% to +79% at variable rates of water supply as compared to rainfed control. The positive effect of irrigation was also observed on leaf area index and radiation use efficiency. Moreover, we observed a crop yield increase, from 9% to 20%, under double row spacing compared to the standard planting pattern (i.e. single row spacing. Finally, it was confirmed the efficient use of water by sorghum and the great ability of sorghum to increase its biomass yield in response to increasing volumes of water supplied. Therefore, this work suggests how row spacing configuration and drip irrigation could be feasible technical options to increase sorghum biomass yields in Mediterranean environments. These techniques should be experienced by farmers towards a sustainable intensification of current cropping systems.

  14. The Influence of Distribution Nitrogen Fertilizer Management on Absorbed and Radiation Use Efficiency in Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza beheshti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dry matter production is a function of photosynthesis active radiation absorption (APAR and radiation use efficiency. Sorghum genotypes are different in total dry matter, but the reason of these different is not clear. Producing dry matter is affected by nitrogen distributing method, but the way of this effectiveness on producing of dry matter in sorghum genotypes is not also specified. This paper focused on evaluation of receiving and absorbing PAR, which is affected by nitrogen usage method in forage sorghum genotypes, and reasons of the differences between these genotypes in production of dry matter. The variation in efficiency of APAR depends on two chemical and morphological characteristics of the vegetation, including canopy nitrogen content (NCANOPY and the canopy average for mass per unit of area (Merea. Material and Methods In order to investigate the cumulative photosynthetically active radiation (CPAR and radiation use efficiency (RUE under distributing of nitrogen side dressing and non-distributing conditions, an experiment was conducted at Khorasan Razavei Agriculture and Natural Resources , Research Center Mashhad , Iran. The statical method was according to spilt plots base on randomized complete block design with three replicates. The main plots were fifteen forage sorghum genotypes (Promising lines kfs1, kfs2, kfs3, kfs6, kfs7, kfs8, kfs9, kfs10, kfs11, kfs12, kfs13, kfs15, kfs16, kfs17, kfs18 and the subplots consisted of distributing of nitrogen side dressing and non-distributing. The samples were obtained 5 times during the growing season for determination of some characteristics including dry matter (TDM, leaf area index (LAI and Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR. Then total dry matter (TDM, cumulative Photosynthetically active radiation (CPAR and radiation use efficiency (RUE were calculated by these traits. Absorbed radiation measured by Sub Scan model SSI-UM-1.05 on five location of each plot on bottom

  15. Study on genotypic variation for ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnavathi, C.V.; Suresh, K.; Kumar, B.S. Vijay; Pallavi, M.; Komala, V.V.; Seetharama, N. [Directorate of Sorghum Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2010-07-15

    Sugarcane molasses is the main source for ethanol production in India. Sweet sorghum with its juicy stem containing sugars equivalent to that of sugarcane is a very good alternative for bio-ethanol production to meet the energy needs of the country. Sweet sorghum is drought resistant, water logging resistant and saline-alkaline tolerant. Growing sweet sorghum for ethanol production is relatively easy and economical and ethanol produced from sweet sorghum is eco-friendly. In view of this, it is important to identify superior genotypes for ethanol production in terms of percent juice brix, juice extractability, total fermentable sugars, ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency. This paper presents the study on the variability observed for the production of ethanol by various sweet sorghum genotypes in a laboratory fermentor. Five Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) genotypes were evaluated for ethanol production from stalk juice (Keller, SSV 84, Wray, NSSH 104 and BJ 248). Sweet sorghum juice differs from cane juice mainly in its higher content of starch and aconitic acid. Data were collected for biomass yield; stalk sugar yield and ethanol production in five genotypes. Maximum ethanol production of 9.0%w/v ethanol was obtained with Keller variety (20% sugar concentration was used), and decreased for other genotypes. A distiller's strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (gifted by Seagram Distilleries Ltd.) was employed for fermentation. The fermentation efficiency (FE) was 94.7% for this strain. High biomass of yeast was obtained with BJ 248 variety. When the similar experiments were conducted with unsterile sweet sorghum juice (15% sugar concentration) 6.47%w/v ethanol was produced. (author)

  16. Kajian Nilai Energi Metabolis Biji Sorghum Melalui Teknologi Sangrai Pada Ayam Petelur Periode Afkir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanny Indrat Wahyuni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of metabolic energy value of roasted sorghum in culled laying chickens  ABSTRACT. Tannin contained in sorghum can be reduced by using technology processing such as roasting. By using this way, husk of sorghum can be removed leading to decrease of tannin content which is reflected by the value of metabolism energy. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effect of roasted sorghum on metabolism energy of culled laying chickens. Measurement of metabolic energy as mathematic is used as comparison. The material used in his experiment was red sorghum, water, and 39 culled laying chickens. Equipment used in this experiment was balance, roasting tool, plastic, force feeding equipment, metabolism cages and bomb calori-meter. This experiment used completely randomized design consisting of 4 treatments and 4 replications (each replication 3 chickens. Treatment consisted of T0 = no roasted sorghum, T1 = roasted for 5 minutes and T2 = roasted for 10 minutes. Data collected were metabolism energy of roasted sorghum both biologically (force feeding and mathematically (proximate analysis at culled laying chickens. All data were statistically calculated, further statistically was conducted by using Duncan and compression of metabolism energy was calculated by using t-Test. The results show that, no statistically effect (p>0, 05 on duration of roasting on metabolism energy of sorghum. Based on t-Test analysis, there was a significantly difference (p<0, 05 between biological metabolism and mathematical metabolism. From this experiment, it can be concluded that 10 minutes of roasting cannot increase of sorghum metabolic energy. The average of biological metabolic was lower (3105, 94 kcal/kg compared to the average of mathematical metabolic energy (3766, 82 kcal/kg.

  17. Sorghum used to fodder production in dry farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ferruzzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In Italy water deficient increase forward to cultivate resistant crops for forage production. In the present research it has been studied the opportunity of using 2 varieties of sorghum: the “Sweet Creek”, used as green forage and for silage and the “True”, with thinner stalks, used as hay. The fodder production and the dhurrin content during the vegetative phase of the 2 varieties were recorded. Production and chemical characteristics of green and preserved fodders (hay and silage were determined; moreover the nutritive value and the in vitro digestibility of DM were measured. Results confirm the good adaptation of the sorghum to the water limited conditions as those ones in which the test has been carried out; green and preserved fodders yield were high, however during the hay harvest problems due to the different drying dynamics of leaves and stalks were found. The dhurrin content of these two varieties, even in the young phase, allows the use for grazing of the regrown, which have good bunching.

  18. Hormonal Regulation of Dormancy in Developing Sorghum Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, H. S.; Benech-Arnold, R. L.; Sanchez, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) in determining the dormancy level of developing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench.) seeds from varieties presenting contrasting preharvest sprouting behavior (Redland B2, susceptible; IS 9530, resistant) was investigated. Panicles from both varieties were sprayed soon after pollination with fluridone or paclobutrazol to inhibit ABA and GA synthesis, respectively. Fluridone application to the panicles increased germinability of Redland B2 immature caryopses, whereas early treatment with paclobutrazol completely inhibited germination of this variety during most of the developmental period. Incubating caryopses in the presence of 100 [mu]M GA4+7 overcame the inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol, but also stimulated germination of seeds from other treatments. IS 9530 caryopses presented germination indices close to zero until physiological maturity (44 d after pollination) in control and paclobutrazol-treated particles. However, fluridone-treated caryopses were released from dormancy earlier than control and paclobutrazol-treated caryopses. Incubation in the presence of GA4+7 stimulated germination of caryopses from all treatments. Our results support the proposition that a low dormancy level (which is related to a high preharvest sprouting susceptibility) is determined not only by a low embryonic sensitivity to ABA, but also by a high GA content or sensitivity.

  19. Siderophore production by mycorrhizal sorghum roots under micronutrient deficient condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aliasgharzad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It has widely been accepted that mycorrhizal symbiosis improves micronutrients uptake by most of the plants. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. plants were grown in sterile perlite and were inoculated with either Glomus etunicatum (GE or G.intraradices (GI, while the control set was left un-inoculated. Rorison's nutrient solution with three levels of 0, half and full strength (C0, C0.5 and C1, respectively of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn was applied to the pots during 85 days of growth period. Chrome azurol-S assay was used for determination of siderophores in root leachates on 45, 65 and 85 days after sowing (DAS. Siderophore production per unit volume of root was higher in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants. Both GE and GI were efficient fungi in this respect. Siderophore production was significantly induced at C0 level of the micronutrients. Amount of siderophores produced on 45 and 85 DAS was more than 65 DAS. Mycorrhizal root colonization by GE or GI was not significantly affected by micronutrient levels.

  20. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakoor, N; Nair, R; Crasta, O; Morris, G; Feltus, A; Kresovich, S

    2014-01-23

    Background: Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results: This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e. g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions: Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community.

  1. Several varieties of sugar sorghum and their possibilities for alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeret, P W; Fernandez, P W

    1956-01-01

    To study the possibility of using sugar sorghum as a raw material for the production of industrial alcohol, 17 sugar-sorghum varieties from the USA were grown experimentally under field conditions in Uruguay. The best were White African, Honey (Texas) T.S. 21001, and Axtell, which yielded 35,300, 34,200, and 32,450 kg. of stems (1271), 1539, and 14211.100% alcohol)/ha., respectively. The quantity of alcohol/ha obtained from sugar sorghum is almost 3 times that obtained from corn.

  2. Dexamethasone attenuates grain sorghum dust extract-induced increase in macromolecular efflux in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S R; Ikezaki, H; Gao, X P; Rubinstein, I

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dexamethasone attenuates grain sorghum dust extract-induced increase in macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch and, if so, whether this response is specific. By using intravital microscopy, we found that an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust elicited significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass, 70 kDa) from the in situ hamster cheek pouch (P grain sorghum dust extract- and substance P-induced increases in macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch in a specific fashion.

  3. Grain sorghum dust increases macromolecular efflux from the in situ nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X P

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of grain sorghum dust increases macromolecular efflux from the nasal mucosa in vivo and, if so, whether this response is mediated, in part, by substance P. Suffusion of grain sorghum dust extract on the in situ nasal mucosa of anesthetized hamsters elicits a significant increase in clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran; mol mass, 70 kDa; P grain sorghum dust elicits neurogenic plasma exudation from the in situ nasal mucosa.

  4. Potensi penggunaan beberapa varietas sorgum manis (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench sebagai tanaman pakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustikoweni Purnomohadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum is a versatile crop that can be used as grain crop, sugar alcohol production and even as forage crop. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of sweet sorghum either as grain crop or forage crop. The experiment used four varieties of sweet sorghum: Rio, Cawley, Keller and Wray, which were planted in polybag with six replication using Completely Randomized Design. The result of the research showed that Keller and Wray had longer vegetative growth, and good quality of chemical composition for forage than Rio and Cawley.

  5. Preliminary studies on the popping characteristics of sorghum grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, R.M.E.

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to specify and describe the appropriate stages of pop processing of three sorghum varieties (Safra, Engaz and Edo) then selection suitable variety for pop production and the association between its chemical composition and the ability of popping. The proximate chemical composition of the three tested sorghum varieties during the stages of processing to pop the poly phenols (phytic acid and tannins) beside starch and some minerals (the macro elements potassium, calcium and the microelements, iron and zinc) were determined. The range of chemical composition of raw sorghum varieties were as follows: moisture 8.57-9.13%; ash 1.51-2.16%; crude fat 3.39-3.62%; protein 9.06-18.58%; carbohydrates 67.41-76.58; starch 65.23-74.66; tannins 0.3.3-0.28 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.90-4.93 mg/100 g; iron 3.43-4.58 mg/100 g; calcium 5.17-11.26 mg/100 g; zinc 1.48-2.78 mg/100 g; potassium 198.80-387.78 mg/100 g. The results showed significant difference between the three sorghum varieties. The chemical composition of the boiled stage were: moisture 11.80-13.06%; ash 1.49-2.12 %; crude fat 3.63-3.79%; crude protein 10.32-18.50%; carbohydrate 62.86-71.68; starch 64.14-74.10; tannin 0.12-0.18 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.39-3.69 mg/100 g; iron 4.44-5.45 mg/100g; calcium 9.26-20.19 mg/100g; zinc 1.33-2.43 mg/100g; potassium 184.62-266.08 mg/100g. The chemical composition of pop sorghum products gave: moisture 3.66-4.93%; ash 1.49-2.35%, crude fat 3.61-3.91%; crude protein 9.13-15.82%; carbohydrates 74.56-81.06%; starch 70.14-77.58%; tannins 0.29-0.34 mg/100g; phytic acid 0.93-2.23 mg/100g; iron 3.65-79 mg/100g; calcium 18.72-23.09 mg/100g; zinc 1.45-2.48 mg/100g; potassium 190.53-322.44 mg/100g. The variety Engaz was most acceptable in organoleptic evaluation in all the tested characters: color, flavors (odor and taste) and texture taking pop corn as the control followed by the variety Edo while Safra was least acceptable in popping the ability of the varieties for

  6. Preliminary studies on the popping characteristics of sorghum grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, R M.E. [Agricultural Research Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this study was to specify and describe the appropriate stages of pop processing of three sorghum varieties (Safra, Engaz and Edo) then selection suitable variety for pop production and the association between its chemical composition and the ability of popping. The proximate chemical composition of the three tested sorghum varieties during the stages of processing to pop the poly phenols (phytic acid and tannins) beside starch and some minerals (the macro elements potassium, calcium and the microelements, iron and zinc) were determined. The range of chemical composition of raw sorghum varieties were as follows: moisture 8.57-9.13%; ash 1.51-2.16%; crude fat 3.39-3.62%; protein 9.06-18.58%; carbohydrates 67.41-76.58; starch 65.23-74.66; tannins 0.3.3-0.28 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.90-4.93 mg/100 g; iron 3.43-4.58 mg/100 g; calcium 5.17-11.26 mg/100 g; zinc 1.48-2.78 mg/100 g; potassium 198.80-387.78 mg/100 g. The results showed significant difference between the three sorghum varieties. The chemical composition of the boiled stage were: moisture 11.80-13.06%; ash 1.49-2.12 %; crude fat 3.63-3.79%; crude protein 10.32-18.50%; carbohydrate 62.86-71.68; starch 64.14-74.10; tannin 0.12-0.18 mg/100 g; phytic acid 2.39-3.69 mg/100 g; iron 4.44-5.45 mg/100g; calcium 9.26-20.19 mg/100g; zinc 1.33-2.43 mg/100g; potassium 184.62-266.08 mg/100g. The chemical composition of pop sorghum products gave: moisture 3.66-4.93%; ash 1.49-2.35%, crude fat 3.61-3.91%; crude protein 9.13-15.82%; carbohydrates 74.56-81.06%; starch 70.14-77.58%; tannins 0.29-0.34 mg/100g; phytic acid 0.93-2.23 mg/100g; iron 3.65-79 mg/100g; calcium 18.72-23.09 mg/100g; zinc 1.45-2.48 mg/100g; potassium 190.53-322.44 mg/100g. The variety Engaz was most acceptable in organoleptic evaluation in all the tested characters: color, flavors (odor and taste) and texture taking pop corn as the control followed by the variety Edo while Safra was least acceptable in popping the ability of the varieties for

  7. Single and combined toxicity of copper and cadmium to H. vulgare growth and heavy metal bioaccumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaltauskaitė J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The single and combined effects of copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd (0.1-10 mg L−1 in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. plants grown in hydroponics are investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the interactive effect of the binary mixture of Cu and Cd to the growth of H. vulgare and accumulation of these metals by the plants. Single and combined metal treatment led to major effects in the growth of roots and shoots and dry weight of barley. Exposure to metals altered the content of photosynthetic pigments and caused lipid peroxidation. It was observed that combined effects of heavy metals to plants are endpoint and concentration depending. The binary mixture Cu+Cd exhibited additive or less than additive interaction for dry weight, root length and shoot height. Analysis of tissue metal concentrations showed that Cu and Cd were mainly accumulated in the roots and the combination of Cu+Cd had less than additive response of metal bioaccumulation in the leaves and roots.

  8. Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare Completely Inhibits the Growth of Multidrug-Resistant Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Giovanna; Maggini, Valentina; Maida, Isabel; Lo Nostro, Antonella; Calonico, Carmela; Sassoli, Chiara; Perrin, Elena; Fondi, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Chiellini, Carolina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Bogani, Patrizia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Campana, Silvia; Ravenni, Novella; Dolce, Daniela; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2016-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of a wide range of microorganisms. Particularly interesting is the possible use of EOs to treat multidrug-resistant cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogens. We tested the essential oil (EO) from Origanum vulgare for in vitro antimicrobial activity, against three of the major human opportunistic pathogens responsible for respiratory infections in CF patients; these are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Antibiotic susceptibility of each strain was previously tested by the standard disk diffusion method. Most strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics and could be defined as multi-drug-resistant (MDR). The antibacterial activity of O. vulgare EO (OEO) against a panel of 59 bacterial strains was evaluated, with MIC and MBC determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours by a microdilution method. The OEO was effective against all tested strains, although to a different extent. The MBC and MIC of OEO for S. aureus strains were either lower or equal to 0.50%, v/v, for A. xylosoxidans strains were lower or equal to 1% and 0.50%, v/v, respectively; and for S. maltophilia strains were lower or equal to 0.25%, v/v. The results from this study suggest that OEO might exert a role as an antimicrobial in the treatment of CF infections.

  9. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Echium vulgare in Honey Originate Primarily from Floral Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Matteo A; Glauser, Gaetan; Kilchenmann, Verena; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Praz, Christophe; Kast, Christina

    2016-06-29

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey can be a potential human health risk. So far, it has remained unclear whether PAs in honey originate from pollen or floral nectar. We obtained honey, nectar, and plant pollen from two observation sites where Echium vulgare L. was naturally abundant. The PA concentration of honey was determined by targeted analysis using a high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS), allowing the quantification of six different PAs and PA-N-oxides present in E. vulgare. Echium-type PAs were detected up to 0.153 μg/g in honey. Nectar and plant pollen were analyzed by nontargeted analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-MS), allowing the detection of 10 alkaloids in small size samples. Echium-type PAs were detected between 0.3-95.1 μg/g in nectar and 500-35000 μg/g in plant pollen. The PA composition in nectar and plant pollen was compared to the composition in honey. Echimidine (+N-oxide) was the main alkaloid detected in honey and nectar samples, while echivulgarine (+N-oxide) was the main PA found in plant pollen. These results suggest that nectar contributes more significantly to PA contamination in honey than plant pollen.

  10. Chemical composition and bioactivity of different oregano (Origanum vulgare) extracts and essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bárbara; Marques, António; Ramos, Cristina; Serrano, Carmo; Matos, Olívia; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Saraiva, Jorge Alexandre; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-08-30

    There is a growing interest in industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with bioactive properties. Aromatic plants are excellent sources of bioactive compounds that can be extracted using several processes. As far as oregano is concerned, studies are lacking addressing the effect of extraction processes in bioactivity of extracts. This study aimed to characterise the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil and extracts (in hot and cold water, and ethanol), and the chemical composition of its essential oil. The major components of oregano essential oil were carvacrol, β-fenchyl alcohol, thymol, and γ-terpinene. Hot water extract had the strongest antioxidant properties and the highest phenolic content. All extracts were ineffective in inhibiting the growth of the seven tested bacteria. In contrast, the essential oil inhibited the growth of all bacteria, causing greater reductions on both Listeria strains (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua). O. vulgare extracts and essential oil from Portuguese origin are strong candidates to replace synthetic chemicals used by the industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Sorghum to Ethanol Research Initiative: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-291

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfrum, E.

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

  12. Comparison of Chemical and Degradability Characteristics of Green Forage and Silage of Sorghums Varieties with Corn Using In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hedayatipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and fermentative parameters of three fresh forages and silages of sorghum including Sweet, Pegah and Speedfeed varieties were compared with corn using in vitro method, also degradability coefficients of forages and silages were determined by in situ method. Forages were planted in the same condition and harvested in soft dough stage, then ensilaged in four replicates for each time of 30, 60 and 90 days of preservation in mini silos. Buffering capacity in green Sweet sorghum was lower than corn and Speedfeed, and acid detergent fiber and water soluble carbohydrates respectively were significantly highest and lowest in fresh forage of Speedfeed sorghum. In time of 60 days, percent of acid detergent lignin of corn silage was lower than Sweet and Speedfeed sorghum silages; similarly, residual water soluble carbohydrate was lowest in corn silage. The lactate Concentration in corn and Pegah sorghums was higher than Sweet and Speedfeed silages. In corn and Sweet sorghum silages, Contents of acetic acid and ammonium nitrogen were highest and lowest, respectively. In nylon bag experiment, Degradation rate of corn and Pegah sorghum forages were significantly higher than Sweet and Speedfeed sorghums that cause to more effective degradability with passage rate of 0.08 in this forages. Also, the slowly degradation coefficient of corn silage was higher than sorghums silages. In conclusion, Speedfeed sorghum forage is not suitable for making silage in comparison others, and corn silage had more potential of degradability.

  13. Effect of sorghum type and malting on production of free amino nitrogen in conjunction with exogenous protease enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini, Bhekisisa C; Buys, Elna M; Taylor, John R N

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum types suitable for brewing and bioethanol production are required. The effect of sorghum type (white non-tannin versus white type II tannin) on free amino nitrogen (FAN) production from sorghum grain and malt using exogenous protease enzymes was investigated over extended incubation at moderate temperature (45 °C). With grain in the absence of exogenous proteases, white non-tannin sorghum produced substantially higher levels of FAN than white type II tannin sorghum, due to the tannins in the latter. Incubating sorghum grain with neutral proteinase and amino-peptidase in combination improved FAN production. The two sorghum types produced similar FAN levels when malted and incubated in the absence of the exogenous proteases. When both sorghums were malted and incubated with neutral proteinase alone substantially more FAN yield (124-126 mg 100 g(-1)) occurred than with grains (61-84 mg 100 g(-1)). The combination of amino-peptidase and proteinase did not improve FAN further. Neither, did malting influence wort free amino acid profile. Group B amino acids constituted the highest percentage (42-47%). With grain, white non-tannin sorghum plus proteinase and amino-peptidase yields the highest FAN, with malt both white non-tannin and white type II tannin sorghums plus proteinase yield the highest FAN. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of Nitrogen Application on Growth and Ethanol Yield of Sweet Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Olugbemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in two locations, Ilorin (8° 29′ N; 4° 35′ E; about 310 m asl and Ejiba (8° 17′ N; 5° 39′ E; about 246 m asl, at the Southern Guinea Savannah agroecological zone of Nigeria to assess the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and ethanol yield of four sweet sorghum varieties (NTJ-2, 64 DTN, SW Makarfi 2006, and SW Dansadau 2007. Five N fertilizer levels (0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 kg ha−1 were used in a 4 × 5 factorial experiment, laid out in split-plots arrangement. The application of nitrogen fertilizer was shown to enhance the growth of sweet sorghum as observed in the plant height, LAI, CGR, and other growth indices. Nitrogen fertilizer application also enhanced the ethanol yield of the crop, as variations in growth parameters and ethanol yield were observed among the four varieties studied. The variety SW Dansadau 2007 was observed as the most promising in terms of growth and ethanol yield, and the application of 120 kg N ha−1 resulted in the best ethanol yield at the study area.

  15. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and solar radiation on the growth response of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] seedlings to soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, A.; Katayama, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and solar radiation on the growth response to soil moisture were examined in sorghum seedlings grown in culture boxes. The effects of soil moisture (f) and amount of nitrogen fertilizer application (g) on the increment of total dry matter weight of sorghum seedling (ΔW) were represented satisfactorily by the following reciprocal equation, 1/ΔW = A/(f - f 0 ) + B(g + g 0 )/(f - f 0 ) + C/[(f - f 0 ) (g + g 0 )] + D/(g + g 0 ) + E, where f 0 and g 0 were the uppermost value of unavailable soil moisture and the amount of nitrogen supplied from soil and seeds. A, B, C, D and E were coefficients. The effects of soil moisture (f) and solar radiation (S) on ΔW were expressed approximately by the following reciprocal equation, 1/ΔW = A/(S - S 0 ) + B/(f - f 0 ) + C(f - f 0 ) + D, where S 0 was the daily compensation point. These results indicated that the effects of solar radiation and soil moisture are additive, but the interaction between soil moisture and nitrogen fertilizer is not negligible. The transpiration efficiency was unaffected by soil moisture, nitrogen fertilizer and solar radiation

  16. Effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel on the kidney in experimental PCOS female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Sadrefozalayi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foeniculum vulgare seed (F. vulgare is a herbal plant which is used with phytoestrogene compounds for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS treatment. In this research, renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare (AEF in experimental PCOS female rats is studied. Materials and Methods: Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control,was injected with an equivalent volume (0.2 ml of normal saline, and received normal diet. Animals in the second group were non poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS rats which were treated with intragastric administration of aqueous extract of F. vulgare (150 mg/kg b.w.. In the third group, the rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of estradiolvalerate (EV (4 mg in 0.2 ml of sesame oil. The fourth groups were treated with EV and AEF (150mg/kg bw with the same route.  The fifth groups were treated with EV and AEF (100mg/kg bw. After 4 weeks of study, all of the rats were sacrificed, their kidneys tissues were processed for light microscopy, and some biochemical parameters of serum were measured. Results: The mean values of blood urea nitrogen in PCOS rats treated with low dose of AEF and EV and non-treated, was significantly (p

  17. Characterization and partial purification of beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Hejgaard, J.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma membrane bound beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase. assumed to be involved in the resistance to the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei), was partially purified from a microsomal fraction of green barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare L.). Plasma membranes were enriched...

  18. Biosynthesis of the leucine derived α-, β- and γ-hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2016-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) produces five leucine-derived hydroxynitrile glucosides (HNGs), of which only epiheterodendrin is a cyanogenic glucoside. The four non-cyanogenic HNGs are the β-HNG epidermin and the γ-HNGs osmaronin, dihydroosmaronin and sutherlandin. By analyzing 247 spring barley...

  19. Induced protein polymorphisms and nutritional quality of gamma irradiation mutants of sorghum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mehlo, L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available in the endosperm. The suppression of kafirins was counteracted by an upsurge in the synthesis and accumulation of albumins, globulins and other proteins. The data collectively suggest that sorghum has huge genetic potential for nutritional biofortification...

  20. The potential role of sorghum in enhancing food security in semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-11-30

    Nov 30, 2013 ... aDepartment of Agricultural Resource Management &bDepartment of ... production in these areas though the crop is regarded a high risk option due to poor adaptation especially to the ...... Sorghum handbook: All about white.

  1. Effects of PEG-induced osmotic stress on growth and dhurrin levels of forage sorghum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, Natalie H.; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Neale, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a valuable forage crop in regions with low soil moisture. Sorghum may accumulate high concentrations of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin when drought stressed resulting in possible cyanide (HCN) intoxication of grazing animals. In addition, high concentratio...... of plant growth and root activity, increasing the rate of nitrate uptake. Data presented in this article support a role for cyanogenic glucosides in mitigating oxidative stress....... of nitrate, also potentially toxic to ruminants, may accumulate during or shortly after periods of drought. Little is known about the degree and duration of drought-stress required to induce dhurrin accumulation, or how changes in dhurrin concentration are influenced by plant size or nitrate metabolism....... Given that finely regulating soil moisture under controlled conditions is notoriously difficult, we exposed sorghum plants to varying degrees of osmotic stress by growing them for different lengths of time in hydroponic solutions containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). Plants grown in medium containing 20...

  2. Critical periods of sorghum and palisadegrass in intercropped cultivation for climatic risk zoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Rodrigo Cabral de Barros Lima

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to define critical periods for sorghum and palisadegrass cultivated on crop-livestock integrated systems under water deficit. An experiment was carried out in a completely random block design with four treatments (control and interruption of water supply in three periods and three replicates. Water supply was interrupted until soil water humidity was close to permanent wilting point at the phases: germination of palisadegrass seeds; start of tillering of palisadegrass and initiation of panicles of shorghum; start of shorghum flowering. Water deficit starting at palisadegrass germination delayed intital development of the plants because of the reduction in tillering. Water restriction at panicle initiation phase and at sorghum flowering determined reduction of grain production. Critical periods for intercrop of sorghum and palisadegrass correspond to palisadegrass germination phase and flowering and panicle inititation phase of sorghum.

  3. Aflatoxin B1 occurrence in millet, sorghum and maize from four agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... This study investigated the occurrence of aflatoxins in maize, millet and sorghum from five counties in Kenya (Kwale, Isiolo, ...

  4. Gene flow from Sorghum bicolor to its weedy relatives and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    computer user

    2015-04-29

    Apr 29, 2015 ... 2Africa Harvest Biotechnology Foundation International, P.O. Box 642, ... traditional sorghum varieties in order to assess the potential effect of crop genes in ..... removed by pippeting from PCR products and 1 µl of loading dye.

  5. The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdoub Hafedh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to validate its antiseptic and anticancer properties with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the first time the antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of M. vulgare L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of M. vulgare essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50 were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of M. vulgare essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against the different tested microorganisms. The present results results showed a significant activity against microorganisms especially Gram (+ bacteria with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 6.6-25.2 mm and 1120-2600 μg/ml, respectively, whereas Gram (- bacteria exhibited a higher resistance. As far as the antifungal activity, among four strains tested, Botrytis cinerea exhibited the strongest activity with inhibition zones of 12.6 mm. However, Fusarium solani, Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger were less sensitive to M. vulgare essential oil. About the citotoxicity assay, this finding indicate the capability of this essential oil to inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cell lines under some conditions with IC50 value of 0.258 μg/ml. Conclusion This investigation showed that the M. vulgare essential oil has a potent antimicrobial activity against some Gram (+ pathogenic bacteria and Botrytis cinerea fungi. The present studies confirm the use of this

  6. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jia

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  7. Karakteristik Sensori dan Fisiko-Kimia Beras Analog Sorghum dengan Penambahan Rempah Campuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Indra Rasyid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain the formula of sorghum rice analogue by mixed spices addition with acceptable sensory and physico-chemical characteristics.  The selection of sorghum rice analogue formula was tested by using hedonic test with 70 untrained panelists. The addition of mixed spices powder was as follows: 30 % onion, 20 % garlic, 10 % bay leaves, 20 % ginger and 20 % lemongrass. Those mixed spices powder were added to the sorghum rice analogue at percentage of 0.25 %, 0,5 %, 1 %, 2 %, 3 % and 0 % (control  from total dough weight. The sorghum rice analogue was made using extrusion technology (a twin screw extruder. The overall sensory evaluation result showed that the addition of spice mixed had significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on the characteristics of sorghum rice analogue. The panelists accepted the sorghum rice analogue with 1% mixed spice. The preferred formulation was the addition of 1% mixed spice which contain of  9.56 % moisture, 0.72 % ash, 0.53 % fat, 6.22 % protein, 92.53 % carbohydrate, 26.48 % amyloseand 6,67 % dietary fiber. Sorghum rice analogue enriched by spices is a potential as a rich fiber source. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan formula beras analog berbahan dasar sorgum dengan penambahan rempah campuran yang dapat diterima secara sensori. Pemilihan formula dilakukan dengan uji hedonik menggunakan 70 orang panelis tidak terlatih. Rempah yang ditambahkan berupa bubuk rempah campuran yang terdiri atas bawang merah 30%, bawang putih 20 %, daun salam 10 %, jahe 20 % dan sereh 20 %. Penambahan bubuk rempah campuran untuk pembuatan beras analog sorghum berturut-turut 0,25 %, 0,5 %, 1 %, 2 %, 3 % dan kontrol (tanpa rempah dari total berat adonan diluar air. Beras analog sorghum dibuat dengan teknologi ekstrusi menggunakan ekstruder ulir ganda. Hasil uji sensori secara keseluruhan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan rempah campuran berpengaruh nyata (p <0,05 terhadap nasi beras analog yang dihasilkan

  8. Biochemical and Microbiological Changes during the Ivorian Sorghum Beer Deterioration at Different Storage Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Constant K. Attchelouwa; Solange Aka-Gbézo; Florent K. N’guessan; Clémentine A. Kouakou; Marcellin K. Djè

    2017-01-01

    In order to extend shelf life of traditional sorghum beers, it is of importance to evaluate their spoilage characteristics. Therefore, the microbiological, biochemical, and sensory changes of the Ivorian sorghum beer tchapalo during storage at ambient temperature (28 to 30 °C) for four days and at 4 °C for six days were assessed. The aerobic mesophilic bacteria and the yeast counts remained stable during the storage time. However, variations were observed in the lactic acid bacteria and aceti...

  9. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Sorghum Stem Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin S Byrt

    Full Text Available Sorghum vegetative tissues are becoming increasingly important for biofuel production. The composition of sorghum stem tissues is influenced by genotype, environment and photoperiod sensitivity, and varies widely between varieties and also between different stem tissues (outer rind vs inner pith. Here, the amount of cellulose, (1,3;1,4-β-glucan, arabinose and xylose in the stems of twelve diverse sorghum varieties, including four photoperiod-sensitive varieties, was measured. At maturity, most photoperiod-insensitive lines had 1% w/w (1,3;1,4-β-glucan in stem pith tissue whilst photoperiod-sensitive varieties remained in a vegetative stage and accumulated up to 6% w/w (1,3;1,4-β-glucan in the same tissue. Three sorghum lines were chosen for further study: a cultivated grain variety (Sorghum bicolor BTx623, a sweet variety (S. bicolor Rio and a photoperiod-sensitive wild line (S. bicolor ssp. verticilliflorum Arun. The Arun line accumulated 5.5% w/w (1,3;1,4-β-glucan and had higher SbCslF6 and SbCslH3 transcript levels in pith tissues than did photoperiod-insensitive varieties Rio and BTx623 (<1% w/w pith (1,3;1,4-β-glucan. To assess the digestibility of the three varieties, stem tissue was treated with either hydrolytic enzymes or dilute acid and the release of fermentable glucose was determined. Despite having the highest lignin content, Arun yielded significantly more glucose than the other varieties, and theoretical calculation of ethanol yields was 10 344 L ha-1 from this sorghum stem tissue. These data indicate that sorghum stem (1,3;1,4-β-glucan content may have a significant effect on digestibility and bioethanol yields. This information opens new avenues of research to generate sorghum lines optimised for biofuel production.

  10. Productivity and Nutrient Quality of Some Sorghum Mutant Lines at Different Cutting Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Puteri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to explore the appropriate cutting age to produce optimal biomass and good nutrient quality from sorghum mutant lines BMR i.e., PATIR 3.5 M7, PATIR 3.6 M7, and PATIR 3.7 M7, also SAMURAI I (M17. A completely randomized in Split Plot design with 2 factors and 3 replicates was used. The first factor was the type of sorghum (SAMURAI I M17, PATIR 3.5, PATIR 3.6, PATIR 3.7 as the main plot and the second factor was the cutting age (85, 95, 105 as a subplot. Parameters observed were the production of stems, leaves, grains, total biomass production, ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, NFE, TDN, percentage of DMD, OMD and N-NH3. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that there were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between cutting age and type of sorghum in production of stems, leaves, grains, total biomass production, value of TDN, DMD, OMD, and N-NH3. Increasing cutting age significantly increased the percentage of ash content, crude protein and crude fat. The sorghum type significantly affected crude fat content nonBMR sorghum variety of SAMURAI I (M17 and achieved optimal biomass production and nutrient content at cutting age of 85 d similar to BMR sorghum mutant lines PATIR 3.6 and PATIR 3.5, whereas BMR sorghum mutant lines of PATIR 3.7 achieved optimum production at the age of 95 d of cutting. All types of sorghum varieties was not recommended to be harvested at 105 d. Biomass production increased with the increasing of cutting age, but the nutrient content decreased.

  11. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Sorghum Stem Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrt, Caitlin S; Betts, Natalie S; Tan, Hwei-Ting; Lim, Wai Li; Ermawar, Riksfardini A; Nguyen, Hai Yen; Shirley, Neil J; Lahnstein, Jelle; Corbin, Kendall; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Knauf, Vic; Burton, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum vegetative tissues are becoming increasingly important for biofuel production. The composition of sorghum stem tissues is influenced by genotype, environment and photoperiod sensitivity, and varies widely between varieties and also between different stem tissues (outer rind vs inner pith). Here, the amount of cellulose, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, arabinose and xylose in the stems of twelve diverse sorghum varieties, including four photoperiod-sensitive varieties, was measured. At maturity, most photoperiod-insensitive lines had 1% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in stem pith tissue whilst photoperiod-sensitive varieties remained in a vegetative stage and accumulated up to 6% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in the same tissue. Three sorghum lines were chosen for further study: a cultivated grain variety (Sorghum bicolor BTx623), a sweet variety (S. bicolor Rio) and a photoperiod-sensitive wild line (S. bicolor ssp. verticilliflorum Arun). The Arun line accumulated 5.5% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and had higher SbCslF6 and SbCslH3 transcript levels in pith tissues than did photoperiod-insensitive varieties Rio and BTx623 (<1% w/w pith (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan). To assess the digestibility of the three varieties, stem tissue was treated with either hydrolytic enzymes or dilute acid and the release of fermentable glucose was determined. Despite having the highest lignin content, Arun yielded significantly more glucose than the other varieties, and theoretical calculation of ethanol yields was 10 344 L ha-1 from this sorghum stem tissue. These data indicate that sorghum stem (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content may have a significant effect on digestibility and bioethanol yields. This information opens new avenues of research to generate sorghum lines optimised for biofuel production.

  12. Characterization of Novel Sorghum brown midrib Mutants from an EMS-Mutagenized Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously describe...

  13. Nutrient Changes and in Vitro Digestibility in Generative Stage of M10-BMR Sorghum Mutant Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sriagtula

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the influences of generative stage on crude protein, crude fiber, ash, and crude fat contents as well as in-vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of M-10 BMR sorghum mutant lines. This research was arranged into a randomized block design with 2 factors. The first factor was M-10 BMR sorghum mutant lines (Patir 3.1, Patir 3.2 and Patir 3.7 and the second factor was generative stages (flowering, soft dough and hard dough phase. The observed variables were proximate contents of stem, leaves and panicle of sorghum plant and in-vitro digestibility of whole plant. The results showed that leaves crude protein (CP was more influenced by M-10 BMR sorghum mutant lines. Stems and panicles CP were influenced by the interaction between M-10 BMR sorghum mutant lines and generative stages. Further generative stage reduced stems CP but increased panicles CP. Crude fiber (CF, ash, and ether extract (EE in leaves were not influenced by generative stages. Stems CF was influenced by M-10 BMR sorghum mutant lines and generative stages, while stems EE was more influenced by generative stages. Stems ash content was influenced by the interaction between M-10 BMR sorghum mutant lines and generative stages while panicles ash content was more influenced by generative stages. M-10 BMR sorghum mutant lines and hard dough phase increased in-vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibilities. Based on those findings, it can be concluded that the increased maturity reduces CP and CF contents so it increases in-vitro digestibilities.

  14. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Felderhoff, Terry; M McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-07-07

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar 'Bk7', a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing 'Bk7' with the susceptible inbred 'Early Hegari-Sart'. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from 'Bk7'. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between 'Bk7' and sweet sorghum 'Mer81-4' narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. Copyright © 2016 Felderhoff et al.

  15. Fuel ethanol production from sweet sorghum using repeated-batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohnan, Shigeru; Nakane, Megumi; Rahman, M Habibur; Nitta, Youji; Yoshiura, Takanori; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Kurusu, Yasurou

    2011-04-01

    Ethanol was efficiently produced from three varieties of sweet sorghum using repeated-batch fermentation without pasteurization or acidification. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells could be recycled in 16 cycles of the fermentation process with good ethanol yields. This technique would make it possible to use a broader range of sweet sorghum varieties for ethanol production. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil Organic Carbon Response to Cover Crop and Nitrogen Fertilization under Bioenergy Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, U. M.; Singh, H. P.; Singh, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Removal of aboveground biomass for bioenergy/feedstock in bioenergy cropping systems may reduce soil C storage. Cover crop and N fertilization may provide additional crop residue C and sustain soil C storage compared with no cover crop and N fertilization. We evaluated the effect of four winter cover crops (control or no cover crop, cereal rye, hairy vetch, and hairy vetch/cereal rye mixture) and two N fertilization rates (0 and 90 kg N ha-1) on soil organic C (SOC) at 0-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm depths under forage and sweet sorghums from 2010 to 2013 in Fort Valley, GA. Cover crop biomass yield and C content were greater with vetch/rye mixture than vetch or rye alone and the control, regardless of sorghum species. Soil organic C was greater with vetch/rye than rye at 0-5 and 15-30 cm in 2011 and 2013 and greater with vetch than rye at 5-15 cm in 2011 under forage sorghum. Under sweet sorghum, SOC was greater with cover crops than the control at 0-5 cm, but greater with vetch and the control than vetch/rye at 15-30 cm. The SOC increased at the rates of 0.30 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at 0-5 cm for rye and the control to 1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at 15-30 cm for vetch/rye and the control from 2010 to 2013 under forage sorghum. Under sweet sorghum, SOC also increased linearly at all depths from 2010 to 2013, regardless of cover crops. Nitrogen fertilization had little effect on SOC. Cover crops increased soil C storage compared with no cover crop due to greater crop residue C returned to the soil under forage and sweet sorghum and hairy vetch/cereal rye mixture had greater C storage than other cover crops under forage sorghum.

  17. Factors affecting the porridge-making quality in South African sorghums

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available fermented, sour porridges remain popular, particularly among the Tswana of Botswana and South Africa (Novellie 1982; Sooliman 1993) The production of sorghum porridge involves ?rst producing a meal from sorghum grain. Commercially, this is generally done..., South Africa. the remaining part of the kernel (essentially endosperm) into a coarse meal. Alternatively, endosperm meal can be produced directly from grain by roller milling (Munck 1995). The meal is then cooked with boiling water into a porridge...

  18. Comparative potentials of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve nutrient uptake and biomass of Sorghum bicolor Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattarawadee Sumthong Nakmee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Linn. seedlings were grown in pots using Pakchong soil from Nakhon Ratchasima province. Ten species of native Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Glomus sp. 1, Glomus sp. 2, Glomus sp. 3, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Acaulospora longula, Glomus occultum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Acaulospora spinosa and Scutellospora sp., were used to inoculate sorghum seedlings. The sorghum growth and uptake of several major nutrients were evaluated at the harvesting stage. The results revealed that sorghum inoculated with A. scrobiculata produced the greatest biomass, grain dry weight and total nitrogen uptake in shoots. The highest phosphorus uptake in shoots was found in A. spinosa-inoculated plants, followed by Glomus sp. and A. scrobiculata, whereas Scutellospora sp.-inoculated plants showed the highest potassium uptake in shoots followed by A. scrobiculata. Overall, the most efficient AM fungi for improvement of nutrient uptake, biomass and grain dry weight in sorghum were A. scrobiculata.

  19. Assessment of N2 fixing efficiency of Beijerinckia indica and Azospirillum brasilense in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) moench) using 15N tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanimoli, S.; Marimuthu, P.; Arulmozhiselvan, K.

    2010-01-01

    For studying the benefits of inoculation of N 2 fixing diazotrophs in the root zone of sorghum crop, a pot culture was conducted on neutral red sandy loam soil with sorghum cv. CO26, using 15 N tracer. At the end of 45 days duration after sowing, Beijerinckia indica inoculation contributed 56.9 per cent N derived from N 2 fixation, out of total N concentration in whole drymatter of sorghum plant. It proved to be the efficient N 2 fixer by contributing N from N 2 fixation to the tune of 17.6 Kg -1 . Accumulation of N derived from N 2 fixation from B. indica was primarily in leaf blade (50.0%) followed by stem (31.8%), leaf sheath (14.0%) and root (4.2%). Inoculation of Azospirillum brasllense accelerated uptake of N from soil and fertilizer N sources compared to B. indica and hence registered low N fixation. (author)

  20. Effects of main traits of sweet sorghum irradiated by carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjian; He Jingyu; Liu Qingfang; Yu Lixia; Dong Xicun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the influence of carbon ion irradiation on important agronomic characters of sweet sorghum, dry seeds of Sweet Sorghum BJ0601 and BJ0602 were irradiated by 100 MeV/u 12 C +6 ion beam to different doses at Heavy Ion Accelerator National Laboratory in Lanzhou (HIANLL). When matured, the main traits of sweet sorghum were measured. The correlation coefficient of five main agronomic characters, i.e. number of node, plant height, stalk diameter, sugar content and stem weight per plant, were analyzed using the SPSS 13.0 software. The results indicated that the obvious influence of sweet sorghum irradiated by carbon ion beam was observed. In addition, the correlation of main traits was studied. This study may provide rudimental data to select novel variety of sweet sorghum suited for fuel ethanol production. In addition, the average of sugar content of early mutant BJ0601-1 is higher than BJ0601 in M2, and the sugar content of sweet sorghum may be improved by carbon ion beam irradiation. (authors)

  1. Post-anthesis nitrate uptake is critical to yield and grain protein content in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worland, Belinda; Robinson, Nicole; Jordan, David; Schmidt, Susanne; Godwin, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Crops only use ∼50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer creating N losses and pollution. Plants need to efficiently uptake and utilize N to meet growing global food demands. Here we investigate how the supply and timing of nitrate affects N status and yield in Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Sorghum was grown in pots with either 10mM (High) or 1mM (Low) nitrate supply. Shortly before anthesis the nitrate supply was either maintained, increased 10-fold or eliminated. Leaf sheaths of sorghum grown with High nitrate accumulated nitrate in concentrations >3-times higher than leaves. Removal of nitrate supply pre-anthesis resulted in the rapid reduction of stored nitrate in all organs. Plants receiving a 10-fold increase in nitrate supply pre-anthesis achieved similar grain yield and protein content and 29% larger grains than those maintained on High nitrate, despite receiving 24% less nitrate over the whole growth period. In sorghum, plant available N is important throughout development, particularly anthesis and grain filling, for grain yield and grain protein content. Nitrate accumulation in leaf sheaths presents opportunities for the genetic analysis of mechanisms behind nitrate storage and remobilization in sorghum to improve N use efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Lodging markedly reduced the biomass of sweet sorghum via decreasing photosynthesis in saline-alkali field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian Rong; Fan, Hai; Wang, Bao Shan

    2018-06-01

    Lodging is a serious problem in plant growth, especially in crops growth of the natural habitat. In order to determine the influence of lodging on the growth characters of sweet sorghum, plants grown in natural saline-alkali environment were used to investigate the fresh weight, dry weight, sugar content in the stalks and the photosynthesis index of salt tolerant crop sweet sorghum. Results showed that lodging significantly reduced the growth of sweet sorghum, the fresh weight and dry weight was only 28.3% and 22.5% of the normal plants when lodging occurred after 49 days. Lodging also reduced the stalks sugar content of sweet sorghum, the stalk sugar content of lodged plants was only 45.4% of that in the normal plants, when lodging occurred for 49 days. Lodging reduced the growth and sugar content by reducing the photosynthesis parameters of sweet sorghum grown in the saline-alkali field, thus, affected the accumulation of photosynthate. Interestingly, with the extension of the lodging time, lodging led to a decrease in photosynthetic rate of sweet sorghum mainly due to non-stomatal factors.

  3. Identification of genetic markers linked to anthracnose resistance in sorghum using association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Hari D; Wang, Yi-Hong; Sharma, Rajan; Sharma, Shivali

    2013-06-01

    Anthracnose in sorghum caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum is one of the most destructive diseases affecting sorghum production under warm and humid conditions. Markers and genes linked to resistance to the disease are important for plant breeding. Using 14,739 SNP markers, we have mapped eight loci linked to resistance in sorghum through association analysis of a sorghum mini-core collection consisting of 242 diverse accessions evaluated for anthracnose resistance for 2 years in the field. The mini-core was representative of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics' world-wide sorghum landrace collection. Eight marker loci were associated with anthracnose resistance in both years. Except locus 8, disease resistance-related genes were found in all loci based on their physical distance from linked SNP markers. These include two NB-ARC class of R genes on chromosome 10 that were partially homologous to the rice blast resistance gene Pib, two hypersensitive response-related genes: autophagy-related protein 3 on chromosome 1 and 4 harpin-induced 1 (Hin1) homologs on chromosome 8, a RAV transcription factor that is also part of R gene pathway, an oxysterol-binding protein that functions in the non-specific host resistance, and homologs of menthone:neomenthol reductase (MNR) that catalyzes a menthone reduction to produce the antimicrobial neomenthol. These genes and markers may be developed into molecular tools for genetic improvement of anthracnose resistance in sorghum.

  4. Solid-state fermentation from dried sweet sorghum stalk for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Omidi, A. [Univ. of Isfahan, Biology Dept., Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Due to depletion of global crude oil, countries are interested to alternate fuel energy resources. Presently bioethanol as a source of energy has been a subject of great interest for the industrialized countries. Therefore, there is need for efficient bioethanol production with low cost raw material and production process. Among energy crops, sweet sorghum is the best candidate for bioethanol production. It has been identified as having higher drought tolerance, lower input cost and higher biomass yield than other energy crops. In addition it has wide adoptability and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Moreover due to the shortage of water in dry and hot countries there is a need to reduce water requirement for bioethanol production and solid state fermentation could be the best process for making bioethanol in these countries. The purpose of this study is to achieve the highest ethanol production with lowest amount of water in solid state fermentation using sweet sorghum stalk. In this study the sweet sorghum particles were used for solid state fermentation. Fermentation medium were: sweet sorghum particles with nutrient media, active yeast powder and different moisture contents. The fermentation medium was incubated for 2-3 days at 30 deg C temperature. The results showed sweet sorghum particles (15% w/w) fermented in medium containing 0.5% yeast inoculums, 73.5% moisture content and 3 days incubation period produced the highest amount of ethanol (13% w/w sorghum)

  5. Influence of Chemical Treatments Sequence on Morphology and Crystallinity of Sorghum Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismojo Ismojo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Micro-fibrillated cellulose (MFC derived from natural fibre is continuously gaining interest to produce an environmentally-friendly material, due to economic and ecological reasons. In consequence, sorghum is one of the most-cultivated crops that usually remain the waste as by product of bioethanol production. Indeed, it will be a promising area to utilize sorghum waste to produce MFC for enhancing polymer performance, especially in terms of crystallinity. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of a sequence of chemical modification was applied to sorghum fibres, i.e. alkalization using 4% sodium hydroxide followed by bleaching using 1.7% sodium chlorite plus acetic acid as a buffer. The treatment was purposed to unbundle the lignocellulose networks into microfibrils cellulose with less amorphous part and lower hydrophilic properties. Evaluation of the chemical treatments effect on internal microstructure, crystallinity index and chemical composition of sorghum fibre was measured via Field-Emission Scanning Electron microscope (FE-SEM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transformation Infra-Red (FTIR Spectroscopy. The experiments show that treatments led to a removal of binding materials, such as amorphous parts hemicellulose and lignin, from the sorghum fibres, resulting MFC of sorghum fibres and enhanced crystallinity index from 41.12 % to 75.73%.

  6. Production of a protein-rich extruded snack base using tapioca starch, sorghum flour and casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jiral R; Patel, Ashok A; Singh, Ashish K

    2016-01-01

    A protein-rich puffed snack was produced using a twin screw extruder and the effects of varying levels of tapioca starch (11 to 40 parts), rennet casein (6 to 20 parts) and sorghum flour (25 to 75 parts) on physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of the product studied. An increasing level of sorghum flour resulted in a decreasing whiteness (Hunter L* value) of the snack. Although the starch also generally tended to make the product increasingly darker, both starch and casein showed redness parameter (a* value) was not significantly influenced by the ingredients levels, the yellow hue (b* value) generally declined with the increasing sorghum level. Tapioca starch significantly increased the expansion ratio and decreased the bulk density and hardness value of the snack, whereas the opposite effects seen in case of sorghum flour. While the water solubility index was enhanced by starch, water absorption index was appreciably improved by sorghum. Incorporation of casein (up to 25 %) improved the sensory color and texture scores, and so also the overall acceptability rating of the product. Sorghum flour had an adverse impact on all the sensory attributes whereas starch only on the color score. The casein or starch level had no perceivable effect on the product's flavor score. The response surface data enabled optimization of the snack-base formulation for the desired protein level or desired sensory characteristics.

  7. Sweet sorghum as a model system for bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Martín; Messing, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Bioenergy is the reduction of carbon via photosynthesis. Currently, this energy is harvested as liquid fuel through fermentation. A major concern, however, is input cost, in particular use of excess water and nitrogen, derived from an energy-negative process, the Haber-Bosch method. Furthermore, the shortage of arable land creates competition between uses for food and fuel, resulting in increased living expenses. This review seeks to summarize recent knowledge in genetics, genomics, and gene expression of a rising model species for bioenergy applications, sorghum. Its diploid genome has been sequenced, it has favorable low-input cost traits, and genetic crosses between different cultivars can be used to study allelic variations of genes involved in stem sugar metabolism and incremental biomass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (Pdigestibility (%) of protein and energy with the cottonseed meal and sorghum/cottonseed meal-based diets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (Pdigestibility of protein in sorghum and millet-based diets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (Pdigestibility of starch were obtained with the control diet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two experiments suggest that broiler growth performance was not affected by the dietary level of sorghum, millet or cottonseed meal. Nutrient digestion can, however, be affected by these feed ingredients.

  9. The Effect of Silicon on some Morpho-physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) under Salt Stress

    OpenAIRE

    S Hasibi; H Farahbakhsh; Gh Khajoeinejad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nowadays, salinity is one of the limiting factors for crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is a self-pollinated and short-day plant, which partly has been adapted to salinity and water stress conditions; also play an important role in humans, livestock and poultry nourishments. All studies have showed the positive effects of Silicon on growth and yield of plants in both normal and stress conditions. The aim of this exp...

  10. Sweet Sorghum crop. Effect of the Compost Application; Cultivo de Sorgo Dulce. Efecto de la Aplicacion de Compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, M J; Solano, M L; Carrasco, J; Ciria, P

    1998-12-01

    A 3 year-plot experiments were performed to determined the possible persistence of the positive effects of treating soil with compost. For this purpose, a sweet sorghum bagasse compost has been used. Experiments were achieved with sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. L. Moench) vr Dale as energy crop. Similar sorghum productivities were obtained both in plots with consecutive compost applications and in plots amended with mineral fertilizers. No residual effect after three years has been detected. It could be due to the low dose of compost application. (Author) 27 refs.

  11. Differential Antioxidative Responses to Water Deficit Among four Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Future climate changes are expected to increase risks of drought, which already represent the most common stress factor for stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L. production in Iran. Up to now, extensive research projects have been done to study effects of drought stress on the antioxidant enzyme activity. While there is a few works of such studies on the field condition. In order to study of water deficit effects on the antioxidant enzymes activities as a secondary stress, we evaluate the effects of mild and severe drought stress on activities of antioxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase, among four barley genotypes, differing in the capacity to maintain the grain yield under drought condition during beginning on anthesis, kernel watery ripe and late milk stages under field condition. Results showed that drought increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in all genotypes. At beginning of anthesis, POX activity of Q22 was higher than it in other genotypes ( P

  12. The use of the oregano (Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and hydrosol in green olive fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Musa Özcan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oregano the (Origanum vulgare L. oil at the levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3% and oregano hydrosol on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the green olive (Edremit variety fermentation was investigated. The initial pH of the oregano oil added samples were higher than the other treatments, which were above 5.8. The highest final acidity was observed in the hydrosol+brine combination (0.53%. The initial LAB population on the first day of the fermentation was high in the diluted hydrosol (8.89 log cfu ml-1 and control (8.47 log cfu ml-1 samples. But a significant difference was not observed between the LAB counts of the treatments on the 40th day of fermentation. The control and brine+oregano hydrosol samples had the highest sensory scores.

  13. Trace elements and essential oil composition in chemotypes of the aromatic plant Origanum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Trace elements, essential oil yield and its percentage composition were determined by neutron activation analysis, hydrodistillation and gas chromatography in two chemotypes of Origanum vulgare L. cultivated in the same field. Statistical tests such as analysis of variance, correlation coefficient, t-test, and multiple correlation were applied. The results showed that the samples contain the highest recorded oil yield for aromatic plants. Also, there is a statistically significant difference between the chemotypes of the plant not only in the predominant compound but in a number of other components. Iron, chromium and scandium showed a negative significant correlation with carvacrol and a positive one with thymol. Europium shows characteristic correlations with chromium, cobalt, iron and scandium within each chemotype of the plant. These correlations could make probable a role of this element in the biosynthesis of the predominant compounds. (author)

  14. An Acylated Kaempferol Glycoside from Flowers of Foeniculum vulgare and F. Dulce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera M. Ezzat

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available An acylated kaempferol glycoside, namely kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2”,3”-di-E-pcoumaroyl-rhamnoside (1 was isolated from the flowers of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. It is thus isolated for the first time from family Apiaceae. In addition, the different organs of both plants afforded six flavonoid glycosides - namely afzelin (kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2, quercitrin (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4, isoquercitrin (5, rutin (6, and miquelianin (quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (7. Structure elucidation of the above mentioned flavonoids was achieved by UV, 1H- and 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC and EI-MS.

  15. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  16. Investigation on antibacterial synergism of Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are well known as strong antimicrobial agents of plant origin. In spite of this, the antimicrobial synergism of essential oils isolated from different plant species is poorly investigated. The following study examines the synergism of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. and Thymus vulgaris L against pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. First, the antibacterial effect of the oils was tested, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of both oils were determined using the microdilution method. To test whether the oils act synergistically, every possible combination of essential oil concentrations was used in a dynamic checkerboard method. The results indicated that the oils indeed acted synergistically with fractional inhibitory concentration indexes of 0.45 and 0.50. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173032

  17. When GIS zooms in: spatio-genetic maps of multipaternity in Armadillidium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Nicolas; Depeux, Charlotte; Durand, Sylvine; Debenest, Catherine; Lafitte, Alexandra; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) tools are designed to illustrate, analyse and integrate geographic or spatial data, usually on a macroscopic scale. By contrast, genetic tools focus on a microscopic scale. Because in reality, landscapes have no predefined scale, our original study aims to develop a new approach, combining both cartographic and genetic approaches to explore microscopic landscapes. For this, we focused on Armadillidium vulgare, a terrestrial isopod model in which evolutionary pressures imposed by terrestrial life have led to the development of internal fertilisation and, consequently, to associated physiological changes. Among these, the emergence of internal receptacles, found in many taxa ranging from mammals to arthropods, allowed females to store sperm from several partners, enabling multipaternity. Among arthropods, terrestrial isopods like the polygynandrous A. vulgare present a female structure, the marsupium, in which fertilised eggs migrate and develop into mancae (larval stage). To test our innovative combined approach, we proposed different males to four independent females, and at the end of incubation in the marsupium, we mapped (using GIS methods) and genotyped (using 12 microsatellite markers) all the incubated mancae. This methodology permitted to obtain spatio-genetic maps describing heterozygosity and spatial distribution of mancae and of multipaternity within the marsupial landscape. We discussed the interest of this kind of multidisciplinary approach which could improve in this case our understanding of sexual selection mechanisms in this terrestrial crustacean. Beyond the interesting model-focused insights, the main challenge of this study was the transfer of GIS techniques to a microscopic scale and our results appear so as pioneers rendering GIS tools available for studies involving imagery whatever their study scale.

  18. The immune cellular effectors of terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare: meeting with their invaders, Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Chevalier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of crustacean immune responses are well described for the aquatic forms whereas almost nothing is known for the isopods that evolved a terrestrial lifestyle. The latter are also infected at a high prevalence with Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium which affects the host immune system, possibly to improve its transmission. In contrast with insect models, the isopod Armadillidium vulgare is known to harbor Wolbachia inside the haemocytes.In A. vulgare we characterized three haemocyte types (TEM, flow cytometry: the hyaline and semi-granular haemocytes were phagocytes, while semi-granular and granular haemocytes performed encapsulation. They were produced in the haematopoietic organs, from central stem cells, maturing as they moved toward the edge (TEM. In infected individuals, live Wolbachia (FISH colonized 38% of the haemocytes but with low, variable densities (6.45±0.46 Wolbachia on average. So far they were not found in hyaline haemocytes (TEM. The haematopoietic organs contained 7.6±0.7×10(3Wolbachia, both in stem cells and differentiating cells (FISH. While infected and uninfected one-year-old individuals had the same haemocyte density, in infected animals the proportion of granular haemocytes in particular decreased by one third (flow cytometry, Pearson's test = 12 822.98, df = 2, p<0.001.The characteristics of the isopod immune system fell within the range of those known from aquatic crustaceans. The colonization of the haemocytes by Wolbachia seemed to stand from the haematopoietic organs, which may act as a reservoir to discharge Wolbachia in the haemolymph, a known route for horizontal transfer. Wolbachia infection did not affect the haemocyte density, but the quantity of granular haemocytes decreased by one third. This may account for the reduced prophenoloxidase activity observed previously in these animals.

  19. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum Desf. at different phenological stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjaoui, Afef; Chaabane, Hédia; Jemli, Maroua; Boulila, Abdennacer; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil (EO) of wild population of Origanum vulgare at different phenological stages, including vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, is reported. The oils of air-dried samples were obtained by hydrodistillation. The yield of oils (w/w%) at different stages were in the order of late vegetative (2.0%), early vegetative (1.7%), and flowering (0.6%) set. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 36, 33, and 16 components were identified and quantified in vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, representing 94.47%, 95.91%, and 99.62% of the oil, respectively. Carvacrol was the major compound in all samples. The ranges of major constituents were as follows: carvacrol (61.08-83.37%), p-cymene (3.02-9.87%), and γ-terpinene (4.13-6.34%). Antibacterial activity of the oils was tested against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by the disc diffusion method and determining their diameter of inhibition and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The inhibition zones and MIC values for bacterial strains, which were sensitive to the EO of O. vulgare subsp. glandulosum, were in the range of 9-36 mm and 125-600 μg/mL, respectively. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against all tested bacteria, of which Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive and resistant strain, respectively. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that exhibited potential for use in pathogenic systems.

  20. Sensibilidade de bactérias deteriorantes e patogênicas de interesse em alimentos ao óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Evandro Leite de; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), Lamiaceae, has been known as plant specie with prominent biological properties for a long time. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil on various Gram-positive and Gram-negative spoiling and/or pathogen food-related bacteria, as well as to observe its antimicrobial effectiveness in a food conservation micromodel. The results showed a strong antibacterial activity of the assayed essential oil noted by large growt...

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Piper Betel Leaf Oil, Origanum vulgare Essential Oil and Fluconazole Suspension on Candida albicans − An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Makkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an opportunistic mucosal infection caused by Candida albicans. It usually responds to topical treatments such as clotrimazole troches, topical fluconazole, chlorhexidine mouthwash and nystatin suspension. Piper betel leaf oil and Origanum vulgare essential oil have shown some topical antifungal activity. Aim: To determine and compare the antifungal efficacy of piper betel leaf oil, O. vulgare essential oil and fluconazole suspension against C. albicans. Materials and Methods: The zone of inhibition was measured by the cup–plate diffusion method using 100 μl volume of piper betel leaf oil, O. vulgare essential oil and fluconazole suspension, which were pipetted into the wells of the inoculated Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plates. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimetres using Vernier calliper. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by the broth macro-dilution test by pouring 1 ml of the respective concentrations of the test material to the individual test tubes along with 10 μl of the diluted test organism inoculum. Finally, MIC was calculated using a reflective viewer. Results: The zone of inhibition for O. vulgare essential oil (>40 mm was more than fluconazole suspension (>35 mm. MIC of O. vulgare essential oil, piper betel leaf oil and fluconazole suspension was 1.6%, 0.4% and 0.8%, respectively. Conclusion: O. vulgare essential oil was found to be a more effective antifungal agent than piper betel leaf oil and fluconazole suspension.

  2. Avaliação biológica de Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae Biological evaluation of Foeniculum vulgare (Mill. (Umbelliferae/Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Araujo R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare Mill. é espécie herbácea da família Umbelliferae, nativa da região do Mediterrâneo e da Ásia Menor, amplamente distribuída em todo o território brasileiro. É conhecida popularmente como funcho ou erva-doce e usada na medicina como analgésico, digestivo, carminativo, diurético, expectorante, lactígeno, anti-inflamatório, e antiespasmódico. O extrato bruto etanólico para a verificação das atividades biológicas foi preparado a partir de sementes compradas no comércio. Para a realização do perfil fitoquímico foi utilizada a cromatografia em camada delgada analítica; a atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo teste de difusão em disco de papel e da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM; a atividade antinociceptiva foi realizada pelo método de contorções abdominais em cobaias. Os micro-organismos testados foram isolados clínicos multirresistentes obtidos do Setor de Bacteriologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Pernambuco. O estudo fitoquímico identificou a maioria dos compostos secundários presentes na fração metanólica das sementes, sendo eles: triterpenos, glicosídeos de flavanóides, terpenos menores (monoterpenóides, sesquiterpenóide e diterpenóides, e açúcares redutores. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o extrato etanólico apresentou maior atividade frente à Micrococcus spp. (CIM=250µg/mL. Os resultados da avaliação da atividade antinociceptiva demonstraram que apenas a dosagem de 298 mg/Kg quando comparado com o padrão indometacina conseguiu uma redução significativa no número de contorções abdominais dos animais. Estudos posteriores deverão ser realizados para a identificação e isolamento de alguns compostos secundários, bem como a realização de outros protocolos de analgesia.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Umbelliferae is a herbaceous plant of the family Umbelliferae, native to the Mediterranean and Asia Minor region and widely distributed all over the Brazilian

  3. YIELD AND QUALITY OF SORGHUM IN IRRIGATED AGRO LANDSCAPES OF REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G. Muslimov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. One of drought-resistant crops that can provide stable high yields is sorghum, which is salt-tolerant, heat-resistant and a flexible crop of versatile use (green forage, silage, hay, grass meal, grain forage. The research conducted in 2010-2013 included studies on the effectiveness of the methods and norms of sowing the sorghum, required quantities of mineral fertilizers to increase the crop yields and nutritional value of sorghum sown in the irrigated lowland areas of Dagestan. Methods. We conducted three field researches. In experiments with grain sorghum (the middle ripening group Zernogradskiy 88 we studied drill and broad-cast methods of sowing, seeding rate, the calculated doses of mineral fertilizers on programmable levels of crop yields: 6 t/ha (N160P112K70, 7 t/ha (N190P128K80 and 8 t/ha (N220P144K90. Seeding rate was 300, 350 and 400 thousand viable seeds per 1 ha; broadcast was chosen as a sowing method.A field experiment with sweet sorghum included promising hybrid crop Debut, fertilizers N140P80K70, N190P110K95 and N240P140K120 to obtain 60, 70 and 80 t/ha of green mass for two mowings, respectively. Results. The use of fertilizers based on a given level of productivity at optimum plant population can significantly improve the nutritional regime of the soil during the growing season of the sweet sorghum and create optimal conditions for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium security for the crops and thus obtain the planned crop yield. Conclusion. The fodder quality of sweet sorghum varies depending on the nutrient status of the soil and mowing time.

  4. The potential of rapid visco-analysis starch pasting profiles to gauge the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production

    OpenAIRE

    Ha H. Truong; Ali Khoddami; Amy F. Moss; Sonia Y. Liu; Peter H. Selle

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen extensively characterised grain sorghum varieties were evaluated in a series of 7 broiler bioassays. The efficiency of energy utilisation of broiler chickens offered sorghum-based diets is problematic and the bulk of dietary energy is derived from sorghum starch. For this reason, rapid visco-analysis (RVA) starch pasting profiles were determined as they may have the potential to assess the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production. In review, it was found that co...

  5. Evaluation of Origanum vulgare essential oil as antimicrobial agent in sausage Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare em linguiça

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiano Busatta; Altemir José Mossi; Maria Regina Alves Rodrigues; Rogério Luis Cansian; José Vladimir de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    This work reports antimicrobial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil against several bacteria in sausage. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 9 selected aerobic heterotrofic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil on the basis of the highest MIC found was tested in a food system comprised of fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with Escherichia coli with a fixed concentration and ...

  6. Diversity of nifH gene pools in the rhizosphere of two cultivars of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) treated with contrasting levels of nitrogen fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, M.R.R.; Vos, de M.; Carneiro, N.P.; Marriel, I.E.; Paiva, E.; Seldin, L.

    2008-01-01

    The diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was assessed in the rhizospheres of two cultivars of sorghum (IS 5322-C and IPA 1011) sown in Cerrado soil amended with two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (12 and 120 kg ha(-1)). The nifH gene was amplified directly from DNA extracted from the rhizospheres,

  7. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase of sorghum [Sorghum biocolor (L.) Moench] gene SbC4H1 restricts lignin synthesis in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is the first hydroxylase enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and its content and activity affects the lignin synthesis. In this study, we isolated a C4H gene SbC4H1 from the suppression subtractive hybridization library of brown midrib (bmr) mutants of Sorghum b...

  8. Harnessing the sorghum genome sequence:development of a genome-wide microsattelite (SSR) resource for swift genetic mapping and map based cloning in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is the second cereal crop to have a full genome completely sequenced (Nature (2009), 457:551). This achievement is widely recognized as a scientific milestone for grass genetics and genomics in general. However, the true worth of genetic information lies in translating the sequence informa...

  9. Low Lignin (Brown Mid-rib) Sorghum Genotypes Restrict Growth of Fusarium Spp. as Compared with Near-Isogenic Wild-Type Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase usability of sorghum for bioenergy and forages, two different brown midrib (bmr) genes, bmr-6 and bmr-12, were backcrossed into five elite backgrounds, resulting in reduced lignin near-isogenic genotypes. Field-grown grain from bmr-6 and bmr-12 plants had significantly reduced colonizati...

  10. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) haulms as supplements to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) stover : intake, digestibility and optimum feeding levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savadogo, M.; Zemmelink, G.; Nianogo, A.J.; Keulen, van H.

    2000-01-01

    Two feeding trials were conducted to study the combined effects of (i) varying degrees of selective consumption and (ii) supplementation with cowpea (Trail 1) or groundnut haulms (Trial 2), on intake of organic matter (IOM) from sorghum stover, and total intake of digestible organic matter (IDOM).

  11. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  12. [Effect of the sorghum extraction process on the color of the flour and tortillas made from mixtures with lime-treated cornmeal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, F; Ciacco, C F; Salinas, Y

    1992-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of the extrusion process in the color of instant flours and its tortillas prepared with mixtures of commercial instant corn flour. In the extrusion process four flours from two genotypes of sorghum (whole and decorticated sorghum of each genotype) were used. These flours were processed in a single screw Brabender laboratory extruder. In the preparation of sorghum tortillas and sorghum-corn tortillas four flours were selected from the extrusion process. 1) genotype CMSXS 9A: Whole flour extruded with moisture content of 15% and screw rate of 130 rpm, flour from decorticated sorghum with particle size less than 0.420 mm extruded with moisture content of 15% and screw rate of 130 rpm, 2) genotype CMSXS 145: whole flour extruded with moisture content of 18% and screw rate of 170 rpm, decorticated sorghum flour extruded with moisture content of 15% and screw rate of 130 rpm. Also these flours were utilized with mixtures of commercial instant cornflour for the preparation of tortillas. The instant sorghum flours and tortillas from decorticated sorghum (20% = presented whiter color compared to instant whole sorghum flour and its tortillas. The addition of different levels of commercial instant corn flour (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) to the instant sorghum flours improved the color of the mixtures of flour and tortillas. This improvement was more pronounced with instant sorghum flour from whole sorghum grain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Soil and Rhizosphere Populations of Fusarium and Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Associated with Field-Grown Plants are Affected by Sorghum Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is valued for bioenergy, feed and food. Potential of sorghum genotypes to support differing populations of root- and soil-associated fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. or Fusarium spp., in two soils, was assessed. Pseudomonad and Fusarium numbers were assessed from ro...

  14. Soil and Root Populations of Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Associated with Seedlings and Field-grown Plants are Affected by Sorghum Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is valued for bioenergy, feed and food. Aims: Potential of sorghum genotypes to support differing populations of root- and soil-associated fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. or Fusarium spp., in two soils, was assessed. Methods: Culturable pseudomonads were enumerated...

  15. Interkingdom signaling: The role of homoserine lactones in early responses and resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rankl, Simone

    2017-01-01

    N-Acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced as microbial signaling compounds during bacterial intra- and inter-specific communication in the rhizosphere. Thus, plants are naturally exposed to these compounds and respond with tissue-specific reactions. In the present study the impact of AHLs on the monocot barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was investigated. The treatment with C8- and C12- homoserine lactones (HSL) resulted in root and shoot biomass gain as well as in the formation of lat...

  16. Comparative studies on the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. essential oil and methanol extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Devrnja, Nina; Anđelković, Boban; Aranđelović, Sandra; Radulović, Siniša; Soković, Marina; Krstić Milošević, Dijana; Ristić, Mihailo; Ćalić, Dušica

    2017-01-01

    Chemical composition of essential oil (EO) and methanol extracts (MEs) from different parts of Tanacetum vulgare L. plant was analyzed and investigated for potential biological activities and correlated with the main constituents detected in EO and MEs. The EO was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes with trans-chrysanthenyl acetate as major compound. All MEs were characterized by neochlorogenic, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic and caffeoylquinic acids. High phenolic content in M...

  17. Antibacterial Effects of Origanum vulgare Essence Against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated From Selected Hospitals of Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Saghi; Bahador; Khaledi; Ataee Kachoei; Amiri Dastjerdi; Esmaeili

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection due to Acinetobacter baumannii has become a significant challenge to modern healthcare systems. The rapid emergence and global dissemination of A. baumannii as a major nosocomial pathogen is remarkable and it demonstrates its successful adaptation to the 21st century hospital environment. Recent studies have discussed about essential oil of Origanum vulgare against a range of bacteria, including various species of Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Esc...

  18. Sorghum - An alternative energy crop for marginal lands and reclamation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Stefan; Theiß, Markus; Jäkel, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    The production of biogas and the associated cultivation of energy crops are still of great importance. Considering increasing restrictions for the cultivation of standard biogas crop maize regarding an environmentally friendly production of biomass, a wider range of energy crops is needed. The cultivation of sorghum can contribute to this. As maize, sorghum is a C4-plant and offers a high biomass yield potential. Originated in the semi-arid tropics, sorghum is well adapted to warm and dry climate and particularly noted for its drought tolerance compared to maize. It also makes few demands on soil quality and shows a good capability of nutrient acquisition. Therefore, particularly on marginal areas and reclamation sites with low soil nutrient and water content sorghum can contribute to secure crop yield and income of farmers. The applied research project aims at and reflects on the establishment of sorghum as a profitable and ecological friendly cropping alternative to maize, especially in the face of probable climate change with increasing risks for agriculture. For this purpose, site differentiated growing and cultivar trials with a standardized planting design as well as several practical on-farm field experiments were conducted. The agronomical and economic results will lead to scientifically based procedures and standards for agricultural practice with respect to cultivation methods (drilling, pest-management, fertilization), cropping sequence and technique, cropping period or position in crop rotation. Even by now there is a promising feedback from the agricultural practice linked with an increasing demand for information. Moreover, the specific cropping area is increasing continuously. Therefore, the leading signs for the establishment of sorghum as profitable alternative to maize biogas production are positive. Sorghum cultures perform best as main crops in the warm D locations in the middle and East German dry areas. Here, the contribution margin

  19. Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusmiyati Kusmiyati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to convert the starches from iles-iles tubers (Amorphophalus campanulatus and sorghum grains (Sorghum bicolor L into bioethanol as an alternative energy. Both of these agricultural products contains a high content starches and they do not use as the major foods in Indonesia. To find out the maximum ethanol concentration and yield, both the raw materials were converted to ethanol on various process variables including the concentration of flour substrate solution (100-300 g/L, β-amylase enzyme concentration (0.8 - 6.4 ml/kg of flour , the  concentration of dry yeast S. cerevisiae (2-15 g, and fermentation time (72-168 hours. The results showed that at the flour substrate concentration of 250 g/L produced the maximum ethanol contents of 100.29 g/L and 95.11 g/L   for iles-iles and sorghum, respectively. Effect of β-amylase enzyme in the saccharification process showed that at concentration  of 3.2 ml/kg  the maximum reducing sugar content of 204.94 g/L and 193.15 g/L  for iles-iles and sorghum substrate, respectively were generated therefore it was corresponding to the maximum ethanol production. The concentration effect of dry yeast S. cerevisiae in the fermentation stage for the iles-iles and sorghum substrate revealed that the maximum ethanol obtained at 5 g yeast activated in 100 ml medium starter resulted the highest ethanol content 100.29 g/L 95.11 g/L for iles-iles and sorghum substrate, respectively. To determine the effect of fermentation time on ethanol yield from iles-iles and sorghum substrate, the fermentation process were performed at 3, 5, and 7 days. The maximum ethanol fermentation was obtained at 5 days fermentation. The ethanol yield is calculated by weight of ethanol is formed (g divided by the weight of flour (g. Based on the experiment results, conducted, generally the highest ethanol yield of iles-iles was higher than that of sorghum flour. The highest yield (g/g iles-iles and sorghum

  20. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.