WorldWideScience

Sample records for sorbitol-based nuclear clarifying

  1. Clarifying amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    When Section 20.103 of the Commission's Standards for Protection Against Radiation was amended recently the amendments did not indicate that radon-222 and its daughters may be averaged over 1 year, as specified in footnote 3 to appendix B of the Standards for Protection Against Radiation. This is clarified by the (amendments set forth below. Minor editorial changes also are made

  2. Improved cryopreservability of stallion sperm using a sorbitol-based freezing extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojprasath, T; Lohachit, C; Techakumphu, M; Stout, T; Tharasanit, T

    2011-06-01

    Cryopreservation of stallion semen is often associated with poor post-thaw sperm quality. Sugars are among the important components of a freezing extender and act as non-permeating cryoprotectants. This study aimed to compare the quality of stallion sperm frozen with glucose, fructose or sorbitol-containing freezing extenders. Semen was collected from six stallions of proven fertility and cryopreserved using a freezing extender containing different types of monosaccharide sugars (glucose, fructose or sorbitol). After thawing, the semen was examined for sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane functionality and sperm longevity. The fertility of semen frozen in the presence of sorbitol was also tested by artificial insemination. Sperm quality was significantly decreased following freezing and thawing (P sorbitol and glucose (P sorbitol-based extender when examined at 2 and 4 h post-thaw, all of these parameters plus plasma membrane functionality were improved for sperm frozen in the sorbitol extender than in the glucose extender when examined 10 min post-thaw. Two of four mares (50%) inseminated with semen frozen with a sorbitol-containing freezing extender became pregnant. It is concluded that different sugars have different abilities to protect against cryoinjury during freezing and thawing of stallion sperm. This study demonstrated that an extender containing sorbitol as primary sugar can be used to successfully cryopreserve equine sperm; moreover, the quality of frozen-thawed sperm appeared to be better than when glucose or fructose was the principle sugar in the freezing extender. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clarifying values: an updated review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Consensus guidelines have recommended that decision aids include a process for helping patients clarify their values. We sought to examine the theoretical and empirical evidence related to the use of values clarification methods in patient decision aids. Methods Building on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration’s 2005 review of values clarification methods in decision aids, we convened a multi-disciplinary expert group to examine key definitions, decision-making process theories, and empirical evidence about the effects of values clarification methods in decision aids. To summarize the current state of theory and evidence about the role of values clarification methods in decision aids, we undertook a process of evidence review and summary. Results Values clarification methods (VCMs) are best defined as methods to help patients think about the desirability of options or attributes of options within a specific decision context, in order to identify which option he/she prefers. Several decision making process theories were identified that can inform the design of values clarification methods, but no single “best” practice for how such methods should be constructed was determined. Our evidence review found that existing VCMs were used for a variety of different decisions, rarely referenced underlying theory for their design, but generally were well described in regard to their development process. Listing the pros and cons of a decision was the most common method used. The 13 trials that compared decision support with or without VCMs reached mixed results: some found that VCMs improved some decision-making processes, while others found no effect. Conclusions Values clarification methods may improve decision-making processes and potentially more distal outcomes. However, the small number of evaluations of VCMs and, where evaluations exist, the heterogeneity in outcome measures makes it difficult to determine their

  4. Study of the nature of clarified oils and their potential uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.M.; Singh, I.D.; Tiwari, G.B.; Goyal, B.S.; Chandola, H.C. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

    1996-12-31

    Vacuum Gas Oils (VGOs) from waxy crudes contain appreciable amounts of wax. During catalytic cracking of VGO, due to lop sided cracking of n-paraffins, a substantial amount of wax is retained in clarified oils. These clarified oils generally find their way into refinery fuel. Wax separated from clarified oils were characterised using nuclear magnetic resonance (n.m.r.) and infrared (i.r.) spectroscopy. The groupwise composition of the clarified oils were also studied and the data compared with a typical short residue. Waxes separated from the clarified oils contain an appreciably high proportion of n-paraffins indicating a potential feedstock for making {alpha}-olefins. Group type composition showed that the polar aromatics separated from the clarified oils have high BMCI values indicating the possibility of using them as feedstocks for carbon rich materials. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Clarifying the role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    1983-01-01

    The IAEA has many roles in promoting the role of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The most significant role that the IAEA undertakes is the development and application of safeguards to nuclear material, other material, equipment and facilities; this work consumes about 35% of the IAEA budget. The authority, procedures and limitations for the application of safeguards were described together with the relationship between the IAEA and the States where safeguards are in effect. Claims that the IAEA is not adequately fulfilling its safeguard role are usually based on misunderstandings of its role and authority. The IAEA's relationship to inspected States is not adversarial, regulatory, or guarding. It provides assurance to all States that peaceful nuclear activities are not diverted to a military program and in so doing enhances the reputation of States to whom safeguards are applied. Safeguards would be only one of many factors that would be involved in a States embarking on a military nuclear program. If proliferation of nuclear weapons occurs, this may be due in entirety or in part to these other factors. Many States could now undertake a military program but do not do so, because of their enlightened viewpoint that such activities are not in their own, or the world's best interests. However, any trend to further proliferation of nuclear weapons could be diminished by: -a lessening of political and economic tension between States, -restrictions on the supply of required technology, equipment, and material, and -an effective IAEA safeguard regime. There has been a regrettable trend to politicization in the direction and operation of the IAEA. It is hoped that this trend will be reversed and that IAEA will return to its earlier more technical role. There is a pressing need for the general public and governments to more fully understand the IAEA's role and its limitations

  6. 21 CFR 178.3295 - Clarifying agents for polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Clarifying agents for polymers. 178.3295 Section... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3295 Clarifying agents for polymers. Clarifying agents may be safely used in polymers that are articles or components of articles intended for use in contact...

  7. Hydrodynamic characteristics of high speed settling clarifiers by radiotracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith Martinez, J.; Flores Juan, P.; Cuesta Borges, J.; Damera Martinez, A.; Ramos Espinosa, K. A

    2005-01-01

    Results achieved in the evaluation of two high-speed settling cane juice Clarifiers, one denominated ICINAZ The Express and the other one with Low Residence Time (BTR), both located at the sugar factory Orlando Gonzalez employing the well established radiotracer method (Tc-99m) are presented. Several trials performed at the two Clarifiers demonstrated that the one identified as BTR was capable to assimilate the whole flow capacity of the factory with adequate characteristic of the pattern flux and residence time in the environment of 1 hour. In the other side, ICINAZ The Express Clarifier could only work at relative low flow capacity of the factory with residence time closely to the two hours and achieving occasionally a pattern flux seriously affected by fluctuations in the milling process. The radiotracer method was able to detect certain differences between the two clear juice outlet of the BTR Clarifier, probably due some problems in the construction of this equipment

  8. Hydrodynamic characteristics of high speed settling clarifiers by radiotracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith Martinez, Jose; Damera Martinez, A.; Ramos Espinosa, K.

    2003-01-01

    Results achieved in the evaluation of two high-speed settling cane juice Clarifiers, one denominated ICINAZ The Express and the other one a modified SRI, both located at the sugar factory Orlando Gonzalez employing the well established radiotracer method (Tc-99m) are presented Several trials performed simultaneously at the two Clarifiers demonstrated that the modified SRI was capable to assimilate the whole flow capacity of the factory with adequate characteristic of the pattern flux and residence time in the environment of 1 hour. In the other side, ICINAZ The Express Clarifier could only work at relative low flow capacity of the factory with residence time closely to the two hours and achieving occasionally a pattern flux seriously affected by fluctuations in the milling process. The non-availability of a flow meter did not allow to extract more information related to some pattern flux anomalies, nevertheless, the radiotracer method was able to detect certain differences between the two clear juice outlet of the modified SRI Clarifier, probably due some problems in the construction of this equipment. This fact so as other goals achieved in this work, show once more the potentiality of the radiotracer method for this type of study related to the hydrodynamic characteristics of industrial facilities. (Author)

  9. Clarifying the Misconception about the Principle of Floatation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manoj K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the misconception about the violation of the principle of floatation. Improper understanding of the definition of "displaced fluid" by a floating body leads to the misconception. With the help of simple experiments, this article shows that there is no violation of the principle of floatation.

  10. Improving secondary clarifier performance at the Oakville Oil Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, S.M.; Bagley, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the relationship between settleability and the physical properties of activated sludge, to correlate settleability and key operational parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration at the aeration basin inlet and to determine potential operational improvements to the Oakville Oil Refinery Wastewater Treatment Plant. Nine separate sets of stirred sludge-settling tests were conducted over a six-month period to measure settleability. The stirred sludge volume index (SSVI), the zone settling constants, and the Zheng-Bagley compression constants were determined. State point analyses were conducted to determine the maximum solids flux of the clarifiers. The concentrations of Al, Mn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, and K were determined to identify potential correlations to settling characteristics. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted from the sludge and analyzed for the same reason. The performance of the clarifiers was highly variable during the period examined. As the refinery process flows and effluent streams changed, influent COD increased, from an average of 180mg/L to 600mg/L. Concurrently the settleability of the sludge decreased from excellent (SSVI = 68mL/g) to very poor (150mL/g), perhaps as the result of under aeration. State point analyses indicated that the clarifiers are under-sized for process upsets of this magnitude. (author)

  11. Improving secondary clarifier performance at the Oakville Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, S.M.; Bagley, D.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the relationship between settleability and the physical properties of activated sludge, to correlate settleability and key operational parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration at the aeration basin inlet and to determine potential operational improvements to the Oakville Oil Refinery Wastewater Treatment Plant. Nine separate sets of stirred sludge-settling tests were conducted over a six-month period to measure settleability. The stirred sludge volume index (SSVI), the zone settling constants, and the Zheng-Bagley compression constants were determined. State point analyses were conducted to determine the maximum solids flux of the clarifiers. The concentrations of Al, Mn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, and K were determined to identify potential correlations to settling characteristics. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted from the sludge and analyzed for the same reason. The performance of the clarifiers was highly variable during the period examined. As the refinery process flows and effluent streams changed, influent COD increased, from an average of 180mg/L to 600mg/L. Concurrently the settleability of the sludge decreased from excellent (SSVI = 68mL/g) to very poor (150mL/g), perhaps as the result of under aeration. State point analyses indicated that the clarifiers are under-sized for process upsets of this magnitude. (author)

  12. Clarifying perspectives: Ethics case reflection sessions in childhood cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2016-06-01

    Childhood cancer care involves many ethical concerns. Deciding on treatment levels and providing care that infringes on the child's growing autonomy are known ethical concerns that involve the whole professional team around the child's care. The purpose of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' experiences of participating in ethics case reflection sessions in childhood cancer care. Data collection by observations, individual interviews, and individual encounters. Data analysis were conducted following grounded theory methodology. Healthcare professionals working at a publicly funded children's hospital in Sweden participated in ethics case reflection sessions in which ethical issues concerning clinical cases were reflected on. The children's and their parents' integrity was preserved through measures taken to protect patient identity during ethics case reflection sessions. The study was approved by a regional ethical review board. Consolidating care by clarifying perspectives emerged. Consolidating care entails striving for common care goals and creating a shared view of care and the ethical concern in the specific case. The inter-professional perspectives on the ethical aspects of care are clarified by the participants' articulated views on the case. Different approaches for deliberating ethics are used during the sessions including raising values and making sense, leading to unifying interactions. The findings indicate that ethical concerns could be eased by implementing ethics case reflection sessions. Conflicting perspectives can be turned into unifying interactions in the healthcare professional team with the common aim to achieve good pediatric care. Ethics case reflection sessions is valuable as it permits the discussion of values in healthcare-related issues in childhood cancer care. Clarifying perspectives, on the ethical concerns, enables healthcare professionals to reflect on the most reasonable and ethically defensible care for the child

  13. The role of the spherical tokamak in clarifying tokamak physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, A.W.; Akers, R.J.; Connor, J.W.; Counsell, G.F.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Hender, T.C.; Maddison, G.P.; Martin, T.J.; McClements, K.G.; Roach, C.M.; Robinson, D.C.; Sykes, A.; Valovic, M.; Wilson, H.R.; Fonck, R.J.; Gusev, V.; Kaye, S.M.; Majeski, R.; Peng, Y.-K.M.; Medvedev, S.; Sharapov, S.; Walsh, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The spherical tokamak (ST) provides a unique environment in which to perform complementary and exacting tests of the tokamak physics required for a burning plasma experiment of any aspect ratio, while also having the potential for long-term fusion applications in its own right. New experiments are coming on-line in the UK (MAST), USA (NSTX, Pegasus), Russia (Globus-M), Brazil (ETE) and elsewhere, and the status of these devices will be reported, along with newly-analysed data from START. Those physics issues where the ST provides an opportunity to remove degeneracy in the databases or clarify one's understanding will be emphasized. (author)

  14. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  15. Clarifying the Imperative of Integration Research for Sustainable Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Dovers

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses why integration is important in doing research for developing policy and practice of sustainable environmental management. The imperative of integration includes environmental, social, economic, and other disciplinary considerations, as well as stakeholder interests. However, what is meant by integration is not always clear. While the imperative is being increasingly enunciated, the challenges it presents are difficult and indicate a long term pursuit. This paper clarifies the different dimensions of integration, as an important preliminary step toward advancing mutual understanding and the development of approaches. The paper identifies the driving forces for integration, discusses when integration is required, categorises forms of integration, and proposes principles to inform research programs and projects.

  16. Clarifying some remaining questions in the anomaly puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xing; Parker, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    We discuss several points that may help to clarify some questions that remain about the anomaly puzzle in supersymmetric theories. In particular, we consider a general N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The anomaly puzzle concerns the question of whether there is a consistent way in the quantized theory to put the R-current and the stress tensor in a single supermultiplet called the supercurrent, even though in the classical theory they are in the same supermultiplet. It was proposed that the classically conserved supercurrent bifurcates into two supercurrents having different anomalies in the quantum regime. The most interesting result we obtain is an explicit expression for the lowest component of one of the two supercurrents in 4-dimensional spacetime, namely the supercurrent that has the energy-momentum tensor as one of its components. This expression for the lowest component is an energy-dependent linear combination of two chiral currents, which itself does not correspond to a classically conserved chiral current. The lowest component of the other supercurrent, namely, the R-current, satisfies the Adler-Bardeen theorem. The lowest component of the first supercurrent has an anomaly, which we show is consistent with the anomaly of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. Therefore, we conclude that there is no consistent way to construct a single supercurrent multiplet that contains the R-current and the stress tensor in the straightforward way originally proposed. We also discuss and try to clarify some technical points in the derivations of the two supercurrents in the literature. These latter points concern the significance of infrared contributions to the NSVZ β-function and the role of the equations of motion in deriving the two supercurrents. (orig.)

  17. Assisted Suicide in Switzerland: Clarifying Liberties and Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia A; Mauron, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Assisting suicide is legal in Switzerland if it is offered without selfish motive to a person with decision-making capacity. Although the 'Swiss model' for suicide assistance has been extensively described in the literature, the formally and informally protected liberties and claims of assistors and recipients of suicide assistance in Switzerland are incompletely captured in the literature. In this article, we describe the package of rights involved in the 'Swiss model' using the framework of Hohfeldian rights as modified by Wenar. After outlining this framework, we dissect the rights involved in suicide assistance in Switzerland, and compare it with the situation in England and Germany. Based on this approach, we conclude that in Switzerland, claim rights exist for those requesting suicide assistance, and for those who are considering providing such assistance, even though no entitlements exist toward suicide assistance. We then describe the implementation of the 'Swiss model' and difficulties arising within it. Clarifying these issues is important to understand the Swiss situation, to evaluate what features of it may or may not be worth correcting or emulating, and to understand how it can impact requests for suicide assistance in other countries due to 'suicide tourism'. It is also important to understand exactly what sets Switzerland apart from other countries with different legislations regarding suicide assistance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A high rate clarifier for load levelling in sewerage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R A; Davey, A; Li, H

    2003-01-01

    The combining of chemically assisted clarification with a proprietary physical separation technology has led to a high rate process for clarifying flocculated sewage and other waste streams. This hybrid physico-chemical system, known as the CDS Fine Solids Separation (FSS) System, was developed over a two year period within a sewage treatment plant environment. This paper summarises the results of a recent field trial of the system with a Victorian water authority which experiences heavy loading of sewers in a coastal town during holiday periods. The trial sought to evaluate the FSS as a tool for smoothing the load on the 11 km long sewer to the sewage treatment plant (STP). The FSS system could possibly enable the costly augmentation of the sewer to be deferred, particularly as the capacity of the existing sewer pipe is satisfactory for most of the year. Water quality parameters were determined for a range of flowrates and operational conditions over a two month period. Large reductions were achieved in TSS, TP, FC, turbidity and BOD5, with only minimal reductions in NH3 and TON. These results showed that the FSS could meet the authority's objectives for load levelling and would provide a 20-25% increase in effective sewer capacity. The data are also discussed in terms of possible use of the effluent from the FSS for water reuse applications.

  19. The dark components of the Universe are slowly clarified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdyuzha, V. V., E-mail: burdyuzh@asc.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Astro-Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The dark sector of the Universe is beginning to be clarified step by step. If the dark energy is vacuum energy, then 123 orders of this energy are reduced by ordinary physical processes. For many years, these unexplained orders were called a crisis of physics. There was indeed a “crisis” before the introduction of the holographic principle and entropic force in physics. The vacuum energy was spent on the generation of new quantum states during the entire life of the Universe, but in the initial period of its evolution the vacuum energy (78 orders) were reduced more effectively by the vacuum condensates produced by phase transitions, because the Universe lost the high symmetry during its expansion. Important problems of physical cosmology can be solved if the quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons are composite particles. The dark matter, partially or all consisting of familon-type pseudo-Goldstone bosons with a mass of 10{sup —5}–10{sup –3} eV, can be explained in the composite model. Three generations of elementary particles are absolutely necessary in this model. In addition, this model realizes three relativistic phase transitions in a medium of familons at different redshifts, forming a large-scale structure of dark matter that was “repeated” by baryons. We predict the detection of dark energy dynamics, the detection of familons as dark matter particles, and the development of spectroscopy for the dark medium due to the probable presence of dark atoms in it. Other viewpoints on the dark components of the Universe are also discussed briefly.

  20. The dark components of the Universe are slowly clarified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdyuzha, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    The dark sector of the Universe is beginning to be clarified step by step. If the dark energy is vacuum energy, then 123 orders of this energy are reduced by ordinary physical processes. For many years, these unexplained orders were called a crisis of physics. There was indeed a “crisis” before the introduction of the holographic principle and entropic force in physics. The vacuum energy was spent on the generation of new quantum states during the entire life of the Universe, but in the initial period of its evolution the vacuum energy (78 orders) were reduced more effectively by the vacuum condensates produced by phase transitions, because the Universe lost the high symmetry during its expansion. Important problems of physical cosmology can be solved if the quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons are composite particles. The dark matter, partially or all consisting of familon-type pseudo-Goldstone bosons with a mass of 10"—"5–10"–"3 eV, can be explained in the composite model. Three generations of elementary particles are absolutely necessary in this model. In addition, this model realizes three relativistic phase transitions in a medium of familons at different redshifts, forming a large-scale structure of dark matter that was “repeated” by baryons. We predict the detection of dark energy dynamics, the detection of familons as dark matter particles, and the development of spectroscopy for the dark medium due to the probable presence of dark atoms in it. Other viewpoints on the dark components of the Universe are also discussed briefly.

  1. The dark components of the Universe are slowly clarified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdyuzha, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    The dark sector of the Universe is beginning to be clarified step by step. If the dark energy is vacuum energy, then 123 orders of this energy are reduced by ordinary physical processes. For many years, these unexplained orders were called a crisis of physics. There was indeed a "crisis" before the introduction of the holographic principle and entropic force in physics. The vacuum energy was spent on the generation of new quantum states during the entire life of the Universe, but in the initial period of its evolution the vacuum energy (78 orders) were reduced more effectively by the vacuum condensates produced by phase transitions, because the Universe lost the high symmetry during its expansion. Important problems of physical cosmology can be solved if the quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons are composite particles. The dark matter, partially or all consisting of familon-type pseudo-Goldstone bosons with a mass of 10—5-10-3 eV, can be explained in the composite model. Three generations of elementary particles are absolutely necessary in this model. In addition, this model realizes three relativistic phase transitions in a medium of familons at different redshifts, forming a large-scale structure of dark matter that was "repeated" by baryons. We predict the detection of dark energy dynamics, the detection of familons as dark matter particles, and the development of spectroscopy for the dark medium due to the probable presence of dark atoms in it. Other viewpoints on the dark components of the Universe are also discussed briefly.

  2. Clarifying and simplifying the management of environmental exposures under different exposure situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognises three different exposure situations: planned, existing, and emergency. In all three situations, the release of radionuclides into the natural environment leads to exposures of non-human species, as well as having the potential for exposures of the general public. Each release may therefore need separate evaluations of these two consequences in order to clarify the relevant objectives of protection, their compliance with various legal requirements, and how these objectives can be achieved. However, the need to meet more than one objective should not necessarily lead to a more complicated regulatory system. Indeed, with regard to low-level routine discharges from most nuclear plants, there would appear to be scope for simplifying the entire system, to protect both humans and biota, by using discharge consent and specified radionuclide environmental quality standards for water, soil, and air in a manner similar to that used to regulate other major, non-nuclear industries. In contrast, different objectives for humans and the environment need to be set and evaluated independently for existing exposure situations. For emergency situations, the separate consequences of different management options for humans and the environment should be made clear. Should an emergency occur, it is important to have meaningful environmental criteria in order to communicate clearly with the public at large as events unfold.

  3. Variability and Intelligibility of Clarified Speech to Different Listener Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Ronnie F.

    Two studies examined the modifications that adult speakers make in speech to disadvantaged listeners. Previous research that has focused on speech to the deaf individuals and to young children has shown that adults clarify speech when addressing these two populations. Acoustic measurements suggest that the signal undergoes similar changes for both populations. Perceptual tests corroborate these results for the deaf population, but are nonsystematic in developmental studies. The differences in the findings for these populations and the nonsystematic results in the developmental literature may be due to methodological factors. The present experiments addressed these methodological questions. Studies of speech to hearing impaired listeners have used read, nonsense, sentences, for which speakers received explicit clarification instructions and feedback, while in the child literature, excerpts of real-time conversations were used. Therefore, linguistic samples were not precisely matched. In this study, experiments used various linguistic materials. Experiment 1 used a children's story; experiment 2, nonsense sentences. Four mothers read both types of material in four ways: (1) in "normal" adult speech, (2) in "babytalk," (3) under the clarification instructions used in the "hearing impaired studies" (instructed clear speech) and (4) in (spontaneous) clear speech without instruction. No extra practice or feedback was given. Sentences were presented to 40 normal hearing college students with and without simultaneous masking noise. Results were separately tabulated for content and function words, and analyzed using standard statistical tests. The major finding in the study was individual variation in speaker intelligibility. "Real world" speakers vary in their baseline intelligibility. The four speakers also showed unique patterns of intelligibility as a function of each independent variable. Results were as follows. Nonsense sentences were less intelligible than story

  4. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  5. Improving the performance of industrial clarifiers using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankhadeep Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is one of the most popular wastewater treatment processes, and is used to separate solid particles from carrier fluid in settling tanks known as clarifiers. The clarifier, as the last major facility in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, can limit or define the performance of the overall WWTP. This paper presents a novel three-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD model to improve the efficiency of an industrial clarifier that had been experiencing underperformance and reduction in wastewater handling capacity. We propose a numerical technique to address the transient process of removing sludge from the floor of clarifiers by using rotating rakes. The CFD model was first applied to analyzing the ramifications of the current clarifier geometry on performance. The results show that the root causes for underperformance are related to the unconventional top side feed design of the clarifier, which leads to significant asymmetry in the flow distribution. The CFD model was next used to investigate various design modifications with the goal of improving the clarifier performance. A few geometry modification ideas such as an inward baffle, dissipating inlets, and a submerged skirt were found to create a more uniform flow distribution in the clarifier, significantly reducing the backflow into the feedwell and the velocity of the flow exiting the feedwell, which helps the solid particles to settle in the clarifier. These three designs were found to reduce the effluent total suspended solids (TSS by more than 80% and thus significantly improve clarifier performance. It is believed that the CFD model developed in this study can become a computationally efficient tool for investigating the performance of industrial clarifiers with complex geometries and rotating rakes.

  6. 75 FR 75649 - Policy Clarifying Definition of “Actively Engaged” for Purposes of Inspector Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ...-1060] Policy Clarifying Definition of ``Actively Engaged'' for Purposes of Inspector Authorization... Flight Standards Management System Order 8900.1. DATES: The comment period for the Notice of Proposed... 5, 2010 the FAA published a Notice of Proposed Policy, entitled Policy Clarifying Definition of...

  7. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  8. THE ROLE OF DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR L. IN SECONDARY CLARIFIER TANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Gürtekin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of duckweed (Lemna minor L. presence on the effluent water quality and settling characteristics in the secondary clarifier tank of a conventional biological treatment plant were investigated. For this purpose, the performances of the secondary clarifier with and without duckweed were compared. In the secondary clarifier tank with duckweed, COD, BOD5, ammonium and phosphate removal efficiencies were higher by 15, 25, 35 and 45%, respectively. SS concentration of effluent and values of sludge volume index (SVI were the same. The results showed that duckweed contributes to treatment efficiency of conventional biological treatment plant, which reduces the need of tertiary nutrients removal.

  9. 77 FR 29935 - 2012 Technical Corrections, Clarifying and Other Amendments to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    .... Fluorinated Gas Production..... 325120 Industrial gases manufacturing facilities. Industrial Waste Landfills... 2012 Technical Corrections, Clarifying and Other Amendments to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule, and Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for Certain Data Elements of the Fluorinated Gas Source Category...

  10. The GRADE Working Group clarifies the construct of certainty of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultcrantz, Monica; Rind, David; Akl, Elie A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify the GRADE (grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation) definition of certainty of evidence and suggest possible approaches to rating certainty of the evidence for systematic reviews, health technology assessments and guidelines. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTIN...

  11. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of ...

  12. Nuclear power and nuclear-weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moniz, E.J.; Neff, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    Concern over the risk of nuclear proliferation has led to extensive reexamination of the technical, economic, and political assumptions underlying both national and international nuclear policies. An attempt is made in the present article to clarify the basic technical and political issues. The connections between various fuel cycles and their possible proliferation risks are discussed. As the resolution of the existing differing views on proliferation risks will be largely a political process, solutions to the problem are not proposed

  13. Study of flow characteristics in a secondary clarifier by numerical simulation and radioisotope tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.S.; Shin, M.S.; Jang, D.S.; Jung, S.H.; Jin, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation in a 2-D rectangular coordinate and experimental study have been performed to figure out the flow characteristics and concentration distribution of a large-scale rectangular final clarifier in wastewater treatment facility located in Busan, S. Korea. The purpose of numerical calculation is to verify the experimentally measured data by radioisotope tracer technique and further to understand the important physical feature occurring in a large-scale clarifier, in many cases which is not sufficient by the aid of limited number of experimental data. To this end, a comprehensive computer program is basically made by SIMPLE algorithm by Patankar with the special emphasis on the parametric evaluation of the various phenomenological models. Calculation results are successfully evaluated against experimental data obtained by the method of radioisotope tracer. Detailed comparison is made on the calculated residence time distribution (RTD) curves with measurement inside the clarifier as well as the exhaust. Further the calculation results predict well the well-known characteristics of clarifier flow such as the waterfall phenomenon at the front end of the clarifier, the bottom density current in the settling zone and the upward flow in the withdrawal zone. Thus it is believed that the flow calculation program and the data incorporation technique of radioisotope measurement employed in this study show the high possibility as a complementary tool of experiment in this area

  14. Thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified Lime (Citrus aurantifolia L) juice at different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, S S; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) juice were evaluated at different moisture contents ranging from 30.37 % to 89.30 % (wet basis) corresponding to a water activity range of 0.835 to 0.979. The thermophysical properties evaluated were density, Newtonian viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity. The investigation showed that density and Newtonian viscosity of enzyme clarified lime juice decreased significantly (p lime juice with moisture content/water activity employing regression analysis by the method of least square approximation. Results indicated the existence of strong correlation between thermophysical properties and moisture content/water activity of enzyme clarified lime juice, a significant (p < 0.0001) negative correlation between physical and thermal properties was observed.

  15. Modeling of water lighting process and calculation of the reactor-clarifier to improve energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolubovich, Yuriy; Skolubovich, Aleksandr; Voitov, Evgeniy; Soppa, Mikhail; Chirkunov, Yuriy

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the current questions of technological modeling and calculation of the new facility for cleaning natural waters, the clarifier reactor for the optimal operating mode, which was developed in Novosibirsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SibSTRIN). A calculation technique based on well-known dependences of hydraulics is presented. A calculation example of a structure on experimental data is considered. The maximum possible rate of ascending flow of purified water was determined, based on the 24 hour clarification cycle. The fractional composition of the contact mass was determined with minimal expansion of contact mass layer, which ensured the elimination of stagnant zones. The clarification cycle duration was clarified by the parameters of technological modeling by recalculating maximum possible upward flow rate of clarified water. The thickness of the contact mass layer was determined. Likewise, clarification reactors can be calculated for any other lightening conditions.

  16. Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, A.J.; McTaggart, D.R.; Van Essen, D.C.; Kent, T.E.; West, G.D.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608, to replace the sludge-blanket softener/clarifier at the Process Waste Treatment Plant, now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544 (PWTC-3544). This work was conducted because periodic hydraulic overloads caused poor water-softening performance in the PWTC-3544 softener, which was detrimental to the performance and operating costs of downstream ion-exchange operations. Over a 2-month time frame, the modified reactor/clarifier was tested with nonradiological wastewater and then with radioactive wastewater to optimize softening performance. Based on performance to date, the new system has operated more effectively than the former one, with reduced employee radiological exposure, less downtime, lower costs, and improved effluent quality

  17. Clarifying and discussing successful aging at work and the active role of employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I clarify and further discuss 4 issues raised by Zacher in critically analyzing my perspective on successful aging at work and the active role of employees. First, I argue that the sustainability concept is a valuable and useful concept to better understand successful aging at work,

  18. Clarifying pre-service teacher perceptions of mentor teachers' developing use of mentoring skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. Theo Bergen; Dr. Niels Brouwer; Dr. Paul Hennissen; Dr. F.J.A.J. Crasborn; Prof. Dr. Fred Korthagen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify how pre-service teachers perceive mentor teachers' use of mentoring skills. Sixty stimulated-recall interviews were conducted, each in connection with a previously recorded mentoring dialogue. A quantitative analysis showed that six types of mentoring skills

  19. Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production

    OpenAIRE

    ESHMATOV FOZIL KHIDIROVICH; MAKSUMOVA DILRABO KUCHKAROVNA; DODAEVA LAYLO KUCHKAROVNA

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production. From sour varieties of pomegranates may obtain normal natural pomegranate juice by anion-exchange resin. There are determined problems quantity of precipitate and unstable color in the pomegranate juice and concentrate by experimentally.

  20. Deception in Brand Names: Do Print Ads Clarify the Nutrition Claims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Bonnie B.; Rifon, Nora J.

    To learn whether the problem of misunderstanding in brand names might be caused by the content of advertisements or whether it stemmed from a failure in the exposure-processing chain with respect to the effect of the ads on consumers, a study investigated the extent to which marketers provide information in their advertising that clarifies the…

  1. Teaching Philosophy Game - A Way to Clarify Values, Attitudes, and Preferences Related to Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Birgitte Lund; Hansen, Claus Thorp; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    The authors propose a game that can be used to clarify faculty members’ values, attitudes,and preferences related to teaching and learning. The game is intended to establish a guided, yet unformal and amusing, framework for considering and discussing what staff members find important in their tas...

  2. The alphabet soup of perfusion CT and MR imaging: terminology revisited and clarified in five questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiva-Salinas, Carlos [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hospital Universitario y Politecnico la Fe, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Valencia (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Provenzale, James M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Departments of Radiology, Oncology and Biomedical Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Division of Ultra-high Field MRI, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Morioka (Japan); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Charlottesville, VA (United States); University of Virginia Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, 1215 Lee Street-New Hospital, 1st Floor, Room 1011, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The five questions answered in this article revolve around the different parameters resulting from perfusion imaging processing, and this clarifies the frequently confusing terminology used to describe these parameters. More specifically, the article discusses the different imaging techniques and main mathematical models behind perfusion imaging, reviews the perfusion attributes of brain tissue, and proposes a standardized parameter terminology to facilitate understanding and avoid common misinterpretations. (orig.)

  3. The alphabet soup of perfusion CT and MR imaging: terminology revisited and clarified in five questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva-Salinas, Carlos; Provenzale, James M.; Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto; Wintermark, Max

    2012-01-01

    The five questions answered in this article revolve around the different parameters resulting from perfusion imaging processing, and this clarifies the frequently confusing terminology used to describe these parameters. More specifically, the article discusses the different imaging techniques and main mathematical models behind perfusion imaging, reviews the perfusion attributes of brain tissue, and proposes a standardized parameter terminology to facilitate understanding and avoid common misinterpretations. (orig.)

  4. Does influence beget autonomy? Clarifying the relationship between social and personal power

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Stefan; Weick, Mario; Lammers, Joris

    2017-01-01

    We iteratively develop and test a model to clarify the relationship between both high and low levels of social (influence) and personal (autonomy) power. A meta-analysis synthesising primary data (n = 298) and secondary data (n = 498) found that impaired personal power coincided with impaired social power, but not vice versa. Unexpectedly, elevated social power did not coincide with elevated personal power, suggesting that the association between influence and autonomy attenuates with increas...

  5. Financial Management: DOD Needs to Clarify Its General Gift Fund Policies to Provide for Effective Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-27

    Representatives Subject: Financial Management: DOD Needs to Clarify Its General Gift Fund Policies to Provide for Effective Oversight From fiscal...year 2005 through fiscal year 2008, the military services received about $295 million in monetary and nonmonetary gifts from individuals and...organizations wishing to donate gifts to the Department of Defense (DOD).1 Section 2601(a) of Title 10, U.S. Code is a long-standing authority under which

  6. Indepth diagnosis of a secondary clarifier by the application of radiotracer technique and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Shin, M S; Jang, D S; Jung, S H

    2006-01-01

    To make an indepth diagnosis of a full-scale rectangular secondary clarifier, an experimental and numerical study has been performed in a wastewater treatment facility. Calculation results by the numerical model with the adoption of the SIMPLE algorithm of Patankar are validated with radiotracer experiments. Emphasis is given to the prediction of residence time distribution (RTD) curves. The predicted RTD profiles are in good agreement with the experimental RTD curves at the upstream and center sections except for the withdrawal zone of the complex effluent weir structure. The simulation results predict successfully the well-known flow characteristics of each stage such as the waterfall phenomenon at the front of the clarifier, the bottom density current and the surface return flow in the settling zone, and the upward flow in the exit zone. The detailed effects of density current are thoroughly investigated in terms of high SS loading and temperature difference between influent and ambient fluid. The program developed in this study shows the high potential to assist in the design and determination of optimal operating conditions to improve effluent quality in a full-scale secondary clarifier.

  7. Sixty-five-year old final clarifier performance rivals that of modern designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, James L; Kunetz, Thomas E; Sobanski, Joseph P

    2008-01-01

    The Stickney plant of the Metropolitan Wastewater Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC), one of the largest wastewater treatment plants in the world, treats an average dry weather flow of 22 m3/s and a sustained wet weather flow of 52 m3/s that can peak to 63 m3/s. Most of the inner city of Chicago has combined sewers, and in order to reduce pollution through combined sewer overflows (CSO), the 175 km Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) tunnels, up to 9.1 m in diameter, were constructed to receive and convey CSO to a reservoir from where it will be pumped to the Stickney treatment plant. Pumping back storm flows will result in sustained wet weather flows over periods of weeks. Much of the success of the plant will depend on the ability of 96 circular final clarifiers to produce an effluent of acceptable quality. The nitrifying activated sludge plant is arranged in a plug-flow configuration, and some denitrification takes place as a result of the high oxygen demand in the first pass of the four-pass aeration basins that have a length to width ratio of 18:1. The SVI of the mixed liquor varies between 60 and 80 ml/g. The final clarifiers, which were designed by the District's design office in 1938, have functioned for more than 65 years without major changes and are still producing very high-quality effluent. This paper will discuss the design and operation of these final clarifiers and compare the design with more modern design practices. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  8. Clarifying Definitions for the Massage Therapy Profession: the Results of the Best Practices Symposium†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann B.; Cambron, Jerrilyn A.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Travillian, Ravensara S.; Saunders, Ruth P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Massage therapists are at times unclear about the definition of massage therapy, which creates challenges for the profession. It is important to investigate the current definitions and to consider the field as a whole in order to move toward clarity on what constitutes the constructs within the profession. Purpose To determine how a sample of experts understand and describe the field of massage therapy as a step toward clarifying definitions for massage and massage therapy, and framing the process of massage therapy practice. Setting A two-day symposium held in 2010 with the purpose of gathering knowledge to inform and aid in the creation of massage therapy best practice guidelines for stress and low back pain. Participants Thirty-two experts in the field of massage therapy from the United States, Europe, and Canada. Design Qualitative analysis of secondary cross-sectional data using a grounded theory approach. Results Three over-arching themes were identified: 1) What is massage?; 2) The multidimensional nature of massage therapy; and 3) The influencing factors on massage therapy practice. Discussion The data offered clarifying definitions for massage and massage therapy, as well as a framework for the context for massage therapy practice. These clarifications can serve as initial steps toward the ultimate goal of creating new theory for the field of massage therapy, which can then be applied in practice, education, research, and policy. Conclusions Foundational research into how experts in the profession understand and describe the field of massage therapy is limited. Understanding the potential differences between the terms massage and massage therapy could contribute to a transformation in the profession in the areas of education, practice, research, policy and/or regulation. Additionally, framing the context for massage therapy practice invites future discussions to further clarify practice issues. PMID:27648109

  9. Clarifying Definitions for the Massage Therapy Profession: the Results of the Best Practices Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann B; Cambron, Jerrilyn A; Sharpe, Patricia A; Travillian, Ravensara S; Saunders, Ruth P

    2016-09-01

    Massage therapists are at times unclear about the definition of massage therapy, which creates challenges for the profession. It is important to investigate the current definitions and to consider the field as a whole in order to move toward clarity on what constitutes the constructs within the profession. To determine how a sample of experts understand and describe the field of massage therapy as a step toward clarifying definitions for massage and massage therapy, and framing the process of massage therapy practice. A two-day symposium held in 2010 with the purpose of gathering knowledge to inform and aid in the creation of massage therapy best practice guidelines for stress and low back pain. Thirty-two experts in the field of massage therapy from the United States, Europe, and Canada. Qualitative analysis of secondary cross-sectional data using a grounded theory approach. Three over-arching themes were identified: 1) What is massage?; 2) The multidimensional nature of massage therapy; and 3) The influencing factors on massage therapy practice. The data offered clarifying definitions for massage and massage therapy, as well as a framework for the context for massage therapy practice. These clarifications can serve as initial steps toward the ultimate goal of creating new theory for the field of massage therapy, which can then be applied in practice, education, research, and policy. Foundational research into how experts in the profession understand and describe the field of massage therapy is limited. Understanding the potential differences between the terms massage and massage therapy could contribute to a transformation in the profession in the areas of education, practice, research, policy and/or regulation. Additionally, framing the context for massage therapy practice invites future discussions to further clarify practice issues.

  10. Legislation for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shozo

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear disaster accident clarified problems on nuclear-related legislation and its application. Legislation for nuclear disaster (LNA) could not respond to severe accident because assumed size of accident was not enough. After emergency event corresponding to the article 15 of LNA, was reported by the operator, more than two hours passed by the issuance of Emergency State Declaration. Off-site center could not work at all. This article reviewed outline of LNA and introduced discussion on the reform of legislation and its application. Reform discussion should be focused on swift and effective response readiness to emergency: 1) operator's substantial nuclear emergency drilling, (2) reinforcement of government's headquarters for emergency response, (3) after nuclear emergency, government's headquarters remained to enhance resident's safety from radiation hazard and (4) enactment of nuclear emergency preparedness guidelines for local communities. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Clarifying the contribution of subjective norm to predicting leisure-time exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A; Karoly, Paul; Lutz, Rafer

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the contribution of subjective norm to exercise intention and behavior by considering the influence of descriptive as well as injunctive social norms related to family and friends. A sample of 530 college students completed a questionnaire that assessed descriptive and injunctive social norms related to family and to friends, perceived behavioral control, attitude, intention, and leisure-time exercise. Friend descriptive social norm was a significant predictor of both intention (pleisure-time exercise (p<.001). Descriptive norms should be incorporated into tests of the theory of planned behavior in the exercise domain.

  12. Technical supports for nuclear control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jong Sung; Kwak, Eun Hoh; Noh, Sung Kee; Soh, Dong Sub; Yoon, Wan Kee; Shin, Jang Soo; Paek, Dae Hyun; Park, Wan Soo; Kim, Hyun Tae; Park, Chan Sik; Cha, Hong Yul; Choi, Yoon Dong; Park, Jin Hoh; Lee, Eui Jin; An, Jin Soo; Kim, Jong Heui [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The project was carried out to support the establishment of the system of accountancy and control of nuclear materials in Korea. The training of inspectors and seminar were held to improve inspection capability of the nuclear inspectors. The information about the north Korean nuclear activities were successfully analyzed. In the drafts of nuclear energy law the national inspection and the regulation of physical protection were newly introduced for the purpose to clarify the openness of nuclear activities in Korea. 1 fig, 20 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  13. Securing Chinese nuclear power development: further strengthening nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui

    2014-01-01

    Chinese President Xi Jinping addresses China's new concept of nuclear security with four 'equal emphasis' at the third Nuclear Security Summit, and makes four commitments to strengthen nuclear security in the future. To convert President Xi's political commitments into practical, sustainable reality, China should take further steps to install a complete, reliable, and effective security system to ensure that all its nuclear materials and nuclear facilities are effectively protected against the full spectrum of plausible terrorist and criminal threats. This paper suggests the following measures be taken to improve China's existing nuclear security system, including updating and clarifying the requirements for a national level DBT; updating and enforcing existing regulations; further promoting nuclear security culture; balancing the costs of nuclear security, and further strengthening international cooperation on nuclear security. (author)

  14. One lens missing? Clarifying the clinical microsystem framework with learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ann-Charlott; Fritzen, Lena; Fridh, Marianne Lindblad

    2013-01-01

    The clinical microsystem (CMS) approach is widely used and is perceived as helpful in practice but, we ask the question: "Is its learning potential sufficiently utilized?" To scrutinize aspects of learning within the CMS framework and to clarify the learning aspects the framework includes and thereby support the framework with the enhanced learning perspective that becomes visible. Literature on the CMS framework was systematically searched and selected using inclusion criteria. An analytical tool was constructed in the form of a theoretical lens that was used to clarify learning aspects that are associated with the framework. The analysis revealed 3 learning aspects: (1) The CMS framework describes individual and social learning but not how to adapt learning strategies for purposes of change. (2) The metaphorical language of how to reach a holistic health care system for each patient has developed over time but can still be improved by naming social interactions to transcend organizational boundaries. (3) Power structures are recognized but not as a characteristic that restricts learning due to asymmetric communication. The "lens" perspective reveals new meanings to learning that enhance our understanding of health care as a social system and provides new practical learning strategies.

  15. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-10-03

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different productionstages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assessits potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategicrole in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detectionduring production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clearidentification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washedand crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm -1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in theRaman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by thepresence of four peaks at 823 cm -1 , 872 cm -1 , 918 cm -1 and 975 cm -1 . In the case of apricotjuice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm -1 were alsohighlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods forthe quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of thebiochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and requiredifferent chemical reagents for each of them.

  16. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lepore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different productionstages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assessits potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategicrole in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detectionduring production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clearidentification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washedand crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin which disappears in theRaman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by thepresence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricotjuice, several Raman fingerprints of β-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were alsohighlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods forthe quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of thebiochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and requiredifferent chemical reagents for each of them.

  17. Nuclear power in rock. Principal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    In September 1975 the Swedish Government directed the Swedish State Power Board to study the question of rock-siting nuclear power plants. The study accounted for in this report aims at clarifying the advantages and disadvantages of siting a nuclear power plant in rock, compared to siting on ground level, considering reactor safety, war protection and sabotage. The need for nuclear power production during war situations and the closing down of nuclear power plants after terminated operation are also dealt with. (author)

  18. Effect of gas sparging on flux enhancement and phytochemical properties of clarified pineapple juice by microfiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Laorko, Aporn

    2011-08-01

    Membrane fouling is a major obstacle in the application of microfiltration. Several techniques have been proposed to enhance the permeate flux during microfiltration. Gas sparging is a hydrodynamic method for improving the performance of the membrane process. In this study, a 0.2 μm hollow fiber microfiltration membrane was used to study the effect of cross flow velocity (CFV) and gas injection factor () on the critical and limiting flux during microfiltration of pineapple juice. In addition, the phytochemical properties of clarified juice were investigated. In the absence of gas sparging, the critical and limiting flux increased as the CFV or shear stress number increased. The use of gas sparging led to a remarkable improvement in both the critical and limiting flux but it was more effective at the lower CFV (1.5 m s-1), compared to those at higher CFV (2.0 and 2.5 m s-1). When the gas injection factor was applied at 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 with a CFV of 1.5 m s -1, the enhancement of 55.6%, 75.5% and 128.2% was achieved for critical flux, while 65.8%, 69.7% and 95.2% was achieved for limiting flux, respectively. The results also indicated that the use of gas sparging was an effective method to reduce reversible fouling and external irreversible fouling rather than internal irreversible fouling. In addition, the CFV and gas sparging did not affect pH, total soluble solids, colour, total phenolic content and the antioxidant property of the clarified juice. The l-ascorbic acid and total vitamin C were significantly decreased when the higher CFV and high gas injection factor were applied. The results also indicated that the use of gas sparging with low CFV was beneficial for flux enhancement while most of the phytochemical properties of the clarified juice was preserved. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved waste water polishing in the North Anna clarifier using Durasil ion exchange media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, M.C.; Sutter, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    On December 26, 1985, forty-one cubic feet of ion exchange media provided by Duratek was loaded into the North Anna clarifier demineralizer. As of the writing of this manuscript (February 6, 1986), processing using this single loading has continued for 42 straight days without breakthrough. To date, some 5.89 million gallons have been processed at an average flow rate of 140,200 gal/day. Throughputs are 143,700 gal/cu.ft. and still climbing. These figures represent improvements of a factor 20 over the run times experienced with organic resins immediately prior to the introduction of the new materials. This paper describes the testing program of Durasil ion exchange media carried out at North Anna by Duratek which lead to this dramatic improvement in performance

  20. Peak Phosphorus: Clarifying the Key Issues of a Vigorous Debate about Long-Term Phosphorus Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart White

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the latest information and perspectives on global phosphorus scarcity. Phosphorus is essential for food production and modern agriculture currently sources phosphorus fertilizers from finite phosphate rock. The 2008 food and phosphate fertilizer price spikes triggered increased concerns regarding the depletion timeline of phosphate rock reserves. While estimates range from 30 to 300 years and are shrouded by lack of publicly available data and substantial uncertainty, there is a general consensus that the quality and accessibility of remaining reserves are decreasing and costs will increase. This paper clarifies common sources of misunderstandings about phosphorus scarcity and identifies areas of consensus. It then asks, despite some persistent uncertainty, what would it take to achieve global phosphorus security? What would a ‘hard-landing’ response look like and how could preferred ‘soft-landing’ responses be achieved?

  1. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. PMID:26389621

  2. Clarifying beliefs underlying hunter intentions to support a ban on lead shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Doncarlos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Shot from hunting adds toxic lead to environments worldwide. Existing lead shot regulations have been instituted with little understanding of hunter beliefs and attitudes. This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action, using a multilevel, multivariate approach, to clarify how positive and negative beliefs relate to attitudes about a ban on lead shot. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis were employed to further examine relationships between beliefs and attitudes. Results suggest that while both positive and negative outcomes influence attitudes, positive outcomes were more influential for supporters and negative beliefs for opposers. Management may need to focus on the results from hunters who indicated that they would be unlikely to support a ban, as these hunters include those who may actively oppose additional efforts to regulate lead.

  3. Clarifying Inconclusive Functional Analysis Results: Assessment and Treatment of Automatically Reinforced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Valdeep; Greer, Brian D.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a series of studies in which multiple strategies were used to clarify the inconclusive results of one boy’s functional analysis of aggression. Specifically, we (a) evaluated individual response topographies to determine the composition of aggregated response rates, (b) conducted a separate functional analysis of aggression after high rates of disruption masked the consequences maintaining aggression during the initial functional analysis, (c) modified the experimental design used during the functional analysis of aggression to improve discrimination and decrease interaction effects between conditions, and (d) evaluated a treatment matched to the reinforcer hypothesized to maintain aggression. An effective yet practical intervention for aggression was developed based on the results of these analyses and from data collected during the matched-treatment evaluation. PMID:25891269

  4. Secondary clarifier hybrid model calibration in full scale pulp and paper activated sludge wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreckovic, G.; Hall, E.R. [British Columbia Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Thibault, J. [Laval Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada); Savic, D. [Exeter Univ., School of Engineering, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    The issue of proper model calibration techniques applied to mechanistic mathematical models relating to activated sludge systems was discussed. Such calibrations are complex because of the non-linearity and multi-model objective functions of the process. This paper presents a hybrid model which was developed using two techniques to model and calibrate secondary clarifier parts of an activated sludge system. Genetic algorithms were used to successfully calibrate the settler mechanistic model, and neural networks were used to reduce the error between the mechanistic model output and real world data. Results of the modelling study show that the long term response of a one-dimensional settler mechanistic model calibrated by genetic algorithms and compared to full scale plant data can be improved by coupling the calibrated mechanistic model to as black-box model, such as a neural network. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Sorbitol-based osmotic diarrhea: possible causes and mechanism of prevention investigated in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Sakaguchi, Ei

    2006-12-21

    To study the possible causes of sorbitol (S)-based diarrhea and its mechanism of reduction by rice gruel (RG) in cecectomized rats. S was dissolved either in distilled water or in RG (50 g/L) and ingested as a single oral dose (1.2 g/kg body mass, containing 0.5 g/L phenol red as a recovery marker) by S (control) and S + RG groups (n = 7), respectively. This dose is over the laxative dose for humans. Animals were sacrificed exactly 1 h after dose ingestion, without any access to drinking water. The whole gastro-intestinal tract was divided into seven segments and sampled to analyze the S and marker remaining in its contents. Gastric-emptying and intestinal transit were comparatively slower in the S + RG group. Also, the S absorption index in the 3(rd) and last quarter of the small intestine (24.85 +/- 18.88% vs 0.0 +/- 0.0% and 39.09 +/- 32.75% vs 0.0 +/- 0.0%, respectively, P osmotic diarrhea. Where RG enhanced the absorption of S through passive diffusion, the degree of diarrhea was reduced in cecectomized rats.

  6. Nuclear energy and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Osery, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    The soundness of use of nuclear energy in electric energy generation has received public concern due to the public highly exaggerated fear of nuclear power. It is the purpose of this paper to clear up some issues of public misunderstanding of nuclear power. Those of most importance are the unjustified fears about safety of nuclear power plants and the misunderstanding of nuclear risks and fears of nuclear power plants environmental impact. The paper is addressed to the public and aims at clarifying these issues in simple, correct, and convincing terms in such a way that links the gap between the scientists of nuclear energy and the general public; this gap which the media has failed to cover and failed to convey honestly and correctly the scientific facts about nuclear energy from the scientists standards to the public

  7. Nuclear and radiological Security: Introduction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Nuclear security includes the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer, or other malicious acts involving nuclear or other radioactive substances or their associated facilities. The presentation begins by discussing the concept and its importance, then moves on to consider threats--insider threat, sabotage, diversion of materials--with considerable emphasis on the former. The intrusion at Pelindaba, South Africa, is described as a case study. The distinction between nuclear security and security of radiological and portable sources is clarified, and the international legal framework is touched upon. The paper concludes by discussing the responsibilities of the various entities involved in nuclear security.

  8. Nuclear and radiological Security: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, James Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear security includes the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer, or other malicious acts involving nuclear or other radioactive substances or their associated facilities. The presentation begins by discussing the concept and its importance, then moves on to consider threats--insider threat, sabotage, diversion of materials--with considerable emphasis on the former. The intrusion at Pelindaba, South Africa, is described as a case study. The distinction between nuclear security and security of radiological and portable sources is clarified, and the international legal framework is touched upon. The paper concludes by discussing the responsibilities of the various entities involved in nuclear security.

  9. Requirements for nuclear data from ITER/FER nuclear design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi

    1991-01-01

    Considering ITER and FER activities and future programme of fusion reactor developments, the present situations in fusion neutronics were explained up to now from the previous fusion nuclear data specialist meeting. Vicissitude of development of FUSION-J3 was also explained. From these discussions we clarified the required accuracies in nuclear data, their time limits and their priorities of nuclides to be improved for fusion reactor developments. (author)

  10. Accelerators and alternative nuclear fuel management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of special accelerators suggests the po tential for new directions in nuclear energy systems evolution. Such directions point towards a more acceptable form of nuclear energy by reason of the consequent accessibility of enhanced fuel management choices. Essential and specifically directed research and development activity needs to be under taken in order to clarify and resolve a number of technical issues

  11. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the CLARIFY registry of outpatients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbets, Emmanuel; Greenlaw, Nicola; Ferrari, Roberto; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim M; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tendera, Michal; Steg, Philippe Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    Despite major advances in prevention and treatment, coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Whereas many sources of data are available on the epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes, fewer datasets reflect the contemporary management and outcomes of stable CAD patients. A worldwide contemporary registry would improve our knowledge about stable CAD. The main objectives are to describe the demographics, clinical profile, contemporary management and outcomes of outpatients with stable CAD; to identify gaps between evidence and treatment; and to investigate long-term prognostic determinants. CLARIFY (ProspeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease) is an ongoing international observational longitudinal registry. Stable CAD patients from 45 countries in Europe, Asia, America, Middle East, Australia and Africa were enrolled between November 2009 and June 2010. The inclusion criteria were previous myocardial infarction, evidence of coronary stenosis >50%, proven symptomatic myocardial ischemia or prior revascularization procedure. The main exclusion criteria were serious non-cardiovascular disease, conditions interfering with life expectancy or severe other cardiovascular disease (including advanced heart failure). Follow-up visits were planned annually for up to 5 years, interspersed with 6-month telephone calls. Of the 32,703 patients enrolled, most (77.6%) were male, age (mean ± SD) was 64.2 ± 10.5 years, and 71.0% were receiving treatment for hypertension; mean ± SD resting heart rate was 68.2 ± 10.6 bpm. Patients were enrolled based on a history of myocardial infarction >3 months earlier (57.7%), having at least one stenosis >50% on coronary angiography (61.1%), proven symptomatic myocardial ischemia on non-invasive testing (23.1%), or history of percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft (69.8%). Baseline characteristics were similar across the four

  12. Clarifying the role of mean centring in multicollinearity of interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2011-11-01

    Moderated multiple regression (MMR) is frequently employed to analyse interaction effects between continuous predictor variables. The procedure of mean centring is commonly recommended to mitigate the potential threat of multicollinearity between predictor variables and the constructed cross-product term. Also, centring does typically provide more straightforward interpretation of the lower-order terms. This paper attempts to clarify two methodological issues of potential confusion. First, the positive and negative effects of mean centring on multicollinearity diagnostics are explored. It is illustrated that the mean centring method is, depending on the characteristics of the data, capable of either increasing or decreasing various measures of multicollinearity. Second, the exact reason why mean centring does not affect the detection of interaction effects is given. The explication shows the symmetrical influence of mean centring on the corrected sum of squares and variance inflation factor of the product variable while maintaining the equivalence between the two residual sums of squares for the regression of the product term on the two predictor variables. Thus the resulting test statistic remains unchanged regardless of the obvious modification of multicollinearity with mean centring. These findings provide a clear understanding and demonstration on the diverse impact of mean centring in MMR applications. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Alternatives for clarifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Teresa Cruz Guerrero

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies some routes for separating and purifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch. The clarifying process is done in three stages. The first one (solids remotion is done by applying conventional solid-liquid separation techniiques such as sedimentation, centrifugation and filtration, as well as studying the effect of using flocculant and coagulant agents, prior to the already mentioned operations. Purification is done by adding decolouring agents, followed by ultrafiltration of the syrup. The last step (concentration is done by vacuum evaporation. The results showed that separation, centrifuging and sedimation reached 50% yield whilst filtration and ultrafiltration achieved 78% and 98% respectively. It was found that adsorbent agents such as activated carbon and diatomaceous earth were effective in removing colour during the purification stage. The most suitable alternative for separation can be suggested from the foregoing, allowing a syrup to be obtained having similar characteristics and propierties to the commercial product. The most appropriate technological module for carrying out the operation is also represented.

  14. Kinetic study of biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 grown in clarified cashew apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Darlane Wellen Freitas; França, Italo Waldimiro Lima; Félix, Anne Kamilly Nogueira; Martins, João Jeferson Lima; Giro, Maria Estela Aparecida; Melo, Vânia Maria M; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

    2013-01-01

    In this work a low cost medium for the production of a biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 and the kinetics of surfactin production considering the effect of initial substrate concentration were investigated. First, cashew apple juice supplementation for optimal production of biosurfactant by B. subtilis LAMI005 was studied. The medium formulated with clarified cashew apple juice and distilled water, supplemented with 1.0 g/L of (NH(4))(2)SO(4), proved to be the best among the nutrients evaluated. The crude biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of water to 30 dyne/cm, with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 63.0 mg/L. Emulsification experiments indicated that this biosurfactant effectively emulsified kerosene (IE(24)=67%) and soybean oil (IE(24)=64%). Furthermore, the emulsion stability was always very high. It was shown by biochemical analysis, IR spectra, that there is no qualitative differences in the composition of the crude biosurfactant from a standard sample of surfactin from B. subtilis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clarifying the Management Role in Dealing with Employees Personal Issues in the Lebanese Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Kamal Eldine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority of workers have many occasional difficulties that sometimes become a problem affecting the worker’s performance. When this will repeatedly fail to meet expectations, a serious problem may become the main reason which contributes to the job decline. Therefore, a pattern of reduced performance indicates the need for a supervisory action from managers. Poor performance could be reflected under three main categories, such as employee availability, employee productivity, and employee conduct. The reasons and causes of this poor performance could be a personal issue related to the employee. Many types of personal problems are affecting the job performance in organizations, such as marital strife, financial difficulties and child care complication. More serious difficulties and the abuse of these problems-if not resolved-may cause unending issues at work. This problem is highly important especially that it can affect the job performance and the company income. Moreover, it can simply result in the failure of the employee to meet the performance standards, which kills productivity. The purpose of this qualitative exploratory phenomenological study is to clarify the management role in dealing with employees personal issues in the Lebanese organizations as perceived by the lived experience of managers. The research instrument which will be used is a face-to-face structured interview with six managers of the major functions in different Lebanese organizations. The sample type will be by convenience.

  16. Clarifying the Role of Defensive Reactivity Deficits in Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Using Startle Reflex Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Uma; Hall, Jason R.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Bernat, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated deficits in defensive reactivity (indexed by potentiation of the startle blink reflex) in psychopathic individuals. However, the basis of this association remains unclear, as diagnostic criteria for psychopathy encompass two distinct phenotypic components that may reflect differing neurobiological mechanisms – an affective-interpersonal component, and an antisocial deviance component. Likewise, the role of defensive response deficits in antisocial personality disorder (APD), a related but distinct syndrome, remains to be clarified. The current study examined affective priming deficits in relation to factors of psychopathy and symptoms of APD using startle reflex methods in 108 adult male prisoners. Deficits in blink reflex potentiation during aversive picture viewing were found in relation to the affective-interpersonal (Factor 1) component of psychopathy, and to a lesser extent in relation to the antisocial deviance (Factor 2) component of psychopathy and symptoms of APD—but only as a function of their overlap with affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy. These findings provide clear evidence that deficits in defensive reactivity are linked specifically to the affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy, and not the antisocial deviance features represented most strongly in APD. PMID:20973594

  17. Clarifying concepts of food parenting practices. A Delphi study with an application to snacking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, D W M; Kremers, S P J; de Vries, N K; van Assema, P

    2014-08-01

    Inconsistencies in measurements of food parenting practices continue to exist. Fundamental to this problem is the lack of clarity about what is understood by different concepts of food parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to clarify food parenting practice concepts related to snacking. A three round Delphi study among an international group of experts (n = 63) was conducted. In the first round, an open-ended survey was used to collect food parenting practice descriptions and concept labels associated with those practices. In the second round, participants were asked to match up descriptions with the appropriate concept labels. The third and final round allowed participants to reconsider how descriptions and concept labels were matched, taking into account the opinions expressed in round two. Round one produced 408 descriptions of food parenting practices and 110 different concept names. Round two started with 116 descriptions of food parenting practices and 20 concept names. On 40 descriptions, consensus regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round two. Of the remaining 76 descriptions, consensus on 47 descriptions regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round three. The present study supports the essential process of consensus development with respect to food parenting practices concepts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Institutions, Anomie, and Violent Crime: Clarifying and Elaborating Institutional-Anomie Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Rosenfeld

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A limited but accumulating body of research and theoretical commentary offers support for core claims of the “institutional-anomie theory” of crime (IAT and points to areas needing further development. In this paper, which focuses on violent crime, we clarify the concept of social institutions, elaborate the cultural component of IAT, derive implications for individual behavior, summarize empirical applications, and propose directions for future research. Drawing on Talcott Parsons, we distinguish the “subjective” and “objective” dimensions of institutional dynamics and discuss their interrelationship. We elaborate on the theory’s cultural component with reference to Durkheim’s distinction between “moral” and “egoistic” individualism and propose that a version of the egoistic type characterizes societies in which the economy dominates the institutional structure, anomie is rampant, and levels of violent crime are high. We also offer a heuristic model of IAT that integrates macro- and individual levels of analysis. Finally, we discuss briefly issues for the further theoretical elaboration of this macro-social perspective on violent crime. Specifically, we call attention to the important tasks of explaining the emergence of economic dominance in the institutional balance of power and of formulating an institutional account for distinctive punishment practices, such as the advent of mass incarceration in the United States.

  19. Innovative use of lamella clarifiers for central stormwater treatment in separate sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Gebhard

    2014-01-01

    Lamella settlers have been used in the past few years for the sedimentation of particles in wastewater and stormwater applications. A new and very innovative approach for the treatment of stormwater flows is proposed which extends the portfolio of solutions beyond traditional settling tanks. Surface runoff is stored in a sewer or a basin and finally treated in a small but continuously operated lamella clarifier. The low throughput flow will yield good treatment efficiency at a small footprint. The possibilities of using existing storage volume in a storm sewer, as well as the structural flexibility of the arrangement are decisive benefits. As a large operational advantage, the lamellae may be cleaned mechanically, e.g. by pivoting under water. Finally, the flow and the sludge which will be sent to the downstream treatment plant will be minimized. A new comparative simulation method is proposed in order to assess an equivalent degree of stormwater treatment, either by achieving an equal annual volume of treated stormwater or, more directly, an equal amount of spilled pollutant load. The new solution is compared with a traditional settling tank according to current German design rules. Additionally, a case study from a real installation will be presented.

  20. Clarifying appeals to dignity in medical ethics from an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes Jm

    2009-03-01

    Over the past few decades the concept of (human) dignity has deeply pervaded medical ethics. Appeals to dignity, however, are often unclear. As a result some prefer to eliminate the concept from medical ethics, whereas others try to render it useful in this context. We think that appeals to dignity in medical ethics can be clarified by considering the concept from an historical perspective. Firstly, on the basis of historical texts we propose a framework for defining the concept in medical debates. The framework shows that dignity can occur in a relational, an unconditional, a subjective and a Kantian form. Interestingly, all forms relate to one concept since they have four features in common: dignity refers, in a restricted sense, to the 'special status of human beings'; it is based on essential human characteristics; the subject of dignity should live up to it; and it is a vulnerable concept, it can be lost or violated. We argue that being explicit about the meaning of dignity will prevent dignity from becoming a conversation-stopper in moral debate. Secondly, an historical perspective on dignity shows that it is not yet time to dispose of dignity in medical ethics. At least Kantian and relational dignity can be made useful in medical ethics.

  1. Clarifying the impact of polycomb complex component disruption in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukiya; Abe, Akihiro; Emi, Nobuhiko

    2014-04-01

    The dysregulation of proper transcriptional control is a major cause of developmental diseases and cancers. Polycomb proteins form chromatin-modifying complexes that transcriptionally silence genome regions in higher eukaryotes. The BCL6 corepressor (BCOR) complex comprises ring finger protein 1B (RNF2/RING1B), polycomb group ring finger 1 (PCGF1), and lysine-specific demethylase 2B (KDM2B) and is uniquely recruited to nonmethylated CpG islands, where it removes histone H3K36me2 and induces repressive histone H2A monoubiquitylation. Germline BCOR mutations have been detected in patients with oculofaciocardiodental and Lenz microphthalmia syndromes, which are inherited conditions. Recently, several variants of BCOR and BCOR-like 1 (BCORL1) chimeric fusion transcripts were reported in human cancers, including acute promyelocytic leukemia, bone sarcoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, massively parallel sequencing has identified inactivating somatic BCOR and BCORL1 mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, medulloblastoma, and retinoblastoma. More importantly, patients with AML and MDS with BCOR mutations exhibit poor prognosis. This perspective highlights the detection of BCOR mutations and fusion transcripts of BCOR and BCORL1 and discusses their importance for diagnosing cancer subtypes and estimating the treatment responses of patients. Furthermore, this perspective proposes the need for additional functional studies to clarify the oncogenic mechanism by which BCOR and BCORL1 are disrupted in cancers, and how this may lead to the development of novel therapeutics. Mol Cancer Res; 12(4); 479-84. ©2014 AACR.

  2. Experiencing a probabilistic approach to clarify and disclose uncertainties when setting occupational exposure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez, David; Fraize-Frontier, Sandrine; Vincent, Raymond; Binet, Stéphane; Rousselle, Christophe

    2018-03-15

    Assessment factors (AFs) are commonly used for deriving reference concentrations for chemicals. These factors take into account variabilities as well as uncertainties in the dataset, such as inter-species and intra-species variabilities or exposure duration extrapolation or extrapolation from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) to the noobserved- adverse-effect level (NOAEL). In a deterministic approach, the value of an AF is the result of a debate among experts and, often a conservative value is used as a default choice. A probabilistic framework to better take into account uncertainties and/or variability when setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) is presented and discussed in this paper. Each AF is considered as a random variable with a probabilistic distribution. A short literature was conducted before setting default distributions ranges and shapes for each AF commonly used. A random sampling, using Monte Carlo techniques, is then used for propagating the identified uncertainties and computing the final OEL distribution. Starting from the broad default distributions obtained, experts narrow it to its most likely range, according to the scientific knowledge available for a specific chemical. Introducing distribution rather than single deterministic values allows disclosing and clarifying variability and/or uncertainties inherent to the OEL construction process. This probabilistic approach yields quantitative insight into both the possible range and the relative likelihood of values for model outputs. It thereby provides a better support in decision-making and improves transparency. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Multilocus phylogeny and statistical biogeography clarify the evolutionary history of major lineages of turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anieli G; Sterli, Juliana; Moreira, Filipe R R; Schrago, Carlos G

    2017-08-01

    Despite their complex evolutionary history and the rich fossil record, the higher level phylogeny and historical biogeography of living turtles have not been investigated in a comprehensive and statistical framework. To tackle these issues, we assembled a large molecular dataset, maximizing both taxonomic and gene sampling. As different models provide alternative biogeographical scenarios, we have explicitly tested such hypotheses in order to reconstruct a robust biogeographical history of Testudines. We scanned publicly available databases for nucleotide sequences and composed a dataset comprising 13 loci for 294 living species of Testudines, which accounts for all living genera and 85% of their extant species diversity. Phylogenetic relationships and species divergence times were estimated using a thorough evaluation of fossil information as calibration priors. We then carried out the analysis of historical biogeography of Testudines in a fully statistical framework. Our study recovered the first large-scale phylogeny of turtles with well-supported relationships following the topology proposed by phylogenomic works. Our dating result consistently indicated that the origin of the main clades, Pleurodira and Cryptodira, occurred in the early Jurassic. The phylogenetic and historical biogeographical inferences permitted us to clarify how geological events affected the evolutionary dynamics of crown turtles. For instance, our analyses support the hypothesis that the breakup of Pangaea would have driven the divergence between the cryptodiran and pleurodiran lineages. The reticulated pattern in the ancestral distribution of the cryptodiran lineage suggests a complex biogeographic history for the clade, which was supposedly related to the complex paleogeographic history of Laurasia. On the other hand, the biogeographical history of Pleurodira indicated a tight correlation with the paleogeography of the Gondwanan landmasses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. MOCCS: Clarifying DNA-binding motif ambiguity using ChIP-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Haruka; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2016-08-01

    As a key mechanism of gene regulation, transcription factors (TFs) bind to DNA by recognizing specific short sequence patterns that are called DNA-binding motifs. A single TF can accept ambiguity within its DNA-binding motifs, which comprise both canonical (typical) and non-canonical motifs. Clarification of such DNA-binding motif ambiguity is crucial for revealing gene regulatory networks and evaluating mutations in cis-regulatory elements. Although chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) now provides abundant data on the genomic sequences to which a given TF binds, existing motif discovery methods are unable to directly answer whether a given TF can bind to a specific DNA-binding motif. Here, we report a method for clarifying the DNA-binding motif ambiguity, MOCCS. Given ChIP-Seq data of any TF, MOCCS comprehensively analyzes and describes every k-mer to which that TF binds. Analysis of simulated datasets revealed that MOCCS is applicable to various ChIP-Seq datasets, requiring only a few minutes per dataset. Application to the ENCODE ChIP-Seq datasets proved that MOCCS directly evaluates whether a given TF binds to each DNA-binding motif, even if known position weight matrix models do not provide sufficient information on DNA-binding motif ambiguity. Furthermore, users are not required to provide numerous parameters or background genomic sequence models that are typically unavailable. MOCCS is implemented in Perl and R and is freely available via https://github.com/yuifu/moccs. By complementing existing motif-discovery software, MOCCS will contribute to the basic understanding of how the genome controls diverse cellular processes via DNA-protein interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Teaching operating room conflict management to surgeons: clarifying the optimal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David; Lingard, Lorelei; Boehler, Margaret L; Espin, Sherry; Klingensmith, Mary; Mellinger, John D; Schindler, Nancy

    2011-09-01

    Conflict management has been identified as an essential competence for surgeons as they work in operating room (OR) teams; however, the optimal approach is unclear. Social science research offers two alternatives, the first of which recommends that task-related conflict be managed using problem-solving techniques while avoiding relationship conflict. The other approach advocates for the active management of relationship conflict as it almost always accompanies task-related conflict. Clarity about the optimal management strategy can be gained through a better understanding of conflict transformation, or the inter-relationship between conflict types, in this specific setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate conflict transformation in OR teams in order to clarify the approach most appropriate for an educational conflict management programme for surgeons. A constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted to explore the phenomenon of OR team conflict. Narratives were collected from focus groups of OR nurses and surgeons at five participating centres. A subset of these narratives involved transformation between and within conflict types. This dataset was analysed. The results confirm that misattribution and the use of harsh language cause conflict transformation in OR teams just as they do in stable work teams. Negative emotionality was found to make a substantial contribution to responses to and consequences of conflict, notably in the swiftness with which individuals terminated their working relationships. These findings contribute to a theory of conflict transformation in the OR team. There are a number of behaviours that activate conflict transformation in the OR team and a conflict management education programme should include a description of and alternatives to these behaviours. The types of conflict are tightly interwoven in this setting and thus the most appropriate management strategy is one that assumes that both types of conflict will exist and

  6. Clarifying changes in student empathy throughout medical school: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Valente, Alexandra; Monteiro, Joana S; Barbosa, Rita M; Salgueira, Ana; Costa, Patrício; Costa, Manuel J

    2017-12-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of the relevance of empathy in patient care, some findings suggest that medical schools may be contributing to the deterioration of students' empathy. Therefore, it is important to clarify the magnitude and direction of changes in empathy during medical school. We employed a scoping review to elucidate trends in students' empathy changes/differences throughout medical school and examine potential bias associated with research design. The literature published in English, Spanish, Portuguese and French from 2009 to 2016 was searched. Two-hundred and nine potentially relevant citations were identified. Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria. Effect sizes of empathy scores variations were calculated to assess the practical significance of results. Our results demonstrate that scoped studies differed considerably in their design, measures used, sample sizes and results. Most studies (12 out of 20 studies) reported either positive or non-statistically significant changes/differences in empathy regardless of the measure used. The predominant trend in cross-sectional studies (ten out of 13 studies) was of significantly higher empathy scores in later years or of similar empathy scores across years, while most longitudinal studies presented either mixed-results or empathy declines. There was not a generalized international trend in changes in students' empathy throughout medical school. Although statistically significant changes/differences were detected in 13 out of 20 studies, the calculated effect sizes were small in all but two studies, suggesting little practical significance. At the present moment, the literature does not offer clear conclusions relative to changes in student empathy throughout medical school.

  7. Utility of Vascular Enhancement Technique (ClarifyTM) in Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Abdominal Vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Young; Cho, Jin Han; Choi, Jong Cheol; Shin, Tae Beom; Lee, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2006-01-01

    Vascular enhancement (VE) technology(ClarifyTM) is a new technique in vascular, B-mode imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of VE technology in ultrasonographic diagnosis of abdominal vasculature. Seventy-one adult patients (39 men and 32 women: age range, 25-89 years: mean age, 56 years) who had undergone abdominal ultrasonography were included in this study. The imaging was performed with a 1.8-4.0 MHz convex array transducer (SONOLINE, Antares, Siemens Medical Solutions, WA) by an abdominal radiologist. The radiologist obtained images of the same vascular area with each of conventional ultrasonography imaging (CUS), tissue harmonic imaging (THI), CUS plus VE technique and THI plus VE technique. Images were divided into normal (56) and abnormal (15) groups. The vessel visibility, conspicuity of the vascular wall and contrast resolution with adjacent structures were evaluated in the normal group, and the lesion conspicuity and border sharpness were evaluated in the abnormal group. On the PACS monitor, the images were graded into four grades by two radiologists in consensus. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. In the normal group, all parameters of the ultrasonographic imaging which applied the VE technique were superior to those of the imaging without VE technique (p < 0.05). In the abnormal group, combined use of VE technique with CUS or THI provided better results than CUS or THI alone in terms of lesion conspicuity and border sharpness (p < 0.05). THI combined with VE technique provided the best image quality among the 4 ultrasonographic methods examined in this study for the evaluation of both normal and abnormal abdominal vessels (p < 0.05). VE technology was a helpful technique to evaluate the abdominal vasculature. Furthermore, VE technique combined with THI provided better image quality than other ultrasonographic methods in the evaluation of abdominal vessels

  8. Elements to clarify the shale gas debate. Committee on Energy Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, Roger; Balibar, Sebastien; Brechet, Yves; Brezin, Edouard; Candel, Sebastien; Cesarsky, Catherine; Combarnous, Michel; Courtillot, Vincent; Dercourt, Jean; Duplessy, Jean-Claude; Encrenaz, Pierre; Fontecave, Marc; Guillaumont, Robert; Pelegrin, Marc; Pironneau, Olivier; Pouchard, Michel; Rebut, Paul-Henri; Roux, Didier; Tissot, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Shale gases have been the centre of heated debates for a few years. The opinions range from an outright ban on their exploitation to the notion that they might in an unexpected and almost miraculous way restore growth in our country and create jobs. In view of the importance of the questions raised by this topic, the Comite de Prospective en Energie de l'Academie des Sciences (CPE) provides elements to help clarify the debate and to formulate recommendations with the aim in particular of reducing current uncertainties. This report first describes the various contextual elements and then some recommendations that have been formulated. The first four recommendations concern research and exploration; the following five concern the exploitation of shale gases which could be potentially undertaken provided that necessary conditions, in particular for reducing environmental risks, are fulfilled. 1. Launch a research effort involving academic laboratories and major organizations to study all the scientific issues arising from the exploration and exploitation of shale gases. 2. Prepare exploration by making use of existing or archived geological, geophysical and geochemical data and involve geologists in the evaluation of reserves. 3. Develop studies and experiments aimed at evaluating and reducing the environmental impact of any potential exploitation. 4. Create an independent and multidisciplinary scientific authority to monitor actions taken to evaluate resources and their methods of exploitation. 5. Address issues of water management, a major problem in the exploitation of shale gases. 6. Implement environmental monitoring before, during and after exploitation. 7. Launch developments to improve the processes of hydraulic fracturing and develop alternative methods. 8. Initiate a research program to develop appropriate regulations to address the long-term tightness issues in exploitation drilling. 9. Full-scale tests should be carried out under conditions that

  9. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  10. The possible role of nuclear energy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposto, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Italy, after the vote of the referendum in 1987, stopped producing electricity from nuclear fuel for the energy demand. This paper analyses the current Italian energy outlook and clarifies how the choice to abandon the nuclear option damaged our economy. Nowadays, the possible reintroduction of civil nuclear option is hindered by groups claiming that nuclear energy is not convenient and is incredibly dangerous. In this paper it is clarified with international references how this is not correct and why Italy should start thinking seriously and without prejudices at future energy options

  11. The possible role of nuclear energy in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposto, Stefano [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Via Eudossiana 9, 00187 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: stefanoesposto@gmail.com

    2008-05-15

    Italy, after the vote of the referendum in 1987, stopped producing electricity from nuclear fuel for the energy demand. This paper analyses the current Italian energy outlook and clarifies how the choice to abandon the nuclear option damaged our economy. Nowadays, the possible reintroduction of civil nuclear option is hindered by groups claiming that nuclear energy is not convenient and is incredibly dangerous. In this paper it is clarified with international references how this is not correct and why Italy should start thinking seriously and without prejudices at future energy options.

  12. Nuclear power, economy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffaes, C.

    1994-01-01

    The explanations in this article aim at clarifying the background of the problem of nuclear energies. Why did countries give up developing nuclear energy? Which roles do economic political and psychological factors play in making energy political decisions? How could a balance be found in using the various energy sources which must meet the constantly increasing demand for electric power? Which preconditions must be fulfilled to return to nuclear energy world-wide (as using coal is connected with many environmental risks) and how long would it take? If, however, nuclear power is even to be included in the energy-political discussions of the governments and the public opinions in each country, there are a number of sensitive topics waiting for an answer: Safety and costs of power plants; recycling and storing nuclear wastes; the relationship between civil energy and the availability of nuclear weapons and the future plutonium economy. (orig./UA) [de

  13. 75 FR 31334 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Strengthening and Clarifying RESPA's “Required Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...-A178 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Strengthening and Clarifying RESPA's ``Required Use... by those in a position to refer settlement business (such as builders, real estate agents, and... referral fees, kickbacks, and unearned fees for real estate settlement services.\\1\\ \\1\\ In July 2008...

  14. Further Clarifying Proximal Withdrawal States and the Turnover Criterion Space: Comment on Hom, Mitchell, Lee, and Griffeth (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertz, Carl P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In "Reviewing Employee Turnover: Focusing on Proximal Withdrawal States and an Expanded Criterion," Hom, Mitchell, Lee, and Griffeth (2012) brought together many of the most important content and process factors in the employee turnover literature. In this paper, I attempt to clarify the true contributions of this framework for the turnover area…

  15. Straight from the Mouths of Horses and Tapirs: Using Fossil Teeth to Clarify How Ancient Environments Have Changed over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Larisa

    2009-01-01

    Clarifying ancient environments millions of years ago is necessary to better understand how ecosystems change over time, providing insight as to the potential impacts of current global warming. This module engages middle school students in the scientific process, asking them to use tooth measurement to test the null hypothesis that horse and tapir…

  16. The design of a continuous ion-exchange pilot plant for the recovery of uranium from partially clarified solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloete, F.L.D.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary design is given for a pilot plant to recover uranium from partially clarified slime pulp by continuous ion exchange. Process and plant-design methods are indicated briefly, and an outline is given of experimental work that should be undertaken before the start-up of the pilot plant

  17. The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2010-04-01

    Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of

  18. A Framework for Clarifying "Participation" in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Barreteau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants' acceptance of participatory research processes is key to their implementation. Our first assumption is that this positive view and acceptance of participation in research processes is a public good for the whole participatory research community. We also assume that the diversity of participatory forms of research is rarely considered by potential participants when they make their decisions about whether or not to participate in a proposed process. We specifically address how to avoid stakeholders' reluctance to be involved in participatory research projects based on disillusion with past experiences. We argue that the disappointment experienced by stakeholders and other participants (i.e., researchers and policy makers can be avoided by being upfront and precise about how "participation" will be implemented, and what kind of involvement is expected from participants. Such a collective effort from the research community can also clarify the variety of possible implementations for potential participants. Building on earlier efforts to characterize and categorize the diversity of participatory research approaches, we develop a conceptual analytic procedural framework to make participants' roles explicit in the implementation of different participatory research processes. This framework consists of three facets: (1 the flows of information among participants and the control over these flows for each step in a process, i.e., who will be expected to produce information, who will use this information, and who will receive the results; (2 the timing of the involvement of participants in the different steps of the research process, and the framing power that is associated with each process

  19. Sixty years of nuclear dissuasion: status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper recalls first the 4 main turns of the history of the atomic bomb, from its invention to the non-proliferation treaty. Then, it analyzes the reasons of the reinforcement of the 'nuclear taboo' and its conformability with the dissuasion theory. The nuclear strategy and the future of nuclear weapons development is discussed with respect to conventional military strategy and weapons. Finally, some false ideas about the French nuclear dissuasion are clarified. (J.S.)

  20. Facts about nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.

    1980-01-01

    The argument concerning the introduction and the further expansion of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany has been existing for several years in differing intensities and most different forms. The arguments and theses of the discussion deal with the various aspects of the reciprocity between nuclear energy and environment. This is the key-note for the scientists to treat the relevant problems and questions in the discussion about nuclear energy. The controversy in which often emotional theses are stated instead of reasonably deliberating the pros and contras includes civil initiatives, societies, and environment protection organisations on the one hand and authorities, producers, and operators of nuclear-technical plants on the other. And the scale of the different opinions reaches from real agreement to deep condemnation of a technology which represents an option to meet the energy need in the future. In this situation, this book is an attempt to de-emotionalize the whole discussion. Most of the authors of the articles come from research centres and have been working on the problems they deal with for years. The spectrum of the topics includes the energy-political coherences of nuclear energy, the technical fundaments of the individual reactor types, safety and security of nuclear-technical plants the fuel cycle, especially the waste management in nuclear power plants, environmental aspects of energy generation in general and nuclear energy in special, the question of Plutonium and the presentation of alternative energy sources including nuclear fusion. The arrangement of these topics is meant to help to clarify the complex coherences of nuclear energy and to help those interested in problems of energy policy to make their own personal decisions. (orig./RW) [de

  1. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  2. A review of nuclear geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of nuclear geophysics in scientific and technological content and in range from its beginnings early in this century to the present day. We note that the early work in nuclear geophysics was originally referred to under the umbrella of open-quotes isotope applicationsclose quotes and the origin of the term open-quotes nuclear geophysicsclose quotes (which is seen to clarify and to focus work in this area) is exposed in this paper. The current expansion of nuclear geophysics front its original concern with oil well logging is an important trend because much of the underlying science, technology, and instrumentation is common ground. A review of nuclear geophysics would be a barren document without reference to long-term and, in some cases, short-term commercial and economic as well as to technological considerations, since these factors are the principal motivation for further development

  3. Quality management of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Guide presents the quality management requirements to be complied with in the procurement, design, manufacture, transport, receipt, storage, handling and operation of nuclear fuel. The Guide also applies to control rods and shield elements to be placed in the reactor. The Guide is mainly aimed for the licensee responsible for the procurement and operation of fuel, for the fuel designer and manufacturer and for other organisations, whose activities affect fuel quality and the safety of fuel transport, storage and operation. General requirements for nuclear fuel are presented in Section 114 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Decree and in Section 15 of the Government Decision (395/1991). Regulatory control of the safety of fuel is described in Guides YVL6.1, YVL6.2 and YVL6.3. An overview of the regulatory control of nuclear power plants carried out by STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Finland) is clarified in Guide YVL1.1

  4. Valuating report on radionuclide concentrations in the waste water and mixed slurry from the Vienna main clarifying plant for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Weisz, J.; Zapletal, M.; Haider, W.

    1989-03-01

    Sample preparation- and measuring methods, and results on 16 nuclides from the Vienna clarifying plant for 1988 are presented. Comparisons with the 1987 values are made and hypotheses about the sources of radionuclides - natural, atmospheric atomic weapons tests, Chernobyl accident and medical applications - are presented. An estimation of the activity transferred to the surface waters (Danube) over 1988 is also made. 16 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs. (qui)

  5. DOD Major Automated Information Systems: Improvements Can Be Made in Reporting Critical Changes and Clarifying Leadership Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Leadership Responsibility Report to Congressional Committees March 2016 GAO-16-336 United States Government Accountability Office United...INFORMATION SYSTEMS Improvements Can Be Made in Reporting Critical Changes and Clarifying Leadership Responsibility Why GAO Did This Study The National...milestone decisions for MAIS programs. AT&L can delegate decision authority for MAIS programs to a component head who may further delegate the authority

  6. Nuclear safety. Seguranca nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveline, A [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1981-01-01

    What is nuclear safety Is there any technical way to reduce risks Is it possible to put them at reasonable levels Are there competitiveness and economic reliability to employ the nuclear energy by means of safety technics Looking for answers to these questions the author describes the sources of potential risks to nuclear reactors and tries to apply the answers to the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. (author).

  7. Reconsidering relations between nuclear energy and security concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2004-01-01

    Relations between nuclear energy and security concepts can be clarified through investigation into the multivocal nature of security concepts. While military uses of nuclear energy significantly influence national security, peaceful uses of nuclear energy contribute energy security, which is an expanded concept of national security. Military and peaceful uses of nuclear energy have reciprocal actions, thus influencing national security and energy security, respectively. Nuclear security, which means security of nuclear systems themselves, recently attracts the attention of the international society. Nuclear security directly influences national security issues. On the other hand, along with nuclear safety, nuclear security becomes a prerequisite for energy security through peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In investigating into relations between nuclear energy and security concepts, the difficulty of translating the English word of 'nuclear security' into Japanese as well as other languages is found. (author)

  8. Effect of treatment with adsorbent resin on the volatile profile and physicochemical characteristics of clarified cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dutra Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased preference for healthy and functional foods could be an opportunity to increase the consumption of clarified cashew apple juice. Given its level of fructose, glucose, and vitamin C, it can be used as a base in blends. However, its characteristic odor can interfere with the acceptance of these formulations, especially by consumers who are not familiar with cashew aroma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with macroporous resins (FPA54, FPX66, XAD761, and XAD4 on the volatile profile and physicochemical characteristics of clarified cashew apple juice. After the treatment with the resins, the volatile profile was evaluated using solid-phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The physicochemical analyses performed were: pH, soluble solids (ºBrix, total titrable acidity, reducing sugars, and vitamin C. Gas chromatography analyses showed that XAD4 and FPX66 led to a reduction of the initial amount of volatile compounds to 14.05% and 15.72%, respectively. These two resins also did not affect the physicochemical characteristics of the clarified cashew apple juice.

  9. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongmoon

    1993-03-01

    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  10. Rewriting Germany's nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1992-01-01

    In Germany, the private use of nuclear energy for peaceful uses is strictly regulated by a Nuclear Energy Act. Since its enactment back in 1959, this legislation has been overhauled five times - most recently in 1985. Now Klaus Toepfer, Germany's Federal Minister for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Nuclear Safety, has set out to revise the Act for the sixth time. The present draft bill is intended to reorganise the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle; eliminate public promotion of nuclear power; clarify points of legal dispute. Of the draft bill's three aims, the last two are more parochial. The real novelty lies in the changes to the rules for the back end of the fuel cycle. First, the Federal Government proposes to abandon the priority given to spent fuel recycling. In future, direct disposal will be an equivalent option, and waste avoidance will have top priority. Intimately linked to the back end proposal is the Government's plan to load on the shoulders of nuclear operators the full responsibility for building and operating repositories for the final disposal of nuclear waste. The third aspect of Government's back end plans concerns decommissioning. At present, operators accumulate provisions over the plant lifetime, which for that purpose is estimated at 19 years. The provisions vary from plant to plant but are generally around DM1 billion and are tax free. Under the proposed regulations, this sum must be available from the first day of operation to cover the case of an early shutdown. In practice, this will increase the initial investment for a nuclear power plant in Germany by 10-20% and so make nuclear power less competitive. (author)

  11. Recent applications of nuclear orientation to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrell, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews how certain problems in solid state physics have been clarified by low temperature nuclear orientation and nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei. The advantages of these techniques, a brief survey of recent progress in traditional applications, and new developments are discussed, and, finally, future trends are suggested. (Auth.)

  12. Nuclear Families and Nuclear Risks: The Effects of Gender, Geography, and Progeny on Attitudes toward a Nuclear Waste Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenburg, William R.; Davidson, Debra J.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of reactions to nuclear facilities have found consistent male/female differences, but the underlying reasons have never been well-clarified. The most common expectations involve traditional roles--with men focusing more on economic concerns and with women (especially mothers) being more concerned about family safety/health. Still, with…

  13. Redefining interrelationship between nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2011-01-01

    overlapping with measures for non-proliferation including safeguards and trade controls. Such situation should be clarified in order to design better regulatory systems, especially for nuclear security regulation. (author)

  14. Defense against nuclear weapons: a decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orient, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Response to the public health threat posed by nuclear weapons is a medical imperative. The United States, in contrast to other nations, has chosen a course that assures maximal casualties in the event of a nuclear attack, on the theory that prevention of the attack is incompatible with preventive measures against its consequences, such as blast injuries and radiation sickness. A decision analysis approach clarifies the risks and benefits of a change to a strategy of preparedness

  15. Nuclear safety: risks and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Taking a fresh look at nuclear safety regulations, this study finds that the mandate and organization of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) militate against its making sound decisions. The author criticizes failures to make hard decisions on societal risk, to clarify responsibility, and to implement cost-effective safety measures. Among his recommendations are reorganization of the NRC under a single authoritative administrator, separation of technical issues from social ones, and reform of the Price-Anderson Act. The author concludes that the worst eventuality would be to continue the current state of indecision. 161 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  16. The Confusion of Content Marketing : a study to clarify the key dimensions of content marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Claesson, Amanda; Jonsson, Albin

    2017-01-01

    Content marketing is a popular marketing strategy, which has increased significantly during the last years. The term content marketing is new but companies have been working with parts of the strategy for decades. The new digital era changed the communication from a one-way to a two-way communica- tion. Customers now have a demand for relevant content that is valuable for them. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop an understanding of this marketing strategy, and clarify the key dime...

  17. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  18. Nuclear power in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Current trends in the interest in nuclear power development confirm important changes in opinions around the world about nuclear power's future. Much of the expansion of nuclear power in the sustainable development scenarios takes place in developing countries. For these countries to introduce nuclear power, they need to pass through three main steps: energy planning, infrastructure development and then deployment. The paper gives an overview of the IAEA's activity in this area. In order to meeting the energy needs of developed and developing countries, developing a global vision for nuclear energy, assessing and clarifying the afford ability and acceptability requirements for large-scale nuclear energy use in the 21st century in both developed and developed countries, facilitating international cooperation in developing different types of new generation nuclear energy systems which meet these requirement, and facilitating international discussions aimed at establishing enhanced institutional system acceptable to both developed and developing countries

  19. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion

  20. [Costing nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    To the Editor: Referring to a recent special report about the cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures, I would like to clarify some basic aspects for determining costs of nuclear medicine procedure with various costing methodologies. Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, is a new approach in imaging services costing that can provide the most accurate cost data, but is difficult to perform in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. That is because ABC requires determining and analyzing all direct and indirect costs of each procedure, according all its activities. Traditional costing methods, like those for estimating incomes and expenses per procedure or fixed and variable costs per procedure, which are widely used in break-even point analysis and the method of ratio-of-costs-to-charges per procedure may be easily performed in nuclear medicine departments, to evaluate the variability and differences between costs and reimbursement - charges.

  1. CRIEPI's research results (2006-2011) and clarified future issues on alteration behavior of bentonite barrier by alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shingo; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2013-01-01

    In radioactive waste disposal facilities, bentonite barrier would be altered by alkaline solutions which arise by leaching of cementitious materials. Consequently suitable properties of the bentonite barrier would be degraded for a long time period. In CRIEPI, the investigation on the alteration of the bentonite under alkaline conditions was started in 2006, and several CRIEPI reports have been published. Specifically, we have investigated the kinetics of montmorillonite dissolution, the mineralogical alteration of compacted bentonite (with high- and low-dry density) and the change of permeability of the compacted bentonite (with high- and low-dry density) during alteration under the alkaline conditions. Furthermore, stability of saponite, which has similar physical properties to the bentonite, under the alkaline conditions was also examined. In this report, we show the outline of those research results, and lay out the clarified future issues extracted from our results. Ten clarified future issues were divided three categories as follows: 1) the estimation of the alteration behavior of the bentonite by alkaline solutions, 2) the elucidation of the mechanism of physical properties (e.g., permeability, swelling properties and mechanistic properties) change of the compacted bentonites during alteration, and 3) the development of the model building and simulation technology concerning the change in physical properties during alteration under alkaline conditions. (author)

  2. Nuclear topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukner, C.

    1982-07-01

    The pamphlet touches on all aspects of nuclear energy, from the world energy demands and consumption, the energy program of the Federal Government, nuclear power plants in the world, nuclear fusion, nuclear liability up to the nuclear fuel cycle and the shutdown of nuclear power plants. (HSCH) [de

  3. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  4. Calculation of the well depth parameter to the nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.U.; Kim, Y.J.

    1984-01-01

    Well depth parameter S or range correction factor S-1 is computed for several nuclear potentials such as square, Gaussian, exponential and Yukawa wells. A simple central force is assumed for nuclear potential between nucleons. We adopted only two parameters for potentials and attempted to clarify the fundamental nature of the nuclear forces that bind a proton and a neutron into a deuteron. Results thus obtained were used for an estimate of first order correction to simple square well model. (Author)

  5. Some concepts of future nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Masataka

    2000-01-01

    Characteristic features of nuclear power generation are as follows: (1) Thermal energy can be continuously extracted for a long time without fuel feed, (2) Nuclear energy is suitable for generating huge power, (3) Oxygen is unnecessary for combustion of fuel, and (4) Unlike fossil fuel, nuclear power generation does not exhaust NOx, SOx, and CO 2 : it can be considered environmentally friendly. In view of these features, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute commissioned the Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) to survey what kinds of nuclear ship would be put to practical use in the near future. For this purpose, a research committee was organized in 1992 by the JSRA, and concluded its investigation in 1996. The main aim of this research was to clarify the requirements of ship performance as nuclear ships, and then to extract the technical issues of the marine reactor installed in nuclear ships to be solved. As a result of the survey, it was suggested that displacement-type large high-speed container ship would be one of the promising future nuclear merchant ships, and 6500 m deep-sea and 600 m undersea scientific research submersibles would be other promising nuclear special purpose ships. At the same time, various requirements of marine reactors, which are expected to be installed in these ships, were clarified mainly from the technical viewpoints. (author)

  6. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  7. Nuclear moments

    CERN Document Server

    Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W

    1958-01-01

    Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl

  8. Questionnaire investigation to clarify the occurrence rate and characteristics of maternal rejection behavior in Japanese black cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohari, Daisuke; Takakura, Azusa

    2017-12-01

    We conducted a questionnaire investigation among breeding farmers to clarify the actual conditions of maternal rejection in Japanese Black cattle. We asked keeping experience of maternal rejective cows and compared occurrence patterns, rejective behavior manners, birth assistance methods, colostrum feeding method for calves, parity and rearing conditions of the cows. We found that 24% of the farms had kept rejective cows and 6% of the cows in these farms indicated maternal rejections. The most common occurrence pattern was 'Occurred from the first birth (65.6%)' and behavior manner was performing no maternal grooming with aggressive behavior (75%). Almost all the farmers assisted in each parturition (P cattle was approximately 6% and many of the rejective cows continuously performed no maternal grooming with aggressive behavior. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. A computational model clarifies the roles of positive and negative feedback loops in the Drosophila circadian clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junwei; Zhou Tianshou

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies showed that a single negative feedback structure should be sufficient for robust circadian oscillations. It is thus pertinent to ask why current cellular clock models almost universally have interlocked negative feedback loop (NFL) and positive feedback loop (PFL). Here, we propose a molecular model that reflects the essential features of the Drosophila circadian clock to clarify the different roles of negative and positive feedback loops. In agreement with experimental observations, the model can simulate circadian oscillations in constant darkness, entrainment by light-dark cycles, as well as phenotypes of per 01 and clk Jrk mutants. Moreover, sustained oscillations persist when the PFL is removed, implying the crucial role of NFL for rhythm generation. Through parameter sensitivity analysis, it is revealed that incorporation of PFL increases the robustness of the system to regulatory processes in PFL itself. Such reduced models can aid understanding of the design principles of circadian clocks in Drosophila and other organisms with complex transcriptional feedback structures.

  10. Rancièrean Atomism: Clarifying the Debate between Jacques Rancière and Alain Badiou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Spencer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1970s and the 1980s, a number of radical left political theorists focused their philosophical attention on the relevance of ancient atomism, revitalizing a tradition that went back to Karl Marx's work on his dissertation. This essay looks at the uses of atomism by two thinkers in particular, Jacques Rancière and Alain Badiou, in order to see how their discussions of and references to ancient materialism help to shed light on their fundamental disagreements about the nature of community and equality.First, this paper argues that what Badiou and Rancière most obviously share in their assessments of atomism is a negative judgment regarding the post-swerve constitution of the world, while what most obviously distinguishes their positions is their differing judgments regarding the preswerve rain of the atoms in the void (which Badiou assesses negatively and Rancière positively. Becoming clear both about how Badiou and Rancière respond to what comes before and after the atomistic swerve helps to clarify an implicit response on Rancière’s part to what has become Badiou’s chief objection to Rancière’s political theory. Second, this paper argues that the fact that Badiou assesses both what comes before and what comes after the swerve as negative, while Rancière assesses only what comes after the swerve as negative (because he assesses the pre-swerve rain of the atoms in the void positively, makes clear that their most essential point of difference concerns the status of the swerve that mediates between before and after. Working through the complexities of Badiou’s analysis of the swerve and uncovering Rancière’s extremely subtle analysis of the swerve helps to clarify a major aspect of what has become Rancière’s chief criticism of Badiou’s conception of philosophy.

  11. Nuclear security culture in comparison with nuclear safety culture. Resemblances and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11th, 2001, Nuclear Security has been focused on and treated as a global issue in the international community and it has also been discussed as a real and serious threat to nuclear power plants in the world since 'The Great East Japan Earthquake' in March, 2011. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document including Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5) (NSS 13) in the Nuclear Security Series and emphasized the necessity of fostering Nuclear Security Culture. Nuclear Security Culture has been frequently discussed at various kinds of seminars and events. Since the officials in charge of Nuclear Security are familiar with the area of Nuclear Safety, the relationships between Nuclear Safety Culture and Nuclear Security Culture have been the point in controversy. This paper clarifies relevance between Nuclear Safety and Security, considers resemblances and differences of their concepts and lessons learned for each culture from nuclear power plant accidents, and promotes deeper understanding of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security Culture. (author)

  12. Enforcement Alert: Hazardous Waste Management Practices at Mineral Processing Facilities Under Scrutiny by U.S. EPA; EPA Clarifies 'Bevill Exclusion' Wastes and Establishes Disposal Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the enforcement alert for Hazardous Waste Management Practices at Mineral Processing Facilities Under Scrutiny by U.S. EPA; EPA Clarifies 'Bevill Exclusion' Wastes and Establishes Disposal Standards

  13. Status of nuclear forensic support in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Mohammedelmoez Eltayeb Abderahman

    2015-08-01

    The central problem investigated in this thesis is nuclear forensic support in Sudan, the thesis comprises five chapters, began with an introduction containing the art of forensic science, stated the importance of the it in criminal investigations. The forensic science was defined, and stated the principle of which it underlying, including: principle of individuality and principle of exchange, the divisions of this science has been clarified, then it discussed the crime scene and the collecting of evidence, where starting the forensic science at the crime scene, with clarifying the principle of crime scene investigation. Nuclear and other radioactive material was discussed: defining a radioactivity with the material source. It placed into 3 general categories: special nuclear materials, reactor fuel, and commercial radioactive sources, and mention each category and it characteristics. Radiation is part of our environment was clarified, and discussed what the effect on organisms and populations are. Nuclear forensics was presented,and how problem of the safeguarding of the nuclear material beginning. The emerging nature of the problem was discussed, the radiological crime scene management was explained, importance of securing the scene with an examples of equipment and instruments for on-scene radiation safety assessment and how the collection of evidence, storage forensic laboratory analysis was discussed and how set the designated nuclear forensic laboratory, also nuclear forensic interpretation, and the chain of custody was mentioned. The role of Regulating Authority in Nuclear forensic support was discussed, specifically in Sudan, International Cooperation have also been reminded, as well as memorandum of understanding was mentioned between SNRRA and the administration of forensic evidence, and one of it results is the radiological surveys unit in forensic administration, how the unit is configured, the role of the unit, finally conclusion of research was

  14. Current status of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The decision to devote the 1984 conference to nuclear power is timely and appropriate. Illinois has a long, and distinguished history in the development of civilian nuclear power. The concept was born at the University of Chicago, developed at Argonne National Laboratory and demonstrated on the Commonwealth Edison system at our pioneer Dresden Nuclear Station. Today, Illinois ranks number one in the nation in nuclear generation. With over a quarter century of commercial operating experience, nuclear power has proven its worth and become a significant and growing component of electric power supply domestically and throughout the world. Despite its initial acceptance, however, the nuclear power industry in the U.S. is now in the midst of a difficult period of readjustment stemming largely from the economic and regulatory problems of the past decade. As a result, the costs of plants under construction have increased dramatically, causing serious financial difficulties for several projects and their owners. At the same time, the U.S. is facing hard choices concerning its future energy supplies. Conferences such as this have an important role in clarifying the issues and helping to find solutions to today's pressing energy problems. This paper summarizes the status of nuclear power both here and abroad, discussing the implications of current events in the context of national energy policy and economic development here in Illinois

  15. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  16. A computational model clarifies the roles of positive and negative feedback loops in the Drosophila circadian clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Junwei, E-mail: wangjunweilj@yahoo.com.c [Cisco School of Informatics, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou Tianshou [School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-06-14

    Previous studies showed that a single negative feedback structure should be sufficient for robust circadian oscillations. It is thus pertinent to ask why current cellular clock models almost universally have interlocked negative feedback loop (NFL) and positive feedback loop (PFL). Here, we propose a molecular model that reflects the essential features of the Drosophila circadian clock to clarify the different roles of negative and positive feedback loops. In agreement with experimental observations, the model can simulate circadian oscillations in constant darkness, entrainment by light-dark cycles, as well as phenotypes of per{sup 01} and clk{sup Jrk} mutants. Moreover, sustained oscillations persist when the PFL is removed, implying the crucial role of NFL for rhythm generation. Through parameter sensitivity analysis, it is revealed that incorporation of PFL increases the robustness of the system to regulatory processes in PFL itself. Such reduced models can aid understanding of the design principles of circadian clocks in Drosophila and other organisms with complex transcriptional feedback structures.

  17. Clarifying relations between dispositional aggression and brain potential response: overlapping and distinct contributions of impulsivity and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Noah C; Patrick, Christopher J; Hall, Jason R; Bernat, Edward M

    2011-03-01

    Impulsive-aggressive individuals exhibit deficits in amplitude of the P3 brain potential response, however, it remains unclear how separable dispositional traits account for this association. The current study sought to clarify the basis of this association by examining contributions of trait impulsiveness and stress reactivity to the observed relationship between dispositional aggression and amplitude of the P3 brain potential response in a visual novelty-oddball procedure. A significant negative association was found between aggressiveness and amplitude of P3 response to both target and novel stimuli over frontal-central scalp sites. Impulsivity showed a parallel inverse relationship with P3 amplitude, attributable to its overlap with dispositional aggression. In contrast, stress reactivity did not exhibit a zero-order association with P3 amplitude, but modestly predicted P3 in a positive direction after accounting for its overlap with aggression. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for individual difference variables and brain processes underlying impulsive-aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clarifying the relation of acculturative stress and anxiety/depressive symptoms: The role of anxiety sensitivity among Hispanic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Mayorga, Nubia A; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garey, Lorra; Viana, Andres G; Sharp, Carla; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Recent work has highlighted the link between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms among Hispanic young adults, but the nature of these relations is not well understood. The present study aimed to clarify the relation between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms by examining anxiety sensitivity, globally and via subfactors, as an explanatory variable. A cross-sectional sample of 788 Hispanic college students (80.8% female; M age = 20.83 years, SD = 1.93) was recruited from a southwestern public university and completed an online self-report assessment battery. Acculturative stress exerted an indirect effect, via the global construct of anxiety sensitivity, on depression symptoms, suicidality, anxious arousal, and social anxiety symptoms. Follow-up simultaneous analytic models demonstrated indirect effects via the anxiety sensitivity subfactors that were pathognomonic with each of the specific affective outcomes. These findings suggest the utility of assessing and targeting anxiety sensitivity in the treatment of acculturative stress-related depression/anxiety problems among Hispanic college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Clarified Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Juice as an Anticonvulsant Agent: In Vitro Mechanistic Study of GABAergic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela P. F. Arrifano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures affect about 50 million people around the world. Approximately 30% of seizures are refractory to the current pharmacological arsenal, so, the pursuit of new therapeutic alternatives is essential. Clarified Euterpe oleracea (EO juice showed anticonvulsant properties similar to diazepam in an in vivo model with pentylenetetrazol, a GABAA receptor blocker. This study investigated the effects of EO on the main GABAergic targets for anticonvulsant drugs, analyzing the effect on the GABA receptor’s benzodiazepine and picrotoxinin binding sites and the GABA uptake. Primary cultures of cortical neurons and astrocytes were treated with EO (0–25% for up to 90 min. [3H]Flunitrazepam and [3H]TBOB binding, [3H]GABA uptake, cell viability, and morphology were assayed. Nonlethal concentrations of EO increased agonist binding and decreased antagonist binding in cortical neurons. Low concentrations significantly inhibited GABA uptake, especially in astrocytes, suggesting an accumulation of endogenous GABA in the synaptic cleft. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that EO can improve GABAergic neurotransmission via interactions with GABAA receptor and modulation of GABA uptake. Understanding these molecular mechanisms will help in the treatment of seizures and epilepsy, especially in developing countries where geographic isolation and low purchasing power are the main barriers to access to adequate treatment.

  20. Purification of monoclonal antibodies from clarified cell culture fluid using Protein A capture continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Amit K; Tran, Travis; Napadensky, Boris; Teella, Achyuta; Brookhart, Gary; Ropp, Philip A; Zhang, Ada W; Tustian, Andrew D; Zydney, Andrew L; Shinkazh, Oleg

    2015-11-10

    Recent studies using simple model systems have demonstrated that continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography (CCTC) has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of conventional Protein A chromatography using packed columns. The objective of this work was to optimize and implement a CCTC system for monoclonal antibody purification from clarified Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture fluid using a commercial Protein A resin. Several improvements were introduced to the previous CCTC system including the use of retentate pumps to maintain stable resin concentrations in the flowing slurry, the elimination of a slurry holding tank to improve productivity, and the introduction of an "after binder" to the binding step to increase antibody recovery. A kinetic binding model was developed to estimate the required residence times in the multi-stage binding step to optimize yield and productivity. Data were obtained by purifying two commercial antibodies from two different manufactures, one with low titer (∼ 0.67 g/L) and one with high titer (∼ 6.9 g/L), demonstrating the versatility of the CCTC system. Host cell protein removal, antibody yields and purities were similar to those obtained with conventional column chromatography; however, the CCTC system showed much higher productivity. These results clearly demonstrate the capabilities of continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography for the commercial purification of monoclonal antibody products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Purification of monoclonal antibodies from clarified cell culture fluid using Protein A capture continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Amit K.; Tran, Travis; Napadensky, Boris; Teella, Achyuta; Brookhart, Gary; Ropp, Philip A.; Zhang, Ada W.; Tustian, Andrew D.; Zydney, Andrew L.; Shinkazh, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies using simple model systems have demonstrated that Continuous Countercurrent Tangential Chromatography (CCTC) has the potential to overcome many of the limitations of conventional Protein A chromatography using packed columns. The objective of this work was to optimize and implement a CCTC system for monoclonal antibody purification from clarified Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture fluid using a commercial Protein A resin. Several improvements were introduced to the previous CCTC system including the use of retentate pumps to maintain stable resin concentrations in the flowing slurry, the elimination of a slurry holding tank to improve productivity, and the introduction of an “after binder” to the binding step to increase antibody recovery. A kinetic binding model was developed to estimate the required residence times in the multi-stage binding step to optimize yield and productivity. Data were obtained by purifying two commercial antibodies from two different manufactures, one with low titer (~0.67 g/L) and one with high titer (~6.9 g/L), demonstrating the versatility of the CCTC system. Host cell protein removal, antibody yields and purities were similar to that obtained with conventional column chromatography; however, the CCTC system showed much higher productivity. These results clearly demonstrate the capabilities of continuous countercurrent tangential chromatography for the commercial purification of monoclonal antibody products. PMID:25747172

  2. Chitosan as a novel clarifying agent on clear apple juice production: Optimization of process conditions and changes on quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taştan, Özge; Baysal, Taner

    2017-12-15

    In this study, the use of chitosan as a clarification agent in the production of clear apple juice (AJ) was investigated, the optimum conditions were determined using RSM, and the effects on the quality of AJ were analyzed during storage at 4°C and 20°C for 4months. Optimum conditions for clarifying the AJ were chitosan concentration of 191.6mg/100ml juice, the process temperature of 20°C and process time of 30min. Changes in quality characteristics such as turbidity, pH, acidity, color, total monomeric anthocyanin, total phenolic, and protein contents were evaluated and compared to traditional clarification. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris causes significant safety issues in fruit juice industry; therefore also the antimicrobial effect of chitosan on A. acidoterrestris during the clarification process was examined. The results showed that clear AJ production can be achieved by the clarification step with direct chitosan addition, without the need for enzymatic treatment. However, the microbial reduction of A. acidoterrestris during the clarification process was not found to be significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumption of clarified grapefruit juice ameliorates high-fat diet induced insulin resistance and weight gain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovskiy, Rostislav; Thompson, Airlia; Tharp, Kevin; Hellerstein, Marc; Napoli, Joseph L; Stahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    To determine the metabolic effects of grapefruit juice consumption we established a model in which C57Bl/6 mice drank 25-50% sweetened GFJ, clarified of larger insoluble particles by centrifugation (cGFJ), ad libitum as their sole source of liquid or isocaloric and sweetened water. cGFJ and control groups consumed similar amounts of liquids and calories. Mice fed a high-fat diet and cGFJ experienced a 18.4% decrease in weight, a 13-17% decrease in fasting blood glucose, a three-fold decrease in fasting serum insulin, and a 38% decrease in liver triacylglycerol values, compared to controls. Mice fed a low-fat diet that drank cGFJ experienced a two-fold decrease in fasting insulin, but not the other outcomes observed with the high-fat diet. cGFJ consumption decreased blood glucose to a similar extent as the commonly used anti-diabetic drug metformin. Introduction of cGFJ after onset of diet-induced obesity also reduced weight and blood glucose. A bioactive compound in cGFJ, naringin, reduced blood glucose and improved insulin tolerance, but did not ameliorate weight gain. These data from a well-controlled animal study indicate that GFJ contains more than one health-promoting neutraceutical, and warrant further studies of GFJ effects in the context of obesity and/or the western diet.

  4. Clarifying the role of neuroticism in suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among women with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, L M; Flint, J; Kendler, K S

    2017-10-01

    Prior research consistently demonstrates that neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, but the association between neuroticism and suicidal behavior has been inconsistent. Whereas neuroticism is recommended as an endophenotype for suicidality, the association of neuroticism with attempted suicide warrants clarification. In particular, prior research has not distinguished between correlates of attempted suicide, correlates of suicidal ideation, and correlates of comorbid psychopathology. The present study used the CONVERGE study, a sample of 5864 women with major depressive disorder (MD) and 5783 women without MD throughout China. Diagnoses, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Neuroticism was assessed with the neuroticism portion of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results replicate prior findings on the correlates of suicidal ideation, particularly elevated neuroticism among individuals who report prior suicidal ideation. Moreover, as compared with individuals who reported having experienced only suicidal ideation, neuroticism was associated with decreased likelihood of having attempted suicide. The association of neuroticism with suicidality is more complicated than has been previously described. Whereas neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, neuroticism may decrease risk for a suicide attempt among individuals with suicidal ideation. These results have implications for the assessment of risk for a suicide attempt among individuals who report suicidal ideation and addresses prior discordant findings by clarifying the association between neuroticism and attempted suicide.

  5. Transcriptome profiles of metamorphosis in the ornamented pygmy frog Microhyla fissipes clarify the functions of thyroid hormone receptors in metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lanying; Liu, Lusha; Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hongyuan; Jiang, Jianping

    2016-06-02

    Anuran metamorphosis is an excellent system in which to study postembryonic development. Studies on Xenopus (Mesobatrachia) show that thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) regulate metamorphosis in a ligand-dependent manner by coordinating the action of hundreds of genes. However, whether this mechanism is conserved among amphibians is still unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism of this universal phenomenon, we report the transcriptional profiles of the three key developmental stages in Microhyla fissipes (Neobatrachia): premetamorphosis (PM), metamorphic climax (MC) and completion of metamorphosis (CM). In total, 2,293 differentially expressed genes were identified from comparisons of transcriptomes, and these genes showed stage-specific expression patterns. Unexpectedly, we found that TRα was highly expressed in Xenopus laevis and Bufo gargarizans at premetamorphosis but showed low expression in M. fissipes. In contrast, TRβ was highly expressed during metamorphosis in M. fissipes and X. laevis. This result may imply that TRβ is essential for initiating metamorphosis, at least in M. fissipes. Thus, our work not only identifies genes that are likely to be involved in Neobatrachia metamorphosis but also clarifies the roles of unliganded TRα in regulating tadpole growth and timing of metamorphosis, which may be conserved in anurans, and the role of liganded TRβ in launching metamorphosis.

  6. Safeguards on nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Safeguards and security policies within the Department of Energy (DOE) have been implemented in a graded fashion for the protection, control and accountability of nuclear materials. This graded philosophy has meant that safeguards on low-equity nuclear materials, typically considered of low diversion attractiveness such as waste, has been relegated to minimal controls. This philosophy has been and remains today an acceptable approach for the planning and implementation of safeguards on this material. Nuclear waste protection policy and guidance have been issued due to a lack of clear policy and guidance on the identification and implementation of safeguards controls on waste. However, there are issues related to safe-guarding waste that need to be clarified. These issues primarily stem from increased budgetary and resource pressures to remove materials from safeguards. Finally, there may be an unclear understanding, as to the scope and content of vulnerability assessments required prior to terminating safeguards on waste and other discardable materials and where the authority should lie within the Department for making decisions regarding safeguards termination. This paper examines these issues and the technical basis for Departmental policy for terminating safeguards on waste

  7. Small Wars, Small Investments, and Big Dividends: Clarifying Airpower’s Indirect Approach Amidst New Strategy and Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    numbers to describe our economic health, our productivity, and our physical well-being… Without them, we would be lost among the dragons . We have...in the case of a hypothetical nuclear power (Country- Z ), insurgents will overthrow the government without US support to the PN. This assumption may...programs-past: non-functional FLIR balls covered in dust, faulty NVGs and rusting machine guns.111 In one case, a PN squadron pilot reported that most of

  8. Nuclear age in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiftah, S

    1976-01-01

    The book analyses, clarifies and summarises, from various aspects, some of the many questions concerning the motivation, the meaning, the economics, the dangers and the risks of introducing nuclear technology into the Middle East area following the recent agreements between some Mid Eastern countries and the United States, France, Germany and the U.S.S.R. about the supply of nuclear power reactors and nuclear fuel to the Middle East. The recent strong nuclear prgrams of countries such as India and Iran, who have wide-ranging ties with the Mid-Eastern countries, coupled with the huge revenues of petrodollars by the Arab countries of the area, together with the dangers of another 1973-type oil embargo are discussed and the triple crises of energy, ecology and nuclear weapons proliferation are considered.

  9. The nuclear age in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, Shimon.

    1976-01-01

    The book analyses, clarifies and summarises, from various aspects, some of the many questions concerning the motivation, the meaning, the economics, the dangers and the risks of introducing nuclear technology into the Middle East area following the recent agreements between some Mid Eastern countries and the United States, France, Germany and the U.S.S.R. about the supply of nuclear power reactors and nuclear fuel to the Middle East. The recent strong nuclear prgrams of countries such as India and Iran, who have wide-ranging ties with the Mid-Eastern countries, coupled with the huge revenues of petrodollars by the Arab countries of the area, together with the dangers of another 1973-type oil embargo are discussed and the triple crises of energy, ecology and nuclear weapons proliferation are considered. (B.G.)

  10. Nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This fact sheet answers specific questions about the Department of Energy's possible acquisition and conversion of a partially completed commercial nuclear power plant to a nuclear materials production facility. The nuclear power plant is the Washington Nuclear Plant number sign 1 owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System and is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington

  11. Nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report answers questions about the Department of Energy's possible acquisition and conversion of a partially completed commercial nuclear power plant to a nuclear materials production facility. The nuclear power plant is the Washington Nuclear Plant No.1 owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System and is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington

  12. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  13. Nuclear option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemm, K R

    1978-05-01

    The global outlook is that nuclear reactors are here to stay and South Africa has already entered the nuclear power stakes. This article discusses the rocketing oil prices, and the alternatives that can be used in power generation, the good safety record of the nuclear industry and the effect that South Africa's first nuclear power station should have on the environment.

  14. Nuclear resisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The booklet contains six papers by different authors, under the headings: dangers along the nuclear fuel cycle; the nuclear profiteers; the nuclear state is a police state; a non-disposable future (renewable energy sources, energy conservation); nuclear weapons - out of control; man made madness. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections: introduction; energy and the third world; world energy consumption 1978; oil -the energy dilemma; nuclear chains - introduction; uranium; Namibia; enrichment and reprocessing; countries with enrichment and reprocessing facilities; waste; conclusion; why take the nuclear option; third world countries with nuclear reactors; the arms connection; government spending and human resources 1977 (by countries); nuclear power - the final solution; the fascists; world bank; campaigns; community action in Plogoff; Australian labour movement; NUM against nuclear power; Scottish campaign; students against nuclear energy; anti-nuclear campaign; partizans; 3W1 disarmament and development; campaign ATOM; CANUC; 3W1; SANE. (U.K.)

  16. Countermovement depth - a variable which clarifies the relationship between the maximum power output and height of a vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Jan; Michalski, Radosław; Buśko, Krzysztof; Mazur-Różycka, Joanna; Staniak, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of peak power achieved during vertical jumps in order to clarify relationship between the height of jump and the ability to exert maximum power. One hundred young (16.8±1.8 years) sportsmen participated in the study (body height 1.861 ± 0.109 m, body weight 80.3 ± 9.2 kg). Each participant performed three jump tests: countermovement jump (CMJ), akimbo countermovement jump (ACMJ), and spike jump (SPJ). A force plate was used to measure ground reaction force and to determine peak power output. The following explanatory variables were included in the model: jump height, body mass, and the lowering of the centre of mass before launch (countermovement depth). A model was created using multiple regression analysis and allometric scaling. The model was used to calculate the expected power value for each participant, which correlated strongly with real values. The value of the coefficient of determination R2 equalled 0.89, 0.90 and 0.98, respectively, for the CMJ, ACMJ, and SPJ jumps. The countermovement depth proved to be a variable strongly affecting the maximum power of jump. If the countermovement depth remains constant, the relative peak power is a simple function of jump height. The results suggest that the jump height of an individual is an exact indicator of their ability to produce maximum power. The presented model has a potential to be utilized under field condition for estimating the maximum power output of vertical jumps.

  17. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level and individual (lower level exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure. More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure. In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models.Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure.Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions.When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation

  18. Sequence-based genotyping clarifies conflicting historical morphometric and biological data for 5 Eimeria species infecting turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherry, S; Ogedengbe, M E; Hafeez, M A; Sayf-Al-Din, M; Gad, N; Barta, J R

    2015-02-01

    Unlike with Eimeria species infecting chickens, specific identification and nomenclature of Eimeria species infecting turkeys is complicated, and in the absence of molecular data, imprecise. In an attempt to reconcile contradictory data reported on oocyst morphometrics and biological descriptions of various Eimeria species infecting turkey, we established single oocyst derived lines of 5 important Eimeria species infecting turkeys, Eimeria meleagrimitis (USMN08-01 strain), Eimeria adenoeides (Guelph strain), Eimeria gallopavonis (Weybridge strain), Eimeria meleagridis (USAR97-01 strain), and Eimeria dispersa (Briston strain). Short portions (514 bp) of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (mt COI) from each were amplified and sequenced. Comparison of these sequences showed sufficient species-specific sequence variation to recommend these short mt COI sequences as species-specific markers. Uniformity of oocyst features (dimensions and oocyst structure) of each pure line was observed. Additional morphological features of the oocysts of these species are described as useful for the microscopic differentiation of these Eimeria species. Combined molecular and morphometric data on these single species lines compared with the original species descriptions and more recent data have helped to clarify some confusing, and sometimes conflicting, features associated with these Eimeria spp. For example, these new data suggest that the KCH and KR strains of E. adenoeides reported previously represent 2 distinct species, E. adenoeides and E. meleagridis, respectively. Likewise, analysis of the Weybridge strain of E. adenoeides, which has long been used as a reference strain in various studies conducted on the pathogenicity of E. adenoeides, indicates that this coccidium is actually a strain of E. gallopavonis. We highly recommend mt COI sequence-based genotyping be incorporated into all studies using Eimeria spp. of turkeys to confirm species identifications and so

  19. Implementation of CFD modeling in the performance assessment and optimization of secondary clarifiers: the PVSC case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, S; Ramalingam, K; Lipke, S; McKenna, B; Fillos, J

    2013-01-01

    The water industry and especially the wastewater treatment sector has come under steadily increasing pressure to optimize their existing and new facilities to meet their discharge limits and reduce overall cost. Gravity separation of solids, producing clarified overflow and thickened solids underflow has long been one of the principal separation processes used in treating secondary effluent. Final settling tanks (FSTs) are a central link in the treatment process and often times act as the limiting step to the maximum solids handling capacity when high throughput requirements need to be met. The Passaic Valley Sewerage Commission (PVSC) is interested in using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach to explore any further FST retrofit alternatives to sustain significantly higher plant influent flows, especially under wet weather conditions. In detail there is an interest in modifying and/or upgrading/optimizing the existing FSTs to handle flows in the range of 280-720 million gallons per day (MGD) (12.25-31.55 m(3)/s) in compliance with the plant's effluent discharge limits for total suspended solids (TSS). The CFD model development for this specific plant will be discussed, 2D and 3D simulation results will be presented and initial results of a sensitivity study between two FST effluent weir structure designs will be reviewed at a flow of 550 MGD (∼24 m(3)/s) and 1,800 mg/L MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids). The latter will provide useful information in determining whether the existing retrofit of one of the FSTs would enable compliance under wet weather conditions and warrants further consideration for implementing it in the remaining FSTs.

  20. Developmental toxicity study in rats exposed dermally to clarified slurry oil for a limited period of gestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R. [Stonybrook Laboratories, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1996-10-11

    Clarified slurry oil (CSO, CAS number 64741-62-4), a refinery stream produced by processing crude oil, is a developmental toxicant when administered dermally throughout gestation to pregnant rats. The manifestations of developmental toxicity observed included embryolethlity and growth retardation; evidence of teratogenicity was limited, and not conclusive. The present study was undertaken to further explore the teratogenic potential of CSO. In an attempt to limit emnbryolethality and thereby promote detection of terata, CSO was administered once daily for a limited period of gestation i[gestation days (GD) 9-12], via dermal application, to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at doses of 0, 10, 100, and 1000 mg/kg. All animals were sacrificed on GD 20. Detailed examination of the dams was performed. Due to the screening nature of this investigation, fetal evaluations were limited to body weight measurements, external examinations, and evaluation of select visceral endpoints. In the dams exposed to CSO, significant decreases in body weight [absolute and gain (GD 9-13, GD 0-20)] and in the amount of food consumed were observed at 100 and 1000 mg/kg. Additional evidence of maternal toxicity observed at 1000 mg/kg included decreased absolute and relative thymus weights, increased absolute and relative liver weights, and aberrant serum chemistry. Ingestion of the test material was evident at the high dose. Developmental toxicity was observed at 1000 mg/kg and included increased embryolethality, decreased body weight, and anomalous development (cleft palate, brachydactyly, edema). Although a low incidence of abnormal fetal development was observed at 100 mg/kg, it was not conclusive that the alterations were due to CSO exposure. It is likely that three- to seven-ring polycyclic aromatic compounds present in CSO were responsible for the toxic effects observed. 33 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. Use of XPS to clarify the Hall coefficient sign variation in thin niobium layers buried in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demchenko, Iraida N., E-mail: demch@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Lisowski, Wojciech [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Syryanyy, Yevgen [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Melikhov, Yevgen [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Newport Rd., Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Zaytseva, Iryna; Konstantynov, Pavlo [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Chernyshova, Maryna [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery Street 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Cieplak, Marta Z. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • HR XPS spectra of Nb 3d, Si 2p, O 1s were probed for Si/Nb/Si trilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering to clarify the Hall coefficient variation as a function of Nb layer thickness. • Strong boundary scattering, enhanced by the presence of silicon ions in the layer close to the interface/s is a main factor leading to sign change of the Hall coefficient. • Theoretical concentration/depth profile as a function of sputtering determined by SESSA after optimization of the model system gives good agreement with experiment. - Abstract: Si/Nb/Si trilayers formed with 9.5 and 1.3 nm thick niobium layer buried in amorphous silicon were prepared by magnetron sputtering and studied using XPS depth-profile techniques in order to investigate the change of Hall coefficient sign with thickness. The analysis of high-resolution (HR) XPS spectra revealed that the thicker layer sample has sharp top interface and metallic phase of niobium, thus holes dominate the transport. In contrast, the analysis indicates that the thinner layer sample has a Nb-rich mixed alloy formation at the top interface. The authors suggest that the main effect leading to a change of sign of the Hall coefficient for the thinner layer sample (which is negative contrary to the positive sign for the thicker layer sample) may be related to strong boundary scattering enhanced by the presence of silicon ions in the layer close to the interface/s. The depth-profile reconstruction was performed by SESSA software tool confirming that it can be reliably used for quantitative analysis/interpretation of experimental XPS data.

  2. Dilemma of dilemmas: how collective and individual perspectives can clarify the size dilemma in voluntary linear public goods dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Shank

    Full Text Available Empirical findings on public goods dilemmas indicate an unresolved dilemma: that increasing size-the number of people in the dilemma-sometimes increases, decreases, or does not influence cooperation. We clarify this dilemma by first classifying public goods dilemma properties that specify individual outcomes as individual properties (e.g., Marginal Per Capita Return and group outcomes as group properties (e.g., public good multiplier, mathematically showing how only one set of properties can remain constant as the dilemma size increases. Underpinning decision-making regarding individual and group properties, we propose that individuals are motivated by both individual and group preferences based on a theory of collective rationality. We use Van Lange's integrated model of social value orientations to operationalize these preferences as an amalgamation of outcomes for self, outcomes for others, and equality of outcomes. Based on this model, we then predict how the public good's benefit and size, combined with controlling individual versus group properties, produce different levels of cooperation in public goods dilemmas. A two (low vs. high benefit by three (2-person baseline vs. 5-person holding constant individual properties vs. 5-person holding constant group properties factorial experiment (group n = 99; participant n = 390 confirms our hypotheses. The results indicate that when holding constant group properties, size decreases cooperation. Yet when holding constant individual properties, size increases cooperation when benefit is low and does not affect cooperation when benefit is high. Using agent-based simulations of individual and group preferences vis-à-vis the integrative model, we fit a weighted simulation model to the empirical data. This fitted model is sufficient to reproduce the empirical results, but only when both individual (self-interest and group (other-interest and equality preference are included. Our research contributes

  3. What does 'nuclear power village' represent in the newspaper articles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, I., E-mail: isshin.takenaka@gmail.com [The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, H., E-mail: kimura.hiroshi.0110@gmail.com [Public Outreach, Non-Profit, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster in 2011, we have often heard the word 'Nuclear Power Village (Genshiryoku-Mura in Japanese)' in Japan. 'Nuclear Power Village' is used for the Japanese community related to nuclear power generation. In this paper, we analysed Japanese newspapers and clarified usages of 'Nuclear Power Village'. As a result, we found there are two images of 'Nuclear Power Village'. One image has a common purpose of the promotion of nuclear power. Another image has a common purpose of acquiring gain. We also clarified the characteristics of the images such as interdependence, closed community and so on. (author)

  4. What does 'nuclear power village' represent in the newspaper articles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, I.; Kimura, H.

    2014-01-01

    Since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster in 2011, we have often heard the word 'Nuclear Power Village (Genshiryoku-Mura in Japanese)' in Japan. 'Nuclear Power Village' is used for the Japanese community related to nuclear power generation. In this paper, we analysed Japanese newspapers and clarified usages of 'Nuclear Power Village'. As a result, we found there are two images of 'Nuclear Power Village'. One image has a common purpose of the promotion of nuclear power. Another image has a common purpose of acquiring gain. We also clarified the characteristics of the images such as interdependence, closed community and so on. (author)

  5. Progress of nuclear safety research, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Since the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was founded as a nonprofit, general research and development organization for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, it has actively pursued the research and development of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is the primary source of energy in Japan where energy resources are scarce. The safety research is recognized at JAERI as one of the important issues to be clarified, and the safety research on nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle, waste management and environmental safety has been conducted systematically since 1973. As of the end of 1989, 38 reactors were in operation in Japan, and the nuclear electric power generated in 1988 reached 29 % of the total electric power generated. 50 years have passed since nuclear fission was discovered in 1939. The objective of the safety research at JAERI is to earn public support and trust for the use of nuclear energy. The overview of the safety research at JAERI, fuel behavior, reliability of reactor structures and components, reactor thermal-hydraulics during LOCA, safety assessment of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, radioactive waste management and environmental radioactivity are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Gun; Lee, Han Myung; Song, Ki Dong; Lee, Man Ki; Kim, Seung Su; Moon, Kee Hwan; Chung, Whan Sam; Kim, Kyung Pyo; Cho, Sang Goo

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of nuclear power generation under the circumstances of growing concerns about environmental impact and to help decision making in electricity sector. In this study, efforts are made to estimate electricity power generation cost of major power options by incorporating additional cost to reduce environmental impact and to suggest an optimal plant mix in this case. (Author)

  7. Longer-Term Impact of High and Low Temperature on Mortality: An International Study to Clarify Length of Mortality Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Micheline; Leon Guo, Yue-Liang; Guo, Yuming; Goodman, Patrick; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Lavigne, Eric; Michelozzi, Paola; Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo; Schwartz, Joel; Scortichini, Matteo; Sera, Francesco; Tobias, Aurelio; Tong, Shilu; Wu, Chang-fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Zeka, Ariana; Gasparrini, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background: In many places, daily mortality has been shown to increase after days with particularly high or low temperatures, but such daily time-series studies cannot identify whether such increases reflect substantial life shortening or short-term displacement of deaths (harvesting). Objectives: To clarify this issue, we estimated the association between annual mortality and annual summaries of heat and cold in 278 locations from 12 countries. Methods: Indices of annual heat and cold were used as predictors in regressions of annual mortality in each location, allowing for trends over time and clustering of annual count anomalies by country and pooling estimates using meta-regression. We used two indices of annual heat and cold based on preliminary standard daily analyses: a) mean annual degrees above/below minimum mortality temperature (MMT), and b) estimated fractions of deaths attributed to heat and cold. The first index was simpler and matched previous related research; the second was added because it allowed the interpretation that coefficients equal to 0 and 1 are consistent with none (0) or all (1) of the deaths attributable in daily analyses being displaced by at least 1 y. Results: On average, regression coefficients of annual mortality on heat and cold mean degrees were 1.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3, 3.1] and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.6, 1.6) per degree, respectively, and daily attributable fractions were 0.8 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.3) and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.9, 1.4). The proximity of the latter coefficients to 1.0 provides evidence that most deaths found attributable to heat and cold in daily analyses were brought forward by at least 1 y. Estimates were broadly robust to alternative model assumptions. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence that most deaths associated in daily analyses with heat and cold are displaced by at least 1 y. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1756 PMID:29084393

  8. Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, J.; Home Robertson, J.; Beith, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this debate the Government's policy on nuclear power is discussed. Government policy is that nuclear power is the safest and cleanest way of generating electricity and is cheap. Other political parties who do not endorse a nuclear energy policy are considered not to be acting in the people's best interests. The debate ranged over the risks from nuclear power, the UK safety record, safety regulations, and the environmental effects of nuclear power. The Torness nuclear power plant was mentioned specifically. The energy policy of the opposition parties is strongly criticised. The debate lasted just over an hour and is reported verbatim. (UK)

  9. Legal aspects of French nuclear policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-06-01

    By proceeding with underground nuclear tests, France does not intend to abandon its legal position concerning the right to possess nuclear weapons. The author - a specialist on international law in these matters - discusses this position and clarifies its nuances. He goes on to deal with the problem of jus cogens, the restrictive law which certain circles would like to draw from the resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations and from common law. France rejects this process as one which opens new possibilities for arguing against its tests, albeit underground.

  10. Legal aspects of french nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    By proceeding with underground nuclear tests, France does not intend to abandon its legal position concerning the right to possess nuclear weapons. The author - a specialist on international law in these matters - discusses this position and clarifies its nuances. He goes on to deal with the problem of jus cogens, the restrictive law which certain circles would like to draw from the resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations and from common law. France rejects this process as one which opens new possibilities for argueing against its tests, albeit underground [fr

  11. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Medium Range Missiles, Rocket Engine, Nuclear Submarine, Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Inspection, Nuclear Weapons, Transfer Technology, Scud, Safety, Nuclear Power, Chernobyl Trial, ,CHemical Weapons...

  12. Religious organizations debate nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, T.

    1984-08-01

    This paper reviews the history of the religious debate on nuclear energy over the last thirty years. In the 1950s, religious statements recognized the peaceful uses of atomic energy as a blessing from God and called upon world leaders to promote its use. Nuclear energy programmes were launched in this decade. In the 1960s, there was still religious approval of nuclear energy, but questions about ethics arose. It was not until the 1970s, after the oil crisis, that serious questioning and criticism of nuclear energy emerged. This was particularly true in the United States, where the majority of statements originated - especially in 1979, the year of the Three Mile Island accident. Around this time, the World Council of Churches developed the concept of the just, participatory and sustainable society. The meaning and use of these terms in the nuclear energy debate is examined. This paper also compares the balanced debate of the World Council with the case against the plutonium economy prepared by the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA. Three religious statements from the 1980s are examined. A United Church of Canada resolution, critical of nuclear energy, is compared with a favourable report from the Methodist Church in England. Both use similar values: in one case, justice, participation and sustainability; in the other case, concern for others, participation and stewardship. There are not many Catholic statements on nuclear energy. One which is cautious and favourable is examined in detail. It is concluded that the use of concepts of justice, participation and sustainability (or their equivalents) has not clarified the nuclear debate

  13. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  14. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Power'' describes how a reactor works and examines the different designs including Magnox, AGR, RBMK and PWR. It charts the growth of nuclear generation in the world and its contributions to world energy resources. (author)

  15. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  16. Status of nuclear safety research - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Sasajima, Hideo; Umemoto, Michitaka; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Tadao; Togashi, Yoshihiro; Nakata, Masahito

    2000-11-01

    The nuclear safety research at JAERI is performed in accordance with the long term plan on nuclear research, development and use and the safety research yearly plan determined by the government and under close relationship to the related departments in and around the Nuclear Safety Research Center. The criticality accident having occurred in Tokai-mura in 1999 has been the highest level nuclear accident in Japan and ensuring safety in whole nuclear cycle is severely questioned. The causes of such an accident have to be clarified not only technical points but also organizational points, and it is extremely important to make efforts in preventing recurrence, to fulfill emergency plan and to improve the safety of whole nuclear fuel cycle for restoring the reliability by the people to nuclear energy system. The fields of conducting safety research are engineering safety research on reactor facilities and nuclear fuel cycle facilities including research on radioactive waste processing and disposal and research and development on future technology for safety improvement. Also, multinational cooperation and bilateral cooperation are promoted in international research organizations in the center to internationally share the recognition of world-common issues of nuclear safety and to attain efficient promotion of research and effective utilization of research resources. (author)

  17. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.

    1986-01-01

    This loose-leaf collection is made up of five didactically prepared units covering the following subjects: basic knowledge on nuclear energy, nuclear energy in relation to energy economy, site issues, environmental compatibility of nuclear energy, and nuclear energy in the focus of political and social action. To this was added a comprehensive collection of material: specific scientific background material, a multitude of tables, diagrams, charts etc. for copying, as well as 44 transparent charts, mostly in four colours. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on 'nuclear structure' is the Appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) Annual Report 1985/86, and contains the research work carried out at the Nuclear Structure Facility, Daresbury, within that period. During the year a total of 74 experiments were scheduled covering the main areas of activity including: nuclear collective motion, nuclei far from stability, and nuclear collisions. The Appendix contains brief reports on these experiments and associated theory. (U.K.)

  19. Silver(I)-promoted conversion of thioamides to amidines: divergent synthesis of a key series of vancomycin aglycon residue 4 amidines that clarify binding behavior to model ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Akinori; James, Robert C; Pierce, Joshua G; Xie, Jian; Boger, Dale L

    2012-05-30

    Development of a general Ag(I)-promoted reaction for the conversion of thioamides to amidines is disclosed. This reaction was employed to prepare a key series of vancomycin aglycon residue 4 substituted amidines that were used to clarify their interaction with model ligands of peptidoglycan precursors and explore their resulting impact on antimicrobial properties.

  20. How Can I Clarify My Responsibility as a Headteacher as I Provide Opportunities to Enable All Children in the School to Create Talents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Louise

    2013-01-01

    In this account I explore and clarify my responsibility as I explain how I have come to my current understanding of talent creation, and why I feel it is so important to develop an inclusive approach to talent creation which provides opportunities for all the children to develop talents through their time at school, and to have them recognised and…

  1. Professional development of teachers using a research based approach to clarify their challenges in multicultural classrooms: a case study of Dutch senior secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perry den Brok; dr.ir. Quinta Kools; Kennedy Tielman

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a descriptive study on regarding the use of a research-based approach by teachers to clarify problems they encountered in multicultural classrooms. It analyses the outcomes of a training in which seven teachers from a Dutch Senior Secondary Vocational Education school

  2. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of alleged terrorist plans to build a 'dirty bomb' have heightened longstanding concerns about nuclear terrorism. This briefing outlines possible forms of attack, such as: detonation of a nuclear weapon; attacks involving radioactive materials; attacks on nuclear facilities. Legislation addressing these risks and the UK's strategy for coping with them are also considered

  3. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Easum, Lille.

    1976-03-01

    An environmentalist's criticism of nuclear energy is given, on a layman's level. Such subjects as conflict of interest in controlling bodies, low-level radiation, reactor safety, liability insurance, thermal pollution, economics, heavy water production, export of nuclear technology, and the history of the anti-nuclear movement are discussed in a sensationalistic tone. (E.C.B.)

  4. Nuclear alerts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Anti-nuclear demonstrations against the deployment of new US missiles were held in Nato Europe. As no agreement has yet been reached at the US-Soviet Intermediate Nuclear Forces talks in Geneva, the deployment of nuclear missiles in Europe has started

  5. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  6. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on nuclear decommissioning was presented by Dr H. Lawton to a meeting of the British Nuclear Energy Society and Institution of Nuclear Engineers, 1986. The decommissioning work currently being undertaken on the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor (WAGR) is briefly described, along with projects in other countries, development work associated with the WAGR operation and costs. (U.K.)

  7. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friese, T.

    1981-09-01

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.) [de

  8. S. 1304: DOE Nuclear Safety and Environment Act. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, July 12, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    A bill was introduced to enhance nuclear safety at Department of Energy nuclear facilities, to modify certain functions of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, to apply the provisions of OSHA to certain Department of Energy nuclear facilities, to clarify the jurisdiction and powers of Government agencies dealing with nuclear wastes, to ensure independent research on the effects of radiation on human beings, to encourage a process of environmental compliance and cleanup at these facilities, and to protect communities that contain these facilities

  9. Nuclear physics from strong coupling QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The strong coupling limit (beta_gauge = 0) of QCD offers a number of remarkable research possibilities, of course at the price of large lattice artifacts. Here, we determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon chemical potential mu_B, for one flavor of staggered fermions in the chiral limit, with emphasis on the determination of a tricritical point and on the T ~ 0 transition to nuclear matter. The latter is known to happen for mu_B substantially below the baryon mass, indicating strong nuclear interactions in QCD at infinite gauge coupling. This leads us to studying the properties of nuclear matter from first principles. We determine the nucleon-nucleon potential in the strong coupling limit, as well as masses m_A of nuclei as a function of their atomic number A. Finally, we clarify the origin of nuclear interactions at strong coupling, which turns out to be a steric effect.

  10. Ageing management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepcek, Stefan; Uhrik, Peter; Ziakova, Marta

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) began to issue its own non-periodic publications, as an edition on Safety of Nuclear Installations with the aim to publish generally binding legal regulations, safety requirements, recommendations and guidelines related to UJD task. In the framework of the edition on Safety of Nuclear Installations the UJD issues three groups of publications: The first group of publications deals with generally binding legal regulations and international treaties or conventions related to peaceful use of nuclear energy. Publications are marked by a red stripe. The second group represents guidelines, which should clarify and supplement the requirements of generally binding legal regulations. Recommendations given by these documents are not generally binding, nevertheless following of these recommendations helps licensees to demonstrate fulfilment of generally binding requirements. The third group of publications represents documents, which have only informative character

  11. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear accident evacuee bullying and structural violence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujiuchi, Takuya

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear accident sufferers should be now referred to as nuclear accident victims. The authors discuss why nuclear accident victims receive not only psychological bullying where no peculiar causes exist, but also corporal and physical bullying and mental suffering, based on the results of questionnaire survey conducted by the authors from January to February 2017, the 'survey on bullying problems related to evacuation from the nuclear accident.' The reasons why the nuclear power evacuation bullying has become a problem at present can be largely classified to the following three categories: (1) opinion that 'bullying' that originally existed just after the nuclear accident became surfaced recently, (2) opinion that latent problems exist as background, and (3) opinion that socially underlying issues are involved in the generation of bullying. Thus, various factors existing under nuclear power evacuation bullying were structurally clarified. In the background of children's nuclear evacuation bullying, adult nuclear power evacuation bullying exists, and there are 'lack of understanding, prejudice, and discrimination against nuclear power and Fukushima' under that. The author thought that 'structural violence' to create the disparity, discrimination, inequality, and injustice of society exists as the basis of such lack of understanding, prejudice, and discrimination, and discussed the 'structural violence' as the basis of bullying. As the upper structure of structural violence associated with nuclear accidents, there are two big phenomena: (1) setting of evacuation/return area not based on reasonable radiation dose standards and (2) fabricated safety and carefreeness myth. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology's report on nuclear bullying could give an impression that 'nuclear power evacuation bullying' is 'not so big problem'. (A.O.)

  13. Nuclear orientation and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present generation of on-line nuclear orientation facilities promises to revolutionize the gathering of nuclear structure information, especially for the hitherto poorly known and understood nuclei far from stability. Following a brief review of the technological developments that have facilitated these experiments, the nuclear spectroscopic information that can be obtained is summarized. Applications to understanding nuclear structure are reviewed, and challenges for future studies are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  15. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Explains the concepts in detail and in depth. Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook explains the experimental basics, effects and theory of nuclear physics. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams help to better understand the explanations. A better feeling to the subject of the book is given with sketches about the historical development of nuclear physics. The main topics of this book include the phenomena associated with passage of charged particles and radiation through matter which are related to nuclear resonance fluorescence and the Moessbauer effect., Gamov's theory of alpha decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, electron capture and gamma decay. The discussion of general properties of nuclei covers nuclear sizes and nuclear force, nuclear spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Nuclear instability against various modes of decay and Yukawa theory are explained. Nuclear models such as Fermi Gas Model, Shell Model, Liquid Drop Model, Collective Model and Optical Model are outlined to explain various experimental facts related to nuclear structure. Heavy ion reactions, including nuclear fusion, are explained. Nuclear fission and fusion power production is treated elaborately.

  16. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  17. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  18. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  19. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  20. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  1. Nuclear blackmail and nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book raises pointed questions about nuclear saber rattling. More than a dozen cases since the bombing of Hiroshima and Magasaki in which some sort of nuclear threat was used as a sparring technique in tense confrontations are cited. Each incident is described and analyzed. Two theories offered to explain America's use of nuclear threats, the balance of interest theory and the balance of power theory, are contrasted throughout the book. This book helps to fill the gap in the understanding of nuclear weapons and their uses, while pointing out that nuclear bravado could lead to an unintended unleashing of these weapons

  2. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of nuclear-powered ships in Japan broke down due to the radiation leak on the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' in 1974, and the objective has not yet been attained. The Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency was reorganized to advance the development of nuclear-powered ships and to develop marine nuclear reactors. Recently, various opinions have been expressed regarding the development of nuclear-powered ships and Mutsu, accordingly, it is necessary to clarify the way it should be. The Atomic Energy Commission organized this meeting to discuss the problem. The practical use of nuclear-powered ships is expected at the beginning of the 21st century, but it is only the guess. But it is important to accumulate the technology, knowledge and experience to prepare for the use of nuclear-powered ships. The continuation of the development of Mutsu is important for the future, and the construction of the new home port is unavoidable. The aim of the research and development, and the concrete way of advancing the research and development of Mutsu are discussed. It is scheduled that the Agency is integrated with other atomic energy organizations by March, 1985. The consideration to be given for implementing the integration is described. (Kako, I.)

  3. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1983-06-01

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  4. Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1998, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) performed 38 inspections, 25 of them were performed in co-operation with IAEA inspectors. There is no fresh nuclear fuel at Bohunice A-1 NPP at present. Fresh fuel of Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs is inspected in the fresh fuel storage.There are 327 fresh fuel assemblies in Mochovce NPP fresh fuel storage. In addition to that, are also 71 small users of nuclear materials in Slovakia. In most cases they use: covers made of depleted uranium for non-destructive works, detection of level in production plants, covers for therapeutical sources at medical facilities. In. 1995, NRA SR issued 4 new licences for nuclear material withdrawal. In the next part manipulation with nuclear materials, spent fuel stores and illegal trafficking in nuclear materials are reported

  5. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, Bruno

    1978-01-01

    This book is the first attempt of a comprehensive compilation of national Austrian Nuclear Law (Nuclear Liability Act; Radiation protection Act, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Security Control Act, Act on the uses of Nuclear Energy - Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the most important international agreements to which Austria is a party. Furthermore, the book contains the most important Nuclear Liability Conventions to which Austria is not yet a party, but which are applicable in neighbouring; the Paris Convention served as a model for the national Nuclear Liability Act and may be used for its interpretation. The author has translated a number of international instruments into German, such as the Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  6. Nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, M.

    1992-01-01

    The following motion was put before the United Kingdom House of Commons on 3rd February 1992 and agreed; that this House, recognising the potential dangers of the rapidly changing world order, welcomes the recent proposals for substantial reductions in nuclear weaponry, the growing support for the non-proliferation treaty and progress in the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions concerning the dismantling of Iraqi nuclear, chemical and biological capabilities; urges the Government to play their full part in helping the relevant authorities in the Commonwealth of Independent States to dismantle their nuclear devices, to safeguard their nuclear components and to discourage the proliferation of nuclear expertise; and believes it is of the first importance that Britain retains an effective and credible minimum nuclear deterrent as security in a world where there remain many sources of instability. The record of arguments for and against the motion in the debate is presented. (author)

  7. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panait, A.

    1994-01-01

    This is a general report presenting the section VII entitled Nuclear Power of the National Conference on Energy (CNE '94) held in Neptun, Romania, on 13-16 June 1994. The problems addressed were those relating to electric power produced by nuclear power plant, to heat secondary generation, to quality assurance, to safety, etc. A special attention was paid to the commissioning of the first Romanian nuclear power unit, the Cernavoda-1 reactor of CANDU type. The communications were grouped in four subsections. These were: 1. Quality assurance, nuclear safety, and environmental protection; 2. Nuclear power plant, commissioning, and operation; 3. Nuclear power plant inspection, maintenance, and repairs, heavy water technology; 4. Public opinion education. There were 22 reports, altogether

  8. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.

    1990-01-01

    Written from the basis of neutrality, neither for nor against nuclear power this book considers whether there are special features of nuclear power which mean that its development should be either promoted or restrained by the State. The author makes it dear that there are no easy answers to the questions raised by the intervention of nuclear power but calls for openness in the nuclear decision making process. First, the need for energy is considered; most people agree that energy is the power to progress. Then the historicalzed background to the current position of nuclear power is given. Further chapters consider the fuel cycle, environmental impacts including carbon dioxide emission and the greenhouse effect, the costs, safety and risks and waste disposal. No conclusion either for or against nuclear power is made. The various shades of opinion are outlined and the arguments presented so that readers can come to their own conclusions. (UK)

  9. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Arthur.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  10. Pulmonary explorations in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.

    1987-01-01

    Ten years ago specialists in Nuclear Medicine from the South of France formed an Association called ACOMEN. The objectives were to create a permanent exchange of ideas between members and a close collaboration with physicians. The group objectives have led to a combination of efforts on the behalf of each one to clarify our techniques for physicians having recourse to this speciality as well as the various categories of students passing through the Nuclear Medicine Departments. Different groups within the ACOMEN were assigned to specific subjects. Each group was in charge of building the framework of a certain topic, which was then illustrated by selected documents contributed by all members. A slide collection, complete with an explanatory booklet is the final result of this collaboration. Thus anyone concerned in any way, with nuclear medicine, is able to quickly become familiar with the techniques of the speciality, to be aware of its possibilities and its limitations and to update his hnowledge. One realizes that the first theme selected was not the easiest; pulmonary radionuclide explorations are, as everyone knows, variable and even personalized. However, the choice was deliberate. The difficulty should stimulate those responsible for the other themes as well as the people working with them. There is already a slide collection available to anyone who wishes to learn about the use of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases [fr

  11. Considerations Regarding the Contribution of the Court of Justice of the European Union in Clarifying the Content of Non Discrimination Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Livia NICU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at underlining the way in which the Court of Justice of the European Union contributes at the unitary application of the community law in the Union’s member states, by clarifying the content of some concepts. Equality and non discrimination represent the fundamental idea of edification of a democratic society and one of the fundamental principles regulated in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, in the formamended by the Lisbon Treaty and this is the reason why we have opted for analyzing only the contribution of the Court of Justice of the European Union in clarifying the concept of non discrimination. There are also assessments made regarding the collocation “positive discrimination”, concluding that it is an inadequate locution and proposing variants to replace this collocation.

  12. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized

  13. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is a simple and direct introduction to the tools of modern nuclear physics, both experimental and mathematical. Emphasizes physical intuition and illuminating analogies, rather than formal mathematics. Topics covered include particle accelerators, radioactive series, types of nuclear reactions, detection of the neutrino, nuclear isomerism, binding energy of nuclei, fission chain reactions, and predictions of the shell model. Each chapter contains problems and illustrative examples. Pre-requisites are calculus and elementary vector analysis

  14. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Ross.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is treated under the headings: nuclear energy -what is it; fusion (principles; practice); fission (principles); reactor types and systems (fast (neutron) reactors as breeders; fast reactors; thermal reactors; graphite-moderated thermal reactors; the CANDU reactor; light water reactors - the BWR and the PWR); the nuclear fuel cycle (waste storage; fuel element manufacture; enrichment processes; uranium mining); safety and risk assessment; the nuclear power industry and the economy (regulating authorities; economics; advantages and disadvantages). (U.K.)

  15. Primary processes initiated by nuclear transformations in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hirotoshi

    1975-01-01

    Primary processes of hot atom production initiated by nuclear transformation were discussed from past studies using Moessbauer spectroscopy. Many insulators (dielectric substances) showed various effect, such as abnormaly oxdized condition, following nuclear disintegration within the time duration of the life of Moessbauer nuclear excited state. Supposing these hot atom processes belonged to radiochemical processes, radiochemical characteristics of a certain chemical substance could be clarified by placing Moessbauer nuclide in the neighbourhood of the chemical substance to be studied. Chemical effects of disintegrated atom in the first and second composition, chemical substances produced in the surroundings of disintegrated atom, and environmental disturbance of disintegrated atom were studied and discussed. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  16. Nuclear Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferguson, Joseph; Tarleton, Gael

    2004-01-01

    .... This event was an opportunity for policy makers, security analysts, nuclear scientists and engineers, regional experts, and military planners to share perspectives and identify those issues requiring...

  17. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and software, including myocardial perfusion imaging, offer increased accuracy in the detection, diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The area of nuclear medicine, the development of artificially produced radioactive isotopes for medical applications, is relatively recent. Among the subjects covered in a lengthy discussion are the following: history of development; impact of nuclear medicine; understanding the most effective use of radioisotopes; most significant uses of nuclear medicine radioimmunoassays; description of equipment designed for use in the field of nuclear medicine (counters, scanning system, display systems, gamma camera); description of radioisotopes used and their purposes; quality control. Numerous historical photographs are included. 52 refs

  19. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  20. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  1. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.

    1991-01-01

    Is a nuclear power renaissance likely to occur in the United States? This paper investigates the many driving forces that will determine the answer to that question. This analysis reveals some frequently overlooked truths about the current state of nuclear technology: An examination of the issues also produces some noteworthy insights concerning government regulations and related technologies. Public opinion will play a major role in the unfolding story of the nuclear power renaissance. Some observers are betting that psychological, sociological, and political considerations will hod sway over public attitudes. Others wager that economic and technical concerns will prevail. The implications for the nuclear power renaissance are striking

  2. Nuclear space power systems for orbit raising and maneuvering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Reference is made to recent studies which have shown that direct thrust nuclear rockets for routine orbit raising and near-earth space tug missions are probably not cost-effective. The need for additional trade-off studies and comparisons of direct-thrust nuclear systems with chemical systems to clarify the role of nuclear rockets in missions requiring rapid orbit maneuvering is stressed. Attention is confined here to nuclear electric propulsion considerations. Low-mass nuclear power plants are constructed to optimize nuclear electric propulsion systems. Electric power levels from 100 kilowatts to as much as several megawatts are desirable. The goals for the power plant specific mass are 20-30 kg/kW at the lower powers to 2-4 kg/kW at the higher powers

  3. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document reproduces the Note Verbale dated 2 December 1992 received by the Director General from the Resident Representative of Argentina to the Agency relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology in order to clarify parts of the Trigger List which is incorporated in Annex A to the Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers

  4. The impact of the future Nuclear Safety Convention on the Spanish licensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripol Carulla, S.

    1995-01-01

    The adoption of the 1994 Nuclear Safety Convention should not affect Spanish law. Nevertheless, the coming into force of the Nuclear Safety Convention in Spain will represent an opportunity for Spanish nuclear authorities to clarify one of the aspects of the Spanish nuclear legislation that has become oldfashioned. It would be important to adopt a general rule on nuclear safety which, at the highest level, would clearly establish the prerequisites which have to be fulfilled in order to get a licence as well as the competences of the supervision authorities, including the (criminal and) administrative penalties that can be imposed. (orig./HP)

  5. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  6. A survey on the regional characteristics of public's nuclear recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki; Tsujimoto, Tadashi

    1999-03-01

    A public opinion survey was made to obtain fundamental data for the further enhancement of nuclear public acceptance. After processing and making insight into those obtained data, some proposals were made regarding the methodology of nuclear PRs activity to be taken hereafter. The survey was made in October 1998, for respective 1000 and 500 samples in the northern and southern regions of Fukui prefecture by the door-to-door method, and 1000 samples in the urban region of Kinki district and 350 nuclear specialists both by the mailing method. Questionnaires are to clarify the degree of public's recognition of nuclear energy relative to the other sciences and technologies, which include the degrees of contact with and reliance on the newsmedia, the degrees of interest in and attention to the science and technology along with nuclear technologies, the yes-or-no to the promotion of nuclear generation and so on. The obtained data were processed with the attributes of objects, from which data it became clear the remarkable difference of the extend to understanding of nuclear information between two genders, and the peculiarity of the degree of attention to nuclear news for the public in southern Fukui compared to the other public. It was also found the difference of the recognition of nuclear energy between the general public and nuclear specialists, indicating the clear estrangement between technical safety and social easiness in nuclear energy. Some proposals useful for the further acceptance of nuclear energy were made from the viewpoint of PRs activity. (author)

  7. Nuclear physics for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Liu Bin; Wei Qingming; Ren Xianzhe

    2004-01-01

    The D-T fusion cross-section is calculated using quantum mechanics with the model of square nuclear potential well and Coulomb potential barrier. The agreement between ENDF data and the theoretically calculated results is well in the range of 0.2-280 keV. It shows that the application of Breit-Wigner formula is not suitable for the case of the light nuclei fusion reaction. When this model is applied to the nuclear reaction between the charged particles confined in a lattice, it explains the 'abnormal phenomena'. It implies a prospect of nuclear fusion energy without strong nuclear radiations

  8. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  9. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This book reviews the accomplishments, operations, and problems faced by the defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. Specifically, it discusses the recommendations that the Safety Board made to improve safety and health conditions at the Department of Energy's defense nuclear facilities, problems the Safety Board has encountered in hiring technical staff, and management problems that could affect the Safety Board's independence and credibility

  10. Nuclear violence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been paid in the past decade or so to the characteristics of terrorists and their apparent goals and objectives, capabilities, and evolving strategy and tactics with respect to nuclear terrorism. In contrast, little has been said about the procedural aspects of nuclear terrorism, and even less about the way in which such endeavors can fail. This latter omission is important because it bears directly on the ability to evaluate credibly the potential for nuclear terrorism. Here, the author addresses the requirements inherent in acquiring a nuclear explosive capability by three routes: separation of plutonium from irradiated light or heavy water reactor (LWR or HWR) fuel, processing, or use of separated fissile material, and theft of a nuclear weapon. In addition, he deals with other potential acts of nuclear terrorism: sabotage of power reactors, uranium enrichment facilities and spent nuclear fuel in transport, and dispersal of radioactive materials, in particular, plutonium. He specifically does not look at the design or production of a nuclear weapon. Finally, the discussion here assumes that the terrorist is subnational; that is, a nation is not involved. Also, the discussion of subnational participation does not address the possibility of collusion with insiders

  11. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  12. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss on nuclear power and its advantages. The concept of nucleus fission, fusion, electric generation are discussed in this chapter. Nuclear power has big potential to become alternative energy to substitute current conventional energy from coal, oil and gas

  13. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This brochure is intended as a contribution to a better and more general understanding of one of the most urgent problems of present society. Emphasis is laid on three issues that are always raised in the nuclear debate: 1) Fuel cycle, 2) environmental effects of nuclear power plants, 3) waste disposal problems. (GL) [de

  14. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  15. Nuclear lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraca, J.M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of the results obtained in experiments of measurement of lifetimes for a detailed knowledge of nuclear structure is referred. Direct methods of measurement of nuclear lifetimes are described, namely, electronic methods, recoil-distance method, doppler shift atenuation method and blocking-method. A brief reference is made to indirect methods for measurement of life-times

  16. Nuclear facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: the case for using nuclear energy (Britain's energy needs; energy policy); safety; transport of spent fuel; radiation (natural radioactivity); environment (land use of nuclear power plants; storage and disposal of radioactive wastes). (U.K.)

  17. Analysis of cognitive structure of nuclear energy focusing on inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Furuta, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify people's cognitive structure of nuclear energy, and to analyze how the cognitive structure varies with inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge of nuclear energy. For this purpose, we carried out questionnaire survey of perception of nuclear energy in the urban areas and nuclear power plants (NPP) siting areas. After collecting data, we defined 8 categories in terms of respondents' inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge, and applied factor analysis to each category's data. Consequently, we found 4 cognitive factors of nuclear: 'trust in the authorities', 'utility of nuclear power generation', 'benefit for NPP siting areas', and 'risk perception about nuclear technology', regardless of the respondents' inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge. In addition, when the respondents assess many perceptions of nuclear energy, respondents living in urban areas tend to regard 'trust in the authorities' as important, while respondents living in NPP siting areas tend to take into consideration of risk perception about nuclear technology'. (author)

  18. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  19. Nuclear rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarram, M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine call NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen, in a nuclear reactor, from 420F to 4000 0 F. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight

  20. Nuclear rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarram, M [Teheran Univ. (Iran). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology

    1972-02-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine called NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen in a nuclear reactor. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight.

  1. Nuclear haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjhur, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used 32 P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used 32 P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  2. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing threat by terrorists for a possible nuclear attack is particularly alarming in recent years. The likelihood of such an event is highly uncertain but cannot be ruled out. The consequence of such an event would be highly disastrous and the implications could be far-reaching both socially and politically. It is feared that significant amount of nuclear weapons materials may be kept under poor security. Therefore, there is a greater demand with utmost priority to curb nuclear terrorism by adapting proper security measures. One of the most important measures is to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear materials which are the source of building nuclear explosive devices. According to the IAEA illicit trafficking database (ITDB) report, a total number of 252 incidents were reported in 2006, of which 150 occurred in 2006 and the remaining 102 had taken place prior to that year, mainly in 2005

  3. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  4. Nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, S.

    1978-01-01

    The terms and reactions to President Carter's nuclear policy, culminating in the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act, are reviewed and analyzed. The new law increases restrictions on nuclear exports, encourages continued use of light water reactors in preference to plutonium-fueled reactors, and emphasizes technical solutions to proliferation problems. Critics of the law point out that it will hurt U.S. trade unfairly, that other countries do not have as many fuel options as the U.S. has, and that nuclear sales have as many political and economic as technical solutions. Compromise areas include new international safety guidelines, the possibility of an international nuclear fuel bank, and a willingness to consider each case on its merits. 21 references

  5. Nuclear privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country's two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain's nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross

  6. Nuclear haematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masjhur, J S

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used {sup 32}P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used {sup 32}P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  7. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  8. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1984-01-01

    Do we need nuclear energy. Is it safe. What are the risks. Will it lead to proliferation. The questions are endless, the answers often confused. In the vigorous debates that surround the siting and operation of nuclear power plants, it is all too easy to lose sight of the central issues amid the mass of arguments and counter-arguments put forward. And there remains the doubt, who do we believe. This book presents the facts, simply, straightforwardly, and comprehensibly. It describes the different types of nuclear reactor, how they work, how energy is produced and transformed into usable power, how nuclear waste is handled, what safeguards are built in to prevent accident, contamination and misuse. More important, it does this in the context of the real world, examining the benefits as well as the dangers of a nuclear power programme, quantifying the risks, and providing an authoritative account of the nuclear industry worldwide. Technically complex and politically controversial, the contribution of nuclear energy to our future energy requirements is a crucial topic of our time. (author)

  9. Nuclear Hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The global spread of nuclear reactors for the production of energy seems inevitable. Nuclear power plants will be supplied--if not by the United States, then by one of several other exporters. But other aspects of this development are less certain. One is the relationship between proliferation of nuclear energy plants and that of nuclear weapons. Another is the actual constraint that such vulnerable potential targets as nuclear power plants would have on would-be aggressors. In the last analysis, this would depend on the rationality of a nation's leadership. What can be said for the concept of nuclear power plants as potential hostages is that by installing a reactor on its territory, a country increases its vulnerability to grave, possibly unacceptable damage in the event of war. As a result, that nation's leaders might be inclined to raise the threshold of their sensitivity to provocation by neighbors and to restrain their own inclinations toward aggression. Admittedly this is a frail substitute for robust international agreements, but in the present order of things it is not a trivial consideration. Many incidents once regarded by the great powers as easi belli have more recently been either resolved by diplomacy or ignored altogether. The idea must not be pressed too far. The export of a nuclear power plant to a Third World country cannot be advocated simply as a means to constrain its own military adventurism. Aside from the promise of a vast increase in energy supply for developing nations, nuclear powered generating stations could actually improve relations among countries. The risk of widespread radioactive contamination by nuclear power plants hit by even conventional bombs could introduce a positive new element into the military calculations of powers outside the NATO-Warsaw Pact arena. As they balance military and diplomatic solutions to local conflicts, moderation rather than bellicosity might become the better part of valor

  10. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kand, Purushottam

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine is older than CT, ultrasound and MRI. It was first used in patients over 60-70 years ago. Today it is an established medical specialty and offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialities like nephrology, pediatrics, cardiology, psychiatry, endocrinology and oncology. Nuclear medicine refers to medicine (a pharmaceutical) that is attached to a small quantity of radioactive material (a radioisotope). This combination is called a radiopharmaceutical. There are many radiopharmaceuticals like DTPA, DMSA, HIDA, MIBI and MDP available to study different parts of the body like kidneys, heart and bones etc. Nuclear medicine uses radiation coming from inside a patient's body where as conventional radiology exposes patients to radiation from outside the body. Thus nuclear imaging study is a physiological imaging, whereas diagnostic radiology is anatomical imaging. It combines many different disciplines like chemistry, physics mathematics, computer technology, and medicine. It helps in diagnosis and to treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease. The information provides a quick and accurate diagnosis of wide range of conditions and diseases in a person of any age. These tests are painless and most scans expose patients to only minimal and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation received from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to, or often many times less than, that of a diagnostic X-ray. Nuclear medicine provides an effective means of examining whether some tissues/organs are functioning properly. Therapy using nuclear medicine in an effective, safe and relatively inexpensive way of controlling and in some cases eliminating, conditions such as overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer and arthritis. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique because it provides doctors with

  11. Nuclear inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    1997-01-01

    Since the end of the East-West confronting, the nuclear weapon issue has been focused in an international debate with obvious repercussions in Europe, because it is the European continent which indicated first the significance of nuclear deterrence. This debate refers first upon the past, as the German unification allowed capturing numerous documents of Warsaw treaty which revealed the intentions and the plans of Soviet Union during the cold war, and secondly concerns the future, since the role of nuclear weapons must be re-thought in a new context. This is the subject of this book, which refers also to the problem of the nuclear proliferation in the world and evolution of different countries in a political and regional context. The extension of the non-proliferation treaty for an undefined duration, in May 1995, is a incontestable victory because this treaty rules the renouncement to nuclear weapons of 185 countries. However, it does not solve most sensible problems like the Iraq case, for which a specific inspection regime has been instituted, or the case of Iran, which is suspected to acquire the bomb, although no clear evidence has been provided up to now. This is also the case of Israel, India and Pakistan which allege plainly their willingness of keeping open, from security reasons, their nuclear option. The content is displayed in five chapters: 1. Introduction; 2. The role of the nuclear weapons after the cold war; 3. The nuclear proliferation at crossroads; 4. Undefined extension of the NPT, a striking but fragile victory; 5. Conclusions. An appendix containing the text of the Nuclear Weapon Non-Proliferation Treaty and a chronology are added

  12. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, S.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet appeared in a series on technical history. It tries to communicate some of the scientific, technical and social stresses, which have been connected with the application of nuclear energy since its discovery. The individual sections are concerned with the following subjects: the search for the 'smallest particles'; the atomic nucleus; nuclear fission; the 'Manhattan Project'; the time after this - from the euphoria of the 1950's via disillusionment and change of opinion to the state of nuclear energy at the start of the 1980's. The booklet contains many details and is generously illustrated. (HSCH) [de

  13. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  14. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxo, Armand.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons and conditions of utilizing nuclear power in developing countries are examined jointly with the present status and future uses already evaluated by some organizations. Some consequences are deduced in the human, financial scientific and technological fields, with provisional suggestions for preparing the nuclear industry development in these countries. As a conclusion trends are given to show how the industrialized countries having gained a long scientific and technological experience in nuclear energy can afford their assistance in this field, to developing countries [fr

  15. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfeld, W.

    1977-01-01

    This brochure 'nuclear problems' deals with the attitude of the protestant church in the region around the northern Elbe towards further quantitative economic growth, esp. nuclear energy, with the following essays: preaching the Gospel in an environment in danger: the Christian occident and the problems of the third world, facing the problems of exhausted supplies, the role of the prophet, problem of environment - a problem of theology, the political dimension, against ATW, signal Brokdorf, strange effects (defense of the church from unqualified teachings by non-professionals), Christian liberty, church and nuclear energy, violence and robes. (HP) [de

  16. Rotterdam Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    In 1965 Rotterdam Nuclear received an order for the design, supply of materials, manufacture, testing, inspection and preparation for shipment of one 450MW Boiling Water Reactor pressure vessel. This was one of the first orders for a reactor pressure vessel, ever obtained by a European Manufacturer. The Company has since supplied 19 reactor pressure vessels for nuclear power stations, having a total weight of about 10,000,000kg. The nuclear power stations in which these are installed represent an electrical output of about 15,000MW and they are located in seven different countries (USA, Spain, Switzerland, Argentina, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands). (Auth.)

  17. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  18. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  19. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, Per Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Today we know two forms of nuclear energy: fission and fusion. Fission is the decomposition of heavy nuclei, while fusion is the melting together of light nuclei. Both processes create a large surplus of energy. Technologically, we can currently only use fission to produce energy in today's nuclear power plants, but there is intense research worldwide in order to realize a controlled fusion process. In a practical context, today's nuclear energy is a sustained source of energy since the resource base is virtually unlimited. When fusion technology is realized, the resource supply will be a marginal problem. (AG)

  20. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero B, E.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid technical development of Colombia over the past years, resulted among others, a considerable increase in the number of measuring instrumentation and testing laboratories, scientific research and metrology centers, in industry, agriculture, public health, education on the nuclear field, etc. IAN is a well organized institution with qualified management, trained staff and reasonably equipped laboratories to carry out tasks as: Metrology, standardization, quality control and maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments. The government of Colombia has adopted a policy to establish and operate through the country maintenance and repair facilities for nuclear instrumentation. This policy is reflected in the organization of electronic laboratories in Bogota-IAN

  1. Regulatory risks associated with nuclear safety legislation after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident in Japan. Focus on legal structure of the nuclear reactor regulation act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety regulations enforced after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident under the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Act face the following regulatory problems that involve potential risk factors for nuclear businesses; 1) 'entity based regulation' unable to cope with business cessation or bankruptcy of the entity subject of regulation, 2) potential risk of the Nuclear Regulation Authority's inappropriate involvement in nuclear industry policy beyond their duty, and 3) compliance of backfits under vague regulations. In order to alleviate them, this report, through analyzing these regulatory problems from the view point of sound development of the nuclear industry, proposes the following regulatory reforms; (1) To clarify the rule for industry policy in nuclear regulations and enable the authority, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, to choose most appropriate industrial policy measure. (2) Through establishing safety goals as measures to promote continuous improvement of nuclear safety regulations, to stimulate timely adjustments of the regulations, and to introduce a legal mechanism into the nuclear regulation systems under which validity of administrative law and its application can be checked. (author)

  2. Clarifying socio-economic impacts and mitigation measures related to potential changes in missions at the Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Research conducted to clarify the socioeconomic impacts on the Denver-Boulder area of potential changes in missions at the Rocky Flats Plant and the mitigation measures taken to contain these impacts are described. Two primary alternatives have been examined, including the relocation of certain activities associated with radioactive materials, as well as a total phase out of the plant over the next decade. These perspectives include an assessment of alternative uses for Rocky Flats by both governmental agencies and private sector developers. Major findings address location, employment, public involvement, private enterprises, community attitudes, employee relocation; land use; and environment

  3. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This scientific document presents an introduction to the nuclear wastes problems, the separation process and the transmutation, the political and technical aspects of the storage, the radioprotection standards and the biological effects. (A.L.B.)

  4. Nuclear Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  5. Nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic studies in nuclear analytical techniques include the examination of underlying assumptions and the development and extention of techniques involving the use of ion beams for elemental and mass analysis. 1 ref., 1 tab

  6. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  7. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report discusses concepts in nuclear theory such as: neutrino nucleosynthesis; double beta decay; neutrino oscillations; chiral symmetry breaking; T invariance; quark propagator; cold fusion; and other related topics

  8. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)

  9. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  10. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  12. Nuclear transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulaj, V.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nuclear transmutations are outlined, namely the radioactive transmutations and nuclear reactions. The basic characteristics are given of radioactive transmutations (gamma transmutations and isomeric transitions, beta, alpha transmutations, spontaneous fission and spontaneous emission of nucleons), their kinetics and the influence of the physical and chemical state of the radionuclide on the transmutation rate. The basic characteristics are described of nuclear reactions (reactions of neutrons including fission, reactions induced by charged particles and photons), their kinetics, effective cross sections and their mechanism. Chemical reactions caused by nuclear transmutations are discussed (recoil energy, properties of hot atoms, Szilard-Chalmers effect). A brief information is given on the behavior of radionuclides in trace concentrations. (Z.S.) 2 tabs., 19 figs., 12 refs

  13. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  14. Nuclear shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, R.C.; Nienart, L.F.; Toelcke, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing melt-processable nuclear shielding compositions from chloro-fluoro substituted ethylene polymers, particularly PCTFE and E-CTFE, containing 1 to 75 percent by weight of a gadolinium compound. 13 claims, no drawings

  15. Nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The energy demand complexion of this country is always changing and promises to change in the future. The nuclear industry is responding to changing energy demands through standards writing activities. Since the oil embargo of 1973, there has been a change in the mix of fuels contributing to energy growth in this country; virtually all of the energy growth has come from coal and nuclear power. The predicted expansion of coal use by 1985, over 1977 level, is 37%, while the use of oil is expected to decline by 17%. Use of nuclear power is expected to increase 62% from the 1977 level. The feasibility of using nuclear energy to meet the needs of the USA for electric power is discussed

  16. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  17. Nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, T.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear fission process is pedagogically reviewed from a macroscopic-microscopic point of view. The Droplet model is considered. The fission dynamics is discussed utilizing path integrals and semiclassical methods. (L.C.) [pt

  18. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, K.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The first volume of the Annual Report for 1989/90 gives an overview of the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, its development and a selection of highlights of the year's programme. This volume is complementary, presenting brief specialist reports, submitted by the users, describing the progress and results of each individual proposal. The contents reflect the extremely successful year due in good measure to the performance of the tandem accelerator which provided a record number of hours with ''beam on target''. Reports are grouped in four sections: research into nuclear structure with contributions ordered in increasing Z numbers of the nuclei studied; investigations of nuclear reaction mechanisms; nuclear theory; accelerator operations and development plus experimental instrumentation and techniques. The appendix forms a concise summary of the work at the facility for the year. (author)

  19. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pligt, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    This chapter present a brief overview of the current situation of siting radioactive wastes. This is followed by an overview of various psychological approaches attempting to analyse public reactions to nuclear facilities. It will be argued that public reactions to nuclear waste factilities must be seen in the context of more general attitudes toward nuclear energy. The latter are not only based upon perceptions of the health and environmental risks but are built on values, and sets of attributes which need not be similar to the representations o the experts and policy-makers. The issue of siting nuclear waste facilities is also embedded in a wider moral and political domain. This is illustrated by the importance of equity issues in siting radioactive wastes. In the last section, the implications of the present line of argument for risk communication and public participation in decisions about siting radioactive wastes will be briefly discussed. (author). 49 refs

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  2. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  6. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  7. Nuclear hadrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geesaman, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The role of hadron dynamics in the nucleus is illustrated to show the importance of nuclear medium effects in hadron interactions. The low lying hadron spectrum is considered to provide the natural collective variables for nuclear systems. Recent studies of nucleon-nucleon and delta-nucleon interactions are reviewed, with emphasis on the type of experimental phenomena which signal the importance of the many-body dynamics. 28 references

  8. Seguro Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.C.C. de.

    1978-04-01

    A description of the constitutive elements of insurance and its features in the field of law, and special legislation about the matter are given. The relationship between the liability of the nuclear power plant operator and the international conventions about civil liability on nuclear damage is discussed. Some considerations on damage reparing in the United States, Germany, France and Spain are presented. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  9. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, L.; Nalda, E.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.; Boudousq, V.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty using the properties of radioactivity. Radioactive markers associated with vectors are used as a tracer or radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes and/or therapy. Since its birth more than half a century ago, it has become essential in the care of many patients, particularly in oncology. After some definitions, this paper presents the main nuclear techniques - imaging for diagnostic, radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents, intra-operative detection, technique of radioimmunoassay - and the future of this field. (authors)

  10. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy has proposed a draft plan for investigating the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site to determine if it suitable for a waste repository. This fact sheet provides information on the status of DOE's and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's efforts to streamline what NRC expects will be the largest and most complex nuclear-licensing proceeding in history, including the development of an electronic information management system called the Licensing Support System

  11. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1981-01-01

    Dr Arnott, scientific consultant to PANDORA, emphasises our lack of knowledge of the behaviour of highly active radioactive wastes, particularly effluents, and their characteristics. He proposes that they should be stored, preferably in a solidified state, until our knowledge allows their safe disposal. Political aspects and government policies are discussed and human fallibility is stressed. The nuclear establishment and nuclear power programme are severely criticised. (U.K.)

  12. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehoucq, Roland; Klotz, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    Astronomy deals with the position and observation of the objects in our Universe, from planets to galaxies. It is the oldest of the sciences. Astrophysics is the study of the physical properties of these objects. It dates from the start of the 20. century. Nuclear astrophysics is the marriage of nuclear physics, a laboratory science concerned with the infinitely small, and astrophysics, the science of what is far away and infinitely large. Its aim is to explain the origin, evolution and abundance of the elements in the Universe. It was born in 1938 with the work of Hans Bethe, an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1967, on the nuclear reactions that can occur at the center of stars. It explains where the incredible energy of the stars and the Sun comes from and enables us to understand how they are born, live and die. The matter all around us and from which we are made, is made up of ninety-two chemical elements that can be found in every corner of the Universe. Nuclear astrophysics explains the origin of these chemical elements by nucleosynthesis, which is the synthesis of atomic nuclei in different astrophysical environments such as stars. Nuclear astrophysics provides answers to fundamental questions: - Our Sun and the stars in general shine because nuclear reactions are taking place within them. - The stars follow a sequence of nuclear reaction cycles. Nucleosynthesis in the stars enables us to explain the origin and abundance of elements essential to life, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and iron. - Star explosions, in the form of supernovae, disperse the nuclei formed by nucleosynthesis into space and explain the formation of the heaviest chemical elements such as gold, platinum and lead. Nuclear astrophysics is still a growing area of science. (authors)

  13. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    Major centres of experimental nuclear physics are at Melbourne University, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., James Cook University and the University of Western Australia. Groups working in theoretical nuclear physics exist at Melbourne, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., Flinders and Adelaide Universities and the University of Western Australia. The activities of these groups are summarised

  14. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Several issues concerning nuclear energy in France during 1996 are presented: permission of a demand for installing underground laboratories in three sites (Marcoule, Bure and Chapelle-Baton); a report assessing the capacity of Superphenix plant to operate as a research tool; the project of merging between Framatome and Gec-Alsthom companies; the revision of a general report on nuclear energy in France; the issue of military plutonium management

  15. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  16. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, Paul; Blanc, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    The applications of radioisotopes in medical diagnostics are briefly reviewed. Each organ system is considered and the Nuclear medicine procedures pertinent to that system are discussed. This includes, the principle of the test, the detector and the radiopharmaceutical used, the procedure followed and the clinical results obtained. The various types of radiation detectors presently employed in Nuclear Medicine are surveyed, including scanners, gamma cameras, positron cameras and procedures for obtaining tomographic presentation of radionuclide distributions [fr

  17. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Despite an aggressive, competitive diagnostic radiology department, the University Hospital, London, Ontario has seen a decline of 11% total (in vivo and in the laboratory) in the nuclear medicine workload between 1982 and 1985. The decline of in vivo work alone was 24%. This trend has already been noted in the U.S.. Nuclear medicine is no longer 'a large volume prosperous specialty of wide diagnostic application'

  18. Nuclear cardiac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques

  19. Nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S M [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre

    1967-01-01

    The article deals with the growth of nuclear medicine in India. Radiopharmaceuticals both in elemental form and radiolabelled compounds became commercially available in India in 1961. Objectives and educational efforts of the Radiation Medicine Centre setup in Bombay are mentioned. In vivo tests of nuclear medicine such as imaging procedures, dynamic studies, dilution studies, thyroid function studies, renal function studies, linear function studies, blood flow, and absorption studies are reported. Techniques of radioimmunoassay are also mentioned.

  20. Nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This report examines nuclear technology in Canada, with emphasis on Quebec, as a means of revitilizing industry. The historical, present day, and future states of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited are examined. Future research programs are discussed in greatest detail. These range from disposal of porcine wastes to new applications for electricity to nuclear medical techniques (to cite only a few examples). The executive summary is written in English. (23 fig., 16 tab.)

  1. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkers, G.

    1988-01-01

    This file includes data on risks insured by the nuclear insurance pool in Belgium and on the Chernobyl accident covering injury, economic damage and compensation for the latter. Also included are the texts of the IAEA Conventions on Early Notification and on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident as well as that of a Convention on long-distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution signed in Geneva [fr

  2. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  3. Nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    All scientists and technologists are agreed that the coal based fuel cycle is somewhere between 50 to 300 times more dangerous than the uranium fuel cycle. Under these circumstances it is not difficult to show that on a more quantitative basis, the nuclear industry, in all countries, has an unblemished safety record when compared with other energy sources. Various hazards and benefits of nuclear power are analyzed in this paper comparing with other energy sources. (Liu)

  4. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  5. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  6. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  7. Nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  8. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, J.

    1990-01-01

    This set of questions is based on an inquiry from the years 1987 to 1989. About 250 people af all age groups - primarily, however, young people between 16 and 25 years of age - were asked to state the questions they considered particularly important on the subject of nuclear energy. The survey was carried out without handicaps according to the brain-storming principle. Although the results cannot claim to be representative, they certainly reflect the areas of interest of many citizens and also their expectations, hopes and fears in connection with nuclear energy. The greater part of the questions were aimed at three topic areas: The security of nuclear power-stations, the effects of radioactivity on people and the problem of waste disposal. The book centres around these sets of questions. The introduction gives a general survey of the significance of nuclear energy as a whole. After this follow questions to do with the function of nuclear power stations, for the problems of security and waste disposal - which are dealt with in the following chapters - are easier to explain and to understand if a few physical and technical basics are understood. In the final section of the book there are questions on the so-called rejection debate and on the possibility of replacing nuclear energy with other energy forms. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Makoto; Hamasaki, Manabu; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Hoshide, Akihiko; Katayama, Kimio; Nozawa, H.; Karigome, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    In recent days, energy security is becoming a major global concern and it has been recognized that a major reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions is required to combat climate change. Considerable expansion and new introduction of nuclear power generation are currently being planned and considered for the further in various parts of the world. Nuclear technologies of the latest 10 years in Japan were reviewed with their characteristics, advancement and future perspective. Steady efforts have been made to construct new nuclear power stations with computer-aided engineering system and modular and prefabricated structures, extend the interval of periodic inspections under the new inspection system that should improve both safety and reliability, implement advanced measures against aging and develop the next-generation light water reactors including a medium small reactor. Export of nuclear power plants has been promoted with international business alliance or cooperation. Activities to close nuclear fuel cycle to ensure sustainable nuclear energy utilization have been promoted. Decommissioning technologies for Tokai power station have been developed and accumulated know-how will be utilized in light water reactors. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Nuclear watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovich, L.; Parish, T.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979 the accident at Three Mile Island brought nuclear power to the forefront of national attention. Over the last five years there have been no new orders for nuclear plants, construction costs and lead times have increased drastically, and numerous plants have been cancelled. In the coming years many new plants will come on line, and the first round of nuclear plant retirements will begin. Thus, the new set of issues faced by utilities are whether to complete plants currently under construction, how to recover the cost of abandoned plants, how to handle the potential rate shock of bringing costly plants into rate base, and how to accomplish decommissioning and retirement of nuclear plants. This paper presents and analyzes these issues. First, the history of the nuclear electric generation industry is reviewed. Next a case study illustrating the cost momentum built into nuclear power plant construction is presented. The issues involved in plant cancellation are discussed. Finally, a case study involving rate phase-in strategies is analyzed. 1 reference, 7 figures

  11. Nuclear energy : Present situation and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1953, President Eisenhower announced the U.S. ''Atoms for Peace'' program. After slightly more than 30 years, there are in operation, under construction or on order more than 400,000 MW of commercial nuclear power generation capacity located in 35 nations, representing a total investment around a trillion U.S. dollars. The situation is noteworthy in terms of the rate of technical development, deployment and transfer, the magnitude of the financial investment, economic benefits, the favorable impact on public health and safety, and the usual and positive character of cooperation among all concerned. The fundamentals of nuclear power generation with regard to economics, safety and environmental impact are likely to favor the increased use of nuclear power. The future prospect of the nuclear power in the U.S. also will be clarified positively. In many ways, U.S. commercial nuclear power continues to benefit from the Navy nuclear propulsion program. The prospect of supply demand situation in the conversion, enrichment and fabrication of uranium fuel is explained. The amount of spent fuel arising in OECD countries and their storage capability up to 2000 are shown, and the storage capability projected is well in excess. (Kako, I.)

  12. Fire protection in the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takuma, Masao

    1977-01-01

    According to the publication by US NRC, 32 fires have occurred in the nuclear power stations in operation, but most of them were small fire, and did not affect the safety of the nuclear power stations. The largest fire was that which occurred in the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station of TVA, USA, in March, 1976. It did not jeopardize the safety of the reactor facilities, and the leak of radioactive substance did not occur at all. But the investigation was made extensively by the joint committee of both houses, the government and others, and the deficiency in the countermeasures to fire was found, and it was clarified that some revision would by required on the standard applied heretofore. It was the valuable experience for improving further the safety of nuclear power stations. The fire occurred by the ignition of the polyurethane for sealing cable penetrations due to candle flame for testing. About 1600 cables were burned. When fire breaks out in a nuclear power station, it is necessary to stop and cool the reactor without fail, and to prevent the leak of radioactive substances definitely. In case of the fire in Browns Ferry, these requirements were fulfilled satisfactorily. The countermeasures on the basis of the experience in Browns Ferry and the design of the counterplan to fire in nuclear power stations are explained. (Kako, I.)

  13. Nuclear safety. How is it evaluated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Andersson, Johan; Carlsson, Lennart; Olsson, Richard; Ericsson, A.M.; Gunsell, L.; Wene, C.O.

    1996-09-01

    A working group with representatives for the three subject areas reactor safety, disposal of spent fuels and transport of radioactive materials has performed a project aiming to clarify similarities and differences of the three areas concerning methods for safety analysis, criteria, risks etc; and to develop contacts between experts in the areas in order to facilitate transfer of methods. Some of the more precise objectives were: To identify common problems that could be solved jointly, to discuss prospects for a 'meta-method' that can support safety analysis in the entire field of nuclear safety, and to discuss possibilities for a homogeneous attitude towards risk management

  14. Interpretive Hermeneutic Phenomenology: Clarifying Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The philosophical orientation of Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenology is explored in this paper. Gadamer offers a hermeneutics of the humanities that differs significantly from models of the human sciences historically rooted in scientific methodologies. In particular, Gadamer proposes that understanding is first a mode ...

  15. Eclipses could clarify axion mystery

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Physicists in Europe have proposed an outlandish experiment that could determine once and for all whether ultralight particles called axions - one of the leading candidates for dark matter - exist." (1/2 page)

  16. Proliferation Persuasion. Coercive Bargaining with Nuclear Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, Tristan A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Why do states wait for prolonged periods of time with the technical capacity to produce nuclear weapons? Only a handful of countries have ever acquired the sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technology needed to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Yet the enduring trend over the last five decades is for these states to delay or forgo exercising the nuclear weapons option provided by uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing capabilities. I show that states pause at this threshold stage because they use nuclear technology to bargain for concessions from both allies and adversaries. But when does nuclear latency offer bargaining benefits? My central argument is that challengers must surmount a dilemma to make coercive diplomacy work: the more they threaten to proliferate, the harder it becomes to reassure others that compliance will be rewarded with nuclear restraint. I identify a range of mechanisms able to solve this credibility problem, from arms control over breakout capacity to third party mediation and confidence building measures. Since each step towards the bomb raises the costs of implementing these policies, a state hits a sweet spot when it first acquires enrichment and/or reprocessing (ENR) technology. Subsequent increases in proliferation capability generate diminishing returns at the bargaining table for two reasons: the state must go to greater lengths to make a credible nonproliferation promise, and nuclear programs exhibit considerable path dependency as they mature over time. Contrary to the conventional wisdom about power in world politics, less nuclear latency thereby yields more coercive threat advantages. I marshal new primary source evidence from archives and interviews to identify episodes in the historical record when states made clear decisions to use ENR technology as a bargaining chip, and employ this theory of proliferation persuasion to explain how Japan, North Korea, and Iran succeeded and failed to barter concessions from the

  17. On liberation of communities which relies on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Just after the Nuclear Regulation Authority pointed out possible active faults for fracture zones just under the Tsuruga nuclear power station, local government of reactor site criticized this view was mere judgement of small experts group after its short-term field survey and evaluation meeting without enough discussion with nuclear operators. Behavior of local government, which should insist assurance of residents safety at first, seemed inscrutable and the industrial and financial structure of communities dependent on nuclear power should be clarified. Accident affected costs of nuclear power station estimated in the past were far beyond several trillion yen but local residents of reactor site used to believe accident risk might be negligible because of quite low accident probability estimated by probabilistic safety analysis. Economy of local government of reactor site was dependent on nuclear power. Economic benefits consisted of tax or subsidy income of local governments (financial aspect) and limited employment or grants of residents (economical aspect). Depreciation of relevant nuclear power station varied financial dependency of local government respectively, which could be compensated by local tax subsidy after nuclear power was abolished. Local industry dependent on nuclear power was mostly subcontracted building work or related service industry. Nuclear power phaseout could bring about new employment of residents at reactor site with decommissioning works and introduction of gas-fired thermal power or production center for renewable energy. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Location condition of nuclear power generation at a viewpoint of location area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Kazuharu

    1999-01-01

    In the thirty years memorial meeting of the National Nuclear Power Generation located Commune Conference (NNGC) held in October, 1998, an extremely important fact was clarified, relation deeply to main aim of NNGC that permanent development was not promised at the location area even if a nuclear power plant was constructed there. Therefore, it is required that Japan government receives operation of three laws on electric source development as soon as possible, establishes a basic target on permanent area promotion in the nuclear power generation located commune, realizes some examples on development of the commune together with nuclear power generation and intends to promoted its location. (G.K.)

  19. Supervision of radiation environment management of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mingyan

    2013-01-01

    Through literature and documents, the basis, content and implementation of the supervision of radiation environment management of nuclear facilities were defined. Such supervision was extensive and complicated with various tasks and overlapping duties, and had large social impact. Therefore, it was recommend to make further research on this supervision should be done, clarify and specify responsibilities of the executor of the supervision so as to achieve institutionalization, standardization and routinization of the supervision. (author)

  20. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Koeberg nuclear power station, planned to come on stream in 1984, is expected to save South Africa some six million t/annum of coal, and to contribute some 10 per cent of the country's electricity requirements. The use of nuclear energy will provide for growing national energy needs, and reduce high coal transport costs for power generation at the coast. In the long term, however, it gives rise to the controversial question of nuclear waste storage. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) recently announced the purchase of a site in Namaqualand (NW Cape) for the storage of low-level radioactive waste. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd, (NUCOR) will develop and operate the site. The South African Mining and Engineering Journal interviewed Dr P.D. Toens, manager of the Geology Department and Mr P.E. Moore, project engineer, on the subject of nuclear waste, the reasons behind Nucor's choice of site and the storage method

  1. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public

  2. Nuclear recession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speth, G.

    1978-01-01

    The private sector's growing doubts about nuclear power plants, as reflected in the decline in new orders and the number of rescinded orders, will result in an estimated total of under 300 nuclear power plants by the year 2000 rather than the 1200 to 1500 that were projected several years ago. The decline is a result of construction and equipment costs and a lower operating efficiency than anticipated. The growth of electricity demand also declined after 1974 and, although it is increasing again, there are concerns about future growth rates. Besides its noncompetitive position relative to coal, nuclear plant construction suffers from restrictive policies based on the uncertainties of safety, security, waste disposal, and proliferation. Unless these problems can be resolved, many consider nuclear power to be an impractical option as an energy source. The Council on Environmental Quality supports policies that will permit further nuclear or coal development only after a clear demonstration of technical and institutional capacity to handle these problems. A commitment to solar technology is urged

  3. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  4. Nuclear industry strategic asset management: Managing nuclear assets in a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.; Hunt, E.W. Jr.; Oatman, E.N.

    1999-01-01

    The former Electric Power Research Institute took the lead in developing an approach now widely known as strategic asset management (SAM). The SAM methodology applies the tools of decision/risk analysis used in the financial community to clarify effective use of physical assets and resources to create value: to build a clear line of sight to value creation. SAM processes have been used in both the power and other industries. The rapid change taking place in the nuclear business creates the need for competitive decision making regarding the management of nuclear assets. The nuclear industry is moving into an era in which shareholder value is determined by the net revenues earned on power marketed in a highly competitive and frequently low-priced power market environment

  5. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  6. Nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holinde, K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the present status of the meson theory of nuclear forces is reviewed. After some introductory remarks about the relevance of the meson exchange concept in the era of QCD and the empirical features of the NN interaction, the exciting history of nuclear forces is briefly outlined. In the main part, the author gives the basic physical ideas and sketch the derivation of the one-boson-exchange model of the nuclear force, in the Feynman approach. Secondly we describe, in a qualitative way, various necessary extensions, leading to the Bonn model of the N interaction. Finally, points to some interesting pen questions connected with the extended quark structure of the hadrons, which are topics of current research activity

  7. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  8. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  9. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  10. Nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Then-President Gerald Ford outlines the potential benefits of nuclear power as opposed to the danger of proliferation. He points out that not all nations have the same interest or views toward nuclear energy; but also he says that if a choice must be made, nonproliferation objectives must take precedence over economic and energy benefits. It is pointed out that the management of nuclear energy can be only partial and temporary by technical measures, and that full management can result only if nations realistically face the task prepared to forego preconceived short-term advantages in favor of long-term gains. Coordination of the policies of all nations toward the common goal of nonproliferation is predicted to lead to success

  11. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part III, has two chapters (9 and 10). Chapter 9, Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is disucssed under these subjects: nuclear nonproliferation: origins and status; requirements for nuclear weapons manufacture; current nuclear programs and proliferation capabilities; encouraging decisions to forego weapons; arms control; safeguards; attitudes and expectations. Chapter 10, Nuclear Terrorism, discusses these areas: theft of nuclear materials; attacks on nuclear reactors; responding to nuclear terrorism; security and civil liberties

  12. Application of clearance principles to radioactive waste from the decommissioning of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiaoling; Feng Dingsheng; Dong Yonghe

    2010-01-01

    The definition of clearance is introduced. The principles and dose criterion of clearance are also clarified. The main radionuclides in radioactivity waste and the radioactivity waste which can be cleared are investigated. The techniques for the measurement of radioactivity waste from the decommissioning of nuclear reactors are summarized. This paper provides the scientific criterion and methods for the management of radioactive waste, and lays the foundation for the treatment of radioactive waste from the decommissioning of nuclear reactor. (authors)

  13. Dutch nuclear power and the environmental implications of uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, S.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report is aimed at furthering the understanding of some of the international impacts of Dutch nuclear power generation. It has two principle objectives: 1. To clarify the connection between nuclear power generation in the Netherlands and environmental degradation elsewhere as a result of the mining and milling of uranium. 2. To establish the relevance of this environmental degradation to the formulation of Dutch energy policy. (Auth.)

  14. Nuclear politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Tony.

    1986-01-01

    Written by an arts graduate journalist this is intended for a non-technical general readership. It chronicles the history of the nuclear power industry in Britain from its beginnings, which were inextricably tied to the development of the atomic bomb, to the Sellafield investigation and Sizewell public inquiry. In particular the government decisions which have influenced the present structure and state of the industry are criticised. With important decisions about to be made the author questions the accountability of the nuclear industry and the government's ability to understand the complex technical aspects of the industry. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, J.

    Declaring nuclear preparedness 'immoral' helps to recreate the pacifism of 50 years ago. War itself is a dilemma, not the weapons with which it is waged. We must ask of the anti-war proposals: whom do they benefit. On the whole people concerned are ordinary citizens who are fearful of nuclear incineration. But marching with them is a spectrum of forces with other motivations and purposes. In a real life situation of international tension or crises, numbers of weapons in combination with their particular charateristics could mean the difference between peace and outbreak of war.

  16. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotter, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The recent, terrifying threat of a major calamity at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island power plant near Harrisburg reverberated across practically the whole of the civilised world. An almost incredible sequence of human and mechanical failures at this installation had stopped just short of disaster and had brought the unthinkable perilously close to happening. The accident had sprayed radioactive waste into the air and had led to the large scale evacuation of people from the endangered area, disrupted hundreds of thousands of lives and caused a crippling setback to the nuclear industry. In this article the author discusses the impact the Harrisburg incident has had on the nuclear industry

  17. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashore, T.M.; Shaffer, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    The birth of nuclear cardiology has generally been attributed to a 1927 experiment during which a radium salt was injected in one arm vein and the circulation time calculated by recording the arrival of the radioactivity in the opposite arm. This simple experiment lead to the radiocardiogram in the late 1940s that was used to measure left ventricular function and, later, cardiac output. This chapter provides a brief overview of nuclear cardiology. Methodology is presented when it is important for the understanding of test results. The use of these studies in the diagnosis and evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular disease is emphasized

  18. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  19. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  20. The nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report proposes an overview of knowledge and technical aspects regarding nuclear energy. It presents the phenomenon of radioactivity and its measurement and thresholds, describes the fuel cycle, presents the different principles and types of nuclear reactors, and more precisely the pressurized water reactors and their various models (900, 1300, 1400 and 1600 MW). It presents other reactors: boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, high temperature reactors, fourth generation reactors. It addresses the issues of wastes and releases, presents the OSPAR convention, the issues of management and safety. It presents the national safety bodies (ASN, IRSN, HCTISM) and international bodies

  1. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear medicine as a complex diagnostical method is used mainly to detect functional organic disorders, to locate disorders and for radioimmunologic assays (RIA) in vitro. In surgery, its indication range comprises the thyroid (in vivo and in vitro), liver and bile ducts, skeletal and joint diseases, disorders of the cerebro-spinal liquor system and the urologic disorders. In the early detection of tumors, the search for metastases and tumor after-care, scintiscanning and the tumor marcher method (CEA) can be of great practical advantage, but the value of myocardial sciritiscanning in cardiac respectively coronary disorders is restricted. The paper is also concerned with the radiation doses in nuclear medicine. (orig.) [de

  2. Coal and nuclear power should supplement oil - International Chamber of Commerce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, B.

    1982-01-01

    The views of the International Chamber of Commerce on world energy planning are noted. The Chamber has suggested that governments should expedite and clarify environmental and safety regulations for nuclear energy and coal, both important and acceptable energy sources which offer abundant and economic means to reduce dependence on petroleum. Economic advantages and environmental hazards are considered

  3. Development of maintenance tools based on tribology for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yoshiro; Honda, Tomomi; Yoshinaga, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    Many tribological problems occur in the maintenance of nuclear power plants. In this paper, we introduced our developed maintenance tools based on tribology such as a particle counter and wear sensors. Their principals were shown briefly and their usefulness was clarified by the experiments on monitoring of wear. (author)

  4. Heavy water radiolysis and chemistry control of the Fugen Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibuki, Y.; Kitabata, T.; Kato, T.

    1989-01-01

    A computer analysis for heavy water radiolysis clarified the mechanism of the heavy water radiolysis rate change with impurities in the heavy water and cover gas, helium. The mechanism is supported by over ten years' operational data of the heavy water radiolysis in the Fugen nuclear power station. (author)

  5. Fundamental studies of electron beam welding of heat-resistant superalloys for nuclear plants, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Terai, Kiyohide; Nagai, Hiroyoshi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Aota, Toshiichi.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties of base metal, its electron beam and TIG weld joint of superalloys for nuclear plants were made clear and compared with each other. As a result, it has been clarified that electron beam weld joint is superior to TIG weld joint and nearly comparable to base metal. (author)

  6. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, E.

    1982-01-01

    This book originated in the training courses for teachers of grammar- and secondary schools in Dillingen (Bavaria). The aim of these courses is to become informed about the latest state in one field of physics. The lectures are well-known experts in the respective fields. In the latest study (1980) of the National Academy of Sciences the experts came to the conclusion that without further development nuclear power plants the utilization of too much coal would become necessary and involve irreversible environmental damage (see chapter 6). There are two important obstacles impeding the further extension of nuclear energy. The first problem to be solved is the processing and storage of radioactive waste. This is a more technical task and can be treated in a satisfactory way. The second obstacle is less easy to take as the population has to be convinced that a nuclear power plant can be operated with almost unbelievable safety (see chapter 5) and be shut down safely in the case of incidents. The most promising possibility of controlled nuclear fusion as energy source is still many decades- if feasible at all- away from being performed (see chapter. 7). In the Soviet Union 25% of the electric energy production shall be proceed from nuclear power plants by the year 1990. (orig./GL) [de

  7. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  8. Radioactive clearance discharge of effluent from nuclear and radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Xu Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the basic concepts of radiation safety management system exemption, exclusion and clearance, we expound that the general industrial gaseous and liquid effluent discharges are exempted or excluded, gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are clearance, and non-radioactive. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify the concepts, reach a consensus that the gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are non-radioactive and have no hazard to human health and natural environment. (authors)

  9. Nuclear crime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Ferchland, B.

    1993-01-01

    The article discusses the legal provisions (Criminal Code (StGB), weapons Control Act) applicable in Germany to combat illegal trading of nuclear fuels and other readioactive materials. The authors conclude that part of the provisions are not in live with the rights and duties of the police, and they evolve near-practice proposals for remedy and legal improvement. (hP) [de

  10. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  11. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With simple and accessible explanations, this book presents the physical principles, the history and industrial developments of nuclear energy. More than 25 years after the Chernobyl accidents and few months only after the Fukushima one, it discusses the pros and cons of this energy source with its assets and its risks. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Reid, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear imaging, utilizing relatively low photon energy emitting isotopes, allows an assessment of anatomic configuration and organ function. This method of imaging is predicted on the utilization of physiologically active radioisotope-labeled compounds or biologically active radioisotopes. Localization of such isotopes in normal or abnormal concentrations may be due to varying physiological or pathological mechanisms

  13. Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A brief indication is given of the United Kingdom nuclear power programme including descriptions of the fission process, the Magnox, AGR and PWR type reactors, the recycling process, waste management and decommissioning, safety precautions, the prototype fast reactor at Dounreay, and the JET fusion experiment. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman B, O.; Vallejo M, J.I.; Cardenas C, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    A historical review of the evolution of the Nuclear Physics Section at the IAN is presented along the 30 years of existence of the Institute. Objectives, structure, programs and goal are historically examined. Present status of the section and its projection on national development is also analyzed

  15. Nuclear films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Peter.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet is a resource for the study of feature films that highlight the theme of nuclear war. It provides basic credits and brief indication of the theme, treatment, quality and particular notable aspects; and a series of questions raised by the film. Seventy feature films and thirty documentaries are examined

  16. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.; Richardson, K.; Fenton, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  17. Nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  18. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the actual situation of nuclear physics in Brazil as well as its perspectives of developments and real needs in the next decade. It discusses the main projects and the financing of brazilian research groups and Universities. (A.C.A.S.)

  19. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  20. Licensee responsibility for nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    Simple sentences easy to grasp are desirable in regulations and bans. However, in a legal system, their meaning must be unambiguous. Article 6, Paragraph 1 of the EURATOM Directive on a community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear facilities of June 2009 states that 'responsibility for the nuclear safety of a nuclear facility is incumbent primarily on the licensee.' The draft 'Safety Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, Revision D, April 2009' of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) (A Module 1, 'Safety Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants: Basic Safety Criteria' / '0 Principles' Paragraph 2) reads: 'Responsibility for ensuring safety rests with the licensee. He shall give priority to compliance with the safety goal over the achievement of other operational objectives.' In addition, the existing rules and regulations, whose rank is equivalent to that of international regulations, assign priority to the safety goal to be pursued by the licensee over all other objectives of the company. The operator's responsibility for nuclear safety can be required and achieved only on the basis of permits granted, which must meet legal requirements. The operator's proximity to plant operation is the reason for his 'primary responsibility.' Consequently, verbatim incorporation of Article 6, Paragraph 1 of the EURATOM Directive would only be a superscript added to existing obligations of the operator - inclusive of a safety culture designed as an incentive to further 'the spirit of safety-related actions' - without any new legal contents and consequences. In the reasons of the regulation, this would have to be clarified in addition to the cryptic wording of 'responsibility.. primarily,' at the same time expressing that operators and authorities work together in a spirit of openness and trust. (orig.)

  1. Uranium, a factor limiting nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnemus, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power has been back as a topic of public debate since early this year. A special subject under discussion is the extension of nuclear power plant life. Hardly had it been on the agenda, when interested parties announced that this step was impossible because uranium reserves were no longer sufficient. A variety of terms are being used in this discussion without their meaning being taken into account: stocks, resources, and reserves. To clarify the situation, this article outlines important aspects of short and long term uranium supplies, and analyzes their meaning. Here are some of the most important issues under consideration: - For what period of time is there really enough uranium? - Is uranium becoming the limiting factor in the use of nuclear power? - Is uranium really a 'sustainable' energy resource? - Will higher prices extend the range? - What is the influence of the price of uranium on the cost of electricity generation? Among other results, it is found that comprehensive sources of low-price uranium and nuclear fuels are, or can be made, available worldwide. Consequently, the 'range' is beyond the time frames currently mentioned, also as a function of technological factors, i.e. reaching several hundred years. It is also important to note that nuclear power - ensures greater independence of volatile imported sources, - guarantees reliably low electricity prices, - has a huge potential of environmental protection, and - is a clean source of energy. (orig.)

  2. Uranium, a factor limiting nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power has been back as a topic of public debate since early this year. A special subject under discussion is the extension of nuclear power plant life. Hardly had it been on the agenda, when interested parties announced that this step was impossible because uranium reserves were no longer sufficient. A variety of terms are being used in this discussion without their meaning being taken into account: stocks, resources, and reserves. To clarify the situation, this article outlines important aspects of short and long term uranium supplies, and analyzes their meaning. Here are some of the most important issues under consideration: - For what period of time is there really enough uranium? - Is uranium becoming the limiting factor in the use of nuclear power? - Is uranium really a 'sustainable' energy resource? - Will higher prices extend the range? - What is the influence of the price of uranium on the cost of electricity generation? Among other results, it is found that comprehensive sources of low-price uranium and nuclear fuels are, or can be made, available worldwide. Consequently, the 'range' is beyond the time frames currently mentioned, also as a function of technological factors, i.e. reaching several hundred years. It is also important to note that nuclear power - ensures greater independence of volatile imported sources, - guarantees reliably low electricity prices, - has a huge potential of environmental protection, and - is a clean source of energy. (orig./GL)

  3. Nuclear energy an asset for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The energy issue is now a worldwide concern. It is showed that nuclear energy combined with renewable energies are the only efficient response to face the challenge of climate warming by cutting drastically the emission of greenhouse gases in the electricity production. The second asset of nuclear energy is to be able to meet the growing need for electric power of developing countries. Energy conservation is a good thing to do in western countries but it is far to be sufficient. The success of France's nuclear energy program has enabled the country to be independent from other countries concerning its electricity production, to produce electricity at moderate and stable costs even on the long term, and to develop nuclear industry operators that are world leaders. According to the 28 june 2006 bill that clarifies the management of radioactive wastes, the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in deep geological layers, will be put into service in 2025. The law has let the possibility of recovering the waste containers during a certain period after their burial if new solutions will have emerged. In the context of an expected renaissance of nuclear energy, the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) is a valuable offer that must be developed. The construction of an EPR unit on the Flamanville site is necessary to perfect its design. (A.C.)

  4. Plan for national nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The responsibility for Denmark's preparedness for nuclear emergencies lies with the Ministry of the Interior and the Civil Defense administration. The latter is particularly responsible for the presented plan which clarifies the organization and the measures to be taken in order to protect the public where, in the event of such an emergency, it could be in danger of radiation from radioactive materials. The main specifications of the plan, the activation of which covers the whole country, are that daily monitoring should be carried out so that warnings of nuclear accidents can be immediately conveyed to the relevant parties and that immediate action can be taken. These actions should result in the best possible protection against nuclear radiation so that acute and chronic damage to the health of members of the public can be restricted. The public, and relevant authorities should be informed of the situation and it should be attempted to regulate the reactions of individuals and of the society in general in such a way that damage to health, or social and economical conditions, can be restricted as much as possible. Denmark has not itself any atomic power plants, but some are located in neighbour countries and there are other sources such as nuclear research reactors, passing nuclear-driven ships etc. The detailed plan also covers possible sources of radiation, the nature of related damage to health, international cooperation, legal aspects, and a very detailed description of the overall administration and of the responsibilities of the organizations involved. (AB)

  5. Nuclear development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, S.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the nuclear development in the United States has been one of international cooperation relations so far. The United States is to offer the technical information on atomic energy utilization to foreign countries in exchange for the guarantee that they never attempt to have or develop nuclear weapons. Actually, the United States has supplied the technologies on nuclear fuel cycle and other related fields to enable other countries to achieve economical and social progress. The Department of Energy clarified the public promise of the United States regarding the idea of international energy community. The ratio of nuclear power generation to total electric power supply in the United States exceeded 12%, and will exceed 20% by 1990. Since 1978, new nuclear power station has not been ordered, and some of the contracted power stations were canceled. The atomic energy industry in the United States prospered at the beginning of 1970s, but lost the spirit now, mainly due to the institutional problems rather than the technical ones. As the policy of the government to eliminate the obstacles, the improvement of the procedure for the permission and approval, the establishment of waste disposal capability, the verification of fast breeder reactor technology and the promotion of commercial fuel reprocessing were proposed. The re-establishment of the United States as the reliable supplier of atomic energy service is the final aim. (Kako, I.)

  6. Nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews systematically and summarizes up the development process and stage characteristics of nuclear safety culture, analysis the connotation and characteristics of nuclear safety culture, sums up the achievements of our country's nuclear safety supervision, dissects the challenges and problems of nuclear safety supervision. This thesis focused on the relationship between nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision, they are essential differences, but there is a close relationship. Nuclear safety supervision needs to introduce some concepts of nuclear safety culture, lays emphasis on humanistic care and improves its level and efficiency. Nuclear safety supervision authorities must strengthen nuclear safety culture training, conduct the development of nuclear safety culture, make sure that nuclear safety culture can play significant roles. (author)

  7. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety

  8. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety

  9. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities...

  10. The nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.; Dobkin, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the nuclear controversy, especially in the United States. To a certain extent the nuclear debate has become heavily politicised. Public opinion and anti-nuclear groups are mentioned as well as nuclear disarmament

  11. Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the leading Bulgarian Institute for scientific investigations and applications of nuclear science. The main Institute's activities in the field of elementary particles and nuclear physics, high energy physics and nuclear energy, radiochemistry, radioecology, radioactive wastes treatment, monitoring of the environment, nuclear instruments development ect. are briefly described. Several examples for: environmental radiation monitoring; monitoring of the radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols, 99m Tc clinical use, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy application of IRT-2000 Research Reactor, neutron fluence for reactor vessel embrittlement, NPP safety analysis, nuclear fuel modelling are also presented

  12. Nuclear-waste problems are deemed less technological than institutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear waste management needs administrative re-organization to separate management, regulation, and research and development responsibilities. New stable, but adaptable, institutions need to be established to clarify criteria for containing and isolating nuclear waste and to ensure that criteria are met. Present structure, which puts much of the temporary responsibility on the private sector and permanent responsibility on ERDA, does not encourage efficiency. Government regulations and public pressure have provided some incentives, but military nuclear wastes have no independent regulation to protect the public, and the states have proved ineffective in regulating commercial operations. Recommendations for reorganization are: (1) to establish a national public corporation to manage high-level and transuranic wastes; (2) to consolidate regulatory authority under a comprehensive Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and (3) to establish a commission within the International Atomic Energy Agency for licensing and review of disposal operations

  13. Nuclear power without nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, K.; Klein, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this study leading experts summarize the work of a working group meeting during several years, and they represent the state of the art of the international discussion about the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. The technical basis of proliferation, the relations between energy policy and nuclear energy, as well as the development of the non-proliferation system up to the present are thoroughly studied. Special attention is paid to the further development of the instruments of the non-proliferation policy, and approaches and ways to improving the control of the fuel cycle, e.g. by means of multinational methods or by improving the control requirements are analyzed. Also the field of positive inducements and negative sanctions to prevent the proliferation as well as the question of ensured supply are elucidated in detail. A further section then analyzes the functions of the international organizations active in this field and the nuclear policy of the most important western industrial nations, the RGW-states and the threshold countries of the Third World. This volume pays special attention to the nuclear policy of the Federal Republic of Germany and to the possibilities and necessities of a further development of the non-proliferation policy. (orig.) [de

  14. Nuclear power of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Bee-Ho

    2011-01-01

    National nuclear is presented. Nuclear energy safety after Fukushima, international cooperation in nuclear energy is discussed. Nuclear projects with the United Arab Emirates have been developed to build 4 nuclear power plants in the UAE - APR 1400. At the Korea-Bulgaria Industrial Committee Meeting in Sofia (March 2011) Korean side proposed Nuclear Safety Training Program in Korea for Bulgarian government officials and experts transfer of know-how and profound expertise on world-class nuclear technology and nuclear safety

  15. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    These notes have been prepared by the Department of Energy to provide information and to answer questions often raised about nuclear energy and the nuclear industry and in the hope that they will contribute to the public debate about the future of nuclear energy in the UK. The subject is dealt with under the headings; contribution of nuclear power, energy forecasts, nuclear fuels and reactor types, cost, thermal reactor strategy, planning margin, safety, nuclear licensing, unlike an atomic bomb, radiation, waste disposal, transport of nuclear materials, emergency arrangements at nuclear sites, siting of nuclear stations, security of nuclear installations, world nuclear programmes, international regulation and non-proliferation, IAEA safeguards arrangements in the UK, INFCE, and uranium supplies. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear astrophysics: An application of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics, a fruitful combination of nuclear physics and astrophysics can be viewed as a special application of nuclear physics where the study of nuclei and their reactions are motivated by astrophysical problems. Nuclear astrophysics is also a good example for the state of the art interdisciplinary research. The origin of elements studied by geologists is explored by astrophysicists using nuclear reaction rates provided by the nuclear physics community. Due to the high interest in the field two recent Nuclear Physics Divisional Conferences of the European Physical Society were devoted to nuclear astrophysics and a new conference series entitled 'Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics' has been established. Selected problems of nuclear astrophysics will be presented emphasizing the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. As an example the role of 14 N(p,r) 15 O reaction rate in the determination of the age of globular clusters will be discussed in details

  18. I wonder nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Cheol

    2009-04-15

    This book consists seven chapters, which are powerful nuclear energy, principle of nuclear fission, nuclear energy in our daily life, is nuclear energy safe?, what is radiation?, radiation spread in pur daily life and radiation like a spy. It adds nuclear energy story through quiz. This book with pictures is for kids to explain nuclear energy easily.

  19. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The yearbook contains among others the figures of the nuclear insurance line. According to these these the DKVG (German nuclear power plant insurance association) has 102 member insurance companies all registered in the Federal Republic of Germany. By using reinsurance capacities of the other pools at present property insurance amounts to 1.5 billion DM and liability insurance to 200 million DM. In 1991 the damage charges on account of DKV amounted to 3.1 (1990 : 4.3) million DM. From these 0.6 million DM are apportioned to payments and 2.5 million DM to reserves. One large damage would cost a maximum gross sum of 2.2 billion DM property and liability insurance; on account of DKVG 750 million DM. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. Nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The question 'Do we really need nuclear power' is tackled within the context of Christian beliefs. First, an estimate is made of the energy requirements in the future and whether it can be got in conventional ways. The dangers of all the ways of supplying energy (eg coal mining, oil and gas production) are considered scientifically. Also the cost of each source and its environmental effects are debated. The consequences of developing a new energy source, as well as the consequences of not developing it, are considered. Decisions must also take into account a belief about the ultimate purpose of life, the relation of men to each other and to nature. Each issue is raised and questions for discussion are posed. On the whole the book comes down in favour of nuclear power.

  1. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the nuclear reactor availability by enabling to continuously exchange fuels in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region during operation. Constitution: A control rod is withdrawn to the midway of a highly enriched uranium region by means of control rod drives and the highly enriched uranium region is burnt to maintain the nuclear reactor always at a critical state. At the same time, fresh uranium-slightly enriched uranium is continuously supplied gravitationally from a fresh fuel reservoir through fuel reservoir to each of fuel pipes in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region. Then, spent fuels reduced with the reactivity by the burn up are successively taken out from the bottom of each of the fuel pipes through an exit duct and a solenoid valve to the inside of a spent fuel reservoir and the burn up in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region is conducted continuously. (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  3. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Privacy Act of 1974 restricts both the type of information on private individuals that federal agencies may maintain in their records and the conditions under which such information may be disclosed. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which must approve DOE plans to build a nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, requires a quality assurance program to guarantee that studies of the site are done by qualified employees. Under such a program, the training and qualifications of DOE and contractor employees would be verified. This report reviews DOE's efforts to identify and resolve the implications of the Privacy Act for DOE's quality assurance program and how the delay in resolving Privacy Act issues may have affected preliminary work on the Yucca Mountain project

  4. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.D.; Aitken, T.W.; Rowley, N.

    1989-01-01

    The many diverse programmes of fundamental research and technical development at the Daresbury Nuclear Structure Facility (NSF) have continued at their usual hectic pace throughout the period 1988/89. An overview of the overall programme and of the Facility has been presented in the first volume of this report, along with an expanded discussion of some of the highlights of the year's work. This second volume presents the more technical and detailed reports on the progress and results of individuals proposals and hence will be of most interest to the more expert reader. The reports are grouped in terms of experimental studies aimed at probing the structure of individual nuclei or series of nuclei, studies devoted to probing the primary nuclear reaction mechanism itself, theoretical work and research devoted to the development of the accelerator, and experimental equipment/techniques. Overall, they provide a concise summary of the year's work at the NSF. (author)

  5. Nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrampres, J.

    2010-01-01

    Close cooperation with the Ministry of Industry with representation from the UNESA Safeguards Group, has meant that, after almost two years of intense meetings and negotiations, Spain has a specific plant to plant agreement for the application of Safeguards under this new method. This is an agreement which aims to be a benchmark for all other EU countries, as the IAEA tends to apply a generic agreement that, in many cases, majority interferes in the nuclear power plants own processes. (Author).

  6. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, T.; Price, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    The appendix to the Daresbury Annual report contains detailed summaries of experiments carried out, or in progress, for the period 1983/84, using the Nuclear Structure Facility tandem accelerator. The experimental work is carried out by University groups from the UK and abroad, and Daresbury Staff. Developments in instrumentation, and a report on the first year of scheduled operation of the Facility, are also given. (U.K.)

  7. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article is aimed at those professional scientists and engineers who believe that issues of international peace and security are too important to be left to the politicians. Nuclear Terrorism is a hostile act (or a threat of such an act) involving nuclear materials (fissile or radioactive) performed by a terrorist, a term which covers a wide range of individuals. What they all have in common is that, for some reason they have become motivated to hurt or destroy sections of society which they have come to regard as the enemy; their motivation varies enormously. They also vary enormously in the extent and nature of their technical/scientific education. There are 'PhD terrorists' and 'Peasant terrorists', and they differ greatly in the threat that they represent, and the steps which can appropriately be taken to counter it. The most serious threat comes from the potential ability of terrorists to steal or manufacture nuclear weapons of mass destruction (e.g. capable of causing thousands of deaths). Unless the underlying causes of terrorism can be quickly removed, we have a duty to mankind to make terrorist access to such weapons, and to the nuclear materials which are their essential ingredients, as difficult as possible. Improvements in the arrangements for denying unauthorised access to radioactive material should be made such that the protective measures made are proportionate to the number of Curies at risk and the likelihood of a terrorist initiative. The preventative measures, sadly, need to take account of the possibility that the terrorist will use lethal force to access the material. (author)

  8. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casier, Ph.; Lepage, B.

    1998-01-01

    Except for dedicated devices for mobile nuclear cardiology for instance, the market is set on variable angulation dual heads cameras. These cameras are suited for all general applications and their cost effectiveness is optimized. Now, all major companies have such a camera in their of products. But, the big question in nuclear medicine is about the future of coincidence imaging for the monitoring of treatments in oncology. Many companies are focused on WIP assessments to find out the right crustal thickness to perform both high energy FDG procedures and low energy Tc procedures, with the same SPECT camera. The classic thickness is 3/8''. Assessments are made with 1/2'', 5/8'' or 3/4'' crystals. If FDG procedures proved to be of great interest in oncology, it may lead to the design of a dedicated SPECT camera with a 1'' crustal. Due to the short half of FDG, it may be the dawning of slip ring technology. (e.g. Varicam from Elscint). The three small heads camera market seems to be depressed. Will the new three large heads camera unveiled by Picker, reverse that trend? The last important topic in nuclear medicine is the emergence of new flat digital detectors to get rid of the old bulky ones. Digirad is the first company to manufacture a commercial product based on that technology. Bichron, Siemens and General Electric are working on that development, too. But that technology is very expensive and the market for digital detection in nuclear medicine is not as large as the market in digital detection in radiology. (author)

  9. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  10. Nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.F.; Singer, I.; Hackworthy, R.A.; Morris, J.; Kelly, D.T. (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown (Australia))

    1983-05-14

    A portable, computerized nuclear probe designed to measure left ventricular function is described. The ejection fraction was reproducible and correlated well with that obtained by means of a gamma camera. The limitations of the machine are that it measures the global, rather than the segmental, function of the left ventricle and, when discrete large areas of regional dysfunction occur, the global ejection fraction may be overestimated. An advantage is that continuous beat-to-beat measurements are easily performed and displayed.

  11. Nuclear shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast, L.; Prendergast, P.; Prendergast, E.J.; Prendergast, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    An underground nuclear shelter, fabricated from a series of transverse metal hoop frames connected by longitudinal metal members and plates, is described. The shelter chamber has two hatches in the roof each with a shaft fitted with a shield cover. One shaft houses an air inlet and filter, the other is used for access. Two or more shelter units can be linked. (U.K.)

  12. Nuclear decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-02-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the UK, good progress has been made with the WAGR and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level.

  13. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the UK, good progress has been made with the WAGR and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  14. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, P.; Davidson, D.F.; Thatcher, G.

    1980-01-01

    The cooling system of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor of the pool kind is described. It has an intermediate heat exchange module comprising a tube-in-shell heat exchanger and an electromagnetic flow coupler in the base region of the module. Primary coolant is flowed through the heat exchanger being driven by electromagnetic interaction with secondary liquid metal coolant flow effected by a mechanical pump. (author)

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batheja, P.; Huber, R.; Rau, P.

    1985-01-01

    Particularly for nuclear reactors of small output, the reactor pressure vessel contains at least two heat exchangers, which have coolant flowing through them in a circuit through the reactor core. The circuit of at least one heat exchanger is controlled by a slide valve, so that even for low drive forces, particularly in natural circulation, the required even loading of the heat exchanger is possible. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Nuclear therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Henry

    1977-01-01

    Having first recalled the biological action of ionizing radiations, the main problems relating to the therapeutical use of radioelements were analyzed. Stressing the good results recorded with this method for the treatment of some diseases, the present limits were also defined, stating however that the progress made in biochemistry in the direction of metabolism, combined with the progress made in nuclear medicine, still allows some hope [fr

  17. Nuclear Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunyard, P

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: (preface) the new resistance; (1) the weapons connection; (2) the AGR - a bungled programme; (3) reactor choice - a fearful dilemma; (4) the deadly atom (uranium - mining, processing, enrichment of U-235, political and international aspects); (5) the fast reactor - how safe; (6) radiation risk and cancer; (7) atomic waste - the industry's Achilles Heel; (8) accidents - the ever-present threat; (9) the growing opposition; (10) the nuclear state.

  18. Nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.; Farmer, F.R.; Gaines, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    In the Correspondence section of this issue of Nature three letters are published each of which has a bearing on the article by P. Taylor in the issue of 22 February. In that article Taylor calls for changes in the way decisions are taken on nuclear energy matters. The three articles are by H.J. Dunster of the UKAEA Health and Safety Executive, F.R. Farmer, Safety Adviser to the UKAEA, and M.J. Gaines, National Radiological Protection Board. (UK)

  19. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    2 1/2 years ago a consultation group was formed to help the Section for Social Questions of the Council of Churches in the Netherlands, to answer questions in the area of nuclear energy. During this time the character of the questions has changed considerably. In the beginning people spoke of fear and anxiety over the plans for the application of this new technical development but later this fear and anxiety turned to protest and opposition. This brochure has been produced to enlighten people and try and answer their alarm, by exploring the many facets of the problems. Some of these problems are already being deeply discussed by the public, others play no role in the forming of public opinion. The points of view of the churches over nuclear energy are not expressed, the brochure endeavours to express that nuclear energy problems are a concern for the churches. Technical and economic information and the most important social questions are discussed. (C.F.)

  20. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.E. Jr.; Squire, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The book presents a number of fundamental imaging principles in nuclear medicine. The fact that low radiation doses are sufficient for the study of normal and changed physiological functions of the body is an important advancement brought about by nuclear medicine. The possibility of quantitative investigations of organs and organ regions and of an assessment of their function as compared to normal values is a fascinating new diagnostic dimension. The possibility of comparing the findings with other pathological findings and of course control in the same patient lead to a dynamic continuity with many research possibilities not even recognized until now. The limits of nuclear scanning methods are presented by the imprecise structural information of the images. When scintiscans are compared with X-ray images or contrast angiography, the great difference in the imaging of anatomical details is clearly seen. But although the present pictures are not optimal, they are a great improvement on the pictures that were considered clinically valuable a few years ago. (orig./AJ) [de

  1. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacre, J.

    1990-01-01

    This book fills a gap in current literature by covering the increasing nuclear physics content of various A-level syllabuses. In section 1 we outline the background and early development of the subject, in section 2 we deal with nuclear properties and theories at a level suitable for the pre-university student. The majority of topics have been treated with the limited use of mathematics, this necessitating some simplification which we hope to have accomplished without undue error. A few topics have been developed mathematically, to some extent, e.g. series decay. While it is the purpose of a book at this level to introduce the reader to the facts and theories of nuclear physics, we have to recognise that any teacher of science, at any level, must attempt to instill in the young scientist a sense of responsibility and an understanding of the problems attendant on the technological applications are important. These problems have been touched on in the text but we hope the student will be persuaded to read further; for this purpose we have added a short list of suggested additional reading. A selection of A-level past paper questions has been included. (author)

  2. Nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 15 events were recorded on the first grade and 1 on the second grade of the INES scale. The second grade event is in fact a re-classification of an incident that occurred on the second april 2001 at Dampierre power plant. This event happened during core refueling, a shift in the operation sequence led to the wrong positioning of 113 assemblies. A preliminary study of this event shows that this wrong positioning could have led, in other circumstances, to the ignition of nuclear reactions. Even in that case, the analysis made by EDF shows that the consequences on the staff would have been limited. Nevertheless a further study has shown that the existing measuring instruments could not have detected the power increase announcing the beginning of the chain reaction. The investigation has shown that there were deficiencies in the control of the successive operations involved in refueling. EDF has proposed a series of corrective measures to be implemented in all nuclear power plants. The other 15 events are described in the article. During this period 121 inspections have been made in nuclear facilities. (A.C.)

  3. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  4. The nuclear arsenals and nuclear disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, F

    1998-01-01

    Current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons and the status of treaties for nuclear disarmament and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are summarised. The need for including stockpiles of civil plutonium in a programme for ending production and disposing of fissile materials is emphasized, and the ultimate difficulty of disposing of the last few nuclear weapons discussed.

  5. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.; Silver, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    The report provides data and assessments of the status and prospects of nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The report discusses the economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity generation, the extent of world uranium resources, production and requirements, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel treatment and radioactive waste management. A review is given of the status of nuclear fusion research

  6. Nuclear power economic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaoming; Li Lin; Zhao Shiping

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power economic database (NPEDB), based on ORACLE V6.0, consists of three parts, i.e., economic data base of nuclear power station, economic data base of nuclear fuel cycle and economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment. Economic database of nuclear power station includes data of general economics, technique, capital cost and benefit, etc. Economic database of nuclear fuel cycle includes data of technique and nuclear fuel price. Economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment includes data of energy history, forecast, energy balance, electric power and energy facilities

  7. Nuclear danger and nuclear history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.

    1988-01-01

    This article makes a review of the books Danger and Survival: Choices about the Bomb in the First Fifty Years written by McGeorge Bundy, and War and Peace in the Nuclear Age written by John Newhouse. A history of political decisions on weapon development is given, along with a what if analysis of other options. The lesson of these two books is that it has proved considerably easier to live with nuclear weapons and the Soviet Union than anyone expected forty years ago. It is all the easier if arms control issues, based on worst case analyses, are kept in their place, which is firmly in the background of the overall conduct of foreign policy

  8. Clarifying the distinction between case series and cohort studies in systematic reviews of comparative studies: potential impact on body of evidence and workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Mathes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distinguishing cohort studies from case series is difficult. We propose a conceptualization of cohort studies in systematic reviews of comparative studies. The main aim of this conceptualization is to clarify the distinction between cohort studies and case series. We discuss the potential impact of the proposed conceptualization on the body of evidence and workload. All studies with exposure-based sampling gather multiple exposures (with at least two different exposures or levels of exposure and enable calculation of relative risks that should be considered cohort studies in systematic reviews, including non-randomized studies. The term “enables/can” means that a predefined analytic comparison is not a prerequisite (i.e., the absolute risks per group and/or a risk ratio are provided. Instead, all studies for which sufficient data are available for reanalysis to compare different exposures (e.g., sufficient data in the publication are classified as cohort studies. There are possibly large numbers of studies without a comparison for the exposure of interest but that do provide the necessary data to calculate effect measures for a comparison. Consequently, more studies could be included in a systematic review. Therefore, on the one hand, the outlined approach can increase the confidence in effect estimates and the strengths of conclusions. On the other hand, the workload would increase (e.g., additional data extraction and risk of bias assessment, as well as reanalyses.

  9. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry analysis linked with chemometrics for food classification - a case study: geographical provenance and cultivar classification of monovarietal clarified apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Heng-Hui; Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2014-03-01

    In the present work, we have evaluated for first time the feasibility of APCI-MS volatile compound fingerprinting in conjunction with chemometrics (PLS-DA) as a new strategy for rapid and non-destructive food classification. For this purpose 202 clarified monovarietal juices extracted from apples differing in their botanical and geographical origin were used for evaluation of the performance of APCI-MS as a classification tool. For an independent test set PLS-DA analyses of pre-treated spectral data gave 100% and 94.2% correct classification rate for the classification by cultivar and geographical origin, respectively. Moreover, PLS-DA analysis of APCI-MS in conjunction with GC-MS data revealed that masses within the spectral ACPI-MS data set were related with parent ions or fragments of alkyesters, carbonyl compounds (hexanal, trans-2-hexenal) and alcohols (1-hexanol, 1-butanol, cis-3-hexenol) and had significant discriminating power both in terms of cultivar and geographical origin. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Explicit versus implicit motivations: Clarifying how experiences affect turkey hunter satisfaction using revised importance-performance, importance grid, and penalty-reward-contrast analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Cornicelli, Louis; Fulton, David C.; Merchant, Steven S.

    2018-01-01

    Although research has advanced methods for clarifying factors that relate to customer satisfaction, they have not been embraced by leisure researchers. Using results from a survey of wild turkey hunters, we applied traditional and revised importance-performance (IPA/RIPA), importance-grid analysis (IGA), and penalty-reward-contrast analysis (PRCA) to examine how activity-specific factors influenced satisfaction. Results suggested differences between the explicit and implicit importance of factors related to turkey hunting. Opportunities to kill turkeys were explicitly rated as less important than seeing, hearing, or calling in turkeys, but opportunities for harvest had relatively higher levels of implicit importance. PRCA identified “calling turkeys in” and “hearing gobbling” as minimum requirements that cause dissatisfaction if not fulfilled, but do not provide satisfaction, whereas “seeing turkeys” and an “opportunity to kill a turkey” related to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction. RIPA, IGA, and PRCA could provide valuable insights about factors that may improve satisfaction for leisure participants.

  11. Examination of sludge accumulation rates and sludge characteristics for a decentralized community wastewater treatment systems with individual primary clarifier tanks located in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossing, Heather; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2010-01-01

    In conventional septic systems, settling and partial treatment via anaerobic digestion occurs in the septic tank. One of the byproducts of solids separation in the septic tank is a semi-liquid material known as septage, which must be periodically pumped out. Septage includes the liquid portion within the tank, as well as the sludge that settles at the bottom of the tank and the scum that floats to the surface of the liquid layer. A number of factors can influence septage characteristics, as well as the sludge and scum accumulation rates within the tank. This paper presents the results of a 2007 field sampling study conducted in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada). The field study examined 29 individual residential two-chamber septic tanks in a community serviced by a decentralized wastewater treatment system in operation for approximately 7 years without septage removal. The field investigation provided a comprehensive data set that allowed for statistical analysis of the data to assess the more critical factors influencing solids accumulation rates within each of the clarifier chambers. With this data, a number of predictive models were developed using water usage data for each residence as an explanatory variable.

  12. β-Chitin and chitosan from squid gladius: Biological activities of chitosan and its application as clarifying agent for apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Sila, Assaâd; Haddar, Anissa; Bougatef, Ali; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali

    2017-11-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide in biomass after cellulose and the term chitosan usually refers to a family of polymers obtained after chitin deacetylation. The aim of this work was the preparation and the characterization of chitin and chitosan from the gladius (pen) of the European squid (Loligo vulgaris). A high level of deproteinization (more than 80%) was recorded using Alcalase ® with an enzyme/protein ratio of 10U/mg. The demineralization of the gladius was completely achieved within 8h at room temperature in HCl. 13 C NMR, FTIR, and XRD diffractograms of prepared chitin and chitosan were taken and then degree of deacetylation of chitosan was calculated using 13 C CP/MAS-NMR Spectroscopic. Further, in vitro antioxidant capacity of chitosan was evaluated on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method (IC 50 =3.2mgmL -1 ) and the β-carotene bleaching assay (IC 50 =3.3mgmL -1 ). Antimicrobial activity was also investigated and assays indicated that prepared chitosan exhibited marked inhibitory activity against all microbial strains tested. Additionally, chitosan was tested such as clarifying agent for apple juice and showed powerful clarification capability, without affecting nutritional value. Furthermore, the results suggested that prepared chitosan could be used as alternative additive in pharmaceutical preparations and food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Geographical differences in clinical characteristics and management of stable outpatients with coronary artery disease: comparison between the Italian and international population included in the Worldwide CLARIFY registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Massimo; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding specific differences among countries in demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment of patients with stable coronary artery disease. CLARIFY is an international, prospective and longitudinal registry including more than 33 000 patients with stable coronary artery disease enrolled in 45 countries worldwide. Data were used to compare the characteristics of patients enrolled in Italy with those enrolled in Europe and in the rest of the world. Baseline data were available for 33 283 patients, 2112 of whom from Italy and 12 614 from the remaining western European countries. Italian patients were found to be older, more frequently smoker, hypertensive and with sedentary habits. In addition, they presented more frequently a history of myocardial infarction, carotid arterial disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, when compared with patients of both European and international cohorts, more Italian patients had undergone coronary angiography and angioplasty. As far as treatment was concerned, a greater number of Italian patients were taking ivabradine, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, nitrates, thienopyridines, while those taking beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and other antianginal medications were fewer. Among ambulatory patients with stable coronary artery disease, there are important geographic differences in terms of risk factors, clinical characteristics, surgical and pharmacological treatment.

  14. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and wastewater ponds, Part II: Developmental, physiological, morphological and behavioural effects of ingestion of secondary clarified effluent water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, K B; Welsh, P O; Mills, M; Nason, S; Barreda, D R; Paszkowski, C A

    2017-09-01

    Rather than migrating, mallard ducks may choose to overwinter in northern cities on open-water thermal refuges, such as municipal wastewater treatment ponds, which in Edmonton, Canada, stay ≥10°C during frigid winter months. Refuging mallards spend appreciable time daily on these ponds and hydrate using secondary clarified municipal wastewater (SCEW). We aimed to determine if SCEW ingestion affected mallard health. To this end, we gavaged newly hatched mallards (domesticated Pekin strain) over their first month with SCEW, as well as water representing negative and positive controls (municipal tap water, and the primary active ingredient from birth control pills, 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), respectively). The gavage of SCEW did not affect mass of the body, liver, spleen or heart, but was associated with small increases in beak and wing chord length. In the positive control, EE2 gavage caused similar responses, but also increased tarsus and phallus length. The increases likely owed to the stimulatory effects of estrogenic substances on bone and phallus development. For the biotransformation enzyme CYP2H1, gene expression was numerically increased by both SCEW and EE2. In terms of behavior, SCEW and EE2 gavage reduced two infrequently detected behaviours, pecking and resting alone. Our results suggest that SCEW ingestion would be unlikely to cause any overt health effects in adults, but may evoke subtle, covert effects nevertheless. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Research investigation report on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This report was issued in February 2012 by Rebuild Japan Initiative Foundation's Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, which consisted of six members from the private sector in independent positions and with no direct interest in the business of promoting nuclear power. Commission aimed to determine the truth behind the accident by clarifying the various problems and reveal systematic problems behind these issues so as to create a new starting point by identifying clear lessons learned. Report composed of four chapters; (1) progression of Fukushima accident and resulting damage (accident management after Fukushima accident, and effects and countermeasure of radioactive materials discharged into the environment), (2) response against Fukushima accident (emergency response of cabinet office against nuclear disaster, risk communication and on-site response against nuclear disaster), (3) analysis of historical and structural factors (technical philosophy of nuclear safety, problems of nuclear safety regulation of Fukushima accident, safety regulatory governance and social background of 'Safety Myth'), (4) Global Context (implication in nuclear security, Japan in nuclear safety regime, U.S.-Japan relations for response against Fukushima accident, lessons learned from Fukushima accident - aiming at creation of resilience). Report could identify causes of Fukushima accident and factors related to resulting damages, show the realities behind failure to prevent the spread of damage, and analyze the overall structural and historical background behind the accidents. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Nuclear Law: A Key Against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, P.

    2004-01-01

    The role of the legal instruments in the war against nuclear terrorism. Control of radioactive sources. Elements of Nuclear Law: Definition: it is the body of special legislation that regulates the pacific uses of nuclear energy and the conduct of the persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials and ionizing radiation . Objective: to provide a legal framework in order to protect individuals , property and the environment against the harmful effects of the use of nuclear energy and ionising radiation. Principles of nuclear energy legislation: safety principle, exclusively operator responsibility, authorization, independence of the regulatory body, inspections and enforcement, nuclear damage compensation, international cooperation. National regulatory infrastructure. Establishment of special law in Emergency Preparedness for nuclear or radiological disaster. IAEA Conventions. Transportation of nuclear material. IAEA regulations on radioactive material. Compensation for nuclear damage. Nuclear safety, security and terrorism. International and domestic instruments. Anti terrorism acts. International agreements on Safety Cooperation. (Author)

  17. Nuclear tele medicine; Telemedicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, L.; Hernandez, F.; Fernandez, R. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Imagenologia Diagnostica, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The great majority of the digital images of nuclear medicine are susceptible of being sent through internet. This has allowed that the work in diagnosis cabinets by image it can benefit of this modern technology. We have presented in previous congresses works related with tele medicine, however, due to the speed in the evolution of the computer programs and the internet, becomes necessary to make a current position in this modality of work. (Author)

  18. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  19. Applications of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  20. Building a medical system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To build a medical system for nuclear facilities, I explained what kinds of actions were performed with the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident and what kinds of actions are going to be performed in the future. We examined the health and medical care of the emergency workers in nuclear facilities including TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from 2014 to 2015 in the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW). We carried out a detailed hearing from stakeholders of electric companies and medical institutions about the medical system in nuclear facilities carrying out urgent activities. It has been said that the electric company is responsible to maintain the medical system for affected workers in nuclear facilities. However, TEPCO could not find the medical staff, such as doctors, by their own effort at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. The network of doctors familiar with emergency medical care support dispatched the medical staff after July of 2011. The stakeholders indicated that the following six tasks must be resolved: (1) the fact that no electric company performs the action of bringing up medical staff who can be dispatched into nuclear facilities in emergencies in 2015; (2) bringing up personnel in charge of radiation management and logistics other than the medical staff, such as doctors; (3) cooperation with the community medicine system given the light and shade by nuclear facilities; (4) performing training for the many concurrent wounded based on the scenario of a severe accident; (5) indicating both the condition of the contract and the guarantee of status that is appropriate for dispatched medical staffs; and (6) clarifying the organization of the network of stakeholders. The stakeholders showed the future directionality as follows: (1) To recruit the medical staff expected to be dispatched into nuclear facilities, (2) to carry out the discussion and conveyance training to strengthen cooperation with

  1. Glossary of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Du Hwan

    1987-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of explanations of terminologies concerning to nuclear energy such as analysis of financial safety of nuclear energy, radwaste disposal, fast breeder reactor, nuclear reactor and device, nuclear fuel and technique for concentration, using of nuclear energy radiation and measurement, plan for development of nuclear energy and international institution. This book includes 160 terms on nuclear energy and arranges in Korean alphabetical order.

  2. Nuclear energy - some aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, Fausto de Paula Menezes

    2005-05-01

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy

  3. Nuclear Installations Act 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This Act governs all activities related to nuclear installations in the United Kingdom. It provides for the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the duties of licensees, the competent authorities and carriers of nuclear material in respect of nuclear occurrences, as well as for the system of third party liability and compensation for nuclear damage. The Act repeals the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959 and the Nuclear Installations (Amendment Act) 1965 except for its Section 17(2). (NEA) [fr

  4. Applications of Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that und...

  5. Uranium - a factor limiting nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnemus, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power has been back as a topic of public debate since early this year. A special subject under discussion is the extension of nuclear power plant life. Hardly had it been on the agenda, when interested parties announced that this st ep was impossible because uranium reserves were no longer sufficient. A variety of terms are being used in this discussion without their meaning being taken int o account: stocks, resources, and reserves. To clarify the situation, this artic le outlines important aspects of short and long term uranium supplies, and analy zes their meaning. Here are some of the most important issues under consideration: - For what period of time is there really enough uranium? - Is uranium becoming the limiting factor in the use of nuclear power? - Is uranium really a 'sustainable' energy resource? - Will higher prices extend the range? - What is the in fluence of the price of uranium on the cost of electricity generation? Among oth er results, it is found that comprehensive sources of low-price uranium and nucl ear fuels are, or can be made, available worldwide. Consequently, the 'range' is beyond the time frames currently mentioned, also as a function of technological factors, i.e. reaching several hundred years. It is also important to note that nuclear power - ensures greater independence of volatile imported sources, - guarantees reliably low electricity prices, - has a huge potential of environmental protection, and - is a clean source of energy. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  7. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement of the accessibility of that part of a nuclear reactor serving for biological shield is proposed. It is intended to provide within the biological shield, distributed around the circumference of the reactor pressure vessel, several shielding chambers filled with shielding material, which are isolated gastight from the outside by means of glass panes with a given bursting strength. It is advantageous that, on the one hand, inspection and maintenance will be possible without great effort and, on the other, a large relief cross section will be at desposal if required. (UWI) [de

  8. Nuclear recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of the economics of recycling nuclear fuel: the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved; and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium. The authors review the relevant physical and chemical processes involved in the recycling process. Recovery of uranium and plutonium is discussed. Fuel recycling in LWRs is examined and a table presents the costs of reprocessing and not reprocessing. The subject of plutonium in fast reactors is addressed. Safeguards and weapons proliferation are discussed

  9. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Single Channel Trip System for the Dungeness B AGRs in the United Kingdom has enabled Nuclear Electric to enhance the performance of each of the twin reactors progressively towards the design figure of 660MW. The unique self-testing dynamic nature of the microprocessor-based ISAT system was one of the key factors in satisfying the UK Regulator that the system met the demanding requirements of the Dungeness B application, and current operational and maintenance experience is very encouraging. Systems based on the ISAT principle have application in reactor protection systems throughout the world. (Author)

  10. Nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Saito, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Masahiko (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-06-01

    The nuclear stethoscope consisting of radiocardiography and data processing by a microcomputer was introduced with respect to its outline, reliability and clinical application. Ejection fractions (EF) obtained by this device showed a satisfactory correlation with values obtained by the cardiac pool multigate (MUGA) method using a scinticamera and minicomputer, with a slight tendency to overestimation. They showed a good correlation with left ventriculography, accompanied by a slight tendency to underestimation. The reproducibility of this device was also satisfactory. Clinically, EF values during exercise in ischemic heart disease were well correlated with those obtained by the MUGA method. This device permitted real time evaluation of left ventricular function and was highly reliable.

  11. Nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Saito, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Masahiko

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear stethoscope consisting of radiocardiography and data processing by a microcomputer was introduced with respect to its outline, reliability and clinical application. Ejection fractions (EF) obtained by this device showed a satisfactory correlation with values obtained by the cardiac pool multigate (MUGA) method using a scinticamera and minicomputer, with a slight tendency to overestimation. They showed a good correlation with left ventriculography, accompanied by a slight tendency to underestimation. The reproducibility of this device was also satisfactory. Clinically, EF values during exercise in ischemic heart disease were well correlated with those obtained by the MUGA method. This device permitted real time evaluation of left ventricular function and was highly reliable. (Chiba, N.)

  12. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor core of nuclear reactors usually is composed of individual elongated fuel elements that may be vertically arranged and through which coolant flows in axial direction, preferably from bottom to top. With their lower end the fuel elements gear in an opening of a lower support grid forming part of the core structure. According to the invention a locking is provided there, part of which is a control element that is movable along the fuel element axis. The corresponding locking element is engaged behind a lateral projection in the opening of the support grid. The invention is particularly suitable for breeder or converter reactors. (orig.) [de

  13. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  14. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the United Kingdom, good progress has been made with the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  15. Nuclear dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear dualism is a characteristic feature of the ciliated protozoa. Tetrahymena have two different nuclei in each cell. The larger, polyploid, somatic macronucleus (MAC) is the site of transcriptional activity in the vegetatively growing cell. The smaller, diploid micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inactive in vegetative cells, but is transcriptionally active in mating cells and responsible for the genetic continuity during sexual reproduction. Although the MICs and MACs develop from mitotic products of a common progenitor and reside in a common cytoplasm, they are different from one another in almost every respect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, J.

    1991-03-01

    This paper discusses the Department of Energy's (DOE) procedures for annually assessing the adequacy of the fee that utilities pay for disposal of spent (used) nuclear fuel. In a June 1990 report, it was recommended, among other things, that the Congress authorize DOE to automatically adjust the fee each year on the basis of an inflation index. At that time, DOE also favored fee indexing; however, it subsequently reversed its position. Because of this change, it is now believe that Congress should require DOE to index the fee to the rate of inflation

  17. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Gruber, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor with control rods in channels between fuel assemblies wherein the fuel assemblies incorporate guide rods which protrude outwardly into the control rod channels to prevent the control rods from engaging the fuel elements. The guide rods also extend back into the fuel assembly such that they are relatively rigid members. The guide rods are tied to the fuel assembly end or support plates and serve as structural members which are supported independently of the fuel element. Fuel element spacing and support means may be attached to the guide rods. 9 claims

  18. New state roles in the management and disposal of commercial nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udall, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    Arguments are presented for the need for congressional action to clarify the respective regulatory responsibilities of the state and Federal Governments as they relate to commercial nuclear power. Three case studies in radioactive waste management and disposal are reviewed which are proported to illustrate the inadequacy of the existing regulatory framework to effectively manage and dispose of nuclear wastes. Examples of instances in which state legislatures have taken the initiative in the waste disposal problem are cited. It is concluded that regulatory reform should be in the direction of a dual system that provides states with new authority and leverage to control nuclear energy development patterns within their borders

  19. Anatomy of event and human performance management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the occurrence mechanism of events in nuclear power plants, and explains the four factors of human errors and the relations among them, then probes into the occurrence mechanism and characteristics of human errors in nuclear power plants. Moreover, the article clarifies that the principle of human performance training in nuclear power plants is all-member training, and that the implementation approach is to develop different human performance tools for different staff categories as workers, knowledge workers and supervisors, which are categorized based on characteristics of work of different staff. (author)

  20. Research study on public relations and public participation in the nuclear energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko; Tabata, Rimiko; Otoshi, Sachio; Kuwagaki, Reiko; Ishibashi, Yoichiro

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the effect of public relations activities in the nuclear energy field and public participation toward the improvement of the risk literacy of nuclear energy. According to the survey results of the actual public relations activities taken by nuclear energy industry, the opportunity for interactive communications between the public and the industry is insufficient. Consequently, we propose building up more opportunities for participation and collaboration of citizens and industries in order to improve interactive communications reflecting public opinions and points of view. (author)

  1. Regulation of the complete fuel cycle current and proposed nuclear legislation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the Canadian nuclear programme, the problems of contamination and uranium mine safety and the national and international concern about proliferation have emphasized the need for a systematic and strong control over nuclear activities. Although the 1946 Atomic Energy Control Act provides the Atomic Energy Control Board with most of the powers necessary to achieve this, the new Act has been introduced to clarify jurisdiction and to strengthen the Board, which would then be renamed the Nuclear Control Board. Its duty would be to control health, safety and the environmental and other security aspects of the complete fuel cycle. (NEA) [fr

  2. Notes on a proposed consultation procedure for the licensing of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, A.

    1978-01-01

    The application of the recommendations adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (see ICRP Publication no. 26) to future nuclear ship projects is discussed. That booklet clarifies the recommendation, adopted in 1965, according to which all doses should be kept as low as possible having regard to social and economic factors. This low level is achieved with justification of nuclear operations and optimisation of safety systems. The need to evaluate collective dose gives rise to special problems with regard to nuclear ships, in view of the variety of population groups or communities involved and the different assessments applied to each [fr

  3. Topical understandings of nuclear material measurement · accountancy and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Muraoka, Susumu; Osabe, Takeshi; Terada, Hiromi; Shimizu, Kenichi; Ohtani, Tetsuo; Fujimaki, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Tadatsugu; Shinohara, Yoshinori

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear material measurement is an important measure to determine the amount of nuclear material of each stage such as receipt, shipment, inventory and hold-up. The material accountancy based on the material balance among the measurements is a measure to control of nuclear material. The material accountancy, from the technical aspect, can be used as promising measures for purposes from operator's level to state's level such as the nuclear safety, property control and environmental preservation other than safeguards measures only to conclude no diversion of nuclear material. This paper discusses various purposes of nuclear material measurements and clarifies the certain function such as quality assurance to be expected at each purpose. Based on the discussion, critical points for the quality assurance of each stage are studied. (author)

  4. Joint DOE-PNC research on the use of transparency in support of Nuclear Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochiji, Toshiro; Tazaki, Makiko; Keeney, Robin; Puckett, John; Stanbro, William; Nakhleh, Charles

    1998-01-01

    PNC and LANL collaborated in research on the concept of transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The research was based on the Action Sheet no.21, which was signed in February 1996, 'The Joint Research on 'Transparency' in Nuclear Nonproliferation' under the 'Agreement between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation.' The scope of the research was a fundamental study on transparency to clarify the means to improve worldwide acceptability of nuclear energy from a nuclear nonproliferation viewpoint. The research encompassed three main topics: the policy environment of transparency, the development of transparency options, and technical options for transparency. Each side performed independent research then joint workshops were held to exchange information and views. This paper summarizes the results of these workshops. (author)

  5. Survey and studies on the roles of nuclear power development in economy and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The development and utilization of nuclear energy is principally for security of energy supplies but, on the other hand, is contributing largely to the economic activities and technology developments in Japan. In order to clarify the economic and the technological roles played by the nuclear energy development and utilization, Atomic Energy Commission has made survey and studies on the present state of nuclear power industry and of nuclear power technology and the respective effects in other areas. The nuclear power industry, through its high growth, is now a substantial portion, and so has significant influence, in Japan's whole economic activities. Then, the nuclear power technology, started with its introduction, is now on the world's leading level. Its effects in other areas include quality control, system technology, etc. (Mori, K.)

  6. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants; Terminos relacionados con la seguridad para centrales nucleares avanzadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety.

  7. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with two topics in nuclear cardiology. In the first, left ventricular wall motion assessment using Fourier transform of local left ventricular time-activity curves in gated blood pool studies is evaluated. In the second, the interpretation of myocardial perfusion scintigrams is assessed which are obtained with thallium-201 or with another radiopharmaceutical with different physical, but identical biological properties. In all these investigations data acquisition and analysis by computer played an essential role. In chapter 1 the desirable properties of a nuclear medicine computer system are given and the computer system used for this work is described. Wall motion analysis of the left ventricle using Fourier transform of local time-activity curves in the left ventricular region in gated blood pool studies is described in chapter 2. In chapter 3 detection of non-perfused lesions in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with thallium-201 is described. Detection of partly perfused lesions and the influence of scatter and photon energy on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is described in chapter 4. (Auth.)

  8. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to auxiliary means of cooling the nuclear fuel clusters used in light or heavy water cooled nuclear reactors. One method is to provide one or more spray cooling tubes. From holes in the side walls of those tubes coolant water may be sprayed laterally into the cluster against the rods. The flow of main coolant may thus be supplemented or even replaced by the auxiliary coolant. A difficulty, however, is that only those fuel rods close to a spray cooling tube can readily be reached by the auxiliary coolant. In the arrangement described, where the fuel rods are spaced apart by transverse grids, at least one of the interspaces between the grids is provided with an axially extending auxiliary coolant conduit having lateral holes through which an auxiliary coolant is sprayed into the cluster. A deflector is provided that extends from a transverse grid into a position in front of the holes and deflects auxiliary coolant on to parts of the fuel rods otherwise inaccessible to the auxiliary coolant. The construction of the deflector is described. (U.K.)

  9. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor has an upper and a lower grid plate. Protrusions project from the upper grid plate. Fuel assemblies having end fittings fit between the grid plates. An arrangement is provided for accepting axial forces generated during the operation of the nuclear reactor by the flow of the cooling medium and thermal expansion and irradiation-induced growth of the fuel assembly, which comprises rods. Each fuel assembly rests on the lower grid plate and its upper end is elastically supported against the upper grid plate by the above-mentioned arrangement. The arrangement comprises four (for example) torsion springs each having a torsion tube and a torsion bar nested within the torsion tube and connected at one end thereto. The other end of the torsion bar is connected to an associated one of four lever arms. The torsion tube is rigidly connected to the other end fitting and the springs are disposed such that the lever arms are biassed against the protrusions. (author)

  10. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi

    2011-01-01

    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  11. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  12. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  13. Geographical variations in the prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with CAD: Data from the contemporary CLARIFY registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Ford, Ian; Greenlaw, Nicola; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tendera, Michal; Abergel, Hélène; Fox, Kim; Hu, Dayi; Shalnova, Svetlana; Steg, Ph Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    To determine the current prevalence and control of major cardiovascular risk factors in stable CAD outpatients worldwide. We analysed variations in cardiovascular risk factors in stable CAD outpatients from CLARIFY, a 5-year observational longitudinal cohort study, in seven geographical zones (Western/Central Europe; Canada/South Africa/Australia/UK; Eastern Europe; Central/South America; Middle East; East Asia; and India). Patient presentation (N=32,954, mean age 64.2 years, 78% male) varied between zones, as did prevalence of risk factors (all p Asia) to 42% (Middle East), raised blood pressure from 28% (Central/South America and East Asia) to 48% (Eastern Europe), raised LDL cholesterol from 24% (Canada/South Africa/Australia/UK) to 65% (Eastern Europe), elevated heart rate (≥70 bpm) from 38% (Western/Central Europe) to 78% (India), diabetes from 17% (Eastern Europe) to 60% (Middle East), and smoking from 6% (Central/South America) to 19% (Eastern Europe). Aspirin and lipid-lowering drugs were widely used everywhere (≥84% and ≥88%, respectively). Rates of risk factor control varied geographically (all p Asia), controlled LDL cholesterol and dyslipidaemia from 32% (Eastern Europe) to 75% (Canada/South Africa/Australia/UK), heart rate <70 bpm from 22% (India) to 62% (Western/Central Europe), and heart rate ≤60 bpm in angina patients from 2% (India) to 29% (Canada/South Africa/Australia/UK and Central/South America). Prevalence and control of major cardiovascular risk factors in stable CAD vary markedly worldwide. Many stable CAD outpatients are being treated suboptimally. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  14. The CLOSER (CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact On SEx and Relationships) survey: implications of vaginal discomfort in postmenopausal women and in male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Maamari, Ricardo; Simon, James

    2013-09-01

    Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy (VA) is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, soreness, itching, burning, and dyspareunia. The CLarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact On SEx and Relationships survey evaluated the impact of VA on the physical and emotional aspects of sexual relationships between postmenopausal women and their male partners. Four thousand one hundred females and 4,100 males representing the United Kingdom, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, France, Canada, and the United States were surveyed. Assessments included: (i) talking about VA and its symptoms; (ii) the impact of VA on intimacy, relationships, and women's self-esteem; (iii) talking about VA and erectile dysfunction (ED); and (iv) the impact of local estrogen therapy (LET) on intimacy and relationships. Descriptive data on the impact of VA. Twenty-eight percent of women did not tell their partners when they first encountered vaginal discomfort, mainly because they felt "it was just a natural part of growing older" (52%) or because of "embarrassment" (21%). Eighty-two percent of males wanted their partner to share their experiences with VA; males were also more comfortable discussing VA than females (68% vs. 58%, respectively). Having sex less often (women: 58%, men: 61%), less satisfying sex (women: 49%, men: 28%), and putting off having sex (women: 35%, men: 14%) were the main effects of VA. Intimacy avoidance was attributed to painful sex (women: 55%, men: 61%) and women's reduced sexual desire (women: 46%, men: 43%). Discussions about vaginal discomfort and ED were generally limited to partners and healthcare providers (HCPs). LET use resulted in less painful sex (women: 62%, men: 59%) and more satisfying sex (women: 47%, men: 49%). VA has an adverse emotional and physical impact on postmenopausal women and their partners. These findings may encourage more open communication about VA between couples and their HCPs. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Developmental toxicity of clarified slurry oil, syntower bottoms, and distillate aromatic extract administered as a single oral dose to pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R. [Stonybrook Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Clarified slurry oil (CSO), syntower bottoms (STB), and distillate aromatic extract (DAE) are refinery streams produced by processing crude oil. Available data indicate that some refinery streams are developmentally toxic by the dermal route of exposure. However, there is no conclusive evidence for their being teratogenic. The present studies were designed to further explore the suspected teratogenic potency of refinery streams while at the same time limiting embryolethality. In general, evidence of maternal toxicity (i.e., decreased body weight gain, decreased thymus weight) was observed at doses greater than or equal to 500 mg/kg. For each refinery stream tested, the incidence of resorption was greatest on GD 11. A common pattern of fetal malformations was observed for all of the refinery streams tested and included cleft palate, diaphragmatic hernia, and paw and tail defects. The incidence and type of malformation observed were influenced by the gestation day of exposure. The incidence and type of malformation observed were influenced by the gestation day of exposure. The incidences of external and skeletal malformations were greatest on GD 11 and 12 for fetuses exposed to CSO; on GD 13 and 14, the incidence of malformation was comparable for CSO- and STB-exposed fetuses. The incidence of visceral anomalies was greatest on GD 11-13 for fetuses exposed to CSO and STB; on Gestation D 14, the incidence was comparable for each of the refinery streams tested. In general, the ability to produce adverse effects on development was greatest for CSO and least for DAE. Effects produced by STB were comparable to or less severe than those observed for CSO. 24 refs., 11 tabs.

  16. Nuclear power in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Ronald E.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Nuclear Energy in the Asian context; Types of nuclear power reactors used in Asia; A survey of nuclear power by country; The economics of nuclear power; Fuels, fuel cycles and reprocessing; Environmental issues and waste disposal; The weapons issues and nuclear power; Conclusions. (Author)

  17. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelley, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The book is aimed at undergraduates in their final year, to give the student a thorough understanding of the principal features of nuclei, nuclear decays and nuclear reactions. Several models are described and used to explain nuclear properties with many illustrative examples. Sections follow on α-, β- and γ-decay, fission, thermonuclear fusion, reactions, nuclear forces and nuclear collective motion. (author)

  18. Nuclear energy basic knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkmer, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Atoms, nuclear decays and radioactivity, energy, nuclear fission and the chain reaction, controlled nuclear fission, nuclear power plants, safety installations in nuclear power plants, fuel supply and disposal, radiation measurement and radiation exposition of man. (HSI)

  19. The nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Colin.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses nuclear war, disarmament and national defence policies. The author argues that in spite of the obvious advantages of nuclear power in many parts of the world, the world cannot afford the risk of continuing with it because of the demonstrated close and deadly association of nuclear power and nuclear reactors with nuclear weapons

  20. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of basic statistics on electricity generation and nuclear power in OECD countries. The reader will find quick and easy reference to the present status of and projected trends in total electricity generating capacity, nuclear generating capacity, and actual electricity production as well as on supply and demand for nuclear fuel cycle services [fr

  1. Nuclear safety and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovitz, A.

    1983-01-01

    To an extent, public opinion is against Koeberg, inspite of the fact that Escom, Koeberg's prospective licensee, are liable for damages caused in the event of an accident, that they carry public liability insurance bought in the market place to the maximum of ten million rand, and if that is not enough the government will take over responsibility for the rest. A question is put that if this kind of protection carries on, won't there always be a minority of the public who will find nuclear power socially, psychologically and politically unacceptable

  2. 76 FR 16758 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Recommendation; a detailed explanation is provided below. We have clarified aspects of sub-recommendation 1, 2.... Sub-recommendation 1--Immediately affirm the requirement that unmitigated, bounding-type accident... details DOE's expectations for accident analyses to identify hazard controls for most DOE nuclear...

  3. Nuclear war nuclear proliferation and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aga Khan, Sadruddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the proceedings of a conference hosted by the Groupe de Bellerive to explore and discuss the implications for humanity of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation and their consequences, Geneva 1985. The conference was divided into five sessions, headed by the subject titles: the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and its future, the spread of nuclear weapons among nations, global effects of a nuclear war, the nuclear arms race and arms control, the NPT and its future. Twenty eight papers were presented in the five sessions. (UK)

  4. Nuclear dewatering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The Sizewell 'B' Nuclear Power Station, the first in a new family of PWR (Pressurised Water Reactor) stations in the UK, is currently under construction on the Suffolk coast. One of the first civil engineering tasks associated with the power station construction was the necessity to lower the water table by 17-18 m over an area of approximately 8 hectares to allow the excavation for the foundations to be carried out in the dry. The way chosen to do this was to construct a diaphragm wall around the site area. This had the least effect on surrounding sites -the Sizewell-A station and various nature reserves and wetlands. The reasons for the choice of method are discussed. Following the construction of the wall the water was pumped out from within the diaphragm wall in January 1988. (author)

  5. Nuclear prophecy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that there are at least four instances known of reasonably accurate forecasts of the benefits and dangers of nuclear energy. H.G. Wells' atomic bomb of 1914, A.W. Stewart's chain reaction of 1923, Olaf Stapeldon's mushroom cloud of 1930 and Hans Dominik's tactical atomic weapon of 1927 are briefly reviewed as well as a forecast of the Three Mile island accident. These examples show that although the trained imagination of writers can approach the truth none can claim accuracy in predicting the facts. Where they do approach the truth is in the prediction of the consequences of the discoveries, social as well as military, of unlimited energy and of unlimited disasters. (U.K.)

  6. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  7. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor containment vessel faced internally with a metal liner is provided with thermal insulation for the liner, comprising one or more layers of compressible material such as ceramic fiber, such as would be conventional in an advanced gas-cooled reactor and also a superposed layer of ceramic bricks or tiles in combination with retention means therefor, the retention means (comprising studs projecting from the liner, and bolts or nuts in threaded engagement with the studs) being themselves insulated from the vessel interior so that the coolant temperatures achieved in a High-Temperature Reactor or a Fast Reactor can be tolerated with the vessel. The layer(s) of compressible material is held under a degree of compression either by the ceramic bricks or tiles themselves or by cover plates held on the studs, in which case the bricks or tiles are preferably bedded on a yielding layer (for example of carbon fibers) rather than directly on the cover plates

  8. Nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F; George, B V; Baglin, C J

    1978-05-10

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given.

  9. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The Administrative Court of Braunschweig judges the Ordinance on Advance Funding of Repositories (EndlagervorausleistungsVO) to be void. The Hannover Regional Court passes a basic judgment concerning the Gorleben salt mine (repository) and an action for damages. The Federal Administrative Court dismisses actions against part-permits for the Hanau fuel element fabrication plant. The Koblenz Higher Administrative Court dismisses actions against a part-permit for the Muelheim-Kaerlich reactor. 31st Amendment of the German Criminal Code passed, involving amendments in environmental criminal code, defined in the 2nd amendment to the Act on Unlowful Practices Causing Damage to the Environment (UKG); here: Amendments to the law relating to the criminal code and penal provisions governing unlawful conduct in the operation of nuclear installations. (orig.) [de

  10. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  11. Nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2000-1065) of the 25. of October 2000 reporting the publication of the convention between the Government of the French Republic and the CERN concerning the safety of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) and the SPS (Proton Supersynchrotron) facilities, signed in Geneva on July 11, 2000. By this convention, the CERN undertakes to ensure the safety of the LHC and SPS facilities and those of the operations of the LEP decommissioning. The French legislation and regulations on basic nuclear facilities (concerning more particularly the protection against ionizing radiations, the protection of the environment and the safety of facilities) and those which could be decided later on apply to the LHC, SPS and auxiliary facilities. (O.M.)

  12. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  13. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.; McLaughlin, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the pressure vessel of the water-cooled nuclear reactor there is provided an internal flange on which the one- or two-part core barrel is hanging by means of an external flange. A cylinder is extending from the reactor vessel closure downwards to a seat on the core cupport structure and serves as compression element for the transmission of the clamping load from the closure head to the core barrel (upper guide structure). With the core barrel, subject to tensile stress, between the vessel internal flange and its seat on one hand and the compression of the cylinder resp. hold-down element between the closure head and the seat on the other a very strong, elastic sprung structure is obtained. (DG) [de

  14. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate and accelerate a leakage test of valves of a main steam pipe by adding a leakage test partition valve thereto. Constitution: A leakage testing partition valve is provided between a pressure vessel for a nuclear reactor and the most upstream side valve of a plurality of valves to be tested for leakage, a testing branch pipe is communicated with the downstream side of the partition valve, and the testing water for preventing leakage is introduced thereto through the branch pipe. Since main steam pipe can be simply isolated by closing the partition valve in the leakage test, the leakage test can be conducted without raising or lowering the water level in the pressure vessel, and since interference with other work in the reactor can be eliminated, the leakage test can be readily conducted parallel with other work in the reactor in a short time. Clean water can be used without using reactor water as the test water. (Yoshihara, H.)

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Bock, H.W.; Struensee, S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the use of burnable poisons in a nuclear reactor, especially in PWRs, in order to improve the controllability of the reactor. An unsymmetrical arrangement in the lattice is provided, if necessary also by insertion of special rods for these additions. It is proposed to arrange the burnable poisons in fuel elements taken over from a previous burn-up cycle and to distribute them, going out from the side facing the control rods, over not more than 20% of the lenth of the fuel elements. It seems sufficient, for the burnable poisons to bind an initial reactivity of only 0.1% and to become ineffective after normal operation of 3 to 4 months. (ORU) [de

  16. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.; Glahe, E.

    1976-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor of the kind which is charged with spherical reaction elements and in which control rods are arranged to be thrust directly into the charge, each control rod has at least one screw thread on its external surface so that as the rod is thrust into the charge it is caused to rotate and thus make penetration easier. The length of each control rod may have two distinct portions, a latter portion which carries a screw thread and a lead-in portion which is shorter than the latter portion and which may carry a thread of greater pitch than that on the latter portion or may have a number of axially extending ribs instead of a thread

  17. Nuclear cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuaron, A

    1993-12-31

    Today, nuclear medicine techniques are routinely used in cardiological practice. They include procedures for the atraumatic investigation of different physiological processes in the various structures included in the central circulation: pericardium, myocardium, myocardial adrenergic innervation, cardiac chambers and valves, coronary microcirculation, and great vessels. Beside these in-Vivo procedures, they also comprise of in-Vitro methods for the detection and measurement in blood of various biological molecules of significance in the management of cardiac diseases. A common feature in this collection of in-Vivo and in-Vitro techniques is their ability to provide helpful clinical information for the diagnosis, prognosis and management of cardiac diseases. Their simplicity and safety for the patient allow their repeated use in the follow up of the progress of disease and in the assessment of the efficacy of the therapeutic measures 15 figs, 14 tabs

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  19. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaron, A.

    1992-01-01

    Today, nuclear medicine techniques are routinely used in cardiological practice. They include procedures for the atraumatic investigation of different physiological processes in the various structures included in the central circulation: pericardium, myocardium, myocardial adrenergic innervation, cardiac chambers and valves, coronary microcirculation, and great vessels. Beside these in-Vivo procedures, they also comprise of in-Vitro methods for the detection and measurement in blood of various biological molecules of significance in the management of cardiac diseases. A common feature in this collection of in-Vivo and in-Vitro techniques is their ability to provide helpful clinical information for the diagnosis, prognosis and management of cardiac diseases. Their simplicity and safety for the patient allow their repeated use in the follow up of the progress of disease and in the assessment of the efficacy of the therapeutic measures

  20. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Department of Energy is to annually determine whether the waste disposal fee will produce sufficient revenues to offset the total estimated costs of the waste disposal program. In its June 1987 assessment, DOE recommended that the fee remain unchanged even though its analysis showed that at an inflation rate of 4 percent the current fee would result in end-of-program deficits ranging from $21 billion to $76 billion in 2085. The 1988 assessment calls for reduced total costs because of program changes. Thus, DOE may be able to begin using a realistic inflation rate in determining fee adequacy in 1988 without proposing a major fee increase

  1. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor and especially a high-temperature reactor in which provision is made within a pressure vessel for a main cavity containing the reactor core and a series of vertical cylindrical pods arranged in spaced relation around the main cavity and each adapted to communicate with the cavity through two collector ducts or headers for the primary fluid which flows downwards through the reactor core. Each pod contains two superposed steam-generator and circulator sets disposed in substantially symmetrical relation on each side of the hot primary-fluid header which conveys the primary fluid from the reactor cavity to the pod, the circulators of both sets being mounted respectively at the bottom and top ends of the pod

  2. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  3. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The German Nuclear Power Plant Insurance (DKVG) Association was able to increase its net capacity in property insurance to 637 million marks in 1993 (1992: 589 million). The reinsurance capacity of the other pools included, the total amount covered now amounts to 2 billion marks in property incurance and 200 million marks in liability incurance. As in the year before the pool can reckon with a stable gross premium yield around 175 million marks. The revival of the US dollar has played a decisive role in this development. In 1993 in the domestic market, the DKVG offered policies for 22 types of property risk and 43 types to third-party risk, operating with a gross target premium of 65 million marks and 16 million marks, respectively. The DKVG also participated in 540 foreign insurance contracts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  5. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  6. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  7. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine refers to imaging examinations done in babies, young children and teenagers. Nuclear ... nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x-rays ...

  9. NATO's Nuclear Glue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horton, Scott T

    2007-01-01

    .... nuclear weapons prepositioned in Europe? This paper reviews the past and current role of US nuclear forces in NATO, considers future nuclear policy options, and discusses potential consequences of those decisions...

  10. Nuclear Heart Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  11. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  12. Nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemard, B.

    1978-01-01

    After having described the nuclear partners in Japan, the author analyzes the main aspects of Japan's nuclear energy: nuclear power plants construction program; developping of light water reactors; fuel cycle politics [fr

  13. Themes in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers

  14. Essay about nuclear right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.

    1994-01-01

    The present essay treat about all Uruguaian Nuclear Energy legislation. Nuclear energy history, international treaties, agreements, national programs, nuclear government politics, radiation protection regulations, wastes, radioactive materials transport, environment and safeguards has been given in this compilation

  15. Current emergency programs for nuclear installations in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, Masamichi

    2007-01-01

    Large effort has been taken for nuclear emergency programs in Japan especially after the JCO accident. A special law for nuclear emergency was established after the accident. The law extended the scope of emergency preparedness to fuel cycle facilities, research reactors, etc. and clarified the roles and responsibilities of the national government, local governments and license holders. For initial responses, the action levels and action procedures are defined based on environmental doses and specific initial events of NPPs. A senior specialist was dispatched to each site for nuclear emergency and a facility 'Off-site center' to be used as the local emergency headquator was designated at each site. This paper describes the structure of emergency program, responsibility of related organizations and the definition of unusual events for notification and emergency. Emergency preparedness, emergency radiation monitoring and computer-based prediction of on- and off-site situation are also addressed. (author)

  16. Practical methods for radiation survey in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.

    2001-12-01

    This study is placed to those who are responsible to perform radiation survey in the nuclear installations, especially the beginners. Therefore, it gives a comprehensive view to all-important aspects related to their work starting from the structure of atoms to the practical steps for radiation survey works. So, it clarify how to perform personal monitoring, methods for monitoring surface contamination, methods for measuring radioactivity of gases and radioactive aerosols in air, monitoring radiation doses, measuring radiation influences in workplaces and finally measuring internal exposure of radiation workers in nuclear installations. Finally, The study shows some cases of breaches of radiation protection rules in some American nuclear installations and describes the final results of these breaches. The aim of this is to assure that any breach or ignore to radiation protection principles may produce bad results, and there is no leniency in implementing environmental radiation protection principles. (author)

  17. Thermal and statistical properties of nuclei and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1989-07-01

    The term statistical decay, statistical or thermodynamic equilibrium, thermalization, temperature, etc., have been used in nuclear physics since the introduction of the compound nucleus (CN) concept, and they are still used, perhaps even more frequently, in the context of intermediate- and high-energy heavy-ion reactions. Unfortunately, the increased popularity of these terms has not made them any clearer, and more often than not one encounters sweeping statements about the alleged statisticity of a nuclear process where the ''statistical'' connotation is a more apt description of the state of the speaker's mind than of the nuclear reaction. It is our goal, in this short set of lectures, to set at least some ideas straight on this broad and beautiful subject, on the one hand by clarifying some fundamental concepts, on the other by presenting some interesting applications to actual physical cases. 74 refs., 38 figs

  18. Nuclear experts and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1979-01-01

    In Germany the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation has attracted scant attention. Most potential nuclear weapon states are important trade partners of the FRG and, since further proliferation of nuclear weapons could worsen conflicts involving these, it should be in the FRG's interest to limit proliferation. The security of the FRG is also dependent on the common interest of the great powers to avoid nuclear war. The contradictory positions of Usa and the USSR on nuclear weapons policy regarding themselves and non-nuclear weapon states encourages less developed countries to see nuclear weaponry as useful. The NPT and IAEA safeguards have only limited inhibiting effect. The nuclear export policy of the FRG has been dominated by short term economic advantage, neglecting the negative long term effects of decreased political stability. The FRG should formulate a policy based on self-restraint, positive stimuli and extension of controls, using its economic strength to deter proliferation. (JIW)

  19. Nuclear reaction data and nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paver, N [University of Trieste (Italy); Herman, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Gandini, A [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-15

    These two volumes contain the lecture notes of the workshop 'Nuclear Reaction Data and Nuclear Reactors: Physics, Design and Safety', which was held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in the Spring of 2000. The workshop consisted of five weeks of lecture courses followed by practical computer exercises on nuclear data treatment and design of nuclear power systems. The spectrum of topics is wide enough to timely cover the state-of-the-art and the perspectives of this broad field. The first two weeks were devoted to nuclear reaction models and nuclear data evaluation. Nuclear data processing for applications to reactor calculations was the subject of the third week. On the last two weeks reactor physics and on-going projects in nuclear power generation, waste disposal and safety were presented.

  20. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.