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Sample records for sorbitol tritoluylidene sorbitol

  1. 21 CFR 184.1835 - Sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sorbitol. 184.1835 Section 184.1835 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1835 Sorbitol. (a) Sorbitol is the chemical 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexanehexol.... Sorbitol is produced by the electrolytic reduction, or the transition metal catalytic hydrogenation of...

  2. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-44 (Third Review)] Sorbitol From France... U.S.C. 1675d(c)) (the Act), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on sorbitol from France... views of the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4164 (June 2010), entitled Sorbitol from...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5835 - Sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbitol. 582.5835 Section 582.5835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... § 582.5835 Sorbitol. (a) Product. Sorbitol. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. Sorbitol Can Fuel Mouse Sperm Motility and Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation via Sorbitol Dehydrogenase1

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Wenlei; Aghajanian, Haig K.; Haig-Ladewig, Lisa A.; Gerton, George L.

    2009-01-01

    Energy sources that can be metabolized to yield ATP are essential for normal sperm functions such as motility. Two major monosaccharides, sorbitol and fructose, are present in semen. Furthermore, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) can convert sorbitol to fructose, which can then be metabolized via the glycolytic pathway in sperm to make ATP. Here we characterize Sord mRNA and SORD expression during mouse spermatogenesis and examine the ability of sorbitol to support epididymal sperm motility and t...

  5. Magnetic study of iron sorbitol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, F.J. E-mail: osoro@posta.unizar.es; Larrea, A.; Abadia, A.R.; Romero, M.S

    2002-09-01

    A magnetic study of iron sorbitol, an iron-containing drug to treat the iron deficiency anemia is presented. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the system contains nanometric particles with an average diameter of 3 nm whose composition is close to two-line ferrihydrite. The characterisation by magnetisation and AC susceptibility measurements indicates superparamagnetic behaviour with progressive magnetic blocking starting at 8 K. The quantitative analysis of the magnetic results indicates that the system consists of an assembly of very small magnetic moments, presumably originated by spin uncompensation of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles, with Arrhenius type magnetic dynamics.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. 862.1670... Systems § 862.1670 Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A sorbitol dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme sorbitol dehydrogenase in serum...

  7. Sorbitol Can Fuel Mouse Sperm Motility and Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation via Sorbitol Dehydrogenase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenlei; Aghajanian, Haig K.; Haig-Ladewig, Lisa A.; Gerton, George L.

    2008-01-01

    Energy sources that can be metabolized to yield ATP are essential for normal sperm functions such as motility. Two major monosaccharides, sorbitol and fructose, are present in semen. Furthermore, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) can convert sorbitol to fructose, which can then be metabolized via the glycolytic pathway in sperm to make ATP. Here we characterize Sord mRNA and SORD expression during mouse spermatogenesis and examine the ability of sorbitol to support epididymal sperm motility and tyrosine phosphorylation. Sord mRNA levels increased during the course of spermatogenic differentiation. SORD protein, however, was first detected at the condensing spermatid stage. By indirect immunofluorescence, SORD was present along the length of the flagella of caudal epididymal sperm. Furthermore, immunoelectron microscopy showed that SORD was associated with mitochondria and the plasma membranes of sperm. Sperm incubated with sorbitol maintained motility, indicating that sorbitol was utilized as an energy source. Sorbitol, as well as glucose and fructose, were not essential to induce hyperactive motility. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation increased in a similar manner when sorbitol was substituted for glucose in the incubation medium used for sperm capacitation. These results indicate that sorbitol can serve as an alternative energy source for sperm motility and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:18799757

  8. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-44 (Third Review)] Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: Date of Commission approval. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dana Lofgren (202...

  9. Comparison of Intermolecular Forces in Anhydrous Sorbitol and Solvent Cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Teresa M; Korter, Timothy M

    2017-08-03

    The hygroscopicity of solid sorbitol is important for its utilization as a sweetener in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The molecular foundations of sorbitol hydration characteristics are explored here using two solvated cocrystals, sorbitol-water and sorbitol-pyridine. In this work, solid-state density functional theory and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy were used to evaluate the relative stabilities of these cocrystals as compared to anhydrous sorbitol in terms of conformational and cohesive energies. The modification of the hydrogen-bonding network in crystalline sorbitol by solvent molecules gives new insight into the origins of the notable stability of sorbitol-water as compared to similar solids such as mannitol-water. In particular, the energy analysis reveals that the relative instability of the mannitol hydrate is based primarily in the lack of water-water interactions which provide considerable stabilization in the sorbitol-water crystal.

  10. Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum by sorbitol assimilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Rezusta, A; Rubio, M C; Alejandre, M C

    1991-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum was easily differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by its ability to assimilate sorbitol with an API 20C AUX strip. One hundred percent of 36 T. rubrum strains and none of 147 T. mentagrophytes strains assimilated sorbitol.

  11. The effects of urea, guanidinium chloride and sorbitol on porphyrin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper compares the inhibition effect of porphyrin aggregation in the presence of urea, guanidinium chloride (Gdn) and sorbitol by molecular dynamics simulation. It demonstrates that porphyrin aggregation increases in sorbitol, but decreases towards addition of urea and Gdn. It shows that urea, Gdn and sorbitol can ...

  12. The metabolic fate of exogenous sorbitol in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertel, N.H.; Akgun, S.; Kemp, F.W.; Mittler, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Dietary sorbitol is rapidly converted to fructose and other carbohydrates in the liver, but its metabolic fate has not been studied rigorously. Twenty-four rats were given 20.4 muCi [ 14 C]sorbitol with 100 mg of sorbitol, and groups of six were killed at 1, 3, 6, and 24 hours after sorbitol administration. Rats were also fed 6.9 muCi [ 14 C]sorbitol for 7 or 14 days. Serum, liver, and lens were analyzed for 14 C-labeled sorbitol, fructose, and glucose by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Negligible radioactivity (1.1%) was found in the gastrointestinal content at 24 hours indicating virtually complete absorption. Most of the radioactivity was recovered in the glucose fraction in serum, liver and lens. Glucose and fructose concentrations showed some decline by day 14 compared with day 7 in serum and liver. However, in the lens, sorbitol showed a peak value at the end of the 14th day (37.5 +/- 9.9 micrograms/pair). These findings suggest that: 1) after oral administration, sorbitol is completely absorbed, and 2) that there is a finite accumulation of sorbitol and fructose in the lens in 14 days. Although the radioactive label indicated the exogenous origin of these carbohydrates, it is not certain whether the sorbitol is converted to glucose before entering and accumulating in the lens

  13. Electron impact ionization of the gas-phase sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, Irina; Markush, Pavlo; Zavilopulo, Anatoly; Shpenik, Otto

    2015-03-01

    Ionization and dissociative ionization of the sorbitol molecule by electron impact have been studied using two different experimental methods. In the mass range of m/ z = 10-190, the mass spectra of sorbitol were recorded at the ionizing electron energies of 70 and 30 eV. The ion yield curves for the fragment ions have been analyzed and the appearance energies of these ions have been determined. The relative total ionization cross section of the sorbitol molecule was measured using monoenergetic electron beam. Possible fragmentation pathways for the sorbitol molecule were proposed.

  14. Lipase-Catalyzed Production of 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol from D-sorbitol and Cinnamic Acid Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Yoo, Dongwon; Seo, Hyung Min; Yi, Da-Hye; Kim, Hyun Joong; Lee, Ju Hee; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Kwang Jin; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2015-05-01

    To overcome the poor properties of solubility and stability of cinnamic acid, cinnamate derivatives with sugar alcohols were produced using the immobilized Candida antarctica lipase with vinyl cinnamate and D-sorbitol as substrate at 45 °C. Immobilized C. antarctica lipase was found to synthesize 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol and confirmed by HPLC and (1)H-NMR and had a preference for vinyl cinnamate over other esters such as allyl-, ethyl-, and isobutyl cinnamate as co-substrate with D-sorbitol. Contrary to D-sorbitol, vinyl cinnamate, and cinnamic acid, the final product 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol was found to have radical scavenging activity. This would be the first report on the biosynthesis of 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol with immobilized enzyme from C. antarctica.

  15. Sorbitol dehydrogenase is a cytosolic protein required for sorbitol metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, María Francisca; Ampuero, Diego; Mandujano, Patricio; Parada, Roberto; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Gallart, Marta; Altabella, Teresa; Cabrera, Ricardo; Stange, Claudia; Handford, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Sorbitol is converted to fructose in Rosaceae species by SORBITOL DEHYDROGENASE (SDH, EC 1.1.1.14), especially in sink organs. SDH has also been found in non-Rosaceae species and here we show that the protein encoded by At5g51970 in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. possesses the molecular characteristics of an SDH. Using a green fluorescent protein-tagged version and anti-SDH antisera, we determined that SDH is cytosolically localized, consistent with bioinformatic predictions. We also show that SDH is widely expressed, and that SDH protein accumulates in both source and sink organs. In the presence of NAD+, recombinant SDH exhibited greatest oxidative activity with sorbitol, ribitol and xylitol as substrates; other sugar alcohols were oxidized to a lesser extent. Under standard growth conditions, three independent sdh- mutants developed as wild-type. Nevertheless, all three exhibited reduced dry weight and primary root length compared to wild-type when grown in the presence of sorbitol. Additionally, under short-day conditions, the mutants were more resistant to dehydration stress, as shown by a reduced loss of leaf water content when watering was withheld, and a greater survival rate on re-watering. This evidence suggests that limitations in the metabolism of sugar alcohols alter the growth of Arabidopsis and its response to drought. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced Sorbitol Production under Submerged Fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nadiya Jan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Sorbitol is a non-toxic and slightly hygroscopic compound with different applications. Zymomonas mobiles produces sorbitol from sucrose or mixtures of glucose and fructose (formation is coupled with the dehydrogenation of glucose to glucono-δ- lactone. Recombinant Zymomonas mobilis may produce sorbitol and gluconic acid from glucose and fructose using different divalent metal ions with reduced the ethanol yield andsignificantly increased yield of sorbitol. Current study envisaged to alter the media components, physical process parameters and supplementation of amino acids for enhanced sorbitol production.Material and Methods: Several process variables were evaluated on sorbitol production including carbon sources (glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose, carbon concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 25 g l-1, nitrogen sources (peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract and organic nitrogen mix, temperatures (25, 29, 33, 37, 41°C, pH (6, 6.5, 7 , 7.5 ,8, agitation rate (50, 100, 150, 200 rpm and amino acids (cysteine, cystine, tryptophanin batch cultivation ofLactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912. Shake flask cultivation performed under optimum conditions like temperature 37°C, pH 7.0 and agitation rate of 150 rpm, resulted in enhanced sorbitol production. Comparative study of sorbitol production in solid state fermentation and submerged fermentation was also evaluated.Results and Conclusion: Batch cultivation under submerged conditions further performed in 7.5-l lab scale bioreactor (working volume 3.0-l under optimized conditions resulted in maximum cell biomass of 8.95±0.03 g g-1 and a sorbitol content of 9.78±0.04 g l-1 after 42.0 h of fermentation. Scale up study on bioreactor resulted in maximum sorbitol yield (Yp/x and productivity of 1.11 g g-1 and 0.50 g l-1 h under submerged fermentation, respectively.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  17. 75 FR 51015 - Sorbitol From France: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-001] Sorbitol From France: Notice... order on sorbitol from France. The review covers one producer/exporter of sorbitol, Syral S.A.S. (Syral... Products International (CP), domestic producers of sorbitol, we are now rescinding this administrative...

  18. Temperature-Dependent Fermentation of d-Sorbitol in Escherichia coli O157:H7

    OpenAIRE

    Bouvet, O. M. M.; Pernoud, S.; Grimont, P. A. D.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of growth temperature on the ability to ferment d-sorbitol was investigated in Escherichia coli O157:H7. It was found that O157:H7 strains have a temperature-sensitive sorbitol phenotype. d-Sorbitol transport and sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were expressed in sorbitol-fermenting cells grown at 30°C but only at a low level at 40°C. Sorbitol-positive variants able to transport d-sorbitol were easily selected at 30°C from culture of Sor− E. coli O157:H7 strains.

  19. Pra Desain Pabrik Sorbitol dari Tepung Tapioka dengan Hidrogenasi Katalitik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Kartika Dewi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sorbitol yang dikenal juga sebagai glusitol, adalah suatu gula alkohol yang dimetabolisme lambat di dalam tubuh. Sorbitol banyak digunakan sebagai bahan baku untuk industri barang konsumsi dan makanan seperti pasta gigi, permen, kosmetika, farmasi, vitamin C, termasuk industri tekstil dan kulit. Pembuatan sorbitol dari bahan baku tepung tapioka. Pabrik sorbitol ini direncanakan akan didirikan di Propinsi Jawa Tengah tepatnya di Kabupaten Batang dengan kapasitas produksi 30.000 ton/tahun. Proses produksi Sorbitol menggunakan proses hidrogenasi katalitik. Pembuatan sorbitol dari bahan baku pati melalui dua tahap proses utama yaitu proses perubahan starch menjadi glukosa melalui hidrolisa double enzym. Enzim yang digunakan yaitu α-amylase dan glukoamylase. Proses hidrogenasi katalitik dilakukan dengan mereaksikan larutan dekstrose dan gas hidrogen bertekanan tinggi dengan menambahkan katalis nikel dalam reaktor (Reaktor Hidrogenasi. Gas hidrogen masuk dari bawah reaktor secara bubbling dan larutan dekstrose diumpankan dari atas reaktor sehingga kontak yang terjadi semakin baik. Sorbitol yang di hasilkan dalam pradesain pabrik sorbitol ini dengan konsentrasi 58,2%. Pendirian pabrik sorbitol memerlukan biaya investasi modal tetap (fixed capital sebesar Rp 168.801.192.952, modal kerja (working capital  Rp 29.788.445.815, investasi total Rp 198.589.638.767, Biaya produksi per tahun Rp 368.832.813.809 dan  hasil penjualan per tahun Rp 540.000.078.750. Dari analisa ekonomi didapatkan BEP sebesar 26,32%. ROI sesudah pajak 48,5 %, POT sesudah pajak 2,14 tahun. Dari segi teknis dan ekonomis, pabrik ini layak untuk didirikan.

  20. The Interaction of Sorbitol with Caffeine in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Brady, John W.; Cesàro, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of caffeine interacting with the sugar alcohol sorbitol. The system examined had a caffeine concentration 0.083 m and a sugar concentration 1.08 m. The trajectories of all molecules in the system were collected over a period of 80 ns and analyzed to determine whether there is any tendency for sorbitol to bind to caffeine, and if so, by what mechanism. The results show that the sorbitol molecules have an affinity for the caffeine mole...

  1. Malabsorption of fructose-sorbitol mixtures. Interactions causing abdominal distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests were performed on 10 healthy adults after they had ingested a mixture of sorbitol and fructose, in which these substances were present in amounts corresponding to the individual absorption capacities. A significant malabsorption of this mixture was evident in 7 of 10 subjects....... The mixture caused mild to severe gastrointestinal distress in five subjects. When the carbohydrates were given separately, symptoms were absent. There was a significant correlation between the individual absorption capacities of fructose and of sorbitol. A mixture containing a similar amount of fructose......, but given as sucrose, and a similar amount of sorbitol was further given to four of the seven subjects showing malabsorption of the fructose-sorbitol mixture. Malabsorption now failed to appear, and symptoms were absent. These findings are of potential importance for the understanding of the physiologic...

  2. Direct catalytic production of sorbitol from waste cellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Lucília Sousa; Órfão, José J de Melo; Pereira, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro

    2017-05-01

    Cotton wool, cotton textile, tissue paper and printing paper, all potential waste cellulosic materials, were directly converted to sorbitol using a Ru/CNT catalyst in the presence of H 2 and using only water as solvent, without any acids. Conversions up to 38% were attained for the raw substrates, with sorbitol yields below 10%. Ball-milling of the materials disrupted their crystallinity, allowing reaching 100% conversion of cotton wool, cotton textile and tissue paper after 4h, with sorbitol yields around 50%. Mix-milling these materials with the catalyst greatly enhanced their conversion rate, and the materials were efficiently converted to sorbitol with a yield around 50% in 2h. However, ball- and mix-milled printing paper presented a conversion of only 50% after 5h, with sorbitol yields of 7%. Amounts of sorbitol of 0.525, 0.511 and 0.559g could be obtained from 1g of cotton wool, cotton textile and tissue paper, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Interaction of Sorbitol with Caffeine in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Brady, John W; Cesàro, Attilio

    2013-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of caffeine interacting with the sugar alcohol sorbitol. The system examined had a caffeine concentration 0.083 m and a sugar concentration 1.08 m. The trajectories of all molecules in the system were collected over a period of 80 ns and analyzed to determine whether there is any tendency for sorbitol to bind to caffeine, and if so, by what mechanism. The results show that the sorbitol molecules have an affinity for the caffeine molecules and that the binding occurred by the interaction of the aliphatic hydrophobic protons of the sugar with the caffeine face. This intermolecular association via face-to-face stacking, as suggested by simulation studies, is similar to that found for sucrose and for D-glucose, which overwhelmingly exists in the pyranose ring chair form in aqueous solution, as well as for caffeine-caffeine association. The sorbitol molecules, however, exist as relatively extended chains and are, therefore, topologically quite different from the sugars sucrose and glucose. The comparison of the average conformation of sorbitol molecules bound to caffeine with that of molecules in the free state shows a substantial similarity.

  5. Skeletal Muscle Sorbitol Levels in Diabetic Rats with and without Insulin Therapy and Endurance Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, O. A.; Walseth, T. F.; Snow, L. M.; Serfass, R. C.; Thompson, L. V.

    2009-01-01

    Sorbitol accumulation is postulated to play a role in skeletal muscle dysfunction associated with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of insulin and of endurance exercise on skeletal muscle sorbitol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were assigned to one experimental group (control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary no-insulin). Diabetic rats received daily subcutaneous insulin. The exercise-trained rats ran on a treadmill (1 hour, 5X/wk, for 12 weeks). Skeletal muscle sorbitol levels were the highest in the diabetic sedentary no-insulin group. Diabetic sedentary rats receiving insulin had similar sorbitol levels to control sedentary rats. Endurance exercise did not significantly affect sorbitol levels. These results indicate that insulin treatment lowers sorbitol in skeletal muscle; therefore sorbitol accumulation is probably not related to muscle dysfunction in insulin-treated diabetic individuals. Endurance exercise did not influence intramuscular sorbitol values as strongly as insulin. PMID:20016800

  6. The metabolism of sorbitol and fructose in isolated chloroplasts of Santa Rosa plum leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, O.T.

    1979-01-01

    Aqueously as well as non-aqueously isolated chloroplasts from Santa Rosa plum leaves readily metabolised sorbitol- 14 C to fructose, glucose and sucrose. Likewise, fructose- 14 C was converted to sorbitol, glucose and sucrose [af

  7. Caloric utilization of sorbitol and isomalt in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figdor, S.K.; Allingham, R.P.; Kita, D.A.; Hobbs, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Sorbitol and isomalt are modified saccharides used to substitute for the physical properties of sucrose in various prepared foods. The merits of the various methods for determining caloric availability were reviewed. Balance and growth curve methods are inaccurate and inappropriate for determination of the caloric availability of these substances when present in diets at low concentrations, whereas the radiolabel disposition method is a direct and precise measure of utilization. Accordingly, the authors administered uniformly 14 C-labeled material to rats and collected excreta and expired air. The appearance of about half of the label in CO 2 indicated that, by comparison with labeled glucose, about 80% of the orally administered sorbitol and isomalt was calorically available to the rat. The high caloric availabilities of these materials were confirmed by the appearance in feces of only 14 and 12% of the administered label from sorbitol and isomalt, respectively

  8. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O

    2015-01-01

    Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not.

  9. 40 CFR 180.1262 - Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1262 Sorbitol octanoate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of sorbitol octanoate in or on all...

  10. 75 FR 42380 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order on Sorbitol From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Duty Order on Sorbitol From France AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration... sunset review of the antidumping duty order on sorbitol from France. See Initiation of Five-year... the existing antidumping duty order on sorbitol from France would not be likely to lead to...

  11. Sorbitol dehydration into isosorbide in a molten salt hydrate medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Spina, A.; Moulijn, J.A.; Makkee, M.

    2013-01-01

    The sorbitol conversion in a molten salt hydrate medium (ZnCl2; 70 wt% in water) was studied. Dehydration is the main reaction, initially 1,4- and 3,6-anhydrosorbitol are the main products that are subsequently converted into isosorbide; two other anhydrohexitols, (1,5- and 2,5-), formed are in less

  12. Effect of sorbitol on dough rheology and quality of sugar replaced cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shariati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A high amount of sugar is used in bakery products, which may cause diabetes, high blood glucose levels and obesity. Due to these reasons, sugar is being replaced with substitutes. There is different carbohydrate-based sugar substitutes (polyols that can efficiently replace sugar. Among polyols, sorbitol is an efficient replacer that can mimic sugar with minimal effects on cookie quality. Effects of different sorbitol levels (0 to 12.5% were seen on the dough rheology. Mixographic studies showed that peak height and mixing time reduced with the addition of sorbitol. Farinographic studies showed that water absorption and the mixing tolerance index of dough reduced with the supplementation of sorbitol, whereas dough development time, arrival time, dough stability time and softening of dough increased. Extensographic studies revealed that sorbitol substitution produced hard, cohesive, adhesive and elastic dough. Sugar in cookies formulations was reduced from 100 to 50% by replacing with sorbitol 0 to 50%. Physical analysis of sorbitol containing cookies showed that the diameter and spread factor of cookies decreased with higher levels of sorbitol, whereas thickness, color, hardness and water activity of cookies increased. The calorific value of cookies decreased with the increasing levels of sorbitol. At upto 20% replacement of sugar, other parameters of cookies were not affected. Sensory evaluation of the cookies showed that hedonic points for sensory evaluation parameters reduced with the increasing levels of sorbitol, T2 (20% replacement showed maximum overall acceptability. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA

  13. Selective electrocatalytic oxidation of sorbitol to fructose and sorbose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Youngkook; de Jong, Ed; van der Waal, Jan Kees; Koper, Marc T M

    2015-03-01

    A new electrocatalytic method for the selective electrochemical oxidation of sorbitol to fructose and sorbose is demonstrated by using a platinum electrode promoted by p-block metal atoms. By the studying a range of C4, C5 and C6 polyols, it is found that the promoter interferes with the stereochemistry of the polyol and thereby modifies its reactivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Sorbitol counteracts high hydrostatic pressure-induced denaturation of inulin fructotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yungao; Miao, Ming; Liu, Miao; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Xiangyin

    2014-09-01

    Inulin fructotransferase (IFTase), a novel hydrolase for inulin, was exposed to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at 400 and 600 MPa for 15 min in the presence or absence of sorbitol. Sorbitol protected the enzyme against HHP-induced activity loss. The relative residual activity increased nearly 3.1- and 3.8-fold in the presence of 3 mol/L sorbitol under 400 MPa and 600 MPa for 15 min, respectively. Circular dichroism results indicated that the original chaotic unfolding conformation of the enzyme under HHP shifted toward more ordered and impact with 3 mol/L sorbitol. Fluorescence and UV spectra results suggested that sorbitol prevented partially the unfolding of the enzyme and stabilized the conformation under high pressure. These results might be attributed to the binding of sorbitol on the surface of IFTase to rearrange and strengthen intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular dynamics studies of the conformation of sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerbret, A.; Mason, P.E.; Venable, R.M.; Cesàro, A.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Pastor, R.W.; Brady, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a 3 m aqueous solution of D-sorbitol (also called D-glucitol) have been performed at 300 K, as well as at two elevated temperatures to promote conformational transitions. In principle, sorbitol is more flexible than glucose since it does not contain a constraining ring. However, a conformational analysis revealed that the sorbitol chain remains extended in solution, in contrast to the bent conformation found experimentally in the crystalline form. While there are 243 staggered conformations of the backbone possible for this open-chain polyol, only a very limited number were found to be stable in the simulations. Although many conformers were briefly sampled, only eight were significantly populated in the simulation. The carbon backbones of all but two of these eight conformers were completely extended, unlike the bent crystal conformation. These extended conformers were stabilized by a quite persistent intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl groups of carbon C-2 and C-4. The conformational populations were found to be in good agreement with the limited available NMR data except for the C-2–C-3 torsion (spanned by the O-2–O-4 hydrogen bond), where the NMR data supports a more bent structure. PMID:19744646

  16. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E.; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple. PMID:28069587

  17. Exposure to sorbitol during lactation causes metabolic alterations and genotoxic effects in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Felipe S; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Aiub, Claudia A F; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    2016-10-17

    Sorbitol is a polyol used by the food industry as a sweetener. Women are consuming diet and light products containing sorbitol during pregnancy and in the postnatal period to prevent themselves from excessive weight gain and maintain a slim body. Although there is no evidence for the genotoxicity of sorbitol in the perinatal period, this study focused on evaluating the effects of the maternal intake of sorbitol on the biochemical and toxicological parameters of lactating Wistar rat offspring after 14days of mother-to-offspring exposure. A dose-dependent reduction of offspring length was observed. An increase in sorbitol levels determined in the milk was also observed. However, we detected an inverse relationship between the exposition dose in milk fructose and triacylglycerols concentrations. There was an increase in the plasmatic levels of ALT, AST and LDLc and a decrease in proteins, cholesterol and glucose levels in the offspring. Sorbitol exposure caused hepatocyte genotoxicity, including micronuclei induction. Maternal sorbitol intake induced myelotoxicity and myelosuppression in their offspring. The Comet assay of the blood cells detected a dose-dependent genotoxic response within the sorbitol-exposed offspring. According to our results, sorbitol is able to induce important metabolic alterations and genotoxic responses in the exposed offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala. Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple.

  19. Humectancies of d-tagatose and d-sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y

    2001-06-01

    Most toothpastes contain either d-sorbitol or glycerin, or both, as humectants. Both compounds are about half as sweet as sucrose. This level of sweetness is not as intense as desired by most people when brushing teeth. Therefore, many brands of toothpaste add saccharin, a high-intensity sweetener, to increase product sweetness to acceptable levels. While this combination provides the required bulk, humectancy and sweetness, the last characteristic suffers from the widely perceived metallic, or bitter, aftertaste of saccharin. d-tagatose, a full-bulk, low-calorie, sucrose-like sweetener with about twice the sweetness of d-sorbitol, and which does not promote tooth decay, holds promise as a sole sweetener for toothpastes. The only untested aspect of this use of d-tagatose was its humectancy, the characteristic that retains the required level of moisture in toothpaste. The current study was made to investigate this important property, to make a direct comparison of the humectancies of d-tagatose and d-sorbitol as pure substances, and to determine whether the humectancy of d-tagatose is sufficient to counter the crystallizing potentiation of the abrasives used in toothpastes. The humectancies of d-tagatose and d-sorbitol were tested through measuring their water activity (a(w)) vs. water content. By comparing their desorption curves, d-tagatose was seen to have a humectancy equal to that of d-sorbitol when a(w) in the d-tagatose solution was above 0.62. d-Tagatose was then tested in toothpastes containing typical abrasives to determine whether the abrasives would induce crystallization of the sweetener. The addition of 20-25% wt/wt of d-tagatose to the Tom of Maine's toothpastes imparted a satisfactory sweetness. It was found that, within that range of concentration, d-tagatose retained its humectancy, and did not crystallize in the popular brands of commercial toothpastes tested. Thus, d-tagatose could be used as a humectant sweetener in toothpastes, although further

  20. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Castillo-Cejas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol.

  1. The effects of xylitol and sorbitol on lysozyme- and peroxidase-related enzymatic and candidacidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum-Soo; Chang, Ji-Youn; Kim, Yoon-Young; Kho, Hong-Seop

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether xylitol and sorbitol affect enzymatic and candidacidal activities of lysozyme, the peroxidase system, and the glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase system. Xylitol and sorbitol were added to hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine lactoperoxidase, glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase, and whole saliva in solution and on hydroxyapatite surfaces. The enzymatic activities of lysozyme, peroxidase, and glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase were determined by the turbidimetric method, the NbsSCN assay, and production of oxidized o-dianisidine, respectively. Candidacidal activities were determined by comparing colony forming units using Candida albicans ATCC strains 10231, 11006, and 18804. While xylitol and sorbitol did not affect the enzymatic activity of hen egg-white lysozyme both in solution and on hydroxyapatite surfaces, they did inhibit the enzymatic activity of salivary lysozyme significantly in solution, but not on the surfaces. Xylitol and sorbitol enhanced the enzymatic activities of both bovine lactoperoxidase and salivary peroxidase significantly in a dose-dependent manner in solution, but not on the surfaces. Sorbitol, but not xylitol, inhibited the enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase-mediated peroxidase significantly. Both xylitol and sorbitol did not affect candidacidal activities of hen egg-white lysozyme, the bovine lactoperoxidase system, or the glucose oxidase-mediated bovine lactoperoxidase system. Xylitol and sorbitol inhibited salivary lysozyme activity, but enhanced both bovine lactoperoxidase and salivary peroxidase activities significantly in solution. Xylitol and sorbitol did not augment lysozyme- and peroxidase-related candidacidal activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Conductivity, work function, and environmental stability of PEDOT:PSS thin films treated with sorbitol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardes, A.M.; Kemerink, M.; Kok, de M.M.; Vinken, E.; Maturova, K.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The electrical properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films deposited from aqueous dispersion using different concentrations of sorbitol have been studied in detail. Although it is well known that sorbitol enhances the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin

  3. EFFECT OF XYLITOL AND SORBITOL IN CHEWING-GUMS ON MUTANS STREPTOCOCCI, PLAQUE PH AND MINERAL LOSS OF ENAMEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WENNERHOLM, K; ARENDS, J; BIRKHED, D; RUBEN, J; EMILSON, CG; DIJKMAN, AG

    1994-01-01

    Seventeen subjects with more than 3 x 10(5) mutans streptococci per millilitre of saliva completed this randomised, cross-over study. Four different chewing-gums, containing: (1) 70% xylitol, (2) 35% xylitol + 35% sorbitol, (3) 17.5% xylitol + 52.5% sorbitol, and (4) 70% sorbitol, were tested. The

  4. Sorbitol dehydrogenase of Aspergillus niger, SdhA, is part of the oxido-reductive D-galactose pathway and essential for D-sorbitol catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivistoinen, Outi M; Richard, Peter; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura; Mojzita, Dominik

    2012-02-17

    In filamentous fungi D-galactose can be catabolised through the oxido-reductive and/or the Leloir pathway. In the oxido-reductive pathway D-galactose is converted to d-fructose in a series of steps where the last step is the oxidation of d-sorbitol by an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase. We identified a sorbitol dehydrogenase gene, sdhA (JGI53356), in Aspergillus niger encoding a medium chain dehydrogenase which is involved in D-galactose and D-sorbitol catabolism. The gene is upregulated in the presence of D-galactose, galactitol and D-sorbitol. An sdhA deletion strain showed reduced growth on galactitol and growth on D-sorbitol was completely abolished. The purified enzyme converted D-sorbitol to D-fructose with K(m) of 50±5 mM and v(max) of 80±10 U/mg. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct sorbitol proton exchange membrane fuel cell using moderate catalyst loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarce, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Carlos; Lima, Raquel Bohn; Lindström, Rakel Wreland; Lagergren, Carina; Lindbergh, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The performance of a direct sorbitol fuel cell was evaluated at different temperatures. •The performance was compared to the performance of a direct glucose fuel cell. •The mass specific peak power density of the direct sorbitol fuel cell was 3.6 mW mg −1 totalcatalystloading at 80 °C. •Both sorbitol and glucose fuel cell suffer from deactivation. -- Abstract: Recent progress in biomass hydrolysis has made it interesting to study the use of sorbitol for electricity generation. In this study, sorbitol and glucose are used as fuels in proton exchange membrane fuel cells having 0.9 mg cm −2 PtRu/C at the anode and 0.3 mg cm −2 Pt/C at the cathode. The sorbitol oxidation was found to have slower kinetics than glucose oxidation. However, at low temperatures the direct sorbitol fuel cell shows higher performance than the direct glucose fuel cell, attributed to a lower degree of catalyst poisoning. The performance of both fuel cells is considerably improved at higher temperatures. High temperatures lower the poisoning, allowing the direct glucose fuel cell to reach a higher performance than the direct sorbitol fuel cell. The mass specific peak power densities of the direct sorbitol and direct glucose fuel cells at 65 °C was 3.2 mW mg −1 catalyst and 3.5 mW mg −1 catalyst , respectively. Both of these values are one order of magnitude larger than mass specific peak power densities of earlier reported direct glucose fuel cells using proton exchange membranes. Furthermore, both the fuel cells showed a considerably decrease in performance with time, which is partially attributed to sorbitol and glucose crossover poisoning the Pt/C cathode

  6. Effects of sorbitol on porcine oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Zhang, Jin Yu; Diao, Yun Fei; Kang, Jung Won; Jin, Dong-Il

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a porcine system was supplemented with sorbitol during in vitro maturation (IVM) or in vitro culture (IVC), and the effects of sorbitol on oocyte maturation and embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation were assessed. Porcine immature oocytes were treated with different concentrations of sorbitol during IVM, and the resultant metaphase II stage oocytes were activated and cultured in porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3) for 7 days. No significant difference was observed in cumulus expansion and the nuclear maturation between the control and sorbitol-treated groups, with the exception of the 100 mM group, which showed significantly decreased nuclear maturation and cumulus expansion. There was no significant difference in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels between oocytes matured with 10 or 20 mM sorbitol and control groups, but 50 and 100 mM groups had significantly higher ROS levels than other groups. The 20 mM group showed significant increases in intracellular glutathione and subsequent blastocyst formation rates following parthenogenetic activation compared with the other groups. During IVC, supplementation with sorbitol significantly reduced blastocyst formation and increased the apoptotic index compared with the control. The apoptotic index of blastocysts from the sorbitol-treated group for entire culture period was significantly higher than those of the partially sorbitol-exposed groups. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the addition of a low concentration of sorbitol (20 mM) during IVM of porcine oocytes benefits subsequent blastocyst development and improves embryo quality, whereas sorbitol supplement during IVC has a negative effect on blastocyst formation.

  7. Production of sorbitol and ethanol from Jerusalem artichokes by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvnjak, Z.; Duan, Z.D. (Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Turcotte, G. (Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS (Canada). Dept. of Food Science)

    1991-09-01

    This study shows the possible use of Jerusalem artichokes for the production of sorbitol and ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859. Ethanol was produced from the beginning of the process, while sorbitol production started after glucose had been entirely consumed from Jerusalem artichoke (J.a.) juice. The importance of yeast extract and inoculum concentrations on the production of sorbitol from the above raw material was demonstrated. With a low initial biomass concentration sorbitol was not produced in pure J.a. juice. When the juice was supplemented with 3% yeast extract, the concentration of sorbitol was 4.6%. The sorbitol, ethanol and biomass yields (gram of product produced per gram of sugars consumed) were 0.259, 0.160 and 0.071 at the end of the process respectively. Adding glucose to increase its concentration to about 9% in the J.a. juice with 3% yeast extract had a positive effect on the production of ethanol, while commencement of the production of sorbitol was delayed and its final concentration was less than 50% of its concentration in the medium without added glucose. The effect of glucose was much stronger when it was added during the process than when added at the beginning of the process. (orig.).

  8. Effect of Sorbitol Plasticizer on the Structure and Properties of Melt Processed Polyvinyl Alcohol Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huafeng; Liu, Di; Yao, Yuanyuan; Ma, Songbai; Zhang, Xing; Xiang, Aimin

    2017-12-01

    Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) possesses wide applications as food packaging materials, but is difficult to melt process for its strong inter/intra hydrogen bonding. In this work, flexible PVA films with different content of sorbitol plasticizers were prepared by melt processing with the assistance of water. And the influence of sorbitol plasticizer content on the crystallinity, optical transparency, water-retaining capability, mechanical properties, thermal stability and oxygen and water permeability were investigated. The results indicated that sorbitol dramatically improved the melt processing ability of PVA. Sorbitol could interact with PVA to form strong hydrogen bonding interactions, which would decrease the original hydrogen bonding of the matrix, resulting in the decrease of crystallinity degrees. The glass transition, melting and crystallization peak temperatures decreased with the increase of sorbitol. All the films exhibited fine optical transparency. The water retaining capability were improved with the increase of sorbitol. Especially, an increase in elongation at break and decrease in Young's modulus and tensile strength were observed indicating good plasticizing effect of sorbitol on PVA films. In addition, the PVA films prepared in this work exhibited fine barrier properties against oxygen and water, suggesting wide application potential as packaging materials. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation in frozen mAb formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedmonte, Deirdre Murphy; Hair, Alison; Baker, Priti; Brych, Lejla; Nagapudi, Karthik; Lin, Hong; Cao, Wenjin; Hershenson, Susan; Ratnaswamy, Gayathri

    2015-02-01

    Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation of mAbs in the frozen state was evaluated. The effect of protein aggregation resulting from sorbitol crystallization was measured as a function of formulation variables such as protein concentration and pH. Long-term studies were performed on both IgG1 and IgG2 mAbs over the protein concentration range of 0.1-120 mg/mL. Protein aggregation was measured by size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) and further characterized by capillary-electrophoresis SDS. Sorbitol crystallization was monitored and characterized by subambient differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Aggregation due to sorbitol crystallization is inversely proportional to both protein concentration and formulation pH. At high protein concentrations, sorbitol crystallization was suppressed, and minimal aggregation by SE-HPLC resulted, presumably because of self-stabilization of the mAbs. The glass transition temperature (Tg ') and fragility index measurements were made to assess the influence of molecular mobility on the crystallization of sorbitol. Tg ' increased with increasing protein concentration for both mAbs. The fragility index decreased with increasing protein concentration, suggesting that it is increasingly difficult for sorbitol to crystallize at high protein concentrations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Ileocolic Perforation Secondary to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate in Sorbitol Use: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Trottier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperkalemia is a common condition encountered in medical and surgical patients. It can lead to various complications including cardiac arrhythmias. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS in sorbitol is an ion-exchange resin that can be used to treat hyperkalemia. It can be used in enema or in oral form. The present article describes the case of an intensive care unit patient who experienced severe, diffuse, intestinal perforation induced by the use of SPS-sorbitol, requiring multiple laparotomies, followed by a brief review of the relevant literature and recommendations regarding the use of SPS-sorbitol.

  11. Ileocolic perforation secondary to sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol use: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Vincent; Drolet, Sébastien; Morcos, Mohib W

    2009-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common condition encountered in medical and surgical patients. It can lead to various complications including cardiac arrhythmias. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) in sorbitol is an ion-exchange resin that can be used to treat hyperkalemia. It can be used in enema or in oral form. The present article describes the case of an intensive care unit patient who experienced severe, diffuse, intestinal perforation induced by the use of SPS-sorbitol, requiring multiple laparotomies, followed by a brief review of the relevant literature and recommendations regarding the use of SPS-sorbitol. PMID:19826644

  12. The effect of glicerol and sorbitol plasticizers toward disintegration time of phyto-capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Hendradi, Esti; Wafiroh, Siti; Harsini, Muji; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko

    2016-03-01

    The aim of research is determining the effect of glycerol and sorbitol toward the disintegration time of phyto-capsules, originated capsules from plant polysaccharides. Phyto-capsules were made from polysaccharides and 0.5% (v/v) of glycerol and sorbitol of each. The seven capsules of each were determined the disintegration time using Erweka disintegrator. The mean of disintegration time of phyto-capsules without plasticizers, with glycerol and sorbitol were 25'30"; 45'15" and 35'30" respectively. The color and colorless gelatin capsules showed the mean of disintegration time 7'30" and 2'35" respectively.

  13. Alternate economical starchy substrates for the production of 70% sorbitol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, C.M. (Sarabhai Research Centre, Baroda (India). Industrial Enzymes Dept.); Nehete, P.N. (Sarabhai Research Centre, Baroda (India). Industrial Fermentation Div.); Shah, D.N. (GSFC Research and Development Centre, Fertilizernagar (India). Biotechnology Dept.); Shah, N.K. (Armour Chemicals Pvt. Ltd., Ankleshwar (India)); Shankar, V. (National Chemical Lab., Pune (India). Biochemistry Div.); Kothari, R.M. (Thapar Corporate Research and Development Centre, Patiala (India). Biotechnology Div.)

    1991-03-01

    In view of the soaring prices of corn and tapioca starch, use of their hydrolysate in the production of 70% sorbitol became less remunerative. Therefore, an economical alternative is explored by using hydrolysates of cereal flours, namely, rice (Oryzae sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), jowar (Sorghum vulgare) and bajra (Pennisetum typhoideum). A protocol is devised to (a) prepare their high DE hydrolysates, (b) purify it after saccharification, (c) monitor the chemical chracteristics of concentrated hydrolysate, as feedstock for Raney nickel catalyzed pressure hydrogenation and (d) finally prepare 70% sorbital. Merits and demerits of hydrolysates of these cereal flours are discussed in terms of operational limitations and percentage recovery, the governing factors for their industrial acceptability. Rice flour hydrolysate appears to be an alternative substrate, operationally and economically. (orig.).

  14. Theoretical investigation of interaction of sorbitol molecules with alcohol dehydrogenase in aqueous solution using molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Homayoon; Zahedi, Mansour; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Azizian, Homa; Amanlou, Massoud

    2011-03-01

    The nature of protein-sorbitol-water interaction in solution at the molecular level, has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. In order to do this task, two molecular dynamics simulations of the protein ADH in solution at room temperature have been carried out, one in the presence (about 0.9 M) and another in the absence of sorbitol. The results show that the sorbitol molecules cluster and move toward the protein, and form hydrogen bonds with protein. Also, coating by sorbitol reduces the conformational fluctuations of the protein compared to the sorbitol-free system. Thus, it is concluded that at moderate concentration of sorbitol solution, sorbitol molecules interact with ADH via many H-bonds that prevent the protein folding. In fact, at more concentrated sorbitol solution, water and sorbitol molecules accumulate around the protein surface and form a continuous space-filling network to reduce the protein flexibility. Namely, in such solution, sorbitol molecules can stabilize a misfolded state of ADH, and prevent the protein from folding to its native structure.

  15. Effect of sugar alcohol sorbitol on in vitro shoot development of Dianthus serotinus Waldst. et Kit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of sorbitol on the development of the in vitro culture of D. serotinus in the multiplication phase. The obtained results showed that sorbitol generally had a positive effect, depending on its concentration and explant type. In addition, the presence of sorbitol affected the change of pH value of the media after autoclaving and after 25 days of in vitro culture, which could affect the availability of certain ions to plants. Therefore, the obtained results indicate that sorbitol can be used as an energy source for the in vitro culture of D. serotinus, but this should be further investigated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  16. Effect of sorbitol in callus induction and plant regeneration in wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Key words: Callus induction, plant regeneration, wheat, 2,4-D, sorbitol. INTRODUCTION ... regeneration is better on hormone-free medium or that .... AB (interaction). 15 ... element and creates osmotic stress as reported by.

  17. Reagentless D-sorbitol biosensor based on D-sorbitol dehydrogenase immobilized in a sol-gel carbon nanotubes-poly(methylene green) composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijie; Etienne, Mathieu; Urbanova, Veronika; Kohring, Gert-Wieland; Walcarius, Alain

    2013-04-01

    A reagentless D-sorbitol biosensor based on NAD-dependent D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (DSDH) immobilized in a sol-gel carbon nanotubes-poly(methylene green) composite has been developed. It was prepared by durably immobilizing the NAD(+) cofactor with DSDH in a sol-gel thin film on the surface of carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly(methylene green). This device enables selective determination of D-sorbitol at 0.2 V with a sensitivity of 8.7 μA mmol(-1) L cm(-2) and a detection limit of 0.11 mmol L(-1). Moreover, this biosensor has excellent operational stability upon continuous use in hydrodynamic conditions.

  18. Thin layer chromatography of glucose and sorbitol on Cu(II)-impregnated silica gel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadzija, O. (Ruder Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)); Spoljar, B. (Ruder Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)); Sesartic, L. (Inst. of Immunology, Zagreb (Croatia))

    1994-04-01

    A thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separation of glucose and sorbitol on CU(II)-impregnated silica gel plates with n-propanol: Water (4:1) v/v as developer and potassium permanganate as detecting reagent has been worked out. The new impregnant is completely insoluble in water and thus enables the use of an aqueous developer. The R[sub f]-values are 55 and 10 for glucose and sorbitol, respectively. (orig.)

  19. Improved cryopreservability of stallion sperm using a sorbitol-based freezing extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojprasath, T; Lohachit, C; Techakumphu, M; Stout, T; Tharasanit, T

    2011-06-01

    Cryopreservation of stallion semen is often associated with poor post-thaw sperm quality. Sugars are among the important components of a freezing extender and act as non-permeating cryoprotectants. This study aimed to compare the quality of stallion sperm frozen with glucose, fructose or sorbitol-containing freezing extenders. Semen was collected from six stallions of proven fertility and cryopreserved using a freezing extender containing different types of monosaccharide sugars (glucose, fructose or sorbitol). After thawing, the semen was examined for sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane functionality and sperm longevity. The fertility of semen frozen in the presence of sorbitol was also tested by artificial insemination. Sperm quality was significantly decreased following freezing and thawing (P sorbitol and glucose (P sorbitol-based extender when examined at 2 and 4 h post-thaw, all of these parameters plus plasma membrane functionality were improved for sperm frozen in the sorbitol extender than in the glucose extender when examined 10 min post-thaw. Two of four mares (50%) inseminated with semen frozen with a sorbitol-containing freezing extender became pregnant. It is concluded that different sugars have different abilities to protect against cryoinjury during freezing and thawing of stallion sperm. This study demonstrated that an extender containing sorbitol as primary sugar can be used to successfully cryopreserve equine sperm; moreover, the quality of frozen-thawed sperm appeared to be better than when glucose or fructose was the principle sugar in the freezing extender. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Translocation of sorbitol and other photosynthates in golden delicious apple shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenkamp, J.; Terblanche, J.H.; De Villiers, O.T.

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine to what extent sorbitol and other photosynthates are translocated in Golden Delicious apple shoots. The distribution of radioactivity in the different fractions, after the leaves had been exposed to radiocarbon, was found in segment of the shoots directly below the treatment leaves. The highest 14 C activity was in the carbohydrate fraction. The results indicate that sorbitol is the principal carbohydrate transported in Golden Delicious apple shoots

  1. Sorbitol treatment extends lifespan and induces the osmotic stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon eChandler-Brown

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The response to osmotic stress is a highly conserved process for adapting to changing environmental conditions. Prior studies have shown that hyperosmolarity by addition of sorbitol to the growth medium is sufficient to increase both chronological and replicative lifespan in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we report a similar phenomenon in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Addition of sorbitol to the nematode growth medium induces an adaptive osmotic response and increases C. elegans lifespan by about 35%. Lifespan extension from 5% sorbitol behaves similarly to dietary restriction in a variety of genetic backgrounds, increasing lifespan additively with mutation of daf-2(e1370 and independently of daf-16(mu86, sir-2.1(ok434, aak-2(ok524, and hif-1(ia04. Dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation or mutation of eat-2(ad1113 fails to further extend lifespan in the presence of 5% sorbitol. Two mutants with constitutive activation of the osmotic response, osm-5(p813 and osm-7(n1515, were found to be long-lived, and lifespan extension from sorbitol required the glycerol biosynthetic enzymes GPDH-1 and GPDH-2. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that exposure to sorbitol at levels sufficient to induce an adaptive osmotic response extends lifespan in worms and define the osmotic stress response pathway as a longevity pathway conserved between yeast and nematodes.

  2. Comparison of the effect of sorbitol and glucose on calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, R.M.; Peacock, M.; Barkworth, S.A.; Marshall, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that the oral administration of sorbitol promotes calcium absorption, while glucose has no effect. We have therefore compared the effect of oral sorbitol and glucose on the absorption of radiocalcium from low and high carrier loads in healthy postmenopausal women. In a control group of 20 women given neither sorbitol nor glucose, the mean +/- SEM fractional radiocalcium absorption rate from a low carrier load was 0.65 +/- 0.05 (fraction of dose/h). In a second group of 10 women the fractional absorption rate from the low carrier load was lower (p less than 0.05) with 10 g sorbitol (0.48 +/- 0.05) than with 10 g glucose (0.65 +/- 0.08). Fractional absorption of radiocalcium from a high carrier load measured in a third group of seven women using two isotopes (oral 45Ca, IV 47Ca) was also lower (p less than 0.001) with 10 g sorbitol (0.22 +/- 0.01, fraction/3 h) than with 10 g glucose (0.29 +/- 0.02). The results suggest that calcium absorption from a low carrier load is unaltered by glucose but that absorption of calcium from both low and high carrier loads is lower with sorbitol than with glucose

  3. Effect of Guar Gum with Sorbitol Coating on the Properties and Oil Absorption of French Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bo; Fan, Daming; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Fan, Liuping

    2017-12-13

    This paper investigated the effects of guar gum with sorbitol coating on the oil absorption of French fries by combined dye oil methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that pretreatment of blanching with calcium ions and coating with guar gum and sorbitol could significantly reduce the structural oil (STO) and penetrated surface oil (PSO) of French fries and have no negative effects on its texture and also effectively control the final moisture content ( p French fries with guar gum and sorbitol reduced by 50.8%, 33.1% and 30.6%, respectively. CLSM photographs confirmed that STO significantly reduced after coating with guar gum and sorbitol, followed by PSO. In the process of frying, the coatings of guar gum or guar gum with sorbitol could effectively prevent oil from infiltrating the potato tissue, which can be seen in the SEM photographs. The barrier properties of French fries were enhanced by coating guar gum, and sorbitol was added to avoid pores and cracks. Blanching with calcium ion can significantly reduce the final moisture content of coating French fries.

  4. Peranan sorbitol dalam mempertahankan kestabilan pH saliva pada proses pencegahan karies (The role of sorbitol in maintaining saliva’s pH to prevent caries process

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    Diana Soesilo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available People in Indonesia often consume food containing sucrose. If the sucrose consumed is in a large amount, it will decrease saliva’s pH and soon teeth destruction will happen. To avoid it, it is necessary to change sucrose consumption habit into another kind of sugar, namely sorbitol. Sorbitol is preferred to use, because it is cheaper and easier to get. Sorbitol is made from cassava, which is plentifully grown in Indonesia. Sorbitol is not good media for bacteria to grow. Because sorbitol has a diol, so it’s difficult to catalyst by glucosyltransferase enzyme, which is produced by bacteria Streptococcus mutans. The conclusion is that sorbitol is difficult to be fermented by Streptococcus mutans so it will not decrease saliva’s pH.

  5. An exploratory study; the therapeutic effects of premixed activated charcoal-sorbitol administration in patients poisoned with organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeongmi; Chun, Byeongjo; Song, Kyounghwan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of activated charcoal (AC) mixed with cathartics for gastric decontamination in the management of organophosphate (OP) poisoning remain unknown due to limited clinical evidence. This exploratory study assessed the effectiveness of premixed AC-sorbitol as a treatment for OP poisoning. This retrospective observational case study included patients who either did not receive AC-sorbitol or received a single dose of AC-sorbitol within 24 h after OP ingestion. The patients were divided into three groups: no AC-sorbitol treatment, patients who received AC-sorbitol within 1 h of OP ingestion, and patients who received AC-sorbitol more than 1 h after OP ingestion. Mortality, the development of respiratory failure, and the duration of mechanical ventilation were used as outcome measurements for effectiveness, whereas aspiration pneumonia and electrolyte imbalance were employed as safety measurements. Among 262 patients with OP poisoning, 198 were included. Of these, 133 patients did not receive AC-sorbitol, whereas 14 and 51 patients received AC-sorbitol within 1 h or more than 1 h after ingestion, respectively. The time from ingestion to hospital arrival and time from ingestion to administration of atropine and pralidoxime differed among the groups, whereas other characteristics, including age, amount ingested, and type of ingested OP, were similar among the groups. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that the administration of AC-sorbitol was not associated with outcome measures for effectiveness and did not significantly increase either aspiration pneumonia or electrolyte imbalances during hospitalization. The administration of AC-sorbitol exerted neither beneficial nor harmful effects on the outcomes of OP-poisoned patients regardless of the time from OP ingestion to administration, compared with those of patients who did not receive AC-sorbitol. However, this study enrolled a small number of patients who received AC-sorbitol; further qualified

  6. A fiber-optic sorbitol biosensor based on NADH fluorescence detection toward rapid diagnosis of diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessei, Tomoko; Arakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-09-21

    Accumulation of sorbitol in the tissue is known to cause microvascular diabetic complications. In this paper, a fiber-optic biosensor for sorbitol which is used as a biomarker of diabetic complications was developed and tested. The biosensor used a sorbitol dehydrogenase from microorganisms of the genus Flavimonas with high substrate specificity and detected the fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by the enzymatic reaction. An ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED) was used as the excitation light source of NADH. The fluorescence of NADH was detected using a spectrometer or a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The UV-LED and the photodetector were coupled using a Y-shaped optical fiber. In the experiment, an optical fiber probe with a sorbitol dehydrogenase immobilized membrane was placed in a cuvette filled with a phosphate buffer containing the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). The changes in NADH fluorescence intensity were measured after adding a standard sorbitol solution. According to the experimental assessment, the calibration range of the sorbitol biosensor systems using a spectrometer and a PMT was 5.0-1000 μmol L(-1) and 1.0-1000 μmol L(-1), respectively. The sorbitol biosensor system using the sorbitol dehydrogenase from microorganisms of the genus Flavimonas has high selectivity and sensitivity compared with that from sheep liver. The sorbitol biosensor allows for point-of-care testing applications or daily health care tests for diabetes patients.

  7. Increased sorbitol levels in the hypertrophic ligamentum flavum of diabetic patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaquan; Huang, Lu; Chen, Zhuo; Zeng, Zhaoxun; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Zhongzu; Pan, Zhimin; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hikata, Tomohiro; Iwanami, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi; Ishii, Ken; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Cao, Kai

    2017-05-01

    The pathomechanism of the ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy in diabetic patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) remains unclear. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of LF hypertrophy in these patients. Twenty-four diabetic and 20 normoglycemic patients with LSCS were enrolled in the study. The structure of the LF in the study subjects was evaluated using histological and immunohistochemical methods, and the levels of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the fibrogenic factor, TGF-β1, in the LF were analyzed. In vitro experiments were performed using NIH3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate the effect of high-glucose conditions and an aldose reductase inhibitor on the cellular production of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory factors, and TGF-β1. We found that the LF of diabetic patients exhibited significantly higher levels of sorbitol and pro-inflammatory cytokines, TGF-β1 and of CD68-positive staining than that of the normoglycemic subjects. The diabetic LF was significantly thicker than that of the controls, and showed evidence of degeneration. The high glucose-cultured fibroblasts exhibited significantly higher levels of sorbitol, pro-inflammatory factors, and TGF-β1 compared to the low glucose-cultured cells, and these levels were dose-dependently reduced by treatment with the aldose reductase inhibitor. Taken together, our data suggests that increased sorbitol levels in the LF of diabetic patients results in increased production of pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic factor, which contribute to LF hypertrophy, and could increase the susceptibility of diabetic patients to LSCS. Furthermore, aldose reductase inhibition effectively reduced the levels of sorbitol and sorbitol-induced pro-inflammatory factor expression in high glucose-cultured fibroblasts. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1058-1066, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Synthesis of sorbitol by Zymomonas mobilis under high osmotic pressure Síntese de sorbitol por Zymomonas mobilis sob elevada pressão osmótica

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    Márcio de Barros

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Zymomonas mobilis presents potential for sorbitol production when grown in culture medium with high sugar concentration. Sorbitol is produced and accumulated in the periplasma of the bacterium to protect the cells from the harmful effects of high osmotic pressure that results from the action of invertase on sucrose. The conversion of sucrose into glucose and fructose increases the osmolarity of the medium. However, an excessive increase in the osmotic pressure may decrease the sorbitol production. In this work Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase was added two media containing sucrose 200 and 300 g.L-1. Sorbitol production in sucrose at 200 g.L-1 was 42.35 and 38.42 g.L-1, with and without the invertase treatment, respectively. In the culture medium with 300 g.L-1 sucrose, production reached 60.4 g.L-1 and with invertase treatment was 19.14 g.L-1. These results indicated that the excessive rise in osmotic pressure led to a significant decrease in sorbitol production by the Zymomonas mobilis bacterium in the sucrose medium treated with invertase.A bactéria Zymomonas mobilis, apresenta potencial para produção de sorbitol quando crescida em meio com alta concentração de açúcar. O sorbitol produzido é acumulado no periplasma da bactéria para conter os efeitos prejudiciais da elevada pressão osmótica, que resulta pela ação da enzima invertase, que promove hidrólise da sacarose. A conversão da sacarose em glicose e frutose aumentando a osmolaridade do meio. Entretanto, um aumento excessivo na pressão osmótica pode inibir a produção de sorbitol pela bactéria. Este trabalho empregou invertase de Saccharomyces cerevisiae nos meios de fermentação com sacarose a 200 e 300 g.L-1. A produção de sorbitol no meio com sacarose a 200 g.L-1 foi de 42,35 g.L-1 e 38,42 g.L-1 com e sem tratamento com invertase respectivamente. No meio com 300 g.L-1 sem tratamento, a produção foi de 60,42 e com tratamento 19,14 g.L-1. Estes

  9. Molecular evidence of sorbitol dehydrogenase in tomato, a non-Rosaceae plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kazuhiro; Moriguchi, Ryo; Kanahama, Koki; Yamaki, Shohei; Kanayama, Yoshinori

    2005-12-01

    The enzyme NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) is well characterized in the Rosaceae family of fruit trees, which synthesizes sorbitol as a translocatable photosynthate. Expressed sequence tags of SDH-like sequences have also been generated from various non-Rosaceae species that do not synthesize sorbitol as a primary photosynthetic product, but the physiological roles of the encoded proteins in non-Rosaceae plants are unknown. Therefore, we isolated an SDH-like cDNA (SDL) from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Genomic Southern blot analysis suggested that SDL exists in the tomato genome as a single-copy gene. Northern blot analysis showed that SDL is ubiquitously expressed in tomato plants. Recombinant SDL protein was produced and purified for enzymatic characterization. SDL catalyzed the interconversion of sorbitol and fructose with NAD (H). SDL showed highest activity for sorbitol among the several substrates tested. SDL showed no activity with NADP+. Thus, SDL was identified as a SDH, although the Km values and substrate specificity of SDL were significantly different from those of SDH purified from the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), a Rosaceae fruit tree. In addition, tomato was transformed with antisense SDL to evaluate the contribution of SDL to SDH activity in tomato. The transformation decreased SDH activity to approximately 50% on average. Taken together, these results provide molecular evidence of SDH in tomato, and SDL was renamed LeSDH.

  10. Cellulase and Xylanase Production by Penicillium echinulatum in Submerged Media Containing Cellulose Amended with Sorbitol

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    Carla Eliana Todero Ritter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the use of sorbitol as a soluble carbon source, in association with cellulose, to produce cellulases and xylanases in submerged cultures of Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1. Because cellulose is an insoluble carbon source, in cellulase production, there are some problems with rheology and oxygen transfer. The submerged fermentations containing media composed of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1% (w/v sorbitol and cellulose that were added at different times during the cultivation; 0.2% (w/v soy bran; 0.1% (w/v wheat bran; and a solution of salts. The highest filter paper activity (FPA ( IU·mL−1 was obtained on the seventh day in the medium containing 0.5% (w/v sorbitol and 0.5% (w/v cellulose added 24 h after the start of cultivation. However, the CMCases showed an activity peak on the sixth day ( IU·mL−1 in the medium containing 0.75% (w/v sorbitol and 0.75% (w/v cellulose added after 12 h of cultivation. The xylanases showed the highest activity in the medium with 0.75% (w/v sorbitol and 0.25% (w/v cellulose added 36 h after the start of cultivation. This strategy enables the reduction of the cellulose concentration, which in high concentrations can cause rheological and oxygen transfer problems.

  11. Effect of seasonal and geographical differences on skin and effect of treatment with an osmoprotectant: Sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muizzuddin, Neelam; Ingrassia, Michael; Marenus, Kenneth D; Maes, Daniel H; Mammone, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Human skin maintains an optimal permeability barrier function in a terrestrial environment that varies considerably in humidity. Cells cultured under hyperosmotic stress accumulate osmolytes including sorbitol. Epidermal keratinocytes experience similar high osmolality under dry environmental conditions because of increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and concomitant drying of the skin. This study was designed to determine if epidermal keratinocytes, in vitro, could be protected from high osmotic stress, with the exogenous addition of sorbitol. In addition, we evaluated the effect of a formulation containing topical sorbitol on skin barrier and moisturization of subjects living in arid and humid regions in summer as well as in winter. Results from in vitro experiments showed that 50 mM sorbitol protected epidermal keratinocytes from osmotic toxicity induced by sodium chloride. Clinical studies indicated that skin chronically exposed to hot, dry environment appeared to exhibit stronger skin barrier and a lower baseline TEWL. In addition, skin barrier was stronger in summer than in winter. Sorbitol exhibited significant improvement in both barrier repair and moisturization, especially in individuals subjected to arid environmental conditions.

  12. Biosynthesis of sorbitol and other compounds in Golden Delicious apple leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenkamp, J.; Terblanche, J.H.; De Villiers, O.T.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of radioactivity in the principal alcohol-soluble fractions of Golden Delicious apple leaves after exposure to 14 CO 2 for periods from 5 s to 60 min showed that the main products of photosynthesis were located in the phosphorylated and sugar fractions. Although the phosphorylated fraction consistently contained the highest radioactivity, no attempt was made to separate and identify the different compounds. As the percentage activity in the sugar (and sorbitol) and phosphorylated fractions increased with time, that in the organic acid and amino acid fractions decreased. Since the sugar and sorbitol fraction contained 45% of the total radioactivity after 60 min exposure to 14 CO 2 , and since sorbitol contained 82% of the radioactivity in this fraction, it appears that sorbitol is the principal non-phosphorylated end-product of photosynthesis in Golden Delicious apple leaves. Similar results were obtained with plum and apricot leaves. Since after only 60 s of photosynthesis sorbitol contained the highest radioactivity, it is apparent that the formation of this compound is very rapid, plays a role in the metabolism of Golden Delicious apple leaves, and that it is probably associated with the chloroplasts, as was found for plum leaves. The fact that amino acids and other organic acids also contained an appreciable amount of radioactivity (especially after short periods of photosynthesis) indicates a close relationship between these compounds and the primary products of photosynthesis

  13. X-ray crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yennawar, Hemant; Møller, Magda; Gillilan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase (slSDH) has been determined using the crystal structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (hSDH) as a molecular-replacement model. slSDH crystallized in space group I222 with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. A conserved tetramer...

  14. Effect of sorbitol and glycerol on the stability of trypsin and difference between their stabilization effects in the various solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhang, Mohammad; Mehrnejad, Faramarz; Pazhang, Yaghub; Falahati, Hanieh; Chaparzadeh, Nader

    2016-01-01

    The effect of glycerol and sorbitol on the stability of porcine pancreas trypsin was investigated in this work. Molecular dynamics simulation and thermostability results showed that trypsin has two flexible regions, and polyols (sorbitol and glycerol) stabilize the enzyme by decreasing the flexibility of these regions. Radial distribution function results exhibited that sorbitol and glycerol were excluded from the first water layer of the enzyme, therefore decrease the flexibility of the regions by preferential exclusion. Also, results showed that the stabilization effect of sorbitol is more than glycerol. This observation could be because of the larger decrease in the fluctuations of trypsin in the presence of sorbitol. We also examined the role of solvent's hydrophobicity in enzyme stabilization by sorbitol and glycerol. To do so, the thermostability of trypsin was evaluated in the presence of solvents with different hydrophobicity (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol) in addition to the polyols. Our results depicted that glycerol is a better stabilizer than sorbitol in the presence of hydrophobic solvents (n-propanol), whereas sorbitol is a better stabilizer than glycerol in the presence of hydrophilic solvents (methanol). © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Modulation of δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity by the Sorbitol-Induced Osmotic Stress in Maize Leaf Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M; Tiwary, S; Gadre, R

    2018-01-01

    Osmotic stress induced with 1 M sorbitol inhibited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesizing activities in etiolated maize leaf segments during greening; the ALAD activity was inhibited to a greater extent than the ALA synthesis. When the leaves were exposed to light, the ALAD activity increased for the first 8 h, followed by a decrease observed at 16 and 24 h in both sorbitol-treated and untreated leaf tissues. The maximum inhibition of the enzyme activity was observed in the leaf segments incubated with sorbitol for 4 to 8 h. Glutamate increased the ALAD activity in the in vitro enzymatic preparations obtained from the sorbitol-treated leaf segments; sorbitol inhibited the ALAD activity in the preparations from both sorbitol-treated and untreated leaves. It was suggested that sorbitol-induced osmotic stress inhibits the enzyme activity by affecting the ALAD induction during greening and regulating the ALAD steady-state level of ALAD in leaf cells. The protective effect of glutamate on ALAD in the preparations from the sorbitol-treated leaves might be due to its stimulatory effect on the enzyme.

  16. Granule fraction inhomogeneity of calcium carbonate/sorbitol in roller compacted granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Charlotte; Olsen, P.M.; Bertelsen, P.

    2008-01-01

    The granule fraction inhomogeneity of roller compacted granules was examined on mixtures of three different morphologic forms of calcium carbonate and three particle sizes of sorbitol. The granule fraction inhomogeneity was determined by the distribution of the calcium carbonate in each of the 10...... size fractions between 0 and 2000 µm and by calculating the demixing potential. Significant inhomogeneous occurrence of calcium carbonate in the size fractions was demonstrated, depending mostly on the particles sizes of sorbitol but also on the morphological forms of calcium carbonate......, the ability of the powder to agglomerate in the roller compactor was demonstrated to be related to the ability of the powder to be compacted into a tablet, thus the most compactable calcium carbonate and the smallest sized sorbitol improved the homogeneity by decreasing the demixing potential....

  17. Development of a promoter shutoff system in Aspergillus oryzae using a sorbitol-sensitive promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ken; Terado, Shiho; Toyoura, Rieko; Fukuda, Hisashi; Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Iwashita, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Promoter shutoff is a general method for analyzing essential genes, but in the fungus Aspergillus oryzae, no tightly repressed promoters have been reported. To overcome the current limitations of conditional promoters, we examined sorbitol- and galactose-responsive genes using microarrays to identify regulatable genes with only minor physiological and genetic effects. We identified two sorbitol-induced genes (designated as sorA and sorB), cloned their promoters, and built a regulated egfp and brlA expression system. Growth medium-dependent enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) fluorescence and conidiation were confirmed for egfp and brlA under the control of their respective promoters. We also used this shutoff system to regulate the essential rhoA, which demonstrated the expected growth inhibition under repressed growth conditions. Our new sorbitol promoter shutoff system developed can serve as a valuable new tool for essential gene analyses of filamentous fungi.

  18. Isohexide and Sorbitol-Derived, Enzymatically Synthesized Renewable Polyesters with Enhanced Tg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustini, Liliana; Lavilla, Cristina; de Ilarduya, Antxon Martínez; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián; Koning, Cor E

    2016-10-10

    Sugar-based polyesters derived from sorbitol and isohexides were obtained via solvent-free enzymatic catalysis. Pendant hydroxyl groups, coming from the sorbitol units, were present along the polyester backbone, whereas the two isohexides, namely, isomannide and isoidide dimethyl ester monomers, were selected to introduce rigidity into the polyester chains. The feasibility of incorporating isomannide as a diol compared to the isoidide dimethyl ester as acyl-donor via lipase-catalyzed polycondensation was investigated. The presence of bicyclic units resulted in enhanced T g with respect to the parent sorbitol-containing polyester lacking isohexides. The different capability of the two isohexides to boost the thermal properties confirmed the more flexible character provided by the isoidide diester derivative. Solvent-borne coatings were prepared by cross-linking the sugar-based polyester polyols with polyisocyanates. The increased rigidity of the obtained sugar-based polyester polyols led to an enhancement in hardness of the resulting coatings.

  19. Physicochemical, mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan films with and without sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Zhou, Yibin; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Chen; Cao, Shengnan

    2014-09-01

    The effect of sorbitol on the physicochemical, mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan films with different degrees of deacetylation (DD; i.e., DD85% and DD95%) was investigated. The thickness, moisture content (MC), water solubility (WS) and water-vapor permeability (WVP) of the films were evaluated. Sorbitol addition reduced MC, increased WS and significantly (psorbitol increased the strain and decreased stress for both DD films, but DD95% could sustain higher strain and DD85% could sustain higher stress. Thermogravimetrics analysis and differential scanning calorimetry showed that sorbitol elicited a lower degradation temperature for both films, and that DD95% films exhibited higher thermal stability than DD85% films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chromatin-associated regulation of sorbitol synthesis in flower buds of peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Alba; Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Agustí, Manuel; Badenes, María Luisa; Ríos, Gabino

    2017-11-01

    PpeS6PDH gene is postulated to mediate sorbitol synthesis in flower buds of peach concomitantly with specific chromatin modifications. Perennial plants have evolved an adaptive mechanism involving protection of meristems within specialized structures named buds in order to survive low temperatures and water deprivation during winter. A seasonal period of dormancy further improves tolerance of buds to environmental stresses through specific mechanisms poorly known at the molecular level. We have shown that peach PpeS6PDH gene is down-regulated in flower buds after dormancy release, concomitantly with changes in the methylation level at specific lysine residues of histone H3 (H3K27 and H3K4) in the chromatin around the translation start site of the gene. PpeS6PDH encodes a NADPH-dependent sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of sorbitol. Consistently, sorbitol accumulates in dormant buds showing higher PpeS6PDH expression. Moreover, PpeS6PDH gene expression is affected by cold and water deficit stress. Particularly, its expression is up-regulated by low temperature in buds and leaves, whereas desiccation treatment induces PpeS6PDH in buds and represses the gene in leaves. These data reveal the concurrent participation of chromatin modification mechanisms, transcriptional regulation of PpeS6PDH and sorbitol accumulation in flower buds of peach. In addition to its role as a major translocatable photosynthate in Rosaceae species, sorbitol is a widespread compatible solute and cryoprotectant, which suggests its participation in tolerance to environmental stresses in flower buds of peach.

  1. Comparison of 3% sorbitol vs psyllium fibre as oral contrast agents in MR enterography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sidharth; Colak, Errol; Anthwal, Shalini; Vlachou, Paraskevi A; Raikhlin, Antony; Kirpalani, Anish

    2014-10-01

    To compare the degree of small bowel distension achieved by 3% sorbitol, a high osmolarity solution, and a psyllium-based bulk fibre as oral contrast agents (OCAs) in MR enterography (MRE). This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board. A total of 45 consecutive normal MRE examinations (sorbitol, n = 20; psyllium, n = 25) were reviewed. The patients received either 1.5 l of 3% sorbitol or 2 l of 1.6 g kg(-1) psyllium prior to imaging. Quantitative small bowel distension measurements were taken in five segments: proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, proximal ileum, distal ileum and terminal ileum by two independent radiologists. Distension in these five segments was also qualitatively graded from 0 (very poor) to 4 (excellent) by two additional independent radiologists. Statistical analysis comparing the groups and assessing agreement included intraclass coefficients, Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Small bowel distension was not significantly different in any of the five small bowel segments between the use of sorbitol and psyllium as OCAs in both the qualitative (p = 0.338-0.908) and quantitative assessments (p = 0.083-0.856). The mean bowel distension achieved was 20.1 ± 2.2 mm for sorbitol and 19.8 ± 2.5 mm for psyllium (p = 0.722). Visualization of the ileum was good or excellent in 65% of the examinations in both groups. Sorbitol and psyllium are not significantly different at distending the small bowel and both may be used as OCAs for MRE studies. This is the first study to directly compare the degree of distension in MRE between these two common, readily available and inexpensive OCAs.

  2. Structure-property relation in HPMC polymer films plasticized with Sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Y.; Somashekarappa, H.; Mahadevaiah, Somashekar, R.

    2013-06-01

    A correlation study on physical and mechanical properties of Hydroxy propyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer films plasticized with different weight ratio of Sorbitol, prepared using solution casting method, was carried out using wide angle X-ray technique and universal testing machine. It is found that the crystallanity decreases as the concentration of Sorbitol increases up to a certain concentration and there afterwards increases. Measured Physical Properties like tensile strength decreases and elongation (%) increases indicating increase in the flexibility of the films. These observations confirm the correlation between microstructal parameters and mechanical properties of films. These films are suitable for packaging food products.

  3. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  4. Sorbitol-modified hyaluronic acid reduces oxidative stress, apoptosis and mediators of inflammation and catabolism in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkhon, John-Max; Thach, Maryane; Shi, Qin; Fernandes, Julio C; Fahmi, Hassan; Benderdour, Mohamed

    2014-08-01

    Our study was designed to elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms by which sorbitol-modified hyaluronic acid (HA/sorbitol) exerts beneficial effects in osteoarthritis (OA). Human OA chondrocytes were treated with increasing doses of HA/sorbitol ± anti-CD44 antibody or with sorbitol alone and thereafter with or without interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Signal transduction pathways and parameters related to oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and catabolism were investigated. HA/sorbitol prevented IL-1β-induced oxidative stress, as measured by reactive oxygen species, p47-NADPH oxidase phosphorylation, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) production and HNE-metabolizing glutathione-S-transferase A4-4 expression. Moreover, HA/sorbitol stifled IL-1β-induced metalloproteinase-13, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 release as well as inducible NO synthase expression. Study of the apoptosis process revealed that this gel significantly attenuated cell death, caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation elicited by exposure to a cytotoxic H2O2 dose. Examination of signaling pathway components disclosed that HA/sorbitol prevented IL-1β-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-kappa B activation, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Interestingly, the antioxidant as well as the anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of HA/sorbitol were attributed to sorbitol and HA, respectively. Altogether, our findings support a beneficial effect of HA/sorbitol in OA through the restoration of redox status and reduction of apoptosis, inflammation and catabolism involved in cartilage damage.

  5. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Sorbitol Transporters from Developing Sour Cherry Fruit and Leaf Sink Tissues1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhifang; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Remi; Yoo, Sang-Dong; van Nocker, Steven; Loescher, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    The acyclic polyol sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product and the principal photosynthetic transport substance in many economically important members of the family Rosaceace (e.g. almond [Prunus dulcis (P. Mill.) D.A. Webber], apple [Malus pumila P. Mill.], cherry [Prunus spp.], peach [Prunus persica L. Batsch], and pear [Pyrus communis]). To understand key steps in long-distance transport and particularly partitioning and accumulation of sorbitol in sink tissues, we have cloned two sorbitol transporter genes (PcSOT1 and PcSOT2) from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruit tissues that accumulate large quantities of sorbitol. Sorbitol uptake activities and other characteristics were measured by heterologous expression of PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Both genes encode proton-dependent, sorbitol-specific transporters with similar affinities (Km sorbitol of 0.81 mm for PcSOT1 and 0.64 mm for PcSOT2). Analyses of gene expression of these transporters, however, suggest different roles during leaf and fruit development. PcSOT1 is expressed throughout fruit development, but especially when growth and sorbitol accumulation rates are highest. In leaves, PcSOT1 expression is highest in young, expanding tissues, but substantially less in mature leaves. In contrast, PcSOT2 is mainly expressed only early in fruit development and not in leaves. Compositional analyses suggest that transport mediated by PcSOT1 and PcSOT2 plays a major role in sorbitol and dry matter accumulation in sour cherry fruits. Presence of these transporters and the high fruit sorbitol concentrations suggest that there is an apoplastic step during phloem unloading and accumulation in these sink tissues. Expression of PcSOT1 in young leaves before completion of the transition from sink to source is further evidence for a role in determining sink activity. PMID:12692316

  6. Follow-up of coeliac disease with the novel one-hour 13C-sorbitol breath test versus the H2-sorbitol breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveito, Kari; Hetta, Anne Kristine; Askedal, Mia; Brunborg, Cathrine; Sandvik, Leiv; Løberg, Else Marit; Skar, Viggo

    2011-07-01

    We recently developed a (13)C-sorbitol breath test ((13)C-SBT) as an alternative to the H(2)-sorbitol breath test (H(2)-SBT) for coeliac disease. In this study we compared the diagnostic properties of the H(2)-SBT and the (13)C-SBT in follow-up of coeliac disease. Twenty-seven coeliac patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD) performed the breath tests. All had been tested before treatment in the initial study of the (13)C-SBT, in which 39 untreated coeliac patients, 40 patient controls, and 26 healthy volunteers participated. Five gram sorbitol and 100 mg (13)C-sorbitol were dissolved in 250 ml tap water and given orally. H(2), CH(4) and (13)CO(2) were measured in end-expiratory breath samples every 30 min for 4 h. Increased H(2) concentration ≥20 ppm from basal values was used as cut-off for the H(2)-SBT. Sixty minutes values were used as diagnostic index in the (13)C-SBT. (13)CO(2) levels at 60 min increased in 20/26 treated coeliac patients (77%) after GFD, but were significantly lower than in control groups. Out of 20 patients who had a positive H(2)-SBT before GFD, 12 had a negative H(2)-SBT after GFD. Peak H(2) concentrations were not correlated with (13)C-SBT results. The study confirms the sensitivity of a one-hour (13)C-SBT for small intestinal malabsorption. The (13)C-SBT has superior diagnostic properties compared with the H(2)-SBT in follow-up of coeliac disease.

  7. A biopolymer-based carbon nanotube interface integrated with a redox shuttle and a D-sorbitol dehydrogenase for robust monitoring of D-sorbitol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefcovicova, J.; Filip, J.; Gemeiner, P.; Bucko, M.; Magdolen, P.; Tkac, J.; Tomcik, P.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the preparation and characterization of a glassy carbon electrode modified with a bionanocomposite consisting of a hyaluronic acid, dispersed carbon nanotubes, and electrostatically bound toluidine blue. The electrode was used to detect NADH in the batch and flow-injection mode of operation. The electrode was further modified by immobilizing sorbitol dehydrogenase to result in biosensor for D-sorbitol that displays good operational stability, a sensitivity of 10.6 μA mM -1 cm -2 , a response time of 16 s, and detection limit in the low micromolar range. The biosensor was successfully applied to off-line monitoring of D-sorbitol during its bioconversion into L-sorbose (a precursor in the synthesis of vitamin C) by Gluconobacter oxydans. The sample assay precision is 2.5% (an average RSD) and the throughput is 65 h -1 if operated in the flow-injection mode. The validation of this biosensor against a reference HPLC method resulted in a slope of correlation of 1.021 ± 0.001 (R 2 = 0.99997). (author)

  8. Polyol specificity of recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana sorbitol dehydrogenase studied by enzyme kinetics and in silico modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Francisca eAguayo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyols are enzymatically-produced plant compounds which can act as compatible solutes during periods of abiotic stress. NAD+-dependent SORBITOL DEHYDROGENASE (SDH, E.C. 1.1.1.14 from Arabidopsis thaliana L. (AtSDH is capable of oxidizing several polyols including sorbitol, ribitol and xylitol. In the present study, enzymatic assays using recombinant AtSDH demonstrated a higher specificity constant for xylitol compared to sorbitol and ribitol, all of which are C2 (S and C4 (R polyols. Enzyme activity was reduced by preincubation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, indicating a requirement for zinc ions. In humans, it has been proposed that sorbitol becomes part of a pentahedric coordination sphere of the catalytic zinc during the reaction mechanism. In order to determine the validity of this pentahedric coordination model in a plant SDH, homology modeling and Molecular Dynamics simulations of AtSDH ternary complexes with the three polyols were performed using crystal structures of human and Bemisia argentifolii (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae SDHs as scaffolds. The results indicate that the differences in interaction with structural water molecules correlate very well with the observed enzymatic parameters, validate the proposed pentahedric coordination of the catalytic zinc ion in a plant SDH, and provide an explanation for why AtSDH shows a preference for polyols with a chirality of C2 (S and C4 (R.

  9. Advanced glycation end products and sorbitol in blood from differently compensated diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comazzi, S; Bertazzolo, W; Bonfanti, U; Spagnolo, V; Sartorelli, P

    2008-06-01

    Canine diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common metabolic disorder with long term complications, most of which are caused by glycosylation of structural proteins, decreases in antioxidant concentrations, altered osmotic balance and hypoxia due to impaired oxygen transport. Previous studies have demonstrated that under hyperglycemic conditions canine erythrocytes undergo swelling, probably due to activation of the polyol pathway. The present work aimed to assess the plasma concentration of advanced glycation end (AGE) products, stable Amadori-products generated by non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins and the intracellular concentration of sorbitol, produced by the activation of polyol pathway in 34 blood samples from diabetic dogs and in 14 controls. AGE products were significantly higher (pdogs compared with control animals. The sorbitol concentration in erythrocytes was also significantly higher in diabetic dogs and, in particular, in poorly compensated animals and in dogs with ketonuria. In five cases that were analysed before and after clinical improvement, sorbitol concentration was found to correlate with improvement. These results suggest that non-specific glycosylation is increased and that the polyol pathway is activated in diabetic dogs in a manner that is proportionate to the severity of disease. Moreover, the concentration of AGE products and sorbitol may be useful for monitoring the onset of diabetic complications and assessing the most appropriate therapeutic approaches for management of canine DM.

  10. Carbon-coated ceramic membrane reactor for production of hydrogen via aqueous phase reforming of sorbitol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neira d'Angelo, M.F.; Ordomskiy, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced by aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of sorbitol in a carbon-on-alumina tubular membrane reactor (4 nm pore size, 7 cm long, 3 mm internal diameter) that allows the hydrogen gas to permeate to the shell side, whereas the liquid remains in the tube side. The hydrophobic nature of

  11. Simultaneous hydrolysis and hydrogenation of cellobiose to sorbitol in molten salt hydrate media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Soares, H.S.M.P.; Moulijn, J.A.; Makkee, M.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrolysis and hydrogenation of cellobiose (4-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose) in ZnCl2_4H2O solvent was studied to optimize the conditions for conversion of lignocellulose (the most abundant renewable resource) into sorbitol (D-glucitol). Water at neutral pH does not allow hydrolysis of

  12. Sorbitol as an efficient reducing agent for laser-induced copper deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemirovsky, V. A.; Logunov, L. S.; Safonov, S. V.; Tumkin, I. I.; Tver'yanovich, Yu. S.; Menchikov, L. G.

    2012-10-01

    We have pioneered in revealing the fact that sorbitol may be used as an efficient reducing agent in the process of laser-induced copper deposition from solutions; in this case, it is possible to obtain copper lines much higher quality than by using conventional formalin.

  13. Ordered Mesoporous NiCeAl Containing Catalysts for Hydrogenolysis of Sorbitol to Glycols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jiaqi; Qin, Juan; Li, Dong; Wu, Wenliang

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose-derived sorbitol is emerging as a feasible and renewable feedstock for the production of value-added chemicals. Highly active and stable catalyst is essential for sorbitol hydrogenolysis. Ordered mesoporous M- xNi yCeAl catalysts with different loadings of nickel and cerium species were successfully synthesized via one-pot evaporation-induced self-assembly strategy (EISA) and their catalytic performance were tested in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol. The physical chemical properties for the catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 physisorption, H2-TPR, H2 impulse chemisorption, ICP and TEM techniques. The results showed that the ordered mesopores with uniform pore sizes can be obtained and the Ni nanoparticles around 6 nm in size were homogeneously dispersed in the mesopore channels. A little amount of cerium species introduced would be beneficial to their textural properties resulting in higher Ni dispersion, metal area and smaller size of Ni nanoparticles. The M-10Ni2CeAl catalyst with Ni and Ce loading of 10.9 and 6.3 wt % shows better catalytic performance than other catalysts, and the yield of 1,2-PG and EG can reach 56.9% at 493 K and 6 MPa pressure for 8 h after repeating reactions for 12 times without obvious deterioration of physical and chemical properties. Ordered mesoporous M-NiCeAl catalysts are active and stable in sorbitol hydrogenolysis.

  14. Management of constipation in residents with dementia: sorbitol effectiveness and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volicer, Ladislav; Lane, Patricia; Panke, JoAnn; Lyman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe a cost-effective strategy for management of constipation in nursing home residents with dementia. We conducted a prospective observational quality improvement study of 41 residents with chronic constipation and receiving an osmotic laxative. Sorbitol was substituted for lactulose. The study was conducted at a dementia special care unit at a Veterans Administration hospital. We measured the number and amount of laxative use over a period of 4 weeks that were required to maintain regular bowel function. There was no difference in efficacy of lactulose and sorbitol. Use of additional laxatives was infrequent: Milk of Magnesia on approximately 10% of days/patient, bisacodyl suppository on 2% to 4% of days/patient, and Fleet enema only on 3 occasions. The cost of constipation management using routine administration of sorbitol and as-needed use of other laxatives was 27% to 55% lower than the cost of other constipation management strategies reported in the literature. Substitution of sorbitol for lactulose does not change efficacy of the treatment and decreases cost. Regular use of an osmotic laxative avoids the costs and discomforts of rectal laxatives.

  15. The relationship between sucrose hydrolysis, sorbitol formation and mineral ion concentration during bioethanol formation using Zymomonas mobilis 2716

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelle, M.B.; Doelle, H.W. (Queensland Univ., St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Microbiology); Greenfield, P.F. (Queensland Univ., St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1990-11-01

    Investigations into the relationship between sucrose hydrolysis, sorbitol formation and mineral ion concentration during bioethanol formation by Zymomonas mobilis 2716 revealed two distinct phenomena responsible for carbon flow diversion, a 'sucrose effect' and a 'salt effect'. Neither of the two phenomena affects sucrose hydrolysis, but they divert carbon flow of the fructose monomer leading to its own accumulation, sorbitol or oligosaccharide formation. Sucrose concentrations in excess of 15% (w/v) led to sorbitol formation, the level of which may exceed 2% (w/v) depending upon glucose accumulation during sucrose hydrolysis. Increasing mineral ion concentrations led initially to carbon losses and finally to fructose accumulation instead of sorbitol formation. This carbon loss can be corrected by the addition of invertase, which in turn leads to an increase in sorbitol, fructose and ethanol. Potassium and chloride are the dominant ions responsible for suppression of sorbitol formation and fructose uptake, encouraging oligosaccharide formation. These fructooligosaccharides must be of a type which can be converted to fructose, sorbitol and ethanol through the action of invertase. The requirement of invertase addition to prevent fructooligosaccharide formation is indirect evidence that Z. mobilis 2716 does not produce invertase. (orig.).

  16. Effect of Secondary Doping Using Sorbitol on Structure and Transport Properties of PEDOT-PSS Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasim, Syed; Pasha, Apsar; Roy, Aashish S.; Parveen, Ameena; Badi, Nacer

    2017-07-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulphonate) (PEDOT-PSS) in the recent past has emerged as one of the most fascinating conducting polymers for many device applications. The unique feature of PEDOT-PSS is its transparency in the entire visible spectrum with excellent thermal stability. The PEDOT-PSS as prepared as an aqueous dispersion has very low conductivity, and it hinders the performance of a device. In this work we report the conductivity enhancement of PEDOT-PSS thin films through secondary doping using a polar organic solvent such as sorbitol. The mechanism of conductivity enhancement was studied through various physical and chemical characterizations. The effect of sorbitol concentration on structure and transport properties of PEDOT-PSS thin films was investigated in detail. The structural and morphological modifications in PEDOT-PSS due to the addition of sorbitol was studied through Fourier transform spectroscopy, Ultra Violet-visible spectroscopy, theromogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The interactions resulting from conformational changes of PEDOT chains that changes from coiled to linear structure due to the sorbitol treatment significantly improves the conductivity of PEDOT-PSS films. The secondary doping of sorbitol reduces the energy barrier that facilitates the charge carrier hopping leading to enhanced conductivity. We have observed that the conductivity of PEDOT-PSS thin films was increased by two fold due to sorbitol treatment when compared to conductivity of pure PEDOT-PSS. We have carried out detailed analysis of dielectric parameters of sorbitol-treated PEDOT-PSS films and found that sorbitol treatment has a significant effect on various dielectric attributes of PEDOT-PSS films. Hence, secondary doping using sorbitol could be a useful way to effectively tailor the conductivity and dielectric properties of PEDOT-PSS thin films that can be used as flexible electrodes in

  17. Differential response of nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells to high salt, sorbitol, and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2012-03-01

    Nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells are routinely confronted with high osmolality in their microenvironment and respond to this stress in vitro by regulating cell cycle progression and by activating a DNA repair machinery in order to counteract its genotoxic effect. In the present study, we attempted to identify the origin of this osmo-regulatory response, by using an ionic NaCl/KCl solution, the compatible osmolyte sorbitol, and the readily permeant urea. High salt and sorbitol were found to activate similar molecular pathways, including the p38 MAPK and the p53-p21(WAF1)-pRb axis, that were not stimulated by high urea. On the other hand, only high urea led to the phosphorylation of ERKs and JNKs. Furthermore, salt- and sorbitol-treated cells were able to phosphorylate histone H2A.X on Ser139, in contrast to cells exposed to urea, indicating a common mechanism for DNA repair, which was achieved by a p53-dependent activation of the G1 checkpoint by both solutes. DNA repair, as directly measured by a host cell reactivation assay, occurred under conditions of hyperosmolar salt and sorbitol, although to a lesser extent in sorbitol-treated cells than in cells exposed to high salinity. Taken as a whole, our findings suggest that the hyperosmolality-provoked DNA damage and the responses of nucleus pulposus cells induced by this genotoxic stress most probably originate from cell volume alterations mediated by hypertonicity and not from increased intracellular ionic concentration. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Children's acceptance of milk with xylitol or sorbitol for dental caries prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Ramon

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol, a polyol sugar, has been shown to reduce dental caries when mixed with food or chewing gum. This study examines the taste acceptability of xylitol in milk as a first step toward measuring the effectiveness of xylitol in milk for the reduction of dental caries in a public health program. Methods Three different types of milk (Ultra High Temperature (UHT, powder and evaporated were tested for acceptability by 75 Peruvian children (25 per milk group, ages 4 to 7 years. Each group evaluated xylitol and sorbitol in one type of milk. In the first phase, each child was presented with a tray of four plastic cups containing 50 ml of milk with 0.021 g/ml xylitol, 0.042 g/ml xylitol, 0.042 g/ml sorbitol or no sugar. Each child was asked to taste the samples in a self-selected order. After tasting each sample, the child placed the milk cup in front of one of three cartoon faces (smile, frown or neutral representing the child's response to the taste of each sample. In the second phase, the child was asked to rank order the milk samples within each category (smile, frown or neutral. Ranks within categories were then combined to obtain a rank ordering for all the test samples. Results The ranking from best to worst for the samples across categories (UHT, powder, evaporated was xylitol (0.0.042 g/ml, sorbitol (0.042 g/ml, xylitol (0.021 g/ml and milk alone (Friedman's ANOVA. Xylitol and sorbitol were preferred over milk alone, and xylitol (0.042 g/ml was preferred to sorbitol (0.042 g/ml(p Conclusion Milk sweetened with xylitol is well accepted by Peruvian children ages 4–7 years.

  19. Increased risk of cataract development in WNIN-obese rats due to accumulation of intralenticular sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Giridharan, Nappan Veettil; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Validandi, Vakdevi; Pullakhandam, Raghu; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2013-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between obesity and increased incidence of ocular complications including cataract, yet the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms remained unclear. Previously we had demonstrated accumulation of sorbitol in the lens of obese rats (WNIN/Ob) and more so in a related strain with impaired glucose tolerance (WNIN/GR-Ob). However, only a few (15-20%) WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob rats develop cataracts spontaneously with age. To gain further insights, we investigated the susceptibility of eye lens proteins of these obese rat strains to heat- and UV-induced aggregation in vitro, lens opacification upon glucose-mediated sorbitol accumulation ex vivo, and onset and progression of cataract was followed by galactose feeding and streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The results indicated increased susceptibility toward heat- or UV-induced aggregation of lens proteins in obese animals compared to their littermate lean controls. Further, in organ culture studies glucose-induced sorbitol accumulation was found to be higher and thus the lens opacification was faster in obese animals compared to their lean littermates. Also, the onset and progression of galactose- or STZ-induced cataractogenesis was faster in obese animals compared to lean control. These results together with our previous observations suggest that obesity status could lead to hyperaccumulation of sorbitol in eye lens, predisposing them to cataract, primarily by increasing their susceptibility to environmental and/or physiological factors. Further, intralenticular sorbitol accumulation beyond a threshold level could lead to cataract in WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob rats. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Effect of nonabsorbed amounts of a fructose-sorbitol mixture on small intestinal transit in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L; Linnet, Jan; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Although malabsorption of small amounts of fructose-sorbitol mixtures occurs frequently in healthy humans, insights into their effects on gastrointestinal motility are poor. The present study addresses the hypothesis that malabsorption of a fructose-sorbitol challenge changes the small intestinal...... transit rate. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind crossover investigation. In random order, the subjects ingested 30 g glucose or a mixture of 25 g fructose and 5 g sorbitol as 10% solutions. As a radiolabeled marker, (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was added to each test...... solution. Breath hydrogen and methane concentrations and gastrointestinal progress of the radiolabeled marker were followed for the next 6-hr period. Malabsorption of small amounts of the fructose-sorbitol mixture was evident in all subjects. The area under the gastric radioactivity-time curve after...

  1. Simultaneous saccharification of inulin and starch using commercial glucoamylase and the subsequent bioconversion to high titer sorbitol and gluconic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kehong; Hu, Fengxian; Bao, Jie

    2013-12-01

    A new bioprocess for production of sorbitol and gluconic acid from two low-cost feedstocks, inulin and cassava starch, using a commercially available enzyme was proposed in this study. The commercial glucoamylase GA-L NEW from Genencor was found to demonstrate a high inulinase activity for hydrolysis of inulin into fructose and glucose. The glucoamylase was used to replace the expensive and not commercially available inulinase enzyme for simultaneous saccharification of inulin and starch into high titer glucose and fructose hydrolysate. The glucose and fructose in the hydrolysate were converted into sorbitol and gluconic acid using immobilized whole cells of the recombinant Zymomonas mobilis strain. The high gluconic acid concentration of 193 g/L and sorbitol concentration of 180 g/L with the overall yield of 97.3 % were obtained in the batch operations. The present study provided a practical production method of sorbitol and gluconic acid from low cost feedstocks and enzymes.

  2. Simultaneous catalytic conversion of cellulose and corncob xylan under temperature programming for enhanced sorbitol and xylitol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Lucília Sousa; Órfão, José J de Melo; Pereira, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro

    2017-11-01

    Sorbitol and xylitol yields can be improved by converting cellulose and xylan simultaneously, due to a synergetic effect between both substrates. Furthermore, both yields can be greatly enhanced by simply adjusting the reaction conditions regarding the optimum for the production of each product, since xylitol (from xylan) and sorbitol (from cellulose) yields are maximized when the reaction is carried out at 170 and 205°C, respectively. Therefore, the combination of a simultaneous conversion of cellulose and xylan with a two-step temperature approach, which consists in the variation of the reaction temperature from 170 to 205°C after 2h, showed to be a good strategy for maximizing the production of sorbitol and xylitol directly from mixture of cellulose and xylan. Using this new and environmentally friendly approach, yields of sorbitol and xylitol of 75 and 77%, respectively, were obtained after 6h of reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of nonabsorbed amounts of a fructose-sorbitol mixture on small intestinal transit in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L; Linnet, Jan; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    transit rate. Eleven healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind crossover investigation. In random order, the subjects ingested 30 g glucose or a mixture of 25 g fructose and 5 g sorbitol as 10% solutions. As a radiolabeled marker, (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was added to each test......Although malabsorption of small amounts of fructose-sorbitol mixtures occurs frequently in healthy humans, insights into their effects on gastrointestinal motility are poor. The present study addresses the hypothesis that malabsorption of a fructose-sorbitol challenge changes the small intestinal...... solution. Breath hydrogen and methane concentrations and gastrointestinal progress of the radiolabeled marker were followed for the next 6-hr period. Malabsorption of small amounts of the fructose-sorbitol mixture was evident in all subjects. The area under the gastric radioactivity-time curve after...

  4. Caloric restriction counteracts age-related changes in the activities of sorbitol metabolizing enzymes from mouse liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Kevork; Ramsey, Jon J.; Weindruch, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The influence of caloric restriction (CR) on hepatic sorbitol-metabolizing enzyme activities was investigated in young and old mice. Aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were significantly lower in old CR mice than in old controls. Young CR mice showed decreased aldose reductase activity and a trend towards decreased sorbitol dehydrogenase when compared to controls. Metabolites of the pathway, namely sorbitol, glucose and fructose were decreased by CR in young and old mice. Pyruvate levels were decreased by CR in both young and old mice, while lactate decreased only in old CR. Malate levels increased in old CR but remained unchanged in young CR, when compared with controls. Accordingly, the lactae/pyruvate and malate/pyruvate ratios in young and old CR mice were increased, indicating increased NADH/NAD and NADPH/NADP redox couples, respectively. The results indicate that decreased glucose levels under CR conditions lead to decreased sorbitol pathway enzyme activities and metabolite levels, and could contribute to the beneficial effects of long-term CR through decreased sorbitol levels and NADPH sparing. PMID:18953666

  5. A highly efficient sorbitol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter oxydans G624 and improvement of its stability through immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Su; Patel, Sanjay K S; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Jung, Woo-Suk; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2016-09-16

    A sorbitol dehydrogenase (GoSLDH) from Gluconobacter oxydans G624 (G. oxydans G624) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-CodonPlus RIL. The complete 1455-bp codon-optimized gene was amplified, expressed, and thoroughly characterized for the first time. GoSLDH exhibited Km and kcat values of 38.9 mM and 3820 s(-1) toward L-sorbitol, respectively. The enzyme exhibited high preference for NADP(+) (vs. only 2.5% relative activity with NAD(+)). GoSLDH sequencing, structure analyses, and biochemical studies, suggested that it belongs to the NADP(+)-dependent polyol-specific long-chain sorbitol dehydrogenase family. GoSLDH is the first fully characterized SLDH to date, and it is distinguished from other L-sorbose-producing enzymes by its high activity and substrate specificity. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the protein binds more strongly to D-sorbitol than other L-sorbose-producing enzymes, and substrate docking analysis confirmed a higher turnover rate. The high oxidation potential of GoSLDH for D-sorbitol was confirmed by cyclovoltametric analysis. Further, stability of GoSLDH significantly improved (up to 13.6-fold) after cross-linking of immobilized enzyme on silica nanoparticles and retained 62.8% residual activity after 10 cycles of reuse. Therefore, immobilized GoSLDH may be useful for L-sorbose production from D-sorbitol.

  6. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of the tetrameric form of SorC sorbitol operon regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanctis, Daniele de; Rêgo, Ana T.; Marçal, David; McVey, Colin E.; Carrondo, Maria A.; Enguita, Francisco J.

    2007-01-01

    The sorbitol operon regulator from K. pneumoniae has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å. The sorbitol operon regulator (SorC) regulates the metabolism of l-sorbose in Klebsiella pneumonia. SorC was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and crystals were obtained of a tetrameric form. A single crystal showed X-ray diffraction to 3.20 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 91.6, b = 113.3, c = 184.1 Å. Analysis of the molecular-replacement solution indicates the presence of four SorC molecules in the asymmetric unit

  8. Erythritol Is More Effective Than Xylitol and Sorbitol in Managing Oral Health Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter de Cock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a comprehensive overview of published evidence on the impact of erythritol, a noncaloric polyol bulk sweetener, on oral health. Methods. A literature review was conducted regarding the potential effects of erythritol on dental plaque (biofilm, dental caries, and periodontal therapy. The efficacy of erythritol on oral health was compared with xylitol and sorbitol. Results. Erythritol effectively decreased weight of dental plaque and adherence of common streptococcal oral bacteria to tooth surfaces, inhibited growth and activity of associated bacteria like S. mutans, decreased expression of bacterial genes involved in sucrose metabolism, reduced the overall number of dental caries, and served as a suitable matrix for subgingival air-polishing to replace traditional root scaling. Conclusions. Important differences were reported in the effect of individual polyols on oral health. The current review provides evidence demonstrating better efficacy of erythritol compared to sorbitol and xylitol to maintain and improve oral health.

  9. Dose response of xylitol and sorbitol for epr retrospective dosimetry with applications to chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israelsson, A.; Gustafsson, H.; Lund, E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal in sweeteners xylitol and sorbitol for use in retrospective dosimetry. For both sweeteners and chewing gum, the signal changed at an interval of 1-84 d after irradiation with minimal changes after 4-8 d. A dependence on storage conditions was noticed and the exposure of the samples to light and humidity was therefore minimised. Both the xylitol and sorbitol signals showed linearity with dose in the measured dose interval, 0-20 Gy. The dose-response measurements for the chewing gum resulted in a decision threshold of 0.38 Gy and a detection limit of 0.78 Gy. A blind test illustrated the possibility of using chewing gums as a retrospective dosemeter with an uncertainty in the dose determination of 0.17 Gy (1 SD). (authors)

  10. Fructose production by Zymomonas mobilis in fed-batch culture with minimal sorbitol formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edye, L A; Johns, M R; Ewings, K N

    1989-08-01

    Fed-batch cultures of Zymomonas mobilis (UQM 2864), a mutant unable to metabolise fructose, grown on diluted sugar cane syrup (200 g/l sucrose) achieved yields of 90.5 g/l fructose and 48.3 g/l ethanol with minimal sorbitol formation and complete utilization of the substrate. The effect of inoculum size on sorbitol formation in the batch stage of fed-batch fermentation are reported. Fermentation of sucrose (350 g/l) supplemented with nutrients yielded 142 g/l fructose and 76.5 g/l ethanol. Some fructose product loss at high fructose concentrations was observed. The fed-batch fermentation process offers a method for obtaining high concentrations of fructose and ethanol from sucrose materials. (orig.).

  11. Effects of sorbitol and glycerol on the structure, dynamics, and stability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pyrazinamidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Khajehzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that the native conformation of the enzyme was stabilized in the sorbitol and glycerol and tend to exclude from the PZase surface, forcing the enzyme to keep it in the compactly folded conformation. The glycerol molecules stabilized PZase by decreasing the loops flexibility and then compacting the enzyme structure. It appears that more stability of PZase in glycerol solution correlates with its amphiphilic orientation, which decreases the unfavorable interactions of hydrophobic regions.

  12. Effect of xylitol versus sorbitol: a quantitative systematic review of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to appraise, within the context of tooth caries, the current clinical evidence and its risk for bias regarding the effects of xylitol in comparison with sorbitol. Databases were searched for clinical trials to 19 March 2011. Inclusion criteria required studies to: test a caries-related primary outcome; compare the effects of xylitol with those of sorbitol; describe a clinical trial with two or more arms, and utilise a prospective study design. Articles were excluded if they did not report computable data or did not follow up test and control groups in the same way. Individual dichotomous and continuous datasets were extracted from accepted articles. Selection and performance/detection bias were assessed. Sensitivity analysis was used to investigate attrition bias. Egger's regression and funnel plotting were used to investigate risk for publication bias. Nine articles were identified. Of these, eight were accepted and one was excluded. Ten continuous and eight dichotomous datasets were extracted. Because of high clinical heterogeneity, no meta-analysis was performed. Most of the datasets favoured xylitol, but this was not consistent. The accepted trials may be limited by selection bias. Results of the sensitivity analysis indicate a high risk for attrition bias. The funnel plot and Egger's regression results suggest a low publication bias risk. External fluoride exposure and stimulated saliva flow may have confounded the measured anticariogenic effect of xylitol. The evidence identified in support of xylitol over sorbitol is contradictory, is at high risk for selection and attrition bias and may be limited by confounder effects. Future high-quality randomised controlled trials are needed to show whether xylitol has a greater anticariogenic effect than sorbitol. © 2012 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. Rapid conversion of sorbitol to isosorbide in hydrophobic ionic liquids under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akio; Murata, Kengo; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Okagawa, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kaiso, Kouji; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol was effectively converted to isosorbide by treatment with [TMPA][NTf2 ] in the presence of catalytic amounts of TsOH under microwave heating at 180 °C. The reaction completed within 10 min and isosorbide was isolated to about 60%. Ionic liquids were readily recovered by an extraction treatment and reused several times. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of HPMC/PVP Blend Films Plasticized with Sorbitol

    OpenAIRE

    Somashekarappa, H.; Prakash, Y.; Hemalatha, K.; Demappa, T.; Somashekar, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this present work is to investigate the effect of plasticizers like Sorbitol on microstructural and mechanical properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) blend films. The pure blend and plasticized blend films were prepared by solution casting method and investigated using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) method. WAXS analysis confirms that the plasticizers can enter into macromolecular blend structure and destroy the crystallinity of the f...

  15. Enhanced production of L-sorbose from D-sorbitol by improving the mRNA abundance of sorbitol dehydrogenase in Gluconobacter oxydans WSH-003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sha; Wang, Xiaobei; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2014-10-18

    Production of L-sorbose from D-sorbitol by Gluconobacter oxydans is the first step to produce L-ascorbic acid on industrial scale. The sldhAB gene, which encodes the sorbitol dehydrogenase (SLDH), was overexpressed in an industrial strain G. oxydans WSH-003 with a strong promoter, P tufB . To enhance the mRNA abundance, a series of artificial poly(A/T) tails were added to the 3'-terminal of sldhAB gene. Besides, their role in sldhAB overexpression and their subsequent effects on L-sorbose production were investigated. The mRNA abundance of the sldhAB gene could be enhanced in G. oxydans by suitable poly(A/T) tails. By self-overexpressing the sldhAB gene in G. oxydans WSH-003 with an optimal poly(A/T) tail under the constitutive promoter P tufB , the titer and the productivity of L-sorbose were enhanced by 36.3% and 25.0%, respectively, in a 1-L fermenter. Immobilization of G. oxydans-sldhAB6 cells further improved the L-sorbose titer by 33.7% after 20 days of semi-continuous fed-batch fermentation. The artificial poly(A/T) tails could significantly enhance the mRNA abundance of the sldhAB. Immobilized G. oxydans-sldhAB6 cells could further enlarge the positive effect caused by enhanced mRNA abundance of the sldhAB.

  16. Sensitization of glycine (spectrophotometric read-out) dosimetric system using sorbitol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.H.; Mukherjee, T.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine spectrophotometric read-out systems have a useful dose range of 15-4000 Gy. An attempt was made to sensitize it using sorbitol as a sensitizer. Optimum compositions of aqueous acidic solutions of ferrous ammonium sulphate-xylenol orange (XO), i.e. FX and sorbitol-ferrous ammonium sulphate-xylenol orange, i.e. SFX, for 400 mg of glycine, which gives maximum dosimetric response for any given dose, were established. Molar absorption coefficient values of ferric-XO-glycine complex, i.e. ε-values, were determined for glycine system in FX and SFX. These values were found to be 8410 and 15,000 m 2 mol -1 respectively, indicating that an enhancement or sensitivity factor of about 1.78 can be achieved by sorbitol for glycine in SFX. This factor was further confirmed by measuring the gamma dose response of glycine in FX and in SFX for four different doses, viz. 37.8, 75.5, 151 and 302 Gy. It was observed that dose response of glycine in SFX is about 77% more than that of glycine in FX. The maximum variation observed in response of glycine in FX or SFX was found to be within ±1.5%.

  17. Effect of Xylitol on Growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Presence of Fructose and Sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiainen, Terhi; Kontiokari, Tero; Sammalkivi, Laura; Ikäheimo, Irma; Koskela, Markku; Uhari, Matti

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol is effective in preventing acute otitis media by inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae. To clarify this inhibition we used fructose, which is known to block similar growth inhibition observed in Streptococcus mutans. In addition, we evaluated the efficacy of sorbitol in inhibiting the growth of pneumococci, as sorbitol is widely used for indications similar to those for which xylitol is used. The addition of 5% xylitol to the growth medium resulted in marked growth inhibition, an effect which was totally eliminated in the presence of 1, 2.5, or 5% fructose but not in the presence of 1 or 5% glucose, 1% galactose, or 1% sucrose. This finding implies that xylitol-induced inhibition of pneumococcal growth is mediated via the fructose phosphotransferase system in a way similar to that in which mutans group streptococcal growth is inhibited. The addition of sorbitol at concentrations of 1, 2.5, or 5% to the growth medium did not affect the growth of pneumococci and neither inhibited nor enhanced the xylitol-induced growth impairment. Thus, it seems that xylitol is the only commercially used sugar substitute proven to have an antimicrobial effect on pneumococci. PMID:11120960

  18. The influence of sorbitol on the production of cellulases and xylanases in an airlift bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Carla Eliana Todero; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Camassola, Marli; da Silveira, Maurício Moura; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro

    2013-11-01

    The production of cellulases and xylanases by Penicillium echinulatum in an airlift bioreactor was evaluated. In batch production, we tested media with isolated or associated cellulose and sorbitol. In fed-batch production, we tested cellulose addition at two different times, 30 h and 48 h. Higher liquid circulation velocities in the downcomer were observed in sorbitol 10 g L(-1) medium. In batch production, higher FPA (filter paper activity) and endoglucanase activities were obtained with cellulose (7.5 g L(-1)) and sorbitol (2.5 g L(-1)), 1.0 U mL(-1) (120 h) and 6.4 U m L(-1) (100 h), respectively. For xylanases, the best production condition was cellulose 10 g L(-1), which achieved 5.5 U mL(-1) in 64 h. The fed-batch process was favorable for obtaining xylanases, but not for FPA and endoglucanases, suggesting that in the case of cellulases, the inducer must be added early in the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pt nanocatalysts supported on reduced graphene oxide for selective conversion of cellulose or cellobiose to sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; Niu, Wenqi; Tan, Minghui; Wu, Mingbo; Zheng, Xuejun; Li, Yanpeng; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2014-05-01

    Pt nanocatalysts loaded on reduced graphene oxide (Pt/RGO) were prepared by means of a convenient microwave-assisted reduction approach with ethylene glycol as reductant. The conversion of cellulose or cellobiose into sorbitol was used as an application reaction to investigate their catalytic performance. Various metal nanocatalysts loaded on RGO were compared and RGO-supported Pt exhibited the highest catalytic activity with 91.5 % of sorbitol yield from cellobiose. The catalytic performances of Pt nanocatalysts supported on different carbon materials or on silica support were also compared. The results showed that RGO was the best catalyst support, and the yield of sorbitol was as high as 91.5 % from cellobiose and 58.9 % from cellulose, respectively. The improvement of catalytic activity was attributed to the appropriate Pt particle size and hydrogen spillover effect of Pt/RGO catalyst. Interestingly, the size and dispersion of supported Pt particles could be easily regulated by convenient adjustment of the microwave heating temperature. The catalytic performance was found to initially increase and then decrease with increasing particle size. The optimum Pt particle size was 3.6 nm. These findings may offer useful guidelines for designing novel catalysts with beneficial catalytic performance for biomass conversion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Subcellular localization and vacuolar targeting of sorbitol dehydrogenase in apple seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Ling; Hu, Zi-Ying; You, Chun-Xiang; Kong, Xiu-Zhen; Shi, Xiao-Pu

    2013-09-01

    Sorbitol is the primary photosynthate and translocated carbohydrate in fruit trees of the Rosaceae family. NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SDH, EC 1.1.1.14), which mainly catalyzes the oxidation of sorbitol to fructose, plays a key role in regulating sink strength in apple. In this study, we found that apple NAD-SDH was ubiquitously distributed in epidermis, parenchyma, and vascular bundle in developing cotyledon. NAD-SDH was localized in the cytosol, the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles, and the vacuolar lumen in the cotyledon at the middle stage of seed development. In contrast, NAD-SDH was mainly distributed in the protein storage vacuoles in cotyledon at the late stage of seed development. Sequence analysis revealed there is a putative signal peptide (SP), also being predicated to be a transmembrane domain, in the middle of proteins of apple NAD-SDH isoforms. To investigate whether the putative internal SP functions in the vacuolar targeting of NAD-SDH, we analyzed the localization of the SP-deletion mutants of MdSDH5 and MdSDH6 (two NAD-SDH isoforms in apple) by the transient expression system in Arabidopsis protoplasts. MdSDH5 and MdSDH6 were not localized in the vacuoles after their SPs were deleted, suggesting the internal SP functions in the vacuolar targeting of apple NAD-SDH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sweet taste in apple: the role of sorbitol, individual sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Eugenio; Charles, Mathilde; Endrizzi, Isabella; Laura Corollaro, Maria; Betta, Emanuela; Biasioli, Franco; Gasperi, Flavia

    2017-03-01

    Sweetness is one of the main drivers of consumer preference, and thus is given high priority in apple breeding programmes. Due to the complexity of sweetness evaluation, soluble solid content (SSC) is commonly used as an estimation of this trait. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that SSC and sweet taste are poorly correlated. Though individual sugar content may vary greatly between and within apple cultivars, no previous study has tried to investigate the relationship between the amount of individual sugars, or ratios of these, and apple sweetness. In this work, we quantified the major sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, xylose) and sorbitol and explored their influence on perceived sweetness in apple; we also related this to malic acid content, SSC and volatile compounds. Our data confirmed that the correlation between sweetness and SSC is weak. We found that sorbitol content correlates (similarly to SSC) with perceived sweetness better than any other single sugar or total sugar content. The single sugars show no differentiable importance in determining apple sweetness. Our predictive model based on partial least squares regression shows that after sorbitol and SSC, the most important contribution to apple sweetness is provided by several volatile compounds, mainly esters and farnesene.

  2. Control of glucokinase translocation in rat hepatocytes by sorbitol and the cytosolic redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, L

    1994-02-15

    In rat hepatocytes cultured in 5 mM glucose, glucokinase activity is present predominantly in a bound state, and during permeabilization of the cells with digitonin in the presence of Mg2+ less than 20% of glucokinase activity is released. However, incubation of hepatocytes with a higher [glucose] [concn. giving half-maximal activation (A50) 15 mM] or with fructose (A50 50 microM) causes translocation of glucokinase from its Mg(2+)-dependent binding site to an alternative site [Agius and Peak (1993) Biochem. J. 296, 785-796]. A comparison of various substrates showed that sorbitol (A50 8 microM) was 6-fold more potent than fructose at causing glucokinase translocation, whereas tagatose was as potent and mannitol was > 10-fold less potent (A50 550 microM). These substrates also stimulate glucose conversion into glycogen with a similar relative potency, suggesting that conversion of glucose into glycogen is dependent on the binding and/or location of glucokinase within the hepatocyte. Ethanol and glycerol inhibited the effects of fructose, sorbitol and glucose on glucokinase translocation, whereas dihydroxy-acetone had a small additive effect at sub-maximal substrate stimulation. The converse effects of glycerol and dihydroxy-acetone suggest a role for the cytosolic NADH/NAD+ redox state in controlling glucokinase translocation. Titrations with three competitive inhibitors of glucokinase did not provide evidence for involvement of glucokinase flux in glucose-induced glucokinase translocation: N-acetylglucosamine inhibited glucose conversion into glycogen, but not glucose-induced glucokinase translocation; glucosamine partially suppressed glucose-induced and fructose-induced glucokinase translocation, at concentrations that caused total inhibition of glucose conversion into glycogen; D-mannoheptulose increased glucokinase release and had an additive effect with glucose. 3,3'-Tetramethylene-glutaric acid (5 mM), an inhibitor of aldose reductase, inhibited glucokinase

  3. Pronounced microheterogeneity in a sorbitol-water mixture observed through variable temperature neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shin G; Soper, Alan K; Khodadadi, Sheila; Curtis, Joseph E; Krueger, Susan; Cicerone, Marcus T; Fitch, Andrew N; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y

    2012-04-19

    In this study, the structure of concentrated d-sorbitol-water mixtures is studied by wide- and small-angle neutron scattering (WANS and SANS) as a function of temperature. The mixtures are prepared using both deuterated and regular sorbitol and water at a molar fraction of sorbitol of 0.19 (equivalent to 70% by weight of regular sorbitol in water). Retention of an amorphous structure (i.e., absence of crystallinity) is confirmed for this system over the entire temperature range, 100-298 K. The glass transition temperature, Tg, is found from differential scanning calorimetry to be approximately 200 K. WANS data are analyzed using empirical potential structure refinement, to obtain the site-site radial distribution functions (RDFs) and coordination numbers. This analysis reveals the presence of nanoscaled water clusters surrounded by (and interacting with) sorbitol molecules. The water clusters appear more structured compared to bulk water and, especially at the lowest temperatures, resemble the structure of low-density amorphous ice (LDA). Upon cooling to 100 K the peaks in the water RDFs become markedly sharper, with increased coordination number, indicating enhanced local (nanometer-scale) ordering, with changes taking place both above and well below the Tg. On the mesoscopic (submicrometer) scale, although there are no changes between 298 and 213 K, cooling the sample to 100 K results in a significant increase in the SANS signal, which is indicative of pronounced inhomogeneities. This increase in the scattering is partly reversed during heating, although some hysteresis is observed. Furthermore, a power law analysis of the SANS data indicates the existence of domains with well-defined interfaces on the submicrometer length scale, probably as a result of the appearance and growth of microscopic voids in the glassy matrix. Because of the unusual combination of small and wide scattering data used here, the present results provide new physical insight into the

  4. Dietary sorbitol and mannitol: food content and distinct absorption patterns between healthy individuals and patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C K; Tan, H-L; van Langenberg, D R; Barrett, J S; Rose, R; Liels, K; Gibson, P R; Muir, J G

    2014-04-01

    Sorbitol and mannitol are naturally-occurring polyol isomers. Although poor absorption and induction of gastrointestinal symptoms by sorbitol are known, the properties of mannitol are poorly described. We aimed to expand data on food composition of these polyols, and to compare their absorptive capacities and symptom induction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy individuals. Food samples were analysed for sorbitol and mannitol content. The degree of absorption measured by breath hydrogen production and gastrointestinal symptoms (visual analogue scales) was evaluated in a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 21 healthy and 20 IBS subjects after challenges with 10 g of sorbitol, mannitol or glucose. Certain fruits and sugar-free gum contained sorbitol, whereas mannitol content was higher in certain vegetables. Similar proportions of patients with IBS (40%) and healthy subjects (33%) completely absorbed sorbitol, although more so with IBS absorbed mannitol (80% versus 43%; P = 0.02). Breath hydrogen production was similar in both groups after lactulose but was reduced in patients with IBS after both polyols. No difference in mean (SEM) hydrogen production was found in healthy controls after sorbitol [area-under-the-curve: 2766 (591) ppm 4 h(-1) ] or mannitol [2062 (468) ppm 4 h(-1) ] but, in patients with IBS, this was greater after sorbitol [1136 (204) ppm 4 h(-1) ] than mannitol [404 (154) ppm 4 h(-1) ; P = 0.002]. Overall gastrointestinal symptoms increased significantly after both polyols in patients with IBS only, although they were independent of malabsorption of either of the polyols. Increased and discordant absorption of mannitol and sorbitol occurs in patients with IBS compared to that in healthy controls. Polyols induced gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS independently of their absorptive patterns, suggesting that the dietary restriction of polyols may be efficacious. © 2013 The

  5. Fructose and/or Sorbitol Intolerance in a Subgroup of Lactose Intolerant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Mishkin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of lactose intolerance often does not resolve all the symptoms of postcibal bloating and flatulence. Included in this study were 104 lactose intolerant patients (71 female, 33 male who complained of residual postcibal discomfort in spite of adherence to and benefit from appropriate measures for their documented lactose intolerance (at least 20 ppm H2 after 25 g lactose as well as appropriate symptomatic discomfort. Clinical characteristics common to this group included: symptomatic diarrhea (12.5%, history of foreign travel (5.8%, endoscopic and pathological evidence of gastritis and helicobacter infection (19.2 and 8.7%, respectively, nonspecific abnormalities of small bowel follow-through (15.4%, Crohn’s disease (8.7% and colonic cliverticulosis (14.4%. Intolerance co fructose (at least 10 ppm H2 after 25 g fructose plus appropriate symptoms or sorbitol (at least 10 ppm H2 after 5 g sorbitol plus appropriate symptoms was documented in 17.3 and 18.3%, respectively. Intolerance to both fructose and sorbicol (administered as separate challenges, more than twice as common as intolerance to either one alone, occurred in 41.4% and was independent of sex. In conclusion, additional carbohydrate intolerances contribute to postcibal discomfort in more than 75% of lactose intolerant patients who remain symptomatic in spite of adherence to appropriate measures for this condition. While 62% of all patients had benefited significantly (greater than 50% from appropriate dietary measures and enzyme replacement for lactose intolerance, only 40% of those who were also fructose intolerant and 47% who were sorbitol intolerant benefited (greater than 50% from appropriate dietary measures (no enzyme replacement yet available for intolerance to these sugars.

  6. One-pot aqueous phase catalytic conversion of sorbitol to gasoline over nickel catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Yujing; Qiu, Songbai; Xu, Ying; Ding, Mingyue; Chen, Lungang; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Longlong; Wang, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Directly production gasoline (C5–C12 alkanes) from biomass-derived sugar alcohol sorbitol. • Temperature of STG (553–593 K) was lower than that of traditional methanol to gasoline (MTG) (623–773 K). • Gasoline yield of 46.9% and C7–C12 hydrocarbons reached up to 45.5% in the gasoline products. - Abstract: The carbon chain extension and hydrodeoxygenation steps play critical roles in the high-energy-density hydrocarbons production. In this paper, a systematic study had been carried out to investigate one-pot aqueous phase catalytic conversion of sorbitol to gasoline (STG) over bifunctional Ni-based catalysts. Characterization technologies of N 2 physisorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and NH 3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH 3 -TPD) were used to study the textural properties, phase compositions, acid behavior and morphologies of the catalysts. The catalytic performances were tested in a fixed bed reactor. It was found that the physically mixed Ni/HZSM-5 and Ni/silica-gel (mesoporous SG) catalyst realized the carbon chain extension and exhibited excellent performances on hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction (46.9% of gasoline (C5–C12) yield and 45.5% of C7–C12 hydrocarbons in the gasoline products). Especially, the temperature of STG (553–593 K) was lower obviously than that of the traditional methanol to gasoline (MTG) process (623–773 K). It provided a novel transformation of sorbitol to long-chain alkanes by one-pot process over the bifunctional catalyst (Ni@HZSM-5/SG), wherein hydrodeoxygenation, ketonization and aldol condensation steps were integrated

  7. A mannitol/sorbitol receptor stimulates dietary intake in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Tomoyuki; Sato, Ryoichi; Kikuta, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    In insects, perception of chemical stimuli is involved in the acceptance or rejection of food. Gustatory receptors (Grs) that regulate external signals in chemosensory organs have been found in many insects. Tribolium castaneum, a major pest of stored products, possesses over 200 Gr genes. An expanded repertoire of Gr genes appears to be required for diet recognition in species that are generalist feeders; however, it remains unclear whether T. castaneum recognizes a suite of chemicals common to many products or whether its feeding is activated by specific chemicals, and whether its Grs are involved in feeding behavior. It is difficult to determine the food preferences of T. castaneum based on dietary intake due to a lack of appropriate methodology. This study established a novel dietary intake estimation method using gypsum, designated the TribUTE (Tribolium Urges To Eat) assay. For this assay, T. castaneum adults were fed a gypsum block without added organic compounds. Sweet preference was determined by adding sweeteners and measuring the amount of gypsum in the excreta. Mannitol was the strongest activator of T. castaneum dietary intake. In a Xenopus oocyte expression, TcGr20 was found to be responsible for mannitol and sorbitol responses, but not for responses to other tested non-volatile compounds. The EC50 values of TcGr20 for mannitol and sorbitol were 72.6 mM and 90.6 mM, respectively, suggesting that TcGr20 is a feasible receptor for the recognition of mannitol at lower concentrations. We used RNAi and the TribUTE assay to examine whether TcGr20 expression was involved in mannitol recognition. The amounts of excreta in TcGr20 dsRNA-injected adults decreased significantly, despite the presence of mannitol, compared to control adults. Taken together, our results indicate that T. castaneum adults recognized mannitol/sorbitol using the TcGr20 receptor, thereby facilitating the dietary intake of these compounds.

  8. Simultaneous separation and determination of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose in fruits by HPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunmei; Sun, Zhen; Chen, Changbao; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Shuhua

    2014-02-15

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was optimised for simultaneous determination of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose in fruits. The analysis was carried out on a Phenomenex Luna 5u NH₂ 100A column (250 mm × 4.60mm, 5 micron) with isocratic elution of acetonitrile:water (82.5:17.5, v/v). Drift tube temperature of the ELSD system was set to 82 °C and nitrogen flow rate was 2.0 L min⁻¹. The regression equation revealed good linear relationship (R = 0.9967-0.9989) within test ranges. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for four analytes (peach, apple, watermelon, and cherry fruits) were in the range of 0.07-0.27 and 0.22-0.91 mg L⁻¹, respectively. The proposed HPLC-ELSD method was validated for quantification of sugars in peach, apple, watermelon, and cherry fruits, and the results were satisfactory. The results showed that the contents of the four sugars varied among fruits. While fructose (5.79-104.01 mg g⁻¹) and glucose (9.25-99.62 mg g⁻¹) emerged as common sugars in the four fruits, sorbitol (8.70-19.13 mg g⁻¹) were only found in peach, apple and cherry fruits, and sucrose (15.82-106.39 mg g⁻¹) were in peach, apple and watermelon. There was not detectable sorbitol in watermelon and sucrose in cherry fruits, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solvent-Free Polymerization of L-Aspartic Acid in the Presence of D-Sorbitol to Obtain Water Soluble or Network Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    L-aspartic acid was thermally polymerized in the presence of D-sorbitol with the goal of synthesizing new, higher molecular weight water soluble and absorbent copolymers. No reaction occurred when aspartic acid alone was heated at 170 or 200 degrees C. In contrast, heating sorbitol and aspartic ac...

  10. Efeito da sacarose e sorbitol na conservação in vitro de Passiflora giberti N. E. Brown Sucrose and sorbitol effect in the in vitro conservation of Passiflora giberti N. E. Brown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Amorim Faria

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito da sacarose e do sorbitol na conservação in vitro de um acesso de Passiflora giberti N. E. Brown. Para isso, foi instalado um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em que foi comparado o tratamento-testemunha (MS padrão com o meio MS suplementado com três concentrações de sacarose (0; 15 e 30 g L-1 em combinação com três concentrações de sorbitol (10; 20 e 40 g L-1. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 30; 60; 90 e 120 dias de incubação, observando-se o comprimento das brotações (cm, número de raízes, número e coloração das folhas. Os resultados mostram ser possível conservar sob crescimento lento, por quatro meses, microplantas de maracujazeiro em meio de cultura MS suplementado com 10 ou 20 g L-1 de sorbitol, na ausência de sacarose, e mantidas sob condições de fotoperíodo de 16 h (22 µE m-2s-1 e temperatura de 27 ± 1 ºC. A sacarose promoveu maior desenvolvimento de microplantas. A rizogênese é afetada pelo sorbitol na concentração de 40 g L-1 e pela ausência de sacarose no meio de cultura.This work objectified the study of sucrose and sorbitol effect in the in vitro conservation for Passiflora giberti N. E. Brown, access. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design to compare control treatment (standard MS to MS medium supplemented with three sucrose concentrations (0, 15 and 30 g L-1 combined with three sorbitol concentrations (10, 20 and 40 g L-1, in a total of 10 treatments with 20 replicas. The experiment evaluation was carried out at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of incubation, whereas the height of shoots (cm, number of roots, number and color of leaves were observed. The results showed the possibility to maintain passion-fruit microplants for a four months period under slow growth in MS medium supplemented with 10 or 20 g L-1 of sorbitol, without sucrose, and kept under 16 hours photoperiod (22 µ E m-2 s-1 and

  11. Consistent evidence to support the use of xylitol- and sorbitol-containing chewing gum to prevent dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2009-01-01

    DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified using searches with Medline, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION: Studies were screened independently and were included if they evaluated the effect of one or more chewing gums containing at least one polyol (xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol...... randomised controlled trials (RCT) of which four were cluster RCT, nine controlled clinical trials (CCT) and four cohort studies]. Two RCT had a Jadad score of three or higher. The mean preventive fraction for the four main gum types are shown in the table 1, results of all except the sorbitol -mannitol...... blend were statistically significant. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Although research gaps exist, particularly on optimal dosing and relative polyol efficacy, there is consistent evidence to support the use of xylitol- and sorbitol-containing chewing gum...

  12. Cryopreservation of boar semen by egg yolk-based extenders containing lactose or fructose is better than sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2012-03-01

    The present study determined the effect of different types of sugars (lactose, fructose, glucose and sorbitol) used in egg yolk-based extender on the post-thawed boar semen quality. Twenty-two ejaculates from 6 fertility-proven Yorkshire boars were cryopreserved by liquid nitrogen vapor method. Sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and intact functional plasma membrane were determined at 0, 2 and 4 hr after thawing. It was found that the lactose-based extender resulted in a higher percentage of post-thawed sperm motility, viability, intact acrosome and functional plasma membrane than sorbitol-based extender (Pextender yielded a higher post-thawed sperm motility and viability than sorbitol-based extender (Pboar semen.

  13. Best combination of promoter and micellar catalyst for the rapid conversion of sorbitol to glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kakali; Ghosh, Aniruddha; Saha, Rumpa; Sar, Pintu; Malik, Susanta; Saha, Bidyut

    2014-03-01

    Kinetic data for oxidation of D-sorbitol to glucose by hexavalent chromium in aqueous medium and aqueous surfactant medium (SDS, TX-100) have been reported. Effect of promoter such as PA, bipy and phenanthroline on the reaction has been investigated. The reaction is performed under pseudo first order condition with an excess of substrate over the oxidant. The reaction is first order with respect to substrate and oxidant. The micelles have a catalytic effect on the reaction. Combination of phen and TX-100 produces almost twelve times increase in rate of oxidation.

  14. Edible Film from Polyblend of Ginger Starch, Chitosan, and Sorbitol as Plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariningsih, N.; Putra, Y. P.; Pamungkas, W. P.; Kusumaningsih, T.

    2018-03-01

    Polyblend ginger starch/chitosan based edible film has been succesfully prepared and characterized. The purpose of this research was to produce edible film from polyblend of ginger starch, chitosan, and sorbitol as plasticizer. The resulted edible film were characterized by using FTIR, TGA and UTM. Edible film of ginger starch had OH vibration (3430 cm-1). Besides, edible film had elongation up to 15.63%. The thermal degradation of this material reached 208°C indicating high termal stability. The water uptake of the edible film was 42.85%. It concluded that edible film produce in this research has potential as a packaging.

  15. Activation of sorbitol pathway in metabolic syndrome and increased susceptibility to cataract in Wistar-Obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Paduru Yadagiri; Giridharan, Nappan Veettil; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide, and of late, epidemiological studies indicate a preponderance of cataracts under obesity conditions. Although cataract is a multifactorial disorder and various biochemical mechanisms have been proposed, the influence of obesity on cataractogenesis has yet to be investigated. In such a scenario, a suitable animal model that develops cataract following the onset of obesity will be a welcome tool for biomedical research. Therefore, we investigated the molecular and biochemical basis for predisposition to cataract in the obese mutant rat models established in our institute because 15%-20% of these rats develop cataracts spontaneously as they reach 12-15 months of age. We analyzed the major biochemical pathways in the normal lenses of different age groups of our obese mutant rat strains, Wistar/Obese (WNIN/Ob) and WNIN/GR-Ob, the former with euglycemia and the latter with an additional impaired glucose tolerance trait. In addition, sorbitol levels were estimated in the cataractous lenses of the obese rats. Except for the polyol pathway, all the principal pathways of the lens remained unaltered. Therefore, sorbitol levels were found to be high in the normal eye lenses of obese rats (WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob) compared to their lean controls from three months of age onwards. Between WNIN/Ob and WNIN/GR-Ob, the levels of sorbitol were higher in the latter, suggesting a synergistic effect of impaired glucose tolerance along with obesity in the activation of the sorbitol pathway. Either way, an elevated sorbitol pathway seemed to be the predisposing factor responsible for cataract formation in these mutant rats. Activation of the sorbitol pathway indeed enhances the risk of cataract development in conditions such as metabolic syndrome. These rat models thus may be valuable tools for investigating obesity-associated cataract and for developing intervention strategies, based on these findings.

  16. FORMULA OPTIMATION OF SENGGUGU ROOT BARK EXTRACT LOZENGES (Clerodendrum serratum (L. Moon. AS MUCOLYTIC AGENT WITH LACTOSE – SORBITOL FILLER COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyono Wahyono

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Senggugu root bark has mucolytic activity and has been used empirically, so it needs to be formulated as lozengeswhich can be used practically and comfortable for the patients. Senggugu root bark powder was extracted by maceration using aethanol 70%. Lozenges was optimized using lactose-sorbitol filler mix through three formulas, formula A ( 100% lactose, formula B (100% sorbitol, formula C (50% lactose-50% sorbitol. Lozenges was made by wet granulation method. The optimum formula was obtained from theresults of physical granul test and lozenges using SLD, and analyzed by its granul flow, hardness, dissolution time, and taste responsiveness, and also qualitative and quantitative analysis. The results show that lactose-sorbitol filler mix can increase hardness and taste responsiveness, decrease granul flow and dissolution time. The oprimum formula from this research is 100% sorbitol:0% lactose.

  17. Substrate inhibition: Oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman Kumar, Y.; Venkata Nadh, R.; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline media, substrate inhibition was observed with both substrates, i.e., a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. The substrate inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complex between the substrate and periodate. The reactions were found to be first order in case of periodate and a positive fractional order with hydroxide ions. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for the oxidation of sorbitol and mannitol by potassium periodate in alkali media.

  18. Production of liquid alkanes by controlling reactivity of sorbitol hydrogenation with a Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qing; Wang, Tiejun; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Longlong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: MCM-41-modified Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst was developed by impregnation method with high catalytic performance for sorbitol hydrogenation in water. Appropriate amount of MCM-41 addition can distinctly promote the improvement in the surface structure and modulation of acidic sites of the catalyst. The scission of C–O bond in the sorbitol molecule into liquid alkanes was easily carried out on the catalyst containing more Lewis acidic sites. - Highlights: • Ni/HZSM-5 promoted with MCM-41 is active for sorbitol hydrogenation to liquid alkanes. • Lewis acidic sites of Ni/HZSM-5 can be modulated by pure silica MCM-41. • MCM-41 added can distinctly decrease carbon deposition on the catalyst surface. - Abstract: Liquid fuels derived from renewable biomass are of great importance on the potential substitution for diminishing fossil fuels. The conversion of sorbitol (a product of biomass-derived glucose hydrogenation) into liquid alkanes such as pentane and hexane over the Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts with or without MCM-41 addition was investigated in the presence of hydrogen in water medium. The production distribution of sorbitol hydrogenation can be controlled by adjusting the acidity of the catalyst. The scission of C–C bond in the sorbitol molecule into light C 1 –C 4 alkanes was mainly carried out over Ni/HZSM-5 containing strong Brønsted acid sites, while C–O bond scission into heavier alkanes was dominated over the catalysts added by MCM-41 containing weak Lewis acid sites. The sorbitol conversion and total liquid alkanes selectivity were found to be 67.1% and 98.7% over 2%Ni/HZSM-5 modified by 40 wt% of MCM-41, whereas the corresponding value was 40% and 35.6% over 2%Ni/HZSM-5 in the absence of MCM-41. The effect of MCM-41 on the structure, acidity, and reducibility of Ni/HZSM-5 was investigated by using XRD, Py-IR, IR, and H 2 -TPR. Meanwhile, the resistance of carbon deposition over the catalyst modified by MCM-41 was studied by using TG

  19. Plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY levels are not altered in symptomatic fructose-sorbitol malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeur, Jørgen; Øines, Eliann; Morken, Mette Helvik

    2008-01-01

    consecutive patients with functional abdominal complaints, referred to our clinic for investigation of self-reported food hypersensitivity, were included in the study and compared with 15 healthy volunteers. All subjects ingested a mixture of 25 g fructose and 5 g sorbitol. Pulmonary hydrogen and methane...... excretion and plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) levels were measured during the next 3 h. Both habitual and post-test symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: Malabsorption of fructose and sorbitol was present in 61% of the patients and 73% of the controls. Nevertheless, the patients...

  20. Aging of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation in the glass-forming liquids sorbitol and xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Leheny, Robert L.

    2006-06-01

    Employing frequency-dependent dielectric susceptibility we characterize the aging in two supercooled liquids, sorbitol and xylitol, below their calorimetric glass transition temperatures. In addition to the alpha relaxation that tracks the structural dynamics, the susceptibility of both liquids possesses a secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation at higher frequencies. Following a quench through the glass transition, the susceptibility slowly approaches the equilibrium behavior. For both liquids, the magnitude of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation displays a dependence on the time since the quench, or aging time, that is quantitatively very similar to the age dependence of the alpha peak frequency. The Johari-Goldstein relaxation time remains constant during aging for sorbitol while it decreases slightly with age for xylitol. Hence, one cannot sensibly assign a fictive temperature to the Johari-Goldstein relaxation. This behavior contrasts with that of liquids lacking distinct Johari-Goldstein peaks for which the excess wing of the alpha peak tracks the main part of the peak during aging, enabling the assignment of a single fictive temperature to the entire spectrum. The aging behavior of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation time further calls into question the possibility that the relaxation time possesses stronger temperature dependence in equilibrium than is observed in the out-of-equilibrium state below the glass transition.

  1. Structural characterization of the thermostable Bradyrhizobium japonicumD-sorbitol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredslund, Folmer; Otten, Harm; Gemperlein, Sabrina; Poulsen, Jens Christian N; Carius, Yvonne; Kohring, Gert Wieland; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2016-11-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum sorbitol dehydrogenase is NADH-dependent and is active at elevated temperatures. The best substrate is D-glucitol (a synonym for D-sorbitol), although L-glucitol is also accepted, giving it particular potential in industrial applications. Crystallization led to a hexagonal crystal form, with crystals diffracting to 2.9 Å resolution. In attempts to phase the data, a molecular-replacement solution based upon PDB entry 4nbu (33% identical in sequence to the target) was found. The solution contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit, but a tetramer similar to that found in other short-chain dehydrogenases, including the search model, could be reconstructed by applying crystallographic symmetry operations. The active site contains electron density consistent with D-glucitol and phosphate, but there was not clear evidence for the binding of NADH. In a search for the features that determine the thermostability of the enzyme, the T m for the orthologue from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, for which the structure was already known, was also determined, and this enzyme proved to be considerably less thermostable. A continuous β-sheet is formed between two monomers in the tetramer of the B. japonicum enzyme, a feature not generally shared by short-chain dehydrogenases, and which may contribute to thermostability, as may an increased Pro/Gly ratio.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to enhance shikimic acid production from sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglei; Lin, Jun; Hu, Haifeng; Zhou, Bin; Zhu, Baoquan

    2014-09-01

    Shikimic acid (SA) is the key synthetic material of Oseltamivir, which is an effective drug for the prevention and treatment of influenza. In this study, to block the downstream metabolic pathway of SA, the shikimate kinase isoenzyme genes aroK and aroL were deleted by Red recombination. Moreover, the key enzyme genes aroG, aroB, tktA and aroE of SA pathway were co-expressed by constructing the recombinant vector pETDuet-GBAE. As a result, SA production of E. coli BW25113 (∆aroL/aroK, DE3)/pETDuet-GBAE reached 1,077.6 mg/l when low amounts of sorbitol (5 g/l) were fed in shake flasks. The yield was 3.7 times that when glucose was used (P sorbitol was an optimized carbon source for the high efficient accumulation of SA for the first time, which was applicable to use in the industry for high yields and low consumption.

  3. Acoustic excitations in glassy sorbitol and their relation with the fragility and the boson peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, B.; Baldi, G.; Scarponi, F.; Fioretto, D.; Giordano, V. M.; Monaco, G.

    2012-12-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the dynamic structure factor of glassy sorbitol by using inelastic X-ray scattering and previously measured light scattering data [B. Ruta, G. Monaco, F. Scarponi, and D. Fioretto, Philos. Mag. 88, 3939 (2008), 10.1080/14786430802317586]. The thus obtained knowledge on the density-density fluctuations at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic length scale has been used to address two debated topics concerning the vibrational properties of glasses. The relation between the acoustic modes and the universal boson peak (BP) appearing in the vibrational density of states of glasses has been investigated, also in relation with some recent theoretical models. Moreover, the connection between the elastic properties of glasses and the slowing down of the structural relaxation process in supercooled liquids has been scrutinized. For what concerns the first issue, it is here shown that the wave vector dependence of the acoustic excitations can be used, in sorbitol, to quantitatively reproduce the shape of the boson peak, supporting the relation between BP and acoustic modes. For what concerns the second issue, a proper study of elasticity over a wide spatial range is shown to be fundamental in order to investigate the relation between elastic properties and the slowing down of the dynamics in the corresponding supercooled liquid phase.

  4. Highly efficient red fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes by sorbitol-doped PEDOT:PSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Qiong; Yu, Jun-Le; Wang, Chao; Yang, Fang; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Hui; Yang, Yang

    2018-06-01

    This work shows a promising approach to improve device performance by optimizing the electron transport and hole injection layers for tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP):rubrene-based red fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). We compared the effect of two electron transport layers (ETLs), and found that the rubrene/bathophenanthroline (Bphen) ETL-based OLED showed a much higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) (4.67%) than the Alq3 ETL-based OLED (EQE of 3.08%). The doping ratio of DBP in rubrene was tuned from 1.0 wt% to 4.5 wt%, and the 1.5 wt%-DBP:rubrene-based OLED demonstrated the highest EQE of 5.24% and lowest turn-on voltage of 2.2 V. Atomic force microscopy images indicated that 1.5 wt% DBP-doped rubrene film exhibited a regular strip shape, and this regular surface was favorable to the hole and electron recombination in the emitting layer. Finally, the sorbitol-doped poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was used to further improve the EQE; doping with 6 wt% sorbitol achieved the highest current efficiency of 7.03 cd A‑1 and an EQE of 7.50%. The significantly enhanced performance implies that the hole injection is a limiting factor for DBP:rubrene-based red fluorescent OLEDs.

  5. Production of Starch Based Bioplastic from Cassava Peel Reinforced with Microcrystalline Celllulose Avicel PH101 Using Sorbitol as Plasticizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulida; Siagian, M; Tarigan, P

    2016-01-01

    The production of starch based bioplastics from cassava peel reeinforced with microcrystalline cellulose using sorbitol as plasticizer were investigated. Physical properties of bioplastics were determined by density, water uptake, tensile strength and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Bioplastics were prepared from cassava peel starch plasticized using sorbitol with variation of 20; 25; 30% (wt/v of sorbitol to starch) reinforced with microcrystalline celllulose (MCC) Avicel PH101 fillers with range of 0 to 6% (wt/wt of MCC to starch). The results showed improvement in tensile strength with higher MCC content up to 9, 12 mpa compared to non-reinforced bioplastics. This could be mainly attributed to the strong hydrogen bonds between MCC and starch. On the contrary, the addition of MCC decreased the elongation at break, density and water uptake. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy showed the functional groups of bioplastics, which the majority of O-H groups were found at the bioplastics with reinforcing filler MCC that represented substantial hydrogen bonds. The highest tensile strength value was obtained for bioplastic with MCC content 6% and sorbitol content 20%. With good adhesion between MCC and starch the production of bioplastics could be widely used as a substitute for conventional plastics with more benefits to the environment. (paper)

  6. Production of Starch Based Bioplastic from Cassava Peel Reinforced with Microcrystalline Celllulose Avicel PH101 Using Sorbitol as Plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida; Siagian, M.; Tarigan, P.

    2016-04-01

    The production of starch based bioplastics from cassava peel reeinforced with microcrystalline cellulose using sorbitol as plasticizer were investigated. Physical properties of bioplastics were determined by density, water uptake, tensile strength and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Bioplastics were prepared from cassava peel starch plasticized using sorbitol with variation of 20; 25; 30% (wt/v of sorbitol to starch) reinforced with microcrystalline celllulose (MCC) Avicel PH101 fillers with range of 0 to 6% (wt/wt of MCC to starch). The results showed improvement in tensile strength with higher MCC content up to 9, 12 mpa compared to non-reinforced bioplastics. This could be mainly attributed to the strong hydrogen bonds between MCC and starch. On the contrary, the addition of MCC decreased the elongation at break, density and water uptake. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy showed the functional groups of bioplastics, which the majority of O-H groups were found at the bioplastics with reinforcing filler MCC that represented substantial hydrogen bonds. The highest tensile strength value was obtained for bioplastic with MCC content 6% and sorbitol content 20%. With good adhesion between MCC and starch the production of bioplastics could be widely used as a substitute for conventional plastics with more benefits to the environment.

  7. Hybrid neural network model for simulating sorbitol synthesis by glucose-fructose oxidoreductase in Zymomonas mobilis CP4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid neural network model for simulating the process of enzymatic reduction of fructose to sorbitol process catalyzed by glucose-fructose oxidoreductase in Zymomonas mobilis CP4 is presented. Data used to derive and validate the model was obtained from experiments carried out under different conditions of pH, temperature and concentrations of both substrates (glucose and fructose involved in the reaction. Sonicated and lyophilized cells were used as source of the enzyme. The optimal pH for sorbitol synthesis at 30º C is 6.5. For a value of pH of 6, the optimal temperature is 35º C. The neural network in the model computes the value of the kinetic relationship. The hybrid neural network model is able to simulate changes in the substrates and product concentrations during sorbitol synthesis under pH and temperature conditions ranging between 5 and 7.5 and 25 and 40º C, respectively. Under these conditions the rate of sorbitol synthesis shows important differences. Values computed using the hybrid neural network model have an average error of 1.7·10-3 mole.

  8. The effect of increasing chitosan on the characteristics of bioplastic from starch talas (Colocasia esculenta) using plasticizer sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, M. H. S.; Lubis, M.; Sidabutar, T.; Sirait, T. P.

    2018-03-01

    The aims of this research to determine the profile of starch gelatinization, bioplastic and the effect of increasing chitosan and sorbitol to the properties of tensile strength and elongation of break bioplastic. Preparation of bioplastics was used by casting method, that is 30% w/v solution of starch mixed with chitosan solution (0.5 w/v; 1 w/v; 1.5 w/v; 2 w/v; and 2.5 w/v) and plasticizer sorbitol (10 % w/w; 20 % w/w; 30 % w/w; 40 % w/w and 50 % w/w) were heated using a hotplate magnetic stirrer at 750C. The results of Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) obtained by starch and bioplastic gelatinization temperature of 72.94°C 77.72°C with peak viscosity 6632 cP and 3476 cP. Analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) obtained the change a functional group of bioplastic OH at wave number 3765 cm-1 and uneven chitosan distribution, and there is still an empty fraction. The addition of chitosan and sorbitol had an effect on tensile strength and elongation at break, tensile strength and elongation at break the highest of 8.36 MPa and 22.06% in starch composition 30%, 2.5 w/v chitosan and sorbitol 30% w/w.

  9. Trehalose and sorbitol alter the kinetic pattern of inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase during drying in levitated microdroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Elke; Lee, Geoffrey

    2013-12-01

    A single-droplet acoustic levitator was used to determine the drying rate and the kinetics of inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase in the presence of added trehalose or sorbitol. The solution was also spray dried under the same process condition of drying gas temperature on a bench-top machine. Both trehalose and sorbitol delay the point of onset of enzyme inactivation which lies after the critical point of drying. Both carbohydrates also reduce the apparent rate constant of inactivation calculated during the subsequent inactivation phase. The carbohydrates stabilise, therefore, the enzyme during droplet drying and particle formation mainly during the falling rate drying period. There is no difference between the stabilising effects of the two carbohydrates when examined as levitated single droplets. This suggests the importance of water replacement as a stabilising mechanism in the levitated droplets/particles. On spray drying, the trehalose stabilises the enzyme better than does the sorbitol at a drying gas (outlet) temperature of 60°C. This suggests glass formation with the trehalose but not the sorbitol during the very rapid drying process of small-atomised droplets in the spray dryer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Fed-batch methanol feeding strategy for recombinant protein production by Pichia pastoris in the presence of co-substrate sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Eda; Calik, Pinar; Oliver, Stephen G

    2009-09-01

    Batch-wise sorbitol addition as a co-substrate at the induction phase of methanol fed-batch fermentation by Pichia pastoris (Mut(+)) was proposed as a beneficial recombinant protein production strategy and the metabolic responses to methanol feeding rate in the presence of sorbitol was systematically investigated. Adding sorbitol batch-wise to the medium provided the following advantages over growth on methanol alone: (a) eliminating the long lag-phase for the cells and reaching 'high cell density production' at t = 24 h of the process (C(X) = 70 g CDW/l); (b) achieving 1.8-fold higher recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) (at t = 18 h); (c) reducing specific protease production 1.2-fold; (d) eliminating the lactic acid build-up period; (e) lowering the oxygen uptake rate two-fold; and (f) obtaining 1.4-fold higher overall yield coefficients. The maximum specific alcohol oxidase activity was not affected in the presence of sorbitol, and it was observed that sorbitol and methanol were utilized simultaneously. Thus, in the presence of sorbitol, 130 mg/l rHuEPO was produced at t = 24 h, compared to 80 mg/l rHuEPO (t = 24 h) on methanol alone. This work demonstrates not only the ease and efficiency of incorporating sorbitol to fermentations by Mut(+) strains of P. pastoris for the production of any bio-product, but also provides new insights into the metabolism of the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris.

  11. Sorbitol increases muscle glucose uptake ex vivo and inhibits intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo and in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sorbitol, a known polyol sweetener, possesses glycemic control potentials. However, the effect of sorbitol on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake still remains elusive. The present study investigated the effects of sorbitol on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake as possible anti-hyperglycemic or glycemic control potentials using ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. Sorbitol (2.5% to 20%) inhibited glucose absorption in isolated rat jejuna (IC 50 = 14.6% ± 4.6%) and increased glucose uptake in isolated rat psoas muscle with (GU 50 = 3.5% ± 1.6%) or without insulin (GU 50 = 7.0% ± 0.5%) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, sorbitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, accelerated digesta transit, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption, and reduced blood glucose increase in both normoglycemic and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of coingestion with glucose. Data of this study suggest that sorbitol exhibited anti-hyperglycemic potentials, possibly via increasing muscle glucose uptake ex vivo and reducing intestinal glucose absorption in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Hence, sorbitol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycemic sweetener.

  12. Effects of olestra and sorbitol consumption on objective measures of diarrhea: impact of stool viscosity on common gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRorie, J; Zorich, N; Riccardi, K; Bishop, L; Filloon, T; Wason, S; Giannella, R

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of olestra and sorbitol consumption on three accepted objective measures of diarrhea (stool output >250 g/day, liquid/watery stools, bowel movement frequency >3/day), and how stool composition influences reports of common gastrointestinal symptoms. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of sorbitol (40 g/day in candy), a poorly absorbed sugar-alcohol with known osmotic effects, with those of olestra (20 or 40 g/day in potato chips), a nonabsorbed fat, on objective measures of stool composition and GI symptoms. Sixty-six subjects resided on a metabolic ward for 12 days: 2 days lead-in, 4 days baseline, 6 days treatment. Sorbitol 40 g/day resulted in loose/liquid stools within 1-3 h of consumption. In contrast, olestra resulted in a dose-responsive stool softening effect after 2-4 days of consumption. Subjects reported "diarrhea" when mean stool apparent viscosity (peak force (PF), g) decreased from a perceived "normal" (mean +/- SE, 1355 +/- 224 g PF; firm stool) to loose (260 +/- 68 g PF) stool. Mean apparent viscosity of stool during treatment: placebo, 1363 +/- 280 g (firm); olestra 20 g/day 743 +/- 65 g (soft); olestra 40 g/day, 563 +/- 105 g (soft); and sorbitol 40 g/day, 249 +/- 53 g (loose). Of the 1098 stool samples collected, 38% (419/1098) were rated by subjects as "diarrhea," yet only 2% of treatment days (all in the sorbitol treatment group) met commonly accepted criteria for a clinical diarrhea. Sorbitol, but not olestra, increased the severity of abdominal cramping, urgency and nausea compared to placebo. Olestra consumption, at levels far in excess of normal snacking conditions, resulted in a gradual stool softening effect after several days of consumption, did not meet any of the three objective measures of diarrhea, and did not increase GI symptoms. Sorbitol consumption, at only 80% of the dose requiring a "laxative effect" information label, resulted in rapid onset loose

  13. A mannitol/sorbitol receptor stimulates dietary intake in Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Takada

    Full Text Available In insects, perception of chemical stimuli is involved in the acceptance or rejection of food. Gustatory receptors (Grs that regulate external signals in chemosensory organs have been found in many insects. Tribolium castaneum, a major pest of stored products, possesses over 200 Gr genes. An expanded repertoire of Gr genes appears to be required for diet recognition in species that are generalist feeders; however, it remains unclear whether T. castaneum recognizes a suite of chemicals common to many products or whether its feeding is activated by specific chemicals, and whether its Grs are involved in feeding behavior. It is difficult to determine the food preferences of T. castaneum based on dietary intake due to a lack of appropriate methodology. This study established a novel dietary intake estimation method using gypsum, designated the TribUTE (Tribolium Urges To Eat assay. For this assay, T. castaneum adults were fed a gypsum block without added organic compounds. Sweet preference was determined by adding sweeteners and measuring the amount of gypsum in the excreta. Mannitol was the strongest activator of T. castaneum dietary intake. In a Xenopus oocyte expression, TcGr20 was found to be responsible for mannitol and sorbitol responses, but not for responses to other tested non-volatile compounds. The EC50 values of TcGr20 for mannitol and sorbitol were 72.6 mM and 90.6 mM, respectively, suggesting that TcGr20 is a feasible receptor for the recognition of mannitol at lower concentrations. We used RNAi and the TribUTE assay to examine whether TcGr20 expression was involved in mannitol recognition. The amounts of excreta in TcGr20 dsRNA-injected adults decreased significantly, despite the presence of mannitol, compared to control adults. Taken together, our results indicate that T. castaneum adults recognized mannitol/sorbitol using the TcGr20 receptor, thereby facilitating the dietary intake of these compounds.

  14. Synergistic Inhibition of Protein Fibrillation by Proline and Sorbitol: Biophysical Investigations.

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    Sinjan Choudhary

    Full Text Available We report here interesting synergistic effects of proline and sorbitol, two well-known chemical chaperones, in the inhibition of fibrillation of two proteins, insulin and lysozyme. A combination of many biophysical techniques has been used to understand the structural morphology and modes of interaction of the chaperones with the proteins during fibrillation. Both the chaperones establish stronger polar interactions in the elongation and saturation stages of fibrillation compared to that in the native stage. However, when presented as a mixture, we also see contribution of hydrophobic interactions. Thus, a co-operative adjustment of polar and hydrophobic interactions between the chaperones and the protein surface seems to drive the synergistic effects in the fibrillation process. In insulin, this synergy is quantitatively similar in all the stages of the fibrillation process. These observations would have significant implications for understanding protein folding concepts, in general, and for designing combination therapies against protein fibrillation, in particular.

  15. Interfacial enhancement of polypropylene composites modified with sorbitol derivatives and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyńska-Mizera, Monika; Dutkiewicz, Michał; Sterzyński, Tomasz; Di Lorenzo, Maria Laura

    2015-12-01

    Composites based on polypropylene (iPP) modified with a sorbitol derivative (NX8000) and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin (SiOPh) containing maleated polypropylene (MAPP) as compatibilizer were prepared by melt extrusion. Calorimetric investigations were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), whereas the morphological and mechanical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static tensile tests. DSC measurements revealed no influence of SiOPh and a slight effect of MAPP addition on the crystallization kinetics of polypropylene. Additionally, the introduction of MAPP into the iPP+NX8000+SiOPh composites increased plastic properties of the samples. All the above was attributed to the compatibilizing effect of MAPP which improved interfacial adhesion between iPP, NX8000 and SiOPh. This phenomenon was also confirmed by the SEM images illustrating more homogenous distribution of the filler in the compatibilized samples.

  16. Synergistic Inhibition of Protein Fibrillation by Proline and Sorbitol: Biophysical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sinjan; Save, Shreyada N; Kishore, Nand; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2016-01-01

    We report here interesting synergistic effects of proline and sorbitol, two well-known chemical chaperones, in the inhibition of fibrillation of two proteins, insulin and lysozyme. A combination of many biophysical techniques has been used to understand the structural morphology and modes of interaction of the chaperones with the proteins during fibrillation. Both the chaperones establish stronger polar interactions in the elongation and saturation stages of fibrillation compared to that in the native stage. However, when presented as a mixture, we also see contribution of hydrophobic interactions. Thus, a co-operative adjustment of polar and hydrophobic interactions between the chaperones and the protein surface seems to drive the synergistic effects in the fibrillation process. In insulin, this synergy is quantitatively similar in all the stages of the fibrillation process. These observations would have significant implications for understanding protein folding concepts, in general, and for designing combination therapies against protein fibrillation, in particular.

  17. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sugars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide

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    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective production of hexitols (sorbitol and mannitol was achieved from sugars by means of nickel nanoparticles supported on aluminium hydroxide (NiNPs/AlOH catalyst. NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was prepared by a simple and benign environmentally procedure using less amount of sodium hydroxide. ICP-AES and XRD analyses confirmed that the NiNPs/AlOH catalysts comprised a large amount of remained aluminium hydroxide (i.e. bayerite and gibbsite. The presence of aluminium hydroxide caused a high dispersion Ni metal species. The average Ni crystallite sizes that derived from the Scherrer`s equation for former R-Ni and NiNPs/AlOH were 8.6 nm and 4.1 nm, respectively. The catalyst exhibited high activity and selectivity both hydrogenolysis of disaccharides (sucrose and cellobiose and monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, and xylose at 403 K for 24 h. The NiNPs/AlOH catalyst was found to be reusable for at least five consecutive runs without any significant loss of activity and selectivity. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 21st December 2012; Revised: 7th February 2013; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Rodiansono, R., Shimazu, S. (2013. Effective Production of Sorbitol and Mannitol from Sug-ars Catalyzed by Ni Nanoparticles Supported on Aluminium Hydroxide. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 40-46. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4290.40-46][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4290.40-46] | View in  |

  18. Proteins involved in difference of sorbitol fermentation rates of the toxigenic and nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae El Tor strains revealed by comparative proteome analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The nontoxigenic V. cholerae El Tor strains ferment sorbitol faster than the toxigenic strains, hence fast-fermenting and slow-fermenting strains are defined by sorbitol fermentation test. This test has been used for more than 40 years in cholera surveillance and strain analysis in China. Understanding of the mechanisms of sorbitol metabolism of the toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains may help to explore the genome and metabolism divergence in these strains. Here we used comparative proteomic analysis to find the proteins which may be involved in such metabolic difference. Results We found the production of formate and lactic acid in the sorbitol fermentation medium of the nontoxigenic strain was earlier than of the toxigenic strain. We compared the protein expression profiles of the toxigenic strain N16961 and nontoxigenic strain JS32 cultured in sorbitol fermentation medium, by using fructose fermentation medium as the control. Seventy-three differential protein spots were found and further identified by MALDI-MS. The difference of product of fructose-specific IIA/FPR component gene and mannitol-1-P dehydrogenase, may be involved in the difference of sorbitol transportation and dehydrogenation in the sorbitol fast- and slow-fermenting strains. The difference of the relative transcription levels of pyruvate formate-lyase to pyruvate dehydrogenase between the toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains may be also responsible for the time and ability difference of formate production between these strains. Conclusion Multiple factors involved in different metabolism steps may affect the sorbitol fermentation in the toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of V. cholerae El Tor. PMID:19589152

  19. Blending of soluble corn fiber with pullulan, sorbitol, or fructose attenuates glycemic and insulinemic responses in the dog and affects hydrolytic digestion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Knapp, B K; Bauer, L L; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2013-08-01

    The objective of these experiments was to measure in vitro hydrolytic digestion and glycemic and insulinemic responses of select carbohydrate blends, all containing the novel carbohydrate soluble corn fiber (SCF). Two SCF that varied in their method of production were used to formulate the carbohydrate blends. One set of blends contained a SCF that was spray dried (SCFsd) and then blended with different amounts of either pullulan, sorbitol, or fructose. The other set of blends contained a SCF produced using longer evaporation time (SCF) and then blended with different ratios of pullulan, sorbitol, and fructose. Free sugar concentrations found in the individual SCFsd and SCF substrates were low but varied. Spray-dried soluble corn fiber had a reduced free sugar concentration compared with SCF (2.8 vs. 14.2%). Glucose was the main free sugar found in both SCFsd and SCF but at different concentrations (2.7 vs. 12.7%, respectively). The majority of the SCFsd blends were completely hydrolyzed to their monosaccharide components. Glucose accounted for most of the hydrolyzed monosaccharides for SCFsd and all the SCFsd blends. Hydrolyzed monosaccharide concentrations for the SCF:pullulan:sorbitol:fructose blends followed similar trends to the SCFsd blends where greater percentages of fructose and sorbitol resulted in decreased (P sorbitol. Total released monosaccharides were high in SCFsd blends containing either 50% fructose or sorbitol, but the combination resulted in reduced concentrations of glucose released (P sorbitol:fructose blends also had intermediate to high released monosaccharides as a result of in vitro hydrolytic digestion. All SCF blends resulted in decreased glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with the maltodextrin control (P sorbitol in the blends had the greatest impact on glycemic and insulinemic responses, even at concentrations as low as 5% of the blends. Overall, SCF and their blends may prove beneficial as components of low glycemic

  20. Putative metabolic pathway of mannitol and sorbitol and in sugarcane Provável via metabólica de manitol e sorbitol em cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luís Marino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Until the mid 1950s, boron was believed to play an important role in the transport of sugars in plants. However, boron actually depends on sugar alcohols to be taken up by the plant. In some cases, the main sugars involved in this process are sorbitol and mannitol which form stable complexes with boron. In this study, the sequences of the SugarCane EST Genome Project (SUCEST database were searched for enzymes involved in the metabolism of these sugars by comparing them with enzymes from other organisms. Eighteen contigs from sugarcane (Saccharum sp. presented high similarity with 11 enzymes involved in the putative biosynthetic pathway of sorbitol and mannitol from fructose in sugarcane. Seven of these contigs had high homology with sequences deposited in GenBank.Até meados da década de 50 acreditava-se que o boro tinha uma importante função no transporte de açúcares em plantas. Na verdade, o boro depende de açúcares álcoois para serem mobilizados dentro da planta. Em alguns organismos os principais açúcares envolvidos neste processo são o sorbitol e o manitol, que formam complexos estáveis com o micronutriente. O objetivo deste estudo foi procurar seqüências no banco de dados SugarCane EST Genome Project (SUCEST que codificam enzimas participantes na via metabólica destes açúcares através da comparação de enzimas de outros organismos. Dezoito "contigs" de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp. apresentaram similaridade com onze seqüências de enzimas que compõem a provável via metabólica de sorbitol e manitol a partir de frutose. Destes "contigs", sete apresentaram uma alta similaridade entre as seqüências depositadas no GenBank.

  1. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2016-02-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol.

  2. Determination of structural and mechanical properties, diffractometry, and thermal analysis of chitosan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC films plasticized with sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Rotta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the structural, mechanical, diffractometric, and thermal parameters of chitosan-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC films plasticized with sorbitol were studied. Solutions of HPMC (2% w/v in water and chitosan (2% w/v in 2% acetic acid solution were prepared. The concentration of sorbitol used was 10% (w/w to both polymers. This solutions were mixed at different proportions (100/0; 70/30; 50/50; 30/70, and 0/100 of chitosan and HPMC, respectively, and 20 mL was cast in Petri dishes for further analysis of dried films. The miscibility of polymers was assessed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results obtained indicate that the films are not fully miscible at a dry state despite the weak hydrogen bonding between the polymer functional groups.

  3. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times.

  4. Intracellular trehalose and sorbitol synergistically promoting cell viability of a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala, for aflatoxin reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Sui Sheng T; Hernlem, Bradley J; Yokoyama, Wallace; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L

    2015-05-01

    Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against Aspergillus flavus. The yeast was shown to significantly inhibit aflatoxin production and the growth of A. flavus. P. anomala is a potential biocontrol agent for reduction of aflatoxin in the food chain. Maintaining the viability of biocontrol agents in formulated products is a great challenge for commercial applications. Four media, NYG, NYGS, NYGT and NYGST are described which support good growth of yeast cells and were tested as storage formulations. Post growth supplement of 5 % trehalose to NYGST resulted in 83 % viable yeast cells after 12 months in cold storage. Intracellular sorbitol and trehalose concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis at the beginning of the storage and at the end of 12 month. Correlation of cell viability to both trehalose and sorbitol suggested a synergistic effect. Bonferroni (Dunn) t Test, Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test, all showed that yeast cell viability in samples with both intracellular trehalose and sorbitol were significantly higher than those with either or none, at a 95 % confidence level. DiBAC4(5) and CFDA-AM were used as the membrane integrity fluorescent stains to create a two-color vital staining scheme with red and green fluorescence, respectively. Yeast cells stored in formulations NYG and NYGS with no detectable trehalose, displayed mostly red fluorescence. Yeast cells in NYGST+5T showed mostly green fluorescence.

  5. Freeze-dried snake antivenoms formulated with sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol: comparison of their stability in an accelerated test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, María; Tattini, Virgilio; Pitombo, Ronaldo N M; Gutiérrez, José María; Borgognoni, Camila; Vega-Baudrit, José; Solera, Federico; Cerdas, Maykel; Segura, Alvaro; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; León, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    Freeze-drying is used to improve the long term stability of pharmaceutical proteins. Sugars and polyols have been successfully used in the stabilization of proteins. However, their use in the development of freeze-dried antivenoms has not been documented. In this work, whole IgG snake antivenom, purified from equine plasma, was formulated with different concentrations of sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol. The glass transition temperatures of frozen formulations, determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), ranged between -13.5 °C and -41 °C. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the different stabilizers, the freeze-dried samples were subjected to an accelerated stability test at 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. After six months of storage at 40 °C, all the formulations presented the same residual humidity, but significant differences were observed in turbidity, reconstitution time and electrophoretic pattern. Moreover, all formulations, except antivenoms freeze-dried with mannitol, exhibited the same potency for the neutralization of lethal effect of Bothrops asper venom. The 5% (w:v) sucrose formulation exhibited the best stability among the samples tested, while mannitol and sorbitol formulations turned brown. These results suggest that sucrose is a better stabilizer than mannitol and sorbitol in the formulation of freeze-dried antivenoms under the studied conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulating β-lactoglobulin nanofibril self-assembly at pH 2 using glycerol and sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Anant C; Loveday, Simon M; Anema, Skelte G; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Singh, Harjinder

    2014-01-13

    β-Lactoglobulin (β-lg) forms fibrils when heated at 80 °C, pH 2, and low ionic strength (sorbitol (0-50% w/v) on β-lg self-assembly at pH 2. Glycerol and sorbitol stabilize native protein structure and modulate protein functionality by preferential exclusion. In our study, both polyols decreased the rate of β-lg self-assembly but had no effect on the morphology of fibrils. The mechanism of these effects was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE. Sorbitol inhibited self-assembly by stabilizing β-lg against unfolding and hydrolysis, resulting in fewer fibrillogenic species, whereas glycerol inhibited nucleation without inhibiting hydrolysis. Both polyols increased the viscosity of the solutions, but viscosity appeared to have little effect on fibril assembly, and we believe that self-assembly was not diffusion-limited under these conditions. This is in agreement with previous reports for other proteins assembling under different conditions. The phenomenon of peptide self-assembly can be decoupled from protein hydrolysis using glycerol.

  7. Molecular motions in sucrose-PVP and sucrose-sorbitol dispersions-II. Implications of annealing on secondary relaxations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sisir; Bhardwaj, Sunny P; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2014-10-01

    To determine the effect of annealing on the two secondary relaxations in amorphous sucrose and in sucrose solid dispersions. Sucrose was co-lyophilized with either PVP or sorbitol, annealed for different time periods and analyzed by dielectric spectroscopy. In an earlier investigation, we had documented the effect of PVP and sorbitol on the primary and the two secondary relaxations in amorphous sucrose solid dispersions (1). Here we investigated the effect of annealing on local motions, both in amorphous sucrose and in the dispersions. The average relaxation time of the local motion (irrespective of origin) in sucrose, decreased upon annealing. However, the heterogeneity in relaxation time distribution as well as the dielectric strength decreased only for β1- (the slower relaxation) but not for β2-relaxations. The effect of annealing on β2-relaxation times was neutralized by sorbitol while PVP negated the effect of annealing on both β1- and β2-relaxations. An increase in local mobility of sucrose brought about by annealing could be negated with an additive.

  8. X-ray crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yennawar, Hemant [Pennsylvania State University, 8 Althouse Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Møller, Magda [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gillilan, Richard [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yennawar, Neela, E-mail: nhy1@psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, 8 Althouse Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The X-ray crystal structure and a small-angle X-ray scattering solution structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase have been determined. The details of the interactions that enable the tetramer scaffold to be the functional biological unit have been analyzed. The X-ray crystal structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase (slSDH) has been determined using the crystal structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (hSDH) as a molecular-replacement model. slSDH crystallized in space group I222 with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. A conserved tetramer that superposes well with that seen in hSDH (despite belonging to a different space group) and obeying the 222 crystal symmetry is seen in slSDH. An acetate molecule is bound in the active site, coordinating to the active-site zinc through a water molecule. Glycerol, a substrate of slSDH, also occupies the substrate-binding pocket together with the acetate designed by nature to fit large polyol substrates. The substrate-binding pocket is seen to be in close proximity to the tetramer interface, which explains the need for the structural integrity of the tetramer for enzyme activity. Small-angle X-ray scattering was also used to identify the quaternary structure of the tetramer of slSDH in solution.

  9. PRODUKSI ANTIBIOTIKA OLEH Bacillus subtilis M10 DALAM MEDIA UREA-SORBITOL

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    Supartono Supartono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PRODUCTION OF ANTIBIOTICS BY Bacillus subtilis M10 IN UREA-SORBITOL MEDIUM. Infection diseases still become the main health problems that suffered by people in Indonesia. Besides, there were many pathogen bacteria found to be resistant to the some antibiotics. Therefore, the efforts to get a new antibiotic require to be done continuously. A new local strain of Bacillus subtilis BAC4 has been known producing an antibiotic that inhibit Serratia marcescens ATCC 27117 growth. To make efficient the local strain, mutation on Bacillus subtilis BAC4 was done by using acridine orange and a mutant cell of Bacillus subtilis M10 that overproduction for producing antibiotic was obtained. Nevertheless, the production kinetics of antibiotic by this mutant has not been reported. The objective of this research was to study the production kinetics of antibiotic by Bacillus subtilis M10 mutant. The production of antibiotic was conducted using batch fermentation and antibiotic assay was performed with agar absorption method using Serratia marcescens ATCC 27117 as bacteria assay. Research result provided that Bacillus subtilis M10 mutant with overproduction of antibiotic produced an antibiotic since 8th hour’s fermentation and optimum of it production was at 14th hours after inoculation.  Penyakit infeksi masih menjadi masalah yang utama diderita oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Di samping itu, banyak bakteri patogen yang ditemukan resisten terhadap beberapa antibiotika. Oleh karena itu, upaya-upaya untuk mendapatkan antibiotika baru perlu dilakukan secara terus-menerus. Suatu galur lokal baru Bacillus subtilis BAC4 teridentifikasi memproduksi senyawa antibiotika yang menghambat pertumbuhan Serratia marcescens ATCC27117. Untuk memberdayakan galur tersebut, terhadap Bacillus subtilis BAC4 dilakukan mutasi dengan larutan akridin oranye dan diperoleh mutan Bacillus subtilis M10 yang memproduksi antibiotika berlebihan. Namun, kinetika produksi antibiotika oleh Bacillus

  10. Efficacy of vinegar, sorbitol and sodium benzoate in mitigation of Salmonella contamination in betel leaf

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    Al Asmaul Husna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to mitigate Salmonella from betel leaf in Mymensingh. A total of 35 betel leaf samples were collected from 2 baroujes and 5 local markets in Mymensingh. The samples were sub-divided into two groups: (i phosphate buffer solution (PBS washed, and (ii grinded sample. There was control and treated (with 1.5% vinegar, sorbitol, and sodium benzoate sub-groups in both groups. Mitigation of Salmonella was determined by comparing Total Viable Count (TVC and Total Salmonella Count (TSAC of control with treated groups. No bacterial growth was observed in the betel leaf samples collected directly from barouj level. At market level, when grinded, there was no growth of bacteria in Plate Count Agar (PCA and Salmonella- Shigella (SS or Xylose Lysine De-oxy-chocolate (XLD in both treated and untreated groups. But when the PBS washed samples were used, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL of betel leaf ranged from 5.16±0.82 to 5.96±1.11, whereas the TSAC value ranged from 4.87±0.58 to 5.56±1.00 for untreated group. In vinegar, there was no growth, but when treated with sorbitol, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.00±0.54 to 5.66±1.09, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.28±0.71 to 4.78±0.64. When treated with sodium benzoate, the TVC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 5.06±0.53 to 5.75±1.02, and TSAC (mean log CFU±SD/mL value reduced to 4.34±0.79 to 4.92±0.64. Data of this study indicates that all the three chemicals were effective in terms of reducing bacterial load but vinegar (1.5% was found to be the most effective against Salmonella as well as some other bacteria when treated for 10 min.

  11. Sorbitol-based osmotic diarrhea: possible causes and mechanism of prevention investigated in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Sakaguchi, Ei

    2006-12-21

    To study the possible causes of sorbitol (S)-based diarrhea and its mechanism of reduction by rice gruel (RG) in cecectomized rats. S was dissolved either in distilled water or in RG (50 g/L) and ingested as a single oral dose (1.2 g/kg body mass, containing 0.5 g/L phenol red as a recovery marker) by S (control) and S + RG groups (n = 7), respectively. This dose is over the laxative dose for humans. Animals were sacrificed exactly 1 h after dose ingestion, without any access to drinking water. The whole gastro-intestinal tract was divided into seven segments and sampled to analyze the S and marker remaining in its contents. Gastric-emptying and intestinal transit were comparatively slower in the S + RG group. Also, the S absorption index in the 3(rd) and last quarter of the small intestine (24.85 +/- 18.88% vs 0.0 +/- 0.0% and 39.09 +/- 32.75% vs 0.0 +/- 0.0%, respectively, P osmotic diarrhea. Where RG enhanced the absorption of S through passive diffusion, the degree of diarrhea was reduced in cecectomized rats.

  12. Colitis induced by sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol: A report of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sheba S K; Parameswaran, Ashok; Parameswaran, Sarojini Ashok; Dhus, Ubal

    2016-03-01

    Drug-related injury has been noted in virtually all organ systems, and recognition of the patterns of injury associated with medication enables modification of treatment and reduces the morbidity associated with the side effects of drugs. With the large number of new drugs being developed, documentation of the morphology of the changes seen as an adverse effect becomes important to characterize the pattern of injury. The pathologist is often the first to identify these abnormalities and correlate them with a particular drug. Kayexalate or sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), a linear polymer derived from polystyrene containing sulfonic acid and sulfonate functional groups is used to treat hyperkalemia. It is usually administered with an osmotic laxative sorbitol orally or as retention enema. This combination has been implicated in causing damage to different parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract especially the colon and causes an established pattern of injury, recognizable by the presence of characteristic crystals, is presented to create a greater awareness of the Kayexalate colitis. This entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of lower GI mucosal injury in a setting of uremia and hyperkalemia.

  13. Effects of dormancy progression and low-temperature response on changes in the sorbitol concentration in xylem sap of Japanese pear during winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akiko; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-04-01

    In order to elucidate which physiological event(s) are involved in the seasonal changes of carbohydrate dynamics during winter, we examined the effects of different low temperatures on the carbohydrate concentrations of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai). For four winter seasons, large increases in the sorbitol concentration of shoot xylem sap occurred during mid- to late December, possibly due to the endodormancy completion and low-temperature responses. When trees were kept at 15 °C from 3 November to 3 December in order to postpone the initiation and completion of chilling accumulation that would break endodormancy, sorbitol accumulation in xylem sap was always higher from trees with sufficient chilling accumulation than from trees that received insufficient chilling. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred around late December in trees regardless of whether their chilling accumulation naturally progressed or was postponed. To examine different temperature effects more closely, we compared the carbohydrate concentrations of trees subjected to either 6 or 0 °C treatment. The sorbitol concentration in xylem sap tremendously increased at 0 °C treatment compared with 6 °C treatment. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred at both the temperatures when sufficient chilling accumulated with a peak coinciding with the peak expression in shoots of the sorbitol transporter gene (PpSOT2). Interestingly, the total carbohydrate concentration of shoots tremendously increased with exposure to 0 °C compared with exposure to 6 °C, but was not affected by the amount of accumulated chilling. Instead, as chilling accumulated the ratio of sorbitol to total soluble sugars in shoots increased. We presumed that carbohydrates in the shoot tissues may be converted to sorbitol and loaded into the xylem sap so that the sorbitol accumulation patterns were synchronized with the progression of dormancy, whereas the total

  14. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium bacteraemia as a complication of Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate, SPS) in sorbitol-induced ischaemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrud-Rodriguez, Roberto Christian; Alcaraz-Alvarez, Diego; Chiong, Brian Bobby; Ahmed, Abdurhman

    2017-11-09

    We present the case report of an 80-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease stage G5 admitted to the hospital with fluid overload and hyperkalaemia. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS, Kayexalate) in sorbitol suspension was given orally to treat her hyperkalaemia, which precipitated an episode of SPS in sorbitol-induced ischaemic colitis with the subsequent complication of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteraemia. SPS (Kayexalate) in sorbitol suspension has been implicated in the development of intestinal necrosis. Sorbitol, which is added as a cathartic agent to decrease the chance of faecal impaction, may be primarily responsible through several proposed mechanisms. The gold standard of diagnosis is the presence of SPS crystals in the colon biopsy. On a MEDLINE search, no previous reports of a VRE bacteraemia as a complication of biopsy-confirmed SPS in sorbitol ischaemic colitis were found. To the best of our knowledge, ours would be the first such case ever reported. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Effect of sorbitol, single, and multidose activated charcoal administration on carprofen absorption following experimental overdose in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigshof, Amy M; Beal, Matthew W; Poppenga, Robert H; Jutkowitz, L Ari

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of single dose activated charcoal, single dose activated charcoal with sorbitol, and multidose activated charcoal in reducing plasma carprofen concentrations following experimental overdose in dogs. Randomized, four period cross-over study. University research setting. Eight healthy Beagles. A 120 mg/kg of carprofen was administered orally to each dog followed by either (i) a single 2 g/kg activated charcoal administration 1 hour following carprofen ingestion (AC); (ii) 2 g/kg activated charcoal with 3.84 g/kg sorbitol 1 hour following carprofen ingestion (ACS); (iii) 2 g/kg activated charcoal 1 hour after carprofen ingestion and repeated every 6 hours for a total of 4 doses (MD); (iv) no treatment (control). Plasma carprofen concentrations were obtained over a 36-hour period following carprofen ingestion for each protocol. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed and time versus concentration, area under the curve, maximum plasma concentration, time to maximum concentration, and elimination half-life were calculated and compared among the groups using ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Activated charcoal, activated charcoal with sorbitol (ACS), and multiple-dose activated charcoal (MD) significantly reduced the area under the curve compared to the control group. AC and MD significantly reduced the maximum concentration when compared to the control group. MD significantly reduced elimination half-life when compared to ACS and the control group. There were no other significant differences among the treatment groups. Activated charcoal and ACS are as effective as MD in reducing serum carprofen concentrations following experimental overdose in dogs. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of AC, ACS, and MD in the clinical setting. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  16. Conversion of cellulose and cellobiose into sorbitol catalyzed by ruthenium supported on a polyoxometalate/metal-organic framework hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinzhu; Wang, Shengpei; Huang, Jing; Chen, Limin; Ma, Longlong; Huang, Xing

    2013-08-01

    Cellulose and cellobiose were selectively converted into sorbitol over water-tolerant phosphotungstic acid (PTA)/metal- organic-framework-hybrid-supported ruthenium catalysts, Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr), under aqueous hydrogenation conditions. The goal was to investigate the relationship between the acid/metal balance of bifunctional catalysts Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) and their performance in the catalytic conversion of cellulose and cellobiose into sugar alcohols. The control of the amount and strength of acid sites in the supported PTA/MIL-100(Cr) was achieved through the effective control of encapsulated-PTA loading in MIL-100(Cr). This design and preparation method led to an appropriately balanced Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) in terms of Ru dispersion and hydrogenation capacity on the one hand, and acid site density of PTA/MIL-100(Cr) (responsible for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis) on the other hand. The ratio of acid site density to the number of Ru surface atoms (nA /nRu ) of Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) was used to monitor the balance between hydrogenation and hydrolysis functions; the optimum balance between the two catalytic functions, that is, 8.84sorbitol of 57.9% at complete conversion of cellulose, and 97.1% yield in hexitols with a selectivity for sorbitol of 95.1% at complete conversion of cellobiose) were obtained using a Ru-PTA/MIL-100(Cr) catalyst with loadings of 3.2 wt % for Ru and 16.7 wt % for PTA. This research thus opens new perspectives for the rational design of acid/metal bifunctional catalysts for biomass conversion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Photosystem I shows a higher tolerance to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress than photosystem II in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Zheng, Zhenbing; Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Huan, Li; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2014-10-01

    The photosynthetic performance of the desiccation-tolerant, intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera was significantly affected by sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity decreased significantly with increases in sorbitol concentration. Although the partial activity of both photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) was able to recover after 30 min of rehydration, the activity of PS II decreased more rapidly than PS I. At 4 M sorbitol concentration, the activity of PS II was almost 0 while that of PS I was still at about one third of normal levels. Following prolonged treatment with 1 and 2 M sorbitol, the activity of PS I and PS II decreased slowly, suggesting that the effects of moderate concentrations of sorbitol on PS I and PS II were gradual. Interestingly, an increase in non-photochemical quenching occurred under these conditions in response to moderate osmotic stress, whereas it declined significantly under severe osmotic stress. These results suggest that photoprotection in U. prolifera could also be induced by moderate osmotic stress. In addition, the oxidation of PS I was significantly affected by osmotic stress. P700(+) in the thalli treated with high concentrations of sorbitol could still be reduced, as PS II was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), but it could not be fully oxidized. This observation may be caused by the higher quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation in PS I due to acceptor-side limitation (Y(NA)) during rehydration in seawater containing DCMU. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Utilization starch of jackfruit seed (Artocarpus heterophyllus) as raw material for bioplastics manufacturing using sorbitol as plasticizer and chitosan as filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, M.; Harahap, M. B.; Manullang, A.; Alfarodo; Ginting, M. H. S.; Sartika, M.

    2017-01-01

    Starch is a natural polymer that can be used for the production of bioplastics because its source is abundant, renewable and easily degraded. Jackfruit seeds can be used as raw material for bioplastics because its contains starch. The aim of this study to determine the characteristics of jackfruit seeds and determine the effect of chitosan and sorbitol on the physicochemical properties of bioplastics from jackfruit seeds. Starch is extracted from jackfruit seeds were then characterized to determine its chemical composition. In the manufacture of bioplastics starch composition jackfruit seeds - chitosan used was 7: 3, 8: 2 and 9: 1 (g/g), while the concentration of sorbitol used was 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% by weight dry ingredients. From the analysis of jackfruit seed starch obtained water content of 6.04%, ash content of 1.08%, the starch content of 70.22%, 16.39% amylose content, amylopectin content of 53.83%, 4.68% protein content, fat content 0.54%. The best conditions of starch bioplastics jackfruit seeds obtained at a ratio of starch: chitosan (w/w) = 8: 2 and the concentration of plasticizer sorbitol 25% with tensile strength 13.524 MPa. From the results of FT-IR analysis indicated an increase for the OH group and the group NH on bioplastics due to the addition of chitosan and sorbitol. The results of mechanical tests is further supported by analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing jackfruit seed starch has a small granule size with the size of 7.6 μm and in bioplastics with chitosan filler and plasticizer sorbitol their fracture surface is smooth and slightly hollow compared bioplastics without fillers chitosan and plasticizer sorbitol.

  19. Functional assignment of gene AAC16202.1 from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003: new insights into the bacterial SDR sorbitol dehydrogenases family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Carvajal, Agustín; García-García, María Inmaculada; Sánchez-Carrón, Guiomar; García-Carmona, Francisco; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alvaro

    2012-11-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute one of the largest enzyme superfamilies with over 60,000 non-redundant sequences in the database, many of which need a correct functional assignment. Among them, the gene AAC16202.1 (NCBI) from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 has been assigned in Uniprot both as a sorbitol dehydrogenase (#D5AUY1) and, as an N-acetyl-d-mannosamine dehydrogenase (#O66112), both enzymes being of biotechnological interest. When the gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3)pLys, the purified enzyme was not active toward N-acetyl-d-mannosamine, whereas it was active toward d-sorbitol and d-fructose. However, the relative activities toward xylitol and l-iditol (0.45 and 6.9%, respectively) were low compared with that toward d-sorbitol. Thus, the enzyme could be considered sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) with very low activity toward xylitol, which could increase its biotechnological interest for determining sorbitol without the unspecific cross-determination of added xylitol in food and pharma compositions. The tetrameric enzyme (120 kDa) showed similar catalytic efficiency (2.2 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) to other sorbitol dehydrogenases for d-sorbitol, with an optimum pH of 9.0 and an optimum temperature of 37 °C. The enzyme was also more thermostable than other reported SDH, ammonium sulfate being the best stabilizer in this respect, increasing the melting temperature (T(m)) up to 52.9 °C. The enzyme can also be considered as a new member of the Zn(2+) independent SDH family since no effect on activity was detected in the presence of divalent cations or chelating agents. Finally, its in silico analysis enabled the specific conserved sequence blocks that are the fingerprints of bacterial sorbitol dehydrogenases and mainly located at C-terminal of the protein, to be determined for the first time. This knowledge will facilitate future data curation of present databases and a better functional assignment of newly described

  20. Autodisplay of active sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) yields a whole cell biocatalyst for the synthesis of rare sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Joachim; von Schwichow, Steffen

    2004-04-02

    Whole cell biocatalysts are attractive technological tools for the regio- and enantioselective synthesis of products, especially from substrates with several identical reactive groups. In the present study, a whole cell biocatalyst for the synthesis of rare sugars from polyalcohols was constructed. For this purpose, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, was expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli using Autodisplay. Autodisplay is an efficient surface display system for Gram-negative bacteria and is based on the autotransporter secretion pathway. Transport of SDH to the outer membrane was monitored by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting of different cell fractions. The surface exposure of the enzyme could be verified by immunofluorescence microscopy and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The activity of whole cells displaying SDH at the surface was determined in an optical test. Specific activities were found to be 12 mU per 3.3 x 10(8) cells for the conversion of D-glucitol (sorbitol) to D-fructose, 7 mU for the conversion D-galactitol to D-tagatose, and 17 mU for the conversion of L-arabitol to L-ribulose. The whole cell biocatalyst obtained by surface display of SDH could also produce D-glucitol from D-fructose (29 mU per 3.3 x 10(8) cells).

  1. Real-time monitoring of sucrose, sorbitol, d-glucose and d-fructose concentration by electromagnetic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsoongnoen, Supakorn; Wanthong, Anuwat

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic sensing at microwave frequencies for real-time monitoring of sucrose, sorbitol, d-glucose and d-fructose concentrations is reported. The sensing element was designed based on a coplanar waveguide (CPW) loaded with a split ring resonator (SRR), which was fabricated on a DiClad 880 substrate with a thickness of 1.6mm and relative permittivity (ε r ) of 2.2. The magnetic sensor was connected to a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) and the electromagnetic interaction between the samples and sensor was analyzed. The magnitude of the transmission coefficient (S 21 ) was used as an indicator to detect the solution sample concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 0.20g/ml. The experimental results confirmed that the developed system using microwaves for the real-time monitoring of sucrose, sorbitol, d-glucose and d-fructose concentrations gave unique results for each solution type and concentration. Moreover, the proposed sensor has a wide dynamic range, high linearity, fast operation and low-cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth May Increase the Likelihood of Lactose and Sorbitol but not Fructose Intolerance False Positive Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perets, Tsachi Tsadok; Hamouda, Dalal; Layfer, Olga; Ashorov, Olga; Boltin, Doron; Levy, Sigal; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram

    2017-08-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is defined as a bacterial count of more than 10 5 colony-forming units per milliliter in duodenal aspirate. It shares many symptoms with carbohydrate intolerance, which makes the clinical distinction of the disorders difficult. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between a positive carbohydrate breath test and the presence of SIBO suggested by a positive lactulose hydrogen breath test. The electronic database of the gastroenterology laboratory of a tertiary medical center was searched for all patients clinically tested for SIBO in 2012-2013 for whom previous results for lactose, fructose, and/or sorbitol breath test were available. The correlation between positive findings for carbohydrate intolerance and for SIBO was statistically analyzed. The study group included 349 patients, 231 female and 118 male, of mean age 53±19 years. All had symptoms of abdominal bloating and gas. There was a statistically significant difference in rates of a positive breath test for lactose and sorbitol at ≤90 minutes between patients who were positive and negative for SIBO [χ 2 (1)=12.8, p <0.01 and χ 2 (1)=9.5, p <0.01 respectively]. Findings for fructose were not significant. There was no effect of age or gender. SIBO may represent an important reversible cause of carbohydrate intolerance. It may be especially prudent to exclude SIBO patients with an early peak (≤90 minutes) in H 2 excretion. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  3. Prevalence of sorbitol non-fermenting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in Black Bengal goats on smallholdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, M; Das, A; Islam, M Z; Biswas, P K

    2016-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Bangladesh with the sampling of 514 Black Bengal goats on smallholdings to determine the presence of sorbitol non-fermenting (SNF) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Swab samples collected from the recto-anal junction were plated onto cefixime and potassium tellurite added sorbitol MacConkey (CT-SMAC) agar, a selective medium for STEC O157 serogroup, where this serogroup and other SNF STEC produce colourless colonies. The SNF E. coli (SNF EC) isolates obtained from the survey were investigated by PCR for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing genes, stx1 and stx2, and two other virulence genes, eae and hlyA that code for adherence factor (intimin protein) and pore-forming cytolysin, respectively. The SNF EC isolates were also assessed for the presence of the rfbO157 gene to verify their identity to O157 serogroup. The results revealed that the proportions of goats carrying SNF EC isolates and stx1 and stx2 genes were 6·2% (32/514) [95% confidence interval (CI) 4·4-8·7)], 1·2% (95% CI 0·5-2·6) and 1·2% (95% CI 0·5-2·6), respectively. All the SNF STEC tested negative for rfbO157, hlyA and eae genes. The risk for transmission of STEC from Black Bengal goats to humans is low.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Human Atypical Sorbitol-Fermenting Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O157 Reveals High Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossow, Annelene; Zhang, Wenlan; Bielaszewska, Martina; Rhode, Sophie; Hansen, Kevin; Fruth, Angelika; Rüter, Christian; Karch, Helge; Mellmann, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Alongside the well-characterized enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, serogroup O157 comprises sorbitol-fermenting typical and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC/aEPEC) strains that carry the intimin-encoding gene eae but not Shiga toxin-encoding genes (stx). Since little is known about these pathogens, we characterized 30 clinical isolates from patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or uncomplicated diarrhea with respect to their flagellin gene (fliC) type and multilocus sequence type (MLST). Moreover, we applied whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to determine the phylogenetic relationship with other eae-positive EHEC serotypes and the composition of the rfbO157 region. fliC typing resulted in five fliC types (H7, H16, H34, H39, and H45). Isolates of each fliC type shared a unique ST. In comparison to the 42 HUS-associated E. coli (HUSEC) strains, only the stx-negative isolates with fliCH7 shared their ST with EHEC O157:H7/H(-) strains. With the exception of one O157:H(-) fliCH16 isolate, HUS was exclusively associated with fliCH7. WGS corroborated the separation of the fliCH7 isolates, which were closely related to the EHEC O157:H7/H(-) isolates, and the diverse group of isolates exhibiting different fliC types, indicating independent evolution of the different serotypes. This was also supported by the heterogeneity within the rfbO157 region that exhibited extensive recombinations. The genotypic subtypes and distribution of clinical symptoms suggested that the stx-negative O157 strains with fliCH7 were originally EHEC strains that lost stx The remaining isolates form a distinct and diverse group of atypical EPEC isolates that do not possess the full spectrum of virulence genes, underlining the importance of identifying the H antigen for clinical risk assessment. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. A Novel Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Sorbitol for Purification of Pectinase Enzyme from Psidium guajava and Recycling Phase Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25756051

  6. The vapour pressure of water as a function of solute concentration above aqueous solutions of fructose, sucrose, raffinose, erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, S.A.; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Westh, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The vapour pressure of water above an aqueous solution of sucrose at T = 298.06 K has been measured for 9 sucrose mole fractions up to 0.12. Vapour pressure measurements have also been made on aqueous solutions of meso-erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, fructose, and raffinose at T = 317.99 K...

  7. A novel aqueous micellar two-phase system composed of surfactant and sorbitol for purification of pectinase enzyme from Psidium guajava and recycling phase components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  8. Foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] via ground beef: an outbreak in northern France, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; Loukiadis, E; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Haeghebaert, S; Weill, F-X; Baliere, C; Ganet, S; Gouali, M; Vaillant, V; Pihier, N; Callon, H; Novo, R; Gaillot, O; Thevenot-Sergentet, D; Bingen, E; Chaud, P; de Valk, H

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:[H7] is a particularly virulent clone of E. coli O157:H7 associated with a higher incidence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and a higher case fatality rate. Many fundamental aspects of its epidemiology remain to be elucidated, including its reservoir and transmission routes and vehicles. We describe an outbreak of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] that occurred in France in 2011. Eighteen cases of paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome with symptom onset between 6 June and 15 July 2011 were identified among children aged 6 months to 10 years residing in northern France. A strain of sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:[H7] stx2a eae was isolated from ten cases. Epidemiological, microbiological and trace-back investigations identified multiply-contaminated frozen ground beef products bought in a supermarket chain as the outbreak vehicle. Strains with three distinct pulsotypes that were isolated from patients, ground beef preparations recovered from patients' freezers and from stored production samples taken at the production plant were indistinguishable upon molecular comparison. This investigation documents microbiologically confirmed foodborne transmission of sorbitol-fermenting of E. coli O157 via beef and could additionally provide evidence of a reservoir in cattle for this pathogen. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  9. Contrasting dynamics of fragile and non-fragile polyalcohols through the glass, and dynamical, transitions: A comparison of neutron scattering and dielectric relaxation data for sorbitol and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliardo, F; Angell, C A; Magazù, S

    2017-01-01

    Glycerol and sorbitol are glass-forming hydrogen-bonded systems characterized by intriguing properties which make these systems very interesting also from the applications point of view. The goal of this work is to relate the hydrogen-bonded features, relaxation dynamics, glass transition properties and fragility of these systems, in particular to seek insight into their very different liquid fragilities. The comparison between glycerol and sorbitol is carried out by collecting the elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) intensity as a function of temperature and of the instrumental energy resolution. Intensity data vs temperature and resolution are analyzed in terms of thermal restraint and Resolution Elastic Neutron Scattering (RENS) approaches. The number of OH groups, which are related to the connecting sites, is a significant parameter both in the glass transition and in the dynamical transition. On the other hand, the disordered nature of sorbitol is confirmed by the existence of different relaxation processes. From the applications point of view, glycerol and sorbitol have remarkable bioprotectant properties which make these systems useful in different technological and industrial fields. Furthermore, polyols are rich in glassforming liquid phenomenology and highly deserving of study in their own right. The comparison of EINS and calorimetric data on glycerol and sorbitol helps provide a connection between structural relaxation, dynamical transition, glass transition, and fragility. The evaluation of the inflection point in the elastic intensity behavior as a function of temperature and instrumental energy resolution provides a confirmation of the validity of the RENS approach. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Science for Life" Guest Editor: Dr. Austen Angell, Dr. Salvatore Magazù and Dr. Federica Migliardo. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Lactase Non-Persistence Genotyping: Comparison of Two Real-Time PCR Assays and Assessment of Concomitant Fructose/Sorbitol Malabsorption Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Pollheimer, Verena; Németh, Stefan; Pühringer, Helene; Stolba, Robert; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele; Kriegshäuser, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Genetic testing is a standard technique for the diagnosis of primary adult-type hypolactasia, also referred to as lactase non-persistence. The aim of this study was to compare the lactase gene (LCT) C/T-13910 polymorphism genotyping results of two commercially available real-time (RT)-PCR assays in patients referred to our outpatient clinic for primary lactose malabsorption testing. Furthermore, concomitant conditions of fructose/sorbitol malabsorption were assessed. Samples obtained from 100 patients were tested in parallel using the LCT T-13910C ToolSet for Light Cycler (Roche, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) and the LCT-13910C>T RealFast Assay (ViennaLab Diagnostics GmbH, Vienna, Austria). Additionally, patients were also screened for the presence of fructose/sorbitol malabsorption by functional hydrogen (H2)/methane (CH4) breath testing (HMBT). Cohen's Kappa (κ) was used to calculate the agreement between the two genotyping methods. The exact Chi-Square test was performed to compare fructose/sorbitol HMBT with LCT genotyping results. Twenty-one (21.0%) patients had a LCT C/C-13910 genotype suggestive of lactase non-persistence, and 79 (79.0%) patients were identified with either a LCT T/C-13910 or T/T-13910 genotype (i.e., lactase persistence). In all genotype groups, concordance between the two RT-PCR assays was 100%. Cohen's κ demonstrated perfect observed agreement (p sorbitol malabsorption was observed in 13/100 (13.0%) and 25/100 (25.0%) individuals, respectively. Both RT-PCR assays are robust and reliable LCT genotyping tools in a routine clinical setting. Concomitant fructose and/or sorbitol malabsorption should be considered in individuals with suspected lactase-non-persistence. However, standardization of clinical interpretation of laboratory HMBT results is required.

  11. Analise térmica e microscópica de laminados biodegradáveis obtidos a partir de farinha de mandioca, sorbitol e poli (butileno adipato co-tereftalato PBAT. Thermal and microscopic analysis of biodegradable laminates made from cassava flour, sorbitol and poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate PBAT - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.13183

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Tirolli Rett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver blendas de materiais laminados biodegradáveis, utilizando farinha de mandioca como fonte de amido, fibras naturais, sorbitol como plastificante e PBAT. Primeiro obteve-se peletes de três formulações diferentes e a partir destes, utilizou-se a termoprensagem a alta temperatura como alternativa na formação dos laminados. A caracterização foi feita através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e calorimetria diferencia de varredura (CDV. A quantidade se sorbitol que melhor se ajustou à extrusão foi a de 15% (peso/peso; a formulação do laminado mais homogêneo, observada pela microscopia, foi de 55:40:15 (farinha/sorbitol/PBAT. As fibras ficaram dispersas por toda a superfície nos três tratamentos estudados, porém, por dentre eles, observaram-se zonas dispersas das fibras. Conforme se aumentou o teor de farinha, houve aumento no ponto de fusão dos laminados em comparação ao PBAT puro.Blends of biodegradable laminated materials were developed using cassava flour as starch and natural fibers source, sorbitol as a plasticizer and PBAT as a biodegradable polyester. After obtaining pellets from three different formulations, high temperature thermopressure was used to form laminates. The characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The amount of sorbitol for the best extrusion process was 15% (weight/weight and the formulation of the best homogeneity observed by microscopy was 55:40:15 (flour/sorbitol/PBAT. Although fibers were dispersed throughout the surface in the three treatments, scattered areas of fibers could be found among them. As rates of flour increased, an increase in the melting point of the laminates occurred when compared to pure PBAT.  

  12. Primary double contrast study of the colon with citrate-sorbitol-barium suspension in the diagnosis of chronic colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray investigation of the colon was conducted in 292 patients with clinically diagnosed chronic colitis: standard 3-phase irrigoscopy-in 189 patients and a primary double contrast study of the colon with citrate-sorbitol-barium suspenzion - in 103. Basing on X-ray and morphological findings, the diagnosis was confirmed in 128 patients of the 1st group (68.2 %) and in 89 patients of the 2nd group (86 %). The primary double contrast study of the colon was found more effective as it permitted the detection of elements of the mucosal microcontours: transversal strips, not coinciding with haustration, focal granularity, diffuse granularity, small barium suspension depots or niches, nodular granularity. It permitted the recommendation of the method for a wide clinical use

  13. Copper-zinc electrodeposition in alkaline-sorbitol medium: Electrochemical studies and structural, morphological and chemical composition characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, M. R. H.; Barbano, E. P.; de Carvalho, M. F.; Tulio, P. C.; Carlos, I. A.

    2015-04-01

    The galvanostatic technique was used to analyze the electrodeposition of Cu-Zn on to AISI 1010 steel electrode from an alkaline-sorbitol bath with various proportions of the metal ions in the bath: Cu70/Zn30, Cu50/Zn50 and Cu30/Zn70. Coloration of Cu-Zn films were whitish golden, light golden, golden/gray depending on the Cu2+/Zn2+ ratios in the electrodeposition bath, deposition current density (jdep) and charge density (qdep). The highest current efficiency was ∼54.0%, at jdep -1.0 mA cm-2 and qdep 0.40 C cm-2 in the Cu70/Zn30 bath. Energy dispersive spectroscopy indicated that electrodeposits produced from the bath Cu70/Zn30 showed higher Cu content at lower jdep. Also, for same jdep the Cu content increased with qdep. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Cu-Zn electrodeposits of high quality were obtained from the Cu70/Zn30 bath, since the films were fine-grained, except the obtained at jdep -20.0 mA cm-2 and qdep 10.0 C cm-2. Also, these electrodeposits did not present cracks. X-ray analysis of the Cu-Zn electrodeposits obtained at jdep -8.0, -20.0 and -40.0 mA cm-2, in each case, with qdep 2.0 and 10.0 C cm-2, in the Cu70/Zn30 bath, suggested the occurrence of a mixture of the following phases, CuZn, CuZn5 and Cu5Zn8. Galvanostatic electrodeposits of Cu-Zn obtained from sorbitol-alkaline baths exhibited whitish golden color, with good prospects for industrial applications, especially for decorative purposes.

  14. Association study of sorbitol dehydrogenase -888G>C polymorphism with type 2 diabetic retinopathy in Caucasian-Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fábio Netto; Crispim, Daisy; Canani, Luís Henrique; Gross, Jorge Luiz; dos Santos, Kátia Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common chronic complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. Hyperglycemia increases glucose flux through the polyol pathway, in which aldose reductase converts glucose into intracellular sorbitol, which is subsequently converted to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). The accelerated polyol pathway triggers a cascade of events leading to retinal vascular endothelial dysfunction and the eventual development of DR. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldose reductase have been consistently associated with DR. However, only two studies have analyzed the relationship between polymorphisms in the gene encoding SDH (SORD) and DR. In this case-control study, we investigated whether the -888G > C polymorphism (rs3759890) in the SORD gene is associated with the presence or severity of DR in 446 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes (241 subjects with and 205 subjects without DR). The -888G > C polymorphism was also examined in 105 healthy Caucasian blood donors, and the genotyping of this polymorphism was carried out by real-time PCR. The genotype and allele frequencies of the -888G > C polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were similar to those of blood donors (G allele frequency = 0.16 in both groups of subjects). Similarly, the genotype and allele frequencies in patients with DR or the proliferative form of DR were similar to those of patients without this complication (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Thus, our findings suggest that the -888G > C polymorphism in the SORD gene is not involved in the pathogenesis of DR in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structure and equilibria of Ca 2+-complexes of glucose and sorbitol from multinuclear ( 1H, 13C and 43Ca) NMR measurements supplemented with molecular modelling calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallagi, A.; Dudás, Cs.; Csendes, Z.; Forgó, P.; Pálinkó, I.; Sipos, P.

    2011-05-01

    Ca 2+-complexation of D-glucose and D-sorbitol have been investigated with the aid of multinuclear ( 1H, 13C and 43Ca) NMR spectroscopy and ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Formation constants of the forming 1:1 complexes have been estimated from one-dimensional 13C NMR spectra obtained at constant ionic strength (1 M NaCl). Binding sites were identified from 2D 1H- 43Ca NMR spectra. 2D NMR measurements and ab initio calculations indicated that Ca 2+ ions were bound in a tridentate manner via the glycosidic OH, the ethereal oxygen in the ring and the OH on the terminal carbon for the α- and β-anomers of glucose and for sorbitol simultaneous binding of four hydroxide moieties (C1, C2, C4 and C6) was suggested.

  16. Molar concentrations of sorbitol and polyethylene glycol inhibit the Plasmodium aquaglyceroporin but not that of E. coli: involvement of the channel vestibules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Almasalmeh, Abdulnasser; Krenc, Dawid; Beitz, Eric

    2012-05-01

    The aquaglyceroporins of Escherichia coli, EcGlpF, and of Plasmodium falciparum, PfAQP, are probably the best characterized members of the solute-conducting aquaporin (AQP) subfamily. Their crystal structures have been elucidated and numerous experimental and theoretical analyses have been conducted. However, opposing reports on their rates of water permeability require clarification. Hence, we expressed EcGlpF and PfAQP in yeast, prepared protoplasts, and compared water and glycerol permeability of both aquaglyceroporins in the presence of different osmolytes, i.e. sucrose, sorbitol, PEG300, and glycerol. We found that water permeability of PfAQP strongly depends on the external osmolyte, with full inhibition by sorbitol, and increasing water permeability when glycerol, PEG300, and sucrose were used. EcGlpF expression did not enhance water permeability over that of non-expressing control protoplasts regardless of the osmolyte. Glycerol permeability of PfAQP was also inhibited by sorbitol, but to a smaller extent, whereas EcGlpF conducted glycerol independently of the osmolyte. Mixtures of glycerol and urea passed PfAQP equally well under isosmotic conditions, whereas under hypertonic conditions in a countercurrent with water, glycerol was clearly preferred over urea. We conclude that PfAQP has high and EcGlpF low water permeability, and explain the inhibiting effect of sorbitol on PfAQP by its binding to the extracellular vestibule. The preference for glycerol under hypertonic conditions implies that in a physiological setting, PfAQP mainly acts as a water/glycerol channel rather than a urea facilitator. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polar silica-based stationary phases. Part II- Neutral silica stationary phases with surface bound maltose and sorbitol for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnasekara, Renuka; El Rassi, Ziad

    2017-07-28

    Two neutral polyhydroxylated silica bonded stationary phases, namely maltose-silica (MALT-silica) and sorbitol-silica (SOR-silica), have been introduced and chromatographically characterized in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) for a wide range of polar compounds. The bonding of the maltose and sorbitol to the silica surface was brought about by first converting bare silica to an epoxy-activated silica surface via reaction with γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) followed by attaching maltose and sorbitol to the epoxy surface in the presence of the Lewis acid catalyst BF 3 .ethereate. Both silica based columns offered the expected retention characteristics usually encountered for neutral polar surface. The retention mechanism is majorly based on solute' differential partitioning between an organic rich hydro-organic mobile phase (e.g., ACN rich mobile phase) and an adsorbed water layer on the surface of the stationary phase although additional hydrogen bonding was also responsible in some cases for solute retention. The MALT-silica column proved to be more hydrophilic and offered higher retention, separation efficiency and resolution than the SOR-silica column among the tested polar solutes such as derivatized mono- and oligosaccharides, weak phenolic acids, cyclic nucleotide monophosphate and nucleotide-5'-monophosphates, and weak bases, e.g., nucleobases and nucleosides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving Performance and Operational Stability of Porcine Interferon-α Production by Pichia pastoris with Combinational Induction Strategy of Low Temperature and Methanol/Sorbitol Co-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-Jie; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Shi-Juan; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhong-Ping; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2015-05-01

    Various induction strategies were investigated for effective porcine interferon-α (pIFN-α) production by Pichia pastoris in a 10 L fermenter. We found that pIFN-α concentration could be significantly improved with the strategies of low-temperature induction or methanol/sorbitol co-feeding. On this basis, a combinational strategy of induction at lower temperature (20 °C) with methanol/sorbitol co-feeding has been proposed for improvement of pIFN-α production. The results reveal that maximal pIFN-α concentration and antiviral activity reach the highest level of 2.7 g/L and 1.8 × 10(7) IU/mg with the proposed induction strategy, about 1.3-2.1 folds higher than those obtained with other sub-optimal induction strategies. Metabolic analysis and online multi-variable measurement results indicate that energy metabolic enrichment is responsible for the performance enhancement of pIFN-α production, as a large amount of ATP could be simultaneously produced from both formaldehyde oxidation pathway in methanol metabolism and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in sorbitol metabolism. In addition, the proposed combinational induction strategy enables P. pastoris to be resistant to high methanol concentration (42 g/L), which conceivably occur associating with the error-prone methanol over-feeding. As a result, the proposed combinational induction strategy simultaneously increased the targeted protein concentration and operational stability leading to significant improvement of pIFN-α production.

  19. The effect of the addition of sorbitol and glycerol towards the edible film characteristics of the belitung taro starch and the lime leaves as antimicrobial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asria, Merry; Elizarni, Samah, dan Selfa Dewati

    2015-12-01

    Plastics have been generally used for food packaging, but plastics using causing environmental problem for as non biodegradable. Resolving the problem need another alternative packaging that environmental friendly such as the edible film as biodegradable packing material. This research intend to determination the effects of sorbitol and glycerol (concentration of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) as addition to the edible film characteristics from the belitung taro starch (Xanthosoma sagitifolium). Lime leaves (Citrus aurantifolia) extract used as an antimicrobial film (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% respectively). From the research obtained that using sorbitol has given more rigid and hard film texture, while glycerol provides more elastic and flexible texture. Sorbitol give best performance at 2% where thickness 0.17 mm; tensile strength 41.60 MPa; yield strength 34.28 MPa; modulus of elasticity 7983.71 MPa; and maximum strain 29,8%. While, glycerol (2%) provides thickness 0.18 mm; tensile strength 35.72 MPa; yield strength 30.78 MPa; modulus of elasticity 9065.90 MPa; and maximum strain 14.4% for best performance. SEM and FTIR analysis applied to determine film surface morphology's characterization and determine the functional groups of the film materials. The addition of lime leaves extract as antimicrobial gives the growth inhibition activity against the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  20. JNK signaling pathway regulates sorbitol-induced Tau proteolysis and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells by targeting caspase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera Santa-Catalina, Marta; Caballero Bermejo, Montaña; Argent, Ricardo; Alonso, Juan C; Centeno, Francisco; Lorenzo, María J

    2017-12-15

    Growing evidence suggests that Diabetes Mellitus increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. It is well known that hyperglycemia, a key feature of Diabetes Mellitus, may induce plasma osmolarity disturbances. Both hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity promote the altered post-translational regulation of microtubule-associated protein Tau. Interestingly, abnormal hyperphosphorylation and cleavage of Tau have been proven to lead to the genesis of filamentous structures referred to as neurofibrillary tangles, the main pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. We have previously described that hyperosmotic stress induced by sorbitol promotes Tau proteolysis and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells via caspase-3 activation. In order to gain insights into the regulatory mechanisms of such processes, in this work we explored the intracellular signaling pathways that regulate these events. We found that sorbitol treatment significantly enhanced the activation of conventional families of MAPK in SH-SY5Y cells. Tau proteolysis was completely prevented by JNK inhibition but not affected by either ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK blockade. Moreover, inhibition of JNK, but not ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK, efficiently prevented sorbitol-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. In summary, we provide evidence that JNK signaling pathway is an upstream regulator of hyperosmotic stress-induced Tau cleavage and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y through the control of caspase-3 activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fractal aspects of the flow and shear behaviour of free-flowable particle size fractions of pharmaceutical directly compressible excipient sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurychová, Hana; Lebedová, Václava; Šklubalová, Zdenka; Dzámová, Pavlína; Svěrák, Tomáš; Stoniš, Jan

    Flowability of powder excipients is directly influenced by their size and shape although the granulometric influence of the flow and shear behaviour of particulate matter is not studied frequently. In this work, the influence of particle size on the mass flow rate through the orifice of a conical hopper, and the cohesion and flow function was studied for four free-flowable size fractions of sorbitol for direct compression in the range of 0.080-0.400 mm. The particles were granulometricaly characterized using an optical microscopy; a boundary fractal dimension of 1.066 was estimated for regular sorbitol particles. In the particle size range studied, a non-linear relationship between the mean particle size and the mass flow rate Q10 (g/s) was detected having amaximum at the 0.245mm fraction. The best flow properties of this fraction were verified with aJenike shear tester due to the highest value of flow function and the lowest value of the cohesion. The results of this work show the importance of the right choice of the excipient particle size to achieve the best flow behaviour of particulate material.Key words: flowability size fraction sorbitol for direct compaction Jenike shear tester fractal dimension.

  2. A comparative study on cellulose nanocrystals extracted from bleached cotton and flax and used for casting films with glycerol and sorbitol plasticisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszár, Emilia; Nagy, Sebestyén

    2017-10-15

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were released from bleached cotton and flax by a sulphuric acid hydrolysis with about 40 and 34% yield, respectively. The rod-like cotton-CNC particles were slightly longer and wider and had a less pronounced aggregation ability in aqueous suspension than the flax-CNC ones. Films were cast from the CNC suspensions with sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers. The concept behind this research was to explore how the plasticisers - with similar structure but different molecular weight - and their concentrations affect the perceptible and measured properties of CNC films. Results revealed that the type of plasticiser determined the morphology and the optical and tensile properties of films. The best quality CNC film with an averaged thickness of 50μm was obtained with 20% sorbitol from cotton-CNC. It was proved that behaviour of sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers in CNC films was very similar to that reported previously for starch films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of selective and differential medium for Shigella sonnei using three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and X-Gal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, G N; Kim, S A; Kwon, O C; Rhee, M S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new selective and differential medium for isolating Shigella sonnei (designated 3SD medium). The new medium was based on three carbohydrates (lactose, sorbitol, and xylose) and a chromogenic substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside, X-Gal). S. sonnei cannot ferment lactose, sorbitol, or xylose, but can ferment X-Gal, which generates turquoise-blue colonies with rough edges. Other bacteria (54 strains of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria) produced visually distinct colonies on 3SD medium (colorless or pink-violet colonies), or their growth was inhibited on 3SD medium. The optimum concentration of 50 mg/L X-Gal was selected because it yielded the highest level of morphological discrimination between S. sonnei and other bacteria, and this concentration was cost-effective. Bile salt concentration optimization was performed using healthy, heat-injured, and acid-injured S. sonnei. The recovery rate differed significantly depending on the bile salt concentration; media containing >1.0 g/L bile salt showed significantly lower recovery of stress-injured cells than medium containing 0.5 g/L bile salt (P<0.05). Growth of all Gram-positive bacteria was inhibited on medium containing 0.5 g/L bile salt; therefore, this concentration was used as the optimal concentration. Previous media used to isolate Shigella spp. (MacConkey, xylose lysine desoxycholate, and Salmonella-Shigella agar) showed poor performance when used to support the growth of injured S. sonnei cells, whereas 3SD medium supported a high growth rate of injured and healthy cells (equivalent to that obtained with nutrient-rich tryptic soy agar). To validate the performance of 3SD medium with real specimens, S. sonnei and other bacteria were spiked into samples such as untreated water, carrot, salad, and oyster. 3SD medium showed superior specificity (100%) and sensitivity (100%) for S. sonnei, and yielded no false-positive or false-negative results

  4. Efecto del sorbitol sobre la relajación estructural en películas de gelatina en estado vítreo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Díaz-Calderón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del sorbitol sobre la cinética de relajación estructural de películas de gelatina almacenadas bajo la temperatura de transición vítrea (Tg. Películas de gelatina de bovino y sorbitol fueron preparadas mediante casting en frío. El sorbitol fue agregado en fracciones en peso (Qs de 0,0, 0,06 y 0,10. Las películas fueron acondicionadas en un ambiente de humedad relativa constante (44% utilizando una solución saturada de carbonato de potasio, obteniéndose fracciones de contenido de humedad en peso (Qw de 0,18, 0,16 y 0,18 respectivamente. La entalpía de relajación (∆H fue determinada mediante Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC. Las muestras utilizadas en este estudio presentaron valores de Tg de 48ºC (Qs=0,0, 35ºC (Qs=0,06 y 30ºC (Qs=0,10. Luego de eliminar el historial térmico (30ºC sobre Tg, 15min, las muestras fueron almacenadas isotérmicamente a 10ºC bajo Tgonset entre 2 y 80 horas. La adición de sorbitol produjo una reducción signifi cativa (p<0,05 en la cinética de relajación estructural. La linealización del valor de entalpía de relajación (∆H en función del logaritmo del tiempo de almacenamiento mostró una reducción de la pendiente en las muestras plastifi cadas con sorbitol. La reducción en la cinética de relajación estaría relacionada con el efecto de empaquetamiento molecular asociado a la presencia de polioles en matrices en estado vítreo recientemente reportada mediante espectroscopía de positrones (PALS

  5. Jet-Fuel Range Hydrocarbons from Biomass-Derived Sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Weng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons are the significant components of jet fuel with high energy-density. However, conventional technologies for bio-fuel production cannot produce these products without further aromatization and isomerization. In this work, renewable liquid fuel with high content of aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons was obtained through aqueous catalytic conversion of biomass sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 catalyst. Texture characteristics of the catalyst were determined by physisorption of N2, which indicated its bimodal pore structures were microporous (HZSM-5, pore width: 0.56 nm and mesoporous (SBA-15, pore width: 8 nm. The surface acidity included weak and strong acid sites, predominantly Lewis type, and was further confirmed by the NH3-TPD and Py-IR analysis. The catalytic performances were tested in a fixed-bed reactor under the conditions of 593 K, WHSV of 0.75 h−1, GHSV of 2500 h−1 and 4.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure, whereby oil yield of 40.4 wt. % with aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons content of 80.0% was obtained.

  6. Carbon-coated ceramic membrane reactor for the production of hydrogen by aqueous-phase reforming of sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira D'Angelo, M F; Ordomsky, V; Schouten, J C; van der Schaaf, J; Nijhuis, T A

    2014-07-01

    Hydrogen was produced by aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of sorbitol in a carbon-on-alumina tubular membrane reactor (4 nm pore size, 7 cm long, 3 mm internal diameter) that allows the hydrogen gas to permeate to the shell side, whereas the liquid remains in the tube side. The hydrophobic nature of the membrane serves to avoid water loss and to minimize the interaction between the ceramic support and water, thus reducing the risks of membrane degradation upon operation. The permeation of hydrogen is dominated by the diffusivity of the hydrogen in water. Thus, higher operation temperatures result in an increase of the flux of hydrogen. The differential pressure has a negative effect on the flux of hydrogen due to the presence of liquid in the larger pores. The membrane was suitable for use in APR, and yielded 2.5 times more hydrogen than a reference reactor (with no membrane). Removal of hydrogen through the membrane assists in the reaction by preventing its consumption in undesired reactions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Influence of sorbitol on mechanical and physico-chemical properties of soy protein-based bioplastics processed by injection molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Felix

    Full Text Available Abstract Soy Protein Isolate (SPI has been evaluated as useful candidate for the development of protein-based bioplastic materials processed by injection molding. The influence of sorbitol (SB as plasticizer in mechanical properties and water uptake capacity was evaluated in SPI-based bioplastics. A mixing rheometer that allows monitoring torque and temperature during mixing and a small-scale-plunger-type injection molding machine were used to obtain SPI/Plasticizer blends and SPI-based bioplastics, respectively. Dynamic measurements were carried out to obtain mechanical spectra of different bioplastics. Moreover, the mechanical characterization was supplemented with uniaxial tensile tests. Additionally, the influence of SB in water uptake capacity was also evaluated. The introduction of SB leads to increase the rigidity of bioplastics as well as the water uptake capacity after 24h, however it involves a decrease in strain at break. Final bioplastics are plastic materials with both adequate properties for the substitution of conventional petroleum plastics and high biodegradability.

  8. Severe Outbreak of Sorbitol-Fermenting Escherichia coli O157 via Unpasteurized Milk and Farm Visits, Finland 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkonen, A; Salmenlinna, S; Rimhanen-Finne, R; Lundström, H; Heinikainen, S; Hakkinen, M; Hallanvuo, S

    2017-09-01

    Shiga toxin-producing, sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157 (SF O157) has emerged as a cause of severe human illness. Despite frequent human findings, its transmission routes and reservoirs remain largely unknown. Foodborne transmission and reservoir in cattle have been suspected, but with limited supporting evidence. This study describes the outbreak of SF O157 that occurred in Finland in 2012. The outbreak originated from a recreational farm selling unpasteurized milk, as revealed by epidemiologic and microbiological investigations, and involved six hospitalized children and two asymptomatic adults with culture-confirmed infection. An identical strain of SF O157 was isolated from patients, cattle and the farm environment, and epidemiologic analysis suggested unpasteurized milk as the vehicle of transmission. This study reports the first milkborne outbreak of SF O157, provides supporting evidence of cattle as a reservoir and highlights the health risks related to the consumption of unpasteurized milk. © 2017 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Free fatty acid suppositories are as effective as docusate sodium and sorbitol enemas in treating constipation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormarsson, Orri Thor; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Stefansson, Einar; Lund, Sigrun Helga; Bjornsson, Einar Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A well-documented, clinically proven per rectum treatment for childhood constipation is needed. This phase two clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of suppositories containing free fatty acids (FFA) compared with Klyx docusate sodium and sorbitol enemas. A randomised, controlled, single-blind study was undertaken on 77 children aged between one and 17 who presented to an emergency department in Iceland and were diagnosed with constipation. In stage one, 23 patients were randomised to receive lower dose FFA suppositories or Klyx (n = 33). In stage two, 21 different patients were randomised to receive higher dose suppositories and compared with the same Klyx control subjects. The suppositories were effective at bowel emptying in 39% of the group who received the lower FFA doses and 81% of the group receiving higher doses, compared with 88% in the Klyx control group. Symptom relief was obtained in 30% of the group receiving the lower doses and 71% of the group receiving the higher doses, compared with 73% in the control group. The higher dose FFA suppositories were as effective as the Klyx enemas with regard to bowel emptying and symptom relief and might provide an important and less invasive alternative for childhood constipation. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 1,2,3,4-bis(p-methylbenzylidene sorbitol) accelerates crystallization and improves hole mobility of poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nana; Huo, Hong

    2016-02-01

    The addition of 1,2,3,4-bis(p-methylbenzylidene sorbitol) (MDBS) does not change the nucleation mechanism or the crystal form of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), but its presence increases the crystallization temperature (T c) of P3HT, decreases the crystallization half-time (t 1/2) and accelerates P3HT crystallization, which indicates that MDBS is an effective nucleating agent for P3HT. An acceleration of P3HT crystallization by the addition of MDBS decreases the crystalline size and crystallinity of P3HT, and enhances the connectivity between ordered regions of P3HT, leading to the hole mobility rising from 1.99 × 10-6 to 7.57 × 10-5 cm2 V-1s-1 in P3HT:PCBM blend based hole-only devices with sandwich configurations. Our results suggest that accelerating P3HT crystallization by adding a nucleating agent might be an important factor to improve the hole mobility and balance the electron and hole mobility in a photovoltaic blend.

  11. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Polyalthia longifolia Leaf Extract along with D-Sorbitol: Study of Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaviya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract as reducing and capping agent along with D-sorbitol used to increase the stability of the nanoparticles has been reported. The reaction is carried out at two different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−4 M of silver nitrate, and the effect of temperature on the synthesis of AgNPs is investigated by stirring at room temperature (25°C and at 60°C. The UV-visible spectra of NPs showed a blue shift with increasing temperature at both concentrations. FT-IR analysis shows that the biomoites played an important role in the reduction of Ag+ ions and the growth of AgNPs. TEM results were utilized for the determination of the size and morphology of nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles are found to be highly toxic against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.

  12. Chitin hydrolysis assisted by cell wall degrading enzymes immobilized of Thichoderma asperellum on totally cinnamoylated D-sorbitol beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Kátia F.; Cortijo-Triviño, David; Batista, Karla A.; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; García-Ruiz, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cell wall degrading enzymes produced by Thrichoderma asperellum (TCWDE) were immobilized on totally cinnamoylated D-sorbitol (TCNSO) beads and used for chitin hydrolysis. In order to optimize immobilization efficiency, the reaction time was varied from 2 to 12 h and reactions were conducted in the presence or absence of Na 2 SO 4 . Immobilized enzymes were analysed concerning to thermal and operational stability. Immobilization in presence of Na 2 SO 4 was 54% more efficient than immobilization in absence of salt. After optimization, 32% of the total enzyme offered was immobilized, with 100% of bounding efficiency, measured as the relation between protein and enzyme immobilized. Free and TCNSO–TCWDE presented very similar kinetics with maximum hydrolysis reached at 90 min of reaction. Thermal stability of both free and TCNSO–TCWDE was similar, with losses in activity after 55 °C. Moreover, free and TCNSO–TCWDE retained 100% activity after 3 h incubation at 55 °C. TCNSO–TCWDE were used in a bath-wise reactor during 14 cycles, producing 1825 μg of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) maintaining 83% of initial activity. - Highlights: • TCWDE immobilized on TCNSO, a support with highly hydrophobic character • New immobilization strategy for immobilization on a hydrophobic support • TCNSO–TCWDE were retained during washes and during incubation at 55 °C for 3 h

  13. Chitin hydrolysis assisted by cell wall degrading enzymes immobilized of Thichoderma asperellum on totally cinnamoylated D-sorbitol beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Kátia F., E-mail: katia@icb.ufg.br [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Instituo de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Grupo de Química de Carbohidratos y Biotecnología de Alimentos (QCBA), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain); Cortijo-Triviño, David [Grupo de Química de Carbohidratos y Biotecnología de Alimentos (QCBA), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain); Batista, Karla A.; Ulhoa, Cirano J. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Instituo de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Cx. Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiânia, GO (Brazil); García-Ruiz, Pedro A. [Grupo de Química de Carbohidratos y Biotecnología de Alimentos (QCBA), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, E-30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, cell wall degrading enzymes produced by Thrichoderma asperellum (TCWDE) were immobilized on totally cinnamoylated D-sorbitol (TCNSO) beads and used for chitin hydrolysis. In order to optimize immobilization efficiency, the reaction time was varied from 2 to 12 h and reactions were conducted in the presence or absence of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Immobilized enzymes were analysed concerning to thermal and operational stability. Immobilization in presence of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was 54% more efficient than immobilization in absence of salt. After optimization, 32% of the total enzyme offered was immobilized, with 100% of bounding efficiency, measured as the relation between protein and enzyme immobilized. Free and TCNSO–TCWDE presented very similar kinetics with maximum hydrolysis reached at 90 min of reaction. Thermal stability of both free and TCNSO–TCWDE was similar, with losses in activity after 55 °C. Moreover, free and TCNSO–TCWDE retained 100% activity after 3 h incubation at 55 °C. TCNSO–TCWDE were used in a bath-wise reactor during 14 cycles, producing 1825 μg of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) maintaining 83% of initial activity. - Highlights: • TCWDE immobilized on TCNSO, a support with highly hydrophobic character • New immobilization strategy for immobilization on a hydrophobic support • TCNSO–TCWDE were retained during washes and during incubation at 55 °C for 3 h.

  14. Variações do conteúdo de glucose, frutose e sorbitol em gemas e ramos de macieira durante a dormência Variations of glucose, frutose and sorbitol content in buds and stems of apple tree during the dormancy period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as variações do conteúdo de glucose, frutose e sorbitol em gemas e ramos de um ano de macieira durante o período de dormência. Os ramos da cultivar "Imperial Gala" foram coletados em Porto Amazonas-PR, em intervalos de 21 dias, de abril a agosto (19/04, 10/05, 31/05, 21/06, 12/07, 02/08 e 23/08, e receberam ou não tratamento com frio suplementar de 1.440 horas à temperatura de 4 a 7°C. As análises dos carboidratos foram realizadas em gemas e porções de ramos adjacentes às primeiras por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. Ocorreu um acúmulo de glucose, frutose e sorbitol nas gemas de macieira durante a dormência. O acúmulo de glucose e frutose nos ramos aconteceu até o início de agosto quando, em seguida, houve redução, enquanto o sorbitol decresceu até junho e, em seguida, elevou-se até o final de agosto. O tratamento com frio ao longo da dormência modificou as variações dos conteúdos de carboidratos nas gemas e ramos de macieira.This research was aimed at evaluating the variations of glucose, frutose and sorbitol content in one year old buds and stems of apple trees during the dormancy period. The stems of cv. Imperial Gala were collected in Porto Amazonas, Parana State, Brazil, at intervals of 21 days from April to August (April 19th, May 10th, May 31st, June 21st, July 12th, August 2nd and August 23rd and were treated or not with 1,440 hours of chill (4 to 7°C. The carbohydrates were analysed in buds and stem tissues close to buds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. There was an increase of glucose, frutose and sorbitol content in apple tree buds during the dormancy. An increase of glucose and frutose content in stems occured until August 2nd followed by a significative reduction, while the sorbitol content decreased until June 21st followed by an increase until August 31st. The chill treatment during the dormancy period modified the variations of

  15. Effect of cephalandra indica against advanced glycation end products, sorbitol accumulation and aldose reductase activity in homoeopathic formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extreme generation of free radicals leads to oxidative stress which has been apprehensive in several disease processes such as diabetic complications and vascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the potential of homoeopathic preparations of Cephalandra indica L. against oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Potencies of Cephalandra indica (mother tincture, 6C and 30C were procured from Dr. Willmar Schwabe India Pvt. Ltd. The antioxidant activity of Cephalandra indica was evaluated by employing various in vitro antioxidant methods. Results: The total phenol content was found to be 1905, 849 and 495 mg/g gallic acid equivalents in mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica and total antioxidant capacity was found to be 2710, 759 and 510 μM/g ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. Mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica was found to have strong reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Percentage inhibition of AGEs formation by mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica (10–50 μl was found to be 30.34%–91.77%, 29.98%–65.71% and 33.05%–57.75%, respectively. Mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica showed inhibitory effect against sorbitol accumulation with IC50value of 26.12 μl, 203.10 μl and 897.3 μl, respectively, whereas, in aldose reductase inhibition assay, the IC50value was 32.54 μl, 175.02 μl and 834.34 μl, respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed that homoeopathic preparations of Cephalandra indica exhibit protective effect against oxidative stress.

  16. Influence of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding rate on pAOX1 induction in a Pichia pastoris Mut+ strain in bioreactor with limited oxygen transfer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carly, F; Niu, H; Delvigne, F; Fickers, P

    2016-04-01

    High Pichia pastoris biomass density could be obtained using high co-feeding rate of methanol and sorbitol in a fed-batch or continuous culture, while further higher feeding rate finally leads to oxygen limitation in bioreactor. In the literature, there is lack of report about AOX1 promoter regulation with regard to dissolved oxygen level (DO). Therefore, in this work, chemostat cultures were performed to investigate the cell growth, metabolism and regulation of the AOX1 promoter (pAOX1) regarding co-feeding rate of optimized methanol/sorbitol mixture (methanol fraction 0.60 C-mol/C-mol) using a P. pastoris Mut+/pAOX1-lacZ strain. The oxygen transfer rates (OTR) in bioreactor were kept in the range of typical values of large bioreactor, i.e., 4-8 g/(L h) if DO equals 30 % saturation or 5-10 g/(L h) if DO nears zero. For DO >0, an increase of the carbon fed led to an increase of pAOX1 induction. By contrast, when dissolved oxygen was completely depleted, methanol accumulated, causing a 30 % decrease of pAOX1 induction. However, this decrease is more likely to be lined to methanol accumulation than to low level of dissolved oxygen (sorbitol co-feeding allowed cells to adapt to oxygen transient limitations that often occur at industrial scale with reduced effect on pAOX1 induction. The optimal feeding rate tested here was 6.6 mmol C (DCW h)(-1) at an OTR of 8.28 g O2(L h)(-1) with over fivefold pAOX1 induction (probably directly associated with target protein productivity) compared with previous work.

  17. Preparation and properties of 1-tetradecanol/1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) benzylidene sorbitol gelatinous form-stable phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Tuo; Song, Jian; Niu, Libo; Feng, Rongxiu

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The 1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) benzylidene sorbitol can self-assemble to form three-dimensional network and immobilized the 1-tetradecanol. As a result, the gel-to-sol transition temperature of the composite PCM increased and the 1-tetradecanol leakage decreased. Highlights: ► First used of 1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) benzylidene sorbitol in alcohol-based PCMs. ► A new method of doping with exfoliated graphite is presented. ► A possible mechanism for decreasing leakage has been proposed based on SEM results. ► The prepared composite PCMs showed a high-energy storage density. ► The addition of exfoliated graphite enhanced the thermal conductivity of the PCMs. - Abstract: A 1-tetradecanol (TD)/1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) benzylidene sorbitol (DMDBS) composite was prepared as a novel form-stable phase change material (PCM), and the properties of the composites such as the gel-to-sol transition temperature, the latent heat, the microstructure and the thermal storage performance were characterized. The composite was prepared by impregnating DMDBS into TD and the maximum feasible weight percentage of TD was determined to be 94.2 wt%. The gel-to-sol transition temperature of the composite PCM was 158.3–180.0 °C, which is well above the melting point of 1-tetradecanol. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the melting and freezing enthalpies of 1-tetradecanol in the composite PCM and the values are 218.5 and 215.3 J g −1 , respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that 1-tetradecanol dispersed in the three-dimensional network formed by DMDBS. The relationship between the amount of DMDBS additive and the leakage was also discussed. The thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was improved by doping with exfoliated graphite

  18. Association of prescription of oral sodium polystyrene sulfonate with sorbitol in an inpatient setting with colonic necrosis: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Maura A; Baker, Thomas P; Nguyen, Annie; Sebastianelli, Mary E; Stewart, Heather L; Oliver, David K; Abbott, Kevin C; Yuan, Christina M

    2012-09-01

    Colonic necrosis has been reported after sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS)/sorbitol use, but the incidence and relative risk (RR) are not established. Retrospective cohort study. 123,391 adult inpatients at a tertiary medical center. Receipt of SPS prescriptions (exposed) or a prescription other than SPS (unexposed internal comparison group) between September 1, 2001, and October 31, 2010. The main outcome measure was tissue-confirmed diagnosis of colonic necrosis, considered SPS-associated if SPS was prescribed 30 or fewer days before tissue accession date. Demographics, serum chemistry test results, hospital location, and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnostic codes. SPS was prescribed to 2,194 inpatients. 82 inpatient colonic necrosis cases were identified. 3 received oral SPS (1 gram per 4 milliliters of 33% sorbitol) 30 or fewer days before the colonic necrosis accession date (3.7% of inpatient colonic necrosis cases). The data were linked with 123,391 individuals who received inpatient prescriptions between the same dates. Colonic necrosis incidence was 0.14% (95% CI, 0.03%-0.40%) in those prescribed SPS versus 0.07% (95% CI, 0.05-0.08%) in those not prescribed SPS (RR, 2.10; 95% CI, 0.68-6.48; P = 0.2). The number needed to harm was 1,395 (95% CI, 298-5,100). Subgroup analysis (age >65 years; estimated glomerular filtration rate, sorbitol prescription was not associated significantly with an increased RR of colonic necrosis in this retrospective cohort analysis. Multivariate analysis would require retrospective clinical cohorts from larger or more than one hospital system(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. MATHEMATICAL MODELING, AUTOMATION AND CONTROL OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF SORBITOL TO SORBOSE IN THE VITAMIN C PRODUCTION PROCESS I. MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bonomi

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, the Biotechnology and the Control Systems Groups of IPT started developing a system for the control and automation of fermentation processes, applied to the oxidation of sorbitol to sorbose by the bacteria Gluconobacter oxydans, the microbial step of the vitamin C production process, that was chosen as a case study. Initially, a thirteen-parameter model was fitted to represent the batch operation of the system utilizing a nonlinear regression analysis, the flexible polyhedron method. Based on these results, a model for the continuous process (with the same kinetic equations was constructed and its optimum operating point obtained

  20. A quantitative study of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process of a Pichia pastoris Mut⁺/pAOX1-lacZ strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongxing; Jost, Laurent; Pirlot, Nathalie; Sassi, Hosni; Daukandt, Marc; Rodriguez, Christian; Fickers, Patrick

    2013-04-08

    One of the main challenges for heterologous protein production by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris at large-scale is related to its high oxygen demand. A promising solution is a co-feeding strategy based on a methanol/sorbitol mixture during the induction phase. Nonetheless, a deep understanding of the cellular physiology and the regulation of the AOX1 promoter, used to govern heterologous protein production, during this co-feeding strategy is still scarce. Transient continuous cultures with a dilution rate of 0.023 h(-1) at 25°C were performed to quantitatively assess the benefits of a methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process with a Mut+ strain in which the pAOX1-lacZ construct served as a reporter gene. Cell growth and metabolism, including O2 consumption together with CO2 and heat production were analyzed with regard to a linear change of methanol fraction in the mixed feeding media. In addition, the regulation of the promoter AOX1 was investigated by means of β-galactosidase measurements. Our results demonstrated that the cell-specific oxygen consumption (qO2) could be reduced by decreasing the methanol fraction in the feeding media. More interestingly, maximal β-galactosidase cell-specific activity (>7500 Miller unit) and thus, optimal pAOX1 induction, was achieved and maintained in the range of 0.45 ~ 0.75 C-mol/C-mol of methanol fraction. In addition, the qO2 was reduced by 30% at most in those conditions. Based on a simplified metabolic network, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was performed to quantify intracellular metabolic flux distributions during the transient continuous cultures, which further shed light on the advantages of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process. Finally, our observations were further validated in fed-batch cultures. This study brings quantitative insight into the co-feeding process, which provides valuable data for the control of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding, aiming at enhancing biomass and heterologous protein productivities

  1. A quantitative study of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process of a Pichia pastoris Mut+/pAOX1-lacZ strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the main challenges for heterologous protein production by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris at large-scale is related to its high oxygen demand. A promising solution is a co-feeding strategy based on a methanol/sorbitol mixture during the induction phase. Nonetheless, a deep understanding of the cellular physiology and the regulation of the AOX1 promoter, used to govern heterologous protein production, during this co-feeding strategy is still scarce. Results Transient continuous cultures with a dilution rate of 0.023 h-1 at 25°C were performed to quantitatively assess the benefits of a methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process with a Mut+ strain in which the pAOX1-lacZ construct served as a reporter gene. Cell growth and metabolism, including O2 consumption together with CO2 and heat production were analyzed with regard to a linear change of methanol fraction in the mixed feeding media. In addition, the regulation of the promoter AOX1 was investigated by means of β-galactosidase measurements. Our results demonstrated that the cell-specific oxygen consumption (qO2) could be reduced by decreasing the methanol fraction in the feeding media. More interestingly, maximal β-galactosidase cell-specific activity (>7500 Miller unit) and thus, optimal pAOX1 induction, was achieved and maintained in the range of 0.45 ~ 0.75 C-mol/C-mol of methanol fraction. In addition, the qO2 was reduced by 30% at most in those conditions. Based on a simplified metabolic network, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was performed to quantify intracellular metabolic flux distributions during the transient continuous cultures, which further shed light on the advantages of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process. Finally, our observations were further validated in fed-batch cultures. Conclusion This study brings quantitative insight into the co-feeding process, which provides valuable data for the control of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding, aiming at enhancing biomass and

  2. Radiolysis of carbohydrates as studied by ESR and spin-trapping—II. Glycerol- d8 xylitol, dulcitol, d-sorbitol and d-mannitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, M.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Inanami, O.; Yoshii, G.

    Studies concerning the radicals produced in glycerol by reactions with OH radicals have been carried out by investigating deuterated glycerol (glycerol-d 8) by spin-trapping with 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane. Free radicals produced in linear carbohydrates such as xylitol, dulcitol, D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by reactions with OH radicals as well as by direct γ-radiolysis have been also investigated by spin-trapping. The ESR spectra of the spin-trapped radicals were analysed on the basis of the results from ESR and spin-trapping experiments on glycerol and deuterated glycerol, and the formation of three radical species, CHO-CH-, CH 2-CO- and HO-CH-, due to both OH reactions and direct γ-radiolysis was confirmed for all compounds. The presence of a radical, -CO-CH-, was detected for xylitol, D-sorbitol and D-mannitol. General reactions processes induced by OH reactions or γ-radiolysis in the solid state are discussed.

  3. Determination of mannitol sorbitol and myo-inositol in olive tree roots and rhizospheric soil by gas chromatography and effect of severe drought conditions on their profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, Beligh; Tekaya, Meriem; Cheheb, Hechmi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a method for the analysis of mannitol, sorbitol and myo-inositol in olive tree roots and rhizospheric soil with gas chromatography. The analytical method consists of extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane:methanol (2:1, v/v) for soil samples and a mixture of ethanol:water (80:20) for root samples, silylation using pyridine, hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The recovery of mannitol sorbitol and myo-inositol (for extraction and analysis in dichloromethane:methanol and ethanol:water) was acceptable and ranged from 100.3 to 114.7%. The time of analysis was <24 min. Among identified polyols extracted from rhizosphere and roots of olive plants, mannitol was the major compound. A marked increase in mannitol content occurred in rhizosphere and roots of water-stressed plants, suggesting a much broader role of mannitol in stress response based on its ability to act as a compatible solute. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Hyperglycemia Promotes Schwann Cell De-differentiation and De-myelination via Sorbitol Accumulation and Igf1 Protein Down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wu; Tashiro, Syoichi; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Sato, Yuiko; Kobayashi, Tami; Tando, Toshimi; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Morita, Mayu; Miyamoto, Kana; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Amizuka, Norio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2015-07-10

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently accompanied by complications, such as peripheral nerve neuropathy. Schwann cells play a pivotal role in regulating peripheral nerve function and conduction velocity; however, changes in Schwann cell differentiation status in DM are not fully understood. Here, we report that Schwann cells de-differentiate into immature cells under hyperglycemic conditions as a result of sorbitol accumulation and decreased Igf1 expression in those cells. We found that de-differentiated Schwann cells could be re-differentiated in vitro into mature cells by treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor, to reduce sorbitol levels, or with vitamin D3, to elevate Igf1 expression. In vivo DM models exhibited significantly reduced nerve function and conduction, Schwann cell de-differentiation, peripheral nerve de-myelination, and all conditions were significantly rescued by aldose reductase inhibitor or vitamin D3 administration. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying pathological changes in Schwann cells seen in DM and suggest ways to treat neurological conditions associated with this condition. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Enhanced porcine circovirus Cap protein production by Pichia pastoris with a fuzzy logic DO control based methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Gao, Minjie; Hou, Guoli; Liang, Kexue; Li, Chunhua; Ni, Jianping; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-05-10

    Porcine circovirus Cap protein production by P. pastoris with strong AOX promoter suffered with the problems with traditional pure methanol induction: (1) inefficient methanol metabolism; (2) extensive oxygen supply load; (3) difficulty in stable DO control; (4) low protein titer. In this study, based on the difference of DO change patterns in response to methanol and sorbitol additions, a novel fuzzy control system was proposed to automatically regulate the co-feeding rates of methanol and sorbitol for efficient Cap protein induction. With aid of the proposed control system when setting DO control level at 10%, overall fermentation performance was significantly improved: (1) DO could be stably controlled under mild aeration condition; (2) methanol consumption rate could be restricted at moderate level and the major enzymes involved with methanol metabolism were largely activated; (3) Cap protein concentration reached a highest level of 198mg/L, which was about 64% increase over the best one using the pure methanol induction strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hyperglycemia Promotes Schwann Cell De-differentiation and De-myelination via Sorbitol Accumulation and Igf1 Protein Down-regulation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wu; Tashiro, Syoichi; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Sato, Yuiko; Kobayashi, Tami; Tando, Toshimi; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Morita, Mayu; Miyamoto, Kana; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Amizuka, Norio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently accompanied by complications, such as peripheral nerve neuropathy. Schwann cells play a pivotal role in regulating peripheral nerve function and conduction velocity; however, changes in Schwann cell differentiation status in DM are not fully understood. Here, we report that Schwann cells de-differentiate into immature cells under hyperglycemic conditions as a result of sorbitol accumulation and decreased Igf1 expression in those cells. We found that de-differentiated Schwann cells could be re-differentiated in vitro into mature cells by treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor, to reduce sorbitol levels, or with vitamin D3, to elevate Igf1 expression. In vivo DM models exhibited significantly reduced nerve function and conduction, Schwann cell de-differentiation, peripheral nerve de-myelination, and all conditions were significantly rescued by aldose reductase inhibitor or vitamin D3 administration. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying pathological changes in Schwann cells seen in DM and suggest ways to treat neurological conditions associated with this condition. PMID:25998127

  7. A comparative study of glycerol and sorbitol as co-substrates in methanol-induced cultures of Pichia pastoris: temperature effect and scale-up simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Julio; Flores, María-Olga; Díaz-Barrera, Alvaro; Altamirano, Claudia; Martínez, Irene; Cabrera, Zaida

    2017-03-01

    The production of recombinant proteins by Pichia pastoris under AOX1 promoter is usually performed using methanol together with either glycerol or sorbitol as co-substrate. Although both co-substrates have been widely used, comparative studies are scarce. In addition, these comparisons have been performed at different specific growth rate (µ) that it is well known that has an important effect on productivity. Thus, the effect of using these co-substrates on the production of Rhyzopus oryzae lipase (ROL) by P. pastoris was compared in continuous cultures growing at the same µ at either 22 or 30 °C. Results show that using glycerol as co-substrate led to higher volumetric productivities, and lower specific and volumetric methanol consumption rates. Scale-up simulation with 10-10,000 L bioreactor sizes indicated that glycerol produced the highest volumetric productivity of ROL with lower aeration requirements. Therefore, glycerol rises as a better option than sorbitol in ROL production.

  8. Protein crowding in solution, frozen and freeze-dried states: small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering study of lysozyme/sorbitol/water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Susan; Khodadadi, Sheila; Clark, Nicholas; McAuley, Arnold; Cristiglio, Viviana; Theyencheri, Narayanan; Curtis, Joseph; Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2015-03-01

    For effective preservation, proteins are often stored as frozen solutions or in glassy states using a freeze-drying process. However, aggregation is often observed after freeze-thaw or reconstitution of freeze-dried powder and the stability of the protein is no longer assured. In this study, small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) have been used to investigate changes in protein-protein interaction distances of a model protein/cryoprotectant system of lysozyme/sorbitol/water, under representative pharmaceutical processing conditions. The results demonstrate the utility of SAXS and SANS methods to monitor protein crowding at different stages of freezing and drying. The SANS measurements of solution samples showed at least one protein interaction peak corresponding to an interaction distance of ~ 90 Å. In the frozen state, two protein interaction peaks were observed by SANS with corresponding interaction distances at 40 Å as well as 90 Å. On the other hand, both SAXS and SANS data for freeze-dried samples showed three peaks, suggesting interaction distances ranging from ~ 15 Å to 170 Å. Possible interpretations of these interaction peaks will be discussed, as well as the role of sorbitol as a cryoprotectant during the freezing and drying process.

  9. A single amino acid change (Y318F) in the L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LadA) from Aspergillus niger results in a significant increase in affinity for D-sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background L-arabitol dehydrogenase (LAD) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) are involved in the degradation of L-arabinose and D-xylose, which are among the most abundant monosaccharides on earth. Previous data demonstrated that LAD and XDH not only differ in the activity on their biological substrate, but also that only XDH has significant activity on D-sorbitol and may therefore be more closely related to D-sorbitol dehydrogenases (SDH). In this study we aimed to identify residues involved in the difference in substrate specificity. Results Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that LAD, XDH and SDH form 3 distinct groups of the family of dehydrogenases containing an Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES-like domain (pfam08240) and likely have evolved from a common ancestor. Modelling of LadA and XdhA of the saprobic fungus Aspergillus niger on human SDH identified two residues in LadA (M70 and Y318), that may explain the absence of activity on D-sorbitol. While introduction of the mutation M70F in LadA of A. niger resulted in a nearly complete enzyme inactivation, the Y318F resulted in increased activity for L-arabitol and xylitol. Moreover, the affinity for D-sorbitol was increased in this mutant. Conclusion These data demonstrates that Y318 of LadA contributes significantly to the substrate specificity difference between LAD and XDH/SDH. PMID:19674460

  10. Comparative study of efficacy, tolerability and compliance of oral iron preparations (iron edetate, iron polymatose complex) and intramuscular iron sorbitol in iron deficiency anaemia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.; Qureshi, S.M.; Lutafullah, M.

    2009-01-01

    To compare the efficacy, tolerability and compliance of oral iron preparations(iron edetate and Iron polymaltose complex) with each other and with intramuscular iron sorbitol in iron deficiency anaemia in children. A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was carried out at the Paediatric Department of Combined Military Hospital (CMH) from January 2006 to December 2007. In total 146 children, up to 12 years age having haemoglobin (Hb%) less than 8 gm% were included. They were randomly distributed into three groups. Group A(64 cases) received oral sodium iron edetate (SIE), Group B (40 cases) received oral iron polymaltose complex (IPC) and group C (42 cases) received intramuscular iron sorbitol (IS) in recommended dosages. Rise in Hb%>10 gm% was kept as desired target. Maximum duration of treatment planned was 2 weeks for parenteral iron (group C) and 12 weeks for oral iron (groups A and B). Haematological parameters- Hb%, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were measured at induction followed at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after start of treatment. Compliance and drop out rates were determined on each visit. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 10. ANOVA was used to analyze difference in rise in Hb% at various intervals. Statistically significant increase in mean Hb%, MCV, MCHC after 02 weeks was observed in group C (IS). Rise in these parameters became significant in group A (SIE) and B (IPC) after 04 weeks. Persistent rise was observed in oral groups at 08 and 12 weeks. Rise in Hb% was much faster in group C (IS). It took 2 weeks to achieve mean Hb% > 10 gm% and compliance rate was 40.5%, while to achieve same target, duration required was 8 weeks in group A (SIE) and 12 weeks in group B (IPC) and compliance rate was 39% and 30% respectively. Adverse effects were much more common with group A (SIE) as compared to other two groups. Intramuscular iron sorbitol is a reliable and

  11. Stepwise metabolic engineering of Gluconobacter oxydans WSH-003 for the direct production of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid from D-sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lili; Hu, Yudong; Liu, Jie; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2014-07-01

    2-Keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG), the direct precursor of vitamin C, is currently produced by a two-step fermentation route from D-sorbitol. However, this route involves three bacteria, making the mix-culture system complicated and redundant. Thus, replacement of the conventional two-step fermentation process with a one-step process could be revolutionary in vitamin C industry. In this study, different combinations of five L-sorbose dehydrogenases (SDH) and two L-sorbosone dehydrogenases (SNDH) from Ketogulonicigenium vulgare WSH-001 were introduced into Gluconobacter oxydans WSH-003, an industrial strain used for the conversion of d-sorbitol to L-sorbose. The optimum combination produced 4.9g/L of 2-KLG. In addition, 10 different linker peptides were used for the fusion expression of SDH and SNDH in G. oxydans. The best recombinant strain (G. oxydans/pGUC-k0203-GS-k0095) produced 32.4g/L of 2-KLG after 168h. Furthermore, biosynthesis of pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ), a cofactor of those dehydrogenases, was enhanced to improve 2-KLG production. With the stepwise metabolic engineering of G. oxydans, the final 2-KLG production was improved to 39.2g/L, which was 8.0-fold higher than that obtained using independent expression of the dehydrogenases. These results bring us closer to the final one-step industrial-scale production of vitamin C. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. INTERPLAY OF SORBITOL PATHWAY OF GLUCOSE METABOLISM, 12/15-LIPOXYGENASE, AND MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavniichuk, Roman; Shevalye, Hanna; Hirooka, Hiroko; Nadler, Jerry L.; Obrosova, Irina G.

    2012-01-01

    The interactions among multiple pathogenetic mechanisms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy largely remain unexplored. Increased activity of aldose reductase, the first enzyme of the sorbitol pathway, leads to accumulation of cytosolic Ca++, essentially required for 12/15-lipoxygenase activation. The latter, in turn, causes oxidative-nitrosative stress, an important trigger of MAPK phosphorylation. This study therefore evaluated the interplay of aldose reductase, 12/15-lipoxygenase, and MAPKs in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. In experiment 1, male control and streptozotocin-diabetic mice were maintained with or without the aldose reductase inhibitor fidarestat, 16 mg kg−1 d−1, for 12 weeks. In experiment 2, male control and streptozotocin-diabetic wild-type (C57Bl6/J) and 12/15-lipoxygenase-deficient mice were used. Fidarestat treatment did not affect diabetes-induced increase in glucose concentrations, but normalized sorbitol and fructose concentrations (enzymatic spectrofluorometric assays) as well as 12(S) hydroxyeicosatetraenoic concentration (ELISA), a measure of 12/15-lipoxygenase activity, in the sciatic nerve and spinal cord. 12/15-lipoxygenase expression in these two tissues (Western blot analysis) as well as dorsal root ganglia (immunohistochemistry) was similarly elevated in untreated and fidarestat-treated diabetic mice. 12/15-lipoxygenase gene deficiency prevented diabetesassociated p38 MAPK and ERK, but not SAPK/JNK, activation in the sciatic nerve (Western blot analysis) and all three MAPK activation in the dorsal root ganglia (immunohistochemistry). In contrast, spinal cord p38 MAPK, ERK, and SAPK/JNK were similarly activated in diabetic wild-type and 12/15-lipoxygenase−/− mice. These findings identify the nature and tissue specificity of interactions among three major mechanisms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and suggest that combination treatments, rather than monotherapies, can sometimes be an optimal choice for its management. PMID

  13. Efeito de soluções fluoretadas contendo xilitol e sorbitol no número de estreptococos do grupo mutans na saliva de seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Nilza Cristina Lopes Afonso de Valor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito de soluções de fluoreto de sódio a 0,05% contendo 2,5% ou 12,5% de xilitol no número de estreptococos do grupo mutans presentes na saliva. Participaram do estudo duplo cego, do tipo cruzado, 50 meninos entre 8 e 16 anos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos. Destes, 33 finalizaram o estudo. As soluções utilizadas foram: solução placebo; solução de fluoreto de sódio a 0,05%; solução de fluoreto de sódio a 0,05% + 2,5% xilitol + 2% sorbitol; solução de fluoreto de sódio a 0,05% + 12,5% xilitol + 2% sorbitol. Os indivíduos utilizaram 20 mL de uma das soluções, duas vezes ao dia. Cada solução foi utilizada por um período experimental de 28 dias. Os períodos experimentais foram intercalados por períodos de descanso de 10 dias. As soluções contendo xilitol a 2,5% e 12,5% não apresentaram diferença significativa (P = 0,32 em termos do logaritmo do número de estreptococos do grupo mutans. No entanto, a diferença foi significativa quando essas soluções foram comparadas às soluções de fluoreto de sódio e placebo (P < 0,001. Os resultados sugerem que a solução de fluoreto de sódio a 0,05% com adição de xilitol a 2,5% ou 12,5% reduziu significativamente o número de estreptococos do grupo mutans.

  14. Evaluación de los efectos en las propiedades fisicoquímicas, sensoriales y texturales de polidextrosa, fructosa y sorbitol como sustitutos de azúcar en la elaboración de arequipe

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia García, Francia Elena; Millán Cardona, Leonidas de Jesús; Ramírez Herrera, Nathalia

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. The concern on the excessive consumption of sugar in the diet has provoked a modification of traditional products to reduce their sucrose content and, at the same time, keep their sensorial and physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of other products made with normal sucrose content. Objective. To evaluate the effects of sugar substitutes such as polydextrose, fructose and sorbitol in the physical, chemical, sensorial and textural propertie...

  15. Sorbitol-Fermenting Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H- Isolates from Czech Patients with Novel Plasmid Composition Not Previously Seen in German Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, Andreas; Marejková, Monika; Middendorf-Bauchart, Barbara; Prager, Rita; Kossow, Annelene; Zhang, Wenlan; Karch, Helge; Mellmann, Alexander; Bielaszewska, Martina

    2017-12-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting (SF) enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H - strains, first identified in Germany, have emerged as important pathogens throughout Europe. Besides chromosomally encoded Shiga toxin 2a (the major virulence factor), several putative virulence loci, including the hly , etp , and sfp operons, encoding EHEC hemolysin, type II secretion system proteins, and Sfp fimbriae, respectively, are located on the 121-kb plasmid pSFO157 in German strains. Here we report novel SF EHEC O157:H - strains isolated from patients in the Czech Republic. These strains share the core genomes and chromosomal virulence loci encoding toxins ( stx 2a and the cdtV -ABC operon) and adhesins ( eae -γ, efa1 , lpfA O157OI-141 , and lpfA O157OI-154 ) with German strains but differ essentially in their plasmids. In contrast to all previously detected SF EHEC O157:H - strains, the Czech strains carry two plasmids, of 79 kb and 86 kb. The 79-kb plasmid harbors the sfp operon, but neither of the plasmids contains the hly and etp operons. Sequence analyses demonstrated that the 79-kb plasmid (pSFO157 258/98-1) evolved from pSFO157 of German strains by deletion of a 41,534-bp region via homologous recombination, resulting in loss of the hly and etp operons. The 86-kb plasmid (pSFO157 258/98-2) displays 98% sequence similarity to a 92.7-kb plasmid of an extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli bloodstream isolate. Our finding of this novel plasmid composition in SF EHEC O157:H - strains extends the evolutionary history of EHEC O157 plasmids. Moreover, the unique molecular plasmid characteristics permit the identification of such strains, thereby facilitating further investigations of their geographic distribution, clinical significance, and epidemiology. IMPORTANCE Since their first identification in Germany in 1989, sorbitol-fermenting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H - (nonmotile) strains have emerged as important causes of the life-threatening disease hemolytic

  16. Sorbitol-Fermenting Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H− Isolates from Czech Patients with Novel Plasmid Composition Not Previously Seen in German Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, Andreas; Marejková, Monika; Middendorf-Bauchart, Barbara; Prager, Rita; Kossow, Annelene; Zhang, Wenlan; Karch, Helge

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sorbitol-fermenting (SF) enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H− strains, first identified in Germany, have emerged as important pathogens throughout Europe. Besides chromosomally encoded Shiga toxin 2a (the major virulence factor), several putative virulence loci, including the hly, etp, and sfp operons, encoding EHEC hemolysin, type II secretion system proteins, and Sfp fimbriae, respectively, are located on the 121-kb plasmid pSFO157 in German strains. Here we report novel SF EHEC O157:H− strains isolated from patients in the Czech Republic. These strains share the core genomes and chromosomal virulence loci encoding toxins (stx2a and the cdtV-ABC operon) and adhesins (eae-γ, efa1, lpfAO157OI-141, and lpfAO157OI-154) with German strains but differ essentially in their plasmids. In contrast to all previously detected SF EHEC O157:H− strains, the Czech strains carry two plasmids, of 79 kb and 86 kb. The 79-kb plasmid harbors the sfp operon, but neither of the plasmids contains the hly and etp operons. Sequence analyses demonstrated that the 79-kb plasmid (pSFO157 258/98-1) evolved from pSFO157 of German strains by deletion of a 41,534-bp region via homologous recombination, resulting in loss of the hly and etp operons. The 86-kb plasmid (pSFO157 258/98-2) displays 98% sequence similarity to a 92.7-kb plasmid of an extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli bloodstream isolate. Our finding of this novel plasmid composition in SF EHEC O157:H− strains extends the evolutionary history of EHEC O157 plasmids. Moreover, the unique molecular plasmid characteristics permit the identification of such strains, thereby facilitating further investigations of their geographic distribution, clinical significance, and epidemiology. IMPORTANCE Since their first identification in Germany in 1989, sorbitol-fermenting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H− (nonmotile) strains have emerged as important causes of the life-threatening disease hemolytic

  17. Structure elucidation and quantification of impurities formed between 6-aminocaproic acid and the excipients citric acid and sorbitol in an oral solution using high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Cornett, Claus; Nyberg, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated solutions containing 6-aminocaproic acid and the excipients citric acid and sorbitol have been studied at temperatures of 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C as well as at 20 °C. It has previously been reported that the commonly employed citric acid is a reactive excipient, and it is there......Concentrated solutions containing 6-aminocaproic acid and the excipients citric acid and sorbitol have been studied at temperatures of 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C as well as at 20 °C. It has previously been reported that the commonly employed citric acid is a reactive excipient...... and cyclized 6-aminocaproic acid, i.e., caprolactam. No reaction products between d-sorbitol and 6-aminocaproic acid could be observed. 3-Hydroxy-3,4-dicarboxy-butanamide-N-hexanoic acid, dimer and caprolactam were also observed after storage at 20 °C for 3 months. The findings imply that an oral solution of 6...

  18. Self-assembly mechanism of 1,3:2,4-di(3,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-D-sorbitol and control of the supramolecular chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Fan, Kaiqi; Guan, Xidong; Yu, Yingzhe; Song, Jian

    2014-11-11

    Dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) and its derivatives are known to form gels in organic solvents; however, the mechanism of the gel formation has been a subject of much debate. The present work is undertaken to elucidate the organization mechanism of a DBS derivative, 1,3:2,4-di(3,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-D-sorbitol (DCDBS), by taking into account the solvent effects and comparing the experiment data with theoretical calculation. These molecules form smooth nonhelical fibers with a rest circular dichroism (CD) signal in polar solvents, in contrast to rope-liked left-helical fibers with a strong negative CD signal observed in nonpolar solvents. The molecular complexes thus formed were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra, ultraviolet-visible spectra, X-ray diffraction patterns, static contact angles, and theoretical calculations. It was proposed that the interactions between the gelator and the solvents could subtly change the stacking of the molecules and hence their self-assembled nanostructures. In nonpolar solvents, the gelator molecules appear as a distorted T-shaped structure with the 6-OH forming intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the acetal oxygens of adjacent gelator molecule. In addition, because of differential stacking interactions on both sides of the 10-member ring skeleton of the gelator, the oligomers may assemble in a helix fashion to minimize the energy, leading to helical fibers. In polar solvents, however, the gelator molecules show a rigid planelike structure and thus stack on top of each other because of strong parallel-displaced π interactions. The balanced driving force on both sides of the 10-member ring skeleton made it difficult for the dimers to bend, thus resulting in nonhelical nanostructure. As expected from the mechanisms proposed here, twisted ribbon fibers with a medium strength CD signal were obtained when solvents of different polarities were mixed. Thus, solvent effects revealed in this work represent an

  19. Effect of three-year consumption of erythritol, xylitol and sorbitol candies on various plaque and salivary caries-related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnel, Riina; Mäkinen, Kauko K; Honkala, Sisko; Olak, Jana; Mäkinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Nõmmela, Rita; Vahlberg, Tero; Honkala, Eino; Saag, Mare

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present paper is to report results from oral biologic studies carried out in connection with a caries study. Samples of whole-mouth saliva and dental plaque were collected from initially 7- to 8-year-old subjects who participated in a 3-year school-based programme investigating the effect of the consumption of polyol-containing candies on caries rates. The subjects were randomized in three cohorts, consumed erythritol, xylitol, or sorbitol candies. The daily polyol consumption from the candies was approximately 7.5 g. A significant reduction in dental plaque weight from baseline (psorbitol groups. Usage of polyol candies had no significant or consistent effect on the levels of plaque protein, glucose, glycerol, or calcium, determined yearly in connection with caries examinations. After three years, the plaque of erythritol-receiving subjects contained significantly (psorbitol. Lactic acid levels partly followed the same pattern. The consumption of erythritol was generally associated with significantly (psorbitol candies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-assembled structures of 1,3:2,4-di(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol in hydrophobic polymer matrices prepared using different heat treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Chi; Tseng, Shen-Jhen; Huang, Po-Hsun

    2015-11-01

    We report a method for tuning the nanoarchitectures of 1,3:2,4-di(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol (DMDBS) with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer matrices. Hydrophobic PVDF facilitated the formation of nanofibrils during heating. The self-assembly behaviors of DMDBS were further tuned by altering the different heat treatments. When the samples were prepared with a rapid heating rate (shorter annealing time), smaller amounts of melted PVDF were excluded due to the shorter time for aggregation of DMDBS, leading to larger complex structures of DMDBS and PVDF. Therefore, longer and thicker nanofibrils (around 100 nm) were observed using scanning electron microscopy. As the samples were prepared with a slow heating rate (longer annealing time), DMDBS had more time to aggregate, and therefore, larger amounts of melted PVDF were excluded. Smaller complex structures of DMDBS and PVDF caused the formation of shorter and thinner nanofibrils (around 40 nm). In addition, small-angle X-ray scattering results indicated that the longer and thicker nanofibrils were mostly excluded outside the PVDF crystalline bundles after cooling because they were too large to be easily incorporated between the PVDF crystalline lamellae. However, a large portion of the smaller and thinner nanofibrils was trapped between the crystalline lamellae after cooling due to their smaller sizes. As expected, the PVDF spherulitic morphologies were affected, but the PVDF crystalline microstructures were not significantly altered by the addition of DMDBS, as shown by the results from polarized optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  1. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria are indicators of very recent human faecal pollution in streams and groundwater habitats in urban tropical lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria (SFB) proved to be an excellent indicator of very recent human faecal pollution (hours to days) in the investigated tropical stream and groundwater habitats. SFB were recovered from human faeces and sources potentially contaminated with human excreta. SFB were undetectable in animal faeces and environmental samples not contaminated with human faeces. Microcosm studies demonstrated a rapid die-off rate in groundwater (T90 value 0.6 days) and stream water (T90 value 0.9–1.7 days). Discrimination sensitivity analysis, including E. coli, faecal coliforms, total coliforms and Clostridium perfringens spores, revealed high ability of SFB to distinguish differing levels of faecal pollution especially for streams although high background levels of interfering bacteria can complicate its recovery on the used medium. Due to its faster die-off, as compared to many waterborne pathogens, SFB cannot replace microbiological standard parameters for routine water quality monitoring but it is highly recommendable as a specific and complementary tool when human faecal pollution has to be localized or verified. Because of its exclusive faecal origin and human specificity it seems also worthwhile to include SFB in future risk evaluation studies at tropical water resources in order to evaluate under which situations risks of infection may be indicated. PMID:20375476

  2. Simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol in the leaf and fruit peel of different apple cultivars by the HPLC-RI optimized method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Miuţa; Vlassa, Mihaela; Coman, Virginia; Halmagyi, Adela

    2016-05-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography method with refractive index detection (HPLC-RI), for simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol in leaf and/or apple peel samples from nine apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars and rootstocks, originating from a germplasm collection, has been developed and validated. Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology was applied for the method optimization. The Carbosep Coregel 87H3 column was used under the optimum conditions predicted: mobile phase of H2SO4 0.005 mol L(-1) solution, flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1) and column temperature of 35°C. The method was validated for linearity (R(2)>0.99), limits of detection (2.67-4.83 μg mL(-1)) and quantification (8.9-16.1 μg mL(-1)), precision (%RSD<5.05) and recovery (93.94-103.06%) and satisfactory results obtained. The sugars content varied across micropropagated plants in vitro, plants regenerated after cryostorage, growing trees in vivo, and fruit peel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. S-Mercuration of rat sorbitol dehydrogenase by methylmercury causes its aggregation and the release of the zinc ion from the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hironori; Toyama, Takashi; Shinohara-Kanda, Azusa; Iwamatsu, Akihiro; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kikushima, Makoto; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2012-11-01

    We previously developed a screening method to identify proteins that undergo aggregation through S-mercuration by methylmercury (MeHg) and found that rat arginase I is a target protein for MeHg (Kanda et al. in Arch Toxicol 82:803-808, 2008). In the present study, we characterized another S-mercurated protein from a rat hepatic preparation that has a subunit mass of 42 kDa, thereby facilitating its aggregation. Two-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed that the 42 kDa protein was NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). With recombinant rat SDH, we found that MeHg is covalently bound to SDH through Cys44, Cys119, Cys129 and Cys164, resulting in the inhibition of its catalytic activity, release of zinc ions and facilitates protein aggregation. Mutation analysis indicated that Cys44, which ligates the active site zinc atom, and Cys129 play a crucial role in the MeHg-mediated aggregation of SDH. Pretreatment with the cofactor NAD, but not NADP or FAD, markedly prevented aggregation of SDH. Such a protective effect of NAD on the aggregation of SDH caused by MeHg is discussed.

  4. Tuning the self-assembled 1,3:2,4-di(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol nanoarchitectures using the phase inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Chi; Tseng, Shen-Jhen

    2013-11-01

    1,3:2,4-Di(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol (DMDBS) molecules can self-assemble into nanoscaled structures in organic solvents and polymer melts. The nanofibril structures were the mostly found. In this study, we used two phase inversion methods, i.e., dry and wet methods, to obtain different DMDBS nanoarchitectures. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was chosen as polymer matrix, and the DMDBS structures were tuned by the process of PVDF membrane formation (crystallization and liquid-liquid demixing). When the membrane was prepared using the dry method, the DMDBS structure is controlled by the PVDF crystallization. Fewer DMDBS nanofibrils formed on the surfaces, and no nanofibrils were found in the cross-sections. On the other hand, when the membrane was prepared using the wet method, the liquid-liquid demixing (nonsolvent induced phase separation) occurred simultaneously as PVDF crystallized, and thus influenced the aggregation of DMDBS molecules. DMDBS is an amphiphilic molecule with two hydrophilic hydroxyl groups. The addition of nonsolvent (water) caused a large number of DMDBS molecules to aggregate outside the hydrophobic PVDF. In addition, a new structure "nanomat" was found. The mat was composed of DMDBS nanofibrils with diameters of 10-20 nm, similar to those observed in the dry method membranes. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy indicates that the DMDBS molecules self-assembled (aggregated) mainly through intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the presence of PVDF. The more intermolecular hydrogen bonding between DMDBS existed, the more excessive amounts of DMDBS molecules were, leading to the formation of nanomats.

  5. Direct determination of sorbitol and sodium glutamate by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) in the thermostabilizer employed in the production of yellow-fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Eduardo da S G; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-05-15

    Reference methods for quality control of vaccines usually require treatment of the samples before analysis. These procedures are expensive, time-consuming, unhealthy and require careful manipulation of the sample, making them a potential source of analytical errors. This work proposes a novel method for the quality control of thermostabilizer samples of the yellow fever vaccine employing attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR). The main advantage of the proposed method is the possibility of direct determination of the analytes (sodium glutamate and sorbitol) without any pretreatment of the samples. Operational parameters of the FTIR technique, such as the number of accumulated scans and nominal resolution, were evaluated. The best conditions for sodium glutamate were achieved when 64 scans were accumulated using a nominal resolution of 4 cm(-1). The measurements for sodium glutamate were performed at 1347 cm(-1) (baseline correction between 1322 and 1369 cm(-1)). In the case of sorbitol, the measurements were done at 890cm(-1) (baseline correction between 825 and 910 cm(-1)) using a nominal resolution of 2 cm(-1) with 32 accumulated scans. In both cases, the quantitative variable was the band height. Recovery tests were performed in order to evaluate the accuracy of the method and recovery percentages in the range 93-106% were obtained. Also, the methods were compared with reference methods and no statistical differences were observed. The limits of detection and quantification for sodium glutamate were 0.20 and 0.62% (m/v), respectively, whereas for sorbitol they were 1 and 3.3% (m/v), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 1,3:2,4-Dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) and its derivatives--efficient, versatile and industrially-relevant low-molecular-weight gelators with over 100 years of history and a bright future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okesola, Babatunde O; Vieira, Vânia M P; Cornwell, Daniel J; Whitelaw, Nicole K; Smith, David K

    2015-06-28

    Dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) has been a well-known low-molecular-weight gelator of organic solvents for over 100 years. As such, it constitutes a very early example of a supramolecular gel--a research field which has recently developed into one of intense interest. The ability of DBS to self-assemble into sample-spanning networks in numerous solvents is predicated upon its 'butterfly-like' structure, whereby the benzylidene groups constitute the 'wings' and the sorbitol backbone the 'body'--the two parts representing the molecular recognition motifs underpinning its gelation mechanism, with the nature of solvent playing a key role in controlling the precise assembly mode. This gelator has found widespread applications in areas as diverse as personal care products and polymer nucleation/clarification, and has considerable potential in applications such as dental composites, energy technology and liquid crystalline materials. Some derivatives of DBS have also been reported which offer the potential to expand the scope and range of applications of this family of gelators and endow the nansocale network with additional functionality. This review aims to explain current trends in DBS research, and provide insight into how by combining a long history of application, with modern methods of derivatisation and analysis, the future for this family of gelators is bright, with an increasing number of high-tech applications, from environmental remediation to tissue engineering, being within reach.

  7. Comparing and correlating solubility parameters governing the self-assembly of molecular gels using 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol as the gelator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yaqi; Corradini, Maria G; Liu, Xia; May, Tim E; Borondics, Ferenc; Weiss, Richard G; Rogers, Michael A

    2014-12-02

    Solvent properties play a central role in mediating the aggregation and self-assembly of molecular gelators and their growth into fibers. Numerous attempts have been made to correlate the solubility parameters of solvents and gelation abilities of molecular gelators, but a comprehensive comparison of the most important parameters has yet to appear. Here, the degree to which partition coefficients (log P), Henry's law constants (HLC), dipole moments, static relative permittivities (ε(r)), solvatochromic E(T)(30) parameters, Kamlet-Taft parameters (β, α, and π), Catalan's solvatochromic parameters (SPP, SB, and SA), Hildebrand solubility parameters (δ(i)), and Hansen solubility parameters (δ(p), δ(d), δ(h)) and the associated Hansen distance (R(ij)) of 62 solvents (covering a wide range of properties) can be correlated with the self-assembly and gelation of 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) gelation, a classic molecular gelator, is assessed systematically. The approach presented describes the basis for each of the parameters and how it can be applied. As such, it is an instructional blueprint for how to assess the appropriate type of solvent parameter for use with other molecular gelators as well as with molecules forming other types of self-assembled materials. The results also reveal several important insights into the factors favoring the gelation of solvents by DBS. The ability of a solvent to accept or donate a hydrogen bond is much more important than solvent polarity in determining whether mixtures with DBS become solutions, clear gels, or opaque gels. Thermodynamically derived parameters could not be correlated to the physical properties of the molecular gels unless they were dissected into their individual HSPs. The DBS solvent phases tend to cluster in regions of Hansen space and are highly influenced by the hydrogen-bonding HSP, δ(h). It is also found that the fate of this molecular gelator, unlike that of polymers, is influenced not only by

  8. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  9. Energetics of the molecular interactions of L-alanine and L-serine with xylitol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol in aqueous solutions at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhevoi, I. N.; Badelin, V. G.

    2013-04-01

    Integral enthalpies of dissolution Δsol H m of L-alanine and L-serine are measured via the calorimetry of dissolution in aqueous solutions of xylitol, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol. Standard enthalpies of dissolution (Δsol H ○) and the transfer (Δtr H ○) of amino acids from water to binary solvent are calculated from the experimental data. Using the McMillan-Mayer theory, enthalpy coefficients of pairwise interactions h xy of amino acids with molecules of polyols are calculated that are negative. The obtained results are discussed within the theory of the prevalence of different types of interactions in mixed solutions and the effect of the structural features of interacting biomolecules on the thermochemical parameters of dissolution of amino acids.

  10. Structure elucidation and quantification of impurities formed between 6-aminocaproic acid and the excipients citric acid and sorbitol in an oral solution using high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Cornett, Claus; Nyberg, Nils; Østergaard, Jesper; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-03-25

    Concentrated solutions containing 6-aminocaproic acid and the excipients citric acid and sorbitol have been studied at temperatures of 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C as well as at 20°C. It has previously been reported that the commonly employed citric acid is a reactive excipient, and it is therefore important to thoroughly investigate a possible reaction between 6-aminocaproic acid and citric acid. The current study revealed the formation of 3-hydroxy-3,4-dicarboxy-butanamide-N-hexanoic acid between 6-aminocaproic acid and citric acid by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Less than 0.03% of 6-aminocaproic acid was converted to 3-hydroxy-3,4-dicarboxy-butanamide-N-hexanoic acid after 30 days of storage at 80°C. Degradation products of 6-aminocaproic acid were also observed after storage at the applied temperatures, e.g., dimer, trimer and cyclized 6-aminocaproic acid, i.e., caprolactam. No reaction products between D-sorbitol and 6-aminocaproic acid could be observed. 3-Hydroxy-3,4-dicarboxy-butanamide-N-hexanoic acid, dimer and caprolactam were also observed after storage at 20°C for 3 months. The findings imply that an oral solution of 6-aminocaproic acid is relatively stable at 20°C at the pH values 4.00 and 5.00 as suggested in the USP for oral formulations. Compliance with the ICH guideline Q3B is expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other non-sorbitol-fermenting E. coli in cattle and humans in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupindu, Athumani M; Olsen, John E; Ngowi, Helena A; Msoffe, Peter L M; Mtambo, Madundo M; Scheutz, Flemming; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli strains such as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic, attaching, and effacing E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli cause diarrhea in humans. Although other serotypes exist, the most commonly reported STEC in outbreaks is O157:H7. A cross-sectional study was conducted to isolate and characterize non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) E. coli O157:H7 from urban and periurban livestock settings of Morogoro, Tanzania. Human stool, cattle feces, and soil and water samples were collected. Observations and questionnaire interview studies were used to gather information about cattle and manure management practices in the study area. E. coli were isolated on sorbitol MacConkey agar and characterized by conventional biochemical tests. Out of 1049 samples, 143 (13.7%) yielded NSF E. coli. Serological and antimicrobial tests and molecular typing were performed to NSF E. coli isolates. These procedures detected 10 (7%) pathogenic E. coli including STEC (n=7), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (n=2), and attaching and effacing E. coli (A/EEC) (n=1) strains. The STEC strains had the ability to produce VT1 and different VT2 toxin subtypes that caused cytopathic effects on Vero cells. The prevalence of STEC in cattle was 1.6%, out of which 0.9% was serotype O157:H7 and the overall prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in cattle was 2.2%. The serotypes O157:H7, O142:H34, O113:H21, O+:H-, O+:H16, and O25:H4 were identified. One ESBL-producing isolate showed the MLST type ST131. To our knowledge, this is the first finding in Tanzania of this recently emerged worldwide pandemic clonal group, causing widespread antimicrobial-resistant infections, and adds knowledge of the geographical distribution of ST131. Cattle manure was indiscriminately deposited within residential areas, and there was direct contact between humans and cattle feces during manure handling. Cattle and manure management practices expose humans, animals, and the environment

  12. Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar heat capacities of aqueous adonitol, dulcitol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and xylitol at temperatures from (278.15 to 368.15) K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blodgett, M.B.; Ziemer, S.P.; Brown, B.R.; Niederhauser, T.L.; Woolley, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Apparent molar volumes V φ were determined for aqueous adonitol, dulcitol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and xylitol at temperatures from (278.15 to 368.15) K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa, and apparent molar heat capacities C p,φ of the same solutions were determined at temperatures from (278.15 to 363.15) K at the same pressure. Molalities m/(mol . kg -1 ) of the solutions were in the range (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 3.2) for adonitol, (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 0.15) for dulcitol, (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 5.0) for glycerol, (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 3.0) for meso-erythritol, (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 0.5) for myo-inositol, (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 2.0) for D-sorbitol, and (0.02 ≤ m ≤ 2.7) for xylitol. A vibrating tube densimeter was used to obtain solution densities and a fixed-cell temperature scanning calorimeter was used to obtain heat capacities. Values of V φ and C p,φ for these sugar alcohols are discussed relative to one another and compared to values from the literature, where available

  13. Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar heat capacities of aqueous adonitol, dulcitol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and xylitol at temperatures from (278.15 to 368.15) K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blodgett, M.B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602-5700 (United States); Ziemer, S.P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602-5700 (United States); Brown, B.R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602-5700 (United States); Niederhauser, T.L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602-5700 (United States); Woolley, E.M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602-5700 (United States)]. E-mail: earl_woolley@byu.edu

    2007-04-15

    Apparent molar volumes V {sub {phi}} were determined for aqueous adonitol, dulcitol, glycerol, meso-erythritol, myo-inositol, D-sorbitol, and xylitol at temperatures from (278.15 to 368.15) K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa, and apparent molar heat capacities C {sub p,{phi}} of the same solutions were determined at temperatures from (278.15 to 363.15) K at the same pressure. Molalities m/(mol . kg{sup -1}) of the solutions were in the range (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 3.2) for adonitol, (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 0.15) for dulcitol, (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 5.0) for glycerol, (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 3.0) for meso-erythritol, (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 0.5) for myo-inositol, (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 2.0) for D-sorbitol, and (0.02 {<=} m {<=} 2.7) for xylitol. A vibrating tube densimeter was used to obtain solution densities and a fixed-cell temperature scanning calorimeter was used to obtain heat capacities. Values of V {sub {phi}} and C {sub p,{phi}} for these sugar alcohols are discussed relative to one another and compared to values from the literature, where available.

  14. Biomass electrochemistry : from cellulose to sorbitol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Youngkook

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to study the potential role of electrochemistry in finding new routes for sustainable chemicals from biomass in aqueous-phase solutions. In order to assess the potential of electrochemistry in biomass conversion, we developed an online HPLC system by using a

  15. Transformation of Sorbitol to Biofuels by Heterogeneous Catalysis: Chemical and Industrial Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilcocq, L.; Cabiac, A.; Guillon, E.; Especel, C.; Duprez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Decreasing oil supplies and increasing energy demand provide incentives to find alternative fuels. First, the valorisation of edible crops for ethanol and bio-diesel production led to first generation biofuels. Nowadays, research is focused on lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable carbon (second generation biofuels). Whereas the cellulosic ethanol production is in progress, a new way consisting of the transformation of ex-lignocellulose sugars and polyols towards light hydrocarbons by heterogeneous catalysis in aqueous phase has been recently described. This process is performed under mild conditions (T < 300 deg. C and P < 50 bar). It requires on one hand hydrogen formation by catalytic reforming of carbohydrates in aqueous phase and on the other hand, the dehydration/hydrogenation of polyols leading to alkanes by selective C-O bond cleavages. The challenge here is to conceive multifunctional catalytic systems that are stable, active and selective under the reaction conditions. The aim of this article is to present the involved reactions, the catalytic systems described in literature for that kind of transformation and examples of industrial applications. (authors)

  16. 75 FR 763 - Dibenzylidene Sorbitol; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... sensitization study in guinea pigs determined that DBS is not a sensitizer. A primary dermal irritation study in...: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code...

  17. Self-perceived mouthfeel and physico-chemical surface effects after chewing gums containing sorbitol and Magnolia bark extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Dodds, Michael W. J.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2017-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority recognizes the contribution of sugar-free chewing gum to oral health through increased salivation, clearance of food debris, and neutralization of biofilm pH. Magnolia bark extract is a gum additive shown to reduce the prevalence of bad-breath bacteria but its

  18. GenBank blastx search result: AK061856 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061856 001-040-G03 AF018073.1 Rhodobacter sphaeroides operon regulator (smoC), periplasmic sorbitol...-binding protein (smoE), sorbitol/mannitol transport inner membrane protein (smoF), sorbitol.../mannitol transport inner membrane protein (smoG), sorbitol/mannitol transport ATP-binding transport protein (smoK), sorbitol

  19. Analytical protocol for the sensitive determination of mannitol, sorbitol and glucose containing powders in pharmaceutical workplaces by ion chromatography using a pulsed amperometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Owen; Forder, James; Saunders, John

    2015-03-15

    Workers in the pharmaceutical industry can potentially be exposed to airborne dusts and powders that can contain potent active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Occupational hygienists and health and safety professionals need to assess and ultimately minimise such inhalation and dermal exposure risks. Containment of dusts at source is the first line of defence but the performance of such technologies needs to be verified, for which purpose the good practice guide: assessing the particulate containment performance of pharmaceutical equipment, produced by the International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE), is a widely used reference document. This guide recommends the use of surrogate powders that can be used to challenge the performance of such containment systems. Materials such as lactose and mannitol are recommended as their physical properties (adhesion, compactability, dustiness, flow characteristics and particle sizes) mimic those of API-containing materials typically handled. Furthermore they are safe materials to use, are available in high purity and can be procured at a reasonable cost. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a sensitive ion-chromatography based analytical procedure for the determination of surrogate powders collected on filter samples so as to meet analytical requirements set out in this ISPE guide. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Propriedades físico-químicas de soluções formadoras e de filmes de caseinato de sódio plastificados como sorbitol

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, Pedro Luiz Manique

    2003-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Físicas e Matemáticas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química. As propriedades reológicas de soluções formadoras de filmes de caseinato de sódio foram estudadas em termos de concentração, temperatura e conteúdo de plastificante. Os gráficos de tensão de cisalhamento vs. taxa de cisalhamento mostraram um comportamento tipicamente newtoniano em todos os sistemas estudados. O efeito da temperatura na viscosidade foi d...

  1. MR enterography with oral contrast agent composed of methylcellulose, low-dose barium sulfate, sorbitol, and lactulose: assessment of diagnostic performance, reliability, image quality, and patient tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrimler, Sehnaz; Algin, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to show efficiency of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) with our previously assessed new oral contrast agent. Each bowel segments was evaluated for luminal distension, wall conspicuity, wall thickening, and hyperintensity on fat-saturated (FS) T2-weighted and contrast enhancement on postcontrast FS T1-weighted images. Also, consensus scoring results of MRE exams were compared with the gold standard tests in terms of active inflammatory bowel disease detection. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRE for active inflammatory bowel disease detection were 62%, 98%, 80%, 96%, and 71.4%, respectively. MRE obtained with the new mixture has a high reliability and shows good correlation with endoscopic examination±biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK241729 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241729 J065199L10 AF018073.1 AF018073 Rhodobacter sphaeroides operon regulator (smoC), periplasmic sorbito...l-binding protein (smoE), sorbitol/mannitol transport inner membrane protein (smoF), sorbitol.../mannitol transport inner membrane protein (smoG), sorbitol/mannitol transport ATP-binding transport protein (smoK), sorbit...ol dehydrogenase (smoS), mannitol dehydrogenase (mtlK),

  3. GenBank blastx search result: AK240874 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240874 J065025K09 AF018073.1 AF018073 Rhodobacter sphaeroides operon regulator (smoC), periplasmic sorbito...l-binding protein (smoE), sorbitol/mannitol transport inner membrane protein (smoF), sorbitol.../mannitol transport inner membrane protein (smoG), sorbitol/mannitol transport ATP-binding transport protein (smoK), sorbit...ol dehydrogenase (smoS), mannitol dehydrogenase (mtlK),

  4. GenBank blastx search result: AK243680 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243680 J100090I20 AF018073.1 AF018073 Rhodobacter sphaeroides operon regulator (smoC), periplasmic sorbito...l-binding protein (smoE), sorbitol/mannitol transport inner membrane protein (smoF), sorbitol.../mannitol transport inner membrane protein (smoG), sorbitol/mannitol transport ATP-binding transport protein (smoK), sorbit...ol dehydrogenase (smoS), mannitol dehydrogenase (mtlK),

  5. Occurrence and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other non-sorbitol-fermenting E. coli in cattle and humans in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupindu, Athumani M; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Ngowi, Helena A

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains such as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic, attaching, and effacing E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli cause diarrhea in humans. Although other serotypes exist, the most commonly reported STEC in outbreaks is O157:H7. A cross-...

  6. Evaluation of Short-Term Bioassays to Predict Functional Impairment. Selected Short-Term Hepatic Toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    sorbitol to fructose, an important step in carbohydrate metabolism. Also known as sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), it is present in normal liver cells and in...metabolism in the liver by catalyzing the reversible reaction of sorbitol to fructose. Its presence in serum at elevated levels is a relatively specific...Liu, S.K., D.B. Evans and R. Wang, 1978. "Determination of Urinary Excretion of a Methadone Metabolite as an Indirect Measurement of Methadone

  7. Distribution of the urease gene cluster among and urease activities of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 isolates from humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, Alexander W; Köck, Robin; Bielaszewska, Martina; Zhang, Wenlan; Karch, Helge; Mathys, Werner

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 strains belong to two closely related major groups, which are differentiated by their sorbitol fermentation phenotypes. Here we studied the conservation of urease genes and their expression in sorbitol-fermenting (SF) and non-SF EHEC O157 isolates. PCR

  8. High Activity catalysts for Polyols Production From C-6 Sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Werpy; Alan Zacher; John Frye; Keith Peterson; Gary Neuenschwander; Eric Alderson; Daniel Muzatko; Jim White

    2003-05-06

    Over the course of this project, many significant discoveries have been made in the process for the conversion of sorbitol to value added products. The object was developing a process for the production of propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG), and glycerol from sorbitol.

  9. ORF Alignment: NC_006351 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006351 gi|53722258 >1kolA 2 388 1 341 4e-33 ... ref|YP_111243.1| putative zinc-binding xylitol... ... zinc-binding xylitol/sorbitol dehydrogenase ... [Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243] ... .../sorbitol dehydrogenase [Burkholderia ... pseudomallei K96243] emb|CAH38702.1| putative ...

  10. Long-term effect of maternal xylitol exposure on their children's caries prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorild, I; Lindau, B; Twetman, S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the long-term outcome of a motherchild project in which mothers (n=173) with high counts of salivary mutans streptococci were randomly assigned to daily chewing gums containing xylitol (A), chlorhexidine/ xylitol/sorbitol (B), or sodium fluoride/xylitol/sorbitol (C) for one year...

  11. Carbohydrate metabolism of vegetative and reproductive sinks in the late-maturing peach cultivar 'Encore'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo Lo Bianco; Mark Rieger; Shi-Jean S. Sung

    1999-01-01

    Activities of NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), sorbitol oxidase (SOX), sucrose synthase (SS), acid invertase (AI), and neutral invertase (NI) in ?Encore? peach (Prunus persica L.) fruits and developing shoot tips were assayed during the growing season to determine whether carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes could...

  12. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241265 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241265 J065132C02 At5g51970.2 68418.m06450 sorbitol dehydrogenase, putative / L-i...ditol 2-dehydrogenase, putative similar to NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase from Malus x domestica [gi:4519539] 1e-15 ...

  13. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK063995 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK063995 001-124-E11 At5g51970.2 sorbitol dehydrogenase, putative / L-iditol 2-dehy...drogenase, putative similar to NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase from Malus x domestica [gi:4519539] 1e-162 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK241265 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241265 J065132C02 At5g51970.1 68418.m06449 sorbitol dehydrogenase, putative / L-i...ditol 2-dehydrogenase, putative similar to NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase from Malus x domestica [gi:4519539] 1e-15 ...

  15. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287708 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287708 J065132C02 At5g51970.2 68418.m06450 sorbitol dehydrogenase, putative / L-i...ditol 2-dehydrogenase, putative similar to NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase from Malus x domestica [gi:4519539] 1e-15 ...

  16. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK101517 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101517 J033046H09 At5g51970.2 sorbitol dehydrogenase, putative / L-iditol 2-dehyd...rogenase, putative similar to NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase from Malus x domestica [gi:4519539] 1e-162 ...

  17. High oxygen nanocomposite barrier films based on xylan and nanocrystalline cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Jeffrey Kenvin; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to produce nanocomposite film with low oxygen permeability by casting an aqueous solution containing xylan, sorbitol and nanocrystalline cellulose. The morphology of the resulting nanocomposite films was examined by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy which showed that control films containing xylan and sorbitol had a more...

  18. Oral contrast agents for small bowel distension in MRI: influence of the osmolarity for small bowel distention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Kuehle, Christiane; Nuefer, Michael; Goehde, Susanne C.; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Goyen, Mathias; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effect of the osmolarity for small bowel distension in MRI, ten volunteers ingested at two separate occasions negative oral contrast agents with different quantity and osmolarity: (1) a water solution combined with 2.0% sorbitol and 0.2% locus bean gum (LBG) with a quantity of 1500 ml and an osmolarity of 148 mOsmol/l, (2) a water solution combined with 2.0% sorbitol and 2.0% barium sulphate with a quantity of 1000 ml and an osmolarity of 194 mOsmol/l. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D-TrueFISP images by measuring the small bowel diameters. There were no statistically significant differences in mean small bowel diameter between both contrast agents. The mean small bowel distension was 19.2 mm after ingestion of 1500 ml of sorbitol-LBG solution and 19.0 mm after ingestion of 1000-ml sorbitol-barium sulphate solution. Furthermore, all volunteers found the ingestion of 1000-ml solution more pleasant than the 1500-ml solution. The ingestion of 1000 ml of sorbitol-barium sulphate solution led to a sufficient small bowel distension compared to 1500 ml of sorbitol-LBG solution. The side effect rate of both solutions was low. Based on these data, we recommend a quantity of 1000 ml of sorbitol-barium sulphate solution as an alternative for 1500-ml sorbitol-LBG solution for optimal bowel distension. (orig.)

  19. Sugar alcohols-induced oxidative metabolism in cotton callus culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol) may cause oxidative damage in plants if used in higher concentration. Our present experiment was undertaken to study physiological and metabolic responses in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) callus against mannitol and sorbitol higher doses. Both markedly declined mean values of ...

  20. Viability of L. casei during fermentation in soymilk and freeze-dried soymilk; effect of cryoprotectant, rehydration and storage temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Mladenovska; Tanja Petreska Ivanovska; Maja Jurhar Pavlova; Milena Petrovska; Angela Delova; Lidija Petrusevska Tozi; Lela Acevska

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the work was to investigate the behaviour of L. casei and the effect of sorbitol on its viability during fermentation in soymilk drink. Values for pH, ranging from 6.82 to 3.42 in the soymilk drink without sorbitol and from 6.74 to 3.41 in the drink with sorbitol were noted during 72 h of fermentation at 25oC. The corresponding values for titratable acidity ranged from 0.071% to 0.758% and from 0.073% to 0.761%, respectively. Soymilk was found to support the growth of L. case...

  1. Role of sugar uptake and metabolic intermediates on catabolite repression in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, J M; Thoms, B

    1977-01-01

    Many phosphorylated intermediates exert catabolite repression on the enzyme acetoin dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis. This was shown with strains that are blocked at different positions in central metabolism when they receive sugars that cannot be metabolized past enzymatic block(s). In the case of sorbitol, transport events were not involved in catabolite repression, for this sugar cannot repress acetoin dehydrogenase in a strain lacking sorbitol dehydrogenase but otherwise able to take up sorbitol. The presence of glucose did not markedly influence the uptake of acetoin. PMID:401492

  2. Compounded laxative formulations for substituting phenolphthalein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Patrick O Erah

    acid, PEG, and sugar derivatives such as lactose, glucose and sorbitol when granulated with water. ... because when stored at increased temperature and relative humidity, disintegration times ...... suited for treating patients that have difficulty.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of some actinomycetes from Western Ghats of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathalam Ganesan

    2016-04-04

    Apr 4, 2016 ... xylose, inositol, sorbitol, rhamnose, sucrose, lactose, arabi- nose, adonitol and .... surface of the medium and left for 30 min at room temperature for diffusion. The .... histopathological changes in long time treatment. Similarly,.

  4. Cocos nucifera L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Coconut water weights, Brix degree, pH, dry matters and sugar contents were investigated. ... soluble sugar ; glycerol, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, fructose and sucrose in coconut water. ...... water syrup fractions from two varieties of Nigerian.

  5. Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrates in food occur as natural constituents or are added as ingredients or additives. The most important endogenous carbohydrates in food are starch, depolymerized starch, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol (digestible) and carbohydrates such as raffinose, stachyose, resistant

  6. Investigation of the degree of homogeneity and hydrogen bonding in PEG/PVP blends prepared in supercritical CO2: comparison with ethanol-cast blends and physical mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, Philip W

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available PMMA: 1. Thermal and mechanical properties of stereocomplexes. Polymer 1997; 38: 2143- 2154. [40] Pouplin M, Redl A, Gontard N. Glass transition of wheat gluten plasticized with water, glycerol, or sorbitol. Journal of Agricultural and Food...

  7. 21 CFR 180.25 - Mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fructose. (2) The fermentation of sugars or sugar alcohols such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol using the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. (3) A pure culture fermentation of sugars such as fructose...

  8. Barrier and mechanical properties of plasticized and cross-linked nanocellulose coatings for paper packaging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, M. A. (Martha A.); Mathew, A. P. (Aji P.); Oksman, K. (Kristiina)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Barrier, mechanical and thermal properties of porous paper substrates dip-coated with nanocellulose (NC) were studied. Sorbitol plasticizer was used to improve the toughness, and citric acid cross-linker to improve the moisture stability of the coatings. In general, the addition of sorbitol increased the barrier properties, maximum strength and toughness as well as the thermal stability of the samples when compared to the non-modified NC coatings. The barrier properties significan...

  9. Fructans of chicory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1998-01-01

    Fructans (fructooligosaccharides and inulin) are of increasing interest to clinical nutritionists as functional food additives. The chemically closely related food carbohydrates fructose and sorbitol are implicated in functional bowel disease. Intestinal handling of these carbohydrates is incompl......Fructans (fructooligosaccharides and inulin) are of increasing interest to clinical nutritionists as functional food additives. The chemically closely related food carbohydrates fructose and sorbitol are implicated in functional bowel disease. Intestinal handling of these carbohydrates...

  10. A transparent, solvent-free laminated top electrode for perovskite solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Makha, Mohammed; Fernandes, Silvia Let?cia; Jenatsch, Sandra; Offermans, Ton; Schleuniger, J?rg; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; V?ron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A simple lamination process of the top electrode for perovskite solar cells is demonstrated. The laminate electrode consists of a transparent and conductive plastic/metal mesh substrate, coated with an adhesive mixture of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, and sorbitol. The laminate electrode showed a high degree of transparency of 85%. Best cell performance was achieved for laminate electrodes prepared with a sorbitol concentration of ~30 wt% per mil...

  11. Physicochemical properties of sugar palm starch film: Effect of concentration and plasticizer type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, D. J.; Apriyana, W.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Hernawan; Hayati, S. N.; Rosyida, V. T.; Pranoto, Y.; Poeloengasih, C. D.

    2017-07-01

    In order to find the best formula for capsule shell production, this present work dealt with exploring physicochemical properties of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch film as a function of different kinds and various concentrations of plasticizers. The films were prepared by casting method at different formula: starch 9-11%, glycerol or sorbitol 35-45% and polyethylene-glycol 400 (PEG 400) 5-9%. Appearance, thickness, retraction ratio, moisture content, swelling behavior and solubility of the film in water were analyzed. Both glycerol and sorbitol are compatible with starch matrix. On the contrary, PEG 400 did not form a film with suitable characteristics. The result reveals that glycerol- and sorbitol-plasticized films appeared translucent, homogenous, smooth and slightly brown in all formulas. Different type and concentration of plasticizers altered the physicochemical of film in different ways. The sorbitol-plasticized film had lower moisture content (≤ 10%) than that of glycerol-plasticized film (≥ 18%). In contrast, film plasticized with sorbitol showed higher solubility in water (28-35%) than glycerol-plasticized film (22-28%). As the concentration of both plasticizers increased, there was an increasing tendency on thickness and solubility in water. Conversely, retraction ratio and swelling degree decreased when both plasticizers concentration increased. In conclusion, the sorbitol-plasticized film showed a potency to be developed as hard capsule material.

  12. Mitochondrial control of cell death induced by hyperosmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criollo, Alfredo; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Maiuri, M Chiara; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Lavandero, Sergio; Kroemer, Guido

    2007-01-01

    HeLa and HCT116 cells respond differentially to sorbitol, an osmolyte able to induce hypertonic stress. In these models, sorbitol promoted the phenotypic manifestations of early apoptosis followed by complete loss of viability in a time-, dose-, and cell type-specific fashion, by eliciting distinct yet partially overlapping molecular pathways. In HCT116 but not in HeLa cells, sorbitol caused the mitochondrial release of the caspase-independent death effector AIF, whereas in both cell lines cytochrome c was retained in mitochondria. Despite cytochrome c retention, HeLa cells exhibited the progressive activation of caspase-3, presumably due to the prior activation of caspase-8. Accordingly, caspase inhibition prevented sorbitol-induced killing in HeLa, but only partially in HCT116 cells. Both the knock-out of Bax in HCT116 cells and the knock-down of Bax in A549 cells by RNA interference reduced the AIF release and/or the mitochondrial alterations. While the knock-down of Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) sensitized to sorbitol-induced killing, overexpression of a Bcl-2 variant that specifically localizes to mitochondria (but not of the wild-type nor of a endoplasmic reticulum-targeted form) strongly inhibited sorbitol effects. Thus, hyperosmotic stress kills cells by triggering different molecular pathways, which converge at mitochondria where pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family exert their control.

  13. The effects of potassium and chloride ions on the ethanolic fermentation of sucrose by Zymomonas mobilis 2716

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, L A; Doelle, H W [Queensland Univ., Brisbane (Australia). Dept. of Microbiology

    1992-04-01

    The inclusion of specific salts in Zymomonas mobilis batch sucrose fermentations can limit by-product formation. Sorbitol and fructo-oligosaccharide formation can be reduced and ethanol production enhanced by manipulating mineral salt concentrations. Chloride salts reduced the production of biomass and sorbitol in favour of fructo-obligosaccharide formation at concentrations lower than 10 g NaCl/l or MgCl{sub 2}. Higher concentrations led to the accumulation of glucose and fructose. Low concentrations of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (<20 g/l) enhanced biomass formation, and the concomitant reduction in sorbitol and fructo-obligosaccharides favoured enhanced ethanol formation. At concentrations above 20 g/l, its effects were similar to those obtained with the chloride salts. Invertase addition at the start of fermentation increased sorbitol formation, whereas addition after the completion of sucrose hydrolysis resulted in the conversion of fructo-obligosaccharides formed into fructose or ethanol. Fermentation with 250 g/l of sugar-cane syrup (=130 g sucrose/l) in the presence of 8 g KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}/l, with 0.05 g invertase/l added on the completion of sucrose hydrolysis, resulted in a conversion efficiency of 94% with complete carbon accountability, and only 7 g sorbitol/l. (orig.).

  14. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  15. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Janice J; Johnson, Andrea; Cline, Gary; Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata; Snegovskikh, Denis; Khokhar, Babar; Han, Christina S; Sherwin, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS) fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose) contributes to brain exposure to fructose. In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM) undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section. As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001), and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001). Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02) and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001). Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001). There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups. These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  16. Viability of L. casei during fermentation in soymilk and freeze-dried soymilk; effect of cryoprotectant, rehydration and storage temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mladenovska

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to investigate the behaviour of L. casei and the effect of sorbitol on its viability during fermentation in soymilk drink. Values for pH, ranging from 6.82 to 3.42 in the soymilk drink without sorbitol and from 6.74 to 3.41 in the drink with sorbitol were noted during 72 h of fermentation at 25oC. The corresponding values for titratable acidity ranged from 0.071% to 0.758% and from 0.073% to 0.761%, respectively. Soymilk was found to support the growth of L. casei with improvement in viability for 0.24 log at the end of fermentation when sorbitol was added. Survival of L. casei and the effectiveness of sorbitol in improving viability during freeze-drying, subsequent rehydration and during a 5-week period of storage under different temperatures were also investigated. After freeze-drying, L. casei exhibited a survival percent of approximately 46%. Sorbitol improved the viability of L. casei by 0.51 log immediately after freeze-drying and by 1.30 log and 0.47 log during five weeks of storage at 25oC and 4oC, respectively. Further study revealed that the freeze-dried fermented soymilk rehydrated at 45oC was optimum for the recovery of L. casei with improvement in recovery for 0.68 log when sorbitol was added. A higher percent of survival was noted when the dried soymilk was stored at 4oC than at 25oC with improved viability at the end of 5 weeks storage for approximately 6 log for drinks with and without sorbitol. Fermented dried soymilk with sorbitol afforded significant tolerance of L. casei to acid stress. Generally, a stable probiotic diary product was prepared in which the concentration of L. casei remained above therapeutic level of 107 cfu/ml.

  17. Nonenzymatic glycation of phosphatidylethanolamine in erythrocyte vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkowska, M.J.; Horowitz, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    Unsealed inside-out and right-side out vesicles were prepared from human red cells. The vesicles were incubated with D-glucose [ 14 C(U)] and sodium cyanoborohydride in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. After incubation, lipids were extracted with 1-butanol and non-lipid contaminants removed by Sephadex G-25 chromatography. Phosphatidylethanolamine-sorbitol was purified by chromatography on columns of silicic acid and phenylboronate agarose gel. Phospholipase C (B. cereus) liberated phosphoethanolamine-sorbitol (I) which comigrated on TLC with synthetic I prepared by reductive condensation of phosphoethanolamine and D-glucose and also with the product of phospholipase C (B. cereus) hydrolysis of reference phosphatidylethanolamine-sorbitol. Exposure of I to alkaline phosphatase (E. coli) gave P/sub i/ and ethanolamine-sorbitol (II) which comigrated on TLC with synthetic II prepared by reductive condensation of ethanolamine and D-glucose or by phospholipase D hydrolysis of reference phosphatidylethanolamine-sorbitol. These studies demonstrate that vesicular phosphatidylethanolamine can be reductively glycated and illustrate the applicability of both phospholipase C and phospholipase D in characterizing glycated phosphoglycerides

  18. Effect of organic additives on positive electrolyte for vanadium redox battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Sha [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Huang Kelong, E-mail: lisha_csu@163.com [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Suqin; Fang Dong; Wu Xiongwei; Lu Dan; Wu Tao [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > Four organics as electrolyte additives of vanadium redox battery. > Changes are examined in the electrochemical properties of vanadium redox battery. > D-sorbitol is a suitable additive to the electrolyte for the vanadium redox battery. > The mechanism of improvement is discussed in detail. - Abstract: Fructose, mannitol, glucose, D-sorbitol are explored as additives in electrolyte for vanadium redox battery (VRB), respectively. The effects of additives on electrolyte are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the vanadium redox cell using the electrolyte with the additive of D-sorbitol exhibits the best electrochemical performance (the energy efficiency 81.8%). The EIS results indicate that the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte is improved by adding D-sorbitol, which can be interpreted as the increase of available (-OH) groups providing active sites for electron transfer. The Raman spectra show that VO{sup 2+} ions take part in forming a complex with the D-sorbitol, which not only improve solubility of V(V) electrolyte, but also provide more activity sites for the V(IV)/V(V) redox reaction.

  19. Effect of organic additives on positive electrolyte for vanadium redox battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sha; Huang Kelong; Liu Suqin; Fang Dong; Wu Xiongwei; Lu Dan; Wu Tao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Four organics as electrolyte additives of vanadium redox battery. → Changes are examined in the electrochemical properties of vanadium redox battery. → D-sorbitol is a suitable additive to the electrolyte for the vanadium redox battery. → The mechanism of improvement is discussed in detail. - Abstract: Fructose, mannitol, glucose, D-sorbitol are explored as additives in electrolyte for vanadium redox battery (VRB), respectively. The effects of additives on electrolyte are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the vanadium redox cell using the electrolyte with the additive of D-sorbitol exhibits the best electrochemical performance (the energy efficiency 81.8%). The EIS results indicate that the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte is improved by adding D-sorbitol, which can be interpreted as the increase of available (-OH) groups providing active sites for electron transfer. The Raman spectra show that VO 2+ ions take part in forming a complex with the D-sorbitol, which not only improve solubility of V(V) electrolyte, but also provide more activity sites for the V(IV)/V(V) redox reaction.

  20. The effects of specified chemical meals on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, H S; Maggio, C A

    1978-10-01

    Rats received intragastric infusions of various specified chemical meals and were subsequently tested for a reduction in food intake. A second experiment, using a novel technique, tested for conditioned aversion to the meal infusions. The nonnutritive substances, kaolin clay and emulsified fluorocarbon, had no significant effect on food intake. Infusions of 1 M glucose and 1 M sorbitol reduced feeding behavior, but the 1 M sorbitol infusion also produced a conditioned aversion to flavored pellets paired with the sorbitol infusion, showing that the reduced feeding could have been caused by discomfort. Infusion of a high-fat meal consisting of emulsified triolein mixed with small amounts of sugar and protein or the rat's normal liquid diet, Nutrament, also reduced food intake, and both infusions failed to produce a conditioned aversion. The use of specified meals to understand the chemical basis of satiety requires a sensitive behavioral test to establish that the meal does not cause discomfort or other nonspecific effects.

  1. F-19 MR imaging of glucose metabolism in the rat and rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, T.; Kwee, I.L.; Card, P.J.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Griffey, B.V.; Griffey, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging reflecting regional pathway specific glucose metabolism was performed utilizing F-19 as the MR signal probe and two fluorinated glucose analogues, 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-FDG) and 3-fluoro-3-deoxy-D-glucose (3-FDG) as the metabolic probe. 2-FDG-6-phosphate images provides regional quantitative information regarding glycolytic activities, while 2-FDG-6-phosphoglyconate images provide information on the pentose monophosphate shunt activities. 3-FDG-sorbitol and 3-FDG-fructose indicate regional aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities of the aldose reductase sorbitol pathway, respectively. The potential toxicity of 2-FDG in high doses precludes the immediate application of the 2-FDG MR imaging method to humans. The extremely low toxicity of 3-FDG, however, indicates promise for clinical application of 3-FDG MR imaging

  2. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecante, A.; Granados-Navarrete, S.; Martínez-García, C.

    2016-01-01

    A protein concentrate (PC) was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts), and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v) protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v) protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials. PMID:27597950

  3. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Valdivia-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein concentrate (PC was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts, and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials.

  4. Effect of Plasticizers on Physicochemical and Mechanical Properties of Chitosan-Gelatin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshor, N. Mohammed; Rezali, M. I.; Jai, J.; Yahya, A.

    2018-05-01

    Composite chitosan-gelatin films were produced to investigate the effect of plasticizer and composition of chitosan and gelatin on physicochemical and mechanical properties of the films. The films were prepared according to ratio of chitosan: gelatin of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. For each film, glycerol, sorbitol and sucrose were added as plasticizer. The film forming solution was poured on a glass plate and dried for 12 hours in an oven at 60°C. The highest tensile strength was 4.04 MPa for films of ratio 2:1 plasticized with glycerol compared to sorbitol and sucrose which were 3.94 MPa and 3.84 MPa, respectively. However, films plasticized with sorbitol at ratio of 1:2 had the highest percent elongation which was 68.20%, followed by glycerol and sucrose which were 26.51% and 24.08%, respectively.

  5. Influence of thickness on properties of plasticized oat starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thickness (between 80 and 120 µm on apparent opacity, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties (tensile and puncture of oat starch films plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol, glycerol:sorbitol mixture, urea and sucrose. Films were stored under 11, 57, 76 and 90% relative humidity (RH to study the mechanical properties. It was observed that the higher the thickness, the higher was the opacity values. Films without the plasticizer were more opaque in comparison with the plasticized ones. Glycerol:sorbitol films presented increased elongation with increasing thickness at all RH. Puncture force showed a strong dependence on the film thickness, except for the films plasticized with sucrose. In general, thickness did not affect the water permeability.

  6. Optimization of thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) previously treated with freezing-point regulators using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Zunying; Zhao, Yuanhui; Dong, Shiyuan; Zeng, Mingyong; Yang, Huicheng

    2015-08-01

    Three freezing-point regulators (glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol) were employed to optimize thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent variables were glycine content (0.250-1.250 %), sodium chloride content (0.500-2.500 %) and D-sorbitol content (0.125-0.625 %) and analysis of variance showed that the effects of glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol on the thermophysical properties were statistically significant (P thermophysical properties were T i , - 5.086 °C; W u , 17.222 %; C app , 41.038 J/g °C and H, 155.942 J/g, respectively. Briefly, the application of freezing-point regulators depressed T i and obtained the optimum W u , C app and H, which would be obviously beneficial for the exploitation of various thermal processing and food storage.

  7. Milk Sweetened with Xylitol: A Proof-of-Principle Caries Prevention Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Zegarra, Graciela; Vasquez Huerta, Elsa C; Castillo, Jorge L; Milgrom, Peter; Roberts, Marilyn C; Cabrera-Matta, Ailin R; Merino, Ana P

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of xylitol-sweetened milk as a caries-preventive strategy. In this nine-month prospective proof-of-principle trial, Peruvian schoolchildren were randomized to one of five different milk groups: (1) eight g of xylitol per 200 mL milk once per day; (2) four g of xylitol per 100 mL milk twice per day; (3) eight g of sorbitol per 200 mL milk once per day; (4) four g of sorbitol per 100 mL milk twice per day; or (5) eight g of sucrose per 200 mL milk once per day. The primary outcome was plaque mutans streptococci (MS) at nine months. A secondary outcome was caries incidence. We hypothesized that children in the xylitol groups would have a greater MS decline and lower caries incidence. One hundred fifty-three children were randomized in the intent-to-treat analyses. Children receiving xylitol had a greater decline in MS than children receiving sucrose (P=0.02) but were not different from children receiving sorbitol (P=0.07). Dental caries incidence for xylitol once per day or twice per day was 5.3±3.4 and 4.3±4.0 surfaces, respectively, compared to sorbitol once per day, sorbitol twice per day, or sucrose (4.1±2.8, 3.7±4.2, and 3.2±3.4 surfaces, respectively). There were no differences in caries incidence between xylitol and sucrose (rate ratio [RR] = 1.51; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.88, 2.59; P=0.13) or between xylitol and sorbitol (RR = 1.28; 95 percent CI = 0.90, 1.83; P=0.16). Xylitol-sweetened milk significantly reduced mutans streptococci levels compared to sucrose-sweetened milk, but differences in caries incidence were not detected.

  8. In vitro adsorption of sodium pentobarbital by SuperChar, USP and Darco G-60 activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curd-Sneed, C.D.; Parks, K.S.; Bordelon, J.G.; Stewart, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro adsorption of sodium pentobarbital by three activated charcoals. Solutions of sodium pentobarbital (20 mM) were prepared in distilled water and in 70% sorbitol (w/v). Radiolabeled ( 14 C) sodium pentobarbital was added to each solution to serve as a concentration marker. Two ml of each drug solution was added to test tubes containing 40 mg of either Darco G-60, USP, or SuperChar activated charcoal. The drug-charcoal mixtures were incubated at 37 degrees C for O, 2.5, 5, 7.5 or 10 min. Equilibrium, indicated by a constant percentage of drug bound for two consecutive time periods, was established immediately for the aqueous mixtures and for Darco G-60 in sorbitol. The time to equilibrium was prolonged for USP (2.5 min) and SuperChar (5 min) in the presence of sorbitol. In the second series of experiments, solutions of sodium pentobarbital (1.25 to 160 mM) were prepared in either distilled water or sorbitol. Amount of drug bound by 10 to 320 mg of activated charcoal within a 10 min incubation period was determined. Scatchard analysis determined maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and dissociation constants (Kd) for each activated charcoal. In water, Bmax (mumoles/gm) was greatest for SuperChar (1141), followed by USP (580) and Darco G-60 (381), while the Kd's did not differ. Sorbitol did not change the Bmax or Kd of USP or Darco G-60, but the additive significantly decreased the Bmax (717) and increased the Kd for SuperChar (3.3 to 10.1 mM). The results suggest that relative binding capacity of activated charcoal is directly proportional to surface area, and that sorbitol significantly reduces sodium pentobarbital binding to SuperChar

  9. Citric acid fermentation by gamma ray induced mutants of Aspergillus niger in different carbohydrate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjuman Ara Begum; Naiyyum Choudhury; Mohammad Serajul Islam (Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Dacca (Bangladesh))

    1990-01-01

    A natural isolate of Aspergillus niger, CA16, and two of its second step mutants, 136/40 and 277/30, grown on different sugar substrates gave maximum citric acid yields of 34, 70, and 126 mg/ml respectively in sucrose medium. Combination of two sugars in the medium at 50% of each improved the yields of citric acid for the sucrose: glucose, glucose: sorbitol, glucose: xylose, and xylose: sorbitol combinations with the mutant strains. Inclusion of galactose in combinations decreased the citric acid yield. (author).

  10. Citric acid fermentation by gamma ray induced mutants of Aspergillus niger in different carbohydrate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjuman Ara Begum; Naiyyum Choudhury; Mohammad Serajul Islam

    1990-01-01

    A natural isolate of Aspergillus niger, CA16, and two of its second step mutants, 136/40 and 277/30, grown on different sugar substrates gave maximum citric acid yields of 34, 70, and 126 mg/ml respectively in sucrose medium. Combination of two sugars in the medium at 50% of each improved the yields of citric acid for the sucrose: glucose, glucose: sorbitol, glucose: xylose, and xylose: sorbitol combinations with the mutant strains. Inclusion of galactose in combinations decreased the citric acid yield. (author)

  11. Radiation effects in x-irradiated hydroxy compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzinski, E.E.; Potter, W.R.; Box, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation effects are compared in single crystals of xylitol, sorbitol, and dulcitol x-irradiated at 4.2 0 K. In xylitol and dulcitol, but not in sorbitol, a primary oxidation product is identified as an alkoxy radical. ENDOR measurements detected three proton hyperfine couplings associated with the alkoxy ESR absorption, one of which is attributed to a proton three bond lengths removed from the seat of unpaired spin density. Intermolecular trapping of electrons is observed in all three crystals. ENDOR measurements were made of the hyperfine couplings between the trapped electron and the hydroxy protons forming the trap

  12. Identification of E. coli O157:H7 by Using Specific Primers for rfbE and stx2b Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bakhshi

    2017-07-01

    Sorbitol-MacConkey agar was used to verification of growth ability of selected colonies during PCR. Results: By appearance of the bonds belong to rfbE and stx2B genes on agarose gel, the ability of designed primers in gene detection in samples of E .coli O157:H7 was verified. Colonies which selected during PCR have growth potency on sorbitol-MacConkey agar medium. Conclusion: It was revealed that we can prepare a fast, precise and relative comfortable method for detection of E. coli O157:H7 strain by using PCR technique and specific primers than other available methods.

  13. In vitro maintenance, under slow-growth conditions, of oil palm germplasm obtained by embryo rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julcéia Camillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro maintenance of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera accessions under slow-growth conditions. Plants produced by embryo rescue were subject to 1/2MS culture medium supplemented with the carbohydrates sucrose, mannitol, and sorbitol at 1, 2, and 3% under 20 and 25±2ºC. After 12 months, the temperature of 20°C reduced plant growth. Sucrose is the most appropriate carbohydrate for maintaining the quality of the plants, whereas mannitol and sorbitol result in a reduced plant survival.

  14. Radiometric evaluation of iron dextran complexes used in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, M.A.; Mani, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Iron dextran sorbitol complexes are used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemias. These complexes are generally described as colloidal solutions of ferric hydroxide complexed with partially hydrolised dextran. This paper reports the work done to study the physico-chemical properties of two such preparations available commercially (iron-dextran injection and iron-sorbitol citric acid injection) by labelling them with 59 Fe, followed by radiochemical evaluation using paper chromatography and electrophoresis, UV absorption spectrophotometry, gel-filtration over Sephadex and dialysis. Some marked differences have been found between the two samples. (T.I.)

  15. Chemical recycling of semi-rigid polyurethane foams by using an eco-friendly and green method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Alavi Nikje

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of integral skin polyurethane foams (ISPUFs was performed using diethylene glycol (DEG/-sorbitol/water ternary green solvent system as an effective polyurethane bond destroying agent in combination with basic catalysts, namely sodium and potassium hydroxides, sodium acetate and sodium carbonate. The effects of studied catalysts were investigated and data showed the high performances of sodium hydroxide in recycling process. After completion of the reactions, appeared split phases contained recycled polyols in the upper phase. Reactions were studied using various DEG/-sorbitol/water ratios and the recovered polyols were characterized and data compared with an authentic sample.

  16. Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C.; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Debatin, Joerg F.; Lauenstein, Thomas C. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122, Essen (Germany); Schneemann, Hubert [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance. (orig.)

  17. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Mc Cutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Li,; Xu, [Newark, DE; Emptage, Mark [Wilmington, DE; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; Zhang, Min [Lakewood, CO; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  18. Chemoenzymatic epoxidation of alkenes with Candida antarctica lipase B and hydrogen peroxide in deep eutectic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Pengfei; Wang, Xuping; Yang, Bo; Hollmann, F.; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    Epoxides are important synthetic intermediates for the synthesis of a broad range of industrial products. This study presents a promising solution to the current limitation of enzyme instability. By using simple deep eutectic solvents such as choline chloride/sorbitol, significant stabilization

  19. Molecular, Serological And Microbiological Profiling Evidence Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All items that the boy had contact with including a laboratory coat, bunch of keys and shoes were swabbed. Finally samples of all the boy's food and drinks were taken. Microbiological, Serological and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Profiling Assays. l the samples were cultured on Sorbitol - MacConkey (SMAC) agar, ...

  20. The osmolyte type affects cartilage associated pathologic marker expression during in vitro mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis under hypertonic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadyan, Sorour; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Tasharofi, Noushin; Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Kehtari, Mousa; Hajari Zadeh, Athena; Soleimani, Masoud; Farazmand, Ali; Hanaee-Ahvaz, Hana

    2018-02-28

    Stem cells' fate during in vitro differentiation is influenced by biophysicochemical cues. Osmotic stress has proved to enhance chondrocyte marker expression, however its potent negative impacts had never been surveyed. We questioned whether specific osmotic conditions, regarding the osmolyte agent, could benefit chondrogenesis while dampening undesired concomitant hypertrophy and inflammatory responses. To examine the potential side effects of hypertonicity, we assessed cell proliferation as well as chondrogenic and hypertrophic marker expression of human Adipose Derived-MSC after a two week induction in chondrogenic media with either NaCl or Sorbitol, as the osmolyte agent to reach a +100 mOsm hypertonic condition. Calcium deposition and TNF-α secretion as markers associated with hypertrophy and inflammation were then assayed. While both hyperosmotic conditions upregulated chondrogenic markers, sorbitol had a nearly three times higher chondro-promotive effect and a lesser hypertrophic effect compared to NaCl. Also, a significantly lesser calcium deposition was observed in sorbitol hypertonic group. NaCl showed an anti-proinflammatory effect while sorbitol had no effect on inflammatory markers. The ossification potential and cartilage associated pathologic markers were affected differentially by the type of the osmolyte. Thus, a vigilant application of the osmotic agent is inevitable in order to avoid or reduce undesired hypertrophic and inflammatory phenotype acquisition by MSC during chondrogenic differentiation. Our findings are a step towards developing a more reliable chondrogenic regimen using external hypertonic cues for MSC chondrogenesis with potential applications in chondral lesions cell therapy.

  1. Fatty acid production by four strains of Mucor hiemalis grown in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liquid media containing 2% vegetable oil (palm oil, canola oil, soybean oil, sesame oil, or sunflower oil) or 2% carbohydrate (fructose, galactose, glycerol, glucose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, sorbitol or xylose) and 1% yeast extract as a nitrogen source were used. The greatest biomass production was observed with M3 and ...

  2. Compounded laxative formulations for substituting phenolphthalein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Sennosides A & B were compatible with a wide variety of powdered excipients. However, these were incompatible with propyl paraben, sodium carbonate, stearic acid, citric acid, PEG, and sugar derivatives such as lactose, glucose and sorbitol when granulated with water. Not withstanding these interactions, it was ...

  3. Polyol and Amino Acid-Based Biosurfactants, Builders, and Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews different detergent materials which have been synthesized from natural agricultural commodities. Background information, which gives reasons why the use of biobased materials may be advantageous, is presented. Detergent builders from L-aspartic acid, citric acid and D-sorbitol...

  4. Morphological Investigation into Starch Bio-Nanocomposites via Synchrotron Radiation and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a hydrophilic, plasticized bionanocomposite system involving sorbitol plasticizer, amylose biopolymer, and montmorillonite (MMT for the presence of competitive interactions among them at different moisture content. Synchrotron analysis via small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were performed to understand crystalline growth and the distribution of crystalline domains within the samples. The SAXS diffraction patterns showed reduced interhelix spacing in the amylose network indicating strong amylose-sorbitol interactions. Depending on the sorbitol and MMT concentration, these interactions also affected the free moisture content and crystalline domains. Domains of around 95 Å and 312 Å were found in the low-moisture-content samples as compared to a single domain of 95 Å in the high-moisture-content samples. DSC measurements confirmed that the MMT increased the onset and the melting temperature of nanocomposites. Moreover, the results showed that the ternary interactions among sorbitol-amylose-MMT supported the crystalline heterogeneity through secondary nucleation.

  5. Differential impact of lipoxygenase 2 and jasmonates on natural and stress-induced senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Martin A; Stingl, Nadja E; Lautenschlaeger, Jens K; Krischke, Markus; Mueller, Martin J; Berger, Susanne

    2010-04-01

    Jasmonic acid and related oxylipins are controversially discussed to be involved in regulating the initiation and progression of leaf senescence. To this end, we analyzed profiles of free and esterified oxylipins during natural senescence and upon induction of senescence-like phenotypes by dark treatment and flotation on sorbitol in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Jasmonic acid and free 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid increased during all three processes, with the strongest increase of jasmonic acid after dark treatment. Arabidopside content only increased considerably in response to sorbitol treatment. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerols and digalactosyldiacylglycerols decreased during these treatments and aging. Lipoxygenase 2-RNA interference (RNAi) plants were generated, which constitutively produce jasmonic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid but do not exhibit accumulation during natural senescence or upon stress treatment. Chlorophyll loss during aging and upon dark incubation was not altered, suggesting that these oxylipins are not involved in these processes. In contrast, lipoxygenase 2-RNAi lines and the allene oxid synthase-deficient mutant dde2 were less sensitive to sorbitol than the wild type, indicating that oxylipins contribute to the response to sorbitol stress.

  6. [Experiences with the enzymatic determination of sugar and sugar substitutes in dietetic cake for diabetics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingebiel, L; Grossklaus, R; Pahlke, G

    1979-11-01

    Sorbitol and fructose were determined enzymatically in home-made and commercially produced cake for diabetics. In some commercial products, a loss of fructose depending upon the baking period was found. This loss of fructose is to be attributed to the Maillard reaction. The findings were confirmed by comparative studies will a reference cake.

  7. 21 CFR 175.320 - Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... lauryl sulfate Sorbitan and sorbitol esters of fatty acids from vegetable or animal oils Spermaceti wax... only as a polymerization inhibitor in 2-sulfoethyl methacrylate, sodium salt. 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate... scale as measured in 50 percent mineral spirits solution 2-Sulfoethyl methacrylate, sodium salt Chemical...

  8. Elevated glucose concentrations promote receptor-independent activation of adherent human neutrophils: an experimental and computational approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kummer, Ursula; Zobeley, Jürgen; Brasen, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    of NO and superoxide formation were observed. However, these changes were not observed for sorbitol, a nonmetabolizable carbohydrate. Glucose transport appears to be important in this process as phloretin interferes with the glucose-specific receptor-independent activation of neutrophils. However, LY83583...

  9. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  10. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    Representatives of this class include certain amino acids (e.g. proline and glycine) and polyols (e.g. trehalose, sucrose and sorbitol), and the .... line study found that urea and betaine in growth medium penetrate Madine–Darby ..... (IP3), and a putative receptor tyrosine kinase; J. Clin. Invest. 97 1884–1889. Collins K D and ...

  11. A new strategy to enhance polysialic acid production by controlling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polysialic acid (PSA) is a new pharmaceutical material used in control release of protein drugs and as scaffold material in biomedical applications. It is also a vital source of sialic acid and its derivatives. In this paper, we demonstrated that the substrate sorbitol has significant effect on bacterial growth and PSA formation in ...

  12. Sustainable coatings from bio-based, enzymatically synthesized polyesters with enhanced functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustini, L.; Lavilla, C.; Finzel, L.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Hendrix, M.M.R.M.; Koning, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    Bio-based sorbitol-containing polyester polyols were synthesized via enzymatic polycondensation. The selectivity of the biocatalyst for primary vs. secondary hydroxyl groups allowed for the preparation of close to linear renewable polyester polyols with enhanced hydroxyl functionalities, both as

  13. The Resistance to Freeze-Drying and to Storage Was Determined as the Cellular Ability to Recover Its Survival Rate and Acidification Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibourahema Coulibaly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of the fatty acid composition and membrane action of the acidification activity of two strains of Lactobacillus kept at 20∘C were studied. The addition of sorbitol, monosodium glutamate and glycerol during storage is causing the decline of acidification and increased concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids observed in both strains. The addition of sorbitol and monosodium glutamate does not alter the fatty acid composition, whatever the strain, but increases the resistance to freeze-drying of L. plantarum CWBI-B1419 and improves survival during storage. The addition of these preservatives and decreased activity of acidification improves the ratio unsaturated. These results indicate that the survival during storage and freeze-drying resistance are closely related to the composition of membrane fatty acids. This behaviour can be interpreted as an adaptation of L. plantarum B1419-CWBI supplemented by cryoprotectant additives such as sorbitol or monosodium glutamate sorbitol and monosodium glutamate as an additive. L. plantarum CWBI-B1419 presents a greater adaptation to culture conditions than L. paracasei ssp. paracasei LMG9192T.

  14. Toxicological evaluation of a number of sweeteners and modified polydextroses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch; G.J.van

    1984-01-01

    Toxicologische evaluaties zijn gemaakt van een negental stoffen, die als zoetstof in de voeding worden gebruikt. Het betreft: Aspartame, Acesulfam-K, Gemodificeerd Polydextrose, Xylitol, Lactitol, Sorbitol, Lycasin 80/55, Mannitol, Maltitol. Als resultaat wordt in dit rapport een acceptable

  15. Stofmonografie polyolen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderen CEM van

    1988-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt aandacht besteed aan hetgeen er in de literatuur vermeld wordt over de chemische/fysische eigenschappen, de kinetiek, de functie, de waarnemingen bij mens en dier alsmede de verschijnselen en therapie bij intoxicaties van sorbitol, xylitol, mannitol en lactitol.

  16. Strain identification in Rhizobium by starch gel electrophoresis of isoenzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Nielsen, G.

    1985-01-01

    Sonieated extracts of rhizobia, especiaUy Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea and vetch, were run in horizontal starch gel electrophoresis in the cold. The rhizobia were grown on agar on a slime suppressing substrate of tryptone-yeast extract-CaCl2 with small amounts of mannitol, sorbitol...

  17. Disruption of AtWNK8 Enhances Tolerance of Arabidopsis to Salt and Osmotic Stresses via Modulating Proline Content and Activities of Catalase and Peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With no lysine kinases (WNKs play important roles in plant growth and development. However, its role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance is unclear. Here, we report that AtWNK8 is mainly expressed in primary root, hypocotyl, stamen and pistil and is induced by NaCl and sorbitol treatment. Compared to the wild-type, the T-DNA knock-out wnk8 mutant was more tolerant to severe salinity and osmotic stresses, as indicated by 27% and 198% more fresh weight in the NaCl and sorbitol treatment, respectively. The wnk8 mutant also accumulated 1.43-fold more proline than the wild-type in the sorbitol treatment. Under NaCl and sorbitol stresses, catalase (CAT activity in wnk8 mutant was 1.92- and 3.7-times of that in Col-0, respectively. Similarly, under salt and osmotic stress conditions, peroxidase (POD activities in wnk8 mutant were 1.81- and 1.58-times of that in Col-0, respectively. Taken together, we revealed that maintaining higher CAT and POD activities might be one of the reasons that the disruption of AtWNK8 enhances the tolerance to salt stress, and accumulating more proline and higher activities of CAT and POD might result in the higher tolerance of WNK8 to osmotic stress.

  18. Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C.; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Debatin, Joerg F.; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Schneemann, Hubert

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance. (orig.)

  19. Renewable energy production by photoelectrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using WO{sub 3} photoanodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raptis, Dimitrios [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Dracopoulos, Vassilios [FORTH/ICE-HT, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Patras (Greece); Lianos, Panagiotis, E-mail: lianos@upatras.gr [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece)

    2017-07-05

    Highlights: • Efficient nanoparticulate WO{sub 3} photoanodes. • Photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen production by consumption of organic wastes. • Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol, glycerol or sorbitol. • Recording of hydrogen production and calculation of efficiencies. - Abstract: The present work has studied renewable hydrogen production by photoelectrocatalytic degradation of model organic substances representing biomass derived organic wastes. Its purpose was to show that renewable energy can be produced by consuming wastes. The study has been carried out by employing nanoparticulate WO{sub 3} photoanodes in the presence of ethanol, glycerol or sorbitol, i.e. three substances which are among typical biomass products. In these substances, the molecular weight and the number of hydroxyl groups increases from ethanol to sorbitol. The photocurrent produced by the cell was the highest in the presence of ethanol, smaller in the case of glycerol and further decreased in the presence of sorbitol. The photocurrent was roughly the double of that produced in the absence of an organic additive thus demonstrating current doubling phenomena. Hydrogen was produced only under illumination and was monitored at two forward bias, 0.8 and 1.6 V vs Ag/AgCl. Hydrogen production rates followed the same order as the photocurrent thus indicating that hydrogen production by reduction of protons mainly depends on the current flowing through the external circuit connecting photoanode with cathode. The maximum solar-to-hydrogen efficiency reached by the present system was 2.35%.

  20. Selection and characterisation of high ethanol tolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15% ethanol tolerance. High level ethanol tolerant Saccharomyces yeast, Orc 6, was investigated for its potential application in ethanologenic fermentations. Data presented in this study revealed that Orc 6 yeast isolate tolerated osmotic stress above 12% (w/v) sorbitol and 15% (w/v) sucrose equivalent of osmotic pressure ...

  1. Effect of the Freezing Step in the Stability and Bioactivity of Protein-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Upon Lyophilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonte, Pedro; Andrade, Fernanda; Azevedo, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    , sucrose and sorbitol as cryoprotectants was evaluated. METHODS: Cryoprotectants were co-encapsulated with insulin into PLGA nanoparticles and lyophilized using an optimized cycle with freezing at -80°C, in liquid nitrogen, or ramped cooling at -40°C. Upon lyophilization, the stability of protein structure...

  2. A new selective fluorene-based fluorescent internal charge transfer (ICT) sensor for sugar alcohols in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Mohadjerani, Maryam; Pooryousef, Mona

    2016-03-01

    Sugar alcohols, such as sorbitol, are commonly used as a replacement for sucrose in the food industry, applied as starting material for vitamin C synthesis, and involved as one of the causative factors in diabetic complications. Therefore, their detection and quantification in aqueous solution are necessary. The reversible covalent interactions between boronic acids and diols are the basis of efficient methods for the detection of saccharides. Herein, we report a new internal charge transfer (ICT) fluorene-based fluorescent boronic acid sensor (1) 2-[(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl-amino)methyl] phenyl boronic acid that shows significant fluorescence changes upon addition of saccharides. The boronic acid has high affinity (K a = 1107.9 M(-1)) and selectivity for sorbitol at pH = 8.31. It showed a linear response toward sorbitol in the concentration range from 1.0 × 10(-5) to 6.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) with the detection limit of 7.04 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). Sensor 1 was used to detect sorbitol in real samples with good recovery.

  3. Export of functional Streptomyces coelicolor alditol oxidase to the periplasm or cell surface of Escherichia coli and its application in whole-cell biocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloois, Edwin; Winter, Remko T.; Janssen, Dick B.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) alditol oxidase (AldO) is a soluble monomeric flavoprotein in which the flavin cofactor is covalently linked to the polypeptide chain. AldO displays high reactivity towards different polyols such as xylitol and sorbitol. These characteristics make AldO industrially

  4. Modeling and analysis of film composition on mechanical properties of maize starch based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Maran, J; Sivakumar, V; Thirugnanasambandham, K; Kandasamy, S

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigates the influence of composition (content of maize starch (1-3 g), sorbitol (0.5-1.0 ml), agar (0.5-1.0 g) and tween-80 (0.1-0.5 ml)) on the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation, Young's modulus, puncture force and puncture deformation) of the maize starch based edible films using four factors with three level Box-Behnken design. The edible films were obtained by casting method. The results showed that, tween-80 increases the permeation of sorbitol in to the polymer matrix. Increasing concentration of sorbitol (hydrophilic nature and plasticizing effect of sorbitol) decreases the tensile strength, Young's modulus and puncture force of the films. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were obtained for all responses with high R(2) values (R(2)>0.95). 3D response surface plots were constructed to study the relationship between process variables and the responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Contact angle hysteresis of liquid drops as means to measure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ferent plasticizers like glycerol and sorbitol have been used to form mixed films with zein and properties of these ... many applications including lubrication, coating, printing, water proofing and de- tergency [1–3]. ..... [2] P Hiemencz and R Rajagopalan, Principles of colloid and surface chemistry (Dekker,. New York, 1997) p.

  6. Pasteurización de soluciones de inmunoglobulinas de uso intravenoso. 1.: Uso de azúcares como estabilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cádiz Lahens

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la pasteurización a partir de la unión de los sobrenadantes II de 4 lotes de plasma normal sometidos a fraccionamiento alcohólico, con la utilización de los estabilizantes siguientes: sorbitol, sacarosa y dextrosa al 30 %. El grado de agregación molecular se determinó por cromatografía en gel. Entre los estabilizantes utilizados, el sorbitol presentó los mejores resultados, con formación de polímeros que fluctúan entre el 10 - 15 %, valores que se corresponden con los reportados por otros autores. Estos polímeros según los requerimientos de la OMS deben ser eliminados por otros procedimientos para obtener valores inferiores al 10 %.Pasteurization from the union of II supernatants of 4 batches of normal plasma subjected to alcoholic fractionation was carried out using following stabilizers: sorbitol, sacarose and 30 % dextrose. The level of molecular aggregation wass determined by gel- filtration chromatography. Sorbitol exhibited the best results with polymer formation ranging from 10 - 15 %; the values match those reported by other authors. According to WHO requirements, these polymers should be eliminated through other procedures for obtaining values under 10 %.

  7. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that: the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in childhood increases with age, and decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more frequently with juices containing more fructose than glucose and/or sorbitol than with juices which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. One hundred and four healthy children were recruited from the Ambulatory Center at Maimonides Children's Center. They were assigned to one of three age groups: approximately 1, 3 and 5 years of age. Each child received one age-specific dose (by randomization) of one of four juices: a) pear juice which contains fructose in excess to glucose and a large amount of sorbitol; b) apple juice which is similar to pear juice in its fructose to glucose ratio but contains four times less sorbitol than pear juice; c) white grape juice or d) purple grape juice both of which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. Breath hydrogen excretion (BH2) was utilized as the index of carbohydrate absorption. It was measured in fasting children and at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours after drinking the single serving of juice. Multiple breath hydrogen related parameters were quantified and results were expressed as: BH2 peak, area under the curve, and degree of carbohydrate malabsorption. After the test, parents completed a questionnaire and recorded signs and symptoms of intestinal malabsorption for 24 hours. Pear juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher among children 1 and 3 years of age as compared to the levels achieved after the other juices. Apple juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher only among the youngest age group of children. There was no significant difference in carbohydrate absorption among the 5 year old children regardless of the juice consumed. Incomplete carbohydrate absorption (BH2 peak above 20 ppm) occurred more frequently after pear juice consumption (84%) than after apple juice (41%) or grape juice

  8. Inhibition of d-xylose isomerase by polyols: atomic details by joint X-ray/neutron crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalevsky, Andrey, E-mail: ayk@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, MS M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hanson, B. Leif [University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Mason, Sax A. [Institut Laue–Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Forsyth, V. Trevor [Institut Laue–Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Keele University, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, MS M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, MS M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, MS 6475, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Blakeley, Matthew P. [Institut Laue–Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Keen, David A. [Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Langan, Paul [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, MS 6475, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, MS M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    A joint X-ray/neutron structure of d-xylose isomerase in complex with the inhibitor sorbitol was determined at room temperature at an acidic pH of 5.9. Protonation of the O5 O atom of the sugar was directly observed in the nuclear density maps. Under acidic conditions sorbitol gains a water-mediated interaction with the enzyme active site, which may explain the increased potency of the inhibitor at low pH. d-Xylose isomerase (XI) converts the aldo-sugars xylose and glucose to their keto analogs xylulose and fructose, but is strongly inhibited by the polyols xylitol and sorbitol, especially at acidic pH. In order to understand the atomic details of polyol binding to the XI active site, a 2.0 Å resolution room-temperature joint X-ray/neutron structure of XI in complex with Ni{sup 2+} cofactors and sorbitol inhibitor at pH 5.9 and a room-temperature X-ray structure of XI containing Mg{sup 2+} ions and xylitol at the physiological pH of 7.7 were obtained. The protonation of oxygen O5 of the inhibitor, which was found to be deprotonated and negatively charged in previous structures of XI complexed with linear glucose and xylulose, was directly observed. The Ni{sup 2+} ions occupying the catalytic metal site (M2) were found at two locations, while Mg{sup 2+} in M2 is very mobile and has a high B factor. Under acidic conditions sorbitol gains a water-mediated interaction that connects its O1 hydroxyl to Asp257. This contact is not found in structures at basic pH. The new interaction that is formed may improve the binding of the inhibitor, providing an explanation for the increased affinity of the polyols for XI at low pH.

  9. Growth of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. cell suspension cultures with carbon sources Crescimento de cultura de células em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. em fontes de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ometto Mello

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell suspension cultures of Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and Phaseolus vulgaris L. were used to test plant ability to utilize an alternative to sucrose as carbon source and energy for growth. Glycerol, sorbitol and galactose were the alternative carbon sources tested. Cell suspension cultures established on liquid medium containing sucrose were transferred to culture medium supplemented with sucrose or glycerol, or sorbitol, or galactose as the sole carbon source. Fresh and dry weight increasing and protein content showed marked differences among the different carbon sources used. Sucrose was the best carbon source for all the three plant species tested. Galactose and glycerol promoted slow or no growth of the three studied species. Sucrose in liquid medium promoted initiation of meristemoid formation. Sorbitol, which was ineffective on promoting significant growth, was the only alternative carbon source tested that also promoted this effect.Culturas de células em suspensão de Bauhinia forficata Link, Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe e Phaseolus vulgaris L. foram usadas para avaliar a eficiência de fontes alternativas de carbono e energia. Glicerol, sorbitol e galactose foram as fontes alternativas estudadas. As culturas de células estabelecidas em meio líquido contendo sacarose foram transferidas para meios de cultura suplementados com sacarose ou glicerol ou sorbitol ou galactose. A fonte de carbono afetou distintamente os ganhos de matéria fresca, matéria seca e o acúmulo de proteína. A sacarose foi a melhor fonte de carbono para as três espécies estudadas. Galactose e glicerol promoveram pequeno crescimento das três espécies estudadas. A sacarose utilizada como fonte de carbono no meio líquido, promoveu o início de organização celular conhecido como a formação de meristemóides. Sorbitol, que não promoveu crescimento significativo, foi a única fonte alternativa de carbono testada que também promoveu este

  10. Fabrication Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance sensor chip of gold nanoparticles and detection lipase–osmolytes interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodselahi, T., E-mail: t_ghodselahi@yahoo.com [Nano Mabna Iranian Inc., PO Box 1676664116, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hoornam, S. [Nano Mabna Iranian Inc., PO Box 1676664116, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Science, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vesaghi, M.A. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbar, B.; Azizi, A. [Department of Biophysics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mobasheri, H. [Laboratory of Membrane Biophysics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, PO Box 13145-1384, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biomaterials Research Institute (BRC), University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • We synthesized localized surface plasmon resonance sensor of gold nanoparticles by RF-sputtering and RF-PECVD. • LSPR sensor was characterized by TEM, XPS, AFM. • LSPR sensor was utilized to detect interaction between sorbitol and trehalose, with Pesudomonace Cepacia Lipase (PCL). • Unlike to trehalose, sorbitol interacts with the PCL. • Refractive index of PCL was obtained by Mie theory modeling. - Abstract: Co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-PECVD from acetylene gas and Au target were used to prepare sensor chip of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Deposition conditions were optimized to reach a Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) sensor chip of Au NPs with particle size less than 10 nm. The RF power was set at 180 W and the initial gas pressure was set at 0.035 mbar. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data were used to investigate particles size and surface morphology of LSPR sensor chip. The Au and C content of the LSPR sensor chip of Au NPs was obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) thin film was used as intermediate material to immobilize Au NPs on the SiO{sub 2} substrate. The interaction between two types of osmolytes, i.e. sorbitol and trehalose, with Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PCL) were detected by the prepared LSPR biosensor chip. The detection mechanism is based on LSPR spectroscopy in which the wavelength of absorption peak is sensitive to the refractive index of the environment of the Au NPs. This mechanism eliminates the use of a probe or immobilization of PCL on the Au NPs of LSPR sensor chip. The interaction between PCL and osmolytes can change refractive index of the mixture or solution. We found that unlike to trehalose, sorbitol interacts with the PCL. This interaction increases refractive index of the PCL and sorbitol mixture. Refractive index of PCL in the presence of different concentration of sorbitol was

  11. Evaluation of supplementation of sucrose medium on the synthesis of Zymomonas mobilis bio-products - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.1519

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Pedrini Colabone Celligoi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the variables pantothenic acid, yeast extract and sodium chloride, as well as the cell permeabilization technique, were investigated on the formation of levan, ethanol, sorbitol and biomass of Zymomonas mobilis, using a 24-1 fraction factorial design. Cell growth was determined by turbidimetry at 605 nm, relating it to a biomass with a dry weight calibration curve. Reducing sugars were quantified according to Somogyi and Nelson. Total sugars were quantified by the phenol-sulfuric acid method, sorbitol by HPLC and ethanol. The levan produced was precipitated by the addition of absolute ethanol and quantified in fructose units. In levan biosynthesis, the variable that had the largest contribution was cell condition. The results suggested that the factors that most affected biomass and ethanol formation were sodium chloride concentration and cell condition that affected negatively on production. For sorbitol, the variable that had a significant effect was permeabilization, which decreased its synthesis. Studies to amplify the range of established factors would be important.The effect of the variables pantothenic acid, yeast extract and sodium chloride, as well as the cell permeabilization technique, were investigated on the formation of levan, ethanol, sorbitol and biomass of Zymomonas mobilis, using a 24-1 fraction factorial design. Cell growth was determined by turbidimetry at 605 nm, relating it to a biomass with a dry weight calibration curve. Reducing sugars were quantified according to Somogyi and Nelson. Total sugars were quantified by the phenol-sulfuric acid method, sorbitol by HPLC and ethanol. The levan produced was precipitated by the addition of absolute ethanol and quantified in fructose units. In levan biosynthesis, the variable that had the largest contribution was cell condition. The results suggested that the factors that most affected biomass and ethanol formation were sodium chloride concentration and cell

  12. Evaluation of supplementation of sucrose medium on the synthesis of Zymomonas mobilis bio-products = Avaliação da suplementação do meio de sacarose na formação de bio– produtos por Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Renan Jorge Borsari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the variables pantothenic acid, yeast extract and sodiumchloride, as well as the cell permeabilization technique, were investigated on the formation of levan, ethanol, sorbitol and biomass of Zymomonas mobilis, using a 24-1 fraction factorial design. Cell growth was determined by turbidimetry at 605 nm, relating it to a biomass with a dry weight calibration curve. Reducing sugars were quantified according to Somogyi and Nelson. Total sugars were quantified by the phenol-sulfuric acid method, sorbitol by HPLC and ethanol. The levan produced was precipitated by the addition of absolute ethanol and quantified in fructose units. In levan biosynthesis, the variable that had the largest contribution was cell condition. The results suggested that the factors that most affected biomass and ethanol formation were sodium chloride concentration and cell condition that affected negatively on production. For sorbitol, the variable that had a significant effect was permeabilization, which decreased its synthesis. Studies to amplify the range of established factors would be important.A influência das variáveis: ácido pantotênico, extrato de levedura, cloreto de sódio, e a técnica de permeabilização celular foram investigadas na formação de levana, sorbitol, etanol e biomassa de Zymomonas mobilis utilizando um delineamento estatístico fatorial fracionado 24-1. A biomassa foi determinada por turbidimetria, Os açúcares redutores foram quantificados por Somogy e Nelson, açúcartotal por Fenol Sulfúrico, sorbitol por HPLC e etanol por micro-destilação. A levana produzida foi precipitada com etanol absoluto e determinada como unidade de frutose. Na biossíntese de levana, a variável que mais contribuiu foi a condição celular. Os resultadossugerem que, para a formação da biomassa e etanol, os fatores que mais interferiram foram a concentração de cloreto de sódio e a condição celular que influencia negativamente a produ

  13. Co-encapsulation of lyoprotectants improves the stability of protein-loaded PLGA nanoparticles upon lyophilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Seabra, Vítor

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of the co-encapsulation of lyoprotectants with insulin into PLGA nanoparticles, on the stability of the protein and nanoparticles upon lyophilization. Different lyoprotectants were used, namely trehalose, glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol...... formulations with externally added lyoprotectants, except trehalose, showed crystallinity. FTIR assessment showed that co-encapsulating lyoprotectants better preserved insulin structure upon lyophilization with a spectral area overlap of 82-87%, compared to only 72% in lyoprotectant absence. These results were...... confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Surprisingly, the simultaneous co-encapsulation and addition of lyoprotectants was detrimental to protein stabilization. The insulin in vitro release studies demonstrated that formulations with co-encapsulated trehalose, glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol...

  14. Two-stage dehydration of sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-10

    The invention includes methods for producing dianhydrosugar alcohol by providing an acid catalyst within a reactor and passing a starting material through the reactor at a first temperature. At least a portion of the staring material is converted to a monoanhydrosugar isomer during the passing through the column. The monoanhydrosugar is subjected to a second temperature which is greater than the first to produce a dianhydrosugar. The invention includes a method of producing isosorbide. An initial feed stream containing sorbitol is fed into a continuous reactor containing an acid catalyst at a temperature of less than 120.degree. C. The residence time for the reactor is less than or equal to about 30 minutes. Sorbitol converted to 1,4-sorbitan in the continuous reactor is subsequently provided to a second reactor and is dehydrated at a temperature of at least 120.degree. C. to produce isosorbide.

  15. Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrophilic Sugar Based Polyesters and Their Modification with Stearic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Humayun Bilal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable and hydrophilic functional polyesters were synthesized enzymatically using xylitol or d-sorbitol together with divinyl adipate and lipase B from Candida antartica (CAL-B. The resulting polyesters had pendant OH-groups from their sugar units which were esterified to different degrees with stearic acid chloride. The structure and the degrees of polymerization of the resulting graft copolymers based on poly(xylitol adipate and poly(d-sorbitol adipate were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and SEC. DSC, WAXS and SAXS measurements indicated that a phase separation between polymer backbone and stearoyl side chains occurred in the graft copolymers, and, additionally, the side chains were able to crystallize which resulted in the formation of a lamellar morphology. Additionally, nanoparticles of the graft copolymers in an aqueous environment were studied by DLS and negative stain TEM.

  16. Functional bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with functional bowel disease were given fructose, sorbitol, fructose-sorbitol mixtures, and sucrose. The occurrence of malabsorption was evaluated by means of hydrogen breath tests and the gastrointestinal symptoms, if any, were recorded. One patient could not be evaluated...... because of lack of H2 production. Based on a cut-off level of 10 ppm rise of H2 concentration, malabsorption was apparent in 13 patients, in 7 of which the calculated absorption capacities were below 15 g. In contrast, in patients given 50 g of sucrose, malabsorption could not be detected. Ingestion...... with functional bowel disease. The findings may have direct influence on the dietary guidance given to a major group of patients with functional bowel disease and may make it possible to define separate entities in this disease complex....

  17. Supersincronización del crecimiento in vitro del Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Orfa de Rojas

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Se logró un crecimiento "Super sincrónico" del parásito Plasmodium falciparum en cultivo, mediante la aplicación de tres tratamientos sucesivos: sorbitol (para destruir formas maduras, Percoll (para concentrar esquizontes y nuevamente sorbitol, después de permitir la reinvación. En esta forma se obtuvo una población de parásitos con un rango de edad entre 0-3 horas, de los cuales el 99.1% fueron esquizontes a las 48 horas de incubación. El desarrollo morfológico del parásito fue completamente normal después del tratamiento y su sincronía se controló estrictamente cada 4 horas en el primer ciclo.

  18. Changes in diapause related gene expression pattern during early embryonic development in HCl-treated eggs of bivoltine silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirigineedi Sasibhushan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of differential expression of diapause related genes (five metabolic, five heat shock protein and one translational regulatory in HCl-treated (non-diapause and untreated (diapause eggs of B. mori during early embryogenesis (up to 48h following oviposition revealed the up-regulation of sorbitol dehydrogenase upon HCl treatment, indicating increased glycogen synthesis for further embryonic development but, down-regulation of phosphofructo kinase gene expression after 18h of oviposition indicating an arrest of glycerol and sorbitol conversion. The expression of poly A binding protein gene expression was higher upon HCl treatment, revealing the initiation of translation. The expression levels of other genes analyzed did not vary significantly, except for Hsp90 and Hsp40, which were up-regulated on acid treatment until 18h. Thus, Sorbitoldehydrogenase and phosphofructo kinasegenes have a crucial role in diapause termination as evidenced by HCl treatment, while the other genes did not have major roles.

  19. AN EFFECTIVE IN VITRO SLOW GROWTH PROTOCOL FOR CONSERVATION OF THE ORCHID Epidendrum chlorocorymbos SCHLTR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Lopez-Puc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient slow growth protocol for the orchid E. chlorocorymbos Schltr. was developed using in vitro conservation studies. Seedlings were placed in MS culture medium and a 2x3x3 factorial design applied to evaluate the effects of supplementing the medium with mannitol (0, 1, 2 and 3%, sucrose (0, 1, 2 and 3% or sorbitol (0, 1, 2 and 3%. Experimental conditions were a 16:8 h photoperiod, 23 ± 2 °C temperature and 50-80% relative humidity. At 6 months, the best treatment was MS medium at half ionic strength with 1% sorbitol. The culture was also free of contamination. This resulted in slow growth and normal morphology during maintenance and successful growth afterwards. Shoots were subsequently recovered, multiplied and rooted on MS medium with sucrose 3% without addition of growth regulators.

  20. Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Surgar Alcohols via the Aqueous-Phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy Cortright

    2006-06-30

    This project involved the investigation and development of catalysts and reactor systems that will be cost-effective to generate hydrogen from potential sorbitol streams. The intention was to identify the required catalysts and reactors systems as well as the design, construction, and operation of a 300 grams per hour hydrogen system. Virent was able to accomplish this objective with a system that generates 2.2 kgs an hour of gas containing both hydrogen and alkanes that relied directly on the work performed under this grant. This system, funded in part by the local Madison utility, Madison, Gas & Electric (MGE), is described further in the report. The design and development of this system should provide the necessary scale-up information for the generation of hydrogen from corn-derived sorbitol.

  1. Evaluation of glycerol derivative as emulsifier for oil based drilling fluids; Avaliacao de derivados de glicerina como emulsificante para fluidos de perfuracao de base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Susan A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Cavalcanti, Milena Y.; Rodrigues Junior, Jorge; Lachter, Elizabeth R.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In view of the growing search for new applications for the surplus glycerine of biodiesel production, the use of a glycerine derivative as emulsifier in oil based muds is proposed in this work. Glycerine monooleate was synthesized through esterification reaction, and characterized by NMR{sup 13}C. Its applicability as emulsifier was verified through electric stability tests performed on inverted phase drilling fluids. The obtained results were compared with two formulations containing different emulsifiers (sorbitol monooleate and trimethylolpropane monooleate). It was also evaluated the rheological properties of the formulated fluids through standard tests. It was verified that the fluid that contained the glycerine derivative showed considerably better electric stability results than the other systems. It also presented rheological properties similar to the ones shown by the system that contained the commercial emulsifier (sorbitol monooleate). Thus, it was found that glycerine monooleate is a potential substitute to the currently emulsifiers (author)

  2. Determination of the optimum concentration cellulose baggase in making film bioplastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadijah, S.; Rustiah, W. O.; Munir, M. I. D.

    2018-03-01

    The hoarding rubbish synthetic plastic caused pollution and demage in life circles, to cope it can be done with synthesizing the plastic from agriculture substance or called biopolymer (bioplastic). It was that potentially as bioplastic was biopolymer from agriculture substance baggase that contain cellulose 40 %. This research aimed to determine the optimum concentration cellulose baggase in making bioplastic film with adding chitosan and sorbitol plasticizer and also to know the result of characterization film bioplastic. The steps in this research were; the extraction of cellulose, making film bioplastic, tensile strenght test and used characterization spectrofotometer FTIR. In this research showed that optimum concentration cellulose baggase in making film bioplastic was 2% with adding chitosan and sorbitol plasticizer. The optimal result of tensile strenght test was 0,089 Kgf/cm2 with elongation percent 15,90 %. The analyzing FTIR in all of variation that looked almost same with characterization with tapes -OH, -NH and C-O.

  3. Catalytic production of sugar alcohols (polyols) and their application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, R; Straetz, A; Vollheim, G

    1980-07-01

    The article surveys the numerous applications of the principal sugar alcohols sorbitol and xylitol and their world production in 1978. Nowadays, the industrial production of sugar alcohols is almost exclusively by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding sugars; thus sorbitol is manufactured by hydrogenation of D-glucose, xylitol by hydrogenation of xylose, and mannitol by hydrogenation of invert sugar or fructose. Some 80% of the world production of sugar alcohols are manufactured in batch suspension processes using Raney nickel catalysts. Apart from the Atlas Powder continuous suspension process employing nickel-carrier catalysts, continuous processes have recently been developed which use Raney nickel and prove more economical owing to the lower catalyst costs. Trickling processes with fixed catalyst continue to play a minor role. Available production capacity based on batch suspension processes can be expanded by process optimization and new catalyst developments. A newly developed special Raney nickel catalyst reduces the specific catalyst consumption by about 50%.

  4. Biotechnological and in situ food production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bleckwedel, Juliana; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2013-06-01

    Polyols such as mannitol, erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol are naturally found in fruits and vegetables and are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and algae. These sugar alcohols are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries and in medicine because of their interesting physicochemical properties. In the food industry, polyols are employed as natural sweeteners applicable in light and diabetic food products. In the last decade, biotechnological production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been investigated as an alternative to their current industrial production. While heterofermentative LAB may naturally produce mannitol and erythritol under certain culture conditions, sorbitol and xylitol have been only synthesized through metabolic engineering processes. This review deals with the spontaneous formation of mannitol and erythritol in fermented foods and their biotechnological production by heterofermentative LAB and briefly presented the metabolic engineering processes applied for polyol formation.

  5. Properties of plasticized composite films prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose and birch wood xylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Blomfeldt, Thomas O. J.; Hedenqvist, Mikael S.

    2012-01-01

    was combined with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and films were cast with and without glycerol, sorbitol or methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) as plasticizers. Microscopy revealed some NFC agglomeration in the composite films as well as a layered nanocellulose structure. Equilibrium moisture content...... in plasticized films increased with glycerol content but was independent of xylan:NFC ratio in unplasticized films. Sorbitol- and MPEG-plasticized films showed equilibrium moisture contents of approximately 10 wt% independent of plasticizer content. Tensile testing revealed increases in tensile strength...... with increased NFC content in the xylan:NFC composition range from 50:50 to 80:20 and plasticizer addition generally provided less brittle films. The oxygen permeability of unplasticized xylan-NFC films fell into a range which was similar to that for previously measured pure NFC films and was statistically...

  6. A transparent, solvent-free laminated top electrode for perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makha, Mohammed; Fernandes, Silvia Letícia; Jenatsch, Sandra; Offermans, Ton; Schleuniger, Jürg; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Véron, Anna C; Hany, Roland

    2016-01-01

    A simple lamination process of the top electrode for perovskite solar cells is demonstrated. The laminate electrode consists of a transparent and conductive plastic/metal mesh substrate, coated with an adhesive mixture of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, and sorbitol. The laminate electrode showed a high degree of transparency of 85%. Best cell performance was achieved for laminate electrodes prepared with a sorbitol concentration of ~30 wt% per milliliter PEDOT:PSS dispersion, and using a pre-annealing temperature of 120°C for 10 min before lamination. Thereby, perovskite solar cells with stabilized power conversion efficiencies of (7.6 ± 1.0)% were obtained which corresponds to 80% of the reference devices with reflective opaque gold electrodes.

  7. NaCl and osmolarity produce different responses in organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis neurons, sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Brian J; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D

    2017-09-15

    Changes in extracellular osmolarity stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion through a central osmoreceptor; however, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater sympathoexcitatory and pressor response than infusion of hypertonic mannitol/sorbitol. Neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) sense changes in extracellular osmolarity and NaCl. In this study, we discovered that intracerebroventricular infusion or local OVLT injection of hypertonic NaCl increases lumbar sympathetic nerve activity, adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure whereas equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol did not alter any variable. In vitro whole-cell recordings demonstrate the majority of OVLT neurons are responsive to hypertonic NaCl or mannitol. However, hypertonic NaCl stimulates a greater increase in discharge frequency than equi-osmotic mannitol. Intracarotid or intracerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic NaCl evokes a greater increase in OVLT neuronal discharge frequency than equi-osmotic sorbitol. Collectively, these novel data suggest that subsets of OVLT neurons respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity and subsequently regulate body fluid homeostasis. These responses probably reflect distinct cellular mechanisms underlying NaCl- versus osmo-sensing. Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. First, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion (5 μl/10 min) of 1.0 m NaCl produced a significantly greater

  8. Boat Hull Blisters: Repair Techniques and Long Term Effects on Hull Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    X 12’ waxed glass mold. Orthophthalic Acid/ Neopentyl glycol based gel coat was used in the R, RA, RA and RD series. Isophthalic acid/keopentyl glycol ...a boat manufacturer. The gel coat was isophthalic acid and / neopentyl glycol based. The laminating resin used was isophthalic acid/propylene glycol ...something present in the resin itself. We have reported blistering vhen sorbitol is added to the resin. Pritchard has reported on the role of excess glycol

  9. Efficacy of Odor Scavengers in Reducing Odor Compounds in Water, Milk, and Soymilk

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Jenny Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Odor detection thresholds of hexanal, 2-heptenal, 2-pentanone, and 2,4-nonadienal were determined in spring water, high temperature short time (HTST) 2% fat milk, and extended shelf life soymilk. The efficacy of odor scavenger's beta-cyclodextrin, D-sorbitol, and nylon 6 in removing these odors was also determined. The odor thresholds of the different odor and media combinations were as follows: hexanal in spring water, milk, and soymilk were 585, 339, and 536 ppb respectively; 2-heptenal ...

  10. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG LABU KUNING (Cucurbita moschata) DAN TEPUNG TERIGU TERHADAP PEMBUATAN BISKUIT

    OpenAIRE

    IGFAR, AHMAD

    2012-01-01

    - Ahmad Igfar, G 61106051. Study of Chocolate Making with Sucrose Sugarand Sorbitol Sugar Content. Supervised by Muliyati M. Tahir and Jalil Genisa. ABSTRACT Pumpkin is the vegetable that has high vitamins A, B, and C, and can add color in the food. The aims of this research are to know the comparism between pumpkin flour and wheat flour in biscuit processing and to know the characteristic of the biscuit with chermistry analysi...

  11. L-ARGININE PREVENTS METABOLIC EFFECTS OF HIGH GLUCOSE IN DIABETIC MICE

    OpenAIRE

    West, Matthew B.; Ramana, Kota V.; Kaiserova, Karin; Srivastava, Satish K.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that activation of the polyol pathway and protein kinase C (PKC) during diabetes is due to loss of NO. Our results show that after 4 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, treatment with L-arginine restored NO levels and prevented tissue accumulation of sorbitol in mice, which was accompanied by an increase in glutathiolation of aldose reductase. L-arginine treatment decreased superoxide generation in the aorta, total PKC activity and PKC-βII phosphorylation in the...

  12. Navy Nutrition and Weight Control Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-10

    Sugars Used in Foods: sugar sucrose lactose mannitol glucose honey corn syrup dextrose sorbitol fructose maltose maple syrup molasses high- fructose corn...such as glucose , fructose , and sucrose. Another sugar, lactose, is found in milk and milk products. Legumes and cereals contain small amounts of...weeks. Weighing and measuring more frequently will only reflect water weight gains and losses, not true progress. Perform measurements mid-week if

  13. Specially designed sweeteners and food for diabetics--a real need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenner, R A

    1976-07-01

    In the first part of this study, the effect of four isocaloric mixed breakfast meals on the blood glucose and urinary glucose losses was tested in nine adult diabetics and in three healthy subjects, ages 60 to 75. Three of the test meals consisted of a base diet supplemented with applesauce sweetened with sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol. In the fourth test meal, the starch was increased together with saccharine. In the second part of the study, analyses for free glucose and sucrose in several timed food preparations, ordinary as well as food preparations specially designed for diabetics, were performed. The amount of sucrose equivalents (S(eg)) in one ordinary serving of the various products was estimated. No significant differences among sucrose, fructose, and sorbitol-containing meals with respect to the effect on the blood glucose level or on glucosuria were found. The saccharine-containing meal gave a significantly greater blood glucose increase at 60 min only. The amount of sucrose in ordinary marinated foods, such as herring, cucumber, and common beet was negligible. Water-packed fruits supplied one half of the amount of S(eq) or less, compared with fruits packed in sorbitol-sweetened syrup. The amount of S(eq) in the latter products as well as in fruits packed in unsweetened juice equalled that of the fleshy substance of ordinary sucrose-sweetened products. It was concluded that fructose or sorbitol has no advantages over sucrose, as regards the effect on blood glucose in well-regulated adult diabetics, and that it seems unnecessary to have specially sweetened foods designed for diabetics.

  14. Development of new chemical dosimeter for low dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhatre, Sachin G.V.; Adhikari, S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurement of low dose radiation in complex systems is of utmost importance in radiation biology and related areas. Ferrous Benzoic acid Xylenol orange (FBX) system is being widely used for measurement of low dose gamma radiation because of its reproducibility and precision. However, an additional step, i.e., dissolution of benzoic acid in water at higher temperature followed by cooling at room temperature is involved for the preparation of this dosimeter. This makes it inconvenient as a ready to use dosimeter. In the present work, the organic molecule, sorbitol has been used for measurement of low doses of radiation. The advantages of using sorbitol are its ready availability and instantaneous water solubility. Owing to its dissolution at room temperature, possible errors those are involved in calculation of dose due to thermal oxidation of ferrous ions during preparation of the FBX dosimetric solution could be made insignificant in the proposed dosimeter. In the present system, sorbitol acts as radiolytic sensitizer for the oxidation of ferrous ion, and xylenol orange forms a 1:1 complex specifically with ferric ions. Thus, the analytical detection limit of ferric ions is enhanced compared to other systems. Final composition of the dosimetric solution is; 0.5 mol/m 3 xylenol orange, 10 mol/m 3 sorbitol and 0.2 mol/m 3 ferrous ion in 50 mol/m 3 sulfuric acid. Radiolytic sensitization in combination with analytical enhancement of the ferrous based system, allows us to measure radiation dose in the range of 0.05 Gy–12 Gy with ease and high reproducibility.

  15. Regulation of intracellular glucose and polyol pathway by thiamine and benfotiamine in vascular cells cultured in high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrone, Elena; Beltramo, Elena; Solimine, Carmela; Ape, Alessandro Ubertalli; Porta, Massimo

    2006-04-07

    Hyperglycemia is a causal factor in the development of the vascular complications of diabetes. One of the biochemical mechanisms activated by excess glucose is the polyol pathway, the key enzyme of which, aldose reductase, transforms d-glucose into d-sorbitol, leading to imbalances of intracellular homeostasis. We aimed at verifying the effects of thiamine and benfotiamine on the polyol pathway, transketolase activity, and intracellular glucose in endothelial cells and pericytes under high ambient glucose. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and bovine retinal pericytes were cultured in normal (5.6 mmol/liter) or high (28 mmol/liter) glucose, with or without thiamine or benfotiamine 50 or 100 mumol/liter. Transketolase and aldose reductase mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription-PCR, and their activity was measured spectrophotometrically; sorbitol concentrations were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and intracellular glucose concentrations by fluorescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Thiamine and benfotiamine reduce aldose reductase mRNA expression, activity, sorbitol concentrations, and intracellular glucose while increasing the expression and activity of transketolase, for which it is a coenzyme, in human endothelial cells and bovine retinal pericytes cultured in high glucose. Thiamine and benfotiamine correct polyol pathway activation induced by high glucose in vascular cells. Activation of transketolase may shift excess glycolytic metabolites into the pentose phosphate cycle, accelerate the glycolytic flux, and reduce intracellular free glucose, thereby preventing its conversion to sorbitol. This effect on the polyol pathway, together with other beneficial effects reported for thiamine in high glucose, could justify testing thiamine as a potential approach to the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications.

  16. Relationship between solute permeability and osmotic remediability in a galactose-negative strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassel, J; Douglas, H C

    1970-11-01

    An osmotic remedial allele, gal 7-1, in the galactose pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to either penetrating (ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol) or nonpenetrating (KCl, NaCl, and sorbitol) solutes in the growth medium. Extracts from cells grown under restrictive conditions gave no increase in enzyme activity (gal-1-phosphate, uridylyl transferase) when exposed to the penetrating solutes; thus protein synthesis or possibly polymer assembly is proposed as the critical step remedied by the addition of the solutes.

  17. Processing and characterization of 3D dense chitosan pieces, for orthopedic applications, by adding plasticizers

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Lígia; Moura, Carla; Pinto, Luís F. V.; Ferreira, Frederico Castelo; Rodrigues, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, plasticizer agents were incorporated in a chitosan based formulation, as a strategy to improve the fragile structure of chitosan based-materials. Three different plasticizers: ethylene glycol, glycerol and sorbitol, were blended with chitosan to prepare 3D dense chitosan specimens. The properties of the obtained structures were assessed for mechanical, microstructural, physical and biocompatibility behavior. The results obtained revealed that from the different specimens prepare...

  18. Novel designed polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactant with improved safety and efficiency for anticancer drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chang Li,1 Chunmeng Sun,1 Shasha Li,1 Peng Han,2 Huimin Sun,3 Ammar Ouahab,1 Yan Shen,1 Yourui Xu,1 Yerong Xiong,1 Jiasheng Tu11State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 2Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission, Beijing, 3National Institute for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In order to limit the adverse reactions caused by polysorbate 80 in Taxotere®, a widely used formulation of docetaxel, a safe and effective nanocarrier for this drug has been developed based on micelles formed by a new class of well-defined polyoxyethylene sorbitol oleate (PSO with sorbitol as the matrix in aqueous solution. The physicochemical properties of the amphiphilic surfactant and the resulting micelles can be easily fine-tuned by the homogeneous sorbitol matrix and pure oleic acid. Composition, critical micelle concentration, and entrapment efficiency were investigated by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, fluorospectrophotometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro and in vivo evaluation revealed that PSO had exceptionally low hemolysis and histamine release rates compared with commercial polysorbate 80. Moreover, the tumor targeting delivery of PSO was investigated by in vivo imaging in S180 tumor-bearing mice. The results suggest that this novel delivery system, PSO, provides an acceptable alternative to polysorbate 80 for delivery of docetaxel. Further, due to the hypoallergenic nature of PSO, the mechanism of pseudoallergy caused by the polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactant was investigated. Based on in vitro cell analysis, it was assumed that the initial contact of polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactant with mast cells provoked pseudoallergy via polyamine receptor-mediated endocytosis.Keywords: polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactant, sorbitol, isosorbide, pseudoallergy

  19. Deciphering early events involved in hyperosmotic stress-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, Emanuela; Kadono, Takashi; Tran, Daniel; Azzarello, Elisa; Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Biligui, Bernadette; Briand, Joël; Kawano, Tomonori; Mancuso, Stefano; Bouteau, François

    2014-03-01

    Hyperosmotic stresses represent one of the major constraints that adversely affect plants growth, development, and productivity. In this study, the focus was on early responses to hyperosmotic stress- (NaCl and sorbitol) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) increase, ion fluxes, and mitochondrial potential variations, and on their links in pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). By using BY-2 tobacco cells, it was shown that both NaCl- and sorbitol-induced PCD seemed to be dependent on superoxide anion (O2·(-)) generation by NADPH-oxidase. In the case of NaCl, an early influx of sodium through non-selective cation channels participates in the development of PCD through mitochondrial dysfunction and NADPH-oxidase-dependent O2·(-) generation. This supports the hypothesis of different pathways in NaCl- and sorbitol-induced cell death. Surprisingly, other shared early responses, such as [Ca(2+)]cyt increase and singlet oxygen production, do not seem to be involved in PCD.

  20. Renewable energy production by photoelectrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using WO3 photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Dimitrios; Dracopoulos, Vassilios; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2017-07-05

    The present work has studied renewable hydrogen production by photoelectrocatalytic degradation of model organic substances representing biomass derived organic wastes. Its purpose was to show that renewable energy can be produced by consuming wastes. The study has been carried out by employing nanoparticulate WO 3 photoanodes in the presence of ethanol, glycerol or sorbitol, i.e. three substances which are among typical biomass products. In these substances, the molecular weight and the number of hydroxyl groups increases from ethanol to sorbitol. The photocurrent produced by the cell was the highest in the presence of ethanol, smaller in the case of glycerol and further decreased in the presence of sorbitol. The photocurrent was roughly the double of that produced in the absence of an organic additive thus demonstrating current doubling phenomena. Hydrogen was produced only under illumination and was monitored at two forward bias, 0.8 and 1.6V vs Ag/AgCl. Hydrogen production rates followed the same order as the photocurrent thus indicating that hydrogen production by reduction of protons mainly depends on the current flowing through the external circuit connecting photoanode with cathode. The maximum solar-to-hydrogen efficiency reached by the present system was 2.35%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of contrast media on the synovial membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papacharalampous, Xenophon [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: medgraph@otenet.gr; Patsouris, Efstratios [Department of Pathology, University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75 str., GR-115 27 Athens (Greece); Mundinger, Alexander [Clinic of Radiology, Marienhospital Osnabrueck, Johannisfreiheit 2-4, D-49074 Osnabruek (Germany); Beck, Andreas [Clinic of Radiology, Konstanz, Luisenstrasse 7, D-78461 Konstanz (Germany); Kouloulias, Vasilios [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece); Primetis, Elias [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece); Koureas, Andreas [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece); Vlahos, Lambros [Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vasilissis Sofias 76 Ave., GR-115 28 Athens (Greece)

    2005-09-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of intra-articular injection of contrast media, sorbitol and normal saline on the synovial membrane. Materials and methods: Sixty three rabbits (126 knees) were used in this study. We injected the knees with amidotrizoate, ioxaglate, iopamidol, iotrol and diluted gadolinium-DTPA (2 mmol/l). Normal saline and sorbitol 27.25% were used for comparison. A histological and histochemical examination of the knees was carried out 1, 2, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 days after the injection. Results: On histological examination, the knees injected with normal saline, ioxaglate and gadolinium-DTPA had a normal appearance. Intra-articular injection of amidotrizoate, iopamidol, iotrol and sorbitol caused early, mild and transient histological changes of the synovium (synovial hyperplasia, infiltration by leucocytes). Furthermore, the knees injected with amidotrizoate presented with late, extensive histological changes (severe synovial hyperplasia, moderate vascular dilatation, severe infiltration by leukocytes). Conclusion: The results suggest that the chemical structure and not the osmolality of the contrast media is the main cause for the histological changes of the synovium.

  2. Growth and microtubule orientation of Zea mays roots subjected to osmotic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancaflor, E. B.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1995-01-01

    Previous work has shown that microtubule (MT) reorientation follows the onset of growth inhibition on the lower side of graviresponding roots, indicating that growth reduction can occur independently of MT reorientation. To test this observation further, we examined whether the reduction in growth in response to osmotic stress is correlated with MT reorientation. The distribution and rate of growth in maize roots exposed to 350 mOsm sorbitol and KCl or 5 mM Mes/Tris buffer were measured with a digitizer. After various times roots were processed for indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Application of sorbitol or KCl had no effect on the organization of MTs in the apical 2 mm of the root but resulted in striking and different effects in the basal region of the root. Sorbitol treatment caused rapid appearance of oval to circular holes in the microtubular array that persisted for at least 9 h. Between 30 min and 4 h of submersion in KCl, MTs in cortical cells 4 mm and farther from the quiescent center began to reorient oblique to the longitudinal axis. After 9 h, the alignment of MTs had shifted to parallel to the root axis but MTs of the epidermal cells remained transverse. In KCl-treated roots MT reorientation appeared to follow a pattern of development similar to that in controls but without elongation. Our data provide additional evidence that MT reorientation is not the cause but a consequence of growth inhibition.

  3. Effects of sugar alcohol and proteins on the survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 during freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Chen, Shiwei; Chen, Hongli; Wu, Yanyan; Shu, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 is a bacterium which was selected in the commercial yoghurt with high angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Preparation of concentrated starter cultures via freeze drying is of practical importance to dairy and food industries. We optimized the optimal sugar alcohol and proteins for Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 during the process of freeze drying using a Plackett-Burman design. In our initial tests survival rate and the number of viable cells were associated with the type of lyoprotectant used and so our optimization protocol focused on increasing survival rate. Substances that had previously had a protective effect during freeze drying were investigated, for example: mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, meso-erythritol, lactitol, whey protein isolate 90, bovine serum albumin, and whey protein concentrate 80 and soy protein isolate 70. We found that the optimum sugar alcohol and proteins for survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 were whey protein concentrate (p = 0.0040 for survival rate), xylitol (p = 0.0067 for survival rate) and sorbitol (p = 0.0073 for survival rate), they showed positive effect (whey protein concentrate and sorbitol) or negative effect (xylitol). The effectiveness of three chosen sugar alcohols and protein implied that they could be used as lyoprotectant for Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 in the further research, the optimal composition of sugar alcohol and protein for the lyoprotectant use must be established.

  4. Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on blood glucose, plasma insulin and some polyol pathway enzymes in experimental rat diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Latha

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an aqueous extract of the plant Scoparia dulcis (200 mg/kg on the polyol pathway and lipid peroxidation were examined in the liver of streptozotocin adult diabetic male albino Wistar rats. The diabetic control rats (N = 6 presented a significant increase in blood glucose, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydroperoxides, and a significant decrease in plasma insulin and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH compared to normal rats (N = 6. Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt, 200 mg kg-1 day-1 and glibenclamide (600 µg kg-1 day-1, a reference drug, were administered by gavage for 6 weeks to diabetic rats (N = 6 for each group and significantly reduced blood glucose, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glycosylated hemoglobin, TBARS, and hydroperoxides, and significantly increased plasma insulin, GPx, GST and GSH activities in liver. The effect of the SPEt was compared with that of glibenclamide. The effect of the extract may have been due to the decreased influx of glucose into the polyol pathway leading to increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma insulin and decreased activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. These results indicate that the SPEt was effective in attenuating hyperglycemia in rats and their susceptibility to oxygen free radicals.

  5. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of reduced sugar starfruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetijio, L.D.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of reduced sugar starfruit juice. Cloudy starfruit juice produced by juicing of the edible part of starfruit, then the obtained filtrate was formulated with citric acid, Na- CMC and different ratio of cane sugar and sorbitol i.e. 10.0%:0.0%, 7.5%:2.5%, 5.0%:5.0%, 2.5%:5.0% and 0.0%:10.0% (% b/v. Physicochemical characteristics of the starfruit juice were total soluble solids in a range of 9.20 and 11.90%, the viscosity of 8.27 and 8.65 cP, pH of 3.56 and 3.63; and titratable acidity of 0.29 and 0.31%. Those cane sugar and sorbitol ratios affected significantly only on the total soluble solids. Based on the sensory evaluation, starfruit juice with cane sugar and sorbitol ratio of 7.50%:2.50% had the highest total preference scores of color, appearance, and taste. Colloidal stability of the starfruit juices during 10 days storage was in a range of 86.26% and 88.18%.

  6. Electrochemically assisted deposition of sol-gel bio-composite with co-immobilized dehydrogenase and diaphorase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhijie [LCPME, UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy University, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Etienne, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.etienne@lcpme.cnrs-nancy.fr [LCPME, UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy University, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Kohring, Gert-Wieland [Mikrobiologie, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Campus, Geb. A1.5, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Bon-Saint-Come, Yemima; Kuhn, Alexander [Universite Bordeaux, ISM, ENSCPB, 16 avenue Pey Berland, 33607 Pessac (France); Walcarius, Alain [LCPME, UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy University, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France)

    2011-10-30

    We report here that the electrochemically assisted deposition (EAD) of silica thin films can be a good strategy to co-encapsulate D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (DSDH) and diaphorase in an active form. This is achieved via the electrolysis of a hydrolyzed sol containing the biomolecules to initiate the poly-condensation of silica precursors upon electrochemically induced pH increase at the electrode/solution interface. DSDH was found to be very sensitive to the silica gel environment and the addition of a positively-charged polyelectrolyte was necessary to ensure effective operational behavior of the biomolecules. The composition of the sol and the conditions for electrolysis have been optimized with respect to the intensity of the electrochemical response to D-sorbitol oxidation. The K{sub m} of DSDH in the electrodeposited film was in the range of 3 mM, slightly better than the value determined biochemically in solution (6.5 mM). The co-immobilization of DSDH and diaphorase in this way led on the one hand to the possible reduction of NAD{sup +} to NADH (simultaneously to D-sorbitol oxidation) and on the other hand to the safe re-oxidation of the co-factor using a mediator (ferrocenedimethanol) as electron relay. The bioelectrocatalytic response looks promising for electro-enzymatic applications. To support this idea, the EAD of sol-gel bio-composite has been extended to macroporous electrodes displaying a much bigger electroactive surface area.

  7. Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on blood glucose, plasma insulin and some polyol pathway enzymes in experimental rat diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, M; Pari, L

    2004-04-01

    The effects of an aqueous extract of the plant Scoparia dulcis (200 mg/kg) on the polyol pathway and lipid peroxidation were examined in the liver of streptozotocin adult diabetic male albino Wistar rats. The diabetic control rats (N = 6) presented a significant increase in blood glucose, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides, and a significant decrease in plasma insulin and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) compared to normal rats (N = 6). Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt, 200 mg kg-1 day-1) and glibenclamide (600 microg kg-1 day-1), a reference drug, were administered by gavage for 6 weeks to diabetic rats (N = 6 for each group) and significantly reduced blood glucose, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glycosylated hemoglobin, TBARS, and hydroperoxides, and significantly increased plasma insulin, GPx, GST and GSH activities in liver. The effect of the SPEt was compared with that of glibenclamide. The effect of the extract may have been due to the decreased influx of glucose into the polyol pathway leading to increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma insulin and decreased activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. These results indicate that the SPEt was effective in attenuating hyperglycemia in rats and their susceptibility to oxygen free radicals.

  8. Osmo-, thermo- and ethanol- tolerances of Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrasegarampillai Balakumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae S1, which is a locally isolated and improved strain showed viability at 40, 45 and 50ºC and produced ethanol at 40, 43 and 45ºC. When the cells were given heat shock at 45ºC for 30min and grown at 40ºC, 100% viability was observed for 60h, and addition of 200gl-1 ethanol has led to complete cell death at 30h. Heat shock given at 45ºC (for 30min has improved the tolerance to temperature induced ethanol shock leading to 37% viability at 30h. when the cells were subjected to ethanol (200gl-1 for 30 min and osmotic shock (sorbitol 300gl-1, trehalose contents in the cells were increased. The heat shocked cells showed better viability in presence of added ethanol. Soy flour supplementation has improved the viability of S. cerevisiae S1 to 80% in presence of 100gl-1 added ethanol and to 60% in presence of 300gl-1 sorbitol. In presence of sorbitol (200gl-1 and ethanol (50gl-1 at 40ºC, 46% viability was retained by S. cerevisiae S1 at 48h and it was improved to 80% by soy flour supplementation.

  9. Tools to Ensure Safe Medicines: New Monograph Tests in USP-NF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sheehan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes USP-NF compendial updates to six ‘high-priority” excipient monographs: Glycerin, Propylene Glycol, Sorbitol Solution, Sorbitol Sorbitan Solution, Noncrystallizing Sorbitol Solution and Maltitol Solution. The USP-NF revisions arose from the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s requests to include, as part of each monograph’s Identification test, a limit test to detect the presence of Diethylene Glycol (DEG, a toxic adulterant. These revisions align with the 2007 FDA Guidance for Industry: Testing of Glycerin for Diethylene Glycol (1, that drug product manufacturers perform a specific identity test for DEG on all containers of all lots of glycerin before glycerin is used in the manufacture and preparation of drug products. This paper describes several risk factors due to a complex global excipient supply chain, nonspecific specifications, inadequate supply chain qualification, and poor understanding of regulations. Strengthening and conformance to compendial specifications is one of the tools necessary to mitigate risk and help prevent the next DEG adulteration that is part of USP’s efforts to ensure safe medicines.

  10. Gas phase synthesis of core-shell Fe@FeO{sub x} magnetic nanoparticles into fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, Sitki, E-mail: aksitki61@gmail.com; Thornton, Stuart C.; Binns, Chris [University of Leicester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Denby, Phil [Ensol As, Nesttun (Norway)

    2016-12-15

    Sorbitol, short chain molecules, have been used to stabilise of Fe@FeO{sub x} nanoparticles produced in the gas phase under the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. The sorbitol coated Fe@FeO{sub x} nanoparticles produced by our method have a narrow size distribution with a hydrodynamic diameter of 35 nm after NaOH is added to the solution. Magnetisation measurement shows that the magnetic nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at 100 K and demonstrate hysteresis at 5 K with an anisotropy constant of 5.31 × 10{sup 4} J/m{sup 3} (similar to bulk iron). Also, it is shown that sorbitol is only suitable for stabilising the Fe@FeO{sub x} suspensions, and it does not prevent further oxidation of the metallic Fe core. According to MRI measurement, the nanoparticles have a high transverse relaxation rate of 425 mM{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  11. Studi Pembuatan dan Karakteristik Sifat Mekanik dan Hidrofobisitas Bioplastik dari Pati Sorgum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Darni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the utilization of sorghum starch and chitosan as basic material for preparation of biodegradble plastic. The optimum conditions for the formation of biodegradble plastic and the effect of starch-chitosan formulation on mechanical properties of the biodegradable plastic were studied. The experiments were conducted by varying concentration sorbitol as plasticizer (i.e. 20%, 25%, 30%, and 40% dry weight, ratio starch to chitosan (i.e. 6:4, 7:3, 8:2, 9:1, 10:0 g/g and at ranging gelatinuous temperature of 65-95oC. The results showed that the optimum conditions were obtained at starch:chitosan mass comparison of 7:3 and sorbitol concentration of 20%. The mechanical properties of the biodegradable plastic produced at gelatinuous temperature of 95oC were: tensile strength of 6,9711 Mpa, elongation percentage of 16,48, modulus young of 42,48 Mpa, and water resistance of 36,825%. Keywords: bioplastic, chitosan, plasticizer, sorgum, sorbitol

  12. The effect of sugars in relation to methyl jasmonate on anthocyanin formation in the roots of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (Poelln.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Góraj-Koniarska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose and sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol applied alone and in solution with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me on the anthocyanin content in the roots of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. None of the sugars used individually in the experiment affected anthocyanin accumulation in the roots of intact plants. The anthocyanin level was similar to that in the control. Sucrose at concentrations of 0.5% and 3.0%, and glucose at a concentration of 3.0% inhibited anthocyanin accumulation induced by JA-Me. Only fructose at a concentration of 3.0% stimulated anthocyanin accumulation induced by JA-Me. The sugar alcohols, mannitol at a concentration of 3.0% and sorbitol at 0.5% and 3.0%, inhibited anthocyanin accumulation in the roots of intact K. blossfeldiana plants induced by JA-Me. In excised roots, both sugars and JA-Me used individually did not affect the formation of anthocyanins. Also, the sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol applied simultaneously with JA-Me had no effect on the accumulation of anthocyanins. However, roots treated with sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose in solution with JA-Me promoted the induction of anthocyanins in the apical parts of the roots.  The results suggest that anthocyanin elicitation in the roots of K. blossfeldiana by methyl jasmonate may be dependent on the interaction of JA-Me with sugars transported from the stems (leaves to the roots.

  13. Effects of six substances on the growth and freeze-drying of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Huang, Jie; Shi, Xiaoyu; Li, Yichao; Liu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as starter cultures for the dairy industry depends largely on the number of viable and active cells. Freeze-drying is the most convenient and successful method to preserve the bacterial cells. However, not all strains survived during freeze-drying. The effects of six substances including NaCl, sorbitol, mannitol, mannose, sodium glutamate, betaine added to the MRS medium on the growth and freeze-drying survival rate and viable counts of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were studied through a single-factor test and Plackett-Burman design. Subsequently, the optimum freeze-drying conditions of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were determined. Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus survival rates were up to the maximum of 42.7%, 45.4%, 23.6%, while the concentrations of NaCl, sorbitol, sodium glutamate were 0.6%, 0.15%, 0.09%, respectively. In the optimum concentration, the viable counts in broth is 6.1, 6.9, 5.13 (×108 CFU/mL), respectively; the viable counts in freeze-drying power are 3.09, 5.2, 2.7 (×1010 CFU/g), respectively. Three antifreeze factors including NaCl, sorbitol, sodium glutamate have a positive effect on the growth and freeze-drying of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The results are beneficial for developing Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

  14. Aplicação de revestimentos comestíveis em pêssego (Prunus persica Use of edible coating in peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle de Assis Jacometti

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de revestimentos comestíveis sobre a vida-de-prateleira, perda de massa, atividade metabólica e contaminação microbiológicas em pêssegos in natura. Foram utilizados pêssegos brancos cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 revestidos com soluções de 1% de goma gelana (p/v e 1% goma gelana + 1% sorbitol (p/v, embalados em caixas de papelão e armazenados a 10ºC / 80-85% UR por 16 dias. Frutos sem revestimento serviram de controle. Os revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não alteraram a atividade fisiológica dos pêssegos, medida através da taxa de respiração, teor de sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável ao longo da armazenagem. Não houve diferença entre as taxas de perda de massa, que ficaram em torno de 1,4g/100g.dia. Os revestimentos não alteraram a aceitação dos pêssegos em termos de sabor e em termos de aparência, o controle obteve notas superiores aos revestidos devida a opacidade que o revestimento conferiu aos frutos. Na contagem total de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e bolores e leveduras não houve diferença entre os tratamentos ao longo da armazenagem, mas em termos de microrganismos psicrotróficos os frutos revestidos apresentaram uma menor contagem em relação ao controle. Revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não aumentaram a vida-de-prateleira de pêssegos armazenados sob refrigeração devido à composição do revestimento, que não reduziu a perda de massa nem a atividade fisiológica dos frutos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of edible coatings on shelf-life, weight loss, metabolic activity and microbial contamination of peaches in natura. White peaches cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 were coated with 1% gelan gum (p/v and 1% gelan gum + 1% sorbitol (p/v solutions, packed in paperboard box and stored at 10ºC/80-85% RH during 16 days. No coated fruits served as control. Gelan and gelan+sorbitol

  15. Cytogenetic studies on stevia rebaudiana produced by tissue culture and affected by gamma rays and drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, A.S.A

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was under taken to carry out in the laboratories of the Natural Products Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy authority, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of gamma radiation doses, osmostress and the combined effects between them on tissue culture, some biochemical analysis and molecular genetic marker in stevia rebaudiana bertoni. The results obtained were: Tissue culture 1- micropropagation media: stevia rebaudiana plantlets cultured on MS medium hormones free for micropropagation.Hormones such as BAP and NAA with different concentrations induced callus formation and give slight growth.Study the effect of gamma radiation, osmostress and the combined effects between them : 1)The effect of gamma radiation on buds survival: Gamma radiation doses (10, 20 and 30 Gy) induced decreasing in bud survival percentage with increasing radiation dose in stevia rebaudiana. The dose 30 Gy was induced 60% mortality.2) Study the effect of gamma radiation on some biochemical analysis: Gamma radiation doses induced increase in the total carbohydrate with doses (20 and 30 Gy) but decreased with dose 10 Gy. Proline contents increased in plantlets with increasing doses . The total protein was increased with doses (10 and 20 Gy), but the dose 30 Gy induced decrease in total protein. Gamma radiation doses induced decreasing in total DNA while, the nucleic acid RNA increased.3) The effect of osmostress on buds survival: The concentrations (40000,50000,60000,70000 and 80000 ppm) from sucrose or sorbitol decreased the bud survival and shoot length in stevia plantlets with increasing sucrose or sorbitol levels. 4) The effect of osmostress on some biochemical analysis: Sucrose and sorbitol concentrations (40000,50000,60000,70000 and 80000 ppm) caused decrease in total carbohydrate.

  16. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  17. Unripe Fruit's Extract of Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller as a Potent Alpha-amylase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Koutb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alpha-amylase inhibitors has recently gained in popularity with the success and growth of carbohydrate restricted diets. In this study, two different stages from the unripe fruits of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller have been tested for their potentiality in alpha-amylase inhibition as a key enzyme in carbohydrates assimilation. Our results revealed that addition of different concentrations from extracts (0, 2, 4, 6, 8mg of dry mass of each stage of unripe fruits resulted in drastically decrease in the enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase by the percent of (0%, 42.6%, 21%, 26.3%, and 16.9% for the stage 1. Extracts from the stage 2 were more effective in enzymatic inhibition (0%, 26.9%, 3.8%, 0.2%, and 0.4%. The GC/MS analysis revealed that quince extract contains (sorbitol, quinic acid, p-vinylphenol and cyclopropane carboxylic acid. To explore which components are involved in the inhibition process, two pure components of the quince extract (sorbitol and quinic acid were used in inhibition assay. Neither sorbitol nor quinic acid shows any significant inhibition; therefore, these two components could be excluded from the inhibition process. Our current study suggested that p-vinylphenol and cyclopropane carboxylic acid might act as a-amylase inhibitors in vitro separately or synergistically. The possible explanation for the presence of cyclopropane carboxylic acid (CPCA in this critical phase of the unripe fruit will be discussed. This study suggests that the unripe fruits of quince can be used as a natural starch blocker containing alpha-amylase inhibitors which would be of interest for people requiring carbohydrate restricted diets.

  18. Meglumine Exerts Protective Effects against Features of Metabolic Syndrome and Type II Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Nuevo, Arturo; Marcy, Alice; Huang, Minzhou; Kappler, Frank; Mulgrew, Jennifer; Laury-Kleintop, Lisa; Reichman, Melvin; Tobia, Annette; Prendergast, George C.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetes complications pose a growing medical challenge worldwide, accentuating the need of safe and effective strategies for their clinical management. Here we present preclinical evidence that the sorbitol derivative meglumine (N-methyl-D-glucamine) can safely protect against several features of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, as well as elicit enhancement in muscle stamina. Meglumine is a compound routinely used as an approved excipient to improve drug absorption that has not been ascribed any direct biological effects in vivo. Normal mice (SV129) administered 18 mM meglumine orally for six weeks did not display any gastrointestinal or other observable adverse effects, but had a marked effect on enhancing muscle stamina and at longer times in limiting weight gain. In the established KK.Cg-Ay/J model of non-insulin dependent diabetes, oral administration of meglumine significantly improved glycemic control and significantly lowered levels of plasma and liver triglycerides. Compared to untreated control animals, meglumine reduced apparent diabetic nephropathy. Sorbitol can improve blood glucose uptake by liver and muscle in a manner associated with upregulation of the AMPK-related enzyme SNARK, but with undesirable gastrointestinal side effects not seen with meglumine. In murine myoblasts, we found that meglumine increased steady-state SNARK levels in a dose-dependent manner more potently than sorbitol. Taken together, these findings provide support for the clinical evaluation of meglumine as a low-cost, safe supplement offering the potential to improve muscle function, limit metabolic syndrome and reduce diabetic complications. PMID:24587200

  19. DOCE EM MASSA DE AMORA PRETA (RUBUS SPP: ANÁLISE SENSORIAL E DE FITOQUÍMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Carolina JACQUES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar doces em massas convencional e light de amora preta, avaliar sensorialmente os produtos e verifi car a alteração no conteúdo de fi toquímicos devido ao processo de elaboração dos doces em massa. Utilizou-se a amora preta cv. Tupy, com a qual elaborou-se os doces, sendo uma formulação tradicional e três formulações light. Nas formulações light reduziu-se o teor de açúcares, adicionou-se os edulcorantes ciclamato e sacarina, e alterou-se a presença e quantidade de carboximetilcelulose e sorbitol. A formulação tradicional apresentou os maiores conteúdos em compostos fenólicos e de ácido ascórbico e a maior capacidade antioxidante; no entanto, apresentou a maior inversão de sacarose e o menor conteúdo de tocoferóis. Dentre as formulações de baixo valor calórico, a formulação light contendo apenas sorbitol foi a que apresentou maior retenção de compostos fenólicos, tocoferóis e ácido ascórbico. A formulação tradicional e a formulação light contendo sorbitol e carboximetilcelulose foram as mais aceitas sensorialmente.O doce que obteve a maior aceitação por parte dos julgadores foi a formulação tradicional.

  20. Cluster-randomized xylitol toothpaste trial for early childhood caries prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L.; Tut, Ohnmar K.; Milgrom, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the efficacy of supervised toothbrushing with xylitol toothpaste to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) and to reduce mutans streptococci (MS). Methods In this cluster-randomized efficacy trial, 4 Head Start classrooms in the Marshall Islands were randomly assigned to supervised toothbrushing with 1,400ppm/31% fluoride-xylitol (Epic Dental, Provo, UT) or 1,450ppm fluoride-sorbitol toothpaste (Colgate-Palmolive, New York, NY) (N=196 children, ages 4–5 yrs). We hypothesized no difference in efficacy between the two types of toothpaste. The primary outcome was primary molar d2-3mfs increment after 6 mos. A single examiner was blinded to classroom assignments. Two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-xylitol group (85 children) and 2 classrooms to the fluoride-sorbitol group (83 children). The child-level analyses accounted for clustering. Results There was no difference between the two groups in baseline or end-of-trial mean d2-3mfs. The mean d2-3mfs increment was greater in the fluoride-xylitol group compared to the fluoride-sorbitol group (2.5 and 1.4 d2-3mfs, respectively), but the difference was not significant (95% CI:−0.17, 2.37;P=0.07). No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion After 6 mos, brushing with a low strength xylitol/fluoride toothpaste is no more efficacious in reducing ECC than a fluoride only toothpaste in a high caries risk child population. PMID:24709430

  1. Selective inhibition of aggregation/fibrillation of bovine serum albumin by osmolytes: Mechanistic and energetics insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Dasgupta

    Full Text Available Bovine serum albumin (BSA is an important transport protein of the blood and its aggregation/fibrillation would adversely affect its transport ability leading to metabolic disorder. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of fibrillation/aggregation of BSA and design of suitable inhibitor molecules for stabilizing its native conformation, are of utmost importance. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of the effect of osmolytes (proline, hydroxyproline, glycine betaine, sarcosine and sorbitol on heat induced aggregation/fibrillation of BSA at physiological pH (pH 7.4 have been studied employing a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy, Rayleigh scattering, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Formation of fibrils by BSA under the given conditions was confirmed from increase in fluorescence emission intensities of Thioflavin T over a time period of 600 minutes and TEM images. Absence of change in fluorescence emission intensities of 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS in presence of native and aggregated BSA signify the absence of any amorphous aggregates. ITC results have provided important insights on the energetics of interaction of these osmolytes with different stages of the fibrillar aggregates of BSA, thereby suggesting the possible modes/mechanism of inhibition of BSA fibrillation by these osmolytes. The heats of interaction of the osmolytes with different stages of fibrillation of BSA do not follow a trend, suggesting that the interactions of stages of BSA aggregates are osmolyte specific. Among the osmolytes used here, we found glycine betaine to be supporting and promoting the aggregation process while hydroxyproline to be maximally efficient in suppressing the fibrillation process of BSA, followed by sorbitol, sarcosine and proline in the following order of their decreasing potency: Hydroxyproline> Sorbitol> Sarcosine> Proline> Glycine betaine.

  2. PEMBUATAN DAN KAJIAN SIFAT-SIFAT FISIKOKIMIA, MEKANIKAL, DAN FUNGSIONAL EDIBLE FILM DARI KITOSAN UDANG WINDU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sofia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop bioplastic as primary packaging or edible film of chitosan biopolymer derived from tiger prawn shells (Penaeus monodon, and to perform physicochemical and mechanical characteristics. An evaluation of the physicochemical properties of plastic films made from chitosan, by modifying the order of the different treatment processes, namely: a DPMA (deproteination, demineralization, deacetylation, b DMKA (demineralization, decoloration, and deacetylation has conducted. The results of scanning FT-IR of the product shows that chitosan has identical spectrum compare of standard compound. Chitosan product from tiger prawn shells was the used as raw material for the manufacture of bioplastics. Experiments variable on the manufacture of edible film is a study of the effect of the use of different plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol and carboxylmethylcelullose (CMC additives to the physicochemical, mechanical characteristics, and edible film functional. The results showed that all the edible film produced has a clear coat with a thickness between 0.05 to 0.3 mm. Meanwhile, the film density is highest at the DPMA + chitosan edible film sorbitol + CMC with a value of 1.7300 g/cm3. The use of plasticizer sorbitol provides great tensile strength but not too elastic, compared to the glycerol, while an increase in the average CMC can increase tensile strength and %Elongation. The use of different plasticizers and additives CMC does not significantly affect its functional properties, where the value of WVTR (water vapor transmission rate is relatively the same on both types of edible films, ranging from 3.2409 to 4.8858 g /hr.m2.

  3. Meglumine exerts protective effects against features of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Bravo-Nuevo

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetes complications pose a growing medical challenge worldwide, accentuating the need of safe and effective strategies for their clinical management. Here we present preclinical evidence that the sorbitol derivative meglumine (N-methyl-D-glucamine can safely protect against several features of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, as well as elicit enhancement in muscle stamina. Meglumine is a compound routinely used as an approved excipient to improve drug absorption that has not been ascribed any direct biological effects in vivo. Normal mice (SV129 administered 18 mM meglumine orally for six weeks did not display any gastrointestinal or other observable adverse effects, but had a marked effect on enhancing muscle stamina and at longer times in limiting weight gain. In the established KK.Cg-Ay/J model of non-insulin dependent diabetes, oral administration of meglumine significantly improved glycemic control and significantly lowered levels of plasma and liver triglycerides. Compared to untreated control animals, meglumine reduced apparent diabetic nephropathy. Sorbitol can improve blood glucose uptake by liver and muscle in a manner associated with upregulation of the AMPK-related enzyme SNARK, but with undesirable gastrointestinal side effects not seen with meglumine. In murine myoblasts, we found that meglumine increased steady-state SNARK levels in a dose-dependent manner more potently than sorbitol. Taken together, these findings provide support for the clinical evaluation of meglumine as a low-cost, safe supplement offering the potential to improve muscle function, limit metabolic syndrome and reduce diabetic complications.

  4. Improvement of food packaging related properties in whey protein isolate‑based nanocomposite films and coatings by addition of montmorillonite nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Markus; Merzbacher, Sarah; Brzoska, Nicola; Müller, Kerstin; Jesdinszki, Marius

    2017-11-01

    In the present study the effects of the addition of montmorillonite (MMT) nanoplatelets on whey protein isolate (WPI)-based nanocomposite films and coatings were investigated. The main objective was the development of WPI-based MMT-nanocomposites with enhanced barrier and mechanical properties. WPI-based nanocomposite cast-films and coatings were prepared by dispersing 0 % (reference sample), 3 %, 6 %, 9 % (w/w protein) MMT, or, depending on the protein concentration, also 12 % and 15 % (w/w protein) MMT into native WPI-based dispersions, followed by subsequent denaturation during the drying and curing process. The natural MMT nanofillers could be randomly dispersed into film-forming WPI-based nanodispersions, displaying good compatibility with the hydrophilic biopolymer matrix. As a result, by addition of 15 % (w/w protein) MMT into 10 % (w/w dispersion) WPI-based cast-films or coatings, the oxygen permeability (OP) was reduced by 91 % for glycerol-plasticized and 84 % for sorbitol-plasticized coatings, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) was reduced by 58 % for sorbitol-plasticized cast-films. Due to the addition of MMT- nanofillers the Young’s modulus and tensile strength improved by 315 % and 129 %, respectively, whereas elongation at break declined by 77 % for glycerol-plasticized cast-films. In addition, comparison of plasticizer type revealed that sorbitol-plasticized cast-films were generally stiffer and stronger, but less flexible compared glycerol-plasticized cast-films. Viscosity measurements demonstrated good processability and suitability for up-scaled industrial processes of native WPI-based nanocomposite dispersions, even at high nanofiller-loadings. These results suggest that the addition of natural MMT- nanofillers into native WPI-based matrices to form nanocomposite films and coatings holds great potential to replace well-established, fossil-based packaging materials for at least certain applications such as oxygen barriers as part of

  5. Osmolyte Effects on Monoclonal Antibody Stability and Concentration-Dependent Protein Interactions with Water and Common Osmolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Gregory V; Razinkov, Vladimir I; Kerwin, Bruce A; Blake, Steven; Qi, Wei; Curtis, Robin A; Roberts, Christopher J

    2016-04-07

    Preferential interactions of proteins with water and osmolytes play a major role in controlling the thermodynamics of protein solutions. While changes in protein stability and shifts in phase behavior are often reported with the addition of osmolytes, the underlying protein interactions with water and/or osmolytes are typically inferred rather than measured directly. In this work, Kirkwood-Buff integrals for protein-water interactions (G12) and protein-osmolyte interactions (G23) were determined as a function of osmolyte concentration from density measurements of antistreptavidin immunoglobulin gamma-1 (AS-IgG1) in ternary aqueous solutions for a set of common neutral osmolytes: sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). For sucrose and PEG solutions, both protein-water and protein-osmolyte interactions depend strongly on osmolyte concentrations (c3). Strikingly, both osmolytes change from being preferentially excluded to preferentially accumulated with increasing c3. In contrast, sorbitol and trehalose solutions do not show large enough preferential interactions to be detected by densimetry. G12 and G23 values are used to estimate the transfer free energy for native AS-IgG1 (Δμ2N) and compared with existing models. AS-IgG1 unfolding via calorimetry shows a linear increase in midpoint temperatures as a function of trehalose, sucrose, and sorbitol concentrations, but the opposite behavior for PEG. Together, the results highlight limitations of existing models and common assumptions regarding the mechanisms of protein stabilization by osmolytes. Finally, PEG preferential interactions destabilize the Fab regions of AS-IgG1 more so than the CH2 or CH3 domains, illustrating preferential interactions can be specific to different protein domains.

  6. Cluster-randomized xylitol toothpaste trial for early childhood caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Tut, Ohnmar; Milgrom, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of supervised tooth-brushing with xylitol toothpaste to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) and reduce mutans streptococci. In this cluster-randomized efficacy trial, 196 four- to five-year-old children in four Head Start classrooms in the Marshall Islands were randomly assigned to supervised toothbrushing with 1,400 ppm/31 percent fluoride xylitol or 1,450 ppm fluoride sorbitol toothpaste. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in efficacy between the two types of toothpaste. The primary outcome was the surface-level primary molar caries increment (d(2-3)mfs) after six months. A single examiner was blinded to classroom assignments. Two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-xylitol group (85 children), and two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-sorbitol group (83 children). The child-level analyses accounted for clustering. There was no difference between the two groups in baseline or end-of-trial mean d(2-3)mfs. The mean d(2-3)mfs increment was greater in the fluoride-xylitol group compared to the fluoride-sorbitol group (2.5 and 1.4 d(2-3)mfs, respectively), but the difference was not significant (95% confidence interval: -0.17, 2.37; P=.07). No adverse effects were reported. After six months, brushing with a low-strength xylitol/fluoride tooth-paste is no more efficacious in reducing ECC than a fluoride-only toothpaste in a high caries-risk child population.

  7. Effective Alternative to Constipation Medication in Nursing Home Residents: Libera Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Sobrón Monge

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to ascertain the impact of administering a dessert rich in fibre and sorbitol on the prescription of laxatives in nursing home residents with constipation. Material and methods: Single-centre, interventional prospective study in elderly nursing home residents diagnosed with constipation and treated with laxatives, in which each patient is his/her own comparator. A dessert rich in fibre and sorbitol (high-fibre Resource® Fruit Purée was given for 7 weeks. The main variable was the difference in days of pharmacological treatment with laxatives between the week before the start of the study and the last week of the study. Results: 40 patients were studied with a median age of 88.5 years (range: 72–101. After 7 weeks, the residents required a mean of 3.5 fewer days per week of treatment with laxatives. Patients receiving pharmacological medication decreased by 40%. Weekly bowel movements increased by a mean of 2 while gastrointestinal discomfort decreased. The intervention did not change previous intake. Adherence to the prescribed regimen was over 94%. A decrease in the number of days with laxative therapy was associated with: consuming 5 or more desserts a week, being over 85, having poor oral health and not suffering from malnutrition or food disorders. Conclusions: Dispensing a dessert rich in fibre and sorbitol may be an effective and safe alternative to laxatives in elderly nursing home residents with constipation, and may help to reduce polymedication in these patients.

  8. Hepatic lipidosis in anorectic, lactating holstein cattle: a retrospective study of serum biochemical abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebra, C K; Garry, F B; Getzy, D M; Fettman, M J

    1997-01-01

    The association between hepatic lipidosis (HL) and disease in 59 anorectic, ketotic, lactating Holstein heifers and cows was investigated. Severe HL, as determined by histologic evaluation of liver tissue, was present in 46 animals; only half of these animals required intensive treatment for ketosis, and only half had serum biochemical evidence of liver disease, as determined by the presence of a last value of 2-fold or greater than the upper limit of the reference ranges for at least 2 of the 4 serum tests: gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities and bile acid concentrations. Most cattle with biochemical evidence of liver disease and severe HL had been lactating for 14 or more days. Cows that required intensive treatment inconsistently had serum biochemical evidence of liver disease. Although cattle with severe HL had significantly higher serum bilirubin concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities than cattle with less severe lipidosis, the specificity of abnormally high serum sorbitol dehydrogenase activity or bilirubin concentration for severe lipidosis was only 8%. Abnormally high serum aspartate aminotransferase activity was 83% sensitive and 62% specific for severe lipidosis. Serum glucose and total carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly lower in cattle with severe lipidosis than in those with mild or moderate lipidosis, and low serum glucose or total carbon dioxide concentrations were rare in cattle without severe lipidosis. From these data, we conclude that the use of a single biochemical or histopathologic criterion to define severity of disease or degree of liver compromise in anorectic, ketotic cows results in the misidentification of many animals.

  9. The uptake and overflow of radiolabelled β-adrenoceptor blocking agents by the isolated vas deferens of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of uptake into and overflow from the isolated vas deferens of the rat has been made between [ 3 H]-noradrenaline ([ 3 H]-NA), [ 14 C]-D-sorbitol and three radio-labelled β-adrenoceptor blocking agents, [ 14 C]-practolol, [ 14 C]-(+-)-propranolol and [ 3 H]-penbutolol. The accumulation of [ 3 H]-NA after 30 min incubation was reduced by desmethylimipramine (DMI) 1 x 10 -8 M and was also reduced in vasa from rats pretreated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). This was not so with [ 14 C]-D-sorbitol. 6-OHDA pretreatment of the rats reduced the uptake of [ 3 H]-penbutolol after 30 min incubation but not that of [ 14 C]-propranolol or [ 14 C]-practolol. DMI 1 x 10 -8 M did not alter the tissue uptake of [ 14 C]-propanolol, [ 14 C]-practolol or [ 3 H]-penbutolol. Electrical stimulation of vasa preloaded with [ 3 H]-NA caused a significantly greater increase in [ 3 H]-NA overflow than during the resting, unstimulated periods. No such increase in overflow was observed with [ 14 C]-sorbitol or any of the three β-adrenoceptor blocking agents used. The β-adrenoceptor blocking agent penbutolol was shown to possess adrenergic neurone blocking activity in the isolated vas deferens of the rat. It is concluded that any effect that practolol or (+-)-propranolol have on noradrenergic neurones is brought about without the need for these drugs to gain access to the interior of the neurone. (author)

  10. Some Peculiarities of Growth and Functional Activity of Escherichia coli Strain from Probiotic Formula "ASAP"

    OpenAIRE

    Marine A. Balayan; Susanna S. Mirzabekyan; Marine Isajanyan; Zaven S. Pepoyan; Аrmen H. Trchounian; Аstghik Z. Pepoyan; Helena Bujdakova

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that pH 7,3 and 37 0C are the optimal condition for the growth of E. coli “ASAP". The cells grow well on Glucose, Lactose, D-Mannitol, D-Sorbitol, (+)-Xylose, L- (+)-Arabinose and Dulcitol. No growth has been observed on Sucrose, Inositol, Phenylalanine, and Tryptophan. The strain is sensitive to a range of antibiotics. The present study has demonstrated that E. coli “ASAP" inhibit the growth of S. enterica ATCC #700931 in vitro. The studies on conjugating activity has revea...

  11. Determination of the 24-hours survival of stored red cells beyond the legal duration (42 and 49 days). Value of a double labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messian, O.; Noel, L.; Saint-Paul, B.; Fabre, G.; Saint-Blancard, J.

    1985-01-01

    Red cell double labelling using chromium 51 and Tc 99m proved to be the good method for the measurement of 24-hour post-transfusion survival values of red cells stored at 4 0 C. Satisfactory results were obtained with the preservative solution PAGGSS (Phosphate Adenine Guanosine Glucose Sorbitol Saline) for 42 and 49 days, and with ADSOL (Adenine Dextrose Saline Mannital) for 42 days. But for 49 days ADSOL does not maintain 24-hour post-transfusion survival of the cells at an acceptable level, 70 per cent, for this length of time [fr

  12. Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass: Volume I -- Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werpy, T.; Petersen, G.

    2004-08-01

    This report identifies twelve building block chemicals that can be produced from sugars via biological or chemical conversions. The twelve building blocks can be subsequently converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials. Building block chemicals, as considered for this analysis, are molecules with multiple functional groups that possess the potential to be transformed into new families of useful molecules. The twelve sugar-based building blocks are 1,4-diacids (succinic, fumaric and malic), 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxy propionic acid, aspartic acid, glucaric acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, glycerol, sorbitol, and xylitol/arabinitol.

  13. Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass - Volume I, Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    This report identifies twelve building block chemicals that can be produced from sugars via biological or chemical conversions. The twelve building blocks can be subsequently converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials. Building block chemicals, as considered for this analysis, are molecules with multiple functional groups that possess the potential to be transformed into new families of useful molecules. The twelve sugar-based building blocks are 1,4-diacids (succinic, fumaric and malic), 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxy propionic acid, aspartic acid, glucaric acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, glycerol, sorbitol, and xylitol/arabinitol.

  14. Composition of apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  15. Prebiotic Potential of Polydextrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Julian D.

    Polydextrose is a randomly bonded polymer of glucose with some sorbitol end-groups. It was originally developed by scientists at Pfizer seeking a low calorie bulking agent to be used in conjunction with intense sweeteners. Polydextrose has been used for more than 25 years in human food and beverage products around the world. It is currently marketed by Danisco A/S as Litesse®Two and Litesse®UltraTM and by A E Staley as Sta-Lite III.

  16. Preparation and characterization of milk protein films and their application for packaging of Cheddar cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Wagh, Y. R.; Pushpadass, Heartwin A.; Emerald, F. Magdaline Eljeeva; Nath, B. Surendra

    2013-01-01

    Casein and whey protein concentrate (WPC) films, plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol independently, were prepared by casting. The film thickness, water vapour and oxygen permeation and tensile and moisture sorption properties of the films were determined. The tensile strength (TS), tensile strain (TE) and elastic modulus (EM) of the films ranged from 0.71 to 4.58 MPa, 19.22 to 66.63 % and 2.05 to 6.93 MPa, respectively. The film properties were influenced by the type of biopolymer (casein ...

  17. Estudio de la adición de estabilizantes y vitamina B12 al complejo inyectable de hierro dextrana

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Michelena; Antonio Bell; Graciela Cerutti; Emilia Carrera; Mónica Coronel; Gracia Rivas Monte

    2007-01-01

    Se realizó el estudio de adición de estabilizantes al complejo hierro dextrana mediante un diseño experimental 33 tipo mezcla con el objetivo de aumentar la fijación del hierro en el proceso de síntesis y disminuir su viscosidad, lo que incide favorablemente en la tecnología al obtener un producto de mayor filtrabilidad y con alto contenido de hierro. Los mejores resultados se alcanzaron con la variante de adición en iguales relaciones de ácido cítrico y sorbitol y tres veces la cantidad en d...

  18. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor cobalt chloride prevents inhibition of renal Na,K-ATPase and redistribution of apical NHE-3 during acute hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y B; Magyar, C E; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    by cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Four groups of rats (n = 4 to 5) were studied: (1) sham-operated; (2) 50 mg of CoCl2/kg subcutaneously for 2 d; (3) acute hypertension by constricting arteries for 5 min; and (4) acute hypertension after CoCl2 treatment as in group 3. Renal cortex was analyzed after sorbitol...... reabsorption and diuresis and abolishes Na,K-ATPase inhibition and NHE-3 redistribution during acute hypertension, evidence that these responses may be mediated by cytochrome P-450 arachidonate metabolites....

  19. Recobrimento de laranja 'Pêra' com filme de concentrado protéico de soro de leite associado a plastificantes.

    OpenAIRE

    ALLEONI, A.C.C.; JACOMINO, A.P.; ROSA, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito de coberturas à base de concentrado protéico de soro de leite (CPSL), associadas a dois tipos de plastificantes (glicerol e sorbitol), em laranja 'Pêra'. As frutas foram lavadas e higienizadas de acordo com os padrões comerciais e submetidas à aplicação das coberturas. As coberturas à base de CPSL não foram eficientes na redução da perda de massa fresca da laranja 'Pera', independentemente do plastificante utilizado. Depois de 11 dias de armazenage...

  20. Chemotaxonomic Markers in Digitalideae (Plantaginaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Rilka Mladenova; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2005-01-01

    In a chemosystematic investigation of Digitalideae (Plantaginaceae), the water-soluble part of extracts of two species of Digitalis, two species of Isoplexis, as well as Erinus alpinus and Lafuentea rotundifolia were studied with regard to their content of iridoids, caffeoyl phenylethanoid...... glycosides (CPGs) and main sugars. Digitalis and Isoplexis were found to lack iridoid glucosides but contained sorbitol, cornoside and a number of other phenylethanoid glycosides including the new tyrosol b-D-mannopyranoside, sceptroside. Erinus contained mainly glucose, the new 8,9-double bond iridoid...

  1. Determination of Some Low Molecular Weight Carbohydrates in the Fruits of Wild Cherry Laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem.) Using Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    AYAZ, F. Ahmet; KADIOĞLU, Asım; HAYIRLIOĞLU-AYAZ, Sema

    1998-01-01

    Some low-molecular-weight carbohydrates extracted with ethanol and water from the fruits of Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. ( Rosaceae), from two different regions in Trabzon, were analysed using gas chromatography. In one population, the analysis in the ethanol extraction showed the occurence of fructose, glucose, sorbitol and sucrose in concentrations (w/w) of 25.20; 23.00; 14.00 and 0.024 %, respectively. The same sugars, in the water extraction were found in concentrations (w/w) of 24.6...

  2. Dinâmica do conteúdo de monossacarídeos em gemas e ramos de dois anos de macieira durante a endodormência Dynamics of monosaccharides content in two year old buds and stems of apple tree during the dormancy period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar as variações do conteúdo de glucose, frutose e sorbitol em gemas e ramos de dois anos de macieira que receberam ou não frio suplementar durante o período de dormência. Os ramos da cultivar Imperial Gala foram coletados em Porto Amazonas-PR, região de baixa ocorrência de frio, em intervalos de 21 dias, de abril a agosto, e receberam ou não tratamento com frio suplementar de 1.440 horas, à temperatura de 4 a 7°C. As análises dos monossacarídeos foram realizadas em gemas e porções de ramos adjacentes a elas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. Houve acúmulo de glucose e frutose em gemas de macieira de abril a agosto, e este aumento foi estimulado pelo tratamento com 1.440 horas de frio. O conteúdo de glucose e frutose nos ramos adjacentes às gemas elevou-se de abril ao início de agosto, com posterior queda no final de agosto e o tratamento com frio antecipou esta dinâmica. O conteúdo de sorbitol em gemas e ramos de macieira oscilou de abril a agosto, e sua dinâmica foi alterada pelo frio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the variation of glucose, fructose and sorbitol content in two year old buds and stems of apple trees during the dormancy period. Stems of cv. Imperial Gala were collected in Porto Amazonas, Parana State, Brazil, a region of low chill occurence, at intervals of 21 days from April to August and were treated or not with 1,440 hours of chill (4 to 7°C. The monosaccharides were analysed in buds and stem tissues close to buds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. There was an increase of glucose and fructose content in buds from April to August and it was stimulated by the chill treatment. The glucose and fructose content in stems increased from April to August 2nd followed by a reduction in August 23rd and the chill treatment advanced this dynamics. The sorbitol content in buds and stems of apple tree oscillated from April to August and

  3. In vitro screening of potato genotypes for osmotic stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelmesa Dandena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is a cool season crop which is susceptible to both drought and heat stresses. Lack of suitable varieties of the crop adapted to drought-prone areas of the lowland tropics deprives farmers living in such areas the opportunity to produce and use the crop as a source of food and income. As a step towards developing such varieties, the present research was conducted to evaluate different potato genotypes for osmotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions and identify drought tolerant genotypes for future field evaluation. The experiment was carried out at the Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany, by inducing osmotic stress using sorbitol at two concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 M in the culture medium. A total of 43 genotypes collected from different sources (27 advanced clones from CIP, nine improved varieties, and seven farmers’ cultivars were used in a completely randomized design with four replications in two rounds. Data were collected on root and shoot growth. The results revealed that the main effects of genotype, sorbitol treatment, and their interactions significantly (P < 0.01 influenced root and shoot growthrelated traits. Under osmotic stress, all the measured root and shoot growth traits were significantly correlated. The dendrogram obtained from the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean allowed grouping of the genotypes into tolerant, moderately tolerant, and susceptible ones to a sorbitol concentration of 0.2 M in the culture medium. Five advanced clones (CIP304350.100, CIP304405.47, CIP392745.7, CIP388676.1, and CIP388615.22 produced shoots and rooted earlier than all other genotypes, with higher root numbers, root length, shoot and root mass under osmotic stress conditions induced by sorbitol. Some of these genotypes had been previously identified as drought-tolerant under field conditions, suggesting the capacity of the in vitro evaluation method to predict drought stress tolerant

  4. Controlling the Solidification of Organic Photovoltaic Blends with Nucleating Agents

    KAUST Repository

    Nekuda Malik, Jennifer A.

    2014-11-20

    Blending fullerenes with a donor polymer for the fabrication of organic solar cells often leads to at least partial vitrification of one, if not both, components. For prototypical poly(3-hexylthiophene):fullerene blend, we show that the addition of a commercial nucleating agent, di(3,4-dimethyl benzylidene)sorbitol, to such binary blends accelerates the crystallization of the donor, resulting in an increase in its degree of crystallinity in as-cast structures. This allows manipulation of the extent of intermixing/ phase separation of the donor and acceptor directly from solution, offering a tool to improve device characteristics such as power conversion efficiency.

  5. Controlling the Solidification of Organic Photovoltaic Blends with Nucleating Agents

    KAUST Repository

    Nekuda Malik, Jennifer A.; Treat, Neil D.; Abdelsamie, Maged; Yu, Liyang; Li, Ruipeng; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Amassian, Aram; Hawker, Craig J.; Chabinyc, Michael L.; Stingelin, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Blending fullerenes with a donor polymer for the fabrication of organic solar cells often leads to at least partial vitrification of one, if not both, components. For prototypical poly(3-hexylthiophene):fullerene blend, we show that the addition of a commercial nucleating agent, di(3,4-dimethyl benzylidene)sorbitol, to such binary blends accelerates the crystallization of the donor, resulting in an increase in its degree of crystallinity in as-cast structures. This allows manipulation of the extent of intermixing/ phase separation of the donor and acceptor directly from solution, offering a tool to improve device characteristics such as power conversion efficiency.

  6. Epidemiology of constipation in elderly patients. Drug utilisation and cost-containment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederle, F A

    1995-06-01

    Constipation is a common complaint among elderly people, resulting in large amounts of money being spent on laxatives. Strategies for improving patient care while reducing this expenditure include: (a) counselling patients that daily bowel movements and purging are not essential to good health, (b) greater use of nonpharmacological measures such as hydration, exercise and dietary fibre, and (c) considering safety, effectiveness and cost in the selection of a laxative. Generic preparations of psyllium and sorbitol can be recommended in this regard. The widespread use of stool softeners, magnesium hydroxide ('milk of magnesia') and stimulant laxatives is difficult to justify from the available data.

  7. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic and N-aspartic acids, and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender- and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...

  8. Sugar microanalysis by HPLC with benzoylation: improvement via introduction of a C-8 cartridge and a high efficiency ODS column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Michiko; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2007-07-01

    An HPLC protocol for sugar microanalysis based on the formation of ultraviolet-absorbing benzoyl chloride derivatives was improved. Here, samples were prepared with a C-8 cartridge and analyzed with a high efficiency ODS column, in which porous spherical silica particles 3 microm in diameter were packed. These devices allowed us to simultaneously quantify multiple sugars and sugar alcohols up to 10 ng/ml and to provide satisfactory separations of some sugars, such as fructose and myo-inositol and sorbitol and mannitol. This protocol, which does not require special apparatuses, should become a powerful tool in sugar research.

  9. Filmes de amidos de mandioca modificados para recobrimento e conservação de uvas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen Laís Vicentino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, films were produced with six types of cassava's starch mixed with gelatin and plasticized with sorbitol. These films were used in covering of grapes 'Benitaka' (Vitis vinifera L. as biodegradable packaging. The acetylated starch film showed the best results in solubility, thickness and homogeneity, besides the less water loss the fruit, resulting in better coverage, increasing the shelf life fruits in 12 days. These results demonstrate the great potential of using films in food conservation, adding value to agricultural activity and helping to reduce non-biodegradable plastics in the environment.

  10. The test of Tensile Properties and Water Resistance of a Novel Cross-linked Starch Prepared by Adding Oil-Flax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dawei; Wang, Rui

    2017-12-01

    In this study, to solve the poor water resistance and the low mechanical properties of starch, a mixed-starch composite matrix which including glycerol, sorbitol, and urea, were prepared via single-crew extrusion, then adding oil-flax to improve its physical mechanical and used to a source of biodegradable plastics material. The composite matrix was systematically characterized using various analytic tools including XRD, SEM and TG. The composite showed a maximum tensile strength of 18.11Mpa and moisture absorption 17.67%, while the original starch matrix was only 12.51 Mpa and 24.98%, respectively.

  11. Enzymatic synthesis of sorbitan esters using a low-boiling-point azeotrope as a reaction solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarney, D B; Barnard, M J; Virto, M; Vulfson, E N

    1997-05-20

    Sorbitan esters were prepared by controlled dehydration of sorbitol followed by lipase-catalyzed esterification of the resulting "sorbitan." The reaction was carried out in azeotropic mixtures of tert-butanol/n-hexane. A partial phase diagram to determine the temperature required for the distillation of the azeotrope at a given ratio of the solvents was constructed. The effect of varying concentrations of the two solvents on the rate of esterification and the monoester/diester ratio of the final product was investigated in detail. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 54: 351-356, 1997.

  12. Polyamines and plant stress - Activation of putrescine biosynthesis by osmotic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, H. E.; Galston, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    The putrescine content of oat leaf cells and protoplasts increases up to 60-fold within 6 hours of exposure to osmotic stress (0.4 to 0.6 molar sorbitol). Barley, corn, wheat, and wild oat leaves show a similar response. Increased arginine decarboxylase activity parallels the rise in putrescine, whereas ornithine decarboxylase remains unchanged. DL-alpha-Difluoromethylarginine, a specific irreversible inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase, prevents the stress-induced rise in increase in arginine decarboxylase activity and putrescine synthesis, indicating the preferential activation of this pathway.

  13. Efectos de los polioles en la nutrición y sus aplicaciones en la industria alimentaria

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Pérez, María

    2014-01-01

    Los polioles son hidratos de carbono hidrogenados, utilizados como sustitutos de azúcar, debido a su sabor dulce y a su bajo poder calórico. El objetivo de esta revisión fue identificar y sintetizar los efectos que Maltitol, Isomaltitol, Sorbitol, Manitol, Lactitol, Eritritol y Xilitol tienen en la salud y revisar sus principales utilidades en la industria alimentaria. De esta forma, los estudios clínicos han mostrado potenciales beneficios para la salud: no producen caries, tienen bajo valor...

  14. [Food intolerances caused by enzyme defects and carbohydrate malassimiliations : Lactose intolerance and Co].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    Apart from allergic conditions, carbohydrate malassimiliations (sugar metabolism disorders) are classified within the group of food intolerances. These dose-dependent, yet non-immunological reactions require gastroenterological or internal diagnosis following nutritional therapy. Intolerances to carbohydrates such as lactose (milk sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar) in addition to sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol etc.) have been gaining increasing attention in recent decades as they are the cause of a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms. There are currently various options for both diagnosis and therapy that differ notably in terms of effort, costs, and efficiency. Nutritional change and patient education are the bases of therapy. Non-observance of the trigger will result in increasing complaints and possibly even more infections, e.g., diverticula, rectal disorders, bacterial miscolonization, bile acid malabsorption). For an optimal therapy, the following sugar metabolism disorders have to be differentiated: hypolactasia versus lactose maldigestion, fructose malabsorption versus fructose overload, combined lactose and fructose intolerance, and isolated adverse reactions against sorbitol.For the medical conditions listed above, a three- or four-stage treatment regimen is recommended. Extensive dietary restrictions with regard to the relevant sugar, except for lactose, should not be maintained over a longer period of time.

  15. Biorefinery Concept Development Based on Wheat Flour Milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Orth, Rick J.; Werpy, Todd A.; Gao, Johnway; Eakin, David E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Murry, J; Flagg, Anthony; Lahman, L; Mennel, D; Lin, C J.; Landucci, Ron; Crockett, John; Peterson, Charles L.

    2002-09-22

    We are developing an innovative process for the recovery of a starch-rich product from millfeed (the low-value byproduct of wheat flour milling); enzymatic processing of the starch to glucose; and the subsequent processes for conversion of that glucose into a value-added product by either a catalytic or a fermentation process. We have completed the development of the starch recovery step with enzymatic processing and the assessment of its economic viability. The processes to use the glucose product as feedstock for catalytic processing and fermentation processing have been tested in the laboratory. Catalytic processing of the glucose from the extracted starch for polyol production is based on catalytic hydrogenation to sorbitol. Alternatively, fermentation of the extracted starch-derived glucose also provides a pathway to value-added chemical products via a platform chemical, lactic acid. The paper includes results from all the processing areas addressed. Starch extraction and glucose generation from wheat milling byproducts are presented with laboratory and scaled-up processing results. Results of fermentation of the glucose product to lactic acid in shaker flask tests are presented, documenting the minimal requirements for nutrient addition. Stirred batch reactor tests of catalytic hydrogenation of the glucose product to sorbitol are presented with a discussion of contaminant effects on the catalyst.

  16. Osmolyte Type and the Osmolarity Level Affect Chondrogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadyan, Sorour; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Hanaee-Ahvaz, Hana; Farazmand, Ali

    2017-11-10

    The inductive effects of increased osmolarity on chondrogenesis are well approved. However, the effects of the osmolyte agent invoked to induce hyperosmolarity are largely neglected. Herein, we scrutinized how hyperosmotic conditions acquired by addition of different osmolytes would impact chondrogenesis. We briefly assessed whether such conditions would differentially affect hypertrophy and angiogenesis during MSC chondrogenesis. Chondrogenic and hypertrophic marker expression along with VEGF secretion during adipose-derived (AD)-MSC chondrogenesis under three osmolarity levels (350, 450, and 550 mOsm) using three different osmolytes (NaCl, sorbitol, and PEG) were assessed. MTT assay, qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, Alcian Blue staining, ELISA, and ALP assays proved osmolyte-type dependent effects of hyperosmolarity on chondrogenesis, hypertrophy, and angiogenesis. At same osmolarity level, PEG had least cytotoxic/cytostatic effect and most prohibitive effects on angiogenesis. As expected, all hyperosmolar conditions led to enhanced chondrogenesis with slightly varying degrees. PEG and sorbitol had higher chondro-promotive and hypertrophy-suppressive effects compared to NaCl, while NaCl had exacerbated hypertrophy. We observed that TonEBP was involved in osmoadaptation of all treatments in varying degrees. Of importance, we highlighted differential effects of hyperosmolarity obtained by different osmolytes on the efficacy of chondrogenesis and more remarkably on the induction/suppression of cartilage pathologic markers. Our study underlies the need for a more vigilant exploitation of physicobiochemical inducers in order to maximize chondrogenesis while restraining unwanted hypertrophy and angiogenesis.

  17. Acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols among Lactobacillus isolates collected in connection with radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almståhl, Annica; Rudbäck, Helena; Basic, Amina; Carlén, Anette; Alstad, Torgny

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the acid-producing capacity from sugars and sugar alcohols of oral Lactobacillus collected in connection with radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck region. Lactobacillus were collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque in 24 patients before, during, and after RT. The acid-producing capacity of Lactobacillus isolates (n=211) was analyzed using a colorimetric fermentation test in microtiter plates. Solutions containing 2% sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose) or sugar-alcohols (sorbitol and xylitol) were used. After 24h of incubation, bacterial acid-producing capacity was determined as strong (pH6). Data regarding intake frequency of sugar-rich products and products with sugar-alcohols was collected. The highest acid-producing capacity using the sugars was seen for isolates collected during RT. Sorbitol was fermented to a higher extent during and post RT, especially among isolates from plaque. Lactobacillus fermenting xylitol showed the highest acid-producing capacity during RT (psugar-rich products or sugar-alcohol containing products and Lactobacillus acid-producing capacity, were found. The results suggest that Lactobacillus isolates, collected from the tongue, buccal mucosa and supragingival plaque, have a higher acid-producing capacity using sugars and sugar-alcohols during RT than one year post RT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Substrate scope of a dehydrogenase from Sphingomonas species A1 and its potential application in the synthesis of rare sugars and sugar derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Barbara; Pick, André; Döring, Manuel; Lommes, Petra; Sieber, Volker

    2018-04-26

    Rare sugars and sugar derivatives that can be obtained from abundant sugars are of great interest to biochemical and pharmaceutical research. Here, we describe the substrate scope of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Sphingomonas species A1 (SpsADH) in the oxidation of aldonates and polyols. The resulting products are rare uronic acids and rare sugars respectively. We provide insight into the substrate recognition of SpsADH using kinetic analyses, which show that the configuration of the hydroxyl groups adjacent to the oxidized carbon is crucial for substrate recognition. Furthermore, the specificity is demonstrated by the oxidation of d-sorbitol leading to l-gulose as sole product instead of a mixture of d-glucose and l-gulose. Finally, we applied the enzyme to the synthesis of l-gulose from d-sorbitol in an in vitro system using a NADH oxidase for cofactor recycling. This study shows the usefulness of exploring the substrate scope of enzymes to find new enzymatic reaction pathways from renewable resources to value-added compounds. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Low, Nicholas H

    2006-06-28

    Detection of juice-to-juice adulteration based on chemical composition studies is a common method used by government regulatory agencies and food companies. This study investigated the use of major carbohydrate (fructose, glucose and sucrose), polyol (sorbitol), proline, and phenolic profiles as indicators of pear adulteration of apple juice (PAAJ). For this work, a total of 105 authentic apple juice samples from 13 countries and 27 authentic pear juice samples from 5 countries were analyzed. Because the major carbohydrate ranges for these juices showed significant overlap their use as markers for PAAJ detection would be very limited. It was found that sorbitol and proline means for apple and pear were significantly different; however, their broad natural ranges would afford PAAJ at levels up to 30% without detection. In addition, careful selection of the pear juice used as the adulterant would further limit the usefulness of these markers for PAAJ detection. Arbutin was conclusively identified as a marker for pear juice on the basis of its presence in all 27 authentic pear samples and its absence (apple juice samples analyzed in this study. The application of the developed HPLC-PDA method for arbutin analysis to detect PAAJ at levels as low as 2% (v/v) was demonstrated. A confirmation method for the presence of arbutin in pure pear juice and apple adulterated with pear juice was introduced on the basis of the hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone employing beta-glucosidase, with reactant and product monitoring by HPLC-PDA.

  20. Solubility data and modeling for sugar alcohols in ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuniewski, Marcin; Ramjugernath, Deresh; Naidoo, Paramespri; Domańska, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of D-sorbitol and xylitol in six ILs. • The (liquid + liquid) phase equilibrium of (SA + IL) with UCST. • Interesting properties of [BMIM][TDI] IL. • The correlation with NRTL model. - Abstract: Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel media characterized by strong interactions with different organic substances which leads to a wide spectrum of applications involving extraction. Ionic liquids have been used as a solvent for sugar alcohols, sugars and hydrates. This work demonstrates the experimental and theoretical study of (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria for two sugar alcohols, D-sorbitol and xylitol in a few ILs based on different cations and anions (namely, 1-ethyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EMPIP][NTf 2 ], 1-hexyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [HMPIP][NTf 2 ], N-hexylquinolinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [HQuin][NTf 2 ], N-hexylisoquinolinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [HiQuin][NTf 2 ], 1-butyl-1-methylimidazolium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)-imidazolide [BMIM][TDI] and 1-(cyanomethyl)-3-methylimidazolium 4,5-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)-imidazolide [CCNMIM][TDI]). This study was conducted to assess the applicability of the studied ILs for dissolution of these biomass-related materials. (Liquid + liquid) phase equilibrium diagrams (LLE) in binary systems (sugar alcohol + ionic liquid) were measured using the dynamic technique. The influence of the chemical structure of both the ionic liquids and sugar alcohols were established and is discussed

  1. Evaluation of the antifungal activity and mode of action of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, stem-bark extracts, fractions and ellagic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iberê F. Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Stem-bark extracts, fractions and the isolated constituent, ellagic acid of Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (Lythraceae were in vitro assayed for antifungal activity against a panel of yeasts, hialohyphomycetes as well as dermatophytes with the microbroth dilution method. The EtOH extract and its fractions and ellagic acid exhibited activity against Candida spp and Saccharomyces cerevisiae with MIC values between 250-1000 µg/mL, but they showed no action against filamentous fungi and dermatophytes (MIC>1000 µg/mL. Active extracts were evaluated in Neurospora crassa hyphal growth inhibition and sorbitol assays and then the effect of ergosterol on the MIC of ellagic acid was studied. The active extracts and its fractions and ellagic acid showed a blotchy zone around the paper disk and induced malformations of the hypha. Besides, MIC of the ellagic acid against the Saccharomyces cerevisiae was raised from 62 to 250 µg/mL in the presence of sorbitol 0.8 M, suggesting that the ellagic acid would probably exert its action on fungal cell wall. These results indicate that ellagic acid might be the main active antifungal compound of Lafoensia pacari and further suggest that the mode of antifungal action of these extracts and ellagic acid could be associated with the inhibition of fungal cell wall.

  2. Algal carbohydrates affect polyketide synthesis of the lichen-forming fungus Cladonia rangiferina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshobary, Mostafa E; Osman, Mohamed E; Abo-Shady, Atef M; Komatsu, Emy; Perreault, Hélène; Sorensen, John; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2016-01-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites (polyketides) are produced by the fungal partner, but the role of algal carbohydrates in polyketide biosynthesis is not clear. This study examined whether the type and concentration of algal carbohydrate explained differences in polyketide production and gene transcription by a lichen fungus (Cladonia rangiferina). The carbohydrates identified from a free-living cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis; glucose), a lichen-forming alga (Diplosphaera chodatii; sorbitol) and the lichen alga that associates with C. rangiferina (Asterochloris sp.; ribitol) were used in each of 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations to enrich malt yeast extract media for culturing the mycobiont. Polyketides were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and polyketide synthase (PKS) gene transcription was measured by quantitative PCR of the ketosynthase domain of four PKS genes. The lower concentrations of carbohydrates induced the PKS gene expression where ribitol up-regulated CrPKS1 and CrPKS16 gene transcription and sorbitol up-regulated CrPKS3 and CrPKS7 gene transcription. The HPLC results revealed that lower concentrations of carbon sources increased polyketide production for three carbohydrates. One polyketide from the natural lichen thallus (fumarprotocetraric acid) also was produced by the fungal culture in ribitol supplemented media only. This study provides a better understanding of the role of the type and concentration of the carbon source in fungal polyketide biosynthesis in the lichen Cladonia rangiferina. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  3. Material properties of plasticized hardwood xylans for potential application as oxygen barrier films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröndahl, Maria; Eriksson, Lisa; Gatenholm, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Free films based on glucuronoxylan isolated from aspen wood were prepared by casting from aqueous solutions and drying in a controlled environment. Addition of xylitol or sorbitol facilitated film formation and thus examination of the material properties of these films. The mechanical properties of the films were evaluated using tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis in a controlled ambient relative humidity. The strain at break increased, and the stress at break and Young's modulus of the films decreased with increasing amounts of xylitol and sorbitol due to plasticization. At high amount of plasticizer, it was found that films with xylitol gave lower extensibility. Wide-angle X-ray scattering analysis showed that xylitol crystallized in a distinct phase, which we believe contributes to the more brittle behavior of these films. The effect of the plasticizers on the glass transition temperature was determined using dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. An increased amount of plasticizer shifted the glass transition to lower temperatures. The effect of moisture on the properties of plasticized films was investigated using water vapor sorption isotherms and by humidity scans in dynamic mechanical analysis. Sorption isotherms showed a transition from type II to type III when adding plasticizer. The films showed low oxygen permeability and thus have a potential application in food packaging.

  4. Efficacy of turmeric on blood sugar and polyol pathway in diabetic albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, N; Nalini, N

    2002-01-01

    In the traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda, several spices and herbs are thought to possess medicinal properties. Among the spices, turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa. Linn.) are used as flavoring and coloring agents in the Indian diet everyday. In this research, we studied the effect of turmeric and its active principle, curcumin, on diabetes mellitus in a rat model. Alloxan was used to induce diabetes. Administration of turmeric or curcumin to diabetic rats reduced the blood sugar, Hb and glycosylated hemoglobin levels significantly. Turmeric and curcumin supplementation also reduced the oxidative stress encountered by the diabetic rats. This was demonstrated by the lower levels of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), which may have been due to the decreased influx of glucose into the polyol pathway leading to an increased NADPH/NADP ratio and elevated activity of the potent antioxdiant enzyme GPx. Moreover, the activity of SDH (sorbitol dehydrogenase), which catalyzes the conversion of sorbitol to fructose, was lowered significantly on treatment with turmeric or curcumin. These results also appeared to reveal that curcumin was more effective in attenuating diabetes mellitus related changes than turmeric.

  5. Stability of midazolam in syrspend SF and syrspend SF cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Christine M; Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine central nervous system depressant available as an injection, tablet, or oral syrup. The need for alternative dosage form options for patients unable to take tablets and shortages of other forms of the drug have led compounding pharmacies to seek alternatives, mainly solutions and suspensions. Additionally, some patients are unable to use suspending agents containing alcohol or sorbitol. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of midazolam in sorbitol-free, alcohol-free SyrSpend SF and SyrSpend SF Cherry suspending agents. The studied samples were compounded into a 1-mg/mL suspension and stored in low-actinic plastic bottles at temperatures between 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C and at room temperature conditions. Six samples were assayed at each time point out to 58 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The samples remained within 90% to 110% of the initial concentration throughout the course of the study. Based on the data collected, the beyond-use date of these preparations is at least 58 days when protected from light at both refrigerated and room temperature storage conditions.

  6. Ct enterography/ct abdomen and pelvis using neutral oral contrast. a new combination of natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the performance of a new combination of neutral oral contrast for CT abdomen and CT Enterography in comparison with commercially available neutral oral contrast VoLumen. Seventy three consecutive patients were given sorbitol/CMC (Carboxy Methyl Cellulose) solution or VoLumen as oral contrast agent for abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. 23 patients were male and 37 females. Age range was between 16 and 67 years. Since the use of CT scan for abdominal pathologies, there was need to separate bowel loops to localize the pathology. Three types of oral contrast can be used in CT-Scan abdomen; Positive, Neutral and negative. The above used contrasts are Neutral contrast these refers to agents that have an attenuation value similar to that of water (0-30 H).Our results show this new combination of Cc and Sorbitol to be equally good as VoLumen, for luminal distension and mural details, in duodenum and jejunum. While better than VoLumen for Ileal distension. (author)

  7. Influence of flocculating agents and structural vehicles on the physical stability and rheological behavior of nitrofurantoin suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Salimi, Anayatollah; Rezaee, Saeed; Balack, Maryam; Handali, Somayeh

    2014-05-01

    Nitrofurantoin is a nitrofuran antibiotic that has been used for treatment of urinary tract against positive and negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of structural vehicles and flocculating agents on physical stability and rheological behavior of nitrofurantoin suspension. To formulate the suspensions, the effect of glycerin and polysorbate 80 as wetting agents was evaluated and their particle sizes were determined using the sieve method. Then to achieve controlled flocculation, sodium citrate and aluminum chloride were added. After choosing the suitable wetting and flocculating agents, structural vehicles such as sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose and Veegum were evaluated individually and in combination. In addition, the effect of sorbitol on density of continuous phase and some physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume, degree of flocculation and ease of redispersion of the suspensions were evaluated. After incorporation of structural vehicles, the rheological properties of formulations were also determined to find their flow behavior. According to the results, glycerin (0.2%) and sodium citrate (0.3%) had the best effect on the suspension stability as wetting and flocculating agents, respectively. Rheological properties of formulations showed pseudoplastic behavior with some degree of thixotropy. In conclusion, the suspension containing Veegum 1%, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose 1%, glycerine 0.2%, sodium citrate 0.3% and sorbitol 20 % was chosen as the most physically stable formulation.

  8. Elucidating the weak protein-protein interaction mechanisms behind the liquid-liquid phase separation of a mAb solution by different types of additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoliang; Wang, Shujing; Tian, Zhou; Zhang, Ning; Sheng, Han; Dai, Weiguo; Qian, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has long been observed during the physical stability investigation of therapeutic protein formulations. The buffer conditions and the presence of various excipients are thought to play important roles in the formulation development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In this study, the effects of several small-molecule excipients (histidine, alanine, glycine, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, sorbitol and sucrose) with diverse physical-chemical properties on LLPS of a model IgG1 (JM2) solutions were investigated by multiple techniques, including UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry/fluorimetry, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering. The LLPS of JM2 was confirmed to be a thermodynamic equilibrium process with no structural changes or irreversible aggregation of proteins. Phase diagrams of various JM2 formulations were constructed, suggesting that the phase behavior of JM2 was dependent on the solution pH, ionic strength and the presence of other excipients such as glycine, alanine, sorbitol and sucrose. Furthermore, we demonstrated that for this mAb, the interaction parameter (k D ) determined at low protein concentration appeared to be a good predictor for the occurrence of LLPS at high concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dissolution rate enhancement of piroxicam by ordered mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Vikas Anand; Choudhury, Pratim Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Micronized piroxicam was mixed with lactose, mannitol, sorbitol, maltitol and sodium chloride to produce ordered mixture in a glass vial by manual hand shaking method. The effect of excipients, surfactant, superdisintegrant, drug concentration and carrier particle size on dissolution rate was investigated. Dissolution rate studies of the prepared ordered mixtures revealed that all water soluble excipients increased the dissolution rate of piroxicam when compared to the dissolution rate of piroxicam or its suspension. Ordered mixture formulation PLF4, consisting of lactose as water soluble excipient, SSG (8% w/s) and SLS (1% w/w), released piroxcam at a very fast rate so much so that about 90% of the composition had passed into solution within 2 min. The order of the dissolution rate enhancement for ordered mixtures of various water soluble excipients was: lactose > mannitol > maltitol > sorbitol > sodium chloride. Carrier granules of size 355-710 µm were most effective in increasing the dissolution rate of drug from ordered mixtures. Decreasing the carrier particle size reduced drug dissolution from ordered mixtures. The dissolution rate of ordered mixtures consisting of 1-5% w/w piroxicam was superior to dissolution rate of piroxicam suspension. The dissolution data fitting and the resulting regression parameters indicated Hixson Crowell, cube root law, as the best fit to drug release data of ordered mixtures.

  10. Characteristic of bioplastic’s physical and mechanical (Study on Tapioca Concentration and Composition Mixture of Plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Admadi Harsojuwono

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to (1 the effect of the concentration of starch and  ratio mixture of plasticizer to the physical and mechanical characteristics of bioplastics (2 determine the concentration of starch and plasticizer RATIO mixture  that results in physical and mechanical characteristics of bio plastics best. The experiment was conducted using a factorial randomized block design. The first factor is the concentration of tapioca consisting of 3 levels 4%, 5% and 6% (w / w. The second factor is the   mixture plasticizer ratio  of glycerol and sorbitol   consisting of 5 levels ie (100: 0%, (95: 5%, (90:10%, (85:15%, (80:20% b / b. Each combination of treatments classified into 2 time  processing bio plastics, so there are 30 experimental units. Variables observed water content, elongation at break, tensile strength and Young's modulus . The data obtained were analyzed of variant and  test of Duncan's. The results showed that the concentration of tapioca and  mixture plasticizer had no effect on water content but significant effect on the elongation at break, tensile strength and Young's modulus. The concentration of starch 6% with a ratio of mixture of plasticizers glycerol: sorbitol ( 100: 0 produces the best characteristics of bioplastics with water content of 3.98%, elongation at break of 18.75%, the tensile strength of 930 MPa and a Young's modulus of 50 MPa.

  11. A comprehensive evaluation of the toxicology of cigarette ingredients: carbohydrates and natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Wagner, Karl A; Werley, Michael S; Oldham, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Eleven carbohydrates and natural product ingredients were added individually to experimental cigarettes. A battery of tests was used to compare toxicity of mainstream smoke from these experimental cigarettes to matched control cigarettes without test ingredients. Smoke fractions from each cigarette type were evaluated using analytical chemistry; in vitro cytotoxicity (neutral red uptake) and in vitro bacterial (Salmonella) mutagenicity (five strains) testing. For 10 ingredients (β-cyclodextrin, cleargum, D-sorbitol, high fructose corn syrup, honey, invert sugar, maltodextrin, molasses, raisin juice concentrate, and sucrose), 90-day nose-only smoke inhalation studies using rats were also performed. In general, addition of each ingredient in experimental cigarettes resulted in minimal changes in smoke chemistry; the exceptions were D-sorbitol and sucrose, where reductions in amount of 60% to 80% of control values for some smoke constituents were noted. Additionally, each ingredient resulted in small increases in smoke formaldehyde concentrations. Except for a reduction in cytotoxicity by inclusion of maltodextrin and an increase by inclusion of plum juice concentrate, the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity results were unaffected by addition of the other ingredients in experimental cigarettes. There were also very few statistically significant differences within any of the 10 inhalation studies, and when present, the differences were largely sporadic and inconsistent between sexes. The carbohydrates and natural products tested here as ingredients in experimental cigarettes as a class increased formaldehyde, but resulted in minimal toxicological responses, even at high inclusion levels compared with the levels used in commercial cigarette products.

  12. Levorotatory carbohydrates and xylitol subdue Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Eugenio; Ionescu, Andrei C; Cazzaniga, Gloria; Ottobelli, Marco; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Dietary carbohydrates and polyols affect the microbial colonization of oral surfaces by modulating adhesion and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a select group of l-carbohydrates and polyols on either Streptococcus mutans or Candida albicans adhesion and biofilm formation in vitro. S. mutans or C. albicans suspensions were inoculated on polystyrene substrata in the presence of Tryptic soy broth containing 5% of the following compounds: d-glucose, d-mannose, l-glucose, l-mannose, d- and l-glucose (raceme), d- and l-mannose (raceme), l-glucose and l-mannose, sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Microbial adhesion (2 h) and biofilm formation (24 h) were evaluated using MTT-test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Xylitol and l-carbohydrates induced the lowest adhesion and biofilm formation in both the tested species, while sorbitol and mannitol did not promote C. albicans biofilm formation. Higher adhesion and biofilm formation was noted in both organisms in the presence of d-carbohydrates relative to their l-carbohydrate counterparts. These results elucidate, hitherto undescribed, interactions of the individually tested strains with l- and d-carbohydrates, and how they impact fungal and bacterial colonization. In translational terms, our data raise the possibility of using l-form of carbohydrates and xylitol for dietary control of oral plaque biofilms. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderling, Eva; ElSalhy, Mohamed; Honkala, Eino; Fontana, Margherita; Flannagan, Susan; Eckert, George; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Honkala, Sisko

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the salivary microbiota of children. The study was a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial. Healthy children used xylitol chewing gum (xylitol group, n = 35) or sorbitol chewing gum (control group, n = 38) for 5 weeks. The daily dose of xylitol/sorbitol was approximately 6 g/day. At baseline and at the end of the test period, unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated saliva were collected. The microbial composition of the saliva was assessed using human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM). Mutans streptococci (MS) were plate cultured. As judged by HOMIM results, no xylitol-induced changes in the salivary microbiota took place in the xylitol group. In the control group, Veillonella atypica showed a significant decrease (p = 0.0001). The xylitol gum chewing decreased viable counts of MS in both stimulated (p = 0.006) and unstimulated (p = 0.002) saliva, but similar effects were also seen in the control group. The use of xylitol gum decreased MS, in general, but did not change the salivary microbial composition. Short-term consumption of xylitol had no impact on the composition of the salivary microbiota, but resulted in a decrease in the levels of MS.

  14. Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Ralstonia syzygii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuar Danaatmadja

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia syzygii is one of important pathogens of cloves. This study was aimed at obtaining pure culture of R. syzygi from diseased plant tissue samples. The acterium was isolated from infected clove plantations in Ungaran, Central Java. It had the ability to make clove seedlings show symptoms and then die 41 days after inoculation. The reisolated bacterium also showed its ability to kill clove seedlings after 17 days. The bacterium is gram negative, able to ultilize glucose, sucrose, maltose, mannitol, sorbitol, dulcitol, and glycerol, able to hydrolyze starch, grow well at 27oC, able to catalyze and release water and oxygen from hydrogen peroxyde (H2O2 and aerobically.   Ralstonia syzygii merupakan salah satu patogen penting pada tanaman cengkeh. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapakan isolat murni R syzygii dari jaringan tanaman terinfeksi. Bakteri diisolasi dari pertanaman cengkeh sakit yang berasal dari daerah Ungaran, Jawa Tengah. Bakteri menunjukkan kemampuan untuk menyebabkan bibit tanaman cangkeh sakit dan kemudian mati 41 hsi. Bakteri hasil reisolasi juga menunjukkan kemampuannya menyebabkan sakit dan kematian pada bibit tanaman cengkeh setelah 17 hsi. Bakteri yang diperoleh bersifat gram negatif, mampu memanfaatkan glukosa, sukrosa, maltosa, manitol, sorbitol, dulsitol, dan gliserol, mampu menghidrolisis pati, tumbuh baik pada suhu 27o C, mampu mengkatalisis dan melepaskan air dan oksigen dari hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 dan bersifat aerob.

  15. Effects of Long-Term Treatment with Ranirestat, a Potent Aldose Reductase Inhibitor, on Diabetic Cataract and Neuropathy in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Ota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated ranirestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, in diabetic cataract and neuropathy (DN in spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT rats compared with epalrestat, the positive control. Animals were divided into groups and treated once daily with oral ranirestat (0.1, 1.0, 10 mg/kg or epalrestat (100 mg/kg for 40 weeks, normal Sprague-Dawley rats, and untreated SDT rats. Lens opacification was scored from 0 (normal to 3 (mature cataract. The combined scores (0–6 from both lenses represented the total for each animal. DN was assessed by measuring the motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV in the sciatic nerve. Sorbitol and fructose levels were measured in the lens and sciatic nerve 40 weeks after diabetes onset. Cataracts developed more in untreated rats than normal rats (P<0.01. Ranirestat significantly (P<0.01 inhibited rapid cataract development; epalrestat did not. Ranirestat significantly reversed the MNCV decrease (40.7 ± 0.6 m/s in SDT rats dose-dependently (P<0.01. Epalrestat also reversed the prevented MNCV decrease (P<0.05. Sorbitol levels in the sciatic nerve increased significantly in SDT rats (2.05 ± 0.10 nmol/g, which ranirestat significantly suppressed dose-dependently, (P<0.05, <0.01, and <0.01; epalrestat did not. Ranirestat prevents DN and cataract; epalrestat prevents DN only.

  16. Screening of several excipients for direct compression of tablets: A new perspective based on functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Excipients are widely used to formulate solid drug forms by direct compression. However, the powderforming and tableting properties of these excipients are affected by the presence of lubricants and active ingredients. In this study, a screening methodology was employed to test the performance of an excipient for direct compression. The effects of three lubricants (magnesium stearate, stearic acid and talc on the compressibility and compaction of these excipients were assessed by the compressibility index and lubricant sensitivity ratio, respectively. Likewise, the dilution potential in blends with a poorly compactible drug such as acetaminophen was also assessed. Finally, the elastic recovery of tablets was evaluated five days after production. All lubricants increased the compressibility of these excipients and improved their flowability. However, hydrophobic lubricants such as magnesium stearate had a marked negative effect on compactibility, especially in plastic-deforming and more regularlyshaped materials with a smooth surface such as Starch 1500. Alginic acid, rice and cassava starches had the largest elastic recovery (>5%, indicating a tendency to cap. Moreover, highly plastic deforming materials such as sorbitol and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K30 exhibited the best dilution potential (~10%, whereas alginic acid showed a very high value (~70%. In terms of performance, sorbitol, PVP-K30, Avicel PH-101, sodium alginate and pregelatinized starch were the most appropriate excipients for the direct compression of drugs.

  17. Testing the ability of non-methylamine osmolytes present in kidney cells to counteract the deleterious effects of urea on structure, stability and function of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeza Khan

    Full Text Available Human kidney cells are under constant urea stress due to its urine concentrating mechanism. It is believed that the deleterious effect of urea is counteracted by methylamine osmolytes (glycine betaine and glycerophosphocholine present in kidney cells. A question arises: Do the stabilizing osmolytes, non-methylamines (myo-inositol, sorbitol and taurine present in the kidney cells also counteract the deleterious effects of urea? To answer this question, we have measured structure, thermodynamic stability (ΔG D (o and functional activity parameters (K m and k cat of different model proteins in the presence of various concentrations of urea and each non-methylamine osmolyte alone and in combination. We observed that (i for each protein myo-inositol provides perfect counteraction at 1∶2 ([myo-inositol]:[urea] ratio, (ii any concentration of sorbitol fails to refold urea denatured proteins if it is six times less than that of urea, and (iii taurine regulates perfect counteraction in a protein specific manner; 1.5∶2.0, 1.2∶2.0 and 1.0∶2.0 ([taurine]:[urea] ratios for RNase-A, lysozyme and α-lactalbumin, respectively.

  18. Efeito do processamento e das condições ambientais nas propriedades de materiais biodegradáveis de amido de aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A característica hidrofílica dos biomateriais a base de amido resulta em alta instabilidade diante de diferentes condições ambientais. O amido de aveia, por possuir um conteúdo maior de lipídios em relação a outros amidos, torna-se uma fonte interessante, uma vez que a hidrofobicidade aumentada pode atuar reduzindo sua capacidade de sorção de umidade. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar o comportamento de filmes e laminados de amido de aveia, produzidos por casting e extrusão, respectivamente, plastificados com glicerol, sorbitol e ureia e armazenados em diferentes condições de umidade relativa. Mesmo com a presença do lipídio nativo, os materiais ainda mostraram instabilidade diante do aumento da umidade relativa de armazenagem, sendo observado um decréscimo na força e um aumento na deformação nos testes de perfuração. Em geral os biomateriais plastificados com glicerol apresentaram maior capacidade de sorção de água. O sorbitol foi o plastificante mais efetivo, pois produziu materiais com propriedades mecânicas similares aos outros plastificantes mesmo sendo usado em menor concentração molar. O processo de extrusão resultou em materiais finais com estruturas mais abertas e fragmentadas.

  19. Evaluation of Aldose Reductase, Protein Glycation, and Antioxidant Inhibitory Activities of Bioactive Flavonoids in Matricaria recutita L. and Their Structure-Activity Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Hwang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activities of Matricaria recutita L. 70% methanol extract were evaluated by isolating and testing 10 of its compounds on rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging. Among these compounds, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, 3,5-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid, apigenin, and luteolin showed potent inhibition, and their IC50 values in RLAR were 4.25, 1.12, 1.16, 0.85, 0.72, 1.72, and 1.42 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds suppressed sorbitol accumulation in rat lens under high-glucose conditions, demonstrating their potential to prevent sorbitol accumulation ex vivo. Notably, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide and luteolin showed antioxidative as well as AGE-inhibitory activities (IC50 values of these compounds in AGEs were 3.39 and 6.01 μM. These results suggest that the M. recutita extract and its constituents may be promising agents for use in the prevention or treatment of diabetic complications.

  20. Characterization of new polyol/H+ symporters in Debaryomyces hansenii.

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    Iliana Pereira

    Full Text Available Debaryomyces hansenii is a halotolerant yeast that produces and assimilates a wide variety of polyols. In this work we evaluate polyol transport in D. hansenii CBS 767, detecting the occurrence of polyol/H(+ (and sugar/H(+ symporter activity, through the transient extracellular alkalinization of unbuffered starved cell suspensions. From the D. hansenii genome database, we selected nine ORFs encoding putative transporter proteins to clone in a centromeric plasmid with C-terminal GFP tagging and screened for polyol/H(+ symporters by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Five distinct D. hansenii polyol/H(+ symporters were identified and characterized, with different specificities and affinities for polyols, namely one glycerol-specific (DhStl1, one D-galactitol-specific (DhSgl1, Symporter galactitol/H(+ 1, one D-(+-chiro-inositol-specific (DhSyi1, Symporter D-(+-chiro-inositol/H(+ 1, one for D-sorbitol/D-mannitol/ribitol/D-arabitol/D-galactitol (DhSyl1, Symporter Polyols 1 and another for D-sorbitol/D-mannitol/ribitol/D-arabitol (DhSyl2, Symporter Polyols 2. This work contributed to the annotation of new yeast polyol transporters, including two specific for uncommon substrates as galactitol and D-(+-chiro-inositol.

  1. Inhibition of aldose reductase by Gentiana lutea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akileshwari, Chandrasekhar; Muthenna, Puppala; Nastasijević, Branislav; Joksić, Gordana; Petrash, J Mark; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.

  2. In vitro activity of Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree) on Candida tropicalis growth and cell wall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Lívia A; Freires, Irlan de A; de Souza, Tricia M P A; de Castro, Ricardo D

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian pepper tree) tincture on planktonic Candida tropicalis (ATCC 40042), which is a microorganism associated to oral cavity infections. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined through the microdilution technique. Possible action of the tincture on fungal cell wall formation was also studied by adding an osmotic protector (0.8M sorbitol) to the microplates. Nystatin was used as standard control and tests were performed in triplicate. S. terebinthifolius was found to have MIC and MFC values of 625 microg/mL on the strain assayed, whereas nystatin showed MIC and MFC of 6.25 microg/mL. Results suggest that S. terebinthifolius tincture acts on fungal cell walls, since the sorbitol test indicated a MIC of 1.250 microg/mL. It may be concluded that S. terebinthifolius has potential in vitro antifungal activity against C. tropicalis strains, and probably acts by inhibiting fungal cell wall formation.

  3. Comparison between DSC and TMDSC in the investigation into frozen aqueous cryoprotectants solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoveña, A; Piñero, M J; Llabrés, M

    2010-12-01

    The influence of thermal parameters in the observation of thermal events and in the calculation of heat transformation in aqueous cryoprotectant solutions after freezing was investigated using conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC), respectively. The systems under study were formed by pure water and diluted aqueous solutions of mannitol, trehalose, sucrose, sorbitol, and glycine. The influence of different combinations of frequency and amplitude was analyzed in heating-cooling and heating-iso TMDSC scans. Trehalose, sucrose, and sorbitol present a lesser critical temperature of primary drying than other cryoprotectants studied. The calorimetric variables selection is crucial to detect or not the thermal events, or to detect so with different numerical values. Then, the values of the calorimetric parameters determined are different if measured in a mode of heating-cooling or heating-iso. The TMDSC method-1 used in this study employs a higher number of cycles in each thermal event. The use of Lissajous figures and the study of the C(p in-phase) signal evolution will allow us to understand the complexity of the events detected. The comparative study of both techniques points to the selection of conventional or modulated technique depending on the type of system and the nature of the studied events.

  4. Polyol-enhanced dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and nitrogen phosphorous detection for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides from aqueous samples, fruit juices, and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Alizadeh Nabil, Ali Akbar

    2015-12-01

    Polyol-enhanced dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been proposed for the extraction and preconcentration of some organophosphorus pesticides from different samples. In the present study, a high volume of an aqueous phase containing a polyol (sorbitol) is prepared and then a disperser solvent along with an extraction solvent is rapidly injected into it. Sorbitol showed the best results and it was more effective on the extraction recoveries of the analytes than inorganic salts such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium sulfate. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed low limits of detection and quantification within the ranges of 12-56 and 44-162 pg/mL, respectively. Enrichment factors and extraction recoveries were in the ranges of 2799-3033 and 84-92%, respectively. The method precision was evaluated at a concentration of 10 ng/mL of each analyte, and relative standard deviations were found to be less than 5.9% for intraday (n = 6) and less than 7.8% for interday (n = 4). Finally, some aqueous samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method and four analytes (diazinon, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, and phosalone) were determined, some of them at ng/mL level. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Water relations in culture media influence maturation of avocado somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Martín, Belén; Sesmero, Rafael; Quesada, Miguel A; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Sánchez-Romero, Carolina

    2011-11-15

    Application of transformation and other biotechnological tools in avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is hampered by difficulties in obtaining mature somatic embryos capable of germination at an acceptable rate. In this work, we evaluated the effect of different compounds affecting medium water relations on maturation of avocado somatic embryos. Culture media were characterized with respect to gel strength, water potential and osmotic potential. Improved production of mature somatic embryos was achieved with gelling agent concentrations higher than those considered standard. The osmotic agents such as sorbitol and PEG did not have positive effects on embryo maturation. The number of w-o mature somatic embryos per culture was positively correlated with medium gel strength. Gel strength was significantly affected by gelling agent type as well as by gelling agent and PEG concentration. Medium water potential was influenced by sorbitol concentration; incorporation of PEG to a culture medium did not affect medium water potential. The highest maturation results were achieved on a medium gelled with 10 gl(-1) agar. Moreover, these somatic embryos had improved germination rates. These results corroborate the role of water restriction as a key factor controlling maturation of somatic embryos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of non-water soluble, ductile mung bean starch based edible film with oxygen barrier and heat sealability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompothi, Onjira; Pradipasena, Pasawadee; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat; Janjarasskul, Theeranun

    2017-02-10

    This research determined the effects of starch concentration (3.5-5.0%w/w), and plasticizer [glycerol (0-30%w/w) or sorbitol (0-60%w/w)] on properties of mung bean starch (MBS) films. The result showed that increasing plasticizer concentration tended to decrease tensile strength (TS), elastic modulus (EM) and oxygen permeability (OP); but increase elongation (%E), solubility, water vapor permeability (WVP) and seal strength. The extent of those changes also depended on starch concentration. Glycerol provided better plasticizer efficiency than sorbitol. A bimodal melting endotherm of retrograded structure was evident in non-plasticized film. However, only a low temperature endotherm was observed in polyol-plasticized films, indicating a plasticizer-induced structural modification. The developed ductile MBS films, (TS of 7.14±0.95 to 46.30±3.09MPa, %E of 2.46±0.21 to 56.95±4.34% and EM of 16.29±3.40 to 1428.45±148.72MPa) with an OP of 0.2397±0.0365 to 1.1520±0.1782 ccmm/m 2 daykPa and seal strength up to 422.36±7.93N/m, demonstrated in this study indicate the potential for food packaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Plasticizer Type and Concentration on Tensile, Thermal and Barrier Properties of Biodegradable Films Based on Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed L. Sanyang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of starch based films as a potential alternative choice to petroleum derived plastics is imperative for environmental waste management. This study presents a new biopolymer (sugar palm starch for the preparation of biodegradable packaging films using a solution casting technique. The effect of different plasticizer types (glycerol (G, sorbitol (S and glycerol-sorbitol (GS combination with varying concentrations (0, 15, 30 and 45, w/w% on the tensile, thermal and barrier properties of sugar palm starch (SPS films was evaluated. Regardless of plasticizer types, the tensile strength of plasticized SPS films decreased, whereas their elongation at break (E% increased as the plasticizer concentrations were raised. However, the E% for G and GS-plasticized films significantly decreased at a higher plasticizer concentration (45% w/w due to the anti-plasticization effect of plasticizers. Change in plasticizer concentration showed an insignificant effect on the thermal properties of S-plasticized films. The glass transition temperature of SPS films slightly decreased as the plasticizer concentration increased from 15% to 45%. The plasticized films exhibited increased water vapor permeability values from 4.855 × 10−10 to 8.70 × 10−10 g·m−1·s−1·Pa−1, irrespective of plasticizer types. Overall, the current study manifested that plasticized sugar palm starch can be regarded as a promising biopolymer for biodegradable films.

  8. Assessment of carbon sources on in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.; Jan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative approach for in vitro shoot regeneration by both direct and indirect means was developed in three tomato genotypes culturing hypocotyls and leaf discs explants on MS and N6 basal media fortified with various concentrations of carbon sources (sucrose and sorbitol) individually, accumulatively and also in amalgamation with various plant growth regulators. No response of in vitro shoot regeneration was recorded in all the genotypes by the individual application of carbon sources in both MS and N6 basal media. On the other hand, their accumulative effect rapidly enhanced the in vitro shoot regeneration frequency in all the genotypes. The highest shoot organogenesis frequency (100, 99.00 and 97.69%) was recorded in Rio Grande, Roma and Moneymaker, respectively on MS medium fortified with carbon sources (30: 30 g/l) culturing hypocotyls. Supplementation of sucrose: sorbitol (30: 30 g/l) in N6 medium along with different PGRs (0.1 mg/l IAA, 1.0 mg/l ZEA and 2.0 mg/l BAP) produced the highest shoot regeneration frequency (96.33, 92.69 and 88.74%) in Roma, Rio Grande and Moneymaker culturing leaf discs. Our findings suggest an alternative approach as hormone-free protocol for in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato that would save the resources with regard to hormonal costs and time. (author)

  9. Phenotypic characterization of qualitative parameters and antioxidant contents in peach and nectarine fruit and changes after jam preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogoudi, Pavlina; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios; Kafkaletou, Mina; Tsantili, Eleni

    2017-08-01

    Sugars and antioxidants in peaches contribute to fresh fruit quality and nutrition; however, information on widely grown cultivars and changes induced after peach jam preparation is limited. In the present study, colour, sugars and antioxidant parameters were determined in fruit and jam from 45 peach and nectarine cultivars. Pronounced varietal differences were found in sorbitol (42-fold range), total phenolics (TPs) and antioxidant capacities (10- to 19-fold range). Sorbitol levels were greater in non-melting peach, followed by nectarine, and lower values were found in melting peach cultivars. Late-harvested peach and nectarine cultivars tended to have a higher soluble solid content and antioxidant potential. Cultivars with relatively high antioxidant contents produced darker and redder jams, containing more antioxidants, than the jam or the fruit from the other cultivars. Jam-TPs were reduced by 48% compared to fruit-TPs, with greater reduction being noted in high antioxidant cultivars. The most favorable jam organoleptic characteristics were found in 'Morsiani 90', 'Amiga', 'Romea' and 'Alirosada', as well as in non-melting compared to melting peach cultivars. The best cultivars for each fruit flesh type and jam were identified. Peach jam could be an alternative substitute when fresh fruit is not available and when it is prepared with high antioxidant cultivars. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Surveillance of Virulence Markers and Antibiotic Resistance of Shiga toxin Producing E.coli O157:H7 Strains from Meats Purchase in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kargar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shiga toxin Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a common pathogen in cattle, which occasional causes some human disease. This bacterium can potentially contaminate meat and clinical cases of E.coli O157:H7 infections are often associated with consumption of undercooked ground beef. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 122 samples of ground meat were collected and after enrichment in specific culture media and evaluation sorbitol fermentation and their β-glucoronidase activity, the isolation of E.coli O157:H7 strains have been confirmed with specific antisera. Then virulence genes verotoxin, intimin and hemolysin with multiplex PCR and antibiotic resistance strains with disk diffusion method have been tested. Results: Out of specimens that have been supplied, 119 sorbitol negative colonies isolated which 3 strains O157:H7 (2.45% with specific antisera confirmed. Out of considered virulence genes, in two cases of these samples (1.64% the stx1 and eaeA genes were seen and also 2 isolated bacteria had resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, penicillin, clindamicin, cefixime, novobiocin, and gentamicin antibiotics. Conclusion: As this organism lives in intestines of healthy cattle, preventive measures on cattle farms and during meat processing are necessary.

  11. Rapid changes in plasma membrane protein phosphorylation during initiation of cell wall digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, D.P.; Boss, W.F.; Trewavas, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [γ- 32 P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of M r 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of M r 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at M r 22,000. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic 32 P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselas preparation was required for the observed responses

  12. Effect of mammalian kidney osmolytes on the folding pathway of sheep serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Mohammad Aasif; Islam, Asimul; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan

    2017-04-01

    Recently, we had published that urea-induced denaturation curves of optical properties of sheep serum albumin (SSA) are biphasic with a stable intermediate that has characteristics of molten globule (MG) state. In this study, we have extended the work by carrying out urea- and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)-induced denaturations of SSA in the presence of naturally occurring mammalian kidney osmolytes, namely, sorbitol, myo-inositol and glycine betaine. We have observed that all these osmolytes (i) transform this biphasic transition into a co-operative, two-state transition and (ii) increase the stability of the protein in terms of midpoint of denaturation (C m ) and Gibbs free energy change in the absence of both denaturants (ΔG D 0 ). The relative effectiveness of different osmolytes on the stability of SSA follows the order: glycine betaine>myo-inositol>sorbitol. In this paper, we also report that kidney osmolytes destabilize MG state by shifting the equilibrium, native state↔MG state toward the left. This study will be helpful in understanding the existence of osmolytes in kidney and their role in folding of kidney proteins soaked with urea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of hemodynamic and vascular albumin filtration changes in diabetic rats by aldose reductase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; Chang, K.; Pugliese, G.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Sherman, W.R.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated hemodynamic changes in diabetic rats and their relationship to changes in vascular albumin permeation and increased metabolism of glucose to sorbitol. The effects of 6 wk of streptozocin-induced diabetes and three structurally different inhibitors of aldose reductase were examined on (1) regional blood flow (assessed with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres) and vascular permeation by 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and (2) glomerular filtration rate (assessed by plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA) and urinary albumin excretion (determined by radial immunodiffusion assay). In diabetic rats, blood flow was significantly increased in ocular tissues (anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, and optic nerve), sciatic nerve, kidney, new granulation tissue, cecum, and brain. 125I-BSA permeation was increased in all of these tissues except brain. Glomerular filtration rate and 24-h urinary albumin excretion were increased 2- and 29-fold, respectively, in diabetic rats. All three aldose reductase inhibitors completely prevented or markedly reduced these hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes and increases in tissue sorbitol levels in the anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, sciatic nerve, and granulation tissue. These observations indicate that early diabetes-induced hemodynamic changes and increased vascular albumin permeation and urinary albumin excretion are aldose reductase-linked phenomena. Discordant effects of aldose reductase inhibitors on blood flow and vascular albumin permeation in some tissues suggest that increased vascular albumin permeation is not entirely attributable to hemodynamic change

  14. Influência de diferentes meios de cultura sobre o crescimento de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (Amaranthaceae para conservação in vitro Influence of different culture media on the growth of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pendersen (Amaranthaceae for conservation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B.N. Alves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata ocorre em vários estados do Brasil e países limítrofes da região Sul às margens de rios e nas orlas das matas de galerias, é espécie hidrófita e heliófita. As raízes de espécies do gênero Pfaffia são usadas na medicina popular brasileira, especialmente como tônico, afrodisíaco e no controle do diabete. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um banco de germoplasma in vitro de Pfaffia glomerata. O experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado foi conduzido com seis tratamentos: 1 MS + 2% de sacarose + 4% de sorbitol; 2 MS/2 + 2% de sacarose + 4% de sorbitol; 3 MS + 2% de sacarose + 4% de sorbitol + 2 mg L-1 de pantotenato de cálcio; 4 MS/2 + 2% de sacarose + 4% de sorbitol + 2 mg L-1de pantotenato de cálcio; 5 MS + 2% de sacarose + 3% de manitol + 2 mg L-1de pantotenato de cálcio; 6 MS/2 + 2% de sacarose + 3% de manitol + 2 mg L-1de pantotenato de cálcio. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de separação de médias de Scott Knott. Os tratamentos um, três e quatro apresentaram, significativamente, o maior número de segmentos nodais por haste, quando comparados com os tratamentos dois, cinco e seis. O tratamento dois foi o mais indicado para a conservação in vitro da espécie por ter promovido menor crescimento das plantas (altura de 3,1±1,9 cm, alto índice de sobrevivência, 100% de explantes com brotação e o maior número de brotos por explante, após seis meses de cultivo. Todas as plântulas produziram raízes e não houve formação de calos, também não ocorreu hiperhidricidade nos tratamentos avaliados. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram 100% de sobrevivência no ambiente ex vitro. A manutenção de acessos de P. glomerata no banco de germoplasma in vitro é viável tanto do ponto de vista da conservação quanto economicamente.Pfaffia glomerata occurs in several states of Brazil and its neighboring countries in the south region at riverbanks

  15. Antifungal activity and mechanism of action of monoterpenes against dermatophytes and yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Miron

    Full Text Available Dermatomycosis causes highly frequent dermal lesions, and volatile oils have been proven to be promising as antifungal agents. The antifungal activity of geraniol, nerol, citral, neral and geranial (monoterpenes, and terbinafine and anidulafungin (control drugs against seven opportunistic pathogenic yeasts and four dermatophyte species was evaluated by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute microdilution tests. Monoterpenes were more active against dermatophytes than yeasts (geometric mean of minimal inhibitory concentration (GMIC of 34.5 and 100.4 µg.ml-1, respectively. Trichophyton rubrum was the fungal species most sensitive to monoterpenes (GMIC of 22.9 µg.ml-1. The trans isomers showed higher antifungal activity than the cis. The mechanism of action was investigated evaluating damage in the fungal cell wall (Sorbitol Protection Assay and in the cell membrane (Ergosterol Affinity Assay. No changes were observed in the MIC of monoterpenes in the sorbitol protection assay.The MIC of citral and geraniol was increased from 32 to 160 µg.ml-1 when the exogenous ergosterol concentrations was zero and 250 µg.ml-1, respectively. The monoterpenes showed an affinity for ergosterol relating their mechanism of action to cell membrane destabilization.

  16. Response of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats under oxidative stress of intermittent radiation exposure to either antioxidant or insulin mimic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaman, E.; El-Tahawy, N.A.; Hedayat, I.S.; Mansour, S.Z.; Fahmy, Y.N.

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic rats were treated with 0.5% a-lipoic acid, as a diet supplement, or was administered with vanadyl sulphate in drinking water at a dose of 75 mg/kg with or without whole body gamma radiation exposure with repeated dose of 4 Gy/week for 4 weeks. Both treatments significantly improved diabetes-induced increase in glucose concentration. Treating diabetic rats with a-lipoic acid prevented the diabetes-induced increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma and significantly improved liver glutathione levels. On the other hand, treating diabetic rats with vanadyl sulphate not only prevented diabetes-induced changes of either of these oxidative stress markers but also normalized glucose concentration and ameliorated the increase in body weight gain. Diabetes with or without radiation exposure induced increase in liver conjugated diene levels and such elevation was improved by the treatment with either a-lipoic acid or vanadyl sulphate. Treating diabetic rats with a-lipoic acid and vanadyl sulphate partially improved liver No*VlC-ATPase activity and sorbitol and myo-inositol contents. The increase in liver sorbitol levels in diabetic rats was ameliorated by either treatment. These studies suggest that diabetes-induced oxidative stress may be partially responsible for the development of diabetic complications and the treatment with vanadyl sulphate was more advantageous than a-lipoic acid in handling these complications

  17. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts

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    Chandrasekhar Akileshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2 activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.

  18. PENGARUH PLASTICIZER PADA KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM DARI PEKTIN

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    Sang Kompiang Wirawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available EFFECT OF PLASTICIzER ON THE PECTINIC EDIBLE FILM CHARACTERISTICS. The peel of Balinese Citrus contains high concentration of pectin which can be further processed to be edible films. The edible films can be utilized as a food coating which protects the food from any external mass transports such as humid, oxygen, and soluble material and can be served as a carrier to improve the mechanical-handing properties of the food. Edible films made of organic polymers tend to be brittle and thus addition of a plasticizer is required during the process. The work studies the effect of the type and the concentration of plasticizers on the tensile strength, the elongation of break, and the water vapor permeabilty of the edible film. Sorbitol and glycerol were used as plasticizers. Albedo from the citrus was hydrolized with hydrochloride acid 0.1 N to get pectinate substance. Pectin was then dissolved in water dan mixed with the plasticizers and CaCl2.2H2O solution. The concentrations of the plasticizers were 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 mL/mL of solution. The results showed that increasing the concentration of plasticizers will decrease the tensile strength, but increase the elongation and film permeability. Sorbitol-plasticized films are more brittle, however exhibited higher tensile strength and water vapor permeability than of glycerol-plasticized film. The results suggested that glycerol is better plasticizer than sorbitol.  Kulit jeruk bali banyak mengandung pektin yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku edible film. Edible film bisa digunakan untuk melapisi bahan makanan, melindungi makanan dari transfer massa eksternal seperti kelembaban, oksigen, dan zat terlarut, serta dapat digunakan sebagai carrier untuk meningkatkan penanganan mekanik produk makanan. Film yang terbuat dari bahan polimer organik ini cenderung rapuh sehingga diperlukan penambahan plasticizer. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh kadar dan jenis

  19. Novel polymer blends with thermoplastic starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ata

    A new class of polymers known as "bioplastics" has emerged and is expanding rapidly. This class consists of polymers that are either bio-based or biodegradable, or both. Among these, polysaccharides, namely starch, are of great interest for several reasons. By gelatinizing starch via plasticizers, it can be processed in the same way as thermoplastic polymers with conventional processing equipment. Hence, these bio-based and biodegradable plastics, with their low source and refinery costs, as well as relatively easy processability, have made them ideal candidates for incorporation into various current plastic products. Four different plasticizers have been chosen here for gelatinization of thermoplastic starch (TPS): glycerol, sorbitol, diglycerol and polyglycerol, with the latter two being used for the first time in such a process. Two methodological categories are used. The first involves a calorimetric method (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) as well as optical microscopy; these are "static" methods where no shear is applied A wide range of starch/water/plasticizer compositions were prepared to explore the gelatinization regime for each plasticizer. The onset and conclusion gelatinization temperatures for sorbitol and glycerol were found to be in the same vicinity, while diglycerol and polyglycerol showed significantly higher transition temperatures. The higher molecular weight and viscosity of polyglycerol allow this transition to occur at an even higher temperature than with diglycerol. This is due to the increase in molecular weight and viscosity of the two new plasticizers, as well as their significant decrease in water solubility. It is demonstrated that the water/plasticizer ratio has a pronounced effect on gelatinization temperatures. When plasticizer content was held constant and water content was increased, it was found that the gelatinization temperature decreased for all the plasticizers. Meanwhile, when the water content was held constant and the

  20. Alternative oxidase pathway optimizes photosynthesis during osmotic and temperature stress by regulating cellular ROS, malate valve and antioxidative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINAKAR eCHALLABATHULA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reveals the importance of alternative oxidase (AOX pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under osmotic and temperature stress conditions in the mesophyll protoplasts of Pisum sativum. The responses of photosynthesis and respiration were monitored at saturating light intensity of 1000 µmoles m-2 s-1 at 25 oC under a range of sorbitol concentrations from 0.4 M to 1.0M to induce hyper-osmotic stress and by varying the temperature of the thermo-jacketed pre-incubation chamber from 25 oC to 10 oC to impose sub-optimal temperature stress. Compared to controls (0.4 M sorbitol and 25 OC, the mesophyll protoplasts showed remarkable decrease in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution (indicator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, under both hyper-osmotic (1.0 M sorbitol and sub-optimal temperature stress conditions (10 OC, while the decrease in rates of respiratory O2 uptake were marginal. The capacity of AOX pathway increased significantly in parallel to increase in intracellular pyruvate and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperature stress under the background of saturating light. The ratio of redox couple (Malate/OAA related to malate valve increased in contrast to the ratio of redox couple (GSH/GSSG related to antioxidative system during hyper-osmotic stress. Nevertheless, the ratio of GSH/GSSG decreased in the presence of sub-optimal temperature, while the ratio of Malate/OAA showed no visible changes. Also, the redox ratios of pyridine nucleotides increased under hyper-osmotic (NADH/NAD and sub-optimal temperature (NADPH/NADP stresses, respectively. However, upon restriction of AOX pathway by using salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, the observed changes in NaHCO3 dependent O2 evolution, cellular ROS, redox ratios of Malate/OAA, NAD(PH/NAD(P and GSH/GSSG were further aggravated under stress conditions with concomitant modulations in NADP-MDH and antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, the

  1. Effects of rare sugar D-allulose on acid production and probiotic activities of dairy lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto-Nira, H; Moriya, N; Hayakawa, S; Kuramasu, K; Ohmori, H; Yamasaki, S; Ogawa, M

    2017-07-01

    It has recently been reported that the rare sugar d-allulose has beneficial effects, including the suppression of postprandial blood glucose elevation in humans, and can be substituted for sucrose as a low-calorie food ingredient. To examine the applications of d-allulose in the dairy industry, we investigated the effects of d-allulose on the acid production of 8 strains of yogurt starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and 4 strains of lactococci, including potential probiotic candidates derived from dairy products. Acid production by 2 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus yogurt starter strains in milk was suppressed by d-allulose, but this phenomenon was also observed in some strains with another sugar (xylose), a sugar alcohol (sorbitol), or both. In contrast, among the dairy probiotic candidates, Lactococcus lactis H61, which has beneficial effects for human skin when drunk as part of fermented milk, was the only strain that showed suppression of acid production in the presence of d-allulose. Strain H61 did not metabolize d-allulose. We did not observe suppression of acid production by strain H61 with the addition of xylose or sorbitol, and xylose and sorbitol were not metabolized by strain H61. The acid production of strain H61 after culture in a constituted medium (tryptone-yeast extract-glucose broth) was also suppressed with the addition of d-allulose, but growth efficiency and sugar fermentation style were not altered. Probiotic activities-such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of H61-fermented milk and the superoxide dismutase activity of H61 cells grown in tryptone-yeast extract-glucose broth-were not affected by d-allulose. d-Allulose may suppress acid production in certain lactic acid bacteria without altering their probiotic activity. It may be useful for developing new probiotic dairy products from probiotic strains such as Lactococcus lactis H61. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  2. The production of (14C) oxalate during the metabolism of (14C) carbohydrates in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofe, A M; James, H M; Bais, R; Edwards, J B; Conyers, R A

    1980-04-01

    Oxalate (14C) was produced during the metabolism of (U-14C) carbohydrates in hepatocytes isolated from normal rats. At 10 mM, the order of oxalate production was fructose > glycerol > xylitol > sorbitol greater than or equal to glucose in the ratio 10 : 4 : 3 : 1 : 1. This difference between oxalate production from fructose and glucose was reflected in their rates of utilisation, glucose being poorly metabolised in hepatocytes from fasted rats. Fructose was rapidly metabolised, producing glucose, lactate and pyruvate as the major metabolites. Glycerol, xylitol and sorbitol were metabolised at half the rate of fructose, the major metabolites being glucose, lactate and glycerophosphate. The marked similarity in the pattern of intermediary metabolites produced by these polyols was not, however, reflected in the rates of oxalate production. Hepatic polyol metabolism resulted in high levels of cytosolic NADH, as indicated by elevated lactate : pyruvate and glycerophosphate : dihydroxyacetone phosphate ratios. The artificial electron acceptor, phenazine methosulphate (PMS) stimulated oxalate production from the polyols, particularly xylitol. In the presence of PMS, the order of oxalate production was fructose greater than or equal to xylitol > glycerol > sorbitol in the ratio 10 : 10 : 6 : 2. The production of glucose, lactate and pyruvate from the polyols was also stimulated by PMS, whereas the general metabolism of fructose, including oxalate production, was little affected. Oxalate (14C) was produced from (1-14C), (2-14C) and (6-14C) but not (3,4-14C) glucose in hepatocytes isolated from non-fasted, pyridoxine-deficient rats. Whilst this labelling pattern is consistent with oxalate being produced by a number of pathways, it is suggested that metabolism via hydroxypyruvate is a major route for oxalate production from various carbohydrates, with perhaps the exception of xylitol, which appears to have an alternative mechanism for oxalate production. The observation that

  3. Cell death triggered by alpha-emitting 213Bi-immunoconjugates in HSC45-M2 gastric cancer cells is different from apoptotic cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Christof; Schroeck, Hedwig; Seidenschwang, Sabine; Beck, Roswitha; Schwaiger, Markus; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Schmid, Ernst; Abend, Michael; Becker, Karl-Friedrich; Apostolidis, Christos; Nikula, Tuomo K.; Kremmer, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy with α-particle-emitting nuclides, such as 213 Bi, is a promising concept for the elimination of small tumour nodules or single disseminated tumour cells. The aim of this study was to investigate cellular damage and the mode of cell death triggered by 213 Bi-immunoconjugates. Human gastric cancer cells (HSC45-M2) expressing d9-E-cadherin were incubated with different levels of activity of 213 Bi-d9MAb targeting d9-E-cadherin and 213 Bi-d8MAb, which does not bind to d9-E-cadherin. Micronucleated (M) cells, abnormal (A) cells and apoptotic (A) [(MAA)] cells were scored microscopically in the MAA assay following fluorescent staining of nuclei and cytoplasm. Chromosomal aberrations were analysed microscopically following Giemsa staining. The effect of z-VAD-fmk, known to inhibit apoptosis, on the prevention of cell death was investigated following treatment of HSC45-M2 cells with sorbitol as well as 213 Bi-d9MAb. Activation of caspase 3 after incubation of HSC45-M2 cells with both sorbitol and 213 Bi-d9MAb was analysed via Western blotting. Following incubation of HSC45-M2 human gastric cancer cells expressing d9-E-cadherin with 213 Bi-d9MAb the number of cells killed increased proportional to the applied activity concentration. Microscopically visible effects of α-irradiation of HSC45-M2 cells were formation of micronuclei and severe chromosomal aberrations. Preferential induction of these lesions with specific 213 Bi-d9MAb compared with unspecific 213 Bi-d8MAb (not targeting d9-E-cadherin) was not observed if the number of floating, i.e. unbound 213 Bi-immunoconjugates per cell exceeded 2 x 10 4 , most likely due to intense crossfire. In contrast to sorbitol-induced cell death, cell death triggered by 213 Bi-immunoconjugates was independent of caspase 3 activation and could not be inhibited by z-VAD-fmk, known to suppress the apoptotic pathway. 213 Bi-immunoconjugates seem to induce a mode of cell death different from apoptosis in HSC45-M2 cells

  4. Cell death triggered by alpha-emitting {sup 213}Bi-immunoconjugates in HSC45-M2 gastric cancer cells is different from apoptotic cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Christof; Schroeck, Hedwig; Seidenschwang, Sabine; Beck, Roswitha; Schwaiger, Markus; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Schmid, Ernst [National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Biology, GSF, Neuherberg (Germany); Abend, Michael [German Armed Forces, Institute of Radiobiology, Munich (Germany); Becker, Karl-Friedrich [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Pathology, GSF, Neuherberg (Germany); National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Molecular Immunology, GSF, Munich (Germany); Apostolidis, Christos; Nikula, Tuomo K. [European Commission, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kremmer, Elisabeth [National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Molecular Immunology, GSF, Munich (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Radioimmunotherapy with {alpha}-particle-emitting nuclides, such as{sup 213}Bi, is a promising concept for the elimination of small tumour nodules or single disseminated tumour cells. The aim of this study was to investigate cellular damage and the mode of cell death triggered by {sup 213}Bi-immunoconjugates. Human gastric cancer cells (HSC45-M2) expressing d9-E-cadherin were incubated with different levels of activity of {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb targeting d9-E-cadherin and {sup 213}Bi-d8MAb, which does not bind to d9-E-cadherin. Micronucleated (M) cells, abnormal (A) cells and apoptotic (A) [(MAA)] cells were scored microscopically in the MAA assay following fluorescent staining of nuclei and cytoplasm. Chromosomal aberrations were analysed microscopically following Giemsa staining. The effect of z-VAD-fmk, known to inhibit apoptosis, on the prevention of cell death was investigated following treatment of HSC45-M2 cells with sorbitol as well as {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb. Activation of caspase 3 after incubation of HSC45-M2 cells with both sorbitol and {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb was analysed via Western blotting. Following incubation of HSC45-M2 human gastric cancer cells expressing d9-E-cadherin with {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb the number of cells killed increased proportional to the applied activity concentration. Microscopically visible effects of {alpha}-irradiation of HSC45-M2 cells were formation of micronuclei and severe chromosomal aberrations. Preferential induction of these lesions with specific {sup 213}Bi-d9MAb compared with unspecific {sup 213}Bi-d8MAb (not targeting d9-E-cadherin) was not observed if the number of floating, i.e. unbound {sup 213}Bi-immunoconjugates per cell exceeded 2 x 10{sup 4}, most likely due to intense crossfire. In contrast to sorbitol-induced cell death, cell death triggered by {sup 213}Bi-immunoconjugates was independent of caspase 3 activation and could not be inhibited by z-VAD-fmk, known to suppress the apoptotic pathway. {sup 213}Bi-immunoconjugates seem

  5. The influence of polymeric excipients on the process of pharmaceutical availability of therapeutic agents from a model drug form. Part I. In formulations with controlled disintegration and release time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachajski, Michal Jakub; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj

    2010-01-01

    Pre-formulation research was conducted on the application of Ex. Echinaceae aq. siccum in the production of a quickly disintegrating suspension tablet, a lozenge with kariostatic sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), and, above all, a solid drug form with controlled release of therapeutic agents included in the extract. Morphological parameters of tablets obtained in the course of experiment were estimated and the profiles of the release (diffusion) ofhydrophilic therapeutic agents into model receptor fluids with varying values of osmolarity (0.1 mol HCl approximately 200 mOsm/l, hypotonic hydrating fluid approximately 143 mOsm/l, and compensatory paediatric fluid approximately 272 mOsm/l) were examined. The study focused on the technological problem of determining the effect of hydrogel Carbopol structure on the ordering of diffusion ofhydrophilic therapeutic agents from a model drug form (a tablet) into model fluids with variable osmolarity.

  6. Reversible effects of acute hypertension on proximal tubule sodium transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Magyar, C E; Norian, J M

    1998-01-01

    Acute hypertension provokes a rapid decrease in proximal tubule sodium reabsorption with a decrease in basolateral membrane sodium-potassium-ATPase activity and an increase in the density of membranes containing apical membrane sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHE3) [Y. Zhang, A. K. Mircheff, C. B....... Renal cortex lysate was fractionated on sorbitol gradients. Basolateral membrane sodium-potassium-ATPase activity (but not subunit immunoreactivity) decreased one-third to one-half after BP was elevated and recovered after BP was normalized. After BP was elevated, 55% of the apical NHE3 immunoreactivity......, smaller fractions of sodium-phosphate cotransporter immunoreactivity, and apical alkaline phosphatase and dipeptidyl-peptidase redistributed to membranes of higher density enriched in markers of the intermicrovillar cleft (megalin) and endosomes (Rab 4 and Rab 5), whereas density distributions...

  7. Antibiotic-induced shifts in the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome increase susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Casey M.; Koenigsknecht, Mark J.; Carlson, Paul E.; Hatton, Gabrielle E.; Nelson, Adam M.; Li, Bo; Huffnagle, Gary B.; Li, Jun; Young, Vincent B.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics can have significant and long lasting effects on the gastrointestinal tract microbiota, reducing colonization resistance against pathogens including Clostridium difficile. Here we show that antibiotic treatment induces substantial changes in the gut microbial community and in the metabolome of mice susceptible to C. difficile infection. Levels of secondary bile acids, glucose, free fatty acids, and dipeptides decrease, whereas those of primary bile acids and sugar alcohols increase, reflecting the modified metabolic activity of the altered gut microbiome. In vitro and ex vivo analyses demonstrate that C. difficile can exploit specific metabolites that become more abundant in the mouse gut after antibiotics, including primary bile acid taurocholate for germination, and carbon sources mannitol, fructose, sorbitol, raffinose and stachyose for growth. Our results indicate that antibiotic-mediated alteration of the gut microbiome converts the global metabolic profile to one that favors C. difficile germination and growth. PMID:24445449

  8. Biosynthesis of rare hexoses using microorganisms and related enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijie; Gao, Yahui; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rare sugars, referred to as monosaccharides and their derivatives that rarely exist in nature, can be applied in many areas ranging from foodstuffs to pharmaceutical and nutrition industry, or as starting materials for various natural products and drug candidates. Unfortunately, an important factor restricting the utilization of rare sugars is their limited availability, resulting from limited synthetic methods. Nowadays, microbial and enzymatic transformations have become a very powerful tool in this field. This article reviews the biosynthesis and enzymatic production of rare ketohexoses, aldohexoses and sugar alcohols (hexitols), including D-tagatose, D-psicose, D-sorbose, L-tagatose, L-fructose, 1-deoxy-L-fructose, D-allose, L-glucose, L-talose, D-gulose, L-galactose, L-fucose, allitol, D-talitol, and L-sorbitol. New systems and robust catalysts resulting from advancements in genomics and bioengineering are also discussed. PMID:24367410

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of maize aldose reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyota, Eduardo [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Sousa, Sylvia Morais de [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Santos, Marcelo Leite dos; Costa Lima, Aline da [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Menossi, Marcelo [Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Yunes, José Andrés [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Centro Infantil Boldrini, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Aparicio, Ricardo, E-mail: aparicio@iqm.unicamp.br [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of apo maize aldose reductase at 2.0 Å resolution are reported. Maize aldose reductase (AR) is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. In contrast to human AR, maize AR seems to prefer the conversion of sorbitol into glucose. The apoenzyme was crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.2, b = 54.5, c = 100.6 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data were collected and a final resolution limit of 2.0 Å was obtained after data reduction. Phasing was carried out by an automated molecular-replacement procedure and structural refinement is currently in progress. The refined structure is expected to shed light on the functional/enzymatic mechanism and the unusual activities of maize AR.

  10. Biosynthesis of rare hexoses using microorganisms and related enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijie Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare sugars, referred to as monosaccharides and their derivatives that rarely exist in nature, can be applied in many areas ranging from foodstuffs to pharmaceutical and nutrition industry, or as starting materials for various natural products and drug candidates. Unfortunately, an important factor restricting the utilization of rare sugars is their limited availability, resulting from limited synthetic methods. Nowadays, microbial and enzymatic transformations have become a very powerful tool in this field. This article reviews the biosynthesis and enzymatic production of rare ketohexoses, aldohexoses and sugar alcohols (hexitols, including D-tagatose, D-psicose, D-sorbose, L-tagatose, L-fructose, 1-deoxy-L-fructose, D-allose, L-glucose, L-talose, D-gulose, L-galactose, L-fucose, allitol, D-talitol, and L-sorbitol. New systems and robust catalysts resulting from advancements in genomics and bioengineering are also discussed.

  11. Biosynthesis of rare hexoses using microorganisms and related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijie; Gao, Yahui; Nakanishi, Hideki; Gao, Xiaodong; Cai, Li

    2013-11-12

    Rare sugars, referred to as monosaccharides and their derivatives that rarely exist in nature, can be applied in many areas ranging from foodstuffs to pharmaceutical and nutrition industry, or as starting materials for various natural products and drug candidates. Unfortunately, an important factor restricting the utilization of rare sugars is their limited availability, resulting from limited synthetic methods. Nowadays, microbial and enzymatic transformations have become a very powerful tool in this field. This article reviews the biosynthesis and enzymatic production of rare ketohexoses, aldohexoses and sugar alcohols (hexitols), including D-tagatose, D-psicose, D-sorbose, L-tagatose, L-fructose, 1-deoxy-L-fructose, D-allose, L-glucose, L-talose, D-gulose, L-galactose, L-fucose, allitol, D-talitol, and L-sorbitol. New systems and robust catalysts resulting from advancements in genomics and bioengineering are also discussed.

  12. Top Value Added Chemicals From Biomass: I. Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werpy, Todd A.; Holladay, John E.; White, James F.

    2004-11-01

    This report identifies twelve building block chemicals that can be produced from sugars via biological or chemical conversions. The twelve building blocks can be subsequently converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials. Building block chemicals, as considered for this analysis, are molecules with multiple functional groups that possess the potential to be transformed into new families of useful molecules. The twelve sugar-based building blocks are 1,4-diacids (succinic, fumaric and malic), 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxy propionic acid, aspartic acid, glucaric acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, glycerol, sorbitol, and xylitol/arabinitol. In addition to building blocks, the report outlines the central technical barriers that are preventing the widespread use of biomass for products and chemicals.

  13. Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin.

  14. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida subspec. Multocida from chronic periapical lesion: First isolation in ex-Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvajdžić Ljiljana Ð.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents five isolates of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multo-cida isolated from chronic periapical inflammatory lesion. We described the methods of sampling and cultivation as well as diagnostic criteria. Pasteurella multocida was diagnosed on the basis of characteristic cultural and tinctorial properties and the facts that all strains produced indole and induced ornithine decarboxilation, glucose, saccharose and manitole fermentation. Isolates produced neither urease, nor fermented lactose and maltose. Further classification to subspecies multocida was based on the fact that all investigated isolates fermented trechalose, xylose and sorbitol the traits which are diagnostically significant for the species. Patients deny any contact with farm animals or pets, which indicates a possible aerosol transport and animal-human as well as human-human infection. We consider that this organism should be paid more attention by dentist, oral surgeons and microbiologists.

  15. Stability of Proteins in Carbohydrates and Other Additives during Freezing: The Human Growth Hormone as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsiccio, Andrea; Pisano, Roberto

    2017-09-21

    Molecular dynamics is here used to elucidate the mechanism of protein stabilization by carbohydrates and other additives during freezing. More specifically, we used molecular dynamics simulations to obtain a quantitative estimation of the capability of various cryoprotectants to preserve a model protein, the human growth hormone, against freezing stresses. Three mechanisms were investigated, preferential exclusion, water replacement, and vitrification. Model simulations were finally validated upon experimental data in terms of the ability of excipients to prevent protein aggregation. Overall, we found that the preferential exclusion and vitrification mechanisms are important during the whole freezing process, while water replacement becomes dominant only toward the end of the cryoconcentration phase. The disaccharides were found to be the most efficient excipients, in regard to both preferential exclusion and water replacement. Moreover, sugars were in general more efficient than other excipients, such as glycine or sorbitol.

  16. Relation between secondary doping and phase separation in PEDOT:PSS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoval, Martin; Micjan, Michal; Novota, Miroslav; Nevrela, Juraj; Kovacova, Sona; Pavuk, Milan; Juhasz, Peter; Jagelka, Martin; Kovac, Jaroslav; Jakabovic, Jan [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia); Cigan, Marek [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Science, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina CH-2, Ilkovicova 6, Bratislava 84215 (Slovakia); Weis, Martin, E-mail: martin.weis@stuba.sk [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava 81219 (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Surface morphology of highly conductive polymer was investigated. • Phase separation due to secondary doping is an origin of conductivity enhancement. • Phase separation is not dependent on secondary dopant type. - Abstract: Conductive copolymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative to transparent conductive oxides because of its flexibility, transparency, and low-cost production. Four different secondary dopants, namely N,N-dimethylformamide, ethyleneglycol, sorbitol, and dimethyl sulfoxide, have been used to improve the conductivity. The relation between the structure changes and conductivity enhancement is studied in detail. Atomic force microscopy study of the thin film surface reveals the phase separation of PEDOT and PSS. We demonstrate that secondary doping induces the phase separation as well as the conductivity enhancement.

  17. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus

    2015-01-01

    , if a microwave oven is applicable for accelerated drug stability testing. Chemical interactions were investigated in three selected model formulations of drug and excipients regarding the formation of ester and amide reaction products. The accelerated stability studies performed in the microwave oven using...... a design of experiments (DoE) approach in order to be able to rank excipients regarding reactivity: Study A: cetirizine with PEG 400, sorbitol, glycerol and propylene glycol. Study B: 6-aminocaproic acid with citrate, acetate, tartrate and gluconate. Study C: atenolol with citric, tartaric, malic, glutaric......, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating...

  18. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Reddy, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    The last few years have seen a significant increase in the use of ionising radiation in industrial processes and also international trade in irradiated products. With this, the demand for internationally accepted dosimetric techniques, accredited to international standards has also increased which is further stimulated by the emergence of ISO-9000 series of standards in industries. The present paper describes some of the important dosimetric techniques used in radiation processing, the role of IAEA in evolving internationally accepted standards and work carried out at the Defence Laboratories, Jodhpur in the development of a cheap, broad dose range and simple dosimeter for routine dosimetry. For this polyhydroxy alcohols viz., mannitol, sorbitol and inositol were studied using the spectrophotometric read out method. Out of the alcohols studied mannitol was found to be most promising covering a dose range of 0.01 kGy - 100 kGy. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. CHANGES IN SERUM ENZYMES LEVELS ASSOCIATED WITH LIVER FUNCTIONS IN STRESSED MARWARI GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataria N.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Serum enzyme levels were determined in goats of Marwari breed belonging to farmers’ stock of arid tract of Rajasthan state, India. The animals were grouped into healthy and stressed comprising of gastrointestinal parasiticised, pneumonia affected, and drought affected. The serum enzymes determined were sorbitol dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase, gamma-glutamayl transferase, 5’nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphatase, arginase, and aldolase. In stressed group the mean values of all the enzymes increased significantly (p≤0.05 as compared to respective healthy mean value. All the enzymes showed highest values in the gastrointestinal parasiticised animals and least values in the animals having pneumonia. In gastrointestinal parasiticised animals maximum change was observed in G-6-Pase activity and minimum change was observed in malate dehydrogenase mean value. It was concluded that Increased activity of all the serum enzymes was due to modulation of liver functions directly or indirectly.

  20. Preparation and mechanical properties of edible rapeseed protein films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-Ae; Lim, Geum-Ok; Song, Kyung Bin

    2011-03-01

    Edible films were manufactured from rapeseed oil extraction residues. To prepare rapeseed protein (RP) films, various concentrations of plasticizers and emulsifiers were incorporated into the preparation of a film-forming solution. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the RP film were 2% sorbitol/0.5% sucrose as plasticizer and 1.5% polysorbate 20 as an emulsifier. In addition, RP blend films were prepared. Gelidium corneum or gelatin was added to improve the physical properties of the RP film, and the highest tensile strength value of the films was 53.45 MPa for the 3% RP/4% gelatin film. Our results suggest that the RP-gelatin blend film is suitable for applications in food packaging. Edible RP films prepared in the present investigation can be applied in food packaging.