WorldWideScience

Sample records for sorbents snt cst

  1. A comparative evaluation of avidin-biotin ELISA and micro SNT for detection of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in cattle population of Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyaranjan Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to serologically detect Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR in the cattle population of Odisha, India using micro-Serum neutralization test (micro SNT and Avidin-Biotin Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (AB ELISA and finding out their comparative efficacy to serve as a suitable diagnostic tool in field condition. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using serum samples (n=180 collected randomly from cattle populations of nine districts of Odisha. Similarly vaginal swabs (n=26 from cattle having history of repeat breeding, abortion, vulvo-vaginitis and nasal swabs (n=8 from calves with respiratory symptoms and nasal discharge were collected aseptically, to ascertain the circulation of virus among the cattle population. Results: Virus isolation by cell culture and subsequent confirmation by polymerase chain reaction confirmed four isolates. Screening of serum samples revealed 9.44% and 12.22% samples positive for IBR antibodies in micro SNT and AB ELISA respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of AB ELISA test was found to be 88.23% and 95.70% respectively taking micro SNT as gold standard and the kappa value between the two tests was 0.75. Conclusion: Screening of serum samples revealed 9.44% and 12.22% samples positive for IBR antibodies in micro SNT and AB ELISA respectively, thus highlighting the circulation of virus among the livestock population of Odisha and that AB ELISA could be more efficiently applied for the sero-diagnosis of IBR virus infections at field conditions, with demand for more study on faster, efficient and large scale screening of the infected animals.

  2. The Surface-Exposed Protein SntA Contributes to Complement Evasion in Zoonotic Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Simin; Xu, Tong; Fang, Qiong; Yu, Lei; Zhu, Jiaqi; Chen, Long; Liu, Jiahui; Zhou, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen causing streptococcal toxic shock like syndrome (STSLS), meningitis, septicemia, and even sudden death in human and pigs. Serious septicemia indicates this bacterium can evade the host complement surveillance. In our previous study, a functionally unknown protein SntA of S. suis has been identified as a heme-binding protein, and contributes to virulence in pigs. SntA can interact with the host antioxidant protein AOP2 and consequently inhibit its antioxidant activity. In the present study, SntA is identified as a cell wall anchored protein that functions as an important player in S. suis complement evasion. The C3 deposition and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation on the surface of sntA -deleted mutant strain Δ sntA are demonstrated to be significantly higher than the parental strain SC-19 and the complementary strain CΔ sntA . The abilities of anti-phagocytosis, survival in blood, and in vivo colonization of Δ sntA are obviously reduced. SntA can interact with C1q and inhibit hemolytic activity via the classical pathway. Complement activation assays reveal that SntA can also directly activate classical and lectin pathways, resulting in complement consumption. These two complement evasion strategies may be crucial for the pathogenesis of this zoonotic pathogen. Concerning that SntA is a bifunctional 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase/3'-nucleotidase in many species of Gram-positive bacteria, these complement evasion strategies may have common biological significance.

  3. Aerogel sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begag, Redouane; Rhine, Wendell E.; Dong, Wenting

    2018-04-03

    The current invention describes methods and compositions of various sorbents based on aerogels of various silanes and their use as sorbent for carbon dioxide. Methods further provide for optimizing the compositions to increase the stability of the sorbents for prolonged use as carbon dioxide capture matrices.

  4. Sorbent suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedder, M.

    1994-01-01

    Sorbents are used to absorb or contain spilled and leaking chemicals, oils, lubricants and other process fluids. They are commonly used around the base of machinery in industrial applications, and in remediating oil spills on land and water. Sorbents are made from biodegradable, inorganic or synthetic materials. Organic materials include corn cobs, wood pulp, paper fiber and cotton. Inorganic materials include clay, perlite, expanded silicates and expanded mica. Synthetic sorbents are made from petroleum- or plastic-based materials such as polyurethane, polyethylene or polypropylene. Sorbents are available in a variety of forms, including pads, rolls, booms, pillows and loose particulate

  5. SNT-1 functions as the Ca2+ sensor for tonic and evoked neurotransmitter release in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Liu, Haowen; Wang, Wei; Chandra, Mintu; Collins, Brett M; Hu, Zhitao

    2018-05-14

    Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) binds Ca 2+ through its tandem C2 domains (C2A and C2B) and triggers Ca 2+ -dependent neurotransmitter release. Here we show that snt-1 , the homolog of mammalian Syt1, functions as the Ca 2+ sensor for both tonic and evoked neurotransmitter release at the C. elegans neuromuscular junction. Mutations that disrupt Ca 2+ binding in double C2 domains of SNT-1 significantly impaired tonic release, whereas disrupting Ca 2+ binding in a single C2 domain had no effect, indicating that the Ca 2+ binding of the two C2 domains is functionally redundant for tonic release. Stimulus-evoked release was significantly reduced in snt-1 mutants, with prolonged release latency as well as faster rise and decay kinetics. Unlike tonic release, evoked release was triggered by Ca 2+ binding solely to the C2B domain. Moreover, we showed that SNT-1 plays an essential role in the priming process in different subpopulations of synaptic vesicles with tight or loose coupling to Ca 2+ entry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We showed that SNT-1 in C. elegans regulates evoked neurotransmitter release through Ca 2+ binding to its C2B domain, a similar way to Syt1 in the mouse CNS and the fly NMJ. However, the largely decreased tonic release in snt-1 mutants argues SNT-1 has a clamping function. Indeed, Ca 2+ -binding mutations in the C2 domains in SNT-1 significantly reduced the frequency of the miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC), indicating that SNT-1 also acts as a Ca 2+ sensor for tonic release. Therefore, revealing the differential mechanisms between invertebrates and vertebrates will provide significant insights into our understanding how synaptic vesicle fusion is regulated. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  6. Glass formulation requirements for Hanford coupled operations using crystalline silicotitanates (CST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.K.; Harbour, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Richland Operations Office has requested proposals from the private sector for the treatment of waste from the Hanford Waste Tanks. Phase I of this privatization initiative may include a demonstration for treatment and immobilization of both low activity and high-level waste. If the demonstration includes high-level waste, then the Cs-137 waste stream most likely will be combined with the high-level waste sludge to produce a coupled feed for immobilization (most likely vitrification using a borosilicate glass). It appears that pretreatment will involve the removal of cesium (and perhaps strontium and some transuranic radionuclides) from the supernate using an ion exchange material such as crystalline silicotitanate (CST). The ion exchange sorbent (or the eluted Cs-137) can then be combined with the sludge and vitrified in a coupled operation similar to the DWPF process. Alternatively, the cesium-loaded ion exchange sorbent can be vitrified directly to produce a separate glass waste form. SRTC has been involved in an Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) funded project to determine if Cs-137 loaded CST can be successfully incorporated into glass at significant levels. 1 For a waste form which would include only Cs-137 loaded CST, concentrations up to 60 wt% of CST in glass have been achieved. 2 The glass produced from this demonstration is both processable and durable. This CST-only waste form could be used at Hanford if the cesium-loaded CST is vitrified in a separate melter. For coupled feed operations, the CST would be mixed with high-level radioactive sludge from the Hanford tanks. This report provides the basis and the path forward for SRTC's efforts at developing a glass frit formulation which will incorporate both Hanford sludge and cesium-loaded CST for a coupled flowsheet. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrification as a method for immobilization of coupled feed (specifically

  7. SNT-2 interacts with ERK2 and negatively regulates ERK2 signaling in response to EGF stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lin; Gotoh, Noriko; Zhang Shengliang; Shibuya, Masabumi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Tsuchida, Nobuo

    2004-01-01

    The control of cellular responses with fibroblast growth factors and neurotrophins is mediated through membrane-linked docking proteins, SNT (suc1-binding neurotrophic target)-1/FRS2α and SNT-2/FRS2β. ERK1/2 are members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family that regulate diverse cellular activities in response to various stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that SNT-2 does not become tyrosine phosphorylated significantly in response to EGF but forms a complex with ERK2 via the region of 186-252 amino acid residues, and the complex formation is enhanced upon EGF stimulation. SNT-2 downregulates ERK2 phosphorylation, suppresses and delays ERK2 nuclear accumulation which occurs following EGF stimulation. In contrast, the mutant SNT-2 which carries deletion of 186-252 amino acids and lacks ERK2 binding does not have these effects. These observations suggest that SNT-2 negatively regulates ERK2 signaling activated via EGF stimulation through direct binding to ERK2

  8. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Martiník

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality.

  9. Electron gun simulation with CST PARTICLE STUDIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spachmann, Holger; Becker, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces CST PARTICLE STUDIO TM , a specialist tool for the fast and accurate design and analysis of 3D electron guns. The new software is based on the multi-purpose electromagnetic solvers of the CST STUDIO family and incorporates their powerful modelling capabilities as well as successful algorithms of the MAFIA-TS simulators. The underlying theory of the PBA based field solvers and the used tracking technique is presented and some examples of application demonstrate the current status of the software

  10. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maginn, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the Notre Dame component of the project was computational in nature. The goal was to provide a design tool for the synthesis of optimized sorbents for the removal of cesium, strontium and actinides from nuclear waste solutions. Molecular modeling enables us to observe and better understand the molecular level interactions that govern the selectivity of specific radionuclides in a particular sorbent. The research focused on the development and validation of a suitable and transferable model for all the cations and ion exchangers of interest, nd then subsequent simulations which determined the siting and mobility of water and cations. Speciic accomplishments include: (1) improving existing intermolecular force fields to accurately model the sorbents of interest; (2) utilizing energy-minimizations and molecular dynamics simulations for structural prediction of CST and niobium-substituted CST materials; (3) determining Na+/water positions in polyoxoniobate materials using molecular dynamics simulations; and (4) developing Hybrid Monte Carlo methods for improved structural prediction.

  11. Antecedent precipitation index determined from CST estimates of rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with an experimental calculation of a satellite-based antecedent precipitation index (API). The index is also derived from daily rain images produced from infrared images using an improved version of GSFC's Convective/Stratiform Technique (CST). API is a measure of soil moisture, and is based on the notion that the amount of moisture in the soil at a given time is related to precipitation at earlier times. Four different CST programs as well as the Geostationary Operational Enviroment Satellite (GOES) Precipitation Index developed by Arkin in 1979 are compared to experimental results, for the Mississippi Valley during the month of July. Rain images are shown for the best CST code and the ARK program. Comparisons are made as to the accuracy and detail of the results for the two codes. This project demonstrates the feasibility of running the CST on a synoptic scale. The Mississippi Valley case is well suited for testing the feasibility of monitoring soil moisture by means of CST. Preliminary comparisons of CST and ARK indicate significant differences in estimates of rain amount and distribution.

  12. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  13. Sorbent Scoping Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chancellor, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory-Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) office was tasked by the DOE CBFO, Office of the Manager to perform a review of the acceptable knowledge (AK) to identify the oxidizers and sorbents in transuranic (TRU) waste streams, to conduct scoping studies on the oxidizers and sorbents identified in AK review to inform the Quality Level 1 (QL1) testing, and to conduct a series of QL1 tests to provide the scientific data to support a basis of knowledge document for determining the criteria for (1) accepting waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without treatment, (2) determining waste that will require treatment, and (3) if treatment is required, how the treatment must be performed. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the AK review of sorbents present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the sorbent list, report the results of the scoping studies for the fastest-burning organic sorbent, and provide the list of organic and inorganic sorbents to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-001, Oxidizer Scoping Studies, has similar information for oxidizers identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  14. Sorbent Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Carlsbad, NM (United States). Difficult Waste Team

    2016-11-14

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory–Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) office was tasked by the DOE CBFO, Office of the Manager to perform a review of the acceptable knowledge (AK) to identify the oxidizers and sorbents in transuranic (TRU) waste streams, to conduct scoping studies on the oxidizers and sorbents identified in AK review to inform the Quality Level 1 (QL1) testing, and to conduct a series of QL1 tests to provide the scientific data to support a basis of knowledge document for determining the criteria for (1) accepting waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without treatment, (2) determining waste that will require treatment, and (3) if treatment is required, how the treatment must be performed. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the AK review of sorbents present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the sorbent list, report the results of the scoping studies for the fastest-burning organic sorbent, and provide the list of organic and inorganic sorbents to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-001, Oxidizer Scoping Studies, has similar information for oxidizers identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  15. Mercury removal sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  16. Thermal and Chemical Stability of Crystalline Silicotitanate Sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Mattus, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating technologies for removing cesium-137 (137Cs) from the supemate solutions stored in the high-level waste tanks at the site. Crystalline silicotitanate sorbent (IONSIV IE-9 1 lo, UOP Molecular Sieves; Mount Laurel, NJ) is very effective for removing cesium from high-salt solution, such as the SRS supemates, and is currently being used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remove radioactive cesium from similar solutions, Because of the extremely high loading of 137Cs that would be expected for the large columns of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) that would be used for treating the SRS supemate, any loss of flow or cooling to the columns could result in high temperatures within the column from radiolytic heating. The ability of CST to retain previously loaded cesium while in contact with SRS tank supemates at various temperatures was determined by performing bench scale simulant tests using CST samples that were loaded with stable cesium and radi oactive cesium tracer. These results were compared with those obtained from loading tests at the same temperatures

  17. Heat Transfer Analysis for a Fixed CST Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    2004-01-01

    In support of a small column ion exchange (SCIX) process for the Savannah River Site waste processing program, a transient two-dimensional heat transfer model that includes the conduction process neglecting the convection cooling mechanism inside the crystalline silicotitanate (CST) column has been constructed and heat transfer calculations made for the present design configurations. For this situation, a no process flow condition through the column was assumed as one of the reference conditions for the simulation of a loss-of-flow accident. A series of the modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. Results for the baseline model indicate that transit times to reach 130 degrees Celsius maximum temperature of the CST-salt solution column are about 96 hours when the 20-in CST column with 300 Ci/liter heat generation source and 25 degrees Celsius initial column temperature is cooled by natural convection of external air as a primary heat transfer mechanism. The modeling results for the 28-in column equipped with water jacket systems on the external wall surface of the column and water coolant pipe at the center of the CST column demonstrate that the column loaded with 300 Ci/liter heat source can be maintained non-boiling indefinitely. Sensitivity calculations for several alternate column sizes, heat loads of the packed column, engineered cooling systems, and various ambient conditions at the exterior wall of the column have been performed under the reference conditions of the CST-salt solution to assess the impact of those parameters on the peak temperatures of the packed column for a given transient time. The results indicate that a water-coolant pipe at the center of the CST column filled with salt solution is the most effective one among the potential design parameters related to the thermal energy dissipation of decay heat load. It is noted that the cooling mechanism at the wall boundary of the column has significant

  18. CST receiver tube qualification, Phase 1, Investigation - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, I.; Rossy, J.-P.

    2010-05-15

    In this report the different application possibilities for concentrated solar thermal (CST) systems are studied. Further, the possible measuring methods for characterising and qualifying the receivers with their embedded absorber tubes are investigated. The investigations show that CST systems can be used as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels in many applications. The best known one is the generation of electrical power, but concentrated solar energy can also be used for desalination, industrial process heat, and for cooling of buildings. Industrial process heat is a large potential area with temperature in the range of 120 {sup o}C to over 400 {sup o}C. Heat below 400 {sup o}C can be provided by various parabolic trough and Fresnel systems, which are optimised for the temperature required. In order to further increase the usage of CST systems, it is of great importance to provide standards for the qualification and characterisation of the different components of the CST systems. Huge efforts are currently made to define a standard for evacuated receiver tubes. For the characterisation of the black absorber tubes the development is still at the beginning, although the need here is also given. (authors)

  19. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  20. PROCEEDINGS: MULTIPOLLUTANT SORBENT REACTIVITY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a compilation of technical papers and visual aids presented by representatives of industry, academia, and government agencies at a workshop on multipollutant sorbent reactivity that was held at EPA's Environmental Research Center in Research Triangle Park, NC, on July 19-20, 1994. There were 16 technical presentations in three sessions, and a panel discussion between six research experts. The workshop was a forum for the exchange of ideas and information on the use of sorbents to control air emissions of acid gases (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen chloride); mercury and dioxins; and toxic metals, primarily from fossil fuel combustion. A secondary purpose for conducting the workshop was to help guide EPA's research planning activities. A general theme of the workshop was that a strategy of controlling many pollutants with a single system rather than systems to control individual pollutants should be a research goal. Some research needs cited were: hazardous air pollutant removal by flue gas desulfurization systems, dioxin formation and control, mercury control, waste minimization, impact of ash recycling on metals partitioning, impact of urea and sorbents on other pollutants, high temperature filtration, impact of coal cleaning on metals partitioning, and modeling dispersion of sorbents in flue gas. information

  1. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-08-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper will cover the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper covers the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier

  3. Selenite and tellurite form mixed seleno- and tellurotrisulfides with CstR from Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Luebke, Justin L.; Arnold, Randy J.; Giedroc, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus CstR (CsoR-like sulfur transferase repressor) is a member of the CsoR family of transition metal sensing metalloregulatory proteins. Unlike CsoR, CstR does not form a stable complex with transition metals but instead reacts with sulfite to form a mixture of di- and trisulfide species, CstR2(RS-SR′) and CstR2(RS-S-SR′)n, n = 1 or 2, respectively. Here, we investigate if CstR performs similar chemistry with related chalcogen oxyanions selenite and tellurite. In this work w...

  4. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  5. Information on the certification of DGZfP-qualified personnel in compliance with the U.S. American publication SNT-TC-1A: 'Level certificates'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The NDT personnel qualification in compliance with the code of practice of the DGZfP has long been accepted and appreciated in West Germany and in some neighbour countries, and increasingly is recommended in national regulatory publications. In international business, however, it is the U.S. American code of practice SNT-TC-1A that frequently is applied. Although the DGZfP qualification code in formal terms and in principle fulfills the requirements of the SNT-TC-1A, there have been problems on the part of foreign customers who hesitated to accept the DGZfP qualification. The reason most frequently was that the very extensive in-house documentation material required according to the U.S. American code could not or only insufficiently be shown. The code of practice presented here is intended to serve as an aid in laying down the Written Practice, taking into account the DGZfP qualification. The model version presented certainly will not meet all the various requirements of customers, and has to be modified so as to fit individual conditions. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Differential involvement of corticospinal tract (CST fibers in UMN-predominant ALS patients with or without CST hyperintensity: A diffusion tensor tractography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran Rajagopalan

    2017-01-01

    DTT revealed subcortical loss ('truncation' of virtual motor CST fibers (presumably projecting from the precentral gyrus (PrG in ALS patients but not in controls; in contrast, virtual fibers (presumably projecting to the adjacent postcentral gyrus (PoG were spared. No significant differences in virtual CST fiber length were observed between controls and ALS patients. However, the frequency of CST truncation was significantly higher in the ALS-CST+ subgroup (9 of 21 than in the ALS-CST− subgroup (4 of 24; p = 0.049, suggesting this finding could differentiate these ALS subgroups. Also, because virtual CST truncation occurred only in the ALS patient group and not in the control group (p = 0.018, this DTT finding could prove to be a diagnostic biomarker of ALS. Significantly shorter disease duration and faster disease progression rate were observed in ALS patients with CST fiber truncation than in those without (p  0.05 in any of the ROIs. In addition, comparing FA values between ALS patients with CST truncation and those without in the aforementioned four ROIs, revealed no significant differences in either hemisphere. However, visual evaluation of DTT was able to identify UMN degeneration in patients with ALS, particularly in those with a more aggressive clinical disease course and possibly different pathologic processes.

  7. Selenite and tellurite form mixed seleno- and tellurotrisulfides with CstR from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Justin L; Arnold, Randy J; Giedroc, David P

    2013-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus CstR (CsoR-like sulfur transferase repressor) is a member of the CsoR family of transition metal sensing metalloregulatory proteins. Unlike CsoR, CstR does not form a stable complex with transition metals but instead reacts with sulfite to form a mixture of di- and trisulfide species, CstR2(RS-SR') and CstR2(RS-S-SR')n)n=1 or 2, respectively. Here, we investigate if CstR performs similar chemistry with related chalcogen oxyanions selenite and tellurite. In this work we show by high resolution tandem mass spectrometry that CstR is readily modified by selenite (SeO3(2-)) or tellurite (TeO3(2-)) to form a mixture of intersubunit disulfides and selenotrisulfides or tellurotrisulfides, respectively, between Cys31 and Cys60'. Analogous studies with S. aureus CsoR reveals no reaction with selenite and minimal reaction with tellurite. All cross-linked forms of CstR exhibit reduced DNA binding affinity. We show that Cys31 initiates the reaction with sulfite through the formation of S-sulfocysteine (RS-SO3(2-)) and Cys60 is required to fully derivatize CstR to CstR2(RS-SR') and CstR2(RS-S-SR'). The modification of Cys31 also drives an allosteric switch that negatively regulates DNA binding while derivatization of Cys60 alone has no effect on DNA binding. These results highlight the differences between CstRs and CsoRs in chemical reactivity and metal ion selectivity and establish Cys31 as the functionally important cysteine residue in CstRs.

  8. A family of splice variants of CstF-64 expressed in vertebrate nervous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankarling, Ganesh S; Coates, Penelope W; Dass, Brinda; MacDonald, Clinton C

    2009-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing and polyadenylation are important mechanisms for creating the proteomic diversity necessary for the nervous system to fulfill its specialized functions. The contribution of alternative splicing to proteomic diversity in the nervous system has been well documented, whereas the role of alternative polyadenylation in this process is less well understood. Since the CstF-64 polyadenylation protein is known to be an important regulator of tissue-specific polyadenylation, we examined its expression in brain and other organs. Results We discovered several closely related splice variants of CstF-64 – collectively called βCstF-64 – that could potentially contribute to proteomic diversity in the nervous system. The βCstF-64 splice variants are found predominantly in the brains of several vertebrate species including mice and humans. The major βCstF-64 variant mRNA is generated by inclusion of two alternate exons (that we call exons 8.1 and 8.2) found between exons 8 and 9 of the CstF-64 gene, and contains an additional 147 nucleotides, encoding 49 additional amino acids. Some variants of βCstF-64 contain only the first alternate exon (exon 8.1) while other variants contain both alternate exons (8.1 and 8.2). In mice, the predominant form of βCstF-64 also contains a deletion of 78 nucleotides from exon 9, although that variant is not seen in any other species examined, including rats. Immunoblot and 2D-PAGE analyses of mouse nuclear extracts indicate that a protein corresponding to βCstF-64 is expressed in brain at approximately equal levels to CstF-64. Since βCstF-64 splice variant family members were found in the brains of all vertebrate species examined (including turtles and fish), this suggests that βCstF-64 has an evolutionarily conserved function in these animals. βCstF-64 was present in both pre- and post-natal mice and in different regions of the nervous system, suggesting an important role for βCstF-64 in neural gene

  9. Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Teams (WMD-CST): A Necessary Failure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Larry

    2001-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, poor program management, ineffective equipment acquisition and unclear command and control structures have made the current version of the WMD-CST teams ineffective and inspire fear...

  10. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR FIXED CST AND RF COLUMNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S

    2007-01-01

    In support of a small column ion exchange (SCIX) process for the Savannah River Site waste processing program, transient and steady state two-dimensional heat transfer models have been constructed for columns loaded with cesium-saturated crystalline silicotitanate (CST) or spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) beads and 6 molar sodium tank waste supernate. Radiolytic decay of sorbed cesium results in heat generation within the columns. The models consider conductive heat transfer only with no convective cooling and no process flow within the columns (assumed column geometry: 27.375 in ID with a 6.625 in OD center-line cooling pipe). Heat transfer at the column walls was assumed to occur by natural convection cooling with 35 C air. A number of modeling calculations were performed using this computational heat transfer approach. Minimal additional calculations were also conducted to predict temperature increases expected for salt solution processed through columns of various heights at the slowest expected operational flow rate of 5 gpm. Results for the bounding model with no process flow and no active cooling indicate that the time required to reach the boiling point of ∼130 C for a CST-salt solution mixture containing 257 Ci/liter of Cs-137 heat source (maximum expected loading for SCIX applications) at 35 C initial temperature is about 6 days. Modeling results for a column actively cooled with external wall jackets and the internal coolant pipe (inlet coolant water temperature: 25 C) indicate that the CST column can be maintained non-boiling under these conditions indefinitely. The results also show that the maximum temperature of an RF-salt solution column containing 133 Ci/liter of Cs-137 (maximum expected loading) will never reach boiling under any conditions (maximum predicted temperature without cooling: 88 C). The results indicate that a 6-in cooling pipe at the center of the column provides the most effective cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum

  11. Stress-compatible embedded cohesive crack in CST element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2010-01-01

    A simple element with an embedded strong discontinuity for modeling cohesive cracking of concrete is presented. The element differs from previous elements of the embedded type, in that a consistent stress field is obtained by direct enforcement of stress continuity across the crack....... The displacement discontinuity is modeled in an XFEM fashion; however, the discontinuous displacement field is special, allowing for the direct enforcement of stress continuity. This in turn allows for elimination of extra degrees of freedom necessary for describing the crack deformations, thus the element has...... the same number of freedoms as its continuous basis: CST. The good performance of the element is demonstrated by its ability to simulate threepoint bending of a notched concrete beam. The advantage of the element is its simplicity and the straightforward implementation of it. Handling situations...

  12. Catholic Social Teaching in Their Own Words: Oral Histories of College Students Learning CST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Michelle; Dammer, Harry

    2018-01-01

    This research offers insight into what undergraduates at five Catholic colleges and universities learned about Catholic Social Teaching (CST) during their college experience. The study used a purposive sample of twenty-six personal interviews with students who were exposed to CST either in the classroom or through some co-curricular activity. The…

  13. Association between CST3 rs2424577 polymorphism and corpulence related phenotypes during lifetime in populations of European ancestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooton, Henri; Dubern, Beatrice; Henegar, Corneliu

    2011-01-01

    Cystatin C, a protein coded by CST3 gene, is implicated in adipose tissue biology. Our hypothesis is that common variants in CST3 gene could play a role in the development of corpulence during lifetime....

  14. The CsoR-like sulfurtransferase repressor (CstR) is a persulfide sensor in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Justin L; Shen, Jiangchuan; Bruce, Kevin E; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E; Peng, Hui; Skaar, Eric P; Giedroc, David P

    2014-12-01

    How cells regulate the bioavailability of utilizable sulfur while mitigating the effects of hydrogen sulfide toxicity is poorly understood. CstR [Copper-sensing operon repressor (CsoR)-like sulfurtransferase repressor] represses the expression of the cst operon encoding a putative sulfide oxidation system in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we show that the cst operon is strongly and transiently induced by cellular sulfide stress in an acute phase and specific response and that cst-encoded genes are necessary to mitigate the effects of sulfide toxicity. Growth defects are most pronounced when S. aureus is cultured in chemically defined media with thiosulfate (TS) as a sole sulfur source, but are also apparent when cystine is used or in rich media. Under TS growth conditions, cells fail to grow as a result of either unregulated expression of the cst operon in a ΔcstR strain or transformation with a non-inducible C31A/C60A CstR that blocks cst induction. This suggests that the cst operon contributes to cellular sulfide homeostasis. Tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry reveals derivatization of CstR by both inorganic tetrasulfide and an organic persulfide, glutathione persulfide, to yield a mixture of Cys31-Cys60' interprotomer cross-links, including di-, tri- and tetrasulfide bonds, which allosterically inhibit cst operator DNA binding by CstR. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Novel sorbents for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Werner, David

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the major environmental problems is the pollution of aquatic systems and soil by persistent pollutants. Persistent pollutants have been found widespread in sediments, surface waters, and drinking water supplies. The removal of pollutants can be accomplished prior to their discharge to receiving bodies or by immobilizing them onto soil. Sorption is the most commonly applied process, and activated carbons have been widely used. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents including biosorbents, biochars, carbon-based nanoparticles, bio-nano hybrid materials, and iron-impregnated activated carbons. Sorbent materials have been used in environmental remediation processes and especially in agricultural soil, sediments and contaminated soil, water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sorbents may enhance the synergistic action of other processes, such as volatilization and biodegradation. Novel sorbents have been employed for the removal or immobilization of persistent pollutants such as and include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg), halogenated organic compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metalloids and non-metallic elements, and other organic pollutants. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry. The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove pollutants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc., but also the potential side-effects of their environmental applications. The aim of this work is to present the results of the use of biochar and impregnated carbon sorbents for the removal of organic pollutants and metals. Furthermore, the new findings from the forthcoming session

  16. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  17. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  18. The use of in situ proteolysis in the crystallization of murine CstF-77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yun; Auperin, Thierry C.; Tong, Liang

    2007-01-01

    In situ proteolysis with fungal protease or subtilisin is crucial for the crystallization of murine CstF-77. The cleavage-stimulation factor (CstF) is required for the cleavage of the 3′-end of messenger RNA precursors in eukaryotes. During structure determination of the 77 kDa subunit of the murine CstF complex (CstF-77), it was serendipitously discovered that a solution infected by a fungus was crucial for the crystallization of this protein. CstF-77 was partially proteolyzed during crystallization; this was very likely to have been catalyzed by a protease secreted by the fungus. It was found that the fungal protease can be replaced by subtilisin and this in situ proteolysis protocol produced crystals of sufficient size for structural studies. After an extensive search, it was found that 55% glucose can be used as a cryoprotectant while maintaining the diffraction quality of the crystals; most other commonly used cryoprotectants were detrimental to the diffraction quality

  19. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  20. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus CstB is a novel multidomain persulfide dioxygenase-sulfurtransferase involved in hydrogen sulfide detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiangchuan; Keithly, Mary E.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Higgins, Khadine A.; Edmonds, Katherine A.; Giedroc, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is both a lethal gas and an emerging gasotransmitter in humans, suggesting that cellular H2S level must be tightly regulated. CstB is encoded by the cst operon of the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and is under the transcriptional control of the persulfide sensor CstR and H2S. Here we show that CstB is a multifunctional Fe(II)-containing persulfide dioxygenase (PDO), analogous to the vertebrate protein ETHE1 (Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy Protein 1). Chromosomal deletion of ethe1 is fatal in vertebrates. In the presence of molecular oxygen (O2), hETHE1 oxidizes glutathione persulfide (GSSH) to generate sulfite and reduced glutathione. In contrast, CstB oxidizes major cellular low molecular weight (LMW) persulfide substrates from S. aureus, coenzyme A persulfide (CoASSH) and bacillithiol persulfide (BSSH), directly to generate thiosulfate (TS) and reduced thiols, thereby avoiding the cellular toxicity of sulfite. Both Cys201 in the N-terminal PDO domain (CstBPDO) and Cys408 in the C-terminal rhodanese domain (CstBRhod) strongly enhance the TS generating activity of CstB. CstB also possesses persulfide transferase (PT; reverse rhodanese) activity which generates TS when provided with LMW persulfides and sulfite, as well as conventional thiosulfate transferase (TST; rhodanese) activity; both activities require Cys408. CstB protects S. aureus against H2S toxicity with C201S and C408S cstB genes unable to rescue a NaHS-induced ΔcstB growth phenotype. Induction of the cst operon by NaHS reveals that functional CstB impacts the cellular TS concentrations. These data collectively suggest that CstB may have evolved to facilitate the clearance of LMW persulfides that occur upon the elevation of the level of cellular H2S and hence may have an impact on bacterial viability under H2S stress, in concert with the other enzymes encoded by the cst operon. PMID:26177047

  2. In vitro catheter and sorbent-based method for clearance of radiocontrast material during cerebral interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angheloiu, George O.; Hänscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph; Anderson, William D.; Kellum, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a severe condition resulting from the use of radiology contrast in patients with predisposing factors. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that a novel system including a device containing polymer resin sorbent beads and a custom-made suctioning catheter could efficiently remove contrast from an in vitro novel model of circulatory system (MOCS) mimicking the cerebral circulation. Methods: A custom-made catheter was built and optimized for cerebral venous approach. The efficiency of a system made of a polymer resin sorbent beads column (CST 401, Cytosorbents) and this particular catheter was tested in the MOCS running a solution composed of 0.9% saline and radio-contrast. During two series of 18 cycles of first-pass experiments we assessed the catheter's suctioning efficiency and the system's ability to clear radio-contrast injected into the MOCS's cerebral arterial segment. We also assessed the functioning and reliability of the MOCS. Results: Mean suctioning efficiency of the catheter was 84% ± 24%. The polymer sorbent column contrast removal rate was initially 96% and gradually decreased with subsequent cycles in a linear fashion during an experiment lasting approximately 90 minutes. The MOCS had a reliability of 0.9946×min −1 where 1 × min −1 was the optimum value. Conclusion: A system including a polymer resin sorbent beads column and a custom-made suctioning catheter had an excellent initial efficiency in quickly removing contrast from an artificial MOCS mimicking the cerebral circulation. MOCS is an inexpensive and relatively reliable custom-made system that can be used for training or testing purposes

  3. In vitro catheter and sorbent-based method for clearance of radiocontrast material during cerebral interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angheloiu, George O., E-mail: goangheloiu@drmc.org [Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Cardiology, Dubois Regional Medical Center, Dubois, PA (United States); Hänscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany); Anderson, William D. [Cardiology Department, Exempla Healthcare, Denver, CO (United States); Kellum, John A. [CRISMA Center, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a severe condition resulting from the use of radiology contrast in patients with predisposing factors. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that a novel system including a device containing polymer resin sorbent beads and a custom-made suctioning catheter could efficiently remove contrast from an in vitro novel model of circulatory system (MOCS) mimicking the cerebral circulation. Methods: A custom-made catheter was built and optimized for cerebral venous approach. The efficiency of a system made of a polymer resin sorbent beads column (CST 401, Cytosorbents) and this particular catheter was tested in the MOCS running a solution composed of 0.9% saline and radio-contrast. During two series of 18 cycles of first-pass experiments we assessed the catheter's suctioning efficiency and the system's ability to clear radio-contrast injected into the MOCS's cerebral arterial segment. We also assessed the functioning and reliability of the MOCS. Results: Mean suctioning efficiency of the catheter was 84% ± 24%. The polymer sorbent column contrast removal rate was initially 96% and gradually decreased with subsequent cycles in a linear fashion during an experiment lasting approximately 90 minutes. The MOCS had a reliability of 0.9946×min{sup −1} where 1 × min{sup −1} was the optimum value. Conclusion: A system including a polymer resin sorbent beads column and a custom-made suctioning catheter had an excellent initial efficiency in quickly removing contrast from an artificial MOCS mimicking the cerebral circulation. MOCS is an inexpensive and relatively reliable custom-made system that can be used for training or testing purposes.

  4. Numerical simulation of structure integrated cold storages with the model CST-WM; Numerische Simulation gebaeudeintegrierter Kaeltespeicher mit dem Modell CST-WM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppatz, Stefan; Urbaneck, Thorsten; Platzer, Bernd [TU Chemnitz (Germany). Fakultaet Maschinenbau; Kalz, Doreen; Sonntag, Martin [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany). Bereich Energieeffiziente und Solare Kuehlung

    2013-04-15

    Decentralized, structure integrated cold water storaged have been purpose of research in Germany for a short time, which is why appropriate system simulation models for mapping their thermal performance are missing. Intention of this article is the presentation of the MATLAB CST-WM model, which is adapted to the special requirements of this storage type in order to differ from existent models. Thereby, a specific method reduces the programming and computation effort.

  5. Thermal Modeling Analysis Of CST Media In The Small Column Ion Exchange Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2010-01-01

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. One salt processing scenario includes the transport of the loaded (and possibly ground) CST media to the treatment tank floor. Therefore, additional thermal modeling calculations were conducted using a three-dimensional approach to evaluate temperature distributions for the entire in-tank domain including distribution of the spent CST media either as a mound or a flat layer on the tank floor. These calculations included mixtures of CST with HLW sludge or loaded Monosodium Titanate (MST) media used for strontium/actinide sorption. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds

  6. Sorbent Nanotechnologies for Water Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Snober

    Despite decades of regulatory efforts to mitigate water pollution, many chemicals, particularly heavy metals, still present risks to human health. In addition to direct exposure, certain metals such as mercury threaten public health due to its persistence, bioaccumulation and bioamplification throughout the food chain. A number of U.S. Federal and State regulations have been established to reduce the levels of mercury in water. Activated carbon (AC) has been widely explored for the removal of mercury. However, AC suffers from many limitations inherent to its chemical properties, and it becomes increasingly challenging to meet current and future regulations by simply modifying AC to enhance its performance. Recently, the performance of nanosorbents have been studied in order to removal pollutants. Nanosorbents utilize the ultra-high reactive surface of nanoparticles for rapid, effective and even permanent sequestration of heavy metals from water and air, thus showed promising results as compared to AC. The goal of this thesis research is to develop nanomaterial-based sorbents for the removal of mercury from water. It describes the development of a new solid-support assisted growth of selenium nanoparticles, their use for water remediation, and the development of a new nanoselenium-based sorbent sponge for fast and efficient mercury removal. The nanoselenium sorbent not only shows irreversible interaction with mercury but also exhibits remarkable properties by overcoming the limitations of AC. The nanoselenium sponge was shown to remove mercury to undetectable levels within one minute. This new sponge technology would have an impact on inspiring new stringent regulations and lowering costs to help industries meet regulatory requirements, which will ultimately help improve air and water quality, aquatic life and public health.

  7. Time domain SAR raw data simulation using CST and image focusing of 3D objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Adnan; Hellwich, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the use of a general purpose electromagnetic simulator, CST, to simulate realistic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) raw data of three-dimensional objects. Raw data is later focused in MATLAB using range-doppler algorithm. Within CST Microwave Studio a replica of TerraSAR-X chirp signal is incident upon a modeled Corner Reflector (CR) whose design and material properties are identical to that of the real one. Defining mesh and other appropriate settings reflected wave is measured at several distant points within a line parallel to the viewing direction. This is analogous to an array antenna and is synthesized to create a long aperture for SAR processing. The time domain solver in CST is based on the solution of differential form of Maxwells equations. Exported data from CST is arranged into a 2-d matrix of axis range and azimuth. Hilbert transform is applied to convert the real signal to complex data with phase information. Range compression, range cell migration correction (RCMC), and azimuth compression are applied in time domain to obtain the final SAR image. This simulation can provide valuable information to clarify which real world objects cause images suitable for high accuracy identification in the SAR images.

  8. Multipacting Simulations of Tuner-adjustable waveguide coupler (TaCo) with CST

    CERN Document Server

    Shafqat, Nuaman; Wegner, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Tuner-adjustable waveguide couplers (TaCo) are used to feed microwave power to different RF structures of LINAC4. This paper studies the multipacting phenomenon for TaCo using PIC solver of CST PS. Simulations are performed for complete field sweeps and results are analysed.

  9. Sorbent Structural Impacts Due to Humidity on Carbon Dioxide Removal Sorbents for Advanced Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Knox, James C.; West, Phillip; Stanley, Christine M.; Bush, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Life Support Systems Project (LSSP) under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program builds upon the work performed under the AES Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project focusing on the numerous technology development areas. The CO2 removal and associated air drying development efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art system on the International Space Station (ISS) utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. A component of the CO2 removal effort encompasses structural stability testing of existing and emerging sorbents. Testing will be performed on dry sorbents and sorbents that have been conditioned to three humidity levels. This paper describes the sorbent structural stability screening efforts in support of the LSS Project within the AES Program.

  10. Dynamic DNA binding, junction recognition and G4 melting activity underlie the telomeric and genome-wide roles of human CST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Anukana; Wang, Yongyao; Diao, Jiajie; Price, Carolyn M

    2017-12-01

    Human CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) is a ssDNA-binding complex that helps resolve replication problems both at telomeres and genome-wide. CST resembles Replication Protein A (RPA) in that the two complexes harbor comparable arrays of OB-folds and have structurally similar small subunits. However, the overall architecture and functions of CST and RPA are distinct. Currently, the mechanism underlying CST action at diverse replication issues remains unclear. To clarify CST mechanism, we examined the capacity of CST to bind and resolve DNA structures found at sites of CST activity. We show that CST binds preferentially to ss-dsDNA junctions, an activity that can explain the incremental nature of telomeric C-strand synthesis following telomerase action. We also show that CST unfolds G-quadruplex structures, thus providing a mechanism for CST to facilitate replication through telomeres and other GC-rich regions. Finally, smFRET analysis indicates that CST binding to ssDNA is dynamic with CST complexes undergoing concentration-dependent self-displacement. These findings support an RPA-based model where dissociation and re-association of individual OB-folds allow CST to mediate loading and unloading of partner proteins to facilitate various aspects of telomere replication and genome-wide resolution of replication stress. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Using Convective Stratiform Technique (CST) method to estimate rainfall (case study in Bali, December 14th 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vista Wulandari, Ayu; Rizki Pratama, Khafid; Ismail, Prayoga

    2018-05-01

    Accurate and realtime data in wide spatial space at this time is still a problem because of the unavailability of observation of rainfall in each region. Weather satellites have a very wide range of observations and can be used to determine rainfall variability with better resolution compared with a limited direct observation. Utilization of Himawari-8 satellite data in estimating rainfall using Convective Stratiform Technique (CST) method. The CST method is performed by separating convective and stratiform cloud components using infrared channel satellite data. Cloud components are classified by slope because the physical and dynamic growth processes are very different. This research was conducted in Bali area on December 14, 2016 by verifying the result of CST process with rainfall data from Ngurah Rai Meteorology Station Bali. It is found that CST method result had simililar value with data observation in Ngurah Rai meteorological station, so it assumed that CST method can be used for rainfall estimation in Bali region.

  12. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2017-09-12

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  13. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S [Grand Forks, ND; Holmes, Michael J [Thompson, ND; Pavlish, John H [East Grand Forks, MN

    2008-10-14

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  14. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S [Grand Forks, ND; Holmes, Michael J [Thompson, ND; Pavlish, John H [East Grand Forks, MN

    2012-05-01

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  15. Sorption of methylxanthines by different sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, S. G.; Andreeva, E. Yu.; Tolmacheva, V. V.; Terent'eva, E. A.

    2013-05-01

    Sorption of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, diprophylline, and pentoxyphylline on different sorbents (supercross-linked polystyrene, surface-modified copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene Strata-X, and carbon nanomaterials Taunit and Diasorb-100-C16T) was studied in a static mode in an effort to find new sorbents suitable for sorption isolation and concentration of methylxanthines. The peculiarities of sorption of methylxanthines were explained in relation to the solution acidity, the nature of the sorbates and their concentration, the nature of the solvent, and the structural characteristics of the sorbents.

  16. Glass formulation development and testing for the vitrification of DWPF HLW sludge coupled with crystalline silicotitanate (CST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.K.; Workman, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    An alternative to the In Tank Precipitation and sodium titanate processes at the Savannah River Site is the removal of cesium, strontium, and plutonium from the tank supernate by ion exchange using crystalline silicotitanate (CST). This inorganic material has been shown to effectively and selectively sorb these elements from supernate. The loaded CST could then be immobilized with High-Level Waste (HLW) sludge during vitrification. Initial efforts on the development of a glass formulation for a coupled waste stream indicate that reasonable loadings of both sludge and CST can be achieved in glass

  17. REX-ISOLDE RFQ Beam Dynamics Studies using CST EM Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, M A

    2014-01-01

    The original CNC milling files used to machine the electrodes of the REX-ISOLDE RFQ were acquired in late 2012 and electrostatic simulations were carried out using CST EM Studio in order to attain a 3D field map of the electric fields in the region around the beam axis. The objective was to construct a beam dynamics simulation tool that frees us from the constraints of the PARMTEQM code, which was used to design the RFQ, and that will afford us more flexibility in the studies needed for pre-bunching into the RFQ with an external multi-harmonic buncher. This note details the geometry of the electrodes and their simulation in CST EM Studio, the implementation of particle tracking in the computed field map using TRACK and benchmarking studies with PARMTEQM v3.09.

  18. Design & simulation of a 800 kV dynamitron accelerator by CST studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Aghayan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, middle energy electrostatic accelerators in industries are widely used due to their high efficiency and low cost compared with other types of accelerators. In this paper, the importance and applications of electrostatic accelerators with 800 keV energy are studied. Design and simulation of capacitive coupling of a dynamitron accelerator is proposed. Furthermore, accelerating tube are designed and simulated by means of CST Suit Studio

  19. Three-Dimensional Thermal Modeling Analysis Of CST Media For The Small Ion Exchange Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project is designed to accelerate closure of High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS tanks store HLW in three forms: sludge, saltcake, and supernate. An in-tank ion exchange process is being designed to treat supernate and dissolved saltcake waste. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is adsorbed into Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media packed within a flow-through column. A packed column loaded with radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. The waste supernate solution within the ion exchange bed will boil around 120 C. Solution superheating above the boiling point within the column could lead to violent hazardous energy releases. System heating from loaded CST is also of concern in other process modules, such as the waste tank. Due to tank structural integrity concerns, the wall temperature limit for the SRS waste tanks is 100 C. The transfer of cesium-loaded CST to the tank could result in localized hot spots on the tank floor and walls which may exceed this limit. As a result, thermal modeling calculations have been conducted to predict the maximum temperatures achievable both in the column and in the waste tank. As specified in the associated Technical Task Plan, one objective of the present work was to compute temperature distributions within the ion exchange column module under accident scenarios including loss of salt solution flow through the bed and loss of coolant system flow. The column modeling domain and the scope of the calculations in this case were broadened relative to previous two-dimensional calculations to include vertical temperature distributions within the packed bed of ion exchange media as well as the upper column plenum region containing only fluid. The baseline design conditions and in-column modeling domain for the ion-exchange column module are shown in Figure 1. These evaluations assumed the maximum

  20. In silico prediction of functional loss of cst3 gene in hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Choudhary

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The computational identification of missense mutation in CST3 (CYSTATIN 3 or CYSTATIN C gene has been done in the present study. The missense mutations in the CST3 gene will leads to hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy The initiation of the analysis was done with SIFT followed by POLYPHEN-2 and I-Mutant 2.0 using 24 variants of CST3 gene of Homo sapiens which were derived from dbSNP. The analysis showed that 5 variants (Y60C, C123Y, L19P, Y88C, L94Q were found to be less stable and damaging by SIFT, POLYPHEN-2 and I-MUTANT2.0. Furthermore the outputs of SNP & GO are collaborated with PHD-SNP (Predictor of Human Deleterious-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and PANTHER to predict 5 variants (Y60C, Y88C, C123Y, L19P, and L94Q having clinical impact in causing the disease. These findings will be certainly helpful for the present medical practitioners for the treatment of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

  1. Demonstration of FBRM as process analytical technology tool for dewatering processes via CST correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbledick, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Alexander; Latulippe, David R

    2014-07-01

    The current challenges associated with the design and operation of net-energy positive wastewater treatment plants demand sophisticated approaches for the monitoring of polymer-induced flocculation. In anaerobic digestion (AD) processes, the dewaterability of the sludge is typically assessed from off-line lab-bench tests - the capillary suction time (CST) test is one of the most common. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) is a promising technique for real-time monitoring of critical performance attributes in large scale processes and is ideally suited for dewatering applications. The flocculation performance of twenty-four cationic polymers, that spanned a range of polymer size and charge properties, was measured using both the FBRM and CST tests. Analysis of the data revealed a decreasing monotonic trend; the samples that had the highest percent removal of particles less than 50 microns in size as determined by FBRM had the lowest CST values. A subset of the best performing polymers was used to evaluate the effects of dosage amount and digestate sources on dewatering performance. The results from this work show that FBRM is a powerful tool that can be used for optimization and on-line monitoring of dewatering processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Low-Cost Sorbents: A Literature Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Susan

    1997-01-01

    The capital and regeneration costs of activated carbon and ion exchange media suggest that better process economics may be achieved with disposable sorbents for the treatment of metals-contaminated...

  3. Correction magnetic field in electromagnet of proton accelerator using CST software; Correcao do campo magnetico em um eletroima de um acelerador de protons usando o software CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, L.A.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: luisarabelo88@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the study and simulation of uniform magnetic field electromagnets new circular accelerator model for protons with energy range between 15 MeV and 64 MeV. In addition, investigating materials and the changes induced by the presence of 'gaps' synchronism correction. The electromagnet simulations, predefined, were made in electromagnetic field simulation software CST EM Studio® 3D 2015. The results showed an even distribution of the magnetic field in the compact electromagnet with the same homogenization structures. The results showed regular distribution of the magnetic field in the compact electromagnet with homogenization structures. In conclusion, the electromagnetic model proposed shown to be feasible for a circular accelerator and comply the synchronization requirements. (author)

  4. Whole Genome Sequencing and Multiplex qPCR Methods to Identify Campylobacter jejuni Encoding cst-II or cst-III Sialyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Neal-McKinney

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni causes more than 2 million cases of gastroenteritis annually in the United States, and is also linked to the autoimmune sequelae Guillan–Barre syndrome (GBS. GBS often results in flaccid paralysis, as the myelin sheaths of nerve cells are degraded by the adaptive immune response. Certain strains of C. jejuni modify their lipooligosaccharide (LOS with the addition of neuraminic acid, resulting in LOS moieties that are structurally similar to gangliosides present on nerve cells. This can trigger GBS in a susceptible host, as antibodies generated against C. jejuni can cross-react with gangliosides, leading to demyelination of nerves and a loss of signal transduction. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative PCR (qPCR method and use whole genome sequencing data to detect the Campylobactersialyltransferase (cst genes responsible for the addition of neuraminic acid to LOS. The qPCR method was used to screen a library of 89 C. jejuni field samples collected by the Food and Drug Administration Pacific Northwest Lab (PNL as well as clinical isolates transferred to PNL. In silico analysis was used to screen 827 C. jejuni genomes in the FDA GenomeTrakr SRA database. The results indicate that a majority of C. jejuni strains could produce LOS with ganglioside mimicry, as 43.8% of PNL isolates and 46.9% of the GenomeTrakr isolates lacked the cst genes. The methods described in this study can be used by public health laboratories to rapidly determine whether a C. jejuni isolate has the potential to induce GBS. Based on these results, a majority of C. jejuni in the PNL collection and submitted to GenomeTrakr have the potential to produce LOS that mimics human gangliosides.

  5. Interview: Mr. Stephen Chee, team leader, UNFPA country support team (CST) for the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The UNFPA country support team (CST) for the South Pacific is the action-arm at the regional level of the new Technical Support Services arrangement introduced by the agency. Operational since April 1993, the CST currently covers the following Pacific island countries or territories: the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. The CST office is located in Suva, Fiji, with the main goal of strengthening national capacity and building self-reliance in the countries of the region. The office in Suva is currently staffed by six highly qualified advisors with extensive experience in the population and related fields; two more advisors are expected to join the Team in early 1994. The Team is well equipped to provide countries and territories of the region with a wide range of technical support services ranging from ad hoc technical advisory services to the conceptualization and development of comprehensive population policies and programs. Services are offered in the areas of basic data collection, processing, and research in population dynamics; population policy formulation, evaluation, and implementation; family planning and maternal-child health; information, education, and communication; women in population and development; and population program management. The team also plays an advocacy role in mainstreaming population concerns into the programs and activities of international, regional, and national organizations. The team leader responds to questions about population problems experienced by the countries served, the scope of UNFPA assistance to country governments in the subregion, the importance of population information in the subregion, and how Asia-Pacific POPIN may help the team and countries served.

  6. CST simulations of THz Smith–Purcell radiation from a lamellar grating with vacuum gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekomtsev, K.; Karataev, P.; Tishchenko, A.A.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Smith–Purcell radiation (SPR) from a lamellar grating with vacuum gaps was calculated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Particle In Cell (PIC) solver. The shapes of the radiation distributions were compared with those of Resonant Diffraction Radiation theory. Study of calculation domain meshing was performed. Influence of a transverse bunch size on the calculation accuracy and an SPR intensity distribution was investigated. Dependencies of the SPR yield on Lorentz factor and grating strip depth were calculated and compared with previously reported theoretical and experimental studies

  7. A Tuned Value Chain Model for University Based Public Research Organisation. Case Lut Cst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Karvonen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Porter´s value chain model was introduced for strategic business purposes. During the last decades also Universities and University based institutes have started to use actions similar to private business concepts. A University based institute is not independent actor like company but there are interest groups who are expecting them to act like they would be. This article discusses about the possibility of utilize tuned value chain to public research organizations (PRO. Also the interactions of tuned value chain model to existing industrial network are discussed. The case study object is the Centre for Separation Technology (CST at Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT in Finland.

  8. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  9. Application of inorganic sorbents for sewage purification from copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelizarova, I.A.; Tomchuk, T.K.; Kalinin, N.F.; Vol'khin, V.V.; Levichek, M.S.; Gulyaeva, E.I.

    1986-01-01

    Article presents the results of elaboration of synthesis methods of sorbent on the base of phosphate and magnesium hydroxide. As a result of study the technology of sorbent production with optimal properties was elaborated.

  10. Long Life Moving-Bed Zinc Titanate Sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Robert J.; Cesario, Mike; Feinberg, Daniel A.; Sibold, Jack; Windecker, Brian; Yang, Jing

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test long-life sorbents for hot gas cleanup. Specifically, we measured the sulfur loading at space velocities typically used for absorption of H 2 S and regenerated the sorbent with diluted air for multiple cycles. Based on the experimental results, we prepared a conceptual design of the sorbent-fabrication system, and estimated the cost of sorbent production and of sulfur removal

  11. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  12. Topical Report 5: Sorbent Performance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-05-31

    ADA-ES has completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649 with support from EPRI and industry cost-share participants. Tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas. The overall project objective is to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based postcombustion CO2 capture technology that can be retrofit to the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants. An important component of the viability assessment was to evaluate the state of development of sorbents and measure key performance characteristics under realistic operating conditions.

  13. Desulfurization Sorbents for Transport-Bed Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Vierheilig, Albert A.

    1997-01-01

    This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-(micro)m particle size range for transport reactor applications; (2) To transfer sorbent production technology to private sector; and (3) To provide technical support to Sierra Pacific Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and FETC's Hot-Gas Desulfurization Process Development Unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system

  14. Human CST Facilitates Genome-wide RAD51 Recruitment to GC-Rich Repetitive Sequences in Response to Replication Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Megan; Zhou, Qing; Shiva, Olga; Fadri-Moskwik, Maria; Whitmore, Leanne; Jia, Pingping; Dai, Xueyu; Huang, Chenhui; Ye, Ping; Chai, Weihang

    2016-08-02

    The telomeric CTC1/STN1/TEN1 (CST) complex has been implicated in promoting replication recovery under replication stress at genomic regions, yet its precise role is unclear. Here, we report that STN1 is enriched at GC-rich repetitive sequences genome-wide in response to hydroxyurea (HU)-induced replication stress. STN1 deficiency exacerbates the fragility of these sequences under replication stress, resulting in chromosome fragmentation. We find that upon fork stalling, CST proteins form distinct nuclear foci that colocalize with RAD51. Furthermore, replication stress induces physical association of CST with RAD51 in an ATR-dependent manner. Strikingly, CST deficiency diminishes HU-induced RAD51 foci formation and reduces RAD51 recruitment to telomeres and non-telomeric GC-rich fragile sequences. Collectively, our findings establish that CST promotes RAD51 recruitment to GC-rich repetitive sequences in response to replication stress to facilitate replication restart, thereby providing insights into the mechanism underlying genome stability maintenance. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of lignin on properties of wood-inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remez, V.P.; Charina, M.V.; Klass, S.M.; Shubin, A.S.; Tkachev, K.V.; Isaeva, O.F.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to influence of lignin on properties of wood-inorganic sorbents. The influence of component composition of matrix on sorption properties of sorbents and their stability in different mediums is studied. The dependence of sorption capacity of sorbent on component matrix composition and its porous structure is defined.

  16. A History of the Sonocare CST-100: The First FDA-approved HIFU Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Robert

    2006-05-01

    The Sonocare CST-100 Therapeutic Ultrasound System, designed for the treatment of glaucoma, was developed in the 1980s and became the first high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device to receive Food and Drug Administration approval. The system arose from studies done by F.L. Lizzi, Eng.Sc.D., of Riverside Research Institute and D.J. Coleman, M.D., of Cornell Medical Center/New York Hospital on the safety of ultrasound diagnosis of the eye. As safety limits were probed, therapeutic regimes were discovered. Optimization of operational parameters, clinical experience, and engineering design came together through a spin-off company, Sonocare, Inc., formed to produce and market the ophthalmic device. Various precedents were set during the approval process, including the acceptance by the FDA of radiation momentum imparted to an absorber as a measure of acoustic power. Many devices were sold, but the laser industry, grandfathered into the therapeutic field, eventually out-marketed Sonocare. The CST-100 remains as a model of elegant industrial design, and existing units are used daily in HIFU laboratory experiments.

  17. Design and Simulation of Horn Antenna Using CST Software for GPR System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joret, Ariffuddin; Sulong, M. S.; Abdullah, M. F. L.; Madun, Aziman; Haimi Dahlan, Samsul

    2018-04-01

    Detection of underground object can be made using a GPR system. This system is classified as a non-destructive technique (NDT) where the ground areas need not to be excavated. The technique used by the GPR system is by measuring the reflection of electromagnetic wave signal produced and detected by antenna which is known as the transmitter and the receiver antenna. In this study, a GPR system was studied by means of simulation using a Horn antenna as a transceiver antenna. The electromagnetic wave signal in this simulation is produced by current signal of an antenna which having a shape of modulation of Gaussian pulse which is having spectrum from 8 GHz until 12 GHz. CST and MATLAB Software are used in this GPR system simulation. A model of a Horn antenna has been designed using the CST software before the GPR’s system simulation modeled by adding a model of background in front of the Horn antenna. The simulation results show that the output signal of the Horn antenna can be used in detecting embedded object which are made from material of wood and iron. In addition, the simulation result has successfully developed a 3D model image of the GPR system using output signal of the Horn antenna. The embedded iron object in the GPR system simulation can be seen clearly by using this 3D image.

  18. Design and Simulation of a Birdcage Coil using CST Studio Suite for Application at 7T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, Bernat Palau; Li, Houmin; Anjum, M R

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the study of coils for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) applications. The principal objective is the design of a birdcage Radio Frequency (RF) coil to use in a 7 Tesla (7T) scanner. Higher strength field generates a better SNR and increased chemical shift effect, improving spectral fat suppression and spectroscopy. Moreover, a better SNR increases the spatial resolution or reduces the imaging time. This research work presented recent developments based on high field 7T design using CST studio. The birdcage coil achieves circular polarization and generates a high homogeneous radio frequency magnetic field under many conditions. Design of a Birdcage coil for a 7T to obtain the images from s mall animals (i.e. mouse). It opens the door to design and construct a Birdcage coil for a 7T to obtain human brain images. Firstly we design a birdcage coil then the results are obtained with simulator CST Wave Studio, creating a 3D model and generating a simulation. Finally the parameters are re adjusted to obtain our desired Larmor frequency 298.2 MHz for a correct operation in 7T. This research work demonstrates the theoretical results from our design and shows the designed antenna behavior

  19. Design and Simulation of a Birdcage Coil using CST Studio Suite for Application at 7T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau Tomas, Bernat; Li, Houmin; Anjum, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the study of coils for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) applications. The principal objective is the design of a birdcage Radio Frequency (RF) coil to use in a 7 Tesla (7T) scanner. Higher strength field generates a better SNR and increased chemical shift effect, improving spectral fat suppression and spectroscopy. Moreover, a better SNR increases the spatial resolution or reduces the imaging time. This research work presented recent developments based on high field 7T design using CST studio. The birdcage coil achieves circular polarization and generates a high homogeneous radio frequency magnetic field under many conditions. Design of a Birdcage coil for a 7T to obtain the images from s mall animals (i.e. mouse). It opens the door to design and construct a Birdcage coil for a 7T to obtain human brain images. Firstly we design a birdcage coil then the results are obtained with simulator CST Wave Studio, creating a 3D model and generating a simulation. Finally the parameters are re adjusted to obtain our desired Larmor frequency 298.2 MHz for a correct operation in 7T. This research work demonstrates the theoretical results from our design and shows the designed antenna behavior.

  20. OPTIMASI AIRFOIL MENGGUNAKAN PARTICLE SWARM DENGAN PARAMETERISASI CST (CLASS SHAPE TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hertnacahyani Herraprastanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Airfoil merupakan profil penampang yang diaplikasikan pada sarana transportasi maupun pembangkit energi sebagai penampang sudu turbin. Airfoil yang dirancang diharapkan menghasilkan gaya angkat (lift maksimal namun gaya hambat (drag seminimal mungkin. Tujuan penelitian 1 Validasi aerodinamika metode panel dengan Interaksi Viskos-Tak Viskos; 2 Analisis aerodinamika airfoil untuk menentukan koefisien lift dan drag; 3 Menerapkan metode optimasi Particle Swarm Optimization untuk mendapatkan geometri airfoil dengan rasio koefisien lift dan drag maksimum (CL/CD maks. Tahap pertama menentukan profil airfoil Class Shape Transformation (CST. Airfoil akan dianalisis menggunakan metoda panel selanjutnya diterapkan model aliran singularitas source dan doublet. Solusi yang diperoleh dari metode panel merupakan kondisi aliran yang dianggap tak viskos. Apabila sudut serang cukup tinggi solusi yang diperoleh dengan pendekatan tersebut sudah tidak akurat lagi. Untuk memperbaiki hasil maka diterapkan metode interaksi viskos-tak viskos kuasi simultan. Proses ini diulang sampai konvergensi dan diperoleh koefisien lift, dan drag. Dengan menggunakan optimasi Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO akan didapat profil airfoil dengan  koefisien lift dan drag maksimum. Namun apabila prosedur optimasi belum optimal, akan dilakukan update geometri, sampai didapat konvergensi. Kesimpulan penelitian :1 Metode panel dengan interaksi viskos tak viskos memberikan hasil yang cukup baik dan akurat, dengan rata-rata kesalahan dibawah 9.5%;  2 Semakin besar bilangan Reynold maka nilai CL/CD maksimum akan semakin tinggi; 3 Ketebalan (thickness dan camber maksimum cenderung meningkat dengan peningkatan bilangan Reynold; 4 Untuk airfoil CST optimasi dengan PSO memberikan hasil yang lebih baik.

  1. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-08

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  2. Non-carbon sorbents for mercury removal from flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, G.O.; Dubovik, M.; Cesario, M. [TDA Research Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2005-07-01

    TDA Research Inc. is developing a new sorbent that can effectively remove mercury from flue gases. It is made of non-carbon based materials and will therefore not alter the properties of the fly ash. The sorbent can be produced as an injectable powder. The paper summarises the initial testing results of the new sorbent. The sorbent exhibited 7.5 to 11.0 mg/g mercury absorption capacity under representative flue gas streams depending on the operating temperature and gas hourly space velocity. The sorbent also showed resistance to sulfur poisoning by sulfur dioxide. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Radon adsorption in fibrous carbon sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O.M.; Kish, A.O.; Chudakov, V.A.; Matvejchuk, S.V.; Sokolovskij, A.S.; Ugolev, I.I.

    2006-01-01

    Radon sorption in woven fibrous sorbents 'AUT-M' and 'Busofit' and nonwoven fiber in the temperature range 0-50 degrees centigrade was studied. Adsorption heat of radon from the ambient air in different types of carbon fiber was determined. (authors)

  4. Analysis of Ethane and Diethylbenzene Bridged Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    Textiles modified in this manner have been shown to reduce or eliminate transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants across the fabric barrier...B.J. Johnson; B.J. Melde; M.H. Moore; A.P. Malanoski; J.R. Taft, "Improving sorbents for glycerol capture in biodiesel refinement," Materials 10

  5. The antimicrobial efficiency of silver activated sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Đolić, Maja B.; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N.; Štrbac, Svetlana B.; Rakočević, Zlatko Lj.; Veljović, Đorđe N.; Dimitrijević, Suzana I.; Rajaković, Ljubinka V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Different sorbents were activated by Ag + -ions and modified sorbents were determined by sorption capacities, in range of values: 42.06–3.28 mg/g. • Granulated activated carbon (GAC), natural zeolit (Z) and titanium dioxide (T) activated by Ag + -ions were tested against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. • The most successful bacteria removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, while the yeast cell reduction reached unsatisfactory effect for all three activated sorbents. • XRD, XPS and FE-SEM analysis showed that the chemical state of the silver activating agent affects the antimicrobial activity, as well as the structural properties of the material. • An overall microbial cell reduction, which is performed by separated antimicrobial tests on the Ag + -activated surface and Ag + -ions in aquatic solutions, is a consequence of both mechanisms. - Abstract: This study is focused on the surface modifications of the materials that are used for antimicrobial water treatment. Sorbents of different origin were activated by Ag + -ions. The selection of the most appropriate materials and the most effective activation agents was done according to the results of the sorption and desorption kinetic studies. Sorption capacities of selected sorbents: granulated activated carbon (GAC), zeolite (Z), and titanium dioxide (T), activated by Ag + -ions were following: 42.06, 13.51 and 17.53 mg/g, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of Ag/Z, Ag/GAC and Ag/T sorbents were tested against Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and yeast C. albicans. After 15 min of exposure period, the highest cell removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, 98.8 and 93.5%, respectively. Yeast cell inactivation was unsatisfactory for all three activated sorbents. The antimicrobial pathway of the activated sorbents has been examined by two separate tests – Ag + -ions desorbed from the activated surface to the

  6. Enterovirus 71 3C protease cleaves a novel target CstF-64 and inhibits cellular polyadenylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Feng Weng

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of novel cellular proteins as substrates to viral proteases would provide a new insight into the mechanism of cell-virus interplay. Eight nuclear proteins as potential targets for enterovirus 71 (EV71 3C protease (3C(pro cleavages were identified by 2D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. Of these proteins, CstF-64, which is a critical factor for 3' pre-mRNA processing in a cell nucleus, was selected for further study. A time-course study to monitor the expression levels of CstF-64 in EV71-infected cells also revealed that the reduction of CstF-64 during virus infection was correlated with the production of viral 3C(pro. CstF-64 was cleaved in vitro by 3C(pro but neither by mutant 3C(pro (in which the catalytic site was inactivated nor by another EV71 protease 2A(pro. Serial mutagenesis was performed in CstF-64, revealing that the 3C(pro cleavage sites are located at position 251 in the N-terminal P/G-rich domain and at multiple positions close to the C-terminus of CstF-64 (around position 500. An accumulation of unprocessed pre-mRNA and the depression of mature mRNA were observed in EV71-infected cells. An in vitro assay revealed the inhibition of the 3'-end pre-mRNA processing and polyadenylation in 3C(pro-treated nuclear extract, and this impairment was rescued by adding purified recombinant CstF-64 protein. In summing up the above results, we suggest that 3C(pro cleavage inactivates CstF-64 and impairs the host cell polyadenylation in vitro, as well as in virus-infected cells. This finding is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that a picornavirus protein affects the polyadenylation of host mRNA.

  7. Development of accurate UWB dielectric properties dispersion at CST simulation tool for modeling microwave interactions with numerical breast phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, A.; Quboa, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a reformulation for the recently published dielectric properties dispersion models of the breast tissues is carried out to be used by CST simulation tool. The reformulation includes tabulation of the real and imaginary parts versus frequency on ultra-wideband (UWB) for these models by MATLAB programs. The tables are imported and fitted by CST simulation tool to second or first order general equations. The results have shown good agreement between the original and the imported data. The MATLAB programs written in MATLAB code are included in the appendix.

  8. Precision hfs of 126Cs(T1/2=1.63 m) by ABMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard, J.; Duong, H.T.; Marescaux, D.; Stroke, H.H.; Redi, O.; Gustafsson, M.; Nilsson, T.; Matsuki, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kominato, K.; Ogawa, I.; Shibata, M.; Tada, M.; Persson, J.R.; Nojiri, Y.; Momota, S.; Inamura, T.T.; Wakasugi, M.; Juncar, P.; Murayama, T.; Nomura, T.; Koizumi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The hfs separation Δν of 126 Cs(T1/2=1.63 m) in the 6s S1/22 ground state was obtained in a precision measurement near zero magnetic field by means of atomic beam magnetic resonance with laser optical pumping on-line with the CERN-PSB-ISOLDE mass separator. The result, Δν=3629.514 (0.001) MHz, corrects significantly a previous published value from a high-field experiment. With our result, the precision of the nuclear magnetic moment, μ(Cs126)∼0.776μN, is now limited by the influence of extended nuclear structure on the hfs (the Bohr-Weisskopf effect)

  9. Position map calculations of BPMs by CST particle studio for non-relativistic energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forck, Peter; Almalki, Mohammed; Kester, Oliver [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); He, Jun [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS Beijing (China); Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Sieber, Thomas; Singh, Rahul [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Beam positon monitors BPM at LINACs serve as the basic instrument for non-destructive position determination as yield from the difference-over-sum of signal of opposite electrodes. The time evolution of the signals, and consequently their Fourier-transformations, depend on the particle velocity and the distance from the electrodes. Position maps, i.e. electrodes difference-over-sum signal versus beam offset, were calculated using the wake-field solver CST Particle Studio in the velocity range from 0.05c to 0.5c for two BPM types. For the planned proton LINAC at FAIR, four separated button BPM electrodes are foreseen. The BPMs installed in the GSI UNILAC are made of a ceramic ring with four metallized sectors installed in a special housing. For the latter type resonances and capacitive coupling between the sectors modify the position map. The general findings and peculiarities of both types are presented.

  10. Hydrogen generation and foaming during tests in the GFPS simulating DWPF operations with Tank 42 sludge and CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    1999-12-08

    This report summarizes the pilot-scale research requested by the salt disposition team to examine the effect of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin with adsorbed noble metals on the maximum hydrogen generation rate produced during the DWPF melter feed preparation processes.

  11. Hydrogen generation and foaming during tests in the GFPS simulating DWPF operations with Tank 42 sludge and CST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the pilot-scale research requested by the salt disposition team to examine the effect of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) resin with adsorbed noble metals on the maximum hydrogen generation rate produced during the DWPF melter feed preparation processes

  12. Multipacting Simulations of Tuner-adjustable waveguide coupler (TaCo) with CST Particle Studio®

    CERN Document Server

    Shafqat, N; Wegner, R

    2014-01-01

    Tuner-adjustable waveguide couplers (TaCo) are used to feed microwave power to different RF structures of LINAC4. This paper studies the multipacting phenomenon for TaCo using the PIC solver of CST PS. Simulations are performed for complete field sweeps and results are analysed.

  13. New polymer bounces into sorbent market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Spectacular spills like the Exxon Valdez capture headlines and dominate conversation, but most releases involve quantities too small to attract media attention. For these spills, companies often rely on sorbents to collect the oil and dispose it. These devices come in a variety of shapes, sizes and absorbent materials, including a new generation of products that offers solid results-literally. This paper reports on the Solidifier which absorbs oil, as well as chlorinated solvents, hydrocarbons and PCBs, and, as the name implies, solidifies into a rubber-like material. A polymer used extensively in the rubber industry is the key to the sorbent's success. Oil and other contaminants, act like catalysts. They dissolve into the polymer, causing its molecules to bond together and form a rubber-like mass. No. 2 diesel fuel oil can be bounced on the floor after it solidifies

  14. Adsorption of Ammonia on Regenerable Carbon Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Jesph E.; Serio, Michael A..; Wilburn, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide, moisture, and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Data on sorption and desorption of ammonia, which is a major TC of concern, are presented in this paper. The current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is non-regenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. In this study, several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested for ammonia sorption. Ammonia-sorption capacity was related to carbon pore structure characteristics, and the temperature of oxidative carbon-surface treatment was optimized for enhanced ammonia-sorption performance.

  15. Sorbents based on carbonized rice peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurova, R. M.; Taipova, R. A.; Zhylybaeva, N. K.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Bijsenbaev, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The process receiving of sorbents based on carbonized rice peel (RP) was received and their sorption properties were investigated. Processing carbonization of samples leading on station, this was developed in laboratory of hybrid technology. Carbonization of samples was realized in nitric atmosphere on 400-8000 deg. C. On raising temperature of carbonization content of carbon in samples is rice, hydrogen and oxygen is reduce as a result isolation of volatility products is discover. The samples carbonized on 650 deg. C (910 m 2 /g) owners with maximum removed surface is discover. On carbonization temperature 600-800 deh. C the sorption of ions, which carbonized by sorbents based on rice peel is run to 95-100 %. Electron-microscopic investigation of samples leaded on EM-125 mechanism by accelerating pressure 100 kV. From electron-microscopic print of original samples of RP it is evident, that sample consists of carbonic fractions of different species: carbonic fiber of rounded fractions, fractions of ellipsoid form and of more thickly carbonic structure. Increasing sizes of pores and modification structure of synthesized sorbent is occur during carbonization process. The RP-samples, which carbonized by 650 deg. C has the higher specific surface. Samples consist of thin carbonic scum and reducing specific surface, by higher temperature

  16. CO2 Capacity Sorbent Analysis Using Volumetric Measurement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Roger; Richardson, Tra-My Justine; Belancik, Grace; Jan, Darrell; Knox, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In support of air revitalization system sorbent selection for future space missions, Ames Research Center (ARC) has performed CO2 capacity tests on various solid sorbents to complement structural strength tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The materials of interest are: Grace Davison Grade 544 13X, Honeywell UOP APG III, LiLSX VSA-10, BASF 13X, and Grace Davison Grade 522 5A. CO2 capacity was for all sorbent materials using a Micromeritics ASAP 2020 Physisorption Volumetric Analysis machine to produce 0C, 10C, 25C, 50C, and 75C isotherms. These data are to be used for modeling data and to provide a basis for continued sorbent research. The volumetric analysis method proved to be effective in generating consistent and repeatable data for the 13X sorbents, but the method needs to be refined to tailor to different sorbents.

  17. Advanced sorbent development progam; development of sorbents for moving-bed and fluidized-bed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, R.E.; Venkataramani, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and

  18. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  19. Properties and reactivity of reactivated calcium-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davini, P. [Pisa University, Pisa (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-04-01

    Calcium-based sorbents used in the process of high temperature desulfurisation of flue gases are partly regenerable by hydration with steam; the best results are obtained for treatment temperatures of approximately 300{degree}C. The regeneration process, and the consequent increase in the sorbent consumption can be correlated to the surface characteristics (BET surface area, porosity and pore size distribution) of the sorbents themselves. In particular, the presence of suitable pore structure, also having pores large enough to let molecules easily penetrate the inner part of the sorbent particles, is very important. 27 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.; Huybers, A.

    1998-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1981-07-01

    The efficient removal of UF 6 from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications

  2. Simulation of cold magnetized plasmas with the 3D electromagnetic software CST Microwave Studio®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louche Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed designs of ICRF antennas were made possible by the development of sophisticated commercial 3D codes like CST Microwave Studio® (MWS. This program allows for very detailed geometries of the radiating structures, but was only considering simple materials like equivalent isotropic dielectrics to simulate the reflection and the refraction of RF waves at the vacuum/plasma interface. The code was nevertheless used intensively, notably for computing the coupling properties of the ITER ICRF antenna. Until recently it was not possible to simulate gyrotropic medias like magnetized plasmas, but recent improvements have allowed programming any material described by a general dielectric or/and diamagnetic tensor. A Visual Basic macro was developed to exploit this feature and was tested for the specific case of a monochromatic plane wave propagating longitudinally with respect to the magnetic field direction. For specific cases the exact solution can be expressed in 1D as the sum of two circularly polarized waves connected by a reflection coefficient that can be analytically computed. Solutions for stratified media can also be derived. This allows for a direct comparison with MWS results. The agreement is excellent but accurate simulations for realistic geometries require large memory resources that could significantly restrict the possibility of simulating cold plasmas to small-scale machines.

  3. Simulation of cold magnetized plasmas with the 3D electromagnetic software CST Microwave Studio®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louche, Fabrice; Křivská, Alena; Messiaen, André; Wauters, Tom

    2017-10-01

    Detailed designs of ICRF antennas were made possible by the development of sophisticated commercial 3D codes like CST Microwave Studio® (MWS). This program allows for very detailed geometries of the radiating structures, but was only considering simple materials like equivalent isotropic dielectrics to simulate the reflection and the refraction of RF waves at the vacuum/plasma interface. The code was nevertheless used intensively, notably for computing the coupling properties of the ITER ICRF antenna. Until recently it was not possible to simulate gyrotropic medias like magnetized plasmas, but recent improvements have allowed programming any material described by a general dielectric or/and diamagnetic tensor. A Visual Basic macro was developed to exploit this feature and was tested for the specific case of a monochromatic plane wave propagating longitudinally with respect to the magnetic field direction. For specific cases the exact solution can be expressed in 1D as the sum of two circularly polarized waves connected by a reflection coefficient that can be analytically computed. Solutions for stratified media can also be derived. This allows for a direct comparison with MWS results. The agreement is excellent but accurate simulations for realistic geometries require large memory resources that could significantly restrict the possibility of simulating cold plasmas to small-scale machines.

  4. Process wastewater treatment with hydrogen-form CST and chabazite zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, S.M.; Bostick, D.T.

    1998-05-01

    Ion-exchange materials have been investigated for the removal of radionuclides from near-neutral-pH wastewaters containing competing cations at concentrations greater than those of the targeted species. Natural chabazite zeolite was chosen as the baseline material for the removal of fission products, namely 90 Sr and 137 Cs, from wastewater and groundwater. The sorbent IONSIV reg-sign IE-911, a crystalline silicotitanate manufactured by UOP, was recently tested in this capacity and found to compare extremely well against the baseline material in removing 90 Sr and 137 Cs from process wastewater. This paper presents results of similar column tests performed using both materials, as well as results from batch experiments on actual wastewaters using IONSIV reg-sign IE-911

  5. Anionic sorbents for arsenic and technetium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, Daniel A.; Moore, Robert Charles; Bontchev, Ranko Panayotov; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Two sorbents, zirconium coated zeolite and magnesium hydroxide, were tested for their effectiveness in removing arsenic from Albuquerque municipal water. Results for the zirconium coated zeolite indicate that phosphate present in the water interfered with the sorption of arsenic. Additionally, there was a large quantity of iron and copper present in the water, corrosion products from the piping system, which may have interfered with the uptake of arsenic by the sorbent. Magnesium hydroxide has also been proven to be a strong sorbent for arsenic as well as other metals. Carbonate, present in water, has been shown to interfere with the sorption of arsenic by reacting with the magnesium hydroxide to form magnesium carbonate. The reaction mechanism was investigated by FT-IR and shows that hydrogen bonding between an oxygen on the arsenic species and a hydrogen on the Mg(OH)2 is most likely the mechanism of sorption. This was also confirmed by RAMAN spectroscopy and XRD. Technetium exists in multiple oxidation states (IV and VII) and is easily oxidized from the relatively insoluble Tc(IV) form to the highly water soluble and mobile Tc(VII) form. The two oxidation states exhibit different sorption characteristics. Tc(VII) does not sorb to most materials whereas Tc(IV) will strongly sorb to many materials. Therefore, it was determined that it is necessary to first reduce the Tc (using SnCl2) before sorption to stabilize Tc in the environment. Additionally, the effect of carbonate and phosphate on the sorption of technetium by hydroxyapatite was studied and indicated that both have a significant effect on reducing Tc sorption

  6. TRUEX process solvent cleanup with solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan; Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Solid sorbents, alumina, silica gel, and Amberlyst A-26 have been tested for the cleanup of degraded TRUEX-NPH solvent. A sodium carbonate scrub alone does not completely remove acidic degradation products from highly degraded solvent and cannot restore the stripping performance of the solvent. By following the carbonate scrub with either neutral alumina or Amberlyst A-26 anion exchange resin, the performance of the TRUEX-NPH is substantially restored. The degraded TRUEX-NPH was characterized before and after treatment by supercritical fluid chromatography. Its performance was evaluated by americium distribution ratios, phase-separation times, and lauric acid distribution coefficients. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Assessment of spent mushroom substrate as sorbent of fungicides: influence of sorbent and sorbate properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a sorbent of fungicides was evaluated for its possible use in regulating pesticide mobility in the environment. The sorption studies involved four different SMS types in terms of nature and treatment and eight fungicides selected as representative compounds from different chemical groups. Nonlinear sorption isotherms were observed for all SMS-fungicide combinations. The highest sorption was obtained by composted SMS from Agaricus bisporus cultivation. A significant negative and positive correlation was obtained between the K(OC) sorption constants and the polarity index values of sorbents and the K(OW) of fungicides, respectively. The statistic revealed that more than 77% of the variability in the K(OW) could be explained considering these properties jointly. The other properties of both the sorbent (total carbon, dissolved organic carbon, or pH) and the sorbate (water solubility) were nonsignificant. The hysteresis values for cyprodinil (log K(OW)= 4) were for all the sorbents much higher (>3) than for other fungicides. This was consistent with the remaining sorption after desorption considered as an indicator of the sorption efficiency of SMS for fungicides. Changes in the absorption bands of fungicides sorbed by SMS observed by FTIR permitted establishing the interaction mechanism of fungicides with SMS. The findings of this work provide evidence for the potential capacity of SMS as a sorbent of fungicides and the low desorption observed especially for some fungicides, although they suggest that more stabilized or humified organic substrates should be produced to enhance their efficiency in environmental applications. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. La certificación de sostenibilidad turistica (CST: facilita la certificacion ISO 9000: el caso del HPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattia Lizzett Vasconcelos Vásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of this paper lies in the fact that it provides a comparative analysis between ISO 90001:2000 standards and the Costa Rica CST sustainability standard. It aims to obtain differences and similarities between both certification systems from this comparison and to analyze how they contribute to business management and sustainability. The analysis highlights which organizational changes a company must develop in order to achieve efficiency and ensure customer satisfaction.

  9. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  10. The BARD1 C-Terminal Domain Structure and Interactions with Polyadenylation Factor CstF-50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ross A.; Lee, Megan S.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Williams, R. Scott; Tainer, John A.; Glover, J. N. Mark

    2009-07-13

    The BARD1 N-terminal RING domain binds BRCA1 while the BARD1 C-terminal ankyrin and tandem BRCT repeat domains bind CstF-50 to modulate mRNA processing and RNAP II stability in response to DNA damage. Here we characterize the BARD1 structural biochemistry responsible for CstF- 50 binding. The crystal structure of the BARD1 BRCT domain uncovers a degenerate phosphopeptide binding pocket lacking the key arginine required for phosphopeptide interactions in other BRCT proteins.Small angle X-ray scattering together with limited proteolysis results indicates that ankyrin and BRCT domains are linked by a flexible tether and do not adopt a fixed orientation relative to one another. Protein pull-down experiments utilizing a series of purified BARD1 deletion mutants indicate that interactions between the CstF-50 WD-40 domain and BARD1 involve the ankyrin-BRCT linker but do not require ankyrin or BRCT domains. The structural plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker helps to explain the regulated assembly of different protein BARD1 complexes with distinct functions in DNA damage signaling including BARD1-dependent induction of apoptosis plus p53 stabilization and interactions. BARD1 architecture and plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker are suitable to allow the BARD1 C-terminus to act as a hub with multiple binding sites to integrate diverse DNA damage signals directly to RNA polymerase.

  11. Post-combustion carbon capture - solid sorbents and membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R.M.

    2009-01-15

    This report follows on from that on solvent scrubbing for post-combustion carbon capture from coal-fired power plants by considering the use of solid sorbents and membranes instead of solvents. First, mesoporous and microporous adsorbents are discussed: carbon-based adsorbents, zeolites, hydrotalcites and porous crystals. Attempts have been made to improve the performance of the porous adsorbent by functionalising them with nitrogen groups and specifically, amine groups to react with CO{sub 2} and thus enhance the physical adsorption properties. Dry, regenerable solid sorbents have attracted a good deal of research. Most of the work has been on the carbonation/calcination cycle of natural limestone but there have also been studies of other calcium-based sorbents and alkali metal-based sorbents. Membranes have also been studied as potential post-combustion capture devices. Finally, techno-economic studies predicting the economic performance of solid sorbents and membranes are discussed. 340 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Detoxication and recycling of radioactive waters using selective mineral sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berak, L.

    1980-01-01

    Activated BaSO 4 (designated AB 70) was proposed for use in decontaminating concentrated calcium salt solutions containing a small amount of 226 Ra. The AB 70 concentration factor amounts to 2x1a 3 . A sorption contactor for applying the powder sorbent was proposed and will be tested. The AB 70 sorbent liberates small amounts of sulphates into the decontaminated solution, and thus another suitable mineral sorbent was sought. A new sorbent could be synthetized and tested, called RAS-1 whose Ra/Ca selectivity is comparable to that of AB 70 while its Ra/Ba selectivity is considerably higher. The RAS-1 sorbent is also suitable for radiochemical separation in the analysis and concentration of Ra. (Ha)

  13. Risk assessment of CST-7 proposed waste treatment and storage facilities Volume I: Limited-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of proposed CST-7 waste treatment ampersand storage facilities. Volume II: Preliminary hazards analysis of proposed CST-7 waste storage ampersand treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, K.

    1994-06-01

    In FY 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Group [CST-7 (formerly EM-7)] requested the Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group [TSA-11 (formerly N-6)] to conduct a study of the hazards associated with several CST-7 facilities. Among these facilities are the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF), the HWTF Drum Storage Building (DSB), and the Mixed Waste Receiving and Storage Facility (MWRSF), which are proposed for construction beginning in 1996. These facilities are needed to upgrade the Laboratory's storage capability for hazardous and mixed wastes and to provide treatment capabilities for wastes in cases where offsite treatment is not available or desirable. These facilities will assist Los Alamos in complying with federal and state requlations

  14. Risk assessment of CST-7 proposed waste treatment and storage facilities Volume I: Limited-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of proposed CST-7 waste treatment & storage facilities. Volume II: Preliminary hazards analysis of proposed CST-7 waste storage & treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, K.

    1994-06-01

    In FY 1993, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Management Group [CST-7 (formerly EM-7)] requested the Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group [TSA-11 (formerly N-6)] to conduct a study of the hazards associated with several CST-7 facilities. Among these facilities are the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF), the HWTF Drum Storage Building (DSB), and the Mixed Waste Receiving and Storage Facility (MWRSF), which are proposed for construction beginning in 1996. These facilities are needed to upgrade the Laboratory`s storage capability for hazardous and mixed wastes and to provide treatment capabilities for wastes in cases where offsite treatment is not available or desirable. These facilities will assist Los Alamos in complying with federal and state requlations.

  15. Development and properties of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchangers for radioactive waste applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.E.; Brown, N.E.

    1997-04-01

    Crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) are a new class of ion exchangers that were jointly invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University. One particular CST, known as TAM-5, is remarkable for its ability to separate parts-per-million concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions (pH> 14) containing high sodium concentrations (>5M). It is also highly effective for removing cesium from neutral and acidic solutions, and for removing strontium from basic and neutral solutions. Cesium isotopes are fission products that account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams generated during weapons material production. Tests performed at numerous locations with early lab-scale TAM-5 samples established the material as a leading candidate for treating radioactive waste volumes such as those found at the Hanford site in Washington. Thus Sandia developed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnership with UOP, a world leader in developing, commercializing, and supplying adsorbents and associated process technology to commercialize and further develop the material. CSTs are now commercially available from UOP in a powder (UOP IONSIV reg-sign IE-910 ion exchanger) and granular form suitable for column ion exchange operations (UOP IONSIV reg-sign IE-911 ion exchanger). These materials exhibit a high capacity for cesium in a wide variety of solutions of interest to the Department of Energy, and they are chemically, thermally, and radiation stable. They have performed well in tests at numerous sites with actual radioactive waste solutions, and are being demonstrated in the 100,000 liter Cesium Removal Demonstration taking place at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with Melton Valley Storage Tank waste. It has been estimated that applying CSTs to the Hanford cleanup alone will result in a savings of more than $300 million over baseline technologies

  16. Development and properties of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchangers for radioactive waste applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.E.; Brown, N.E.

    1997-04-01

    Crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) are a new class of ion exchangers that were jointly invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University. One particular CST, known as TAM-5, is remarkable for its ability to separate parts-per-million concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions (pH> 14) containing high sodium concentrations (>5M). It is also highly effective for removing cesium from neutral and acidic solutions, and for removing strontium from basic and neutral solutions. Cesium isotopes are fission products that account for a large portion of the radioactivity in waste streams generated during weapons material production. Tests performed at numerous locations with early lab-scale TAM-5 samples established the material as a leading candidate for treating radioactive waste volumes such as those found at the Hanford site in Washington. Thus Sandia developed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partnership with UOP, a world leader in developing, commercializing, and supplying adsorbents and associated process technology to commercialize and further develop the material. CSTs are now commercially available from UOP in a powder (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-910 ion exchanger) and granular form suitable for column ion exchange operations (UOP IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911 ion exchanger). These materials exhibit a high capacity for cesium in a wide variety of solutions of interest to the Department of Energy, and they are chemically, thermally, and radiation stable. They have performed well in tests at numerous sites with actual radioactive waste solutions, and are being demonstrated in the 100,000 liter Cesium Removal Demonstration taking place at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with Melton Valley Storage Tank waste. It has been estimated that applying CSTs to the Hanford cleanup alone will result in a savings of more than $300 million over baseline technologies.

  17. Sorbent-based Oxygen Production for Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst. (WRI), Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Project DE-FE0024075 deals with the development of a moderate-temperature sorbent-based oxygen production technology. Sorbent-based oxygen production process utilizes oxygen-storage properties of Perovskites to (1) adsorb oxygen from air in a solid sorbent, and (2) release the adsorbed oxygen into a sweep gas such as CO2 and/or steam for gasification systems or recycled flue gas for oxy-combustion systems. Pure oxygen can be produced by the use of vacuum instead of a sweep gas to affect the pressure swing. By developing more efficient and stable, higher sorption capacity, newer class of materials operating at moderate temperatures this process represents a major advancement in air separation technology. Newly developed perovskite ceramic sorbent materials with order-disorder transition have a higher O2 adsorption capacity, potentially 200 °C lower operating temperatures, and up to two orders of magnitude faster desorption rates than those used in earlier development efforts. The performance advancements afforded by the new materials lead to substantial savings in capital investment and operational costs. Cost of producing oxygen using sorbents could be as much as 26% lower than VPSA and about 13% lower than a large cryogenic air separation unit. Cost advantage against large cryogenic separation is limited because sorbent-based separation numbers up sorbent modules for achieving the larger capacity.

  18. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  19. NIFSIL - a composite sorbent for caesium - properties and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajec, P.; Orechovska, J.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of the potassium-nickel ferrocyanides K 2 NiFe(CN) 6 , KNi 1,5 Fe(CN) 6 and Ni 2 Fe(CN) 6 were prepared and their properties studied with respect to their use as sorbents for caesium. Caesium is fixed on mixed alkaline-nickel ferrocyanide without structural change. The capacity of Cs retention never reached the theoretic value corresponding to a total release of the monovalent ions of the solid. High distribution coefficients (K D in the order of 10 4 cm 3 /g) determined in batch experiments show that these sorbents have a very high affinity for caesium ions, even in the presence of competing K + , Na + and Ca 2+ ions. The sorbents have a good chemical stability in a wide pH-range (2-12). The irradiation of some sorbent samples with high energy gamma-rays ( 60 Co) of a total dose of 1.10 5 Gy caused no remarkable changes in the sorbent properties (K D , sorption capacity and kinetics, mechanical stability). The sorbents were also tested for 85 Sr and 239 Pu and the results carried out under dynamic and batch experiments have shown that sorbents are not suitable for removal of these radionuclides. Potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate incorporated in silica-gel matrix could compete with others sorbents based on insoluble hexacyanoferrates, has the advantage of good radiation stability and suitable granulometry. The sorbent was prepared on a pilot scale with a capacity about 1000 kg per year with the prospect that it could be easily upgraded to an industrial scale

  20. Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2010-04-20

    Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts are disclosed, including silver hollandite and cryptomelane. These materials can be used, for example, to catalyze the oxidation of CO.sub.x (e.g., CO), NO.sub.x (e.g., NO), hydrocarbons (e.g., C.sub.3H.sub.6) and/or sulfur-containing compounds. The disclosed materials also may be used to catalyze other reactions, such as the reduction of NO.sub.2. In some cases, the disclosed materials are capable of sorbing certain products from the reactions they catalyze. Silver hollandite, in particular, can be used to remove a substantial portion of certain sulfur-containing compounds from a gas or liquid by catalysis and/or sorption. The gas or liquid can be, for example, natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon.

  1. Potential of Cogon Grass as an Oil Sorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Barlianti, Vera; Anggraini, Irni Fitria; Hendarsyah, Hendris

    2012-01-01

    Experiments on the potential of Cogon grass (lmperata cylindrica), a weed harmful to other plants, for use as a low-cost and biodegradable oil sorbent were carried out under various spill conditions. Flowers of Cogon grass adsorbed much larger amount of high-viscosity lubricating oil (57.9 g-oil/g-sorbent) than that adsorbed by Peat Sorb (7.7 g-oil/g-sorbent), a commercial oilsorbent based on peat. However, the flowers adsorbed only 27.9 g of low-viscosity crude oillgsorbent. In an oil-water ...

  2. Evaluation of 137Cs sorbents for fixation in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the long-term waste management program at the Savannah River Laboratory, several 137 Cs sorbents were evaluated for incorporation into concrete. The sorbents studied were: Linde AW-300, AW-500, 13-X, and SK-40; Norton Zeolon 200, 500, and 900; clinoptilolite; and vermiculite. The parameters studied were sorption kinetics, leachability, and compressive strength of the concrete. The best sorbents identified were Linde AW-500 and Norton Zeolon 900. In all tests, these two sorbents performed almost identically; sorption kinetics were acceptable; both strengthened the concrete, and both gave relatively leach-resistant concrete. Vermiculite that had been heated to collapse its lattice around 137 Cs gave the most leach-resistant concrete. However, it sorbed cesium slowly, and the resulting concrete was very weak. When silica gel was added to concrete to react with free calcium, the addition had no effect on cesium leachability

  3. Novel Sorbent to Clean Up Biogas for CHPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gökhan O. [TDA Research, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Jayataman, Ambalavanan [TDA Research, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Schaefer, Matthew [TDA Research, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Ware, Michael [TDA Research, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Hunt, Jennifer [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States); Dobek, Frank [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2015-05-30

    In this project, TDA Research Inc. (TDA) has developed low-cost (on a per unit volume of gas processed basis), high-capacity expendable sorbents that can remove both the H2S and organic sulfur species in biogas to the ppb levels. The proposed sorbents will operate downstream of a bulk desulfurization system as a polishing bed to provide an essentially sulfur-free gas to a fuel cell (or any other application that needs a completely sulfur-free feed). Our sorbents use a highly dispersed mixed metal oxides active phase with desired modifiers prepared over on a mesoporous support. The support structure allows the large organic sulfur compounds (such as the diethyl sulfide and dipropyl sulfide phases with a large kinetic diameter) to enter the sorbent pores so that they can be adsorbed and removed from the gas stream.

  4. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents: Concept, fabrication and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval; Olanrewaju, Kayode O.; Bessho, Naoki; Breedveld, Victor; Koros, William J.

    2013-01-01

    and to ensure consistent sorption capacity over repeated cycles, a dense, thin polymer barrier layer on the fiber sorbents is needed to allow only thermal interactions between the sorbate loaded layer and the thermal regeneration fluid. This paper considers

  5. Water purification from radionuclides with using fibroid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R. A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purification waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, organic contamination is one of the important problems today. For solving this problem we have created three types of fibroid sorbents on the base of Polyester: cationic and anionic exchange and carbonic. Main properties of these sorbents are described in this article. For example characteristics of the sorbents for removing radionuclides Co-60,57, Zn-65, Sr-89,90, Cs-134,137, etc., radionuclides containing organic molecules M-P-32, M-I-131, M-Mo-99+Tc-99m, M-C-14, etc., heavy metal ions Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Pb, Cd, Cr, U, etc., organic molecules (pesticides, phenols, dioxin, benzene, toluene, etc.) were investigated. Influence of pH on percent removal, influence of K, Na and another ions concentrations in the liquid on the percent removal, decreasing of the saturation capacity from number of regeneration and another characteristics are described. Static exchange capacity of the cationic sorbents is 1-2 mg-equ/g and anionic - 0.5-1 mg-equ/g. Capacity of the carbonic sorbents for benzene is 100 mg/g. Time of chemical balance setting is 1-2 s. The sorbents are effective in removing the low concentrations of contamination from the water (lower than 100-200 mg/l) and the air (lower than 100 mg/m 3 ). The use of sorbents in drinking water filters and mini-systems is described. The industrial water purification system consists of coagulating unit, sorbent unit and disinfectant unit. The systems are used in atomic power stations, electroplating plants, matches plants, leather and skin treating plants, car-washing stations, etc

  6. Oil sorbents from plastic wastes and polymers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Adil Riaz, Muhammad; Gordon, McKay

    2018-01-05

    A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst others. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) have been reported. In recent years, the idea of using plastic wastes as the feed for the production of oil sorbents has gained momentum. However, the studies undertaking such feasibility are rather scattered. This review paper is the first of its kind reporting, compiling and reviewing these various processes. The production of an oil sorbent from plastic wastes is being seen to be satisfactorily achievable through a variety of methods Nevertheless, much work needs to be done regarding further investigation of the numerous parameters influencing production yields and sorbent qualities. For example, differences in results are seen due to varying operating conditions, experimental setups, and virgin or waste plastics being used as feeds. The field of producing oil sorbents from plastic wastes is still very open for further research, and seems to be a promising route for both waste reduction, and the synthesis of value-added products such as oil sorbents. In this review, the research related to the production of various oil sorbents based on plastics (plastic waste and virgin polymer) has been discussed. Further oil sorbent efficiency in terms of oil sorption capacity has been described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. REMOVAL OF ANIONIC SURFACTANTS FROM WASTEWATER BY MAGNETIC MINERAL SORBENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vladimirova Makarchuk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The simplest and most effective method of removing low concentrations of anionic surfactants such as sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS is adsorption. Among adsorbents the natural clays are cheap and promising for these purposes. However, there are significant difficulties in removal of spent sorbent after the adsorption process. So, the creation of magnetic sorbents that can be effectively removed from water after sorption by magnetic separation will be a successful decision. The aim of this investigation is the creation of cheap and efficient magnetic sorbents based on natural clays and magnetite for anionic surfactant removal from wastewater. We have synthesized a series of magnetic sorbents from different natural clays with a content of magnetite from 2 to 10 wt%. The ability of magnetic sorbents to remove SDBS and SLS from aqueous solutions has been studied for different adsorbate concentrations by varying the amount of adsorbent, temperature and shaking time. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated from the slope and intercept of the linear plots of ln K against 1/T. Analysis of adsorption results obtained at different temperatures showed that the adsorption pattern on magnetic sorbents correspond to the Langmuir isotherm. It is shown that with increasing the content of magnetite in the magnetic sorbents improves not only their separation from water by magnetic separation, but adsorption capacity to SDBS and SLS. Thus, we obtained of cheap magnetic sorbents based on natural clays and magnetite by the easy way, which not only quickly separated from the solution by magnetic separation, but effectively remove anionic surfactants.

  8. Effectiveness of liquid radioactive waste purification by inorganic granulated sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarevskij, V.M.; Stepanets, O.V.; Sharygin, L.M.; Matveev, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Study results on purification of simulative and real liquid radioactive wastes from fission products radionuclides and by inorganic corrosion-nature sorbents 'Thermoxide' are presented. Properties by sorption of cesium, strontium and cobalt are studied; results of experiments on purification of weakly-salted water solutions (waste waters, ships drainage tanks, showers and laundries) of the Beloyarsk NPP are presented. Sorbents source characteristics are determined. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing sorbent materials to prevent the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Screening studies identified promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite of clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent, adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 2 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  10. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Jung, Jae Hee; Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2012-01-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO 2 and NO X emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO 2 -rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO 3 , which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO 3 sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO 2 atmosphere due to the higher CO 2 partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO 2 atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain–subgrain structure model in both the air and CO 2 atmospheres.

  11. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs

  13. The impact of individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (iCST) on cognition, quality of life, caregiver health, and family relationships in dementia: A randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Phuong; Whitaker, Chris; Burns, Alistair; Knapp, Martin; Leroi, Iracema; Spector, Aimee; Roberts, Steven; de Waal, Hugo; Orgeta, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    Background Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is a well-established group psychosocial intervention for people with dementia. There is evidence that home-based programmes of cognitive stimulation delivered by family caregivers may benefit both the person and the caregiver. However, no previous studies have evaluated caregiver-delivered CST. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based, caregiver-led individual cognitive stimulation therapy (iCST) program in (i) improving cognition and quality of life (QoL) for the person with dementia and (ii) mental and physical health (well-being) for the caregiver. Methods and findings A single-blind, pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at eight study sites across the United Kingdom. The intervention and blinded assessment of outcomes were conducted in participants’ homes. Three hundred fifty-six people with mild to moderate dementia and their caregivers were recruited from memory services and community mental health teams (CMHTs). Participants were randomly assigned to iCST (75, 30-min sessions) or treatment as usual (TAU) control over 25 wk. iCST sessions consisted of themed activities designed to be mentally stimulating and enjoyable. Caregivers delivering iCST received training and support from an unblind researcher. Primary outcomes were cognition (Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive [ADAS-Cog]) and self-reported QoL (Quality of Life Alzheimer’s Disease [QoL-AD]) for the person with dementia and general health status (Short Form-12 health survey [SF-12]) for the caregiver. Secondary outcomes included quality of the caregiving relationship from the perspectives of the person and of the caregiver (Quality of the Carer Patient Relationship Scale) and health-related QoL (European Quality of Life–5 Dimensions [EQ-5D]) for the caregiver. Intention to treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. At the post-test (26 wk), there were no differences between the iCST and TAU groups

  14. The impact of individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (iCST on cognition, quality of life, caregiver health, and family relationships in dementia: A randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Orrell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST is a well-established group psychosocial intervention for people with dementia. There is evidence that home-based programmes of cognitive stimulation delivered by family caregivers may benefit both the person and the caregiver. However, no previous studies have evaluated caregiver-delivered CST. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based, caregiver-led individual cognitive stimulation therapy (iCST program in (i improving cognition and quality of life (QoL for the person with dementia and (ii mental and physical health (well-being for the caregiver.A single-blind, pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT was conducted at eight study sites across the United Kingdom. The intervention and blinded assessment of outcomes were conducted in participants' homes. Three hundred fifty-six people with mild to moderate dementia and their caregivers were recruited from memory services and community mental health teams (CMHTs. Participants were randomly assigned to iCST (75, 30-min sessions or treatment as usual (TAU control over 25 wk. iCST sessions consisted of themed activities designed to be mentally stimulating and enjoyable. Caregivers delivering iCST received training and support from an unblind researcher. Primary outcomes were cognition (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive [ADAS-Cog] and self-reported QoL (Quality of Life Alzheimer's Disease [QoL-AD] for the person with dementia and general health status (Short Form-12 health survey [SF-12] for the caregiver. Secondary outcomes included quality of the caregiving relationship from the perspectives of the person and of the caregiver (Quality of the Carer Patient Relationship Scale and health-related QoL (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D] for the caregiver. Intention to treat (ITT analyses were conducted. At the post-test (26 wk, there were no differences between the iCST and TAU groups in the outcomes of cognition (mean

  15. New Sorbents for Removing Arsenic From Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConchie, D. M.; Genc-Fuhrman, H.; Clark, M. W.; Caldicott, W.; Davies-McConchie, F. G.

    2004-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in the drinking water used in many countries, including some of the poorest developing countries, and recognition that consuming this water can have serious consequences for human health, have led to increased investigations of ways to obtain safe water supplies. Finding new groundwater resources is a possible solution but this is a costly strategy that has no guarantee of success, particularly in areas where water is already a scarce commodity. The alternative is to treat water that is already available, but existing technologies are usually too expensive, too difficult to operate and maintain, or not completely effective when used in less developed countries or remote areas. There is therefore, an urgent need to find a simple and effective but inexpensive sorbent for arsenic that can be used to treat large volumes of water under less than ideal conditions. In this paper we present the results of field and laboratory trials that used a new, highly cost-effective, sorbent to remove arsenic from contaminated water. BauxsolT is the name given to the cocktail of minerals prepared by treating caustic bauxite refinery residues with Mg and Ca to produce a substance with a reaction pH of about 8.5, a high acid neutralizing capacity and an excellent ability to trap trace metals, metalloids and some other ionic species. The trapped ions are tightly bound by processes that include; precipitation of low solubility neoformational minerals, isomorphous substitution, solid-state diffusion, and adsorption; it is also an excellent flocculant. Although ordinary BauxsolT has an excellent ability to bind arsenate, and to a lesser extent arsenite, this ability can be further increased for particular water types by using activated BauxsolT or BauxsolT combined with small amounts of other reagents. Field trials conducted at the Gilt Edge Mine, South Dakota, showed that the addition of BauxsolT to highly sulfidic waste rock reduced the arsenic

  16. Tunable polymeric sorbent materials for fractionation of model naphthenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed H; Wilson, Lee D; Headley, John V

    2013-04-04

    The sorption properties are reported for several examples of single-component carboxylic acids representing naphthenic acids (NAs) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based polyurethane sorbents. Seven single-component examples of NAs were chosen with variable z values, carbon number, and chemical structure as follows: 2-hexyldecanoic acid (z = 0 and C = 16; S1), n-caprylic acid (z = 0 and C = 8; S2), trans-4-pentylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (z = -2 and C = 12; S3), 4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (z = -2 and C = 8; S4), dicyclohexylacetic acid (z = -4; C = 14; S5), 4-pentylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-carboxylic acid (z = -4; C = 14; S6), and lithocholic acid (z = -6; C = 24; S7). The copolymer sorbents were synthesized at three relative β-CD:diisocyanate mole ratios (i.e., 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3) using 4,4'-dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate (CDI) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents were characterized using equilibrium sorption isotherms in aqueous solution at pH 9.00 with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The equilibrium fraction of the unbound carboxylate anions was monitored in the aqueous phase. The sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents (i.e., Qm) were obtained from the Sips isotherm model. The Qm values generally decrease as the number of accessible β-CD inclusion sites in the copolymer framework decreases. The chemical structure of the adsorbates played an important role in their relative uptake, as evidenced by the adsorbate lipophilic surface area (LSA) and the involvement of hydrophobic effects. The copolymers exhibit molecular selective sorption of the single-component carboxylates in mixtures which suggests their application as sorbents for fractionation of mixtures of NAs. By comparison, granular activated carbon (GAC) and chitosan sorbents did not exhibit any significant molecular selective sorption relative to the copolymer materials; however, evidence of variable sorption capacity was

  17. Tributyl phosphate removal from reprocessing off-gas streams using a selected sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory experiments used small laboratory-scale columns packed with selected sorbent materials to remove tributyl phosphate (TBP) and iodine at conditions approaching those in actual reprocessing off-gas streams. The sorbent materials for TBP removal were placed upstream of iodine sorbent materials to protect the iodine sorbent from the deleterious effects of TBP. Methyl iodide in an airstream containing 30% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) and water vapor was metered to two packed columns of sorbents simultaneously (in parallel). One column contained a segment of 8-in. x 14-in. mesh alumina sorbent for TBP removal, the other did not. The measure of the effectiveness of TBP sorbent materials for TBP removal was determined by comparing the iodine retention of the iodine sorbent materials in the two parallel columns. Results from an 18 wt % Ag substituted mordenite iodine sorbent indicated that the iodine retention capacity of the sorbent was reduced 60% by the TBP and that the column containing iodine sorbent material protected by the alumina TBP sorbent retained 30 times more iodine than the column without TBP sorbent. TBP concentration was up to 500 mg/m 3 . Similar experiments using a 7 wt % Ag impregnated silica gel indicated that the TBP vapor had little effect on the iodine retention of the silica gel material. The stoichiometric maximum amount of iodine was retained by the silica gel material. Further experiments were conducted assessing the effects of NO 2 on iodine retention of this 7 wt % Ag sorbent. After the two columns were loaded with iodine in the presence of TBP (in NPH), one column was subjected to 2 vol % NO 2 in air. From visual comparison of the two columns, it appeared that the NO 2 regenerated the silica gel iodine sorbent and that iodine was washed off the silica gel iodine sorbent leaving the sorbent in the original state

  18. Post combustion carbon capture - solid sorbents and membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R.M. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This report follows on from that on solvent scrubbing for post-combustion carbon capture from coal-fired power plants by considering the use of solid sorbents and membranes instead of solvents. First, mesoporous and microporous adsorbents are discussed: carbon-based adsorbents, zeolites, hydrotalcites and porous crystals. Attempts have been made to improve the performance of the porous adsorbent by functionalising them with nitrogen groups and specifically, amine groups to react with CO{sub 2} and thus enhance the physical adsorption properties. Dry, regenerable solid sorbents have attracted a good deal of research. Most of the work has been on the carbonation/calcination cycle of natural limestone but there have also been studies of other calcium-based sorbents and alkali metal-based sorbents. Membranes have also been studied as potential post-combustion capture devices. Finally, techno-economic studies predicting the economic performance of solid sorbents and membranes are discussed. The report is available from IEA Clean Coal Centre as report no. CCC/144. See Coal Abstracts entry April 2009 00406. 340 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Oil spill sorbents: Testing protocol and certification listing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.; Gausemel, I.

    1993-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Engineering Division is spearheading a program in conjunction with the Canadian General Standards Board that would see the development of a certification and listing program in addition to a national standard for the testing of sorbent materials. Funding for this program is provided by Environment Canada (EC), Canadian Coast Guard (CCG), Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), US Coast Guard (USCG), and US Minerals Management Service (MMS). The test methods are based upon those defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials and previous test methods developed by Environment Canada for our series of reports entitled Selection Criteria and Laboratory Evaluation of Oil Spill Sorbents. This series, which was started in 1975, encompasses a number of commercially available oil spill sorbents tested with different petroleum products and hydrocarbon solvents. The testing program will categorize the sorbents according to their operating characteristics. The main categories are oil spills on water, oil spills on land, and industrial use. The characteristics to be evaluated with the new test protocols include initial and maximum sorption capacities, water pickup, buoyancy, reuse potential, retention profile, disintegration (material integrity), and ease of application and retrieval. In the near future are plans to incorporate changes to the test that would involve increasing the list of test liquids to encompass spills in an industrial setting, in addition to testing sorbent booms and addressing the disposal problem

  20. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing sorbent materials to prevent the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Screening studies identified promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent, adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt %), activated charcoal (6 wt %), synthetic zeolite (20 wt %), and soil (73 wt %) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  2. Ecologically pure sorbents for power system of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, I. S.; Moryganova, Y. A.; Maung, Ko Ko; Arefeva, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, one of the most important problems of the thermal power plant, and many industrial enterprises in different countries is a wastewater treatment for oil products. When choosing the good sorbents is necessary to consider not only the properties and efficiency of the recommended materials, but also the cost, the possibility of environmentally friendly disposal of used sorbents and the possibility of using secondary resources. The purpose of this paper is to study the possibility of using agricultural waste in Myanmar as the sorbents in wastewater treatment containing oil products. The results of experiments have confirmed that rice hulls, and coconut fiber can be effectively used as the sorbents in wastewater treatment containing oil products at concentrations up to 10 mg/l. According to comparative analysis with the conventional sorbent-activated birch carbon (BAC-A) in the Russian power industry has shown that coconut fiber has very good sorption capacity and it is available to use as the raw materials for industries, which does not require to regenerate after using it and can be directly recycled in the factory.

  3. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents: Concept, fabrication and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval

    2013-02-01

    Hollow fiber sorbents are pseudo-monolithic separations materials created with fiber spinning technology using a polymer \\'binder\\', impregnated with high loadings of sorbent \\'fillers\\' [1]. To increase purified gas recovery during the sorption step and to ensure consistent sorption capacity over repeated cycles, a dense, thin polymer barrier layer on the fiber sorbents is needed to allow only thermal interactions between the sorbate loaded layer and the thermal regeneration fluid. This paper considers materials and methods to create delamination-free dual layer fiber sorbents, with a porous core and a barrier sheath layer formed using a simultaneous co-extrusion process. Low permeability polymers were screened for sheath layer creation, with the core layer comprising cellulose acetate polymer as binder and zeolite NaY as sorbent fillers. Appropriate core and sheath layer dope compositions were determined by the cloud-point method and rheology measurements. The morphology of the as-spun fibers was characterized in detail by SEM, EDX and gas permeation analysis. A simplified qualitative model is described to explain the observed fiber morphology. The effects of core, sheath spin dope and bore fluid compositions, spinning process parameters such as air-gap height, spin dope and coagulation bath temperatures, and elongation draw ratio are examined in detail. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sorbent application on the base of chitosan for radionuclides separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivarciova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste contains enormous amounts of radionuclides, which pollute the environment and can cause serious chemical and radiological toxicity threats to lower and higher living organism. Alternative process for the removal of heavy metal ions and radionuclides is sorption, which utilizes various certain natural materials of biological origin. Amino-polysaccharide-based sorbents e.g. chitosan represent suitable materials for binding of metal oxo-anion species because of numerous functional groups -OH and -NH_2 because of their suitable H-bond donor and acceptor sites. The sorbents on the base chitosan prepared through chemical modification were used for removal and separation certain radionuclides from aqueous media. The aim of this work was the study of physicochemical properties of prepared sorbents. The specific surface of sorbents was characterized with BET methods. Point of zero charge was identified with potentiometric titration. The size of particles and shape of sorbents were determined by scanning electron microscope. The sorption experiments for selected radionuclides were conducted under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of various parameters on the sorption "9"9"mTc, "6"0Co and the effect of pH on the separation of radionuclide mixture in the solution were studied. (author)

  5. Comparison of Measured and Calculated Coupling between a Waveguide and an RF Cavity Using CST Microwave Studio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Shi; H. Chen; S. Zheng; D. Li; R.A. Rimmer; H. Wang

    2006-06-26

    Accurate predications of RF coupling between an RF cavity and ports attached to it have been an important study subject for years for RF coupler and higher order modes (HOM) damping design. We report recent progress and a method on the RF coupling simulations between waveguide ports and RF cavities using CST Microwave Studio in time domain (Transit Solver). Comparisons of the measured and calculated couplings are presented. The simulated couplings and frequencies agree within {approx} 10% and {approx} 0.1% with the measurements, respectively. We have simulated couplings with external Qs ranging from {approx} 100 to {approx} 100,000, and confirmed with measurements. The method should also work well for higher Qs, and can be easily applied in RF power coupler designs and HOM damping for normal-conducting and superconducting cavities.

  6. Comparison of Measured and Calculated Coupling between a Waveguide and an RF Cavity Using CST Microwave Studio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Shi; H. Chen; S. Zheng; D. Li; R.A. Rimmer; H. Wang

    2006-01-01

    Accurate predications of RF coupling between an RF cavity and ports attached to it have been an important study subject for years for RF coupler and higher order modes (HOM) damping design. We report recent progress and a method on the RF coupling simulations between waveguide ports and RF cavities using CST Microwave Studio in time domain (Transit Solver). Comparisons of the measured and calculated couplings are presented. The simulated couplings and frequencies agree within ∼ 10% and ∼ 0.1% with the measurements, respectively. We have simulated couplings with external Qs ranging from ∼ 100 to ∼ 100,000, and confirmed with measurements. The method should also work well for higher Qs, and can be easily applied in RF power coupler designs and HOM damping for normal-conducting and superconducting cavities

  7. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Deep-bed iodine sorption testing has been done to evaluate the performance of solid sorbents for capturing iodine in off-gas streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The objectives of the FY 2011 deep bed iodine sorbent testing are: (1) Evaluate sorbents for iodine capture under various conditions of gas compositions and operating temperature (determine sorption efficiencies, capacities, and mass transfer zone depths); and (2) Generate data for dynamic iodine sorption modeling. Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of this report or a future report. Testing was somewhat delayed and limited this year due to initial activities to address some questions of prior testing, and due to a period of maintenance for the on-line GC. Each test consisted of (a) flowing a synthetic blend of gases designed to be similar to an aqueous dissolver off-gas stream over the sorbent contained in three separate bed segments in series, (b) measuring each bed inlet and outlet gas concentrations of iodine and methyl iodide (the two surrogates of iodine gas species considered most representative of iodine species expected in dissolver off-gas), (c) operating for a long enough time to achieve breakthrough of the iodine species from at least one (preferably the first two) bed segments, and (d) post-test purging

  8. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, KIST 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin [Environmental Systems Research Division, KIMM 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Soo, E-mail: sskim@kaist.ac.kr [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO{sub 3} sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere due to the higher CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain-subgrain structure model in both the air and CO{sub 2} atmospheres.

  9. Sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Smotraiev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The actual problem of water supply in the world and in Ukraine, in particular, is a high level of pollution in water resources and an insufficient level of drinking water purification. With industrial wastewater, a significant amount of pollutants falls into water bodies, including suspended particles, sulfates, iron compounds, heavy metals, etc. Aim: The aim of this work is to determine the impact of aluminum and manganese ions additives on surface and sorption properties of zirconium oxyhydroxide based sorbents during their production process. Materials and Methods: The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were prepared by sol-gel method during the hydrolysis of metal chlorides (zirconium oxychloride ZrOCl2, aluminum chloride AlCl3 and manganese chloride MnCl2 with carbamide. Results: The surface and sorption properties of sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were investigated. X-ray amorphous structure and evolved hydroxyl-hydrate cover mainly characterize the obtained xerogels. The composite sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide doped with aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 537 m2/g and manganese oxyhydroxide (aS = 356 m2/g have more developed specific surface area than single-component xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide (aS = 236 m2/g and aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 327 m2/g. The sorbent based on the xerogel of zirconium and manganese oxyhydroxides have the maximum SO42--ions sorption capacity. It absorbs 1.5 times more SO42–-ions than the industrial anion exchanger AN-221. The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide has the sorption capacity of Fe3+-ions that is 1.5…2 times greater than the capacity of the industrial cation exchanger KU-2-8. The Na+-ions absorption capacity is 1.47…1.56 mmol/g for each sorbent. Conclusions: Based on these data it can be concluded that the proposed method is effective for sorbents production based on

  10. Itaconic acid based potential sorbent for uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyan, Y.; Naidu, G.R.K.; Das, Sadananda; Pandey, A.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Cross-linked hydrogels and adsorptive membranes containing Itaconic acid, Acrylamide, Penta erythritol tetra acrylate and α, α-dimethyl- α-phenyl aceto phenone were prepared by UV-initiated bulk polymerization. These hydrogels and adsorptive membranes were characterized for pH uptake, sorption and desorption kinetics and selectivity towards uranium. The sorption ability of the sorbents towards uranyl ion was thoroughly examined. The developed itaconic acid based sorbents were evaluated for the recovery of uranium from lean sources like sea water. (author)

  11. Bench-scale studies on capture of mercury on mineral non-carbon based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wendt, Jost O.L. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    A new high-temperature, mineral non-carbon based dispersed sorbent derived from paper recycling products has been shown to capture mercury at high temperatures in excess of 600 C. The sorbent is consisted of kaolinite/calcite/lime mixtures. Experiments have been conducted on chemi-sorption of elemental mercury in air on a packed bed. The sorption occurs at temperatures between 600 and 1,100 C and requires activation of the minerals contained within the sorbents. Mercury capture is dominated by temperature and capture on sorbents over long time scales. The capture shows a maximum effectiveness at 1,000 C and increases monotonically with temperature. The presence of oxygen is also the required. Freshly activated sorbent is the most effective, and deactivation of sorbents occurs at high temperatures with long pre-exposure times. This activation is suspected to involve a solid-solid reaction between intimately mixed calcium oxide and silica that are both contained within the sorbent. Deactivation occurs at temperatures higher than 1,000 C, and this is due to melting of the substrate and pore closure. The situation in packed beds is complicated because the bed also shrinks, thus allowing channeling and by-passing, and consequent ambiguities in determining sorbent saturation. Sorbent A had significantly greater capacity for mercury sorption than did Sorbent B, for all temperatures and exposure time examined. The effect of SiO{sub 2} on poor Sorbent B is much larger than sorbent A.

  12. Hydrogen generation during melter feed preparation of Tank 42 sludge and salt washed loaded CST in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of these scoping tests was to measure the rate of hydrogen generation in a series of experiments designed to duplicate the expected SRAT and SME processing conditions in laboratory scale vessels. This document details the testing performed to determine the maximum hydrogen generation expected with a coupled flowsheet of sludge, loaded CST [crystalline silicotitanate], and frit

  13. Sorption of europium (3) by polymer sorbents with grafted heterocyclic nitrogen-containing groupings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'tyukova, S.V.; Kravchenko, T.B.; Balamtsarashvili, G.M.; Roska, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    On polymer sorbents (copolymer of styrene-divinylbenzene) with grafted heterocyclic nitrogen-containing functional groupings of tetrazole, triazole and imidazole (sorbents 1,2,3, respectively). It is stated that europium sorption takes place from neutral solutions in presence of organic solvents. Luminescent properties of europium on sorbent are used to develope methods of its determination in high purity lanthanide and yttrium oxides. Europium determination limits consist 7.5·10 -5 μg/ml on 1 and 3 sorbents and 1.5·10 -4 μg/ml on sorbent 2, S p value is 0.089 and 0.075, respectivaly

  14. Novel composite sorbent AAm/MA hydrogels containing starch and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel polymer/clay composite sorbent based on acrylamide/maleic acid, starch and clay such as kaolin was synthesized with free radical solution polymerization by using ammonium persulfate/,,','-tetramethylethylenediamine as redox initiating pair in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate as a crosslinker.

  15. New Composite Sorbents for Caesium and Strontium Ions Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kartel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite lignocellulose-inorganic sorbents derived from plant residues of agriculture and food industry, modified with ferrocyanides of d-metals and hydrated antimony pentoxide were prepared. Caesium and strontium ions removal from water was tested by radiotracer method. Sorption of heavy metal ions, methylene blue, gelatin, vitamin B12 was also studied.

  16. Evaluation of inorganic sorbent treatment for LWR coolant process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents results of a survey of the literature and of experience at selected nuclear installations to provide information on the feasibility of replacing organic ion exchangers with inorganic sorbents at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. Radioactive contents of the various streams in boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors were examined. In addition, the methods and performances of current methods used for controlling water quality at these plants were evaluated. The study also includes a brief review of the physical and chemical properties of selected inorganic sorbents. Some attributes of inorganic sorbents would be useful in processing light water reactor (LWR) streams. The inorganic resins are highly resistant to damage from ionizing radiation, and their exchange capacities are generally equivalent to those of organic ion exchangers. However, they are more limited in application, and there are problems with physical integrity, especially in acidic solutions. Research is also needed in the areas of selectivity and anion removal before inorganic sorbents can be considered as replacements for the synthetic organic resins presently used in LWRs. 11 figures, 14 tables

  17. Comments on "Ceria-Zirconia High-Temperature Desulfurization Sorbents".

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2006), s. 1548-1549 ISSN 0888-5885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : hydrogen sulfide * desulfurization * cerium sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2006

  18. Natural sorbents for decontamination of objects of urban territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movchan, N.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Zlobenko, B.; Spigoun, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an information about the use of film coverings, based on natural sorbents, in decontamination of buildings, contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. This method has incontrovertible advantages in the beginning period after the accident and can be used for cleaning considerable areas of urban territories

  19. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  20. MERCURY CONTROL WITH CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS AND OXIDIZING AGENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2002-06-01

    The initial tasks of this DOE funded project to investigate mercury removal by calcium-based sorbents have been completed, and initial testing results have been obtained. Mercury monitoring capabilities have been obtained and validated. An approximately 1MW (3.4 Mbtu/hr) Combustion Research Facility at Southern Research Institute was used to perform pilot-scale investigations of mercury sorbents, under conditions representative of full-scale boilers. The initial results of ARCADIS G&M proprietary sorbents, showed ineffective removal of either elemental or oxidized mercury. Benchscale tests are currently underway to ascertain the importance of differences between benchscale and pilot-scale experiments. An investigation of mercury-capture temperature dependence using common sorbents has also begun. Ordinary hydrated lime removed 80 to 90% of the mercury from the flue gas, regardless of the temperature of injection. High temperature injection of hydrated lime simultaneously captured SO{sub 2} at high temperatures and Hg at low temperatures, without any deleterious effects on mercury speciation. Future work will explore alternative methods of oxidizing elemental mercury.

  1. Lime-Based Sorbents for High-Temperature CO2 Capture—A Review of Sorbent Modification Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the research on CO2 capture by lime-based looping cycles undertaken at CanmetENERGY’s (Ottawa, Canada) research laboratories. This is a new and very promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as more cost-effective technologies for CO2 capture. This new technology is based on the use of lime-based sorbents in a dual fluidized bed combustion (FBC) reactor which contains a carbonator—a unit for CO2 capture, and a calciner—a unit for CaO regeneration. However, even though natural materials are cheap and abundant and very good candidates as solid CO2 carriers, their performance in a practical system still shows significant limitations. These limitations include rapid loss of activity during the capture cycles, which is a result of sintering, attrition, and consequent elutriation from FBC reactors. Therefore, research on sorbent performance is critical and this paper reviews some of the promising ways to overcome these shortcomings. It is shown that reactivation by steam/water, thermal pre-treatment, and doping simultaneously with sorbent reforming and pelletization are promising potential solutions to reduce the loss of activity of these sorbents over multiple cycles of use. PMID:20948952

  2. Lime-Based Sorbents for High-Temperature CO2 Capture—A Review of Sorbent Modification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Anthony

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the research on CO2 capture by lime-based looping cycles undertaken at CanmetENERGY’s (Ottawa, Canada research laboratories. This is a new and very promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as more cost-effective technologies for CO2 capture. This new technology is based on the use of lime-based sorbents in a dual fluidized bed combustion (FBC reactor which contains a carbonator—a unit for CO2 capture, and a calciner—a unit for CaO regeneration. However, even though natural materials are cheap and abundant and very good candidates as solid CO2 carriers, their performance in a practical system still shows significant limitations. These limitations include rapid loss of activity during the capture cycles, which is a result of sintering, attrition, and consequent elutriation from FBC reactors. Therefore, research on sorbent performance is critical and this paper reviews some of the promising ways to overcome these shortcomings. It is shown that reactivation by steam/water, thermal pre-treatment, and doping simultaneously with sorbent reforming and pelletization are promising potential solutions to reduce the loss of activity of these sorbents over multiple cycles of use.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that

  4. Design and simulation study of high frequency response for surface acoustic wave device by using CST software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M. R.; Hashim, U.; Amin, Mohd Hasrul I. M.; Ayub, R. Mat; Hashim, M. N.; Adam, T.

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on the enhancement and improvement of the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) device performance. Due to increased demand in the international market for biosensor product, the product must be emphasized in terms of quality. However, within the technological advances, demand for device with low cost, high efficiency and friendly-user preferred. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) device with the combination of pair electrode know as Interdigital Transducer (IDT) was fabricated on a piezoelectric substrate. The design of Interdigital Transducer (IDT) parameter is changes in several sizes and values for which it is able to provide greater efficiency in sensing sensitivity by using process simulation with CST STUDIO Suite software. In addition, Interdigital Transducer (IDT) parameters also changed to be created the products with a smaller size and easy to handle where it also reduces the cost of this product. Parameter values of an Interdigital Transducer (IDT) will be changed in the design is the total number of fingers pair, finger length, finger width and spacing, aperture and also the thickness of the Interdigital Transducer (IDT). From the result, the performance of the sensor is improved significantly after modification is done.

  5. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz

    2001-01-01

    Four grades of sodium bicarbonate and two grades of trona were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface area, pore size distribution, and attrition. Surface area and pore size distribution determinations were conducted after calcination of the materials. The sorbent materials were subjected to thermogravimetric testing to determine comparative rates and extent of calcination (in inert gas) and sorption (in a simulated coal combustion flue gas mixture). Selected materials were exposed to five calcination/sorption cycles and showed no decrease in either sorption capacity or sorption rate. Process simulations were conducted involving different heat recovery schemes. The process is thermodynamically feasible. The sodium-based materials appear to have suitable physical properties for use as regenerable sorbents and, based on thermogravimetric testing, are likely to have sorption and calcination rates that are rapid enough to be of interest in full-scale carbon sequestration processes.

  6. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  7. Sorbents for effective removal of radioactive antimony during chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2014-01-01

    Removal of radioactive antimony is a challenging problem. Often, during decontamination, they get mobilized around the system and redeposit in different areas thus offsetting the reduction in the radiation field obtained by removing other activities such as 60 Co. Thus, there is a clear need for better antimony removing materials/strategies for effective reactor decontamination. In this regard, six commercially available sorbents namely, Tulsion A33 (strong base anion (-OH) resin), Amberlite IRC-718 (chelating resin), Radex ® Sb-1000, nano TiO 2 -special grade (Inorganic type IX), Chitosan (biosorbent) and Aeroxide p25 (nano TiO 2 , Inorganic type IX) were evaluated for their antimony sorption properties. Radex ® and TiO 2 based materials were found to be more effective in removing both Sb(V) and Sb(III). Solution pH was seen to significantly influence the antimony sorption and the effect was more prominent in anion resin, when tested under column conditions. Apart from the commercial sorbents, we have synthesised a robust high performing sorbent (TA-Chitosan beads) in the form of stable beads, using nano-TiO 2 and chitosan. The beads were found to retain the antimony sorption properties of the nano-TiO 2 , while adapting a physical format suitable for large scale operations. The sorbent exhibited almost complete sorption of antimony both in low (ppb level) as well as high concentrations of antimony. The suitability of the beads for use in column mode has been established and its radiation stability was probed in detail. The beads were found to be stable to irradiations as ascertained from the TOC values and unchanged sorption properties. The sorption properties of the CHITA beads in typical decontamination formulation containing mixture of complexing agents have been investigated in detail. (author)

  8. The effect of preparation of biogenic sorbent on zinc sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jenčárová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prepare biogenic sulphides by using bacteria for the removal of zinc cations from their solutions. Theproduction was realized in a bioreactor under anaerobic conditions at 30 °C. Sorbents were prepared by sulphate-reducing bacteria indifferent nutrient medium modifications, under two modes of bacteria cultivation. Created precipitates of iron sulphides were removedfrom the liquid phase of the cultivation medium by filtration, dried and used for the sorption experiments.

  9. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO(sub 2) as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO(sub 2) stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests conducted at LSU indicated that exposure of sorbent to water vapor prior to contact with carbonation gas does not significantly increase the reaction rate. Calcined fine mesh trona has a greater initial carbonation rate than calcined sodium bicarbonate, but appears to be more susceptible to loss of reactivity under severe calcination conditions. The Davison attrition indices for Grade 5 sodium bicarbonate, commercial grade sodium carbonate and extra fine granular potassium carbonate were, as tested, outside of the range suitable for entrained bed reactor testing. Fluidized bed testing at RTI indicated that in the initial stages of reaction potassium carbonate removed 35% of the carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas, and is reactive at higher temperatures than sodium carbonate. Removals declined to 6% when 54% of the capacity of the sorbent was exhausted. Carbonation data from electrobalance testing was correlated using a shrinking core reaction model. The activation energy of the reaction of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water vapor was determined from nonisothermal thermogravimetry

  10. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Su, Sheng, E-mail: susheng_sklcc@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO{sub 2}. - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO{sub 2} on gas-phase Hg{sup 0} adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents' BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 Degree-Sign C and 180 Degree-Sign C. The presence of NO or SO{sub 2} could inhibit Hg{sup 0} capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  11. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-07-01

    Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but this could not be confirmed. In the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor, both the initial reaction rate of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water and the sorbent capacity decreased with increasing temperature, consistent with the results from the previous quarter. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration at constant temperature and water vapor concentration produced a measurable increase in rate, as did increasing the water vapor concentration at constant carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Runs conducted with a flatter TGA pan resulted in a higher initial reaction rate, presumably due to improved gas-solid contact, but after a short time, there was no significant difference in the rates measured with the different pans. Analyses of kinetic data suggest that the surface of the sodium carbonate particles may be much hotter than the bulk gas due to the highly exothermic reaction with carbon dioxide and water, and that the rate of heat removal from the particle may control the reaction rate. A material and energy balance was developed for a cyclic carbonation/calcination process which captures about 26 percent of the carbon dioxide present in flue gas available at 250 C.

  12. Ionic liquids: solvents and sorbents in sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin D; Emaus, Miranda N; Varona, Marcelino; Bowers, Ashley N; Anderson, Jared L

    2018-01-01

    The applications of ionic liquids (ILs) and IL-derived sorbents are rapidly expanding. By careful selection of the cation and anion components, the physicochemical properties of ILs can be altered to meet the requirements of specific applications. Reports of IL solvents possessing high selectivity for specific analytes are numerous and continue to motivate the development of new IL-based sample preparation methods that are faster, more selective, and environmentally benign compared to conventional organic solvents. The advantages of ILs have also been exploited in solid/polymer formats in which ordinarily nonspecific sorbents are functionalized with IL moieties in order to impart selectivity for an analyte or analyte class. Furthermore, new ILs that incorporate a paramagnetic component into the IL structure, known as magnetic ionic liquids (MILs), have emerged as useful solvents for bioanalytical applications. In this rapidly changing field, this Review focuses on the applications of ILs and IL-based sorbents in sample preparation with a special emphasis on liquid phase extraction techniques using ILs and MILs, IL-based solid-phase extraction, ILs in mass spectrometry, and biological applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Cleanup of Savannah River Plant solvent using solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1985-04-01

    The degradation products produced in Purex solvent by exposure to nitric acid and radiation can be divided into two groups: those which are removed by scrubbing with sodium carbonate solutions and those which are not; these latter materials are called secondary degradation products. This study investigated the use of solid sorbents for removal of the secondary degradation products from first-cycle Savannah River Plant solvent that had been previously washed with sodium carbonate solution. Silica gel, activated charcoal, macroreticular resin, attapulgite clay and activated alumina were the sorbents investigated in preliminary testing. Activated alumina was found to be most effective for improving phase separation of the solvent from sodium carbonate solutions and for increasing the interfacial tension. The activated alumina was also the sorbent most useful for removing complexants which retain plutonium at low acidity, but it was less effective in removing anionic surfactants and ruthenium. We found that the capacity of the activated alumina was greatly improved by drying the solvent before treatment

  14. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for trace H2S removal from gas streams

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval A.; Bessho, Naoki; Koros, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Hollow fiber sorbents are pseudo monolithic materials with potential use in various adsorption based applications. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents have the potential to allow thermal regeneration without direct contact of the regeneration fluid with the sorbent particles. This paper considers the application of dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for a case involving trace amounts of H2S removal from a simulated gas stream and offers a comparison with single layer hollow fiber sorbents. The effect of spin dope composition and core layer zeolite loading on the gas flux, H2S transient sorption capacity and pore structure are also studied. This work can be used as a guide to develop and optimize dual layer hollow fiber sorbent properties beyond the specific example considered here. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Different sorbents in calcium looping cycle for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Cong; Zheng, Ying; Ding, Ning [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    Cyclic CO{sub 2} capture using commercial pure micro CaCO{sub 3} and nano CaCO{sub 3} is investigated in this paper which focuses on the different characteristics two different sorbents during high temperature reactions. The results indicate that the nano CaCO{sub 3} sorbent has higher carbonation conversions and carbonation rates than the micro CaCO{sub 3} sorbent in the cyclic reactions. Furthermore, nano sorbent can retain its fast carbonation rates at the beginning dozens of seconds during each cycle. In contrast, the carbonation rates of micro sorbent diminish with the increase of cycle number. But, unfortunately, CaO derived from nano CaCO3 sorbent sinter much easily. Its grains, which are composed of numerous spherical nanocrystallites, experience dramatic morphological changes during high temperature reactions.

  16. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for trace H2S removal from gas streams

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval A.

    2013-05-01

    Hollow fiber sorbents are pseudo monolithic materials with potential use in various adsorption based applications. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents have the potential to allow thermal regeneration without direct contact of the regeneration fluid with the sorbent particles. This paper considers the application of dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for a case involving trace amounts of H2S removal from a simulated gas stream and offers a comparison with single layer hollow fiber sorbents. The effect of spin dope composition and core layer zeolite loading on the gas flux, H2S transient sorption capacity and pore structure are also studied. This work can be used as a guide to develop and optimize dual layer hollow fiber sorbent properties beyond the specific example considered here. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Characterization of substrate preference for Slc1p and Cst26p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using lipidomic approaches and an LPAAT activity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Shui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phosphatidic acid (PA is a key regulated intermediate and precursor for de novo biosynthesis of all glycerophospholipids. PA can be synthesized through the acylation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA by 1-acyl-3-phosphate acyltransferase (also called lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, LPAAT. Recent findings have substantiated the essential roles of acyltransferases in various biological functions. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a flow-injection-based lipidomic approach with approximately 200 multiple reaction monitoring (MRM transitions to pre-screen fatty acyl composition of phospholipids in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants. Dramatic changes were observed in fatty acyl composition in some yeast mutants including Slc1p, a well-characterized LPAAT, and Cst26p, a recently characterized phosphatidylinositol stearoyl incorporating 1 protein and putative LPAAT in S. cerevisiae. A comprehensive high-performance liquid chromatography-based multi-stage MRM approach (more than 500 MRM transitions was developed and further applied to quantify individual phospholipids in both strains to confirm these changes. Our data suggest potential fatty acyl substrates as well as fatty acyls that compensate for defects in both Cst26p and Slc1p mutants. These results were consistent with those from a non-radioactive LPAAT enzymatic assay using C17-LPA and acyl-CoA donors as substrates. CONCLUSIONS: We found that Slc1p utilized fatty acid (FA 18:1 and FA 14:0 as substrates to synthesize corresponding PAs; moreover, it was probably the only acyltransferase responsible for acylation of saturated short-chain fatty acyls (12:0 and 10:0 in S. cerevisiae. We also identified FA 18:0, FA 16:0, FA 14:0 and exogenous FA 17:0 as preferred substrates for Cst26p because transformation with a GFP-tagged CST26 restored the phospholipid profile of a CST26 mutant. Our current findings expand the enzymes and existing scope of acyl-CoA donors for

  18. Peat hybrid sorbents for treatment of wastewaters and remediation of polluted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Burlakovs, Juris; Robalds, Artis; Ansone-Bertina, Linda

    2015-04-01

    For remediation of soils and purification of polluted waters, wastewaters, sorbents might be considered as an prospective group of materials and amongst them peat have a special role due to low cost, biodegradability, high number of functional groups, well developed surface area and combination of hydrophilic/hydrophobic structural elements. Peat as sorbent have good application potential for removal of trace metals, and we have demonstrated peat sorption capacities, sorption kinetics, thermodynamics in respect to metals with different valencies - Tl(I), Cu(II), Cr(III). However peat sorption capacity in respect to nonmetallic (anionic species) elements is low. Also peat mechanical properties do not support application in large scale column processes. To expand peat application possibilities the approach of biomass based hybrid sorbents has been elaborated. The concept "hybrid sorbent" in our understanding means natural, biomass based sorbent modified, covered with another sorbent material, thus combining two types of sorbent properties, sorbent functionalities, surface properties etc. As the "covering layer" both inorganic substances, mineral phases (iron oxohydroxides, oxyapatite) both organic polymers (using graft polymerization) were used. The obtained sorbents were characterised by their spectral properties, surface area, elemental composition. The obtained hybrid sorbents were tested for sorption of compounds in anionic speciation forms, for example of arsenic, antimony, tellurium and phosphorous compounds in comparison with weakly basic anionites. The highest sorption capacity was observed when peat sorbents modified with iron compounds were used. Sorption of different arsenic speciation forms onto iron-modified peat sorbents was investigated as a function of pH and temperature. It was established that sorption capacity increases with a rise in temperature, and the calculation of sorption process thermodynamic parameters indicates the spontaneity of sorption

  19. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, or ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, five cycle thermogravimetric tests were conducted at the Louisiana State University (LSU) with sodium bicarbonate Grade 3 (SBC{number_sign}3) which showed that carbonation activity declined slightly over 5 cycles following severe calcination conditions of 200 C in pure CO{sub 2}. Three different sets of calcination conditions were tested. Initial carbonation activity (as measured by extent of reaction in the first 25 minutes) was greatest subsequent to calcination at 120 C in He, slightly less subsequent to calcination in 80% CO{sub 2}/20% H{sub 2}O, and lowest subsequent to calcination in pure CO{sub 2} at 200 C. Differences in the extent of reaction after 150 minutes of carbonation, subsequent to calcination under the same conditions followed the same trend but were less significant. The differences between fractional carbonation under the three calcination conditions declined with increasing cycles. A preliminary fixed bed reactor test was also conducted at LSU. Following calcination, the sorbent removed approximately 19% of the CO{sub 2} in the simulated flue gas. CO{sub 2} evolved during subsequent calcination was consistent with an extent of carbonation of approximately 49%. Following successful testing of SBC{number_sign}3 sorbent at RTI reported in the last quarter, a two cycle fluidized bed reactor test was conducted with trona as the sorbent precursor, which was calcined to sodium carbonate. In the first

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO(sub 2) as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, or ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO(sub 2) stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, five cycle thermogravimetric tests were conducted at the Louisiana State University (LSU) with sodium bicarbonate Grade 3 (SBC(number s ign)3) which showed that carbonation activity declined slightly over 5 cycles following severe calcination conditions of 200 C in pure CO(sub 2). Three different sets of calcination conditions were tested. Initial carbonation activity (as measured by extent of reaction in the first 25 minutes) was greatest subsequent to calcination at 120 C in He, slightly less subsequent to calcination in 80% CO(sub 2)/20% H(sub 2)O, and lowest subsequent to calcination in pure CO(sub 2) at 200 C. Differences in the extent of reaction after 150 minutes of carbonation, subsequent to calcination under the same conditions followed the same trend but were less significant. The differences between fractional carbonation under the three calcination conditions declined with increasing cycles. A preliminary fixed bed reactor test was also conducted at LSU. Following calcination, the sorbent removed approximately 19% of the CO(sub 2) in the simulated flue gas. CO(sub 2) evolved during subsequent calcination was consistent with an extent of carbonation of approximately 49%. Following successful testing of SBC(number s ign)3 sorbent at RTI reported in the last quarter, a two cycle fluidized bed reactor test was conducted with trona as the sorbent precursor, which was calcined to sodium carbonate. In the first carbonation cycle, CO

  2. Use of biomass sorbents for oil removal from gas station runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Virojnagud, Wanpen; Ratpukdi, Thunyalux

    2004-11-01

    The use of biomass sorbents, which are less expensive and more biodegradable than synthetic sorbents, for oil removal from gas station runoff was investigated. A bench-scale flume experiment was conducted to evaluate the oil removal and retention capabilities of the biomass sorbents which included kapok fiber, cattail fiber, Salvinia sp., wood chip, rice husk, coconut husk, and bagasse. Polyester fiber, a commercial synthetic sorbent, was also experimented for comparison purpose. Oil sorption and desorption tests were performed at a water flow rate of 20 lmin-1. In the oil sorption tests, a 50 mgl(-1) of used engine oil-water mixture was synthesized to simulate the gas station runoff. The mass of oil sorbed for all sorbents, except coconut husk and bagasse, was greater than 70%. Cattail fiber and polyester fiber were the sorbents that provided the least average effluent oil concentrations. Oil selectivity (hydrophobic properties) and physical characteristics of the sorbents are the two main factors that influence the oil sorption capability. The used sorbents from the sorption tests were employed in the desorption tests. Results indicated that oil leached out of all the sorbents tested. Polyester fiber released the highest amount of oil, approximately 4% (mass basis) of the oil sorbed. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Research on using Mineral Sorbents for A Sorption Process in the Environment Contaminated with Petroleum Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijarowski Piotr Marek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A research on diatomite sorbents was carried out to investigate their ability to remove hazardous substances from oil spillages. We used two types of sorbents available on the market with differences in material density and particles size of composition. As sorbents we used Ekoterm oil and unleaded petrol 95 coming from refinery PKN Orlen S.A. Two types of sorbents with similar chemical composition but different granulometric composition were used. They are marked as D1 and C1 samples. The fastest absorbent was C1, but D1 sample was the most absorptive.

  4. IMMOBILIZATION OF MICROALGAE ON THE SURFACE OF NEW CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENIMINE-BASED SORBENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilieva, Svetlana; Shibzukhova, Karina; Morozov, Alexey; Solovchenko, Alexei; Bessonov, Ivan; Kopitsyna, Maria; Lukyanov, Alexander; Chekanov, Konstantin; Lobakova, Elena

    2018-04-11

    We report on the use of the polyethylenimine-based (PEI) sorbents for immobilization and harvesting of microalgae (MA) cells. Specific materials assessed were porous solid polymers from highly-branched PEI synthesized by cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (ECH) or diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (DGDE). We estimated the effect of PEI/cross-linker ratio on the MA attachment and biocompatibility of the sorbents with the MA cells. A decrease in the cross-linker percentage resulted in the enhancement of the immobilization efficiency but impaired the cell viability as was manifested by inhibition of the photosynthetic activity of the MA cells. The rate of Chlorella vulgaris cell attachment to the sorbents with ECH was faster as compared to that of the PEI-DGDE-based polymers. The cells immobilized on the PEI-ECH sorbents showed a more profound decline in their viability (assessed via photosynthetic activity). The sorbents with 60% of DGDE were characterized by high immobilization efficiency. These sorbents supported a prolonged cultivation of the immobilized MA without impairing their viability and metabolic activity. We conclude that the sorbents with a lower percentage of DGDE (<30%) and sorbents with ECH are suitable for harvesting of the MA cells intended for immediate downstream processing, potentially without the cell desorption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on successful application of PEI-based sorbents in microalgal biotechnology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative DNA isolation behaviours of silica and polymer based sorbents in batch fashion: monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore size distribution as a new sorbent for DNA isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günal, Gülçin; Kip, Çiğdem; Eda Öğüt, S; İlhan, Hasan; Kibar, Güneş; Tuncel, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore-size distribution were proposed as a high performance sorbent for DNA isolation in batch fashion under equilibrium conditions. The proposed sorbent including both macroporous and mesoporous compartments was synthesized 5.1 μm in-size, by a "staged shape templated hydrolysis and condensation method". Hydrophilic polymer based sorbents were also obtained in the form of monodisperse-macroporous microspheres ca 5.5 μm in size, with different functionalities, by a developed "multi-stage microsuspension copolymerization" technique. The batch DNA isolation performance of proposed material was comparatively investigated using polymer based sorbents with similar morphologies. Among all sorbents tried, the best DNA isolation performance was achieved with the monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore size distribution. The collocation of interconnected mesoporous and macroporous compartments within the monodisperse silica microspheres provided a high surface area and reduced the intraparticular mass transfer resistance and made easier both the adsorption and desorption of DNA. Among the polymer based sorbents, higher DNA isolation yields were achieved with the monodisperse-macroporous polymer microspheres carrying trimethoxysilyl and quaternary ammonium functionalities. However, batch DNA isolation performances of polymer based sorbents were significantly lower with respect to the silica microspheres.

  6. Development of composite calcium hydroxide sorbent in mechanical operations and evaluation of its basic sorption properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gara Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research carried out on the possibility of obtaining composite calcium hydroxide sorbent in the process of two-step granulation, containing additional compounds of Al, Mg and Fe, and their textural and sorption studies. For this purpose, attempts were undertaken to compact commercial calcium hydroxide powder with six additives in the laboratory roll press. The resulting compacts were crushed and sieved in order to achieve the assumed sieve fraction. Based on the obtained results, basic parameters of the process of formation of composite sorbent have been determined. Both, the selected composite sorbents fractions and additives were subsequently subjected to textural studies (determination of the specific surface area and porosity and sorption capacity performance. In addition, for the better interpretation of the results, thermogravimetric studies were carried out both for the additives and composite sorbents, as well as the grain size distribution of the additives. The results of the physicochemical tests of the obtained composite sorbents were compared with analogic results from the study on fine-grained hydroxide sorbent without additives and carbonate sorbent. The presented results showed that in a two-step granulation process it is possible to obtain the granular Ca(OH2 sorbent, as well as composite sorbents possessing better SO2 sorption capacity in comparison to the powder Ca(OH2 and/or to the calcium carbonate sorbent. This can be attributed to the combination of capability of the sorbent to appropriate thermal decomposition and the formation of a group of pores in the range of 0.07-0.3 microns.

  7. Identification of the receptors for somatostatin (SST) and cortistatin (CST) in chickens and investigation of the roles of cSST28, cSST14, and cCST14 in inhibiting cGHRH1-27NH2-induced growth hormone secretion in cultured chicken pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fengyan; Huang, Guian; Gao, Shunyu; Li, Juan; Yan, Zhenxin; Wang, Yajun

    2014-03-25

    Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are proposed to mediate the actions of somatostatin (SST) and its related peptide, cortistatin (CST), in vertebrates. However, the identity, functionality, and tissue expression of these receptors remain largely unknown in most non-mammalian vertebrates including birds. In this study, five SSTRs (named cSSTR1, cSSTR2, cSSTR3, cSSTR4, cSSTR5) were cloned from chicken brain by RT-PCR. Using a pGL3-CRE-luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated that activation of each cSSTR expressed in CHO cells by cSST28, cSST14 and cCST14 treatment could inhibit forskolin-induced luciferase activity of CHO cells, indicating the functional coupling of all cSSTRs to Gi protein(s). Interestingly, cSSTR1-4 expressed in CHO cells could be activated by cSST28, cSST14 and cCST14 with high potencies, suggesting that they may function as the receptors common for these peptides. In contrast, cSSTR5 could be potently activated by cSST28 only, indicating that it is a cSST28-specific receptor. Using RT-PCR, wide expression of cSSTRs was detected in chicken tissues including pituitary. In accordance with their expression in pituitary, cSST28, cSST14, and cCST14 were demonstrated to inhibit basal and novel cGHRH1-27NH2-induced GH secretion in cultured chicken pituitary cells dose-dependently (0-10nM) by Western blot analysis, suggesting the involvement of cSSTR(s) common for these peptides in mediating their inhibitory actions. Collectively, our study establishes a molecular basis to elucidate the roles of SST/CST in birds and provide insights into the roles of SST/CST in vertebrates, such as their conserved actions on pituitary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  9. The spectroscopic study of building composites containing natural sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, M; Mozgawa, W

    2011-08-15

    This work presents the results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of heavy metal cations (Ag(+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Cr(3+)) immobilization from aqueous solutions on natural sorbents. The sorption has been conducted on sodium forms of zeolite (clinoptilolite) and clay minerals (mixtures containing mainly montmorillonite and kaolinite) which have been separated from natural Polish deposit. In the next part of the work both sorbents were used to obtain new building composites. It was proven those heavy metal cations' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the zeolite and clay minerals. These alterations are dependent on the way the cations were sorbed. In the case of zeolite, variations of the bands corresponding to the characteristic ring vibrations have been observed. These rings occur in pseudomolecular complexes 4-4-1 (built of alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra) which constitute the secondary building units (SBU) and form spatial framework of the zeolite. The most significant changes have been determined in the region of pseudolattice vibrations (650-700 cm(-1)). In the instance of clay minerals, changes in the spectra occur at two ranges: 1200-800 cm(-1)--the range of the bands assigned to asymmetric Si-O(Si,Al) and bending Al-OH vibrations and 3800-3000 cm(-1)--the range of the bands originating from OH(-) groups stretching vibrations. Next results indicate possibilities of applying the used natural sorbents for the obtainment of new building materials having favourable composition and valuable properties. The zeolite was used for obtaining autoclaved materials with an addition of CaO, and the clay minerals for ceramic sintered materials with an addition of quartz and clinoptilolite were produced. FT-IR studies were also conducted on the obtained materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microwave synthesis of nanostructured oxide sorbents doped with lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrofanov, Andrey A., E-mail: mitrofanov-a@icloud.com; Silyavka, Elena S.; Shilovskikh, Vladimir V.; Kolonitckii, Petr D.; Sukhodolov, Nikolai G.; Selyutin, Artem A., E-mail: selutin@inbox.ru [Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    A number of nanostructured mesoporous oxide systems based on aluminum oxide, doped with lanthanide ions have been obtained in this study. Structure and morphology of oxides obtained have been examined by X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy. The surface area of the samples was determined by the BET method. The dependence of the adsorption of insulin on synthesized oxides from the concentration was investigated. The containing of insulin in solutions after adsorption was determined by the Bradford method. The isotherms of adsorption of insulin on resulting oxide sorbents were plotted, the dependence capacity of the sorption of insulin from the lanthanide dopant was determined.

  11. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  12. The use of clays as sorbents and catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    The paper attempts to show the structural, physical and chemical properties of clay minerals relate to their laboratory, industrial and environmental uses as sorbents and catalysts. A brief review of the formulae and structures of clays and their relationship to their chemical and physical properties follows. Clay minerals are also useful in environmental protection as they can adsorb crude oils from spills and they are used, sometimes mixed into concrete, as containment barriers for radionuclides caesium 137 and strontium 90. Clay soils can also act as natural barriers to the migration of radionuclides in the environment

  13. Final Technical Report for the Energy Frontier Research Center Understanding Charge Separation and Transfer at Interfaces in Energy Materials (EFRC:CST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Bout, David A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Our EFRC was founded with the vision of creating a broadly collaborative and synergistic program that would lead to major breakthroughs in the molecular-level understanding of the critical interfacial charge separation and charge transfer (CST) processes that underpin the function of candidate materials for organic photovoltaic (OPV) and electrical-energy-storage (EES) applications. Research in these energy contexts shares an imposing challenge: How can we understand charge separation and transfer mechanisms in the presence of immense materials complexity that spans multiple length scales? To address this challenge, our 50-member Center undertook a total of 28 coordinated research projects aimed at unraveling the CST mechanisms that occur at interfaces in these nanostructured materials. This rigorous multi-year study of CST interfaces has greatly illuminated our understanding of early-timescale processes (e.g., exciton generation and dissociation dynamics at OPV heterojunctions; control of Li+-ion charging kinetics by surface chemistry) occurring in the immediate vicinity of interfaces. Program outcomes included: training of 72 graduate student and postdoctoral energy researchers at 5 institutions and spanning 7 academic disciplines in science and engineering; publication of 94 peer-reviewed journal articles; and dissemination of research outcomes via 340 conference, poster and other presentations. Major scientific outcomes included: implementation of a hierarchical strategy for understanding the electronic communication mechanisms and ultimate fate of charge carriers in bulk heterojunction OPV materials; systematic investigation of ion-coupled electron transfer processes in model Li-ion battery electrode/electrolyte systems; and the development and implementation of 14 unique technologies and instrumentation capabilities to aid in probing sub-ensemble charge separation and transfer mechanisms.

  14. SORBENT/UREA SLURRY INJECTION FOR SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of sorbent injection and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) technologies has been investigated for simulataneous SO2/NOx removal. A slurry composed of a urea-based solution and various Ca-based sorbents was injected at a range of tempera...

  15. Adsorption of H2O and CO2 on supported amine sorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneman, Rens; Frigka, Natalia; Zhao, Wenying; Li, Zhenshan; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this work the adsorption of H2O and CO2 on Lewatit VP OC 1065 was studied in view of the potential application of this sorbent in post combustion CO2 capture. Both CO2 and H2O were found to adsorb on the amine active sites present on the pore surface of the sorbent material. However, where the

  16. Synthesis of hydroxide type sorbents from industry high-iron wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, E.K.; Smirnov, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    Article presents the results of studies on possibility of using of technological iron containing wastes for the obtaining of hydroxide type sorbents in granular form. The scheme of technology of synthesis of hydroxide type sorbents from high-iron wastes is elaborated.

  17. Evaluation of hydrous ferric oxide loaded activated carbon as a granular composite sorbent for radiostrontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A composite sorbent was prepared in granular form by depositing hydrous ferric oxide inside the pores of activated carbon. The composite sorbent was found to show excellent sorption of radiostrontium in the presence of high sodium concentration under alkaline conditions. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Coating membranes for a sorbent-based artificial liver: adsorption characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H. W.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Bantjes, A.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques are described for the coating of sorbents to be used in an artificial liver support system based on mixed sorbent bed hemoperfusion. Activated charcoal has been coated with cellulose acetate (CA) by solvent evaporation. With Amberlite XAD-4, the Wurster technique was used for coating with

  19. Cross-linked poly(tetrahydrofuran) as promising sorbent for organic solvent/oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yati, Ilker; Ozan Aydin, Gulsah; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal, E-mail: hayalsonmez@gtu.edu.tr

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Poly(tetrahydrofuran) based sorbents were prepared. • PTHF sorbents demonstrate reusability at least for ten times. • PTHF based sorbents show fast and quick absorption-desorption process. • 19 g of oil can be absorbed by 1 g of PTHF based sorbent. - Abstract: In this study, a series of different molecular weights of poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), which is one of the most important commercial polymers around the world, was condensed with tris[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]isocyanurate (ICS) to generate a cross-linked 3-dimensional network in order to obtain organic solvent/oil sorbents having high swelling capacity. The prepared sorbents show high and fast swelling capacity in oils such as dichloromethane (DCM), tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone, t-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), gasoline, euro diesel, and crude oil. The recovery of the absorbed oils from contaminated surfaces, especially from water, and the regeneration of the sorbents after several applications are effective. The characterization and thermal properties of the sorbents are identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA), respectively. The new usage area of PTHF is emerged by the preparation of PTHF-based network structure with high oil absorption capacity and having excellent reusability as an oil absorbent for the removal of organic liquids from the spill site.

  20. Synthesis and test of sorbents based on calcium aluminates for SE-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Di Michele, A.; Gallorini, F.; Petrillo, C.; Sacchetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis strategy of CaO incorporation into calcium aluminates was approached. • Three innovative sorbents (M1, M2, M3) were synthesized and characterized. • Sorption capacity of developed sorbents was evaluated in multi-cycle processes. • M3 sorbent showed best performance, much higher than conventional CaO ones. • M3 sorbent functionality in SE-SR process was verified. - Abstract: Greenhouse gases emission of power generation plants will be continuously tightened to achieve European targets in terms of CO 2 emissions. In particular, the switching to a sustainable power generation using fossil fuels will be strongly encouraged in the future. In this context, sorption-enhanced steam reforming (SE-SR) is a promising process because it can be implemented as a CCS pre-combustion methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop and test innovative materials in order to overcome main limitations of standard CaO sorbent, usually used in the SE-SR process. The investigated innovative sorbents are based on incorporation of CaO particles into inert materials which significantly reduce the performance degradation. In particular, sorbent materials based on calcium aluminates were considered, investigating different techniques of synthesis. All synthesized materials were packed, together with the catalyst, in a fixed bed reactor and tested in sorption/regeneration cycles. Significant improvements were obtained respect to standard CaO regarding sorption capacity stability exhibited by the sorbent

  1. Development of New Potassium Carbonate Sorbent for CO2 Capture under Real Flue Gas Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Esmaili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of a new potassium carbonateon alumina support sorbent prepared by impregnating K2CO3 with an industrial grade of Al2O3 support was investigated. The CO2 capture capacity was measured using real flue gas with 8% CO2 and 12% H2O in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 65 °C using breakthrough curves. The developed sorbent showed an adsorption capacity of 66.2 mgCO2/(gr sorbent. The stability of sorbent capture capacity was higher than the reference sorbent. The SO2 impurity decreased sorbent capacity about 10%. The free carbon had a small effect on sorbent capacity after 5 cycles. After 5 cycles of adsorption and regeneration, the changes in the pore volume and surface area were 0.020 cm3/gr and 5.5 m2/gr respectively. Small changes occurred in the pore size distribution and surface area of sorbent after 5 cycles.

  2. Effect of characteristic of sorbents on their sulfur capture capability at a fluidized bed condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leming Cheng; Bo Chen; Ni Liu; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Clean Energy and Environment Engineering Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering

    2004-05-01

    This research was intent for finding relationships among physical and/or chemical properties of sorbents and their sulfur capture capability at a fluidized bed condition. Three limestones and two seashells were chosen as a SO{sub 2} sorbent. Characteristics of sorbents were evaluated based on atomic absorption spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope and mercury-penetration porosimeter analyses. Their sulfur capture capabilities were measured on a fluidized bed test system at 800, 850, 900 and 950{sup o}C. Conversion of the sobents was computed and analyzed depending on the sorbents' morphology and microstructure analysis. Results showed pore size and specific surface might have large influence on sorbents' desulfurization ability in the range of 800 950{sup o}C. 14 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Experimental research on combustion fluorine retention using calcium-based sorbents during coal combustion (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Q.; Ma, X.; Liu, J.; Wu, X.; Zhou, J.; Cen, K. [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). College of Resource and Environment Engineering

    2008-12-15

    Fluoride pollution produced by coal burning can be controlled with the calcium-based sorbent combustion fluorine technique in which calcium-based sorbents are mixed with the coal or sprayed into the combustion chamber. In a fixed bed tube furnace combustion experiment using one calcium-based natural mineral, limestone and one calcium-based building material, it was shown that the calcium-based sorbent particle grain size and pore structure have a big influence on the combustion fluorine retention effect. Reducing the calcium-based sorbent particle grain size and improving the calcium sorbent structure characteristics at very high temperature to enhance the fluorine retention effect is the important approach to the fluorine retention agent development. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  4. Preparation and characterisation of a sorbent suitable for technetium separation from environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosova, A.; Rajec, P.; Reich, M.

    2003-01-01

    A sorbent based on Aliquat 336 anchored on hydrophobised silica gel support as an ion exchanger was prepared. Prepared sorbent was suitable for separation of technetium-99 from environmental matrices. The sorbent properties, sorption characteristic and distribution coefficient of 99 mTcO 4 - in various medium was studied. The chemical yield of Tc during separation process was determined using 99m Tc tracer and gamma measurement. Typical sorption recoveries of Tc for this sorbent from 0.1 M HNO 3 were more than 98 %. Typical desorption recoveries using 8 M HNO 3 were in the range 92 - 96 %. The commercial TEVA Spec resin from Eichrom Industries for comparison purpose was used as well. It was found that the prepared sorbent is suitable for separation of technetium from environmental matrices. (authors)

  5. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zengqiang; Xiang, Jun; Su, Sheng; Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. ► The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. ► The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO 2 . - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO 2 on gas-phase Hg 0 adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents’ BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 °C and 180 °C. The presence of NO or SO 2 could inhibit Hg 0 capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  6. Arsenic removal using natural biomaterial-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansone, Linda; Klavins, Maris; Viksna, Arturs

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of water is a major problem worldwide. A possible solution can be approached through developing new sorbents based on cost-effective and environmentally friendly natural biomaterials. We have developed new sorbents based on biomaterial impregnation with iron oxyhydroxide. In this study, raw peat material, iron-modified peat, iron-modified biomass (shingles, straw, sands, cane and moss) as well as iron humate were used for the removal of arsenate from contaminated water. The highest sorption capacity was observed in iron-modified peat, and kinetic studies indicated that the amount of arsenic sorbed on this material exceeds 90 % in 5 h. Arsenate sorption on iron-modified peat is characterised by the pseudo-second-order mechanism. The results of arsenic sorption in the presence of competing substances indicated that sulphate, nitrate, chloride and tartrate anions have practically no influence on As(V) sorption onto Fe-modified peat, whereas the presence of phosphate ions and humic acid significantly lowers the arsenic removal efficiency.

  7. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sidney [Hudson, OH

    2011-02-15

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Engineered Structured Sorbents for Atmosphere Revitalization Systems On Board Crewed Space Vehicles and Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.; Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Engineered structured (ES) sorbents are being developed to meet the technical challenges of future crewed space exploration missions. ES sorbents offer the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other physical adsorbents but with greater structural integrity and process control to improve durability and efficiency over packed beds. ES sorbent techniques that are explored include thermally linked and pressure-swing adsorption beds for water-save dehumidification and sorbent-coated metal meshes for residual drying, trace contaminant control, and carbon dioxide control. Results from sub-scale performance evaluations of a thermally linked pressure-swing adsorbent bed and an integrated sub-scale ES sorbent system are discussed.

  9. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. Testing conducted previously confirmed that the reaction rate and achievable CO{sub 2} capacity of sodium carbonate decreased with increasing temperature, and that the global rate of reaction of sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate increased with an increase in both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O concentrations. Energy balance calculations indicated that the rate of heat removal from the particle surface may determine the reaction rate for a particular particle system. This quarter, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted which indicated that calcination of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures as high as 200 C did not cause a significant decrease in activity in subsequent carbonation testing. When sodium bicarbonate was subjected to a five cycle calcination/carbonation test, activity declined slightly over the first two cycles but was constant thereafter. TGA tests were also conducted with two other potential sorbents. Potassium carbonate was found to be less active than sodium carbonate, at conditions of interest in preliminary TGA tests. Sodium carbonate monohydrate showed negligible activity. Testing was also conducted in a 2-inch internal diameter quartz fluidized-bed reactor system. A five cycle test demonstrated that initial removals of 10 to 15 percent of the carbon dioxide in a simulated flue gas could be achieved. The carbonation reaction proceeded at temperatures as low as 41 C. Future work by TGA and in fixed

  10. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO(sub 2) as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO(sub 2) stream after condensation of water vapor. Testing conducted previously confirmed that the reaction rate and achievable CO(sub 2) capacity of sodium carbonate decreased with increasing temperature, and that the global rate of reaction of sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate increased with an increase in both CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O concentrations. Energy balance calculations indicated that the rate of heat removal from the particle surface may determine the reaction rate for a particular particle system. This quarter, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted which indicated that calcination of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures as high as 200 C did not cause a significant decrease in activity in subsequent carbonation testing. When sodium bicarbonate was subjected to a five cycle calcination/carbonation test, activity declined slightly over the first two cycles but was constant thereafter. TGA tests were also conducted with two other potential sorbents. Potassium carbonate was found to be less active than sodium carbonate, at conditions of interest in preliminary TGA tests. Sodium carbonate monohydrate showed negligible activity. Testing was also conducted in a 2-inch internal diameter quartz fluidized-bed reactor system. A five cycle test demonstrated that initial removals of 10 to 15 percent of the carbon dioxide in a simulated flue gas could be achieved. The carbonation reaction proceeded at temperatures as low as 41 C. Future work by TGA and in fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and transport

  11. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO(sub X) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO(sub 3) formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO(sub X) control than at removing SO(sub 3) formed in the furnace. The SO(sub 3) removal results were presented in the

  12. Thermochemical Characterizations of Novel Vermiculite-LiCl Composite Sorbents for Low-Temperature Heat Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To store low-temperature heat below 100 °C, novel composite sorbents were developed by impregnating LiCl into expanded vermiculite (EVM in this study. Five kinds of composite sorbents were prepared using different salt concentrations, and the optimal sorbent for application was selected by comparing both the sorption characteristics and energy storage density. Textural properties of composite sorbents were obtained by extreme-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (ER-SEM and an automatic mercury porosimeter. After excluding two composite sorbents which would possibly exhibit solution leakage in practical thermal energy storage (TES system, thermochemical characterizations were implemented through simulative sorption experiments at 30 °C and 60% RH. Analyses of thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC curves indicate that water uptake of EVM/LiCl composite sorbents is divided into three parts: physical adsorption of EVM, chemical adsorption of LiCl crystal, and liquid–gas absorption of LiCl solution. Energy storage potential was evaluated by theoretical calculation based on TGA/DSC curves. Overall, EVMLiCl20 was selected as the optimal composite sorbent with water uptake of 1.41 g/g, mass energy storage density of 1.21 kWh/kg, and volume energy storage density of 171.61 kWh/m3.

  13. Carbon-Containing Waste of Coal Enterprises in Magnetic Sorbents Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvashevaya, Ekaterina; Ushakova, Elena; Ushakov, Andrey

    2017-11-01

    The article shows the issues state of coal-mining enterprises carbonaceous wastes utilization, including by obtaining oil-sorbent. The characteristics of the feedstock are presented; experiment methods of obtaining a binder based on the livestock enterprises waste, of forming binder with filler (sawdust, coal waste); of pyrogenetic processing to obtain a sorbent are described. Possible options for the introduction of magnetite (a magnetic component) in the composition of the oil sorbent are considered: on the surface, in the volume of the granule and the magnetite core. In the course of the work it was found that the optimum content of coal dust in the sorbent granules is 75% by weight, and the most effective way of obtaining the magnetic sorbent is to apply the carbon material directly to the "core" of magnetite. However, in this case, the problem of finding an effective binder for magnetite arises. The option of applying magnetite on the surface of a carbon sorbent is not effective. Thus, at present, we use a mixture of coal waste, which binds to the uniform distribution of magnetite in the volume. The developed magnetic sorbents can be used in various weather conditions, including strong winds and icing of water bodies, as well as for small and medium currents.

  14. Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee D. Wilson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g, CDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g, and granular activated carbon (GAC ~103 m2/g. The sorption capacities for the copolymers sorbents are listed in descending order, as follows: GAC > CDI-3 copolymer ≈ MDI-3 copolymer. The sorption capacity for the aromatic adsorbates with each sorbent are listed in descending order, as follows: 2,4-dichlorophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid > pentachlorophenol. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents with the chlorinated organics were related to the following factors: (i surface area of the sorbent; (ii CD content and accessibility; and (iii and the chemical nature of the sorbent material.

  15. Sorption of agrochemical model compounds by sorbent materials containing beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; Guo, Rui; Pratt, Dawn Y; Kwon, Jae Hyuck; Mahmud, Sarker T

    2010-04-01

    Polymeric sorbent materials that incorporate beta-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption behavior toward two model agrochemical contaminant compounds, p-nitrophenol (PNP) and methyl chloride examined. The sorption of PNP was studied in aqueous solution using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, whereas the sorption of methyl chloride from the gas phase was studied using a Langmuir adsorption method. The sorption results for PNP in solution were compared between granular activated carbon (GAC), modified GAC, CD copolymers, and CD-based mesoporous silica hybrid materials. Nitrogen porosimetry at 77 K was used to estimate the surface area and pore structure properties of the sorbent materials. The sorbents displayed variable surface areas as follows: copolymers (36.2-157 m(2)/g), CD-silica materials (307-906 m(2)/g), surface modified GAC (657 m(2)/g), and granular activated carbon (approximately 10(3) m(2)/g). The sorption capacities for PNP and methyl chloride with the different sorbents are listed in descending order as follows: GAC > copolymers > surface modified GAC > CD-silica hybrid materials. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the sorbents were related to the following: (i) surface area of the sorbent, (ii) CD content and accessibility, (iii) and the chemical nature of the sorbent material.

  16. Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; Berhaut, Christopher L

    2011-08-29

    Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC) were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (granular activated carbon (GAC ~10³ m²/g). The sorption capacities for the copolymers sorbents are listed in descending order, as follows: GAC > CDI-3 copolymer ≈ MDI-3 copolymer. The sorption capacity for the aromatic adsorbates with each sorbent are listed in descending order, as follows: 2,4-dichlorophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid > pentachlorophenol. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents with the chlorinated organics were related to the following factors: (i) surface area of the sorbent; (ii) CD content and accessibility; and (iii) and the chemical nature of the sorbent material.

  17. Evaluation of silk-floss fiber and dog fur as sorbent materials for the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Lucas P. dos [Universidade Federal do Parana (PGMec/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Dubiella, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica; Perotta, Larissa [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa Interdisciplinar em Engenharia de Petroleo e Gas Natural; Satyanarayana, Kestur G. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Flores-Sahagun, Thais Sydenstricker [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    In this study silk-floss and dog fur were tested as sorbent materials for oils and the results were compared with peat, a commercial sorbent. Sorption tests were carried out in dry and aqueous systems, with and without stirring for different periods of time (5-1440 min). Density, hydrophobicity, buoyancy and water uptake by the fibers of the impregnated sorbents have been determined. The use of silk-floss and dog fur was also tested in columns to purify water containing toluene, benzene, motor oil or sunflower oil. Breakthrough curves during 120 min were drawn for each material with the samples (oily water or water containing benzene or toluene) and were analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy. It was concluded that the silk-floss is the best sorbent material (65.3 g oil/g sorbent) followed by the dog fur (34.6 g oil/g sorbent) and peat (19.5 g oil/g sorbent), for sorption time of 1 h in dynamic condition. The efficiency of the pollutant removal from water with the use of adsorption columns was high for both materials although the use of dog fur was preferable because of the slight superiority in efficiency compared to silk-floss and also, due to the easier packing of the dog fur in the column. (author)

  18. Development of the advanced coolside sorbent injection process for SO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withum, J.A.; Maskew, J.T.; Rosenhoover, W.A. [Consol, Inc., Library, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a low-capital-cost process capable of over 90% SO{sub 2} removal as an economically attractive option for compliance with the Clean Air Act. The Advanced Coolside Process uses a contactor to simultaneously remove fly ash and saturate the flue gas with water, followed by sorbent injection into the highly humid flue gas and collection of the sorbent by the existing particulate collector High sorbent utilization is achieved by sorbent recycle. The original performance targets of 90% SO{sub 2} removal and 60% sorbent utilization were exceeded in 1000 acfm pilot plant operations using commercial hydrated lime as the only sorbent. Process optimization simplified the process equipment, resulting in significant cost reduction. Recent accomplishments include completion of equipment testing and sorbent optimization, a waste management study, and a long-term performance test. An economic evaluation for the optimized process projects capital costs 55% to 60 % less than those of limestone forced oxidation wet FGD. The projected levelized control cost is 15% to 35% lower than wet FGD (25% lower for a 260 MWe plant burning a 2.5% sulfur coal), depending on plant size and coal sulfur content.

  19. Highly stable and regenerable Mn-based/SBA-15 sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.M.; Liu, B.S.; Zhang, Y.; Guo, Y.H.; Wan, Z.Y.; Subhan, Fazle

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A series of mesoporous Cu x Mn y O z /SBA-15 sorbents were fabricated for hot coal gas desulfurization. ► 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 sorbent with high breakthrough sulfur capacity is high stable and regenerable. ► Utilization of SBA-15 constrained the sintering and pulverization of sorbents. - Abstract: A series of mesoporous xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents with different Cu/Mn atomic ratios were prepared by wet impregnation method and their desulfurization performance in hot coal gas was investigated in a fixed-bed quartz reactor in the range of 700–850 °C. The successive nine desulfurization–regeneration cycles at 800 °C revealed that 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 presented high performance with durable regeneration ability due to the high dispersion of Mn 2 O 3 particles incorporated with a certain amount of copper oxides. The breakthrough sulfur capacity of 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 observed 800 °C is 13.8 g S/100 g sorbents, which is remarkably higher than these of 40 wt%LaFeO 3 /SBA-15 (4.8 g S/100 g sorbents) and 50 wt%LaFe 2 O x /MCM-41 (5.58 g S/100 g sorbents) used only at 500–550 °C. This suggested that the loading of Mn 2 O 3 active species with high thermal stability to SBA-15 support significantly increased sulfur capacity at relatively higher sulfidation temperature. The fresh and used xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents were characterized by means of BET, XRD, XPS, XAES, TG/DSC and HRTEM techniques, confirmed that the structure of the sorbents remained intact before and after hot coal gas desulfurization.

  20. Application of TIO2 as A sorbent for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamroni, H.; Las, T.; Kamarz, H.

    1997-01-01

    The sorption properties of the neodymium has been studied by using TiO 2 sorbent. The experiment was carried out by batch methods to investigate the kinetic sorption, effect of pH and effect of NaNO 3 concentration in the solution. Neodymium uses for a model of trivalent actinide treated by TiO 2 which was known as materials having high thermal and radiation stabilities as well as potentially used for immobilization of waste with cement or vitrification. the results show that the optimum of kinetic sorption was obtained after one day experiment to reach the equilibrium in sorption on pH 4, and the increasing of NaNO 3 concentrations will increase the sorption of neodymium in solution (author)

  1. Phosphorus organic extragents and sorbents of radioactive a heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, B.A.; Gusarova, N.K.; Malysheva, S.F.; Sukhov, B.G.

    2002-01-01

    A fundamentally new method for activation of phosphorus in heterogenous super-base media including the conditions of mechanical, ultrasonic and X-ray activation, opening up a new way to C-P bond formation is developed. The method is opens principally new possibilities for direct atom-economic synthesis of previously unknown or difficult to obtain organophosphorus compounds (primary, secondary, tertiary phosphines and phosphine oxides) from elemental phosphorus and orga-nyl halides, electrophilic alkenes, acetylenes and oxiranes. Thus, the phosphothion and phosphorylation of organic compounds with elemental phosphorus, phosphines and phosphine oxides opens the principal new approach to the synthesis of specific and selective extra-gents, sorbents and complex-forming agents which can be used in the processes of purification and disinfecting of soil and water from radioactive and heavy metals

  2. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  3. Hot fuel gas dedusting after sorbent-based gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Advanced power generation technologies, such as Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC), require gas cleaning at high temperatures in order to meet environmental standards and to achieve high thermal efficiencies. The primary hot gas filtration process, which removes particulates from the cooled raw fuel gas at up to 600{degree}C is the first stage of gas cleaning prior to desulphurization and ammonia removal processes. The dust concentration in the fuel gas downstream of the sorbent processes would be much lower than for the hot gas filtration stage and would have a lower sulphur content and possibly reduced chlorine concentration. The main aim of this project is to define the requirements for a hot gas filter for dedusting fuel gas under these conditions, and to identify a substantially simpler and more cost effective solution using ceramic or metal barrier filters.

  4. Efficient CO2 sorbents based on silica foam with ultra-large mesopores

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng; Fu, Liling; Choi, Brian Hyun; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    A series of high-capacity, amine impregnated sorbents based on a cost-effective silica foam with ultra-large mesopores is reported. The sorbents exhibit fast CO2 capture kinetics, high adsorption capacity (of up to 5.8 mmol g-1 under 1 atm of dry CO2), as well as good stability over multiple adsorption-desorption cycles. A simple theoretical analysis is provided relating the support structure to sorbent performance. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Inorganic sorbents for radiostrontium removal from waste solutions: selectivity and role of calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.; Belikov, K.; Drapailo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge in the remediation of 90 Sr-contaminated waters arises from the need to achieve very high removal efficiencies to meet discharge targets from waste effluents containing relatively high concentrations of non-radioactive cations. Low-cost natural zeolites are not selective for strontium over other divalent cations, notably such ions as calcium; and produce low 90 Sr removal performance, and large volumes of spent sorbent waste. The synthesis and use of selective, synthetic inorganic sorbents could prove to be a feasible approach for high 90 Sr removal efficiencies, and much smaller volumes of secondary solid waste generation. The essential advantages of inorganic sorbents include their stability and resistance to radiation, and the potential for producing stable waste forms such as vitrified glass or ceramics for disposal. However, the cost of strontium-specific sorbents is prohibitive for large-scale applications at present. This paper is a review of the reported information on removal mechanisms and performance of Sr-specific inorganic sorbents. The analysis has revealed promising performance, efficiency and selectivity for strontium removal from solutions containing low and high concentrations of salts. The leading sorbents are crystalline silicotitanate and oxides of metals such as titanium. An initial assessment has also been made of the performance of calixarene-based macrocyclic compounds. These are known for their selectivity for strontium in solvent extraction processes. From the initial strontium removal results in bench-scale tests using different solid substrates, impregnated with calixarene derivatives, only sodium-mordenite impregnated with calyx[8]arene octamide gave an overall strontium removal efficiency in the range of 90 to 95% in the presence of 3.5 ppm calcium. There was no improvement observed for strontium-removal efficiency or selectivity over calcium in the calixarene-impregnated inorganic sorbent matrix. In several tests, the

  6. Development of a Microwave Regenerative Sorbent-Based Hydrogen Purifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Dewberry, Ross H.; McCurry, Bryan D.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a Microwave Regenerative Sorbent-based Hydrogen Purifier (MRSHP). This unique microwave powered technology was developed for the purification of a hydrogen stream produced by the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA). The PPA is a hydrogen recovery (from methane) post processor for NASA's Sabatier-based carbon dioxide reduction process. Embodied in the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), currently aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Sabatier reaction employs hydrogen to catalytically recover oxygen, in the form of water, from respiratory carbon dioxide produced by the crew. This same approach is base-lined for future service in the Air Revitalization system on extended missions into deep space where resupply is not practical. Accordingly, manned exploration to Mars may only become feasible with further closure of the air loop as afforded by the greater hydrogen recovery permitted by the PPA with subsequent hydrogen purification. By utilizing the well-known high sorbate loading capacity of molecular sieve 13x, coupled with microwave dielectric heating phenomenon, MRSHP technology is employed as a regenerative filter for a contaminated hydrogen gas stream. By design, freshly regenerated molecular sieve 13x contained in the MRSHP will remove contaminants from the effluent of a 1-CM scale PPA for several hours prior to breakthrough. By reversing flow and pulling a relative vacuum the MRSHP prototype then uses 2.45 GHz microwave power, applied through a novel coaxial antenna array, to rapidly heat the sorbent bed and drive off the contaminants in a short duration vacuum/thermal contaminant desorption step. Finally, following rapid cooling via room temperature cold plates, the MRSHP is again ready to serve as a hydrogen filter.

  7. Supported modified hydrotalcites as sorbent for CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meis, N.

    2010-02-15

    The average concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has been increasing since the start of the industrial revolution in the 18th century from 280 ppm to 385 ppm nowadays, and continues to increase because of the enormous human usage of fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal). This can strongly affect the climate, causing the Earth's surface to warm up, the so called 'amplified greenhouse effect'. To alleviate these environmental concerns regarding the current CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is investigated as one of the possible routes. Due to the acidic character of CO2, basic oxides are expected to be suitable sorbents. Hydrotalcite, a natural clay, is specifically suitable for pre-combustion capture (250- 400{sup o}C), due to its acceptable sorption capacity and facile regeneration. The influence of lateral platelet size ({+-}40 nm - 2 {mu}m), the use of a support (carbon nanofibers, CNF) and addition of a promoter (alkali carbonate: K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) on the CO2 capture properties of HT was investigated. There was no significant difference in the CO2 sorption capacities at 523K for all unsupported HTs, regardless the platelet size of the HT precursor ({+-}0.1 mmol.g{sup -1}). The use of activated, promoted (alkali carbonate) hydrotalcites showed a much higher capacity ({+-}0.3 mmol.g{sup -1}) at 523K. In addition, the capacities of the activated supported HT at 523K were significantly increased compared to the activated unsupported HT (1.3-2.5 mmol.g{sup -1} HT). The alkali-loaded supported HTs showed capacities slightly higher than the capacity of supported unpromoted HT. The increase in capacity for the promoted and/or supported HTs points to a higher concentration of defects (low-coordination of oxygen sites) on the surface of the activated (alkali-)loaded HTs compared to the unloaded and unsupported HT. The higher concentration of adsorption for the promoted (supported) HTs, might be caused by the

  8. High efficiency nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture based on amine-functionalized mesoporous capsules

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng; Wang, Yanbing; Estevez, Luis; Duan, Xiaonan; Anako, Nkechi; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa; Li, Wen; Jones, Christopher W.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel high efficiency nanocomposite sorbent for CO2 capture has been developed based on oligomeric amine (polyethylenimine, PEI, and tetraethylenepentamine, TEPA) functionalized mesoporous silica capsules. The newly synthesized sorbents exhibit extraordinary capture capacity up to 7.9 mmol g-1 under simulated flue gas conditions (pre-humidified 10% CO 2). The CO2 capture kinetics were found to be fast and reached 90% of the total capacities within the first few minutes. The effects of the mesoporous capsule features such as particle size and shell thickness on CO2 capture capacity were investigated. Larger particle size, higher interior void volume and thinner mesoporous shell thickness all improved the CO2 capacity of the sorbents. PEI impregnated sorbents showed good reversibility and stability during cyclic adsorption-regeneration tests (50 cycles). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Sorbents for waste water purification from radionuclides and other toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalone, R.F.; MakKlenason, L.Ts.

    1996-01-01

    The TRW firm (USA) developed the system for sorption and disposal of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic substances, based on utilization of carbon sorbents. The sorbent is produced through processing natural coal by alkali-salt solution and has a large specific pores surface (up to 1000 m 2 /g). The sorbent carboxyl ionogenic groups are able of absorbing heavy metals cations from waste waters. Sorption by uranium constituted 30 mg/l. The sorbent with absorbed substances may be burnt (it contains no sulfur) or delivered for vitrification. The volume of disposed materials constitutes in comparison with existing techniques for uranium isotopes 420000 : 1. The costs are reduced up to 0.26 doll/m 2 of reprocessed water. 2 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Application of magnetic sorbent in the removal of cadmium from soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lovás

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A contamination of soil by heavy metals is a common problem at many metalliferous mining sites. There are various treatment processes for the cleanup of soil contaminated with heavy metals. A method designed for the decontamination of soil polluted by Cd is described. The method utilizes a magnetic sorbent – sludges from the hydrometallurgic processing of nickel mineral, activated by milling. The influence of sorbent concentration, pH and microwave energy on the sorption capacity and content of Cd ions in a soil was studed. The effectiveness of Cd desorption from the soil was 75 %, the maximal sorption capacity of sorbent was 9,8 mg/g. The content of Cd in water is function of pH and the concentration of sorbent. The influence of microwave energy (90 W was negligible.

  11. Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunciado, T R; Sydenstricker, T H D; Amico, S C

    2005-11-01

    Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. Various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85goil/g sorbent (in 24hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application.

  12. Rubidium extraction using an organic polymer encapsulated potassium copper hexacyanoferrate sorbent

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Jeong, Sanghyun; Johir, Md.Abu Hasan; To, Vu Hien Phuong; Kandasamy, Jaya; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2016-01-01

    Sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) brine contains significant quantity of Rb. As an economically valuable metal, extracting Rb using a suitable and selective extraction method would be beneficial. An inorganic sorbent, copper based potassium

  13. Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunciado, T.R.; Sydenstricker, T.H.D.; Amico, S.C. [Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, (Brazil). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-11-15

    Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85 g oil/g sorbent (in 24 hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application. (author)

  14. Arsenic removal from aqueous solutions by sorption onto zirconium- and titanium-modified sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljubiša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic reduction in drinking water can include treatment by adsorption, switching to alternative water sources, or blending with water that has a lower arsenic concentration. Commercial sorbents MTM, Greensand and BIRM (Clack Corporation were modified with zirconium and titanium after activation. The modifications were performed with titanium tetrachloride and zirconium tetrachloride. The modified sorbents were dried at different temperatures. The sorption of arsenate and arsenite dissolved in drinking water (200μg L-1 onto the sorbents were tested using a batch procedure. After removal of the sorbent, the concentration of arsenic was determined by HG-AAS. Zirconium-modified BIRM showed the best performance for the removal of both arsenite and arsenate. Modification of the greensand did not affect arsenic sorption ability. Zirconium-modified BIRM diminished the concentration of total As to below 5 μg L-1.

  15. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon [Ada-Es, Inc., Highlands Ranch, CO (United States)

    2016-06-02

    ADA completed a DOE-sponsored program titled Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture under program DE-FE0004343. During this program, sorbents were analyzed for use in a post-combustion CO2 capture process. A supported amine sorbent was selected based upon superior performance to adsorb a greater amount of CO2 than the activated carbon sorbents tested. When the most ideal sorbent at the time was selected, it was characterized and used to create a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA). A preliminary 550 MW coal-fired power plant using Illinois #6 bituminous coal was designed with a solid sorbent CO2 capture system using the selected supported amine sorbent to both facilitate the TEA and to create the necessary framework to scale down the design to a 1 MWe equivalent slipstream pilot facility. The preliminary techno-economic analysis showed promising results and potential for improved performance for CO2 capture compared to conventional MEA systems. As a result, a 1 MWe equivalent solid sorbent system was designed, constructed, and then installed at a coal-fired power plant in Alabama. The pilot was designed to capture 90% of the CO2 from the incoming flue gas at 1 MWe net electrical generating equivalent. Testing was not possible at the design conditions due to changes in sorbent handling characteristics at post-regenerator temperatures that were not properly incorporated into the pilot design. Thus, severe pluggage occurred at nominally 60% of the design sorbent circulation rate with heated sorbent, although no handling issues were noted when the system was operated prior to bringing the regenerator to operating temperature. Testing within the constraints of the pilot plant resulted in 90% capture of the incoming CO2 at a flow rate equivalent of 0.2 to 0.25 MWe net electrical generating equivalent. The reduction in equivalent flow rate at 90% capture was

  16. Chitosan-ferrocyanide sorbent for Cs-137 removal from mineralized alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorin, Andrei [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ozyorsk Technical Institute MEPHI, Ozersk (Russian Federation); Tokar, Eduard [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zemskova, Larisa [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    An organomineral sorbent based on mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide and chitosan to be used in removal of Cs-137 radionuclide from highly mineralized media with high pH has been fabricated. The synthesized sorbent was applied to remove Cs-137 from model solutions under static and dynamic conditions. The effects of contact time, pH, and presence of sodium ions and complexing agents in the process of Cs-137 removal have been investigated. The sorbent is distinguished by increased stability to the impact of alkaline media containing complexing agents, whereas the sorbent capacity in solutions with pH 11 exceeds 1000 bed volumes with the Cs-137 removal efficiency higher than 95%.

  17. 21 CFR 876.5600 - Sorbent regenerated dialysate delivery system for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dialyzer. The device is used with the extracorporeal blood system and the dialyzer of the hemodialysis... dialysate conditions. The sorbent cartridge may include absorbent, ion exchange and catalytic materials. (b...

  18. Application of fibrous complexing sorbents for trace elements preconcentration and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhartchenko, E.A.; Myasoedova, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    This article demonstrates the application of the 'filled' fibrous sorbents for preconcentration and separation of platinum metals, as well as heavy metals and radionuclides. The POLYORGS complexing sorbents and ion-exchangers were used as fillers. Dynamic preconcentration conditions should be set for complete sorption of the elements: diameter and mass of the sorbent disk or the column as well as flow rate of the solution. These conditions depend on specific features of materials to be analysed and the requirements of the experimental task or detection method. Extensive alteration of features as well as perfect kinetic properties and high selectivity of the 'filled' sorbents confirm their applicability for trace elements preconcentration and separation in technology and analytical chemistry. (authors)

  19. Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasael

    2010-03-23

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  20. Hydroxyapatite-based sorbents: elaboration, characterization and application for the removal of catechol from the aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebei, Haroun; Pham Minh, Doan; Lyczko, Nathalie; Sharrock, Patrick; Nzihou, Ange

    2017-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is highly considered as good sorbent for the removal of metals from the aqueous phase. However, soluble metals co-exist with organic pollutants in wastewaters. But little work has been devoted to investigate the reactivity of HAP for the removal of organic compounds. The main objective of this work is to study the reactivity of HAP-based sorbents for the removal of catechol as a model organic pollutant from an aqueous solution. Thus, HAP sorbents were firstly synthesized using calcium carbonate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate under moderate conditions (25-80°C, atmospheric pressure). A zinc-doped HAP was also used as sorbent, which was obtained from the contact of HAP with an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate. All the sorbents were characterized by different standard physico-chemical techniques. The sorption of catechol was carried out in a batch reactor under stirring at room temperature and pressure. Zinc-doped HAP sorbent was found to be more reactive than non-doped HAP sorbents for the fixation of catechol. The highest sorption capacity was of 15 mg of C per gram of zinc-doped HAP sorbent. The results obtained suggest the reaction scheme of HAP sorbents with metals and organic pollutants when HAP sorbents were used for the treatment of complex wastewaters.

  1. Sorption of short-lived radionuclides in a layer of sorbent with spherical granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    Sorption methods have found wide application in the purification of liquid radioactive wastes. The working element in sorption methods for this purpose is usually a sorption column with a fixed layer of sorbent. Continuous-action equipment with a moving layer of sorbent is very seldom used. When a fixed layer of sorbent is used its wear and prolonged mixing in the sorption column are reduced to a minimum, and maximum purification is achieved due to the advantages of the dynamic method of sorption over the static method. The time of protective action of the sorbent layer is determined by the time taken for the radionuclide to pass through the sorption column, and for the majority of radionuclides is determined by numerous parameters, including the type of sorbent and radionuclide, the rate of flow through the sorbent, the size of the sorbent granules, etc. The physical and chemical aspects of this process have been investigated in detail, and numerous methods for modeling it mathematically have been developed and have been used to develop methods of designing sorption column apparatus. The specific nature of the radionuclides as unstable materials enables the hypothetical case of a open-quotes perpetualclose quotes sorption filter to be represented. In fact, to achieve this it is only necessary to assume that the half-life of the radionuclide is so small that the rate of decay of the radionuclide in the sorption column (both in the sorbed state and in the aqueous phase of the sorption layer) is equal to the rate that it is fed into the column in the flow of liquid radioactive waste. In this case the sorption front of the radionuclide in the column wall remains fixed after a certain initial period. In this paper, a mathematical model of such a hypothetical filter for the case of spherical sorbent granules is considered

  2. Silver nanoparticles embedded polymer sorbent for preconcentration of uranium from bio-aggressive aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sadananda; Pandey, Ashok K.; Athawale, Anjali A.; Subramanian, M.; Seshagiri, T.K.; Khanna, Pawan K.; Manchanda, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Adsorptive sorbent for bio-aggressive natural aqueous media like seawater was developed by one pot simultaneous synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag nps) and poly(ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate) (PEGMP) by UV-initiator induced photo-polymerization. The photo-polymerization was carried out by irradiating N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution containing appropriate amounts of the functional monomer (ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate), UV initiator (α,α'-dimethoxy-α-phenyl acetophenone), and Ag + ions with 365 nm UV light in a multilamps photoreactor. To increase mechanical strength, nano-composite sorbent (Ag-PEGMP) was also reinforced with thermally bonded non-woven poly(propylene) fibrous sheet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the nano-composite sorbent showed uniform distribution of spherical Ag nanoparticles with particles size ranging from 3 to 6 nm. The maximum amount of Ag 0 that could be anchored in the form of nanoparticles were 5 ± 1 and 10 ± 1 wt.% in self-supported PEGMP and poly(propylene) reinforced PEGMP matrices, respectively. Ag-PEGMP sorbent was found to be stable under ambient conditions for a period of six months. Ag-PEGMP composite sorbent did not exhibit growth at all after incubation with pre-grown Escherichia coli cells, and showed non-adherence of this bacteria to the composite. This indicated that composite sorbent has the bio-resistivity due to bacterial repulsion and bactericidal properties of Ag nanoparticles embedded in the PEGMP. Sorption of U(VI) in PEGMP and Ag-PEGMP nano-composite sorbents from well-stirred seawater was studied to explore the possibility of using it for uranium preconcentration from bio-aggressive aqueous streams. The nano-composite sorbent was used to preconcentrate U(VI) from a process aqueous waste stream.

  3. Mixed and Doped Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The objectives of this presentation are to capture CO2 we need materials with optimal performance and low costs; establish a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO2 solid sorbents from a large solid material databank; computational synthesis new materials to fit industrial needs; and explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO2 solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage.

  4. Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Lee D.; Mohamed, Mohamed H.; Berhaut, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC) were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g), CDI-X cop...

  5. Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan; Luebke David; Pennline, Henry

    2012-05-02

    We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promising CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

  6. High temperature CO2 capture using calcium oxide sorbent in a fixed-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Binlin; Song Yongchen; Liu Yingguang; Feng Cong

    2010-01-01

    The gas-solid reaction and breakthrough curve of CO 2 capture using calcium oxide sorbent at high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor are of great importance, and being influenced by a number of factors makes the characterization and prediction of these a difficult problem. In this study, the operating parameters on reaction between solid sorbent and CO 2 gas at high temperature were investigated. The results of the breakthrough curves showed that calcium oxide sorbent in the fixed-bed reactor was capable of reducing the CO 2 level to near zero level with the steam of 10 vol%, and the sorbent in CaO mixed with MgO of 40 wt% had extremely low capacity for CO 2 capture at 550 deg. C. Calcium oxide sorbent after reaction can be easily regenerated at 900 deg. C by pure N 2 flow. The experimental data were analyzed by shrinking core model, and the results showed reaction rates of both fresh and regeneration sorbents with CO 2 were controlled by a combination of the surface chemical reaction and diffusion of product layer.

  7. Qualification of the ALKASORB sorbent for the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Selow, E.R.; Cobden, P.D.; Dijk, Van H.A.J.; Walspurger, S.; Verbraeken, P.A.; Jansen, D.

    2013-07-01

    For the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS) process, a new sorbent material has been qualified in a reactor of 2 m length under conditions close to industrial designs. The sorbent ALKASORB is a potassium-carbonate promoted hydrotalcite-based compound. ALKASORB is shown to have many favourable properties in comparison to the reference sorbent, in particular with respect to mechanical stability. The cyclic capacity of the new compound is substantially higher than the cyclic capacity of the reference sorbent, and it allows a reduction of the steam requirement of 50%. The sorbent has demonstrated catalytic activity for the water-gas shift reaction that is sufficient to omit a separate catalyst. It is demonstrated that the sorbent remains chemically and mechanically stable during operation of at least 2000 adsorption-desorption cycles, even in the presence of H2S in the feed. H2S is shown not to influence CO2 adsorption capacity and is co-captured with the CO2. In contrast to the reference material that showed mechanical degradation during extended adsorption-desorption cycles, the new material is stable and allows to obtain carbon capture levels exceeding 95% more efficiently and more economically since the required size of the vessels will be smaller.

  8. Simulation of mercury capture by sorbent injection using a simplified model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingtao; Zhang, Zhongxiao; Jin, Jing; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2009-10-30

    Mercury pollution by fossil fuel combustion or solid waste incineration is becoming the worldwide environmental concern. As an effective control technology, powdered sorbent injection (PSI) has been successfully used for mercury capture from flue gas with advantages of low cost and easy operation. In order to predict the mercury capture efficiency for PSI more conveniently, a simplified model, which is based on the theory of mass transfer, isothermal adsorption and mass balance, is developed in this paper. The comparisons between theoretical results of this model and experimental results by Meserole et al. [F.B. Meserole, R. Chang, T.R. Carrey, J. Machac, C.F.J. Richardson, Modeling mercury removal by sorbent injection, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 49 (1999) 694-704] demonstrate that the simplified model is able to provide good predictive accuracy. Moreover, the effects of key parameters including the mass transfer coefficient, sorbent concentration, sorbent physical property and sorbent adsorption capacity on mercury adsorption efficiency are compared and evaluated. Finally, the sensitive analysis of impact factor indicates that the injected sorbent concentration plays most important role for mercury capture efficiency.

  9. Experimental evaluation of sorbents for sulfur control in a coal-fueled gas turbine slagging combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, L.H.; Wen, C.S.; LeCren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a slagging combustor that has been used to evaluate three calcium-based sorbents for sulfur capture efficiency in order to assess their applicability for use in a oil-fueled gas turbine. Testing is competed in a bench-scale combustor with one-tenth the heat input needed for the full-scale gas turbine. The bench-scale rig is a two-stage combustor featuring a fuel-rich primary zone an a fuel-lean secondary zone. The combustor is operated at 6.5 bars with inlet air preheated to 600 K. Gas temperatures of 1840 K are generated in the primary zone and 1280 K in the secondary zone. Sorbents are either fed into the secondary zone or mixed with the coal-water mixture and fed into the primary zone. Dry powered sorbents are fed into the secondary zone by an auger into one of six secondary air inlet ports. The three sorbents tested in the secondary zone include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and hydrated lime. Sorbents have been tested while burning coal-water mixtures with coal sulfur loadings of 0.56 to 3.13 weight percent sulfur. Sorbents are injected into the secondary zone at varying flow rates such that the calcium/sulfur ratio varies from 0.5 to 10.0

  10. Reactivity improvement of Ca(OH)2 sorbent using diatomaceous earth (DE) from Aceh Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, M.; Mahidin, M.; Mulana, F.; Agam, T.; Hafdiansyah, F.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the diatomaceous earth (DE) from Aceh Province was used to increase the reactivity of Ca(OH)2sorbent. The high silica (SiO2) content of about 97% in the diatomaceous earth allows the increasing reactivity of Ca(OH)2sorbent by forming calcium silicate hydrate (CSH). The CSH improved the porosity characteristic of the sorbent. The improvement process was performed by mixing Ca(OH)2sorbent, diatomaceous earth and water in a beaker glass at the Ca(OH)2/DE weight ratio of 1:10 for 2 hand then dried at 120 °C for 24 h. The dried sorbent was calcined at 500 °C and 800 °C for 2 h. The activated sorbent was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for the morphological properties; X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the materials characteristics. The adsorption capacity of thesorbent was tested by methylene blue adsorption. The results showed that the Ca(OH)2/DEsorbent had a higher porosity than the Ca(OH)2 adsorbent.The results also showed that Ca(OH)2/DE which was calcined at higher temperature of 800 °C had a higher adsorption capacity compared to Ca(OH)2/DE which was calcined at lower temperature of 500 °C.

  11. Retrofit acid gas emission control for municipal waste incineration application of dry sorbent injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmuda, J.T.; Smith, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    Dry sorbent injection (DSI) has been successfully demonstrated on coal fired boiler applications as a means of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions. More recently, the dry sorbent injection process was applied to an existing municipal waste incinerator to provide acid gas emission controls. The results obtained from the successful demonstration of the sorbent injection system on an existing municipal incinerator are presented. Removal efficiencies of compounds such as HCl, SO 2 , SO 3 , mercury, and others by the use of sorbent injection are shown. Effects of the DSI system on downstream equipment, such as electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, ash handling systems, and waste management is included. The impacts of the DSI system on the furnace is also discussed. In this paper a discussion of dry sorbent injection as a means of reducing acid gas and other emissions from existing municipal waste incinerators which may be affected by the regulations is presented. An application case study will outline typical exhaust conditions, expected pollution reductions, capital and operating costs, and type of available sorbents and their costs

  12. Activation and characterization of waste coffee grounds as bio-sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana; Marwan; Mulana, F.; Yunardi; Ismail, T. A.; Hafdiansyah, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    As the city well known for its culture of coffee drinkers, modern and traditional coffee shops are found everywhere in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. High number of coffee shops in the city generates large quantities of spent coffee grounds as waste without any effort to convert them as other valuable products. In an attempt to reduce environmental problems caused by used coffee grounds, this research was conducted to utilize waste coffee grounds as an activated carbon bio-sorbent. The specific purpose of this research is to improve the performance of coffee grounds bio-sorbent through chemical and physical activation, and to characterize the produced bio-sorbent. Following physical activation by carbonization, a chemical activation was achieved by soaking the carbonized waste coffee grounds in HCl solvent and carbonization process. The activated bio-sorbent was characterized for its morphological properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), its functional groups by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and its material characteristics using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Characterization of the activated carbon prepared from waste coffee grounds shows that it meets standard quality requirement in accordance with Indonesian National Standard, SNI 06-3730-1995. Activation process has modified the functional groups of the waste coffee grounds. Comparing to natural waste coffee grounds, the resulted bio-sorbent demonstrated a more porous surface morphology following activation process. Consequently, such bio-sorbent is a potential source to be used as an adsorbent for various applications.

  13. Release of iodine radionuclides from gas media in a system of selective block sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Miroshnikov, V.S.; Mel'nikov, V.A.; Chetverikov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme of extracting iodine radionuclides from gas flows in a system of selective sorbents has been developed. The method provides separation of three forms of iodine: the aerosol component, the elementary iodine and organic-iodine compounds. Aerosols are trapped by a mechanical filter made of porous polytetrafluoroethylene with pores of no more than 1 μm. Silver-based sorbents for the elementary iodine are made by sintering the granular polytetrafluoroethylene (the size of granules is 0.1-0.5 mm) with of finely dispersed solver (5% mass). Organic iodine compounds are extracted by a silica sorbent impregnated with silver nitrate. The efficiency of sorbents was tested in gas flows with a known content of 131 I in the form of elementary iodine and methyl iodide. The results of experiments show that the efficiency of sorption of elementary iodine by a metallic-silver sorbent and of methyl iodide by a SiO 2 /AgNO 3 sorbent constitutes no less than 99% at a flow rate of up to 200 l/h. The iodine has been extracted at a flow rate of 100 l/h during 100 hours and for that time the efficiency of the iodine sorbtion has not changed. The suggested variant of extracting iodine radionuclides from gaseous media can be used both for fast control of iodine content in gas blowoffs and for researches aimed at studying the distribution of iodine forms in steam-and-gas media depending on nuclear plant operating conditions

  14. CaO-Based CO2 Sorbents Effectively Stabilized by Metal Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad Awais; Armutlulu, Andac; Imtiaz, Qasim; Müller, Christoph R

    2017-11-17

    Calcium looping (i.e., CO 2 capture by CaO) is a promising second-generation CO 2 capture technology. CaO, derived from naturally occurring limestone, offers an inexpensive solution, but due to the harsh operating conditions of the process, limestone-derived sorbents undergo a rapid capacity decay induced by the sintering of CaCO 3 . Here, we report a Pechini method to synthesize cyclically stable, CaO-based CO 2 sorbents with a high CO 2 uptake capacity. The sorbents synthesized feature compositional homogeneity in combination with a nanostructured and highly porous morphology. The presence of a single (Al 2 O 3 or Y 2 O 3 ) or bimetal oxide (Al 2 O 3 -Y 2 O 3 ) provides cyclic stability, except for MgO which undergoes a significant increase in its particle size with the cycle number. We also demonstrate a direct relationship between the CO 2 uptake and the morphology of the synthesized sorbents. After 30 cycles of calcination and carbonation, the best performing sorbent, containing an equimolar mixture of Al 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 , exhibits a CO 2 uptake capacity of 8.7 mmol CO 2  g -1 sorbent, which is approximately 360 % higher than that of the reference limestone. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Development of a Catalyst/Sorbent for Methane Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.H. Shans; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus Satrio; Karl Albrecht; Tanya Harris Janine Keeley; Ben Silva; Aaron Shell; Molly Lohry; Zachary Beversdorf

    2008-12-31

    This project led to the further development of a combined catalyst and sorbent for improving the process technology required for converting CH{sub 4} and/or CO into H{sub 2} while simultaneously separating the CO{sub 2} byproduct all in a single step. The new material is in the form of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consists of a CaO core surrounded by an alumina-based shell capable of supporting a Ni catalyst. The Ni is capable of catalyzing the reactions of steam with CH{sub 4} or CO to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, whereas the CaO is capable of absorbing the CO{sub 2} as it is produced. The absorption of CO{sub 2} eliminates the reaction inhibiting effects of CO{sub 2} and provides a means for recovering the CO{sub 2} in a useful form. The present work showed that the lifecycle performance of the sorbent can be improved either by incorporating a specific amount of MgO in the material or by calcining CaO derived from limestone at 1100 C for an extended period. It also showed how to prepare a strong shell material with a large surface area required for supporting an active Ni catalyst. The method combines graded particles of {alpha}-alumina with noncrystalline alumina having a large specific surface area together with a strength promoting additive followed by controlled calcination. Two different additives produced good results: 3 {micro}m limestone and lanthanum nitrate which were converted to their respective oxides upon calcination. The oxides partially reacted with the alumina to form aluminates which probably accounted for the strength enhancing properties of the additives. The use of lanthanum made it possible to calcine the shell material at a lower temperature, which was less detrimental to the surface area, but still capable of producing a strong shell. Core-in-shell pellets made with the improved shell materials and impregnated with a Ni catalyst were used for steam reforming CH{sub 4} at different temperatures and pressures. Under all

  16. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wenbin [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-08

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be

  17. Biochar from Coffee Residues: A New Promising Sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi; Manariotis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is mainly used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility as well as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. The objective of the present study was to characterize the surface properties of biochar produced, and to investigate the effect of thermal treatment conditions on key characteristics that affect sorptive properties. The espresso coffee residue was obtained after the coffee was brewed through espresso machines in coffee shops. The coffee residue was dried and kept in an oven at 50oC until its pyrolysis at 850oC. Pyrolysis with different coffee mass and containers were tested in order to find optimum biochar characteristics. Detailed characterization techniques were carried out to determine the properties of the produced biochar. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using the t-plot method and the Harkins & Jura equation. Total organic carbon was also determined because it is an important factor that affects sorption. The results were compared with the corresponding properties of activated carbons. The biochar produced exhibited a wide range of surface area from 21 to 770 m2/g and open surface area from 21 to 65 m2/g. It is obvious that the surface area results from the formation of pores. Actually it was calculated that up to 90% of the porosity is due to the micropores. More specifically the

  18. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be

  19. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Srinivasachar, Srivats [Envergex LLC, Sturbridge, MA (United States); Laudal, Daniel [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Browers, Bruce [Barr Engineering, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-31

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO₂ capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO₂ by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO₂ heat of reaction and promote fast CO₂ capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO₂ capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO₂ and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO₂ and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO₂ capture achieved using

  20. Improved CO_2 adsorption capacity and cyclic stability of CaO sorbents incorporated with MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah Diana Mohd Daud; Kumaravel Vignesh; Srimala Sreekantan; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide (CaO) sorbents incorporated with magnesium oxide (MgO) were synthesized using a co-precipitation route. The sorbents were prepared with different MgO concentrations (from 5 wt% to 30 wt%). The as-prepared sorbents were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and BET surface area analysis techniques. The sintering effect of CaO sorbents was decreased after the incorporation of MgO. The sorbents with 5 wt% and 10 wt% of MgO retained their CO_2 adsorption capacity over multiple cycles. Most importantly, CaO with 10 wt% MgO showed constant CO_2 adsorption capacity over 30 carbonation cycles. The results revealed that CaO with 10 wt% MgO is sufficient to produce sorbents with high surface area, good structural stability and enhanced CO_2 adsorption capacity. (authors)

  1. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program: Develop and test sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed during FY 1995 under the task open-quotes Develop and Test Sorbents,close quotes the purpose of which is to develop high-capacity, selective solid extractants to recover cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. This work is being done for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP), operated by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's Office of Technology Development. The task is under the direction of staff at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with key participation from industrial and university staff at 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota; IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Forks, Utah; AlliedSignal, Inc., Des Plaines, Illinois, and Texas A ampersand M University, College Station, Texas. 3M and IBC are responsible for ligand and membrane technology development; AlliedSignal and Texas A ampersand M are developing sodium titanate powders; and PNL is testing the materials developed by the industry/university team members. Major accomplishments for FY 1995 are summarized in this report

  2. Water Utility Lime Sludge Reuse – An Environmental Sorbent ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime sludge can be used as an environmental sorbent to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and acid gases, by the ultra-fine CaCO3 particles, and to sequester mercury and other heavy metals, by the Natural Organic Matter and residual activated carbon. The laboratory experimental set up included a simulated flue gas preparation unit, a lab-scale wet scrubber, and a mercury analyzer system. The influent mercury concentration was based on a range from 22 surveyed power plants. The reactivity of the lime sludge sample for acid neutralization was determined using a method similar to method ASTM C1318-95. Similar experiments were conducted using reagent calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate to obtain baseline data for comparing with the lime sludge test results. The project also evaluated the techno-economic feasibility and sustainable benefits of reusing lime softening sludge. If implemented on a large scale, this transformative approach for recycling waste materials from water treatment utilities at power generation utilities for environmental cleanup can save both water and power utilities millions of dollars. Huge amounts of lime sludge waste, generated from hundreds of water treatment utilities across the U.S., is currently disposed in landfills. This project evaluated a sustainable and economically-attractive approach to the use of lime sludge waste as a valuable resource for power generation utilities.

  3. Biochar: a green sorbent to sequester acidic organic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon rich product of biomass pyrolysis that exhibits a high sorption potential towards a wide variety of inorganic and organic contaminants. Because it is a valuable soil additive and a potential carbon sink that can be produced from renewable resources, biochar has gained growing attention for the development of more sustainable remediation strategies. A lot of research efforts have been dedicated to the sorption of hydrophobic contaminants and metals to biochar. Conversely, the understanding of the sorption of acidic organic contaminants remains limited, and questions remain on the influence of biochar characteristics (e.g. ash content) on the sorption behaviour of acidic organic contaminants. To address this knowledge gap, sorption batch experiments were conducted with a series of structurally similar acidic organic contaminants covering a range of dissociation constant (2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB and triclosan). The sorbents selected for experimentation included a series of 10 biochars covering a range of characteristics, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as model for pure carbonaceous phases, and an activated carbon as benchmark. Overall, sorption coefficient [L/kg] covered six orders of magnitude and generally followed the order 2,4-D pH dependent lipophilicity ratio (i.e. D instead of Kow), ash content and ionic strength are key factors influencing the sorption of acidic organic contaminants to biochars. Overall, the identified factors, as well as the environmental matrix, should be carefully considered when selecting the type of biochar for sequestration purposes.

  4. Method of making ionic liquid mediated sol-gel sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abdul; Shearrow, Anne M.

    2017-01-31

    Ionic liquid (IL)-mediated sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic materials present enormous potential for effective use in analytical microextraction. One obstacle to materializing this prospect arises from high viscosity of ILs significantly slowing down sol-gel reactions. A method was developed which provides phosphonium-based, pyridinium-based, and imidazolium-based IL-mediated advanced sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid materials for capillary microextraction. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrate that ILs can serve as porogenic agents in sol-gel reactions. IL-mediated sol-gel coatings prepared with silanol-terminated polymers provided up to 28 times higher extractions compared to analogous sol-gel coatings prepared without any IL in the sol solution. This study shows that IL-generated porous morphology alone is not enough to provide effective extraction media: careful choice of the organic polymer and the precursor with close sol-gel reactivity must be made to ensure effective chemical bonding of the organic polymer to the created sol-gel material to be able to provide the desired sorbent characteristics.

  5. Development and application of charcoal sorbents for cryopumping fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA). Space Systems Div.)

    1989-06-01

    Progress has been made in defining the capabilities of charcoal as the most promising absorbent to be used in cryopumps for fusion power application. The capabilities of alternative methods of cryopumping helium have been examined in a literature survey and by test, and the results are described here. Considerations include pumping speed, capacity to accumulate pumped gas, ease of reconditioning, use of alternative materials and tolerance to the fusion environment. Vacuum pumps for future fusion devices must handle large quantities of helium/hydrogen isotopes and other impurities. Cryopumps or turbomolecular pumps have demonstrated the capability on a small scale, and each has an important advantage: TMPs do not accumulate gases; cryopumps can separate helium from other effluents. This paper includes a review of a method for selecting charcoals for helium cryopumping, testing of a continuously operating cryopump system, and definition of a design that is based on the requirements of the Next European Torus. Tritium limits are satisfied. The pump design incorporates the charcoal sorbent system that has been recently developed and is based on a reasonable extrapolation of current state-of-the-art. Evaluation of alternative methods of separating helium and other gases led to selection of a movable barrier as the preferred solution. (orig.).

  6. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  7. Removal of mercury from coal-combustion flue gas using regenerable sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C S; Albiston, J; Broderick, T E; Stewart, R M

    1999-07-01

    The US EPA estimates that coal-fired power plants constitute the largest anthropogenic source of mercury emissions in the US. The Agency has contemplated emission regulations for power plants, but the large gas-flow rates and low mercury concentrations involved have made current treatment options prohibitively expensive. ADA Technologies, Inc. (Englewood, Colorado), in conjunction with the US DOE, is developing regenerable sorbents for the removal and recovery of mercury from flue gas. These sorbents are based on the ability of noble metals to amalgamate mercury at typical flue-gas temperatures and release mercury at higher temperatures. The process allows for recovery of mercury with minimal volumes of secondary wastes and no impact on fly ash quality. In 1997 and 1998, ADA tested a 20-cfm sorbent unit at CONSOL Inc.'s coal-combustion test facility in Library, PA. Results from the 1997 tests indicated that the sorbent can remove elemental and oxidized mercury and can be regenerated without loss of capacity. Design changes were implemented in 1998 to enhance the thermal efficiency of the process and to recover the mercury in a stable form. Testing during autumn, 1998 demonstrated 60% to 90% removal efficiency of mercury from a variety of different coals. However, contradictory removal results were obtained at the end of the test period. Subsequent laboratory analyses indicated that the sorbent had lost over half its capacity for mercury due to a decrease in available sites for mercury sorption. The presence of sulfur compounds on the sorbent suggests that thermal cycling may have condensed acid gases on the sorbent leading to deterioration of the active sorption sites. The regeneration time/temperature profile has been altered to minimize this potential in the upcoming power plant tests.

  8. CNTs reinforced super-hydrophobic-oleophilic electrospun polystyrene oil sorbent for enhanced sorption capacity and reusability

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jingya; Kyoungjin An, Alicia; Guo, Jiaxin; Lee, Eui-Jong; Usman Farid, Muhammad; Jeong, Sanghyun

    2016-01-01

    To meet the challenges of global oil spills and oil-water contamination, the development of a low-cost and reusable sorbents with good hydrophobicity and oleophilic nature is crucial. In this study, functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were wrapped in polystyrene (PS) polymer (PS-CNTs) and electrospun to create an effective and rigid sorbent for oil. Covalent modification and fluorination of CNTs improved their dispersibility and interfacial interaction with the polymer, resulting in a well-aligned CNTs configuration inside the porous fiber structure. Interestingly, the oil sorption process using PS-CNTs was observed to have two phases. First, the oil swiftly entered the membrane pores formed by interconnected nanofibers due to oleophilic properties of the micro-sized void. In the second phase, the oil not only moved to nano interior spaces of the fibers by capillary forces but also adsorbed on the surface of fibers where the latter was retained due to Van der Waals force. The sorption process fits well with the intra particle diffusion model. Maximum oil sorption capacity of the PS-CNTs sorbent for sunflower oil, peanut oil, and motor oils were 116, 123, and 112 g/g, respectively, which was 65% higher than that of the PS sorbent without CNTs. Overall, a significant increase in the porosity, surface area, water contact angle, and oleophilic nature was observed for the PS-CNTs composite sorbents. Not only did the PS-CNTs sorbents exhibited a promising oil sorption capacity but also showed potential for reusability, which is an important factor to be considered in determining the overall performance of the sorbent and its environmental impacts.

  9. CNTs reinforced super-hydrophobic-oleophilic electrospun polystyrene oil sorbent for enhanced sorption capacity and reusability

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jingya

    2016-12-05

    To meet the challenges of global oil spills and oil-water contamination, the development of a low-cost and reusable sorbents with good hydrophobicity and oleophilic nature is crucial. In this study, functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were wrapped in polystyrene (PS) polymer (PS-CNTs) and electrospun to create an effective and rigid sorbent for oil. Covalent modification and fluorination of CNTs improved their dispersibility and interfacial interaction with the polymer, resulting in a well-aligned CNTs configuration inside the porous fiber structure. Interestingly, the oil sorption process using PS-CNTs was observed to have two phases. First, the oil swiftly entered the membrane pores formed by interconnected nanofibers due to oleophilic properties of the micro-sized void. In the second phase, the oil not only moved to nano interior spaces of the fibers by capillary forces but also adsorbed on the surface of fibers where the latter was retained due to Van der Waals force. The sorption process fits well with the intra particle diffusion model. Maximum oil sorption capacity of the PS-CNTs sorbent for sunflower oil, peanut oil, and motor oils were 116, 123, and 112 g/g, respectively, which was 65% higher than that of the PS sorbent without CNTs. Overall, a significant increase in the porosity, surface area, water contact angle, and oleophilic nature was observed for the PS-CNTs composite sorbents. Not only did the PS-CNTs sorbents exhibited a promising oil sorption capacity but also showed potential for reusability, which is an important factor to be considered in determining the overall performance of the sorbent and its environmental impacts.

  10. Fold-recognition and comparative modeling of human α2,3-sialyltransferases reveal their sequence and structural similarities to CstII from Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Petety V

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3-D structure of none of the eukaryotic sialyltransferases (SiaTs has been determined so far. Sequence alignment algorithms such as BLAST and PSI-BLAST could not detect a homolog of these enzymes from the protein databank. SiaTs, thus, belong to the hard/medium target category in the CASP experiments. The objective of the current work is to model the 3-D structures of human SiaTs which transfer the sialic acid in α2,3-linkage viz., ST3Gal I, II, III, IV, V, and VI, using fold-recognition and comparative modeling methods. The pair-wise sequence similarity among these six enzymes ranges from 41 to 63%. Results Unlike the sequence similarity servers, fold-recognition servers identified CstII, a α2,3/8 dual-activity SiaT from Campylobacter jejuni as the homolog of all the six ST3Gals; the level of sequence similarity between CstII and ST3Gals is only 15–20% and the similarity is restricted to well-characterized motif regions of ST3Gals. Deriving template-target sequence alignments for the entire ST3Gal sequence was not straightforward: the fold-recognition servers could not find a template for the region preceding the L-motif and that between the L- and S-motifs. Multiple structural templates were identified to model these regions and template identification-modeling-evaluation had to be performed iteratively to choose the most appropriate templates. The modeled structures have acceptable stereochemical properties and are also able to provide qualitative rationalizations for some of the site-directed mutagenesis results reported in literature. Apart from the predicted models, an unexpected but valuable finding from this study is the sequential and structural relatedness of family GT42 and family GT29 SiaTs. Conclusion The modeled 3-D structures can be used for docking and other modeling studies and for the rational identification of residues to be mutated to impart desired properties such as altered stability, substrate

  11. Predicting sorption of organic acids to a wide range of carbonized sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Many contaminants and infochemicals are organic acids that undergo dissociation under environmental conditions. The sorption of dissociated anions to biochar and other carbonized sorbents is typically lower than that of neutral species. It is driven by complex processes that are not yet fully understood. It is known that predictive approaches developed for neutral compounds are unlikely to be suitable for organic acids, due to the effects of dissociation on sorption. Previous studies on the sorption of organic acids to soils have demonstrated that log Dow, which describes the decrease in hydrophobicity of acids upon dissociation, is a useful alternative to log Kow. The aim of the present study was to adapt a log Dow based approach to describe the sorption of organic acids to carbonized sorbents. Batch experiments were performed with a series of 9 sorbents (i.e., carbonized wood shavings, pig manure, and sewage sludge, carbon nanotubes and activated carbon), and four acids commonly used for pesticidal and biocidal purposes (i.e., 2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB, and triclosan). Sorbents were comprehensively characterized, including by N2 and CO2 physisorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The wide range of sorbents considered allows (i) discussing the mechanisms driving the sorption of neutral and anionic species to biochar, and (ii) their dependency on sorbate and sorbent properties. Results showed that the sorption of the four acids was influenced by factors that are usually not considered for neutral compounds (i.e., pH, ionic strength). Dissociation affected the sorption of the four compounds, and sorption of the anions ranged over five orders of magnitude, thus substantially contributing to sorption in some cases. For prediction purposes, most of the variation in sorption to carbonized sorbents (89%) could be well described with a two-parameter regression equation including log Dow and sorbent specific surface area. The proposed model

  12. Regenerable sorbents for mercury capture in simulated coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Jorge; López-Antón, M Antonia; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; García, Roberto; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2013-09-15

    This work demonstrates that regenerable sorbents containing nano-particles of gold dispersed on an activated carbon are efficient and long-life materials for capturing mercury species from coal combustion flue gases. These sorbents can be used in such a way that the high investment entailed in their preparation will be compensated for by the recovery of all valuable materials. The characteristics of the support and dispersion of gold in the carbon surface influence the efficiency and lifetime of the sorbents. The main factor that determines the retention of mercury and the regeneration of the sorbent is the presence of reactive gases that enhance mercury retention capacity. The capture of mercury is a consequence of two mechanisms: (i) the retention of elemental mercury by amalgamation with gold and (ii) the retention of oxidized mercury on the activated carbon support. These sorbents were specifically designed for retaining the mercury remaining in gas phase after the desulfurization units in coal power plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Immobilized humic substances and immobilized aggregates of humic substances as sorbent for solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Guillaume L; Gonçalves, Bruna M; Esteves, Valdemar I

    2013-09-06

    In this work, humic substances (HS) immobilized, as a thin layer or as aggregates, on silica gel were tested as material for solid phase extraction. Some triazines (simazine, atrazine, therbutylazine, atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl-2-hydroxy, ametryn and terbutryn), have been selected as test analytes due to their environmental importance and to span a large range of solubility and octanol/water partition coefficient (logP). The sorbent was obtained immobilizing a thin layer of HS via physisorption on a pre-coated silica gel with a cationic polymer (polybrene). While the sorbent could be used as it is, it was demonstrated that additional HS could be immobilized, via weak interactions, to form stable humic aggregates. However, while a higher quantity of HS could be immobilized, no significant differences were observed in the sorption parameters. This sorbent have been tested for solid phase extraction to concentrate triazines from aqueous matrixes. The sorbent demonstrated performances equivalent to commercial alternatives as a concentration factor between 50 and 200, depending on the type of triazines, was obtained. Moreover the low cost and the high flow rate of sample through the column allowed using high quantity of sorbent. The analytical procedure was tested with different matrixes including tap water, river water and estuarine water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

  15. Application of engineered sorbent barriers Summary of Laboratory Data for FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Jones, E.O.

    1989-09-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted in FY 1988 Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine the effect of contact time, pH, solution to solid ratio, and particle size on the performance of a number of materials in adsorbing radioactive cobalt, strontium, and cesium. The laboratory studies were conducted to provide background information useful in designing an engineered sorbent barrier, which restricts the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. Understanding how the variables affect the adsorption of ions on the sorbent materials is the key to estimating the performance of sorbent barriers under a variety of conditions. The scope of the studies was limited to three radionuclides and four sorbent materials, but the general approach can be used to evaluate other radionuclides and conditions. The sorbent materials evaluated in this study included clinoptilolite, activated carbon, bentonite clay, and Savannah River soil. The clinoptilolite and activated carbon were identified in previous studies as the most cost-effective materials for sorption of the three radionuclides under consideration. The bentonite clay was evaluated as a component of the barrier that could be used to modify the permeability of the barrier system. The Savannah River soil was used to represent soil from a humid site. 3 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Waste Derived Sorbents and Their Potential Roles in Heavy Metal Remediation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Y. W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic waste materials that have the suitable inherent characteristics could be used as precursors for the synthesis of micro- and mesoporous materials, which present great potential to be re-utilized as sorbent materials for heavy metal remediation. Three inorganic waste materials were studied in the present work: water treatment residuals (WTRs from an integrated drinking water/wastewater treatment plant, and fly ash and bottom ash samples from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI. These wastes were converted into three sorbent materials: ferrihydrite-like materials derived from drying of WTRs, hydroxyapatite-like material derived from ultrasound assisted synthesis of MSWI fly ash with phosphoric acid solution, and a zeolitic material derived from alkaline hydrothermal conversion of MSWI bottom ash. The performance of these materials, as well as their equivalent commercially available counterparts, was assessed for the adsorption of multiple heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn from synthetic solutions, contaminated sediments and surface waters; and satisfactory results were obtained. In addition, it was observed that the combination of sorbents into sorbent mixtures enhanced the performance levels and, where applicable, stabilized inherently mobile contaminants from the waste derived sorbents.

  17. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Carl [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Steen, William [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Triana, Eugenio [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Machalek, Thomas [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Davila, Jenny [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Schmit, Claire [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Wang, Andrew [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Temple, Brian [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Lu, Yongqi [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Lu, Hong [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Zhang, Luzheng [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Ruhter, David [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Sayyah, Maryam [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Ito, Brandon [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Suslick, Kenneth [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This document summarizes the work performed on Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0000465, “Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture,” during the period of performance of January 1, 2010 through September 30, 2013. This project involves the development of a novel technology that combines a dry sorbent-based carbon capture process with the water-gas-shift reaction for separating CO{sub 2} from syngas. The project objectives were to model, develop, synthesize and screen sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture from gasified coal streams. The project was funded by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory with URS as the prime contractor. Illinois Clean Coal Institute and The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign were project co-funders. The objectives of this project were to identify and evaluate sorbent materials and concepts that were suitable for capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from warm/hot water-gas-shift (WGS) systems under conditions that minimize energy penalties and provide continuous gas flow to advanced synthesis gas combustion and processing systems. Objectives included identifying and evaluating sorbents that efficiently capture CO{sub 2} from a gas stream containing CO{sub 2}, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at temperatures as high as 650 °C and pressures of 400-600 psi. After capturing the CO{sub 2}, the sorbents would ideally be regenerated using steam, or other condensable purge vapors. Results from the adsorption and regeneration testing were used to determine an optimal design scheme for a sorbent enhanced water gas shift (SEWGS) process and evaluate the technical and economic viability of the dry sorbent approach for CO{sub 2} capture. Project work included computational modeling, which was performed to identify key sorbent properties for the SEWGS process. Thermodynamic modeling was used to identify optimal physical properties for sorbents and helped down-select from the universe of possible sorbent

  18. Performance of a novel synthetic Ca-based solid sorbent suitable for desulfurizing flue gases in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacciani, R.; Muller, C.R.; Davidson, J.F.; Dennis, J.S.; Hayhurst, A.N. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology

    2009-08-05

    The extent and mechanism of sulfation and carbonation of limestone, dolomite, and chalk, were compared with a novel, synthetic sorbent (85 wt % CaO and 15 wt % Ca{sub 12}A{sub l14}O{sub 33}), by means of experiments undertaken in a small, electrically heated fluidized bed. The sorbent particles were used either (I) untreated, sieved to two particle sizes and reacted with two different concentrations of SO{sub 2}, or (ii) after being cycled 20 times between carbonation, in 15 vol % CO{sub 2} in N2, and calcination, in pure N2, at 750 degrees C. The uptake of untreated limestone and dolomite was generally low (<0.2 g(SO{sub 2})/g(sorbent)), confirming previous results, However, the untreated chalk and the synthetic sorbent were found to be substantially more reactive with SO{sub 2}, and their final uptake was significantly higher (>0.5 g(SO{sub 2})/g(sorbent)) and essentially independent of the particle size. Here, comparisons are made on the basis of the sorbents in the calcined state. The capacities for the uptake of SO{sub 2}, on a basis of unit mass of calcined sorbent, were comparable for the chalk and the synthetic sorbent. However, previous work has demonstrated the ability of the synthetic sorbent to retain its capacity for CO{sub 2} over many cycles of carbonation and calcination: much more so than natural sorbents such as chalk and limestone. Accordingly, the advantage of the synthetic sorbent is that it could be used to remove CO{sub 2} from flue gases and, at the end of its life, to remove SO{sub 2} on a once-through basis.

  19. Silver-Loaded Aluminosilicate Aerogels As Iodine Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Kroll, Jared O. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Peterson, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Matyáš, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Olszta, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Li, Xiaohong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States

    2017-09-14

    This paper discusses the development of aluminosilicates aerogels as scaffolds for Ag0 nanoparticles used for chemisorption of I2(g). The starting materials for these scaffolds included both Na-Al-Si-O and Al-Si-O aerogels, both synthesized from metal alkoxides. The Ag0 particles are added by soaking the aerogels in AgNO3 followed by drying and flowing under H2/Ar to reduce Ag+ → Ag0. In some cases, samples were soaked in 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane under supercritical CO2 to add –SH tethers to the aerogel surfaces for more effective binding of Ag+. During the Ag+-impregnation steps, for the Na-Al-Si-O aerogels, Na was replaced with Ag, and for the Al-Si-O aerogel, Si was replaced with Ag. The Ag-loading of thiolated versus non-thiolated Na-Al-Si-O aerogels was comparable at ~35 at% whereas the Ag-loading in unthiolated Al-Si-O aerogels was significantly lower at ~ 7 at% after identical treatment. Iodine loadings in both thiolated and unthiolated Ag0-functionalized Na-Al-Si-O aerogels were > 0.5 g g-1 showing almost complete utilization of the Ag through chemisorption to form AgI. Iodine loading in the thiolated Al-Si-O aerogel was 0.31 g g-1. The control of Ag uptake over solution residence time and [AgNO3] demonstrates the ability to customize the Ag-loading in the base sorbent to regulate the capacity of iodine chemisorption. Consolidation experimental results are also presented.

  20. Changes in intraocular pressure values measured with noncontact tonometer (NCT), ocular response analyzer (ORA) and corvis scheimpflug technology tonometer (CST) in the early phase after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Su, Xiangjian; Liu, Xiu; Miao, Huamao; Fang, Xuejun; Zhou, Xingtao

    2016-11-18

    Corneal biomechanical properties are always compromised after corneal refractive surgeries thus leading to underestimated intraocular pressure (IOP) that complicates the management of IOP. We investigated the changes in postoperative baseline of IOP values measured with noncontact tonometer (NCT), ocular response analyzer (ORA) and corvis scheimpflug technology (CST) in the early phase after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Twenty-two eyes (-6.76 ± 1.39D) of 22 moderate and high myopes, (28.36 ± 7.14 years, 12 male and 10 female) were involved in this prospective study. IOP values were measured using a non-contact tomometer (NCT-IOP), an ocular response analyzer (corneal-compensated IOP, IOPcc and Goldmann-correlated IOP, IOPg) and a Corvis scheimpflug technology tonometer (CST-IOP) preoperatively, at 20 min and 24 h, postoperatively. Repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA), Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression models (stepwise) were performed. Cut-off P values were 0.05. Except for IOPcc, NCT-IOP, IOPg, and CST-IOP values significantly decreased after SMILE procedure (All P values 0.05). Multiple linear regression models (stepwise) showed that the practical post-operative IOP value was the main predictor of the theoretical post-operative NCT-IOP, IOPcc and IOPg values (all P values <0.001). The postoperative applanation time 1 (AT1) value (B = 8.079, t = 4.866, P < 0.001), preoperative central corneal thickness (CCT) value (B = 0.035, t = 2.732, P = 0.014) and postoperative peak distance (PD) value (B = 0.515, t = 2.176, P = 0.043) were the main predictors of the theoretical post-operative CST-IOP value. IOP values are underestimated when assessed after SMILE by using NCT-IOP, IOPg and CST-IOP. The practical postoperative IOPcc value and theoretical post-operative CST-IOP value may be more preferable for IOP assessment in the early phase after SMILE. Current Controlled

  1. Contratação por desempenho em serviços de manutenção: o caso da CST Arcelor Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Weber Ambrósio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a contratação por desempenho e os benefícios que ela pode proporcionar para as empresas. O trabalho apresenta o processo de contratação por avaliação de desempenho na terceirização de serviços de manutenção. A contribuição do artigo consiste em identificar os fatores motivadores desta modalidade de contrato, bem como as etapas recomendadas para a obtenção de sucesso em um processo de contratação desta natureza. É apresentado o estudo de caso da siderúrgica CST Arcelor Brasil, onde se utiliza o modelo de contratação por desempenho na área de serviços de manutenção. Os contratos são firmados com base em cláusulas de desempenho, que buscam monitorar a performance dos serviços prestados segundo indicadores estabelecidos pela CST  em conjunto com empresas parceiras. A metodologia utilizada consiste  na pesquisa bibliográfica sobre a evolução das relações com fornecedores e em entrevistas com especialistas nas áreas de contratação, logística e vendas.

  2. Aerosol Formation during the Combustion of Straw with Addition of Sorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Frederik Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Jørgen P.

    2007-01-01

    , calcium phosphate, Bentonite, ICA5000, and clay. The addition of chalk increased the aerosol mass concentration by 24%. Experiments in a laminar flow aerosol condenser with the six sorbents were carried out in the laboratory using a synthetic flue gas to avoid fluctuations in the alkali feeding......The influence of six sorbents on aerosol formation during the combustion of straw in a 100 MW boiler on a Danish power plant has been studied in full-scale. The following sorbents were studied: ammonium sulfate, monocalcium phosphate, Bentonite, ICA5000, clay, and chalk. Bentonite and ICA5000...... are mixtures of clay minerals and consist mainly of the oxides from Fe, Al, and Si. The straw used was Danish wheat and seed grass. Measurements were also made with increased flow of primary air. The experiments showed between 46% and 70% reduction in particle mass concentrations when adding ammonium sulfate...

  3. Adsorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS from Aqueous Solutions on Different Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smol Marzena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the possibility and effectiveness of PAHs removal from a model aqueous solution, during the sorption on the selected sorbents. Six PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene listed by EPA for the analysis in the environmental samples were determined. Model aqueous solution was prepared with RESTEK 610 mix PAHs standard. After the sorption process, decrease in the concentration of individual hydrocarbons was observed. The removal percentage was dependent on the type of sorbent (quartz sand, mineral sorbent, activated carbon. The highest efficiency (98.1% was observed for activated carbon.. The results shows that the sorption processes can be used in aqueous solutions treatment procedures.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

    1999-09-01

    Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at

  5. Ionic liquid-functionalized mesoporous sorbents and their use in the capture of polluting gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Suk; Koros, William J.; Bhuwania, Nitesh; Hillesheim, Patrick C.; Dai, Sheng

    2016-01-12

    A composite structure for capturing a gaseous electrophilic species, the composite structure comprising mesoporous refractory sorbent particles on which an ionic liquid is covalently attached, wherein said ionic liquid includes an accessible functional group that is capable of binding to said gaseous electrophilic species. In particular embodiments, the mesoporous sorbent particles are contained within refractory hollow fibers. Also described is a method for capturing a gaseous electrophilic species by use of the above-described composite structure, wherein the gaseous electrophilic species is contacted with the composite structure. In particular embodiments thereof, cooling water is passed through the refractory hollow fibers containing the IL-functionalized sorbent particles in order to facilitate capture of the gaseous electrophilic species, and then steam is passed through the refractory hollow fibers to facilitate release of the gaseous electrophilic species such that the composite structure can be re-used to capture additional gas.

  6. Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, L.S.; Roy, W.R.; Cole, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

  7. Assessment of raw luffa as a natural hollow oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill cleanup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Abdelwahab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have a global concern due to its environmental and economical impact. Various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. However, plant biomass is renewable resource that can be converted into useful materials and energy. Luffa, an agricultural waste, was used as a sorbent material. The present study examines the adsorption capacity of raw luffa fibers for different types of oil and water pickup. The investigation revealed that the efficiency of fibers to remove crude oil from sea water was related to the surface properties of the fibers, concentration of the oil, amount of the fibers, as well as the temperature of the crude oil. The results show high sorption efficiency of luffa fibers for different kinds of oil. This sorbent also exhibited a good reusability since the decrease in sorption efficiency did not exceed 50% of the initial value after three sorption cycles.

  8. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide, Ammonia, Formaldehyde, and Water Vapor on Regenerable Carbon Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Wilburn, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide, moisture, and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Furthermore, the current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is nonregenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. In this study, several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested for simultaneous carbon dioxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, and water sorption. Multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, and also the enhancement of formaldehyde sorption by the presence of ammonia in the gas mixture.

  9. Efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents for oil removal from engine washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilharduci, Viviane Vasques da Silva; Martelli, Patrícia Benedini; Gorgulho, Honória de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents in the sorption of oil from engine washing wastewater. The sorbents were obtained from sugarcane bagasse in the natural form (SB-N) and modified with either acetic anhydride (SB-Acet) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SB-APTS). The results showed that the sorption capacity of these materials decreased in the following order: SB-APTS > SB-N > SB-Acet. The superior oil sorption capacity observed for SB-APTS was attributed to the polar amino end groups in the silane structure, which acted to increase the hydrophilic character of the fibers. However, all the sorbents obtained in this study were able to clean a real sample of wastewater from engine washing, leading to significant reductions in suspended matter, sediment, anionic surfactants, and turbidity.

  10. Cadmium adsorption by coal combustion ashes-based sorbents-Relationship between sorbent properties and adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsamo, Marco; Di Natale, Francesco; Erto, Alessandro; Lancia, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Montagnaro, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.montagnaro@unina.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Santoro, Luciano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    A very interesting possibility of coal combustion ashes reutilization is their use as adsorbent materials, that can also take advantage from proper beneficiation techniques. In this work, adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions was taken into consideration, with the emphasis on the intertwining among waste properties, beneficiation treatments, properties of the beneficiated materials and adsorption capacity. The characterization of three solid materials used as cadmium sorbents (as-received ash, ash sieved through a 25 {mu}m-size sieve and demineralized ash) was carried out by chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy, laser granulometry and mercury porosimetry. Cadmium adsorption thermodynamic and kinetic tests were conducted at room temperature, and test solutions were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Maximum specific adsorption capacities resulted in the range 0.5-4.3 mg g{sup -1}. Different existing models were critically considered to find out an interpretation of the controlling mechanism for adsorption kinetics. In particular, it was observed that for lower surface coverage the adsorption rate is governed by a linear driving force while, once surface coverage becomes significant, mechanisms such as the intraparticle micropore diffusion may come into play. Moreover, it was shown that both external fluid-to-particle mass transfer and macropore diffusion hardly affect the adsorption process, which was instead regulated by intraparticle micropore diffusion: characteristic times for this process ranged from 4.1 to 6.1 d, and were fully consistent with the experimentally observed equilibrium times. Results were discussed in terms of the relationship among properties of beneficiated materials and cadmium adsorption capacity. Results shed light on interesting correlations among solid properties, cadmium capture rate and maximum cadmium uptake.

  11. Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2017-05-30

    The present invention relates to carbon nanocomposite sorbents. The present invention provides carbon nanocomposite sorbents, methods for making the same, and methods for separation of a pollutant from a gas that includes that pollutant. Various embodiments provide a method for reducing the mercury content of a mercury-containing gas.

  12. LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

  13. The Relative Influence of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing on the Adsorption of Mercury within a Gas-Sorbent Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous investigations demonstrated that entrained flow or in-flight adsorption can be a more effective and flexible approach to trace gas adsorption than fixed sorbent beds. The present investigation establishes the turbulent mixing that accompanies sorbent injection is an ...

  14. INFLUENCE OF SOLVENT AND SORBENT CHARACTERISTICS ON DISTRIBUTION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN OCTANOL-WATER AND SOIL-WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbent and solvent characteristics influencing sorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) were investigated. Analysis of aqueous sorption data for several sorbents over a broad pH range suggested hydrophobic sorption of neutral PCP predominates at pH 7. At pH > 7, sorption of the penta...

  15. Experimental investigation of adsorption of NO and SO2 on modified activated carbon sorbent from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.L.; Wang, Y.H.; Zhang, J.C.; Ma, R.Y.

    2005-01-01

    It is indicated that modified carbon is a practical sorbent for removal of NO and SO 2 from waste gases by the adsorption method. The ideal compositions for the prepared sorbent were 4.0 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% Na 2 CO 3 and KOH at the experimental conditions, respectively, shortened as ACNaK 2.5 . Experimental investigation showed that the sorbent had a comparatively high breakthrough adsorption capacity of NO and SO 2 , about 5.8 g (NO + SO 2 )/100 g sorbent. It is indicated that a relatively high adsorption temperature would benefit the sorbent adsorption capacities on NO and SO 2 at a certain space velocity and pressure. Further study revealed that the ACNaK 2.5 sorbent had good regenerability at the experimental conditions, which implied that the ACNaK 2.5 sorbent would be a useful sorbent for simultaneous removal of NO and SO 2 from waste gases by adsorption

  16. Multifunctional humate-based magnetic sorbent: Preparation, properties and sorption of Cu (II), phosphates and selected pesticides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoš, P.; Kormunda, M.; Novák, František; Životský, O.; Fuitová, J.; Pilařová, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2013), s. 46-52 ISSN 1381-5148 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : magnetic sorbent * humate-based sorbent * heavy metals * phosphate * pesticides Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.822, year: 2013

  17. TG-FTIR measurement of CO2-H2O co-adsorption for CO2 air capture sorbent screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smal, I.M.; Yu, Qian; Veneman, Rens; Fränzel-Luiten, B.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Capturing atmospheric CO2 using solid sorbents is gaining interest. As ambient air normally contains much more (up to 100 times) water than CO2, a selective sorbent is desirable as co-adsorption will most likely occur. In this study, a convenient method based on an TG-FTIR analysis system is

  18. Technology assessment guide for application of engineered sorbent barriers to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Jones, E.O.; Depner, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    An engineered sorbent barrier (ESB) uses sorbent materials (such as activated carbon or natural zeolites) to restrict migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. The permeability of the ESB allows moisture to pass while the sorbent material traps or absorbs contaminants. In contrast, waste sites with impermeable barriers could fill with water, especially those waste sites in humid climates. A sorbent barrier can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for restricting radionuclide migration. This report provides information and references to be used in assessing the sorbent barrier technology for low-level waste disposal. The ESB assessment is based on sorbent material and soil properties, site conditions, and waste properties and inventories. These data are used to estimate the thickness of the barrier needed to meet all performance requirements for the waste site. This document addresses the following areas: (1) site information required to assess the need and overall performance of a sorbent barrier; (2) selection and testing of sorbent materials and underlying soils; (3) use of radionuclide transport models to estimate the required barrier thickness and long-term performance under a variety of site conditions; (4) general considerations for construction and quality assurance; and (5) cost estimates for applying the barrier. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Phosphate Adsorption using Modified Iron Oxide-based Sorbents in Lake Water: Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Column Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsorption behavior of Bayoxide ® E33 (E33) and three E33-modified sorbents for the removal of phosphate from lake water was investigated in this study. E33-modified sorbents were synthesized by coating with manganese (E33/Mn) and silver (E33/AgI and E33/AgII) nanoparticles. Adso...

  20. The study of sorption of cesium radionuclides by 'T-55' ferrocyanide sorbent from various types of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenischev, V.S.; Voronina, A.V.; Bykov, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of caesium by T-55 sorbent from different types of liquid radioactive wastes is studied. It is shown that the sorbent can be used for extraction of cesium from high level acidic and saline solutions and also for decontamination of caesium contaminated waters containing surfactants and EDTA. (author)

  1. Calcium looping technology using improved stability nanostructured sorbent for cyclic CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Cong; Zheng, Ying; Ding, Ning; Zheng, Chu-guang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    One of the post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies that have sufficiently been proved to be the best candidates for practical large scale post-combustion application is the calcium looping cycle. However, the CO{sub 2} capture capacity of a calcium-based sorbent derived from natural limestone decays through long-term cyclic utilization; thus, the development of novel sorbents to achieve a high CO{sub 2} capture capacity is an critical challenge for the calcium looping cycle technology. In this paper, we report the preparation and character of a new calcium-based sorbent produced via the combustion of a dry gel. The results show that the novel calcium-based sorbent has a much higher residual carbonation conversion as well as a better performance of anti-sintering when compared with the calcium-based sorbent derived from commercial micrometer grade CaCO{sub 3} and nanometer grade CaCO{sub 3}. It is reasonable to propose that the different final carbonation performances are induced by their different pore structures and BET surface areas rather than by different particle sizes. Compared with the commercial nano CaO, the morphology of the new sorbent shows a more rough porous appearance with hollow nanostructure. During carbonation, CO{sub 2} diffused more easily through the hollow structure than through a solid structure to reach the unreacted CaO. Besides, there is less chance for the hollow nanostructured particles to be merged together during the high temperature reactions.

  2. The use of lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) as sorbent for PAHs removal from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Christy, Alfred A.; Barth, Tanja; Francis, George William

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of contact time on sorption PAH by LECA. ► Effect of mass of sorbent (LECA) on sorption of PAH. ► Sorption Isotherms for PAH-LECA interaction. - Abstract: Lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA) has been explored as a sorbent for the removal of PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) from water. The efficacy of LECA as a sorbent for PAHs was assessed using contact time, mass of sorbent and sorption isotherms in a series of batch experiments. Maximum (optimum) sorption was reached at 21 h after which the amount of PAHs sorbed remained almost constant. Batch experiments were conducted by shaking a 100 ml solution mixture of individual PAHs (containing 0.02 mg/L) with LECA. The maximum sorption was 70.70, 70.82 and 72.12%, respectively for phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene when a mass of 0.2 g of sorbent was used. There was an increase in sorption as a result of an increase in mass of sorbent until a maximum was reached at a mass of 4.0 g LECA with 92.61, 93.91 and 94.15% sorption of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene respectively. Sorption data were fitted to the linearised forms of the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models to determine the water-LECA partitioning coefficient. Physical sorption caused by the aromatic nature of the compounds was the main mechanism that governed the removal process while the hydrophobicity of the PAHs also influenced the sorption capacity. LECA can be used as an alternative method for aqueous PAHs removal.

  3. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waysbort, Daniel [Israel Institute for Biological Research, PO Box 19, Ness-Ziona 74100 (Israel); McGarvey, David J. [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)], E-mail: david.mcgarvey@us.army.mil; Creasy, William R.; Morrissey, Kevin M.; Hendrickson, David M. [SAIC, P.O. Box 68, Gunpowder Branch, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Durst, H. Dupont [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green{sup TM}, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup -2}) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t{sub 1/2} {<=} 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min with molybdate), and 1:10 for GD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  4. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waysbort, Daniel; McGarvey, David J.; Creasy, William R.; Morrissey, Kevin M.; Hendrickson, David M.; Durst, H. Dupont

    2009-01-01

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green TM , has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO 4 -2 ) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t 1/2 ≤ 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t 1/2 1/2 < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD

  5. Development of disposal sorbents for chloride removal from high-temperature coal-derived gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Canizales, A. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this program is to develop alkali-based disposable sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor concentrations to less than 1 ppmv in coal gas streams at temperatures in the range 400{degrees} to 750{degrees}C and pressures in the range 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program are investigation of different processes for fabricating the sorbents, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining kinetic data for commercial reactor design, and updating the economics of the process.

  6. Potential for preparation of hot gas cleanup sorbents from spent hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Biagini, M. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Labs.

    1996-01-01

    Three spent-decoked hydroprocessing catalysts and two corresponding fresh catalysts were tested as hot gas clean-up sorbents and compared with the zinc ferrite using a simulated coal gasification gas mixture. The catalysts deposited only by coke exhibited relatively good cleaning efficiency. The catalyst deposited by coke and metals such as vanadium and nickel was less efficient. The useful life of the spent hydroprocessing catalysts may be extended if utilized as hot gas clean-up sorbents. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Experimentation of netlike hydro gel nitrogen containing polymer sorbents for biological liquids purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karieva, Z.M.; Karimova, N. Kh.

    2003-01-01

    The high efficiency of hydrogels synthesized earlier in comparison with Pharmacopoeia sorbents are interesting to study comprehensively for the number of the toxins of biological liquids. Taking into considerations the high electoral sorption ability of ethynilpiperidol polymers to the hydro phobic interaction it may be suggested that they have a high detoxication ability. The detoxication characteristics of studied polymers have advantages over the known sorbents. Experiences with animals showed that in identical conditions of experiment in application of netlike polymers the survival grew 90%. Synthesis and investigations of netlike hydrogels polymer materials on nitrogen containing monomers of ethynil piperidol were given in the work. (author)

  8. Novel nanoporous sorbent for solid-phase extraction in petroleum fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Hlengilizwe, Nyoni; Dare, E. Olugbenga; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Akinlabi, A. Kehinde; Aiyedun, P. O.

    2016-04-01

    Sample preparation is crucial in the analysis of petroleum and its derivatives. In this study, developing affordable sorbent for petroleum fingerprinting analysis using polymer waste such expanded polystyrene was explored. The potential of electrospun expanded polystyrene (EPS) as a sorbent for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique was investigated, and its efficiency was compared with commercial cartridges such as alumina, silica and alumina/silica hybrid commercial for petroleum fingerprinting analysis. The chromatograms showed that the packed electrospun EPS fibre demonstrated excellent properties for SPE applications relative to the hybrid cartridges.

  9. Lanthanide Selective Sorbents: Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe; Shaw, Wendy J.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Linehan, John C.; Nie, Zimin; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Kelly, Shelley

    2004-11-01

    Through the marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry, the genesis of a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials has been realized. By coating the mesoporous ceramic backbone with a monolayer terminated with a lanthanide-specific ligand, it is possible to couple high lanthanide binding affinity with the high loading capacity (resulting from the extremely high surface area of the support). This lanthanide-specific ligand field is created by pairing a “hard” anionic Lewis base with a suitable synergistic ligand, in a favorable chelating geometry. Details of the synthesis, characterization, lanthanide binding studies, binding kinetics, competition experiments and sorbent regeneration studies are summarized.

  10. Removal of H/sub 2/S from hot gas in the presence of Cu-containing sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyotani, T.; Kawashima, H.; Tomita, A.; Palmer, A.; Furimsky, E.

    1989-01-01

    Three solids containing Cu oxides were tested as sorbents for H/sub 2/S removal from hot gas at 600 degrees C. The formation of a surface layer of sulphides on pellet exterior affected Cu utilization for the sorbent prepared from Cu oxides alone. This improved for the sorbent prepared by impregnation of zeolite with Cu oxides, although complete utilization of Cu was not achieved. The combination of Cu oxides with SiO/sub 2/ gave the most efficient sorbent. Oxidation of H/sub 2/S to SO/sub 2/ on admission of hot gas to the fixed bed was a common observation for all sorbents. The addition of steam to hot gas suppressed the SO/sub 2/ formation. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Data summary report for M.W. Kellogg Z-sorb sorbent tests. CRADA 92-008 Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, C E; Monaco, S J

    1994-05-01

    A series of tests were undertaken from August 6, 1992 through July 6, 1993 at METC`s High Pressure Bench-Scale Hot Gas Desulfurization Unit to support a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between METC`s Sorbent Development Cluster and M.W. Kellogg. The M.W. Kellogg Company is currently developing a commercial offering of a hot gas clean-up system to be used in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The intent of the CRADA agreement was to identify a suitable zinc-based desulfurization sorbent for the Sierra Pacific Power Company Clean Coal Technology Project, to identify optimum operating conditions for the sorbent, and to estimate potential sorbent loss per year. This report presents results pertaining to Phillips Petroleum`s Z-Sorb III sorbent.

  12. SO{sub 2} retention by reactivated CaO-based sorbent from multiple CO{sub 2} capture cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilije Manovic; Edward J. Anthony [CANMET Energy Technology Centre-Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Natural Resources Canada

    2007-06-15

    This paper examines the reactivation of spent sorbent, produced from multiple CO{sub 2} capture cycles, for use in SO{sub 2} capture. CaO-based sorbent samples were obtained from Kelly Rock limestone using three particle size ranges, each containing different impurities levels. Using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), the sulfation behavior of partially sulfated and unsulfated samples obtained after multiple calcination-carbonation cycles in a tube furnace (TF), following steam reactivation in a pressurized reactor, is examined. In addition, samples calcined/sintered under different conditions after hydration are also examined. The results show that suitably treated spent sorbent has better sulfation characteristics than that of the original sorbent. Thus for example, after 2 h sulfation, {gt} 80% of the CaO was sulfated. In addition, the sorbent showed significant activity even after 4 h when {gt} 95% CaO was sulfated. The results were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, which showed that, by the end of the sulfation process, samples contained CaSO{sub 4} with only traces of unreacted CaO. The superior behavior of spent reactivated sorbent appears to be due to swelling of the sorbent particles during steam hydration. The surface area morphology of sorbent after reactivation was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ca(OH){sub 2} crystals were seen, which displayed their regular shape, and their elemental composition was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. These results allow the proposal of a new process for the use of CaO-based sorbent in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) systems, which incorporates CO{sub 2} capture, sorbent reactivation, and SO{sub 2} retention. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. SO{sub 2} Retention by CaO-Based Sorbent Spent in CO{sub 2} Looping Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manovic, V.; Anthony, E.J.; Loncarevic, D.

    2009-07-15

    CaO-based looping cycles are promising processes for CO{sub 2} Capture from both syngas and flue gas. The technology is based on cyclical carbonation of CaO and regeneration of CaCO{sub 3} in a dual fluidized-bed reactor to produce a pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration. Use of spent sorbent from CO{sub 2} looping cycles for SO{sub 2} capture is investigated. Three limestones were investigated: Kelly Rock (Canada), La Blanca (Spain), and Katowice (Poland, Upper Silesia). Carbonation/calcination cycles were performed in a tube furnace with both the original limestones and samples thermally pretreated for different times (i.e., sintered). The spent sorbent samples were sulfated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The changes in the resulting sorbent pore structure were then investigated using mercury porosimetry. It has been shown that the sulfation rates of both thermally pretreated and spent sorbent samples are lower in comparison with those of the original samples. However, final conversions of both spent and pretreated sorbents after longer sulfation time were comparable or higher than those observed for the original sorbents under comparable conditions. Maximum sulfation levels strongly depend on sorbent porosity and pore surface area. The results showed that spent sorbent samples from CO{sub 2} looping cycles can be used as sorbents for SO{sub 2} retention in cases where significant porosity loss does not occur during CO{sub 2} reaction cycles. In the case of spent Kelly Rock and Katowice samples, sorbent particles are practically uniformly sulfated, achieving final conversions that are determined by the total pore volume available for the bulky CaSO{sub 4} product.

  14. Mercury Removal from MSW Incineration Flue Gas by Mineral-based Sorbents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 73, DEC 13 (2018), s. 265-270 ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * removal * mineral sorbents Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  15. Anaerobic co-digestion of cork based oil sorbent and cow manure or sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavaleiro, A.J.; Neves, T.M.; Guedes, A.P.; Alves, M.M.; Pinto, P.; Silva, S.P.; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Cork, a material with great economic, social and environmental importance in Portugal, is also a good oil sorbent that can be used in the remediation of oil spills. The oil-impregnated cork can be easily removed, but requires further treatment. In the case of vegetable oil spills, anaerobic

  16. Water Utility Lime Sludge Reuse – An Environmental Sorbent for Power Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime sludge can be used as an environmental sorbent to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and acid gases, by the ultra-fine CaCO3 particles, and to sequester mercury and other heavy metals, by the Natural Organic Matter and residual activated carbon. The laboratory experimental set up ...

  17. ACTIVATION AND REACTIVITY OF NOVEL CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS FOR DRY SO2 CONTROL IN BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemically modified calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) sorbents developed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) control in utility boilers were tested in an electrically heated, bench-scale isotherma...

  18. High temperature capture of CO2 on lithium-based sorbents from rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Guo, Xin; Zhao, Pengfei; Wang, Fanzi; Zheng, Chuguang

    2011-05-15

    Highly efficient Li(4)SiO(4) (lithium orthosilicate)-based sorbents for CO(2) capture at high temperature, was developed using waste materials (rice husk ash). Two treated rice husk ash (RHA) samples (RHA1 and RHA2) were prepared and calcined at 800°C in the presence of Li(2)CO(3). Pure Li(4)SiO(4) and RHA-based sorbents were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and thermogravimetry. CO(2) sorption was tested through 15 carbonation/calcination cycles in a fixed bed reactor. The metals of RHA were doped with Li(4)SiO(4) resulting to inhibited growth of the particles and increased pore volume and surface area. Thermal analyses indicated a much better CO(2) absorption in Li(4)SiO(4)-based sorbent prepared from RHA1 (higher metal content sample) because the activation energies for the chemisorption process and diffusion process were smaller than that of pure Li(4)SiO(4). RHA1-based sorbent also maintained higher capacities during the multiple cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Technical task plan for testing filter box sorbent-paint filter test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpatrick, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant, High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) asked Interim Waste Technology (IWT) to choose and test a sorbent to add to the ITP filter box that meets the EPA requirement for land disposal of containerized liquid hazardous wastes per Paint Filter Liquids (PFL) test method 9095. This report outlines the process to be used in accomplishing this task

  20. A highly efficient and selective polysilsesquioxane sorbent for heavy metal removal

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaonan; Qi, Genggeng; Wang, Peng; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    Suited for heavy stuff: An efficient mesoporous sorbent based on a pure ethylendiamine-bridged polysilsesquioxane is presented. This material, with both a high amine loading and a high surface area, is applied for heavy metal ion removal. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Regeneration dynamics of potassium-based sediment sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Li-wei; Diao, Yong-fa; Wang, Lin-lin; Shi, Xiao-fang; Tai, Xiao-yan [Donghua University, Shanghai (China)

    2013-08-15

    Simulating regeneration tests of Potassium-Based sorbents that supported by Suzhou River Channel Sediment were carried out in order to obtain parameters of regeneration reaction. Potassium-based sediment sorbents have a better morphology with the surface area of 156.73 m{sup 2}·g{sup −1}, the pore volume of 357.5x10{sup −3} cm{sup 3}·g{sup −1} and the distribution of pore diameters about 2-20 nm. As a comparison, those of hexagonal potassium-based sorbents are only 2.83 m{sup 2}g{sup −1}, 7.45x10{sup −3} cm{sup 3}g{sup −1} and 1.72-5.4 nm, respectively. TGA analysis shows that the optimum final temperature of regeneration is 200 and the optimum loading is about 40%, with the best heating rate of 10 .deg. C·min{sup −1}. By the modified Coats-Redfern integral method, the activation energy of 40% KHCO{sub 3} sorbents is 102.43 kJ·mol{sup −1}. The results obtained can be used as basic data for designing and operating CO{sub 2} capture process.

  2. CO2 removal from biogas with supported amine sorbents : First technical evaluation based on experimental data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanto, Stevia; Dijkstra, J. W.; Pieterse, J. A.Z.; Boon, J; Hauwert, P.; Brilman, D. W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Biogas from fermentation of manure and organic residues produces a gas stream that can be fed into the natural gas grid, provided impurities (CO2, H2S and H2O) are removed according to specifications prior to grid injection. Compared to conventional technologies, supported amine sorbents (SAS) seem

  3. Adsorption of gaseous RuO4 by various sorbents. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujisic, L.; Nikolic, R.

    1983-01-01

    Sorption of gaseous RuO 4 on impregnated Alcoa Alumina H-151, impregnated charcoal, silica gel and HEPA filter was investigated. The results obtained on various sorbents are compared and discussed in connection with possibilities to use the chosen material in air cleaning systems

  4. Mercury Removal from MSW Incineration Flue Gas by Mineral-based Sorbents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    Roč. 73, DEC 13 ( 2018 ), s. 265-270 ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * removal * mineral sorbents Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  5. Microbial consortia in mesocosm bioremediation trial using oil sorbents, slow-release fertilizer and bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Christoph; Gerdts, Gunnar; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, Peter N

    2009-08-01

    An experimental prototype oil boom including oil sorbents, slow-release fertilizers and biomass of the marine oil-degrading bacterium, Alcanivorax borkumensis, was applied for sorption and degradation of heavy fuel oil in a 500-L mesocosm experiment. Fingerprinting of DNA and small subunit rRNA samples for microbial activity conducted to study the changes in microbial communities of both the water body and on the oil sorbent surface showed the prevalence of A. borkumensis on the surface of the oil sorbent. Growth of this obligate oil-degrading bacterium on immobilized oil coincided with a 30-fold increase in total respiration. A number of DNA and RNA signatures of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were detected both in samples of water body and on oil sorbent. Ultimately, the heavy fuel oil in this mesocosm study was effectively removed from the water body. This is the first study to successfully investigate the fate of oil-degrading microbial consortia in an experimental prototype for a bioremediation strategy in offshore, coastal or ship-bound oil spill mitigation using a combination of mechanical and biotechnological techniques.

  6. 77 FR 9610 - Gastroenterology-Urology Devices; Reclassification of Sorbent Hemoperfusion Devices for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... encephalopathy, a complication of liver failure in which the brain function progressively deteriorates. Hepatic encephalopathy is a condition in which toxic substances that are normally cleared from the body by the liver... encephalopathy, at which the disturbance of the brain function leads to loss of consciousness. Sorbent...

  7. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  8. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D

    2015-03-31

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  9. A highly efficient and selective polysilsesquioxane sorbent for heavy metal removal

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaonan

    2012-02-29

    Suited for heavy stuff: An efficient mesoporous sorbent based on a pure ethylendiamine-bridged polysilsesquioxane is presented. This material, with both a high amine loading and a high surface area, is applied for heavy metal ion removal. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Feasibility Study of Commercial Sorbent in Coal-derived Syngas Desulfurization Field.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chien, H.-Y.; Chyou, Y.-P.; Svoboda, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 236-242 ISSN 2078-0737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:MOST(TW) NSC 103-2923-E-042A-001 -MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gasification * desulfurization * sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  11. Theoretical evaluation on selective adsorption characteristics of alkali metal-based sorbents for gaseous oxidized mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongjian; Duan, Yufeng; Zhu, Chun; Cai, Tianyi; Li, Chunfeng; Cai, Liang

    2017-10-01

    Alkali metal-based sorbents are potential for oxidized mercury (Hg 2+ ) selective adsorption but show hardly effect to elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) in flue gas. Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to investigate the Hg 0 and HgCl 2 adsorption mechanism over alkali metal-based sorbents, including calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl). Hg 0 was found to weakly interact with CaO (001), MgO (001), KCl (001) and NaCl (001) surfaces while HgCl 2 was effectively adsorbed on top-O and top-Cl sites. Charge transfer and bond population were calculated to discuss the covalency and ionicity of HgCl 2 bonding with the adsorption sites. The partial density of states (PDOS) analysis manifests that HgCl 2 strongly interacts with surface sites through the orbital hybridizations between Hg and top O or Cl. Frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energy and Mulliken electronegativity are introduced as the quantitative criteria to evaluate the reactivity of mercury species and alkali metal-based sorbents. HgCl 2 is identified as a Lewis acid and more reactive than Hg 0 . The Lewis basicity of the four alkali metal-based sorbents is predicted as the increasing order: NaCl < MgO < KCl < CaO, in consistence with the trend of HgCl 2 adsorption energies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Separation of radionuclides from gas by sorption on activated charcoal and inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepak, F.

    1988-01-01

    The review deals with the sorption and ion exchange of gaseous radionuclides on activated charcoal and on inorganic sorbents. It presents the physical and chemical characteristics of radionuclides, the sources of gaseous forms of radionuclides as well as the composition of radioactive gases from some nuclear facilities. 79 refs. (author)

  13. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.

    2013-03-12

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  14. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waysbort, Daniel; McGarvey, David J; Creasy, William R; Morrissey, Kevin M; Hendrickson, David M; Durst, H Dupont

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Greentrade mark, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO(4)(-2)) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t(1/2) decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  15. Super-Hydrophobic High Throughput Electrospun Cellulose Acetate (CA) Nanofibrous Mats as Oil Selective Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao

    The threat of oil pollution increases with the expansion of oil exploration and production activities, as well as the industrial growth around the world. Use of sorbents is a common method to deal with the oil spills. In this work, an advanced sorbent technology is described. A series of non-woven Cellulose Acetate (CA) nanofibrous mats with a 3D fibrous structure were synthesized by a novel high-throughput electrospinning technique. The precursor was solutions of CA/ acetic acid-acetone in various concentrations. Among them, 15.0% CA exhibits a superhydrophobic surface property, with a water contact angle of 128.95°. Its oil sorption capacity is many times higher the oil sorption capacity of the best commercial sorbent available in the market. Also, it showed good buoyancy properties on the water both as dry-mat and oil-saturated mat. In addition, it is biodegradable, easily available, easily manufactured, so the CA nanofibrous mat is an excellent candidate as oil sorbent for oil spill in water treatment.

  16. Monolithic columns with organic sorbent based on poly-1-vinylimidazole for high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrushev, Y. V.; Sidelnikov, V. N.; Yudina, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    Monolithic chromatographic columns for HPLC with sorbent based on 1-vinylimidazole are prepared. It is shown that changing the 1-vinylimidazole content in the initial solution allows us to change the polarity of columns. An example of aromatic hydrocarbons separation is presented.

  17. Adsorption of CO2 and H2O on supported amine sorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneman, Rens; Zhao, W.; Li, Z.; Cai, N.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In this work we have evaluated the H2O and CO2 adsorption characteristics of Lewatit VP OC 1065 in view of the potential application of solid sorbents in post combustion CO2 capture. Here we present single component adsorption isotherms for H2O and CO2 as well as co-adsorption experiments. It was

  18. Electrostatic interactions between immunoglobulin (IgG) molecules and a charged sorbent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Duval, J.; Norde, Willem; Lyklema, J.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of electrostatic interactions on the adsorption of IgG is examined both theoretically and experimentally. The long-range interaction between IgG and the charged sorbent surface is treated in terms of the DLVO theory taking into account the possibility of charge- and potential

  19. CO_2 capture with solid sorbent: CFD model of an innovative reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Gallorini, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new reactor solution based on rotating fixed beds was presented. • The preliminary design of the reactor was approached. • A CFD model of the reactor, including CO_2 capture kinetic, was developed. • The CFD model is validated with experimental results. • Sorbent exploitation increasing is possible thanks to the new reactor. - Abstract: In future decarbonization scenarios, CCS with particular reference to post-combustion technologies will be an important option also for energy intensive industries. Nevertheless, today CCS systems are rarely installed due to high energy and cost penalties of current technology based on chemical scrubbing with amine solvent. Therefore, innovative solutions based on new/optimized solvents, sorbents, membranes and new process designs, are R&D priorities. Regarding the CO_2 capture through solid sorbents, a new reactor solution based on rotating fixed beds is presented in this paper. In order to design the innovative system, a suitable CFD model was developed considering also the kinetic capture process. The model was validated with experimental results obtained by the authors in previous research activities, showing a potential reduction of energy penalties respect to current technologies. In the future, the model will be used to identify the control logic of the innovative reactor in order to verify improvements in terms of sorbent exploitation and reduction of system energy consumption.

  20. Lead, Chromium and Cadmium Removal from Contaminated Water Using Phosphate Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Riahi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sorption of 3 poisonous metal ions (Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+ in aqueous solutions by two phosphate sorbents under dynamic and static conditions was studied. Phosphate sorbents (MgNH4PO4. H2O, Mg3(PO42. 6H2O were synthesized by known procedures. The resulting crystalline samples were analyzed for the contents of Mg2+, Pb2+, P, N using spectrophotometric and elemental analysis methods. Likewise, the amounts of Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+ in solutions were determined before and after the sorption process using the atomic absorption method. The relative standard deviations for Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+ were 4.7%, 2.17%, and 1.61% and the detection limits were 5 g/L, 0.05 mg/L, and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. The sorbents showed a high performance in the purification of contaminated solutions under static conditions. The sorption capacity levels of Mg3 (PO42. 6H2O and MgNH4 PO4. H2O were 9.8m.mol/gr and 8.9m.mol/gr for Pb2+; 10.5m.mol/gr and 9m.mol/gr for Cd2+; and 6.6m.mol/gr and 5.3m.mol/gr for Cr3+, respectively. Pb2+ , Cd2+, Cr3+. sorption by inorganic phosphate sorbents from solutions is associated with complicated chemical transformations of the sorbents. A proper account of these transformations allows for the sorption process to be optimized. The data on Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+ sorption under static conditions (24-h contact of Mg3 (PO42. 6H2O, MgNH4PO4. H2O, with solutions at 20oC and under dynamic conditions were obtained and the sorption behaviors of the metal ions were investigated in response to the sorbents used. It was found that Mg3 (PO42. 6H2O was the best sorbent for Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+ under dynamic conditions.

  1. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.; Bessho, Naoki; Bhandari, Dhaval A.; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Koros, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  2. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2012-10-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  3. Using sorbent waste materials to enhance treatment of micro-point source effluents by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Verity; Surridge, Ben; Quinton, John; Matthews, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Sorbent materials are widely used in environmental settings as a means of enhancing pollution remediation. A key area of environmental concern is that of water pollution, including the need to treat micro-point sources of wastewater pollution, such as from caravan sites or visitor centres. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent one means for effective treatment of wastewater from small wastewater producers, in part because they are believed to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove a range of pollutants found in wastewater, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and carbon (C), whilst also reducing the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in effluents. However, there remain particular challenges for P and N removal from wastewater in CWs, as well as the sometimes limited BOD removal within these treatment systems, particularly for micro-point sources of wastewater. It has been hypothesised that the amendment of CWs with sorbent materials can enhance their potential to treat wastewater, particularly through enhancing the removal of N and P. This paper focuses on data from batch and mesocosm studies that were conducted to identify and assess sorbent materials suitable for use within CWs. The aim in using sorbent material was to enhance the combined removal of phosphate (PO4-P) and ammonium (NH4-N). The key selection criteria for the sorbent materials were that they possess effective PO4-P, NH4-N or combined pollutant removal, come from low cost and sustainable sources, have potential for reuse, for example as a fertiliser or soil conditioner, and show limited potential for re-release of adsorbed nutrients. The sorbent materials selected for testing were alum sludge from water treatment works, ochre derived from minewater treatment, biochar derived from various feedstocks, plasterboard and zeolite. The performance of the individual sorbents was assessed through

  4. Development and thermochemical characterizations of vermiculite/SrBr_2 composite sorbents for low-temperature heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.N.; Wang, R.Z.; Zhao, Y.J.; Li, T.X.; Riffat, S.B.; Wajid, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    Novel EVM/SrBr_2 composite sorbents with different salt contents were developed for low-temperature thermal energy storage (TES). Simulative sorption experiment was conducted to obtain the sorption kinetics diagram and identify threshold salt content that composite sorbents can hold without solution leakage. Distribution of salt embedded in EVM was observed by extreme-resolution scanning electron microscopy (ER-SEM). Thermochemical characterizations including desorption performance and desorption heat were fully investigated by analyzing simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) results. Results reveal that sorption process of composite sorbents is divided into three parts: water adsorption of EVM, water adsorption of SrBr_2 crystal and liquid-gas absorption of SrBr_2 solution. Since SrBr_2 solution can be hold in macrospores of EVM, water uptake and energy storage density are greatly increased. It appears that the composite sorbent of EVMSrBr_240 is a promising material for thermal energy storage, with water uptake of 0.53 g/g, mass energy storage density of 0.46 kWh/kg and volume energy storage density of 105.36 kWh/m"3. - Highlights: • Vermiculite/SrBr_2 composite sorbents were developed for thermal energy storage. • Water uptake of composite sorbents is divided into three phases. • Energy storage density of each sorption phase is evaluated via calculations. • EVMSrBr_240 is chosen as optimal sorbent without solution leakage.

  5. Sulphation of calcium-based sorbents in circulating fluidised beds under oxy-fuel combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Luis F. de Diego; Alberto Abad; Pilar Gayan; Margarita de las Obras-Loscertales; Aranzazu Rufas; Juan Adanez [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. Energy and Environment

    2009-07-01

    Sulphur Retention (SR) by calcium-based sorbents is a process highly dependent on the temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. In circulating fluidised beds combustors (CFBC's) operating under oxy-fuel conditions, the sulphation process takes place in atmospheres enriched in CO{sub 2} with bed concentrations that can vary from 40 to 95%. Under so high CO{sub 2} concentrations, very different from that in conventional coal combustion atmosphere with air, the calcination and sulphation behaviour of the sorbent must be defined to optimise the SR process in the combustor. The objective of this work was to determine the SO{sub 2} retention capacity of a Spanish limestone at typical oxy-fuel conditions in CFBC's. Long term duration tests of sulphation (up to 24 h), to simulate the residence time of sorbents in CFBC's, were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Clear behaviour differences were found under calcining and non-calcining conditions. Especially relevant was the result obtained at calcining conditions but close to the thermodynamic temperature given for sorbent calcination. This situation must be avoided in CFBC's because the CO{sub 2} produced inside the particle during calcination can destroy the particles if a non-porous sulphate product layer has been formed around the particle. The effect of the main variables on the sorbent sulphation such as SO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and particle size were analysed in the long term TGA tests. These data were also used to determine the kinetic parameters for the sulphation under oxy-fuel combustion conditions, which were able to adequately predict the sulphation conversion values in a wide range of operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Removal of metals from industrial wastewater and urban runoff by mineral and bio-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Harshita; Leiviskä, Tiina; Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Postila, Heini; Tanskanen, Juha

    2018-03-01

    The study was performed to evaluate chemically modified biosorbents, hydrochloric acid treated peat (HCl-P) and citric acid treated sawdust (Citric acid-SD) for their metal removal capacity from dilute industrial wastewater and urban runoff and compare their efficiency with that of commercially available mineral sorbents (AQM PalPower M10 and AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite). Batch and column experiments were conducted using real water samples to assess the sorbents' metal sorption capacity. AQM PalPower M10 (consisting mainly of magnesium, iron and silicon oxides) exhibited excellent Zn removal from both industrial wastewater and spiked runoff water samples even at low dosages (0.1 g/L and 0.05 g/L, respectively). The high degree of Zn removal was associated with the release of hydroxyl ions from the sorbent and subsequent precipitation of zinc hydroxide. The biosorbents removed Ni and Cr better than AQM PalPower M10 from industrial wastewater and performed well in removing Cr and Cu from spiked runoff water, although at higher dosages (0.3-0.75 g/L). The main mechanism of sorption by biosorbents was ion exchange. The sorbents required a short contact time to reach equilibrium (15-30 min) in both tested water samples. AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite was the worst performing sorbent, leaching Zn into both industrial and runoff water and Ni into runoff water. Column tests revealed that both HCl-P and AQM PalPower M10 were able to remove metals, although some leaching was witnessed, especially As from AQM PalPower M10. The low hydraulic conductivity observed for HCl-P may restrict the possibilities of using such small particle size peat material in a filter-type passive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  8. Phosphorus removal from aqueous solution using iron coated natural and engineered sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boujelben, N.; Bouzid, J.; Elouear, Z.; Feki, M.; Jamoussi, F.; Montiel, A.

    2008-01-01

    New filtration materials covered with metallic oxides are good adsorbents for both cation and anion forms of pollutants. Sfax is one of the most important industrial towns in Tunisia. Its phosphate manufacture in particular is causing considerable amounts of water pollution. Therefore, there is a need to find out a new way of getting rid of this excessive phosphate from water. This work is aimed to examining the potential of three sorbent materials (synthetic iron oxide coated sand (SCS), naturally iron oxide coated sand (NCS) and iron oxide coated crushed brick (CB)) for removing phosphate ions from aqueous solutions. According to our literature survey CB was not used as adsorbent previously. Phosphate ions are used here as species model for the elimination of other similar pollutants (arsenates, antimonates). Optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were used to investigate the surface properties and morphology of the coated sorbents. Infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were also used to characterize the sorbent structures. Results showed that iron coated crushed brick possess more micro pores and a higher surface area owing to its clay nature. The comparative sorption of PO 4 3- from aqueous solutions by SCS, CB and NCS was investigated by batch experiments. The estimated optimum pH of phosphate ion retention for the considered sorbents was 5. The equilibrium data were analysed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The sorption capacities of PO 4 3- at pH 5 were 1.5 mg/g for SCS, 1.8 mg/g for CB and 0.88 mg/g for NCS. The effect of temperature on sorption phenomenon was also investigated. The results indicated that adsorption is an endothermic process for phosphate ions removal. This study demonstrates that all the considered sorbents can be used as an alternative emerging technology for water treatment without any side effect or treatment process alteration

  9. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  10. Waste treatment and immobilization technologies involving inorganic sorbents. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme 1992-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) for the application of inorganic sorbents in liquid waste treatment and immobilization was initiated by the IAEA in 1992. The results of this CRP are presented in this report. Fifteen institutions from fourteen countries were involved in this programme. The framework of this CRP was: (1) to conduct fundamental studies on sorbent structure and sorption mechanism; (2) to obtain thermodynamic and kinetic data of the treatment process; (3) to define sorption mechanism of radionuclides on different soils; (4) to identify sorbents appropriate for treatment of liquid waste streams; (5) to develop standard tests to be able to compare results of different groups of investigations. Refs, figs, tabs

  11. Evaluating the use of PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of nuclear canister filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-18

    This document details the distinction between using PAO (4 cSt polyalphaoelfin) oil instead of DOP (di-octyl phthalate) oil for measuring the aerosol capture of filters. This document is developed to justify the use of PAO rather than DOP for evaluating the performance of filters in the SAVY 4000 and Hagan containers. The design criteria (Anderson et al, 2012) for purchasing SAVY 4000 containers and the Safety Analysis Report for the SAVY 4000 Container Series specified that the filter must “capture greater than 99.97% of 0.45 μm mean diameter dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol at the rated flow with a DOP concentration of 65±15 micrograms per liter.”This corresponds to a leakage percent of 0.03% (3.0x10-2). The density of DOP oil is 985 kg/m3 and the density of PAO oil is 819 kg/m3. ATI Test Inc measured the mass mean diameter of aerosol distributions produced by a single Laskin type III-A nozzle operating at a 20 psig air pressure as 0.563 μm for DOP oil and 0.549 μm for PAO oil. (See Appendix A.) For both types of oil in this document, the single fiber method calculated the leakage percent to be 4.4x10-5 for DOP oil and 4.7x10-5 for PAO oil. Although the percent error between these two quantities is 7.7%, these calculated leakage percent values are more than two orders of magnitude less than the criterion specified in the SAVY canister SAR. As a point of reference, the photometer used to measure the SAVY canister filter performance cannot resolve values for the leakage percent below 1.0x10-5. Additionally, over a range of particle sizes from 0.01 μm to 3.0 μm, there was less than 4.0x10-5 error between the calculated filter efficiency for the two types of oil at any particular particle size diameter. In conclusion, the difference between using DOP and PAO for testing SAVY canister filters is of inconsequential concern.

  12. The cleaning of the soils polluted by oil and radionuclides by natural sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farajov, M.F.; Shamilov, E.N.; Abdullayev, A.S.; Huseynov, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Problem of environmental pollution in oil extracting areas of Absheron peninsula became the very important discussion object lately. It this areas for many years oil and well waters were flowed to environmental areas caused a lot of pools in that areas and at the result the soil and plants were polluted with oil and radionuclides. By last years researches it was revealed that amount of radium 226 oil well water contains 10 - 500 Bq/l. Sometimes amount of radium 226 in polluted soils is increasing to 2000--5000 Bq/l and at the result it is raising probability of entering radionuclides by the way of migration from ground to plants into the nutrition chain cycle. Thus the polluted areas with oil and radionuclides and also when oil spills from oil-pipes by an accident the deactivation of soils is one of the main and most actual problems. In researches for cleaning of polluted soils with radionuclides for the first time were used the phyto sorbent modified breccias forms taken from Chaildag, Gobu, and Lokbatan mud volcano areas. The mineral contain of volcano mud generally consists of clay rocks -(kaolinit, montmorillonit, zeolite, chlorite, biotit) pyrite, and i.e.[2]. The polluted soil samples were taken in Surakhani region from area with the 150 mikroroentgen per hour radiation background. The contain and amount of radionuclides were determined with the radio spectrometer P rogress - Beta - Gamma . Polluted soil samples firstly are washed by hot water and HCl solution by mixing for 3-5 hours. At the next level by adding pieced sorbent into the solution is intensively mixing by mixer and putting for sedimentation for 24 hours. After sedimentation the stiring process is repeated by adding HCl on the sediment again. The soil is stirred by water for last time. Decomposed solutions from soil are adhering and are maked with sorbent again. Thus the soil is quite cleaned from oil and radionuclides by the sorbents we offer. At the same time this sorbents may be

  13. Extraction of trace nitrophenols in environmental water samples using boronate affinity sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Mei, Meng; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the applicability of a new sorbent based on boronate affinity material is demonstrated. For this purpose, six strong polar nitrophenols were selected as models which are difficult to be extracted in neutral form (only based on hydrophobic interactions). The extracted nitrophenols were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The sorbent was synthesized by in situ copolymerization of 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid and divinylbenzene using dimethyl sulfoxide and azobisisobutyronitrile as porogen solvent and initiator, respectively. The effect of the preparation parameters in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was investigated in detail. The size and morphology of the sorbent have been characterized via different techniques such as infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The important parameters influencing the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized thoroughly. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantification (S/N = 10) for the target nitrophenols were 0.097–0.28 and 0.32–0.92 μg/L, respectively. The precision of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of intra- and inter-assay variability calculated as RSD, and it was found that the RSDs were all below 9%. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for environmental water samples such as wastewater, tap, lake and river water. The recoveries varied within the range of 71.2–115% with RSD below 11% in all cases. The results well demonstrate that the new boronate affinity sorbent can extract nitrophenols effectively through multi-interactions including boron–nitrogen coordination, hydrogen-bond and hydrophobic interactions between sorbent and analytes. - Highlights: • A new boronate affinity sorbent (BAS) was prepared. • The BAS was used as the extractive medium of stir

  14. Sulfation diffusion model for SO{sub 2} capture on the T-T sorbent at moderate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.R.; Yang, L.Z.; You, C.F.; Qi, H.Y. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2009-07-15

    A sulfation model was developed for dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) at moderate temperatures to describe the reaction characteristics of the T-T sorbent clusters and the fine CaO particles that fall off the sorbent grains in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor. The cluster model describes the calcium conversion and reaction rate for various size sorbent clusters. The sulfation reaction is first order with respect to the SO{sub 2} concentration above 973 K. The calcium conversion and reaction rate for the CaO particles were obtained by extrapolation. In the model for CaO particle, the reaction rate is linearly related to the calcium conversion and the SO{sub 2} concentration in the rapid reaction stage and linearly related only with the calcium conversion after the product layer forms. The sulfation model accurately describes the sulfation of the T-T sorbent flowing through a CFB reactor.

  15. Preparation and investigation of ion exchange properties of sorbent based on activated carbon BAU and zirconium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.A.; Semenov, M.I.; Taushkanov, V.P.; Andronov, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    The method of obtaining the sorbent based on the activated carbon and zirconium hydroxide, performed by carbon soaking by zirconium salt solution, hydrolytic decomposition, being in salt pores by ammonia solution and drying of the obtained sorbet in the air at the temperature of 105-115 deg. The kinetic characteristics of the obtained sorbent in the wide range of pH value of solutions are studied; sodium, chloride, fluoride and phosphate ion sorbtion taken as examples. A high selectivity of the sorbent to phosphate and fluoride ions has been established. The usefullness of the obtained sorbent for extraction of phosphorus microquantities from 1M sodium chloride solution and its concentration at the elution stage is shown

  16. Thermodynamics of organic molecule adsorption on sorbents modified with 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil by inverse gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus'kov, Vladimir Yu; Gainullina, Yulia Yu; Ivanov, Sergey P; Kudasheva, Florida Kh

    2014-08-22

    The thermodynamic features of organic molecule adsorption from the gaseous phase of sorbents modified with 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil (HMU) were studied. Molar internal energy and entropy of adsorption variation analyses showed that with every type surface, except for silica gel, layers of supramolecular structure have cavities equal in size with the ones revealed in HMU crystals by X-ray diffraction. Adsorption thermodynamics on HMU-modified sorbents depended on the amount of impregnated HMU and on the polarity, but not the porosity, of the initial sorbent. Polarity of the modified surface increased as a function of HMU quantity and initial sorbent mean pore size, but become appreciably lower if the initial surface is capable of hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  18. Effect of precursor and preparation method on manganese based activated carbon sorbents for removing H2S from hot coal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiancheng; Qiu, Biao; Han, Lina; Feng, Gang; Hu, Yongfeng; Chang, Liping; Bao, Weiren

    2012-04-30

    Activated carbon (AC) supported manganese oxide sorbents were prepared by the supercritical water impregnation (SCWI) using two different precursor of Mn(NO(3))(2) (SCW(N)) and Mn(Ac)(2)·4H(2)O (SCW(A)). Their capacities of removing H(2)S from coal gas were evaluated and compared to the sorbents prepared by the pore volume impregnation (PVI) method. The structure and composition of different sorbents were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS and XANES techniques. It is found that the precursor of active component plays the crucial role and SCW(N) sorbents show much better sulfidation performance than the SCW(A) sorbents. This is because the Mn(3)O(4) active phase of the SCW(N) sorbents are well dispersed on the AC support, while the Mn(2)SiO(4)-like species in the SCW(A) sorbent can be formed and seriously aggregated. The SCW(N) sorbents with 2.80% and 5.60% manganese are favorable for the sulfidation reaction, since the Mn species are better dispersed on the SCW(N) sorbents than those on the PV(N) sorbents and results in the better sulfidation performance of the SCW(N) sorbents. As the Mn content increases to 11.20%, the metal oxide particles on AC supports aggregate seriously, which leads to poorer sulfidation performance of the SCW(N)11.20% sorbents than that of the PV(N)11.20% sorbents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Feasibility Study for the Use of Green, Bio-Based, Efficient Reactive Sorbent Material to Neutralize Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    REPORT Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents 14. ABSTRACT 16...way cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses interact as well as whole wood dissolution occurs in ILs. The present project was conducted to 1. REPORT...Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents Report Title ABSTRACT Over the

  20. Effect of cerium oxide doping on the performance of CaO-based sorbents during calcium looping cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Fan, Shasha; Fan, Lijing; Zhao, Yujun; Ma, Xinbin

    2015-04-21

    A series of CaO-based sorbents were synthesized through a sol-gel method and doped with different amounts of CeO2. The sorbent with a Ca/Ce molar ratio of 15:1 showed an excellent absorption capacity (0.59 gCO2/g sorbent) and a remarkable cycle durability (up to 18 cycles). The admirable capture performance of CaCe-15 was ascribed to its special morphology formed by the doping of CeO2 and the well-distributed CeO2 particles. The sorbents doped with CeO2 possessed a loose shell-connected cross-linking structure, which was beneficial for the contact between CaO and CO2. CaO and CeO2 were dispersed homogeneously, and the existence of CeO2 also decreased the grain size of CaO. The well-dispersed CeO2, which could act as a barrier, effectively prevented the CaO crystallite from growing and sintering, thus the sorbent exhibited outstanding stability. The doping of CeO2 also improved the carbonation rate of the sorbent, resulting in a high capacity in a short period of time.

  1. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  2. Concentration and immobilization of 137Cs from liquid radioactive waste using sorbents based on hydrated titanium and zirconium oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, A. V.; Noskova, A. Y.; Gritskevich, E. Y.; Mashkovtsev, M. A.; Semenishchev, V. S.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of use of sorbents based on hydrated titanium and zirconium oxides (T-3A, T-35, NPF-HTD) for concentration and immobilization of 137Cs from liquid radioactive waste of various chemical composition (fresh water, seawater, solutions containing NaNO3, ammonium acetate, EDTA) was evaluated. It was shown that the NPF-HTD and T-35 sorbents separate 137Cs from fresh water and seawater with distribution coefficients as high as 6.2.104 and 6.1.104, 4.0.105 and 1.6.105 L kg-1 respectively; in 1 M ammonium acetate these values were 2.0.103 and 1.0.103 L kg-1. The NPF-HTD sorbent showed the highest selectivity for cesium in NaNO3 solution: cesium distribution coefficients in 1M NaNO3 was 1.4.106 L kg-1. All studied sorbents are suitable for deactivation of solutions containing EDTA. Cesium distribution coefficients were around 102-103 L kg-1 depending on EDTA concentration. Chemical stability of the sorbents was also studied. It was shown that 137Cs leaching rate from all sorbents meet the requirements for matrix materials.

  3. Imprint-coating synthesis of selective functionalized ordered mesoporous sorbents for separation and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Burleigh, Mark C.; Shin, Yongsoon

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to mesoporous sorbent materials having high capacity, high selectivity, fast kinetics, and molecular recognition capability. The invention also relates to a process for preparing these mesoporous substrates through molecular imprinting techniques which differ from convention techniques in that a template molecule is bound to one end of bifunctional ligands to form a complex prior to binding of the bifunctional ligands to the substrate. The present invention also relates to methods of using the mesoporous sorbent materials, for example, in the separation of toxic metals from process effluents, paints, and other samples; detection of target molecules, such as amino acids, drugs, herbicides, fertilizers, and TNT, in samples; separation and/or detection of substances using chromatography; imaging agents; sensors; coatings; and composites.

  4. Ruthenium complexing in sorption by granulated sorbents with ethylene diamine and diethyl amine groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanova, S.A.; Kolmakova, A.I.; Konovalov, L.V.; Kukushkin, Yu.N.; Kalalova, E.

    1986-01-01

    The sorption process of ruthenium (4) chlorocomplexes - K 2 (RuCl 6 ) macroporous granulated copolymers of glycidylmethacrylate ethylene dimethacrylate with ethylene diamine and diethyl amine has been studied. Sorption has been carried out under the static conditions (at 20 and 98 deg C) from 0.1-2.0 MxHCl and 1.0 M NaCl solutions. It is established that the sorption from acidic solutions proceeds according to anion exchange mechanism with formation of onium chlorocomplexes in the sorbent phase, subjecting to Anderson regrouping during the heating. During the sorption from neutral solutions the second-sphere coordination of polymer amino groups accirs near ruthenium atom and amino-chloride complexes are formed in the sorbent phase

  5. Successful experience with limestone and other sorbents for combustion of biomass in fluid bed power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, D.R. [LG& E Power Systems, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents the theoretical and practical advantages of utilizing limestone and other sorbents during the combustion of various biomass fuels for the reduction of corrosion and erosion of boiler fireside tubing and refractory. Successful experiences using a small amount of limestone, dolomite, kaolin, or custom blends of aluminum and magnesium compounds in fluid bed boilers fired with biomass fuels will be discussed. Electric power boiler firing experience includes bubbling bed boilers as well as circulating fluid bed boilers in commercial service on biomass fuels. Forest sources of biomass fuels fired include wood chips, brush chips, sawmill waste wood, bark, and hog fuel. Agricultural sources of biomass fuels fired include grape vine prunings, bean straw, almond tree chips, walnut tree chips, and a variety of other agricultural waste fuels. Additionally, some urban sources of wood fuels have been commercially burned with the addition of limestone. Data presented includes qualitative and quantitative analyses of fuel, sorbent, and ash.

  6. Use of synthetic zeolites and other inorganic sorbents for the removal of radionuclides from aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samantha, S.K.; Singh, I.J.; Jain, S.; Sathi, S.; Venkatesan, K.; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Siddiqui, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Several synthetic zeolites and inorganic sorbents were tested in the laboratory for the sorption of various radionuclides present in radioactive aqueous waste streams originating from nuclear installations. The sorption of the critical radionuclides like 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 60 Co from level waste solutions was studied using the synthetic zeolites 4A, 13X and AR1 of Indian origin. Granulated forms of ammonium molybdophosphate and CaSO 4 -BaSO 4 eutectoid were tested for the sorption of cesium and strontium respectively, from acidic solutions. The removal of radiostrontium from alkaline salt-loaded intermediate level reprocessing wastes was studied using hydrous ferric oxide-activated carbon composite sorbent, hydrous titania and hydrous manganese dioxide.. The results of these investigations are expected to be of value in formulating radioactive waste treatment schemes for achieving high decontamination and volume reduction factors. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs, 18 tabs

  7. Heat recovery from sorbent-based CO.sub.2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Aqil; Gupta, Raghubir P

    2015-03-10

    The present invention provides a method of increasing the efficiency of exothermic CO.sub.2 capture processes. The method relates to withdrawing heat generated during the exothermic capture of CO.sub.2 with various sorbents via heat exchange with a working fluid. The working fluid is provided at a temperature and pressure such that it is in the liquid state, and has a vaporization temperature in a range such that the heat arising from the reaction of the CO.sub.2 and the sorbent causes a phase change from liquid to vapor state in whole or in part and transfers heat from to the working fluid. The resulting heated working fluid may subsequently be used to generate power.

  8. CO.sub.2 removal sorbent composition with high chemical stability during multiple cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Rosencwaig, Shira

    2015-09-22

    Disclosed herein is a clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent composition prepared by integrating a clay substrate, basic alkali salt, and amine liquid. The basic alkali salt is present relative to the clay substrate in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 50 parts per 100 parts of the clay substrate. The amine liquid is present relative to a clay-alkali combination in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 10 parts per 10 parts of the clay-alkali combination. The clay-alkali-amine C02 sorbent is particularly advantageous for low temperature CO.sub.2 removal cycles in a gas stream having a C02 concentration less than around 2000 ppm and an oxygen concentration around 21%, such as air.

  9. Evaluation of Sorbents for Acetylene Separation in Atmosphere Revitalization Loop Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Barton, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art carbon dioxide reduction technology uses a Sabatier reactor to recover water from metabolic carbon dioxide. In order to maximize oxygen loop closure, a byproduct of the system, methane, must be reduced to recover hydrogen. NASA is currently exploring a microwave plasma methane pyrolysis system for this purpose. The resulting product stream of this technology includes unreacted methane, product hydrogen, and acetylene. The hydrogen and the small amount of unreacted methane resulting from the pyrolysis process can be returned to the Sabatier reactor thereby substantially improving the overall efficiency of the system. However, the acetylene is a waste product that must be removed from the pyrolysis product. Two materials have been identified as potential sorbents for acetylene removal: zeolite 4A, a commonly available commercial sorbent, and HKUST-1, a newly developed microporous metal. This paper provides an explanation of the rationale behind acetylene removal and the results of separation testing with both materials

  10. Efficiency of Oil Removal from Real Storm Water With Different Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra Mažeikienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended solids and oil products are considered as the most important pollutants in storm water. Surface water flow and changes in pollutant concentration complicate conventional matching techniques and prolong the duration of technological processes; therefore, a comprehensive study on this area is necessary. For this reason, the research and analysis of three different sorbents (“FIBROIL®”, “Duck”, “Reo-dry” were performed in the laboratory. According to the results of the conducted experiment, all three sorbents have similar treatment efficiency: “FIBROIL®” – 99%, “Reo-dry” – 95%, “Duck” – 98%. Filtering rate had an influence on the effectiveness of removing petrol products (slower speed increases effectiveness.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Lanthanide Selective Sorbents: Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe; Shaw, Wendy J.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Linehan, John C.; Nie, Zimin; Kemner, K. M.; Kelly, Shelley

    2004-11-01

    Through the marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry, the genesis of a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials has been realized. By coating the mesoporous ceramic backbone with a monolayer terminated with a lanthanide-specific ligand, it is possible to couple high lanthanide binding affinity with the high loading capacity (resulting from the extremely high surface area of the support). This lanthanide-specific ligand field is created by pairing a ''hard'' anionic Lewis base with a suitable synergistic ligand, in a favorable chelating geometry. Details of the synthesis, characterization, lanthanide binding studies, binding kinetics, competition experiments and sorbent regeneration studies are summarized

  12. Crosslinked polymeric ionic liquids as solid-phase microextraction sorbent coatings for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Honglian; Merib, Josias; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-03-18

    Neat crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coatings for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) compatible with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reported for the first time. Six structurally different PILs were crosslinked to nitinol supports and applied for the determination of select pharmaceutical drugs, phenolics, and insecticides. Sampling conditions including sample solution pH, extraction time, desorption solvent, desorption time, and desorption solvent volume were optimized using design of experiment (DOE). The developed PIL sorbent coatings were stable when performing extractions under acidic pH and remained intact in various organic desorption solvents (i.e., methanol, acetonitrile, acetone). The PIL-based sorbent coating polymerized from the IL monomer 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl) imidazolium chloride [VC10OHIM][Cl] and IL crosslinker 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylimidazolium) dodecane dichloride [(VBIM)2C12] 2[Cl] exhibited superior extraction performance compared to the other studied PILs. The extraction efficiency of pharmaceutical drugs and phenolics increased when the film thickness of the PIL-based sorbent coating was increased while many insecticides were largely unaffected. Satisfactory analytical performance was obtained with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.2 to 2 μg L(-1) for the target analytes. The accuracy of the analytical method was examined by studying the relative recovery of analytes in real water samples, including tap water and lake water, with recoveries varying from 50.2% to 115.9% and from 48.8% to 116.6%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sorption of radionuclides on mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate: a new sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehrian, H. [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Labs., Nuclear Science and Technology Research Inst., AEOI, Tehran (Iran); Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran); Yavari, R.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M. [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Labs., Nuclear Science and Technology Research Inst., AEOI, Tehran (Iran); Husain, S.W. [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-07-01

    Four different samples of mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate with varying mole ratio of Si/Sn have been used to study the sorption behavior of 18 radionuclides on these materials. Ion-exchange capacity, SEM, distribution coefficient and chemical stability have been studied and discussed. Separation of Tl(I) from Th(IV), Cs(I) from Th(IV) and Cs(I) from Zr(IV) have been developed on columns of this sorbent. (orig.)

  14. Sorption of radionuclides on mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate: a new sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehrian, H.; Yavari, R.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.; Husain, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    Four different samples of mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate with varying mole ratio of Si/Sn have been used to study the sorption behavior of 18 radionuclides on these materials. Ion-exchange capacity, SEM, distribution coefficient and chemical stability have been studied and discussed. Separation of Tl(I) from Th(IV), Cs(I) from Th(IV) and Cs(I) from Zr(IV) have been developed on columns of this sorbent. (orig.)

  15. Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-05-01

    This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

  16. From carbon nanostructures to high-performance sorbents for chromatographic separation and preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnov, V N; Rodinkov, O V; Moskvin, L N; Novikov, A G; Bugaichenko, A S; Krokhina, O A

    2016-01-01

    Information on carbon nanostructures (fullerenes, nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamond and nanodispersed active carbon) used to develop high-performance sorbents of organics and heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions is collected and analyzed. The advantages in the synthesis of hybrid carbon nanostructures and the possibilities of surface modification of these systems in order to carry out fast sorption pre-concentration are considered. Prospects for application of these materials in sorption technologies and analytical chemistry are discussed. The bibliography includes 364 references

  17. Carbon Nanotubes as a New Solid Phase Extraction Sorbent for Analysis of Environmental Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin, Bele

    2010-01-01

    SPE is an increasingly useful technique for sample concentration and clean-up in environmental applications and can be easily incorporated into automated analytical procedures. The future of SPE is closely related to improvement of sorbents that can be more effective in obtaining high enrichment efficiency of analytes. The unusual properties of CNTs, their large sorption capacity, wide surface area and the presence of a wide spectrum of surface functional groups have generated a great interes...

  18. Silica-Silver Nanocomposites as Regenerable Sorbents for Hg0 Removal from Flue Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tiantian; Li, Zhen; Xiong, Yong; Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; Bisson, Teresa; Gupta, Rajender; Xu, Zhenghe

    2017-10-17

    Silica-silver nanocomposites (Ag-SBA-15) are a novel class of multifunctional materials with potential applications as sorbents, catalysts, sensors, and disinfectants. In this work, an innovative yet simple and robust method of depositing silver nanoparticles on a mesoporous silica (SBA-15) was developed. The synthesized Ag-SBA-15 was found to achieve a complete capture of Hg 0 at temperatures up to 200 °C. Silver nanoparticles on the SBA-15 were shown to be the critical active sites for the capture of Hg 0 by the Ag-Hg 0 amalgamation mechanism. An Hg 0 capture capacity as high as 13.2 mg·g -1 was achieved by Ag(10)-SBA-15, which is much higher than that achievable by existing Ag-based sorbents and comparable with that achieved by commercial activated carbon. Even after exposure to more complex simulated flue gas flow for 1 h, the Ag(10)-SBA-15 could still achieve an Hg 0 removal efficiency as high as 91.6% with a Hg 0 capture capacity of 457.3 μg·g -1 . More importantly, the spent sorbent could be effectively regenerated and reused without noticeable performance degradation over five cycles. The excellent Hg 0 removal efficiency combined with a simple synthesis procedure, strong tolerance to complex flue gas environment, great thermal stability, and outstanding regeneration capability make the Ag-SBA-15 a promising sorbent for practical applications to Hg 0 capture from coal-fired flue gases.

  19. Biological – chemical regeneration of desulphurization sorbents based on zinc ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šepelák Vladimír

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main sources of air pollution is the combustion of fuels by various thermal and power plants, transport facilities, and metallurgical plants. Main components of industrial gases that pollute air are carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and hydrogen sulphide. Sulphur has received a more attention than any other contaminant, because the sulphur released into the atmosphere in the form of sulphur dioxide or hydrogen sulphide is a precursor of the “acid rain” formation. To meet environmental emission regulations, sulphur and other contaminant species released during the gasification of coal must be removed from the fuel gas stream. The removal of contaminat at high temperatures is referred to as hot-gas cleanup in general and hot-gas desulphurization in particular when sulphur species are the primary contaminants to be remove. In recent years, zinc ferrite is the leading candidate for hot-gas desulphurization, capable of removing sulphur-containing species from coal gas at gasifier exit temperatures. It can also be of being regenerated for a continuous use. The conventional methods of the regeneration of sulphurized sorbents are based on oxidizing pyrolysis of sulphides or on the pressure leaching of sulphides in the water environment at high temperatures. The first results of the experiments using the biological-chemical leaching, as a new way of regeneration of sulphurized sorbent based on zinc ferrite, are presented in this paper. The results show that the biological-chemical leaching leads to the removal of sulphides layers (á-ZnS, â-ZnS from the surface of the sorbent at room temperature. The biological-chemical leaching process results in the increase of the active surface area of the regenerated sorbent.

  20. Experimental study on ZnO-TiO_2 sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Kunzan; Zhou, Jinsong; Qi, Pan; Zhou, Qixin; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Zhongyang

    2017-01-01

    ZnO-TiO_2 sorbents synthesized by an impregnation method were characterized through XRD (X-ray diffraction), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and EDS (Energy dispersive spectrometer) analyses. An experiment concerning the adsorption of Hg0 by ZnO-TiO_2 under a simulated fuel gas atmosphere was then conducted in a benchscale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of ZnO loading amounts and reaction temperatures on Hg"0 removal performance were analyzed. The results showed that ZnO-TiO_2 sorbents exhibited excellent Hg removal capacity in the presence of H2S at 150 .deg. C and 200 .deg. C; 95.2% and 91.2% of Hg0 was removed, respectively, under the experimental conditions. There are two possible causes for the H_2S reacting on the surface of ZnO-TiO_2: (1) H_2S directly reacted with ZnO to form ZnS, (2) H_2S was oxidized to elemental sulfur (S_a_d) by means of active oxygen on the sorbent surface, and then Sad provided active absorption sites for Hg0 to form HgS. This study identifies three reasons why higher temperatures limit mercury removal. First, the reaction between Hg"0 and H_2S is inhibited at high temperatures. Second, HgS, as the resulting product in the reaction of mercury removal, becomes unstable at high temperatures. Third, the desulfurization reaction strengthens at higher temperatures, and it is likely that H_2S directly reacts with ZnO, thus decreasing the Sad on the sorbent surfaces.

  1. Improvement of CaO-based sorbent performance for CO{sub 2} looping cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilije Manovic; Edward J. Anthony [CANMET Energy Technology Centre-Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents research on CO{sub 2} capture by lime-based looping cycles. This is a new and promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as the developing technologies for CO{sub 2} capture, especially those based on CaO looping cycles. This technology is at the pilot plant demonstration stage and there are still significant challenges that require solutions. The technology is based on a dual fluidized bed reactor which contains a carbonator - a unit for CO{sub 2} capture, and a calciner - a unit for CaO regeneration. The major technology components are well known from other technologies and easily applicable. However, even though CaO is a very good candidate as a solid CO{sub 2} carrier, its performance in a practical system still has significant limitations. Thus, research on CaO performance is critical and this paper discusses some of the more important problems and potential solutions that are being examined at CETC-O. To date, the most promising methods were reactivation of spent sorbent by steam, thermal pretreatment of sorbent, and doping, most likely with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The combination of these methods, including pelletization, should provide us with enhanced sorbent performance. 75 refs., 19 figs.

  2. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  3. Mechanochemically Activated, Calcium Oxide-Based, Magnesium Oxide-Stabilized Carbon Dioxide Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlov, Alexey; Broda, Marcin; Hosseini, Davood; Mitchell, Sharon J; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier; Müller, Christoph R

    2016-09-08

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a promising approach to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions and mitigate climate change. However, the costs associated with the capture of CO2 using the currently available technology, that is, amine scrubbing, are considered prohibitive. In this context, the so-called calcium looping process, which relies on the reversible carbonation of CaO, is an attractive alternative. The main disadvantage of naturally occurring CaO-based CO2 sorbents, such as limestone, is their rapid deactivation caused by thermal sintering. Here, we report a scalable route based on wet mechanochemical activation to prepare MgO-stabilized, CaO-based CO2 sorbents. We optimized the synthesis conditions through a fundamental understanding of the underlying stabilization mechanism, and the quantity of MgO required to stabilize CaO could be reduced to as little as 15 wt %. This allowed the preparation of CO2 sorbents that exceed the CO2 uptake of the reference limestone by 200 %. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The role of graphene-based sorbents in modern sample preparation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toffoli, Ana Lúcia; Maciel, Edvaldo Vasconcelos Soares; Fumes, Bruno Henrique; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2018-01-01

    The application of graphene-based sorbents in sample preparation techniques has increased significantly since 2011. These materials have good physicochemical properties to be used as sorbent and have shown excellent results in different sample preparation techniques. Graphene and its precursor graphene oxide have been considered to be good candidates to improve the extraction and concentration of different classes of target compounds (e.g., parabens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, pyrethroids, triazines, and so on) present in complex matrices. Its applications have been employed during the analysis of different matrices (e.g., environmental, biological and food). In this review, we highlight the most important characteristics of graphene-based material, their properties, synthesis routes, and the most important applications in both off-line and on-line sample preparation techniques. The discussion of the off-line approaches includes methods derived from conventional solid-phase extraction focusing on the miniaturized magnetic and dispersive modes. The modes of microextraction techniques called stir bar sorptive extraction, solid phase microextraction, and microextraction by packed sorbent are discussed. The on-line approaches focus on the use of graphene-based material mainly in on-line solid phase extraction, its variation called in-tube solid-phase microextraction, and on-line microdialysis systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Sorption-enhanced steam reforming of ethanol: thermodynamic comparison of CO{sub 2} sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.J.; Santos, J.C.; Cunha, A.F.; Rodrigues, A.E. [University of Porto, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Associated Laboratory LSRE/LCM, Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Porto (Portugal); Diaz Alvarado, F.; Gracia, F. [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Biotecnologia, Laboratorio de Catalisis, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-05-15

    A thermodynamic analysis is performed with a Gibbs free energy minimization method to compare the conventional steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) process and sorption-enhanced SRE (SE-SRE) with three different sorbents, namely, CaO, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, and hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc). As a result, the use of a CO{sub 2} adsorbent can enhance the hydrogen yield and provide a lower CO content in the product gas at the same time. The best performance of SE-SRE is found to be at 500 C with an HTlc sorbent. Nearly 6 moles hydrogen per mole ethanol can be produced, when the CO content in the vent stream is less than 10 ppm, so that the hydrogen produced via SE-SRE with HTlc sorbents can be directly used for fuel cells. Higher pressures do not favor the overall SE-SRE process due to lower yielding of hydrogen, although CO{sub 2} adsorption is enhanced. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Biodegradation and ecotoxicity of soil contaminated by pentachlorophenol applying bioaugmentation and addition of sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuzana, S.; Katarina, D.; Livia, T. [Slovak Technical University Bratislava, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Biochemical Technology

    2009-02-15

    Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in soil by autochthonous microorganisms and in soil bioaugmented by the bacterial strain Comamonas testosteroni CCM 7530 was studied. Subsequent addition of organomineral complex (OMC) or lignite as possible sorbents for PCP immobilization has been investigated as well. The OMC was prepared from humic acids (HAs) isolated from lignite by binding them onto zeolite. Biodegradation of PCP and number of colony forming units (CFUs) were determined in the three types of soil, Chernozem, Fluvisol, and Regosol, freshly spiked with PCP and amended separately with tested sorbents. The enhancing effect of sorbent addition and bioaugmentation on PCP biodegradation depended mainly on the soil type and the initial PCP concentration. Microbial activity resulted in biotransformation of PCP into certain toxic substances, probably lower chlorinated phenols that are more soluble than PCP, and therefore more toxic to present biota. Therefore, it was necessary to monitor soil ecotoxicity during biodegradation. Addition of the OMC resulted in a more significant decrease of soil toxicity in comparison with addition of lignite. Lignite and OMC appear to be good traps for PCP with potential application in remediation technology.

  7. Polymeric supported sorbents for decreasing hazardous metal ions content in wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhar, A.A.; El-Naggar, H.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2005-01-01

    Procedure for preparation of polymeric supported silica, and their usage for decreasing hazardous metal ion content in wet process phosphoric acid was developed. The procedure is based firstly on extraction silica from rice straw by alkaline treatment , secondly supporting the produced silica on binding polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The produced polymer based sorbent was used for decreasing hazardous metal ions (especially iron) present as inorganic impurities in crud Egyptian phosphoric acid (green acid). Different factors affecting the sorption equilibrium ( contact time, temperature , sorbent mass and batch factor ) were studied. Studying the sorption isotherm revealed that the adsorption data could favorably fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the dynamic study , the sorption capacity at (Cξ/Cο = 50%) was found to be 28.5 mg/g and the loaded column could be regenerated using 50ml of 0.15 M HNO 3 . The regenerated column could undergo sorption regeneration cycles up to four cycles without significant decrease in the sorption capacity , weight loss or change in the physical properties of the sorbent

  8. Thermally stimulated iron oxide transformations and magnetic behaviour of cerium dioxide/iron oxide reactive sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luňáček, J., E-mail: jiri.lunacek@vsb.cz [Department of Physics, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17, listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Department 606, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17, listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Životský, O. [Department of Physics, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17, listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Department 606, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17, listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Jirásková, Y. [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Žižkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Žižkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Buršík, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Žižkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Janoš, P. [Faculty of the Environment, University of Jan Evangelista Purkyně, Králova Výšina 7, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)

    2016-10-15

    The present paper is devoted to detailed study of the magnetically separable sorbents based on a cerium dioxide/iron oxide composite annealed at temperatures T{sub a} = 773 K, 873 K, and 973 K. The X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy are used to determine the phase composition and microstructure morphology. Mössbauer spectroscopy at room (300 K) and low (5 K) temperatures has contributed to more exact identification of iron oxides and their transformations Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} → γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) → α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in dependence on calcination temperature. Different iron oxide phase compositions and grain size distributions influence the magnetic characteristics determined from the room- and low-temperature hysteresis loop measurements. The results are supported by zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization measurements allowing a quantitative estimation of the grain size distribution and its effect on the iron oxide transformations. - Highlights: •Magnetically separable sorbents based on a CeO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite were investigated. •Microstructure of sorbents was determined by XRD, TEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy. •Magnetic properties were studied by hysteresis loops at room- and low-temperatures. •Phase transitions of iron oxides with increasing annealing temperature are observed.

  9. Removal of lead and fluoride from contaminated water using exhausted coffee grounds based bio-sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Babu, A; Reddy, D Srinivasa; Kumar, G Suresh; Ravindhranath, K; Krishna Mohan, G V

    2018-07-15

    Water pollution by industrial and anthropogenic actives has become a serious threat to the environment. World Health Organization (WHO) has identified that lead and fluoride amid the environmental pollutants are most poisonous water contaminants with devastating impact on the human race. The present work proposes a study on economical bio-adsorbent based technique using exhausted coffee grounds in the removal of lead and fluoride contaminants from water. The exhausted coffee grounds gathered from industrial wastes have been acid-activated and examined for their adsorption capacity. The surface morphology and elemental characterization of pre-and-post adsorption operations by FESEM, EDX and FTIR spectral analysis confirmed the potential of the exhausted coffee ground as successful bio-sorbent. However, thermodynamic analysis confirmed the adsorption to be spontaneous physisorption with Langmuir mode of homogenous monolayer deposition. The kinetics of adsorption is well defined by pseudo second order model for both lead and fluoride. A significant quantity of lead and fluoride is removed from the synthetic contaminated water by the proposed bio-sorbent with the respective sorption capabilities of 61.6 mg/g and 9.05 mg/g. However, the developed bio-sorbent is also recyclable and is capable of removing the lead and fluoride from the domestic and industrial waste-water sources with an overall removal efficiency of about 90%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design, Fabrication, and Shakeout Testing of ATALANTE Dissolver Off-Gas Sorbent-Based Capture System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker Jr, Joseph Franklin; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Jordan, Jacob A.; Bruffey, Stephanie H.

    2015-01-01

    A sorbent-based capture system designed for integration into the existing dissolver off-gas (DOG) treatment system at the ATelier Alpha et Laboratoires pour ANalyses, Transuraniens et Etudes de retraitement (ATALANTE) facility has been successfully designed and fabricated and has undergone shakeout testing. Discussions with personnel from the ATALANTE facility provided guidance that was used for the design. All components for this system were specified, procured, and received on site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system was then fabricated and tested at ORNL to verify operation. Shakeout testing resulted in a simplified system. This system should be easily installed into the existing facility and should be straightforward to operate during future experimental testing. All parts were selected to be compatible with ATALANTE power supplies, space requirements, and the existing DOG treatment system. Additionally, the system was demonstrated to meet all of four design requirements. These include (1) a dissolver off-gas flow rate of ?100 L/h (1.67 L/min), (2) an external temperature of ?50°C for all system components placed in the hot cell, (3) a sorbent bed temperature of ~150°C, and (4) a gas temperature of ~150°C upon entry into the sorbent bed. The system will be ready for shipment and installation in the existing DOG treatment system at ATALANTE in FY 2016.

  11. Sorbent materials for rapid remediation of wash water during radiological event relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolin, William C.; Kaminski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Procedures for removing harmful radiation from interior and exterior surfaces of homes and businesses after a nuclear or radiological disaster may generate large volumes of radiologically contaminated waste water. Rather than releasing this waste water to potentially contaminate surrounding areas, it is preferable to treat it onsite. Retention barrels are a viable option because of their simplicity in preparation and availability of possible sorbent materials. This study investigated the use of aluminosilicate clay minerals as sorbent materials to retain 137Cs, 85Sr, and 152Eu. Vermiculite strongly retained 137Cs, though other radionuclides displayed diminished affinity for the surface. Montmorillonite exhibited increased affinity to sorb 85Sr and 152Eu in the presence of higher concentrations of 137Cs. To simulate flow within retention barrels, vermiculite was mixed with sand and used in small-scale column experiments. The GoldSim contaminate fate module was used to model breakthrough and assess the feasibility of using clay minerals as sorbent materials in retention barrels. The modeled radionuclide breakthrough profiles suggest that vermiculite-sand and montmorillonite-sand filled barrels could be used for treatment of contaminated water generated from field operations.

  12. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL

  13. Application of Chemically Modified and Unmodified Waste Biological Sorbents in Treatment of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kanayochukwu Nduka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein wastes (feathers, goat hair and cellulosic wastes (corn cob, coconut husks were collected and washed with detergent solution, thoroughly rinsed and sun dried for 2 days before drying in an oven, and then ground. One-half of ground material was carbonized at a maximum temperature of 500°C after mixing with H2SO4. The carbonized parts were pulverized; both carbonized and uncarbonized sorbents were sieved into two particle sizes of 325 and 625 μm using mechanical sieve. Sorbents of a given particle size were packed into glass column.Then, textile wastewater that had its physicochemical parameters previously determined was eluted into each glass column and a contact time of 60 and 120 mins was allowed before analysis. Results showed 48.15–99.98 percentage reduction of NO3−, EC, Cl−, BOD, COD, DO, TSS, and TDS, 34.67–99.93 percentage reduction of NO3−, EC, Cl−, BOD, COD, DO, TSS, and TDS, 52.83–97.95 percentage reduction of Pb2+, Ni2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ and 34.59–94.87 percentage reduction of Pb2+, Ni2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+. Carbonization, small particle, size and longer contact time enhanced the sorption capabilities of the sorbents. These show that protein and cellulosic wastes can be used to detoxify wastewater.

  14. Magnetite impregnation effects on the sorbent properties of activated carbons and biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhantao; Sani, Badruddeen; Mrozik, Wojciech; Obst, Martin; Beckingham, Barbara; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Werner, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses the sorbent properties of magnetic activated carbons and biochars produced by wet impregnation with iron oxides. The sorbents had magnetic susceptibilities consistent with theoretical predictions for carbon-magnetite composites. The high BET surface areas of the activated carbons were preserved in the synthesis, and enhanced for one low surface area biochar by dissolving carbonates. Magnetization decreased the point of zero charge. Organic compound sorption correlated strongly with BET surface areas for the pristine and magnetized materials, while metal cation sorption did not show such a correlation. Strong sorption of the hydrophobic organic contaminant phenanthrene to the activated carbon or biochar surfaces was maintained following magnetite impregnation, while phenol sorption was diminished, probably due to enhanced carbon oxidation. Copper, zinc and lead sorption to the activated carbons and biochars was unchanged or slightly enhanced by the magnetization, and iron oxides also contributed to the composite metal sorption capacity. While a magnetic biochar with 219 ± 3.7 m(2)/g surface area nearly reached the very strong organic pollutant binding capacity of the two magnetic activated carbons, a magnetic biochar with 68 ± 2.8 m(2)/g surface area was the best metal sorbent. Magnetic biochars thus hold promise as more sustainable alternatives to coal-derived magnetic activated carbons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of soil bacteria able to degrade phenanthrene bound to a hydrophobic sorbent in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regonne, Raïssa Kom; Martin, Florence; Mbawala, Augustin; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît; Jouanneau, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Efficient bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites is limited by the hydrophobic character and poor bioavailability of pollutants. In this study, stable isotope probing (SIP) was implemented to track bacteria that can degrade PAHs adsorbed on hydrophobic sorbents. Temperate and tropical soils were incubated with 13 C-labeled phenanthrene, supplied by spiking or coated onto membranes. Phenanthrene mineralization was faster in microcosms with PAH-coated membranes than in microcosms containing spiked soil. Upon incubation with temperate soil, phenanthrene degraders found in the biofilms that formed on coated membranes were mainly identified as Sphingomonadaceae and Actinobacteria. In the tropical soil, uncultured Rhodocyclaceae dominated degraders bound to membranes. Accordingly, ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences recovered from this soil matched PAH-specific dioxygenase genes recently found in Rhodocyclaceae. Hence, our SIP approach allowed the detection of novel degraders, mostly uncultured, which differ from those detected after soil spiking, but might play a key role in the bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. -- Highlights: •Soil bacteria with the ability to degrade sorbent-bound PAHs were investigated. •In soil, membrane-bound phenanthrene was readily mineralized. •PAH degraders found in biofilms were different in temperate and tropical soils. •Uncultured Rhodocyclaceae were dominant phenanthrene degraders in the tropical soil. •PAH-specific ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences were identified in soil DNA. -- Bacteria able to degrade PAHs bound to a hydrophobic sorbent were mainly identified as uncultured Rhodocyclaceae and Sphingomonadaceae in polluted soils from tropical and temperate area, respectively

  16. The ADESORB Process for Economical Production of Sorbents for Mercury Removal from Coal Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Stewart

    2008-03-12

    The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) currently manages the largest research program in the country for controlling coal-based mercury emissions. NETL has shown through various field test programs that the determination of cost-effective mercury control strategies is complex and highly coal- and plant-specific. However, one particular technology has the potential for widespread application: the injection of activated carbon upstream of either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter baghouse. This technology has potential application to the control of mercury emissions on all coal-fired power plants, even those with wet and dry scrubbers. This is a low capital cost technology in which the largest cost element is the cost of sorbents. Therefore, the obvious solutions for reducing the costs of mercury control must focus on either reducing the amount of sorbent needed or decreasing the cost of sorbent production. NETL has researched the economics and performance of novel sorbents and determined that there are alternatives to the commercial standard (NORIT DARCO{reg_sign} Hg) and that this is an area where significant technical improvements can still be made. In addition, a key barrier to the application of sorbent injection technology to the power industry is the availability of activated carbon production. Currently, about 450 million pounds ($250 million per year) of activated carbon is produced and used in the U.S. each year - primarily for purification of drinking water, food, and beverages. If activated carbon technology were to be applied to all 1,100 power plants, EPA and DOE estimate that it would require an additional $1-$2 billion per year, which would require increasing current capacity by a factor of two to eight. A new facility to produce activated carbon would cost approximately $250 million, would increase current U.S. production by nearly 25%, and could take four to five years to build. This means that there could be

  17. Sorption characteristics of honeycomb type sorption element composed of organic sorbent; Yukikei shuchakuzai wo tofushita honeycomb jo shuchaku element nio shuchaku tokuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, H.; Horibe, A. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Kida, T.; Kaneda, M. [Japan Exlan Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-12-25

    This paper has dealt with the sorption characteristics of honeycomb shape type sorbent element composed of new organic sorbent which was composed of the bridged complex of sodium polyacrylate. The transient experiments in which the moist air was passed into the honeycomb type sorbent element were conducted under various conditions of air velocity, temperature, relative-humidity and honeycomb length. As a result, the effective mass transfer coefficient of the organic sorbent sorbing the water-vapor was non-dimensionalized as a function of Reynolds number, modified Stefan number and non-dimensional honeycomb length. (author)

  18. Ecologically friendly ways to clean up oil spills in harbor water areas: crude oil and diesel sorption behavior of natural sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskiene, Tatjana

    2018-04-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the sorption capacity of natural sorbents (wool, moss, straw, peat) and their composites during the sorption of crude oil and of diesel overspread on the water surface. The work presents the research results of the maximum sorption capacity of the sorbents/their composites using crude oil/diesel; the sorption capacity of the sorbents/their composites when crude oil/diesel is spilled on the water surface; and the research results of the unrealized part of the crude oil/diesel in the sorbents. The results of the analysis showed that all the sorbents and their composites have their selectivity to crude oil less than 50%. Also the results showed that the distribution of diesel and water in the sorbents and their composites is very different compared with the distribution of crude oil during the sorption analyses. In total, the diesel in the liquid mass absorbed by the straw and the peat amounted to 17 and 20%, respectively. This shows that these sorbents are much more selective for water but not for diesel. A larger part of the diesel was in the liquid amount absorbed by the composites-up to 33%. Accordingly, the use of these composites in watery environments is much more effective than the use of individual sorbents. The composition of sorbents in the composite enhanced both the hydrophobic and the oleophilic properties; as a result, a more effective removal of the diesel and oil from the water surface was achieved.

  19. F- and H-Area Seepage Basins Water Treatment System Process Optimization and Alternative Chemistry Ion Exchange/Sorbent Material Screening Clearwell Overflow Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2000-08-30

    This study investigated alternative ion exchange/sorbent materials and polishing chemistries designed to remove specific radionuclides not removed during the neutralization/precipitation/clarification process.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide removal from hot coal gas by various mesoporous silica supported Mn2O3 sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.F.; Liu, B.S.; Wang, F.; Wang, W.S.; Xia, C.; Zheng, S.; Amin, R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mn 2 O 3 /KIT-1 presented the best desulfurization performance at 600–850 °C. • High sulfur capacity of Mn 2 O 3 /KIT-1 correlated closely with 3-D channel of KIT-1. • Desulfurization character depended strongly on framework structure of sorbents. • High steam content suppressed greatly the occurrence of sulfidation reaction. - Abstract: A series of 50 wt% Mn 2 O 3 sorbents was prepared using various mesoporous silica, MCM-41, HMS, and KIT-1 as support. The influence of textural parameters of mesoporous silica, especially type of channel on the desulfurization performance of Mn 2 O 3 sorbents was investigated at 600–850 °C using hot coal gas containing 0.33 vol.% H 2 S. The fresh and used sorbents were characterized by means of N 2 -adsorption, x-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM) and H 2 temperature- programmed reduction (H 2 -TPR) techniques. The results confirmed that the manganese oxide was dispersed highly in regular pore channel of the mesoporous supports due to high surface area. Compared with the Mn 2 O 3 /diatomite, all mesoporous silica supported Mn 2 O 3 sorbents exhibited high breakthrough sulfur capacity and a sharp deactivation rate after the breakthrough point. Compared to Mn 2 O 3 /MCM-41 and Mn 2 O 3 /HMS sorbent, the Mn 2 O 3 /KIT-1 showed better desulfurization performance because of the 3D wormhole-like channel. The high sulfur capacity of the Mn 2 O 3 /KIT-1 sorbent was maintained during the eight consecutive desulfurization-regeneration cycles. The Mn 2 O 3 /KIT-1 still presented high desulfurization activity when hot coal gas contained low steam (<5%)

  1. Influence of high-temperature steam on the reactivity of CaO sorbent for CO₂ capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, Felix; Florin, Nicholas H; Anthony, Edward J; Fennell, Paul S

    2012-01-17

    Calcium looping is a high-temperature CO(2) capture technology applicable to the postcombustion capture of CO(2) from power station flue gas, or integrated with fuel conversion in precombustion CO(2) capture schemes. The capture technology uses solid CaO sorbent derived from natural limestone and takes advantage of the reversible reaction between CaO and CO(2) to form CaCO(3); that is, to achieve the separation of CO(2) from flue or fuel gas, and produce a pure stream of CO(2) suitable for geological storage. An important characteristic of the sorbent, affecting the cost-efficiency of this technology, is the decay in reactivity of the sorbent over multiple CO(2) capture-and-release cycles. This work reports on the influence of high-temperature steam, which will be present in flue (about 5-10%) and fuel (∼20%) gases, on the reactivity of CaO sorbent derived from four natural limestones. A significant increase in the reactivity of these sorbents was found for 30 cycles in the presence of steam (from 1-20%). Steam influences the sorbent reactivity in two ways. Steam present during calcination promotes sintering that produces a sorbent morphology with most of the pore volume associated with larger pores of ∼50 nm in diameter, and which appears to be relatively more stable than the pore structure that evolves when no steam is present. The presence of steam during carbonation reduces the diffusion resistance during carbonation. We observed a synergistic effect, i.e., the highest reactivity was observed when steam was present for both calcination and carbonation.

  2. Optimizing the Costs of Solid Sorbent-Based CO2 Capture Process Through Heat Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon [Ada-Es, Inc., Highlands Ranch, CO (United States)

    2016-03-18

    The focus of this project was the ADAsorb™ CO2 Capture Process, a temperature-swing adsorption process that incorporates a three-stage fluidized bed as the adsorber and a single-stage fluidized bed as the regenerator. ADAsorb™ system was designed, fabricated, and tested under DOE award DEFE0004343. Two amine-based sorbents were evaluated in conjunction with the ADAsorb™ process: “BN”, an ion-exchange resin; and “OJ”, a metal organic framework (MOF) sorbent. Two cross heat exchanger designs were evaluated for use between the adsorber and regenerator: moving bed and fluidized bed. The fluidized bed approach was rejected fairly early in the project because the additional electrical load to power blowers or fans to overcome the pressure drop required for fluidization was estimated to be nominally three times the electrical power that could be generated from the steam saved through the use of the cross heat exchanger. The Energy Research Center at Lehigh University built and utilized a process model of the ADAsorb™ capture process and integrated this model into an existing model of a supercritical PC power plant. The Lehigh models verified that, for the ADAsorb™ system, the largest contributor to parasitic power was lost electrical generation, which was primarily electric power which the host plant could not generate due to the extraction of low pressure (LP) steam for sorbent heating, followed by power for the CO2 compressor and the blower or fan power required to fluidize the adsorber and regenerator. Sorbent characteristics such as the impacts of moisture uptake, optimized adsorption and regeneration temperature, and sensitivity to changes in pressure were also included in the modeling study. Results indicate that sorbents which adsorb more than 1-2% moisture by weight are unlikely to be cost competitive unless they have an extremely high CO2 working capacity that well exceeds 15% by weight. Modeling also revealed

  3. Colloid stable sorbents for cesium removal: Preparation and application of latex particles functionalized with transition metals ferrocyanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramenko, Valentin [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 ave 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Bratskaya, Svetlana, E-mail: sbratska@ich.dvo.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 ave 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Zheleznov, Veniamin; Sheveleva, Irina [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 ave 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Voitenko, Oleg [Far Eastern Federal University, Laboratory of Electron Microscopy and Image Processing, 27, Oktyabr' skaya Street, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Sergienko, Valentin [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 ave 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-28

    In this paper we suggest a principally new approach to preparation of colloid stable selective sorbents for cesium uptake using immobilization of transition metals (cobalt, nickel, and copper) ferrocyanides in nanosized carboxylic latex emulsions. The effects of ferrocyanide composition, pH, and media salinity on the sorption properties of the colloid stable sorbents toward cesium ions were studied in solutions containing up to 200 g/L of sodium nitrate or potassium chloride. The sorption capacities of the colloid sorbents based on mixed potassium/transition metals ferrocyanides were in the range 1.3-1.5 mol Cs/mol ferrocyanide with the highest value found for the copper ferrocyanide. It was shown that the obtained colloid-stable sorbents were capable to penetrate through bulk materials without filtration that made them applicable for decontamination of solids, e.g. soils, zeolites, spent ion-exchange resins contaminated with cesium radionuclides. After decontamination of liquid or solid radioactive wastes the colloid-stable sorbents can be easily separated from solutions by precipitation with cationic flocculants providing localization of radionuclides in a small volume of the precipitates formed.

  4. Steam regenerative removal of hydrogen sulfide from hot syngas by a novel tin oxide and yttrium oxide sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yi; Shi, Yixiang; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-01-01

    A novel H 2 S sorbent based on SnO 2 and Y 2 O 3 is developed by a co-precipitation method for steam regenerative removal of H 2 S from hot syngas at moderate temperatures (400–500 °C). SnO 2 -Y 2 O 3 sorbent is stable in a reducing atmosphere (i.e. 500 °C, 50% H 2 ) and achieves a 99.9% H 2 S removal during successive desulfurization and regeneration cycles. The addition of yttrium to SnO 2 decreases the reduction property of SnO 2 and no metallic Sn exists in the reducing atmosphere due to the formation of a pyrochlore-type compound, Y 2 Sn 2 O 7 . The SnO 2 -Y 2 O 3 sorbent has a desulfurization performance deterioration with the increasing calcination temperature. The newly developed SnO 2 -Y 2 O 3 sorbent can be regenerated by steam at 500 °C. In the eight successive desulfurization and regeneration cycles, SnO 2 -Y 2 O 3 sorbent has a cyclic breakthrough sulfur capacity of 9 mg/g without significant sulfur capacity loss. - Highlights: • Reversible warm gas H 2 S clean up. • Suppressing SnO 2 reduction by formation of Sn 2 Y 2 O 7 . • Sn2Y-700 steam regeneration and cycling characterization.

  5. Carbon-Based Regenerable Sorbents for the Combined Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia Removal for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Manthina, Venkata; Singh, Prabhakar; Chullen, Cinda

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Since ammonia is the most important TC to be captured, data on TC sorption presented in this paper are limited to ammonia, with results relevant to other TCs to be reported at a later time. The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Furthermore, the current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is non-regenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using carbon sorbents for the reversible, concurrent sorption of carbon dioxide and ammonia. Several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested, and multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, and also a carbon surface conditioning technique that enhances the combined carbon dioxide and ammonia sorption without impairing sorbent regeneration.

  6. Rubber Fruit Shell (Hevea brasiliensis) as bio sorbent to remove FFA (Free Fatty Acid) content in CPO (Crude Palm Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandia, S.; Sinaga, M. S.; Masyithah, Z.; Husin, A.; Nurfadilla, S.; Fitriani; Sipahutar, B. K. S.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to discover the effectiveness of the shell of rubber fruit as bio sorbent for removing FFA (Free Fatty Acid) content in CPO (Crude Palm Oil). Methods used in this study were pretreatment, activation (carbonating and chemically) and adsorption process at room temperature. In the beginning, the shell of rubber fruit was cleaned and dried under the sun. Then the shell was cut for about 0.5 cm of length and carbonated in a furnace for 1h at 600°C. After that, they were crushed to pass through 140 meshes and activated using three variations of chemical such as 6 of HNO3, 6N of KOH and 6N of H3PO4 at certain ratio as 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5 (b/v). The adsorption process was carried out using bio sorbent with the highest iodine number in varying bio sorbent dosage and contact time. The highest iodine number was 913.680 mg/g and obtained at the ratio of bio sorbent to 6N of KOH as 1:5. The best removal of FFA content was 91.94% and at 1% bio sorbent dose and 30 min of contact time.

  7. Efficacy of the Molded Carbon Sorbent VNIITU-1 Used in Obstetric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Dolgikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop a technology for obtaining the molded sorbent VNIITU1, to study its physicochemical and biomedical properties, and to evaluate its efficacy in preventing and treating pyoinflammatory complications in obstetrics.Materials and methods. The molded sorbent VNIITU-1 was designed from the carbon porous material based on nanodispersed carbon by mixing with a vehicle, extruding the mixture, drying the extrudate in an inert atmosphere, thermally treating and activating by steam, followed by washing with distilled water and drying (TU 9398043710698342013. The molded sorbent VNIITU-1 is apyrogenic and nontoxic (Toxicity Study Conclusion No. 1998.013.P dated 14.08.2013; Engineering Testing Assessment No. 12.404 ORTI/2013 dated 26.08.2013, it is destined for single administration, sterile, placed in a removable thread capron mesh container, and used to treat and prevent pyoseptic complications in puerperas at risk for infection, such as acute nonspecific postpartum endometritis. A total of 52 puerperas were examined and treated. They had been divided into 2 groups: a study group (n=37 and a comparison group (n=15. In the study group, the hemosorbent VNIITU1 as a porous carbon applicator was postpartum inserted into the uterine cavity, by concurrently performing traditional antibiotic therapy to prevent infectious complications. The comparison group received only traditional antibiotic therapy. The uterine cavity aspirate was examined for IL1β and IL6 levels, its microbial profile, and microbial growth patterns in culture media. The data were processed using a package of applied STATISTICA6.1 programs and standard mathematical tables in Microsoft Excel. Descriptive and variation statistical methods were applied. The data were presented as Me [low quartilehigh quartile (LQHQ]; two pre and posttreatment dependent variables were compared using the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests.Results. The molded carbon sorbent VNIITU1 was

  8. Solid amine sorbents for CO2 capture by chemical adsorption: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Erdal Ünveren

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Amines are well-known for their reversible reactions with CO2, which make them ideal for CO2 capture from several gas streams, including flue gas. In this respect, selective CO2 absorption by aqueous alkanolamines is the most mature technology but the process is energy intensive and has also corrosion problems. Both disadvantages can be diminished to a certain extent by chemical adsorption of CO2 selectively. The most important element of the chemical adsorption of CO2 involves the design and development of a suitable adsorbent which consist of a porous support onto which an amine is attached or immobilized. Such an adsorbent is often called as solid amine sorbent. This review covers solid amine-based studies which are developed and published in recent years. First, the review examines several different types of porous support materials, namely, three mesoporous silica (MCM-41, SBA-15 and KIT-6 and two polymeric supports (PMMA and PS for CO2 adsorption. Emphasis is given to the synthesis, modifications and characterizations -such as BET and PXRD data-of them. Amination of these supports to obtain a solid amine sorbent through impregnation or grafting is reviewed comparatively. Focus is given to the adsorption mechanisms, material characteristics, and synthesis methods which are discussed in detail. Significant amount of original data are also presented which makes this review unique. Finally, relevant CO2 adsorption (or equilibrium capacity data, and cyclic adsorption/desorption performance and stability of important classes of solid amine sorbents are critically reviewed. These include severa PEI or TEPA impregnated adsorbents and APTES-grafted systems.

  9. Computational Modeling of Mixed Solids for CO2 CaptureSorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Since current technologies for capturing CO2 to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO2 capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO2 sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO2 adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO2 sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO2 capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO2 capture Technologies.

  10. Identification of soil bacteria able to degrade phenanthrene bound to a hydrophobic sorbent in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regonne, Raïssa Kom [CEA, DSV/iRTSV, Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, 38054, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, UMR 5249, 38042, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire de Substances Actives et Pollution, ENSAI, Université de Ngaoundéré, BP 455, Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Martin, Florence [CEA, DSV/iRTSV, Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, 38054, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, UMR 5249, 38042, Grenoble (France); Mbawala, Augustin [Laboratoire de Microbiologie, ENSAI, Université de Ngaoundéré, BP 455, Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Ngassoum, Martin Benoît [Laboratoire de Substances Actives et Pollution, ENSAI, Université de Ngaoundéré, BP 455, Ngaoundéré (Cameroon); Jouanneau, Yves [CEA, DSV/iRTSV, Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, 38054, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, UMR 5249, 38042, Grenoble (France)

    2013-09-15

    Efficient bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites is limited by the hydrophobic character and poor bioavailability of pollutants. In this study, stable isotope probing (SIP) was implemented to track bacteria that can degrade PAHs adsorbed on hydrophobic sorbents. Temperate and tropical soils were incubated with {sup 13}C-labeled phenanthrene, supplied by spiking or coated onto membranes. Phenanthrene mineralization was faster in microcosms with PAH-coated membranes than in microcosms containing spiked soil. Upon incubation with temperate soil, phenanthrene degraders found in the biofilms that formed on coated membranes were mainly identified as Sphingomonadaceae and Actinobacteria. In the tropical soil, uncultured Rhodocyclaceae dominated degraders bound to membranes. Accordingly, ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences recovered from this soil matched PAH-specific dioxygenase genes recently found in Rhodocyclaceae. Hence, our SIP approach allowed the detection of novel degraders, mostly uncultured, which differ from those detected after soil spiking, but might play a key role in the bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils. -- Highlights: •Soil bacteria with the ability to degrade sorbent-bound PAHs were investigated. •In soil, membrane-bound phenanthrene was readily mineralized. •PAH degraders found in biofilms were different in temperate and tropical soils. •Uncultured Rhodocyclaceae were dominant phenanthrene degraders in the tropical soil. •PAH-specific ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences were identified in soil DNA. -- Bacteria able to degrade PAHs bound to a hydrophobic sorbent were mainly identified as uncultured Rhodocyclaceae and Sphingomonadaceae in polluted soils from tropical and temperate area, respectively.

  11. Aminosilane-Functionalized Hollow Fiber Sorbents for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie

    2013-07-03

    Increasing carbon dioxide emissions are generally believed to contribute to global warming. Developing new materials for capturing CO2 emitted from coal-fired plants can potentially mitigate the effect of these CO 2 emissions. In this study, we developed and optimized porous hollow fiber sorbents with both improved sorption capacities and rapid sorption kinetics by functionalizing aminosilane (N-(2-aminoethyl)-3- aminoisobutyldimethylmethoxysilane) to cellulose acetate hollow fibers as a "proof of concept". A lumen-side barrier layer was also developed in the aminosilane-functionalized cellulose acetate fiber sorbent to allow for facile heat exchange without significant mass transfer with the bore-side heat transfer fluid. The functionalized cellulose acetate fiber sorbents were characterized by pressure decay sorption measurements, multicomponent column chromatography, FT-IR, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The carbon dioxide sorption capacity at 1 atm is 0.73 mmol/g by using the pressure decay apparatus. Multicomponent column chromatography measurements showed that aminosilane functionalized cellulose acetate fiber sorbent has a CO2 sorption capacity of 0.23 mmol/g at CO2 partial pressure 0.1 atm and 35 C in simulated flue gas. While this capacity is low, our proof of concept positions the technology to move forward to higher capacity with work that is underway. The presence of silicon and nitrogen elements in the elemental analysis confirmed the success of grafting along with FT-IR spectra which showed the absorbance peak (∼810 cm-1) for Si-C stretching. A cross-linked Neoprene material was used to form the lumen-side barrier layer. Preliminary data showed the required reduction in gas permeance to eliminate mixing between shell side and bore side fluid flows. Specifically the permeance was reduced from 10 000 GPUs for the neat fibers to 6.6 ± 0.1 and 3.3 ± 0.3 GPUs for the coated fibers. The selected lumen layer formation materials

  12. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  13. Aminosilane-Functionalized Hollow Fiber Sorbents for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie; Lively, Ryan P.; Lee, Jong Suk; Koros, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing carbon dioxide emissions are generally believed to contribute to global warming. Developing new materials for capturing CO2 emitted from coal-fired plants can potentially mitigate the effect of these CO 2 emissions. In this study, we developed and optimized porous hollow fiber sorbents with both improved sorption capacities and rapid sorption kinetics by functionalizing aminosilane (N-(2-aminoethyl)-3- aminoisobutyldimethylmethoxysilane) to cellulose acetate hollow fibers as a "proof of concept". A lumen-side barrier layer was also developed in the aminosilane-functionalized cellulose acetate fiber sorbent to allow for facile heat exchange without significant mass transfer with the bore-side heat transfer fluid. The functionalized cellulose acetate fiber sorbents were characterized by pressure decay sorption measurements, multicomponent column chromatography, FT-IR, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The carbon dioxide sorption capacity at 1 atm is 0.73 mmol/g by using the pressure decay apparatus. Multicomponent column chromatography measurements showed that aminosilane functionalized cellulose acetate fiber sorbent has a CO2 sorption capacity of 0.23 mmol/g at CO2 partial pressure 0.1 atm and 35 C in simulated flue gas. While this capacity is low, our proof of concept positions the technology to move forward to higher capacity with work that is underway. The presence of silicon and nitrogen elements in the elemental analysis confirmed the success of grafting along with FT-IR spectra which showed the absorbance peak (∼810 cm-1) for Si-C stretching. A cross-linked Neoprene material was used to form the lumen-side barrier layer. Preliminary data showed the required reduction in gas permeance to eliminate mixing between shell side and bore side fluid flows. Specifically the permeance was reduced from 10 000 GPUs for the neat fibers to 6.6 ± 0.1 and 3.3 ± 0.3 GPUs for the coated fibers. The selected lumen layer formation materials

  14. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  15. Investigation into kinetics of sorption of some radionuclides by mixed sorbents based on amorphous niobium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, R.M.; Sukharev, Yu.I.; Egorov, Yu.V.; Plotnikov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made of kinetics of sorption of radionuclides 110 Ag, 60 Co, and 51 Cr by samples of amorphous stoichiometric niobium (5) phosphate. Ratios of the concentration conductivity to the mean radius of sorbent particles were calculated which are proportional to diffusivities. Increased specificity towards Cr 3+ ions of samples of ion exchangeable niobium phosphate containing cerium and treated with 0.1N HCl was established. This effect was explained by formation and subsequent destruction of the copolymer oxo-ol matrix of niobium and cerium, as a result of which a gel is formed with mosaic structure being favourable for sorption of three-charged ions

  16. Efficiency of Al2O3 supported palladium sorbents in the process of hydrogen isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, B.M.; Perevezentsev, A.N.; Yasenkov, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that in the hydrogen-palladium system while applying the metal to aluminium oxide a considerable increase of the heterogeneous hydrogen isotopic exchange rate is observed due to the increase of its specific surface at 167-298 K temperatures and 350-500 Torr hydrogen pressures. It is shown that in the process of thermal treatment of the supported palladium sorbent resulting in reconstruction of the carrier porous structure, as well as in increasing the metal crystal size, the change of the stage, limiting the isotopic exchange process, occurs. The values of the rate and energy of activation of the hydrogen isotopic exchange are presented [ru

  17. Magnetic and Mössbauer Study of Cerium-Based Reactive Sorbent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Buršík, Jiří; Životský, O.; Luňáček, J.; Janos, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 4 (2017), s. 1096-1098 ISSN 0587-4246. [CSMAG 2016 - Czech and Slovak Conference on Magnetism /16./. Košice, 13.06.2016-17.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cerium-based sorbent * magnetic properties * phase composition * composite Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2016

  18. Effect of additives on eremomycin sorbent selectivity in separation of salbutamol enantiomers using supercritical fluid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovskiy, O. I.; Kayda, A. S.; Usovich, O. I.; Parenago, O. O.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    A regime is found in which chiral stationary phase based on macrocyclic glycopeptide eremomycin allows separation of salbutamol sulfate enantiomers in supercritical fluid chromatography. Enantioseparation occurs only when two dynamic modifiers are used simultaneously: isopropylamin + trifluoroacetic acid or isopropylamin + ammonium acetate. Amine molar concentration in mobile phase has to be higher than acid molar concentration, otherwise enantiomers coelute. We suppose that with amine excess a mechanism of enantiorecognition is realized which involves ionic sorbent-sorbate interactions. Such mechanism is well-known for glycopeptide chiral selectors in liquid chromatography, but for supercritical fluid chromatography it is reported for the first time.

  19. Uranium separation and concentration from ground waters on TIO-PAN sorbent and determination by TRLFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raindl, Jakub; Spendlikova, Irena; Nemec, Mojmir; Sebesta, Ferdinand; Zavadilova, Alena; John, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A new sorbent, viz. hydrated titanium dioxide embedded on a polyacrylonitrile solid support, was tested for the title purpose. Uranium so separated was eluted with 0.1M HCl. Uranium concentrations before and after sorption/elution were determined by time resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS ). The study is aimed at the development of a method suitable for sample preparation for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements and at determining the 236 U/U ratio (in cooperation with the VERA facility at the University of Vienna, Austria)

  20. Evaluation of LTA-, FAU- and MFI-type zeolites as sorbents of some toxic components of tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iucolano, F.; Caputo, D.; Monetta, T.; Bellucci, F.; Colella, C.

    2008-01-01

    Zeolites 3A, 4A, 13X, H-ZSM-5 were investigated in order to evaluate their possible use in removing toxic compounds from cigarette smoke. Ammonia and acetaldehyde were selected as representative of a wide range of possible sorbates. Adsorption equilibrium data at 313K were collected and analyzed by Langmuir and virial equations to estimate the relevant values of Henry's constant, a useful parameter to estimate the affinity sorbents-sorbates at low pressure. Unlike the Langmuir model, the virial equation provided a good fit for both ammonia and acetaldehyde equilibrium data for all sorbents in the whole range of pressures, especially at low pressure. As already assessed for nitrosamines, FAU- and MFI-type zeolites showed the highest affinity for ammonia and acetaldehyde, allowing these sorbents to be considered an effective potential resource for the removal of some of the main pollutants of tobacco smoke.

  1. Characterization of commercial off-the shelf regenerable sorbent to scrub carbon dioxide in a portable life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tatsuya; Fricker, John

    2018-06-01

    A resin bead Mitsubishi DIAION™ CR20 was identified and characterized as a first commercial off-the shelf regenerable carbon dioxide (CO2) sorbent candidate for space life support system applications at room temperature. The CO2 adsorption rates and capacities of CR20 at varying CO2 partial pressures were obtained. The data were used to numerically simulate CO2 adsorption by a swingbed, a pair of two sorbent beds that alternately adsorb and desorb CO2 in a space suit portable life support system (PLSS). The result demonstrated that a reasonable volume of CR20 would be able to continuously adsorb CO2 with bed-swing interval of 4 min at 300-W metabolic rate, and that commercial off-the shelf CR20 would have similar performance of CO2 adsorption to the proprietary swingbed sorbent SA9T for PLSS applications.

  2. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Baltrus; Evan J. Granite; Erik C. Rupp; Dennis C. Stanko; Bret Howard; Henry W. Pennline [US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide, but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Poly(ethyleneimine) infused and functionalized Torlon®-silica hollow fiber sorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials functionalized with amine-containing reagents are emerging as an important class of materials for capturing carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymeric silica hollow fiber sorbents are fabricated through the proven dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. In our study, a new technique for functionalizing polymeric silica hollow fiber sorbents with poly(ethyleneimine), followed by a post-spinning infusion step was studied. This two step process introduces a sufficient amount of poly(ethyleneimine) to the polymeric silica hybrid material support to improve the CO2 sorption capacity due to the added amine groups. The poly(ethyleneimine) infused and functionalized hollow fiber sorbents are also characterized by a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) to assess their CO2 sorption capacities. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement analysis of power plant using modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.J.; Zhao, C.S.; Chen, H.C.; Ren, Q.Q.; Duan, L.B. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2011-03-15

    This paper examines the average carbonation conversion, CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy requirement for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture system during the modified calcium-based sorbent looping cycle. The limestone modified with acetic acid solution, i.e. calcium acetate is taken as an example of the modified calcium-based sorbents. The modified limestone exhibits much higher average carbonation conversion than the natural sorbent under the same condition. The CO{sub 2} capture efficiency increases with the sorbent flow ratios. Compared with the natural limestone, much less makeup mass flow of the recycled and the fresh sorbent is needed for the system when using the modified limestone at the same CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. Achieving 0.95 of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency without sulfation, 272 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} is required in the calciner for the natural limestone, whereas only 223 kJ/mol CO{sub 2} for the modified sorbent. The modified limestone possesses greater advantages in CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and energy consumption than the natural sorbent. When the sulfation and carbonation of the sorbents take place simultaneously, more energy is required. It is significantly necessary to remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas before it enters the carbonator in order to reduce energy consumption in the calciner.

  5. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Raul E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  6. Preparation of diatomite/Ca(OH){sub 2} sorbents and modelling their sulphation reaction Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilgun Karatepe; Nilufer Erdoan; Aysegul Ersoy-Mericboyu; Sadriye Kucukbayrak

    2004-09-01

    Mixtures of Ca(OH){sub 2} and diatomite were hydrated at different conditions to produce reactive SO{sub 2} sorbents. Two different hydration techniques were used; namely, atmospheric and pressure hydration. The effect of the hydration temperature, time and diatomite/Ca(OH){sub 2} weight ratio on the physical properties of the activated sorbents were investigated. In atmospheric hydration, it was found that increasing the temperature and hydration time caused an increase in the total surface area of the sorbents. However, surface area values of the sorbents prepared from mixtures which have different diatomite/Ca(OH){sub 2} weight ratio were generally not changed significantly. In pressure hydration, the surface area of the activated sorbents was positively affected from the hydration temperature and pressure. Finally, Ca(OH){sub 2} and two diatomite/Ca(OH){sub 2} sorbents were sulphated at constant temperature (338 K) using a synthetic gaseous mixture consisting of 5% O{sub 2}, 10% CO{sub 2}, 5000 ppm SO{sub 2} and the balance of nitrogen with a 55% relative humidity. The sulphation reaction of these sorbents were investigated and modelled. The unreacted shrinking core model was chosen to describe this non-catalytic solid/gas (hydrated sorbent/SO{sub 2}) reaction mechanism. The experimental results were found to be correlated successfully by this model.

  7. Performance of Zn-Fe-Mn/MCM-48 sorbents for high temperature H2S removal and analysis of regeneration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z. B.; Liu, B. S.; Wang, F.; Amin, R.

    2015-10-01

    MCM-48 was synthesized using a rapid and facile process at room temperature. A series of 50%Zn-Fe-Mn/MCM-48 sorbents were prepared and their performance of hot coal gas desulfurization was investigated. High breakthrough sulfur capacity (13.2 g-S/100 g sorbent) and utilization (66.1%) of 50%1Zn2Fe2Mn/MCM-48 sorbent at 550 °C was achieved. The characterization results of XRD, BET, TPR and FT-IR revealed that MCM-48 had excellent thermal stability at less than 700 °C, ZnMn2O4 and (Mn, Zn)Fe2O4 were mainly active particles in fresh sorbents which were highly dispersed on support. The MCM-48 mesoporous structure remained intact after eight successive desulfurization/regeneration cycles. The regeneration process of 50%1Zn2Fe2Mn/MCM-48 sorbent was analyzed, it indicated that the breakthrough sulfur capacity decline of sorbent was due to the migration of Zn onto the sorbent surface and Zn accumulated on the surface and vaporized to the exterior from the surface. In the TPO test, the oxidation of Zn was different for 50%Zn/MCM-48 at 700 °C. It revealed that the temperature of regeneration for ZnO sorbent should be higher than 700 °C.

  8. IEA low NOx combustion project Stage III. Low NOx combustion and sorbent injection demonstration projects. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, R.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the main results from an IES project concerning the demonstration of low-NO x combustion and sorbent injection as techniques for the control of NO x and SO x emissions from pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The project has built upon information generated in two previous stages of activity, where NO x and SO x control processes were evaluated at both fundamental and pilot-scales. The concept for this stage of the project was for a unique collaboration, where the participating countries (Canada, Denmark and Sweden, together with the United States) have pooled information from full scale boiler demonstrations of low-NO x burner and sorbent injection technologies, and have jointly contributed to establishing a common basis for data evaluation. Demonstration testing was successfully carried out on five wall-fired commercial boiler systems which ranged in size from a 20 MW thermal input boiler used for district heating, up to a 300 MW electric utility boiler. All of these units were fired on high-volatile bituminous coals with sulfur contents ranging from 0.6-3.2 percent. At each site the existing burners were either modified or replaced to provide for low-NO x combustion, and provisions were made to inject calcium based sorbent materials into the furnace space for SO 2 emission control. The results of sorbent injection testing showed moderate levels of SO 2 removal which ranged from approximately 15 to 55 percent at an injected calcium to sulfur molar ratio to 2.0 and with boiler operation at nominal full load. Sulfur capture was found to depend upon the combined effects of parameters such as: sorbent type and reactivity; peak sorbent temperature; coal sulfur content; and the thermal characteristics of the boilers. (8 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs.)

  9. Nanosilica supported CaO: A regenerable and mechanically hard CO2 sorbent at Ca-looping conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Jimenez, P.E.; Perez-Maqueda, L.A.; Valverde, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A synthetic CO 2 sorbent is prepared by impregnation of calcium nitrate on a nanosilica matrix. • Sintering of the nascent CaO in the calcination stage of carbonation/calcination cycles is hindered. • CaO conversion reaches a stable value well above the residual conversion of natural limestone. • Particle fragmentation as caused by ultrasonic irradiation in a liquid dispersion is hindered. - Abstract: This work presents a CO 2 sorbent that may be synthesized from low-cost and widely available materials following a simple method basically consisting of impregnation of a nanostructured silica support with a saturated solution of calcium nitrate. In a first impregnation stage, the use of a stoichiometric CaO/SiO 2 ratio serves to produce a calcium silicate matrix after calcination. This calcium silicate matrix acts as a thermally stable and mechanically hard support for CaO deposited on it by further impregnation. The CaO-impregnated sorbent exhibits a stable CaO conversion at Ca-looping conditions whose value depends on the CaO wt% deposited on the calcium silicate matrix, which can be increased by successive reimpregnations. A 10 wt% CaO impregnated sorbent reaches a stable conversion above 0.6 whereas the stable conversion of a 30 wt% CaO impregnated sorbent is around 0.3, which is much larger than the residual conversion of CaO derived from natural limestone (between 0.07 and 0.08). Moreover, particle size distribution measurements of samples predispersed in a liquid and subjected to high energy ultrasonic waves indicate that the CaO-impregnated sorbent has a relatively high mechanical strength as compared to limestone derived CaO

  10. Quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica sorbents for the solid-phase extraction of aromatic amines under normal phase conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Robin, Orlane; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2013-04-12

    Quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica materials were synthesized and applied for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of aromatic amines, which are classified as priority pollutants by US Environmental Protection Agency. Hexamethylenetetramine used for silica surface modification for the first time was employed as SPE sorbent under normal phase conditions. Hexaminium-functionalized silica demonstrated excellent extraction efficiencies for o-toluidine, 4-ethylaniline and quinoline (recoveries 101-107%), while for N,N-dimethylaniline and N-isopropylaniline recoveries were from low to moderate (14-46%). In addition, the suitability of 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica as SPE sorbent was tested under normal phase conditions. The recoveries achieved for the five aromatic amines ranged from 89 to 99%. The stability of the sorbent was evaluated during and after 150 extractions. Coefficients of variation between 4.5 and 10.2% proved a high stability of the synthesized sorbent. Elution was carried out using acetonitrile in the case of hexaminium-functionalized silica and water for 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica sorbent. After the extraction the analytes were separated and detected by liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The retention mechanism of the materials was primarily based on polar hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions. Comparison made with activated silica proved the quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials to offer different selectivity and better extraction efficiencies for aromatic amines. Finally, 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica sorbent was successfully tested for the extraction of wastewater and soil samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-Adsorption of Ammonia and Formaldehyde on Regenerable Carbon Sorbents for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Wilburn, Monique S.

    2016-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of a reversible carbon sorbent for trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is deemed non-regenerable, while the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. Data on concurrent sorption and desorption of ammonia and formaldehyde, which are major TCs of concern, are presented in this paper. A carbon sorbent was fabricated by dry impregnation of a reticulated carbon-foam support with polyvinylidene chloride, followed by carbonization and thermal oxidation in air. Sorbent performance was tested for ammonia and formaldehyde sorption and vacuum regeneration, with and without water present in the gas stream. It was found that humidity in the gas phase enhanced ammonia-sorption capacity by a factor larger than two. Co-adsorption of ammonia and formaldehyde in the presence of water resulted in strong formaldehyde sorption (to the point that it was difficult to saturate the sorbent on the time scales used in this study). In the absence of humidity, adsorption of formaldehyde on the carbon surface was found to impair ammonia sorption in subsequent runs; in the presence of water, however, both ammonia and formaldehyde could be efficiently removed from the gas phase by the sorbent. The efficiency of vacuum regeneration could be enhanced by gentle heating to temperatures below 60 deg.

  12. Equilibriums of sorption of impurities of 3 d - cations by inorganic sorbents from phosphate and arsenate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatova, L.N.; Kurdyumova, T.N.; Bagrov, V.M.; Blyum, G.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to equilibriums of sorption of impurities of 3 d - cations by inorganic sorbents from phosphate and arsenate solutions. Equilibriums of sorption of microquantities of iron, scandium, zink, copper, cobalt and manganese by inorganic sorbents on the basis of titanium and aluminium oxides from phosphate and arsenate solutions are studied. The influence of structural and chemical properties of matrix on sorption properties of oxides in phosphate and arsenate solutions is studied as well. It is defined that in concentrated solutions the sorption value of trace contaminant depends on a character of cation of alkaline metal.

  13. A regenerable potassium and phosphate sorbent system to enhance dialysis efficacy and device portability: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Maarten; Simonis, Frank; Gerritsen, Karin G; Boer, Walther H; Wodzig, Will K; Kooman, Jeroen P; Joles, Jaap A

    2013-09-01

    Continuous dialysis could provide benefit by constant removal of potassium and phosphate. This study investigates the suitability of specific potassium and phosphate sorbents for incorporation in an extracorporeal device by capacity and regenerability testing. Capacity testing was performed in uraemic plasma. Regenerability was tested for potassium sorbents, with adsorption based on cationic exchange for sodium, with 0.1 M and 1.0 M NaCl. To regenerate phosphate sorbents, with adsorption based on anionic exchange, 0.1 M and 1.0 M NaHCO3 and NaOH were used. Subsequently, sodium polystyrene divinylbenzene sulphonate (RES-A) and iron oxide hydroxide (FeOOH) beads were incorporated in a cartridge for testing in bovine blood using a recirculating blood circuit and a dialysis circuit separated by a high-flux dialyzer (dynamic setup). Preloading was tested to assess whether this could limit calcium and magnesium adsorption. In the batch-binding assays, zirconium phosphate most potently adsorbed potassium (0.44 ± 0.05 mmol/g) and RES-A was the best regenerable potassium sorbent (92.9 ± 5.7% with 0.1 M NaCl). Zirconium oxide hydroxide (ZIR-hydr) most potently adsorbed phosphate (0.23 ± 0.05 mmol/g) and the polymeric amine sevelamer carbonate was the best regenerable sorbent (85.7 ± 5.2% with 0.1 M NaHCO3). In the dynamic setup, a potassium adsorption of 10.72 ± 2.06 mmol in 3 h was achieved using 111 g of RES-A and a phosphate adsorption of 4.73 ± 0.53 mmol in 3 h using 55 g of FeOOH. Calcium and magnesium preloading was shown to reduce the net adsorption in 3 h from 3.57 ± 0.91 to -0.29 ± 1.85 and 1.02 ± 0.05 to -0.31 ± 0.18 mmol, respectively. RES-A and FeOOH are suitable, regenerizable sorbents for potassium and phosphate removal in dialysate regeneration. Use of zirconium carbonate and ZIR-hydr may further increase phosphate adsorption, but may compromise sorbent regenerability. Use of polymeric amines for phosphate adsorption may enhance sorbent

  14. Characteristic of New Solid-Phase Extraction Sorbent: Activated Carbon Prepared from Rice Husks under Base Treated Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Afrida Kurnia Putri; Wang-Hsien Ding; Han-Wen Kuo

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of activated carbon (ACs) prepared from rice husks (RHs) under base treated condition as a new sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) to extract 4-nonylphenol isomers (4-NPs) in water samples has been done. The ACs prepared from RHs usually exhibits low specific surface area due to its high ash content, but in case of its application for SPE, there are other factors need to be considered, such as the existence of functional groups inside the sorbent, that can enhance inte...

  15. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process / equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines, 31 carbon based materials, 6 zeolites, 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding), 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  16. Laboratory study on the high-temperature capture of HCl gas by dry-injection of calcium-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemwell, B; Levendis, Y A; Simons, G A

    2001-01-01

    This is a laboratory study on the reduction of combustion-generated hydrochloric acid (HCl) emissions by in-furnace dry-injection of calcium-based sorbents. HCl is a hazardous gaseous pollutant emitted in significant quantities by municipal and hazardous waste incinerators, coal-fired power plants, and other industrial furnaces. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory furnace at gas temperatures of 600-1000 degrees C. HCl gas diluted with N2, and sorbent powders fluidized in a stream of air were introduced into the furnace concurrently. Chlorination of the sorbents occurred in the hot zone of the furnace at gas residence times approximately 1 s. The sorbents chosen for these experiments were calcium formate (CF), calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), calcium propionate (CP), calcium oxide (CX), and calcium carbonate (CC). Upon release of organic volatiles, sorbents calcine to CaO at approximately 700 degrees C, and react with the HCl according to the reaction CaO + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O. At the lowest temperature case examined herein, 600 degrees C, direct reaction of HCl with CaCO3 may also be expected. The effectiveness of the sorbents to capture HCl was interpreted using the "pore tree" mathematical model for heterogeneous diffusion reactions. Results show that the thin-walled, highly porous cenospheres formed from the pyrolysis and calcination of CF, CMA, and CP exhibited high relative calcium utilization at the upper temperatures of this study. Relative utilizations under these conditions reached 80%. The less costly low-porosity sorbents, calcium carbonate and calcium oxide also performed well. Calcium carbonate reached a relative utilization of 54% in the mid-temperature range, while the calcium oxide reached an 80% relative utilization at the lowest temperature examined. The data matched theoretical predictions of sorbent utilization using the mathematical model, with activation energy and pre-exponential factors for the calcination reaction of 17,000 K and 300

  17. Research and application of inorganic selective sorbents at Mayak PA; Recherches et applications sur l'utilisation de sorbants specifiques a Mayak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logunov, M.V.; Skobtsov, A.S.; Soldatov, B.V.; Pazdnikov, A.P.; Voroshilov, Y.A.; Rovny, S.I. [Mayak Production Association, Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation)

    2004-12-01

    This work has been performed in order to identify selective inorganic sorbents for caesium and strontium. Thin-layer sorbents with nickel ferrocyanide embedded in an inert matrix were found to be the best for caesium. Sorbents including non-stoichiometric manganese dioxide were selected for strontium. Bench tests have been carried out on the purification of desalted water of SNF storage-pool from {sup 137}Cs, and on the purification of contaminated natural water from {sup 90}Sr. The facility for synthesizing the ferrocyanide sorbent with the registered mark 'Seleks-CFN' has been brought into operation. The sorbent ISM-S seems promising for {sup 90}Sr decontamination. (authors)

  18. The effect of the synthesis method on the parameters of pore structure and selectivity of ferrocyanide sorbents based on natural minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronina, A.V.; Gorbunova, T.V.; Semenishchev, V.S.

    2017-01-01

    Ferrocyanide sorbents were obtained via thin-layer and surface modification of natural clinoptilolite and marl. The effect of modification method on surface characteristics of these sorbents and their selectivity for cesium was studied. It was shown that the modification resulted in an increase of selectivity of modified ferrocyanide sorbents to cesium as compared with the natural clinoptilolite in presence of Na + , as well as in an increase of cesium distribution coefficients in presence of K + . The nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on the clinoptilolite showed the highest selectivity for cesium at sodium concentrations of 10 -4 -2 mol L -1 : cesium distribution coefficient was lg K d = 4.5 ± 0.4 L kg -1 and cesium/sodium separation factor was α(Cs/Na) = 250. In the presence of NH 4 + , all modified sorbents showed approximately equal selectivity for 137 Cs. Probable applications of the sorbents were suggested. (author)

  19. Design of 22-way coaxial power combiner for 20 kW solid state amplifier and 6-1/8″ to N type adapter using CST microwave studio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sonal; Mishra, J.K.; Ramarao, B.V.; Pande, Manjiri; Bhagwat, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A 20 kW, 325 MHz solid state amplifier is being developed in BARC for Fermi Lab collaboration. It is proposed to combine 22 RF amplifiers to get output power of 20 kW. For this purpose a 22 way coaxial power combiner has been designed using CST microwave studio. This combiner is based on Wilkinson combining technology. The inner conductor of the combiner is split into 22 equal plates. Each plate has 1-5/8 flange at input port. These plates are connected to a common disc. The combined output is a 3-1/8 flanged port. The return loss obtained at the combined port is better than 28 dB indicating a very good match. The transmission from the combined port to each split port is about -13.5 dB representing a low insertion loss and equal split. The return loss each of the split port is obtained by simultaneous excitation of each port. The return loss at each port is better than 26 dB. Fabrication of the combiner is under process. The material used for inner conductor will be ETP copper and outer conductor will be made of aluminium. Along with the above design a separate design of 6-1/8″ to N type adapter has been completed in CST microwave studio. A number of these adapters will be used for high power waveguide load characterization which is being developed in BARC. The return loss at each port is better than 30 dB and insertion loss is less than 0.05 dB. Fabrication of these adapters is under process. (author)

  20. Sol-gel niobia sorbent with a positively charged octadecyl ligand providing enhanced enrichment of nucleotides and organophosphorus pesticides in capillary microextraction for online HPLC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesani, Sheshanka; Malik, Abdul

    2018-04-01

    A niobia-based sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent carrying a positively charged C 18 ligand (Nb 2 O 5 -C 18 (+ve)) was synthesized to achieve enhanced enrichment capability in capillary microextraction of organophosphorus compounds (which include organophosphorus pesticides and nucleotides) before their online analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. The sorbent was designed to simultaneously provide three different types of molecular level interactions: electrostatic, Lewis acid-base, and van der Waals interactions. To understand relative contributions of various molecular level analyte-sorbent interactions in the extraction process, two other sol-gel niobia sorbents were also created: (a) a purely inorganic sol-gel niobia sorbent (Nb 2 O 5 ) and (b) an organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel niobia sorbent carrying an electrically neutral-bonded octadecyl ligand (Nb 2 O 5 -C 18 ). The extraction efficiency of the created sol-gel niobia sorbent (Nb 2 O 5 -C 18 (+ve)) was compared with that of analogously designed and synthesized titania-based sol-gel sorbent (TiO 2 -C 18 (+ve)), taking into consideration that titania-based sorbents present state-of-the-art extraction media for organophosphorus compounds. In capillary microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, Nb 2 O 5 -C 18 (+ve) had shown 40-50% higher specific extraction values (a measure of extraction efficiency) over that of TiO 2 -C 18 (+ve). Compared to TiO 2 -C 18 (+ve), Nb 2 O 5 -C 18 (+ve) also provided superior analyte desorption efficiency (96 vs. 90%) during the online release of the extracted organophosphorus pesticides from the sorbent coating in the capillary microextraction capillary to the chromatographic column using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography mobile phase. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Performance of some silver sorbents for control of radioiodine from nuclear fuel operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Halko, B.T.; Waters, E.D.; Orme, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Process Facility Modification (PFM) proposed for the Hanford PUREX plant includes control of gaseous radioiodine. In support of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) design effort for the PFM, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has evaluated caustic scrubbing and the use of silver-containing solid sorbents to remove iodine from the dissolver offgas (DOG) stream. The present report describes the behavior of several silver-containing zeolites and silver nitrate-impregnated silicic acid tested under conditions simulating normal and standby operation of the PFM. These studies found that the silver zeolites, Norton silver mordenite (NAgZ), Linde silver mordenite (LAgZ), and partially silver-exchanged Linde silver faujasite (PAgX), can routinely reduce the gaseous iodine concentration in a simulated PFM DOG to -5 μmol I/L, while a commercially produced silver nitrate-impregnated silicic acid (AgNO 3 Si) could not at these test conditions. Tests simulating standby operation of beds loaded up to 0.25 μmol I/g sorbent indicate that standby operation will not result in effluent concentrations above 10 -5 μmol I/L. At higher loadings standby operation initially caused iodine to migrate from NAgZ. There were indications that the iodine tends to stabilize with time, but insufficient information is available to fully characterize these reactions

  2. Synthesis and characterization of imprinted sorbent for separation of gramine from bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luliński, Piotr; Klejn, Dorota; Maciejewska, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient sorbent for separation of N,N-dimethyl-3-aminomethylindole (gramine) from bovine serum albumin. An imprinting technology was involved in the synthesis of polymers from nine different functional monomers in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. The analysis of binding capacities showed that the highest specificity towards gramine was achieved when 4-vinylbenzoic acid was used as the functional monomer in methanol to form the bulk imprinted polymer, MIP1 (imprinting factor equal to 21.3). The Scatchard analysis of MIP1 showed two classes of binding sites with the dissociation constants K_d equal to 0.105 and 6.52 μmol L"−"1. The composition and morphology of polymers were defined by "1"3C CP/MAS NMR, BET and SEM-EDS analyses. The recognition mechanism of MIP1 was tested using the structurally related bioanalytes, and the dominant role of indole moiety and ethylamine side chain was revealed. A new MISPE protocol was optimized for separation of gramine. The total recoveries on MIP1 were equal to 94 ± 12 % from standard solutions and 85 ± 11 % from bovine serum albumin. - Highlights: • Indole alkaloid (gramine) imprinted polymer was synthesized. • Very high specifity of sorbent towards gramine was achieved. • Physico-chemical characteristics of novel material was presented. • Efficient MISPE protocol was proposed for separation of gramine from model sample.

  3. A Preliminary Study of Biodegradable Waste as Sorbent Material for Oil-Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, J.; Eyu, G. D.; Mansor, A. M.; Ahmad, Z.; Chukwuekezie, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill constitutes a major source of fresh and seawater pollution as a result of accidental discharge from tankers, marine engines, and underwater pipes. Therefore, the need for cost-effective and environmental friendly sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup cannot be overemphasized. The present work focuses on the preliminary study of empty palm fruit bunch fibre as a promising sorbent material. The morphology of the unmodified empty palm fruit bunch, EPFB fibre, was examined using an optical microcopy, scanning electron microcopy coupled with EDX and X-ray diffraction. The effects of oil volume, fibre weight, and time on oil absorption of EPFB fibre were evaluated with new engine oil from the model oil. The results show that EPFB fibre consists of numerous micro pores, hydrophobic, and partially crystalline and amorphous with approximately 13.5% carbon. The oil absorbency of the fibre increased with the increase in oil volume, immersion time, and fibre weight. However, sorption capacity decreased beyond 3 g in 100 mL. Additionally unmodified EPFB fibre showed optimum oil sorption efficiency of approximately 2.8 g/g within three days of immersion time. PMID:24693241

  4. Application potential of grapefruit peel as dye sorbent: Kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of crystal violet adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Asma, E-mail: asmadr@wol.net.pk [Environmental Biotechnology Group, Biotechnology and Food Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Sharif, Mehwish [School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan); Iqbal, Muhammad [Environmental Biotechnology Group, Biotechnology and Food Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)

    2010-07-15

    This study reports the sorption of crystal violet (CV) dye by grapefruit peel (GFP), which has application potential in the remediation of dye-contaminated wastewaters using a solid waste generated by the citrus fruit juice industry. Batch adsorption of CV was conducted to evaluate the effect of initial pH, contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration, GFP adsorbent dose, and removal of the adsorbate CV dye from aqueous solution to understand the mechanism of sorption involved. Sorption equilibrium reached rapidly with 96% CV removal in 60 min. Fit of the sorption experimental data was tested on the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics mathematical equations, which was noted to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics better, with coefficient of correlation {>=}0.992. The equilibrium process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum sorption capacity of 254.16 mg g{sup -1}. The GFP was regenerated using 1 M NaOH, with up to 98.25% recovery of CV and could be reused as a dye sorbent in repeated cycles. GFP was also shown to be highly effective in removing CV from aqueous solution in continuous-flow fixed-bed column reactors. The study shows that GFP has the potential of application as an efficient sorbent for the removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

  5. Research improvement in Zn-based sorbent for hot gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X. Bu; Y. Ying; C. Zhang; W. Peng [China Coal Research Institute (CCRI), Beijing (China). Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2005-07-01

    Two Zn-based sorbents, named as L-991 and L-992, used for hot gas desulfurization were developed. The L-992, which was prepared by changing the Zn/Ti ratio and adding a certain proportion of Cu and Mn metal oxide, acquired better performance than L-991. The suitable desulfurisation temperature was 600-700{sup o}C for the L-991 and 600-800{sup o}C for the L-992. The sulfur capacity was about 16 g/100 g and 19-21 g/100 g of L-991 and L-992 respectively. After 17 multi-cycles sulfidation/regeneration tests, the sulfur capacity of the L-991 decreased greatly, while that of the L-992 still remained at 17 g/100 g. Both the sorbents showed orderly crystalline orientation and the particle size did not change. Sulfidation and regeneration tests were done both on lab micro-fixed bed reactor and SMOVEN equipment. During the continuous tests, the H{sub 2}S concentration can be reduced from about 10 g/m{sup 3} to less than 20 mg/m{sup 3}, the H{sub 2}S removal efficiency being {gt} 99%. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. New sorbent materials for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from human urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, Renata; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowaczyk, Alicja; Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Kordalewska, Marta; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Waszczuk-Jankowska, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Ewa; Kaliszan, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław; Markuszewski, Michał J

    2016-02-20

    An increase in cocaine consumption has been observed in Europe during the last decade. Benzoylecgonine, as a main urinary metabolite of cocaine in human, is so far the most reliable marker of cocaine consumption. Determination of cocaine and its metabolite in complex biological samples as urine or blood, requires efficient and selective sample pretreatment. In this preliminary study, the newly synthesized sorbent materials were proposed for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from urine samples. Application of these sorbent media allowed to determine cocaine and benzoylecgonine in urine samples at the concentration level of 100ng/ml with good recovery values as 81.7%±6.6 and 73.8%±4.2, respectively. The newly synthesized materials provided efficient, inexpensive and selective extraction of both cocaine and benzoylecgonine from urine samples, which can consequently lead to an increase of the sensitivity of the current available screening diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Application potential of grapefruit peel as dye sorbent: Kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of crystal violet adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, Asma; Sharif, Mehwish; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the sorption of crystal violet (CV) dye by grapefruit peel (GFP), which has application potential in the remediation of dye-contaminated wastewaters using a solid waste generated by the citrus fruit juice industry. Batch adsorption of CV was conducted to evaluate the effect of initial pH, contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration, GFP adsorbent dose, and removal of the adsorbate CV dye from aqueous solution to understand the mechanism of sorption involved. Sorption equilibrium reached rapidly with 96% CV removal in 60 min. Fit of the sorption experimental data was tested on the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics mathematical equations, which was noted to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics better, with coefficient of correlation ≥0.992. The equilibrium process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum sorption capacity of 254.16 mg g -1 . The GFP was regenerated using 1 M NaOH, with up to 98.25% recovery of CV and could be reused as a dye sorbent in repeated cycles. GFP was also shown to be highly effective in removing CV from aqueous solution in continuous-flow fixed-bed column reactors. The study shows that GFP has the potential of application as an efficient sorbent for the removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

  8. Potassium fulvate-modified graft copolymer of acrylic acid onto cellulose as efficient chelating polymeric sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Magdy F; Essawy, Hisham A; Ammar, Nabila S; Ibrahim, Hanan S

    2017-01-01

    Acrylic acid (AA) was graft copolymerized from cellulose (Cell) in presence of potassium fulvate (KF) in order to enhance the chemical activity of the resulting chelating polymer and the handling as well. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) proved that KF was efficiently inserted and became a permanent part of the network structure of the sorbent in parallel during the grafting copolymerization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed intact homogeneous structure with uniform surface. This indicates improvement of the handling, however, it was not the case for the graft copolymer of acrylic acid onto cellulose in absence of KF, which is known to be brittle and lacks mechanical integrity. Effective insertion of this co-interpenetrating agent provided more functional groups, such as OH and COOH, which improved the chelating power of the produced sorbent as found for the removal of Cu 2+ ions from its aqueous solutions (the removal efficiency reached ∼98.9%). Different models were used to express the experimental data. The results corroborated conformity of the pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model to the sorption process, which translates into dominance of the chemisorption. Regeneration of the chelating polymers under harsh conditions did not affect the efficiency of copper ions uptake up to three successive cycles. A thermodynamic investigation ensured exothermic nature of the adsorption process that became less favourable at higher temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effective Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquid Modified Graphene Oxide Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nasrollahpour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid modified reduced graphene oxide (IL-rGO was prepared and examined for chromate removal. The sorbent was characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption measurement (BET, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis. The sorption behavior of chromate on the ionic liquid modified reduced graphene oxide sorbent from an aqueous medium was studied by varying the parameters such as contact time, initial chromate concentration, pH, and agitation speed. The results showed that sorption kinetics of chromate by IL-rGO follows the pseudo second order, which indicates that the sorption mechanism is both chemical and physical interaction. The sorption isotherm studies revealed that Langmuir model provided the best fit to all the experimental data with an adsorption capacity of 232.55 mg g–1 for IL-rGO. Thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy (–2.85 kJ mol–1 at 298 K, enthalpy (55.41 kJ mol–1, and entropy (11.64 J mol–1 K–1 of sorption of the chromate on ionic liquid modified reduced graphene oxide was evaluated, and it was found that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  10. Cesium sorption from concentrated acidic tank wastes using ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile composite sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, T.A.; Mann, N.R.; Tranter, T.J.; Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    2002-01-01

    Ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) composite sorbents have been evaluated for the removal of cesium from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) concentrated acidic tank waste. Batch contacts were performed to qualitatively evaluate the effects of increased nitric acid, sodium and potassium. An equilibrium isotherm was generated with simulated concentrated tank waste solutions and fit to the Langmuir equation. Additional batch contact experiments were performed to determine if mercury, plutonium and americium would sorb onto AMP-PAN. Dynamic sorption was evaluated in column tests employing 1.5 cm 3 columns operating at 5, 10 and 20 bed volumes of flow per hour. Results indicate, as expected, that dynamic cesium sorption capacity is reduced as the flowrate is increased. Calculated dynamic capacities for cesium were 22.5, 19.8 and 19.6 mg Cs/g sorbent, for 5, 10 and 20 bed volume per hour flows, respectively. The thermal stability of loaded AMP-PAN was evaluated by performing thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on samples of AMP, PAN (polymer), and AMP-PAN. Results indicate that AMP-PAN is stable to 400 deg C, with less than a 10% loss of weight, which is at least partially due to loss of water of hydration. The evaluation of AMP-PAN indicates that it will effectively remove cesium from concentrated acidic tank waste solutions. (author)

  11. Natural sorbents as barriers against migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.; Gradev, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The sorption properties of Bulgarian inorganic sorbents - clinoptilolite, vermiculite, bentonite, glauconite, celadonite and loess, which can be used as buffer, backfill and sealing materials in radwaste repository are studied. Experimental data about sorption and desorption capacities, radiation and thermal stability of sorbents from different Bulgarian deposits are reported and compared. Clinoptilolite from Beli Plast and its sodium variety from Kostino and Moryantsi is recommended as a barrier against radionuclide migration from radwaste repository due to their high sorption capacity of 137 Ce, 90 Sr and 60 Co. The high selectivity of vermiculite for polyvalent ions ( 144 Ce, 59 Fe and 90 Sr) gives grounds to include the sorption on vermiculite as a second step in the ion exchange technology for low level laundry waste decontamination. Bentonite is studied as a proposed buffer, backfill and sealing material. Its selectivity for cesium is lower compared to those of clinoptilolite. Thus a tailored-made mixture of bentonite and clinoptilolite will act as a barrier against radionuclides in different oxidation state. Glauconite can be successfully used as a barrier against migration of 144 Ce, 90 Sr, 54 Mn and 65 Zn. Loess is also included in the study, as the Kozloduy NPP is sited on loess formation and it is a natural potential site for low and intermediate level waste burial. It is concludes that zeolites and clays of Bulgarian deposits can be used effectively against radionuclide migration from radioactive waste repositories. 59 refs., 5 tabs. (author)

  12. Application potential of grapefruit peel as dye sorbent: kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of crystal violet adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Asma; Sharif, Mehwish; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-07-15

    This study reports the sorption of crystal violet (CV) dye by grapefruit peel (GFP), which has application potential in the remediation of dye-contaminated wastewaters using a solid waste generated by the citrus fruit juice industry. Batch adsorption of CV was conducted to evaluate the effect of initial pH, contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration, GFP adsorbent dose, and removal of the adsorbate CV dye from aqueous solution to understand the mechanism of sorption involved. Sorption equilibrium reached rapidly with 96% CV removal in 60 min. Fit of the sorption experimental data was tested on the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics mathematical equations, which was noted to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics better, with coefficient of correlation > or = 0.992. The equilibrium process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum sorption capacity of 254.16 mg g(-1). The GFP was regenerated using 1 M NaOH, with up to 98.25% recovery of CV and could be reused as a dye sorbent in repeated cycles. GFP was also shown to be highly effective in removing CV from aqueous solution in continuous-flow fixed-bed column reactors. The study shows that GFP has the potential of application as an efficient sorbent for the removal of CV from aqueous solutions. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of rapid calcination on properties of calcium-based sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Chang-Feng; Grace, John R.; Lim, C. Jim

    2010-01-01

    The calcination process may influence subsequent fragmentation, sintering and swelling when CaO derived from limestone acts as a CO 2 or SO 2 -sorbent in combustion, gasification and reforming. Sorbent properties are affected by CO 2 partial pressure, total pressure, temperature, heating rate, impurities and sample size. In this study, the effect of calcination heating rate was investigated based on an electrically heated platinum foil. The effects of heating rate (up to 800 C/s), calcination temperature (700-950 C), particle size (90-180 μm) and sweep gas velocity were investigated. Higher initial heating rates led to lower extents of limestone calcination, but the extents of carbonation of the resulting CaO were similar to each other. Calcium utilization declined markedly during carbonation or sulphation of CaO after calcination by rapid heating. Experimental results show that carbonation and calcium utilization were most effective for carbonation temperatures between 503 and 607 C. Increasing the extent of calcination is not the best way to improve overall calcium utilization due to the vast increase in energy consumption. (author)

  14. Use of inorganic sorbents for treatment of liquid radioactive waste and backfill of underground repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This document presents the results of a four year Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the ''Use of Inorganic Sorbents for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste and Backfill of Underground Repositories'' (1987-1991). Many countries have research programmes aiming at developing processes which would provide efficient and safe concentration of radionuclides in waste streams into solid materials which could then be reliably immobilized into forms suitable for long term storage or disposal. Use of inorganic sorbents for this purpose is very attractive because of their resistance to radiation and chemical attack, strong affinity for one or more radionuclides, their compatibility with likely immobilization matrices and their availability at low cost. According to the fundamental multibarrier concept for disposal of radioactive waste, backfill material is one of the important engineered barriers. Inorganic materials such as clays, naturally occurring zeolites (clinoptilolite, modenite and chabasite) are promising backfill materials. Research in technical uses of inorganic material applications was covered within the framework of the Co-ordinated Research Programme reported in this technical document. Final contributions by participants at the last Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Rez, Czechoslovakia, from 4 to 8 November 1991, are presented here. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Max J. H.; Kucera, Renata L.; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Gibson, Christopher T.; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Alboaiji, Salah F. K.; Muller, Katherine A.; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R.; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M.; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Lewis, David A.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury‐rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low‐cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by‐product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury‐capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi‐kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. PMID:28763123

  16. Process using sorbents for the removal of SOx from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnavaia, T.J.; Amareskera, J.; Polansky, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for removing the SO x components from a flue gas stream containing oxygen, sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide from the combustion of coal from a coal-fired boiler which comprises combusting the coal in the boiler to provide the flue gas stream and contacting the the gas stream with a heated sorbent composition at 400 degrees to 1000 degrees C wherein the the sorbent before being heated is selected from the group consisting of a layered double hydroxide composition of formula: [M 1-x II M x III (OH) 2 ](A n- ) x/n · yH 2 O wherein M II is a divalent metal cation and M III is a trivalent metal cation selected from the group consisting of Group IIA. IIB and IIIA metals as the cation which form metal oxides and which are capable of reacting with SO 2 to form metal sulfites and SO 3 to form metal sulfates, A is an interlayer anion of charge n- which comprises at least one metal atoms selected from the group consisting of main group metals and transition metals which provide oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide in an amount sufficient that the layered double hydroxide structure promotes the oxidation of the sulfur dioxide to the sulfur trioxide at the combustion conditions within the coal-fired boiler, wherein y is moles of water

  17. Influence of natural sorbents in immobilization of radioactive waste in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Dimovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Leach characteristics of 137 Cs and 60 Co radionuclides from spent mix bead ion exchange resins and both ordinary Portland cement and cement mixed with two kind of natural sorbents, (bentonite and clinoptilolite) have been studied using International Atomic Energy's (IAEA) standard leach method. A study is undertaken to determine the waste immobilization performance of low-level wastes in cement-natural sorbents mixtures. The solidification matrix was a standard Portland cement mixed with 290-350 (kg/m 3 ) spent mix bead exchange resins, with or without 1-10 % of bentonite or/and clinoptilolite The leaching rates from the cement-bentonite matrix as 60 Co: (1.20-9.72)x10 -5 (cm/d) and for 137 Cs: (1.00-9.22)x10 -4 (cm/d), after 300 days were measured. From the leaching data the apparent diffusivity of cobalt and cesium in cement bentonite or/and clinoptilolite matrix with a waste load of 350 (kg/m 3 ) spent mix bead exchange resins was measured as 60 Co: (1.0-5.9)x10 -6 (cm 2 /d) and for 137 Cs: (0.48-2.4)x10 -4 (cm 2 /d) after 300 days. The compressive strength of these samples is determined following the ASTM standards. These results are part of a 30-year mortar and concrete testing project which will influence the design of radioactive waste management for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center. (author)

  18. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Methyl iodide retention on charcoal sorbents at parts-per-million concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, G.O.; Vogt, G.J.; Kasunic, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    Breakthrough curves for charcoal beds challenged by air containing parts-per-million methyl iodide ( 127 I) vapor concentrations were obtained and analyzed. A goal of this research is to determine if sorbent tests at relatively high vapor concentrations give data that can be extrapolated many orders of magnitude to the region of interest for radioiodine retention and removal. Another objective is to identify and characterize parameters that are critical to the performance of a charcoal bed in a respirator cartridge application. Towards these ends, a sorbent test system was built that allows experimental variations of the parameters of challenge vapor concentration, volumetric flow rate, bed depth, bed diameter, and relative humidity. Methyl iodide breakthrough was measured at a limit of 0.002 ppM using a gas chromatograph equipped with a linearized electron capture detector. Several models that have been proposed to describe breakthrough curves were tested against experimental data. A variety of charcoals used or proposed for use in radioiodine air filtration systems have been tested against 25.7 ppM methyl iodide to obtain these parameters and protection (decomtamination) factors. Effects of challenge concentration, relative humidity, and bed diameter were also investigated. Significant challenge concentration dependence was measured (more efficiency at lower concentration) for two types of charcoals. Increased relative humidity greatly decreased breakthrough times for a given protection factor. Increased bed diameter greatly increased breakthrough times for a given protection factor. Implications of these effects for a test method are discussed

  20. Removal of mercury from water by carbonaceous sorbents derived from walnut shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihi, M.; Ahmadpour, A.; Asl, A. Haghighi

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption ability of a powdered activated carbon (PAC) derived from walnut shell was investigated in an attempt to produce more economic and effective sorbent for the control of Hg(II) ion from industrial liquid streams. Carbonaceous sorbents derived from Iranian walnut shell (WS) were prepared by chemical activation method using ZnCl 2 as an activating reagent. To the best of our knowledge, this adsorbent was not used before for removing mercury from water. Adsorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was carried out under different experimental conditions by varying treatment time, metal ion concentration, adsorbent amount, pH and solution temperature. It was determined that Hg(II) adsorption follows both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms as well as pseudo-second-order kinetics. It was also shown that Hg(II) uptake decreases with increasing pH of the solution. The proper choice of preparation conditions resulted in a microporous activated carbon with 0.45 g/cm 3 density, 737 mg/g iodine number and 780 m 2 /g BET surface area. The monolayer sorption capacity of this optimum adsorbent was obtained as 151.5 mg/g.

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Decomposition Odour in Soil Using Sorbent Tubes and Solid Phase Microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelynn A. Perrault

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Odour profiling of decomposed remains is important for understanding the mechanisms that cadaver dogs and forensically-relevant insects use to locate decomposed remains. The decomposition odour profile is complex and has been documented in outdoor terrestrial environments. The purpose of this study was to perform longitudinal analysis of the volatile organic compound (VOC profile in soils associated with decomposed remains across all stages of decomposition. Two VOC collection techniques (sorbent tubes and solid phase microextraction were used to collect a wider analyte range and to investigate differences in collection techniques. Pig carcasses were placed in an outdoor research facility in Australia to model the decomposition process and VOCs were collected intermittently over two months. VOCs of interest were identified over the duration of the trial, showing distinct trends in compound evolution and disappearance. The collection techniques were complementary, representing different subsets of VOCs from the overall profile. Sorbent tubes collected more decomposition-specific VOCs and these compounds were more effective at characterising the matrix over an extended period. Using both collection techniques improves the likelihood of identifying the complete VOC profile of decomposition odour. Such information is important for the search and recovery of victim remains in various stages of decomposition.

  2. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Max J H; Kucera, Renata L; Albuquerque, Inês S; Gibson, Christopher T; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D; Campbell, Jonathan A; Alboaiji, Salah F K; Muller, Katherine A; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M; Bhargava, Suresh K; Ippolito, Samuel J; Lewis, David A; Quinton, Jamie S; Ellis, Amanda V; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Chalker, Justin M

    2017-11-16

    Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury-rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low-cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by-product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury-capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi-kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of imprinted sorbent for separation of gramine from bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luliński, Piotr; Klejn, Dorota; Maciejewska, Dorota, E-mail: dmaciejewska@wum.edu.pl

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient sorbent for separation of N,N-dimethyl-3-aminomethylindole (gramine) from bovine serum albumin. An imprinting technology was involved in the synthesis of polymers from nine different functional monomers in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. The analysis of binding capacities showed that the highest specificity towards gramine was achieved when 4-vinylbenzoic acid was used as the functional monomer in methanol to form the bulk imprinted polymer, MIP1 (imprinting factor equal to 21.3). The Scatchard analysis of MIP1 showed two classes of binding sites with the dissociation constants K{sub d} equal to 0.105 and 6.52 μmol L{sup −1}. The composition and morphology of polymers were defined by {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR, BET and SEM-EDS analyses. The recognition mechanism of MIP1 was tested using the structurally related bioanalytes, and the dominant role of indole moiety and ethylamine side chain was revealed. A new MISPE protocol was optimized for separation of gramine. The total recoveries on MIP1 were equal to 94 ± 12 % from standard solutions and 85 ± 11 % from bovine serum albumin. - Highlights: • Indole alkaloid (gramine) imprinted polymer was synthesized. • Very high specifity of sorbent towards gramine was achieved. • Physico-chemical characteristics of novel material was presented. • Efficient MISPE protocol was proposed for separation of gramine from model sample.

  4. Titanium dioxide modified with various amines used as sorbents of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapica-Kozar, Joanna; Pirog, Ewa; Kusiak-Nejman, Ewelina; Wrobel, Rafal J.; Gesikiewicz-Puchalska, Andzelika; Morawski, Antoni W.; Narkiewicz, Urszula; Michalkiewicz, Beata

    2017-01-01

    In this study, titanium dioxide was modified with various amines through hydrothermal treatment for adsorption of CO_2. The carbon dioxide adsorption performance of the prepared samples was measured using an STA 449 C thermo-balance (Netzsch Company, Germany). The morphological structures, functional groups and elemental compositions of the unmodified and amine-modified titanium dioxide sorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR/DR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that modification of TiO_2 with amines through hydrothermal treatment is a simple method to prepare CO_2 sorbents with high adsorption capacities. Moreover, the results revealed that TEPA-modified titanium dioxide shoved the highest adsorption capacity, enabling an increase in CO_2 uptake from 0.45 mmol CO_2 g"-"1 in the case of raw TiO_2 to 1.63 mmol CO_2 g"-"1. This result could be indirectly related to the fact that TEPA has the highest amino group content among the three amines used in our research. Additionally, durability tests performed by cyclic adsorption-desorption revealed that TEPA modified titanium dioxide also possesses excellent stability, despite a slight decrease in adsorption capacity over time. (authors)

  5. Study of inorganic sorbents as materials for underground repositories in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhixiong, W.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1983, the construction of nuclear power plants has been taking place in Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces of China. The project is a part of the radwaste disposal plan of China. The project under the contract with IAEA studies absorption kinetics and mechanism of backfill material and selection of proper backfill material for the radwaste disposal plan. There are varieties of clay minerals as inorganic sorbents in China, such as zeolite, illite montomorillonite, kolinite, and so on. Bentonite is the first selected material for the research project. Bentonite is a common montonorillonite clay with good mechanical properties and chemical stability under certain conditions in a repository capacity. There are many huge bentonite deposits in China. China's LILW disposal will be possibly selected in the bentonite district. The investigation of China's bentonite will include the properties of China's sites, the study of migration of radionuclides and the geochemistry of actinides elements. Various bentonites of China have been studied to select one of good quality. The project is significant to assess the barrier ability of bentonite. The project also made the primary work for zeolite as a sorbent which has been used for the disposal of LILW liquid in China. Clinopliotite has been used in China's hydraulic fracture test of the radwaste liquid

  6. Glycidyl methacrylate macroporous copolymer grafted with diethylene triamine as sorbent for Reactive Black 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandić Zvjezdana P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, macroporous glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer functionalized with diethylene triamine [PGME-deta], was evaluated as Reactive Black 5 (RB5 sorbent. Batch RB5 removal from aqueous solution by PGME-deta was investigated by varying pH, contact time, sorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and temperature. The sorption is pH sensitive having maximum at pH 2 (dye removal of 85%, decreasing with the increase of pH (dye removal of 24% at pH=11 after 60 min. Sorption kinetics was fitted to chemical-reaction and particle-diffusion models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion and Mckay models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model accurately predicted the RB5 amount sorbed under all investigated operating conditions, while the intraparticle diffusion was the dominant rate-limiting mechanism. The diffusion mechanism was more prevalent with the decrease in temperature and the increase in concentration. The isotherm data was best fitted with the Langmuir model, indicating homogeneous distribution of active sites on PGME-deta and monolayer sorption, with the maximum sorption capacity of 353 mg g-1. The calculated sorption rates improved with increasing temperature and an activation energy close to 40 kJ mol-1 was determined, suggesting that chemisorption was also rate-controlling. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009, br. TR 37021 i br. III 45001

  7. Developing low-cost carbon-based sorbents for Hg capture from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, R.; Lakatos, J.; Snape, C.E.; Sun, C. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre

    2005-07-01

    To help reduce the cost of Hg capture from flue gas a number of low-cost carbons are being investigated, including activated tyre char and PFA carbon, in conjunction with some of the pre-treatments that have been found to be effective for commercial actived carbons. Experimental conditions for screening the sorbents have been selected to determine breakthrough capacities rapidly. The unactivated carbons have low breakthrough capacities under the test conditions employed (around 0.1 mg g{sup -1}) but these improve upon steam activation (around 0.25 mg g{sup -1}) but are still lower than those of non-impregnated commercial activated carbons (around 0.4-0.7 mg g{sup -1}), due to their lower surface areas. Comparable improvements to the commercial carbons have been achieved for impregnation treatments, including sulfur and bromine. However, certain gasification chars do have much higher breakthrough capacities than commercial carbons used for flue gas injection. Manganese oxide impregnation with low concentration is particularly effective for the activated and unactivated carbons giving breakthrough capacities comparable to the commercial carbons. Pointers for further increasing breakthrough and equilibrium capacities for carbon-based sorbents are discussed. 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. IgE and the role of the Radio-Allergo-Sorbent Test (RAST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grond, K.

    1976-01-01

    In 1966 a new immunoglobulin was found in persons with allergies and in non-typical myeloma proteins. Normally this immunoglobulin E is present only in nanogramms and rests with predilection on the membrane of mast-cells. There is a reaginic-anaphylactic reaction after re-exposure of antigens to the antigen-antibody reaction followed by denudation of mediators of the anaphylactic reaction. With the Radio-Immuno-Sorbent-Test (RIST) the IgE can be quantitatively determined. Elevated IgE-blood levels are typically found in atopic eczema. With the Radio-Allergo-Sorbent-Test (RAST) the allergen specific IgE can be defined. A conformity with appropriate patchtests can be achieved in 60-80% of the cases. In this review advantoses and problem of RIST- and RAST-diagnoses are described. RAST presents a valuable aid in diagnosis of allergies beeing not burdensome and risky, as it is easy to perform and bears no risk to the patients. At the present time, however, patch tests are necessary in the diagnosis of allergies. (orig.) [de

  9. Performance analysis of K-based KEP-CO2P1 solid sorbents in a bench-scale continuous dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Cheol; Jo, Sung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Yong; Moon, Jong-Ho; Yi, Chang-Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chong Kul; Lee, Joong Beom [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute (KEPCORI) have been developing a CO{sub 2} capture technology using dry sorbents. In this study, KEP-CO2P1, a potassium-based dry sorbent manufactured by a spray-drying method, was used. We employed a bench-scale dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture fluidized-bed process capable of capturing 0.5 ton CO{sub 2}/day at most. We investigated the sorbent performance in continuous operation mode with solid circulation between a fast fluidized-bed-type carbonator and a bubbling fluidizedbed- type regenerator. We used a slip stream of a real flue gas from 2MWe coal-fired circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) power facilities installed at KIER. Throughout more than 50 hours of continuous operation, the temperature of the carbonator was maintained around 70-80 .deg. C using a jacket-type heat exchanger, while that of the regenerator was kept above 180 .deg. C using an electric furnace. The differential pressure of both the carbonator and regenerator was maintained at a stable level. The maximum CO{sub 2} removal was greater than 90%, and the average CO{sub 2} removal was about 83% during 50 hours of continuous operation.

  10. Application of Taguchi method for separation of uranium from acetate bearing wastewater using hydroxamic acid based sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpati, S.K.; Hareendran, K.; Roy, S.B.; Vaidya, A.; Bankar, V.; Dasgupta, K.; Pal, S.

    2016-01-01

    Separation and recovery of uranium from effluent of nuclear facility has drawn immense attention in separation science research. The acetic acid based uranium solution effluent generated in uranium metal powder production facility was targeted for the study. Solid state separation technique has been employed using hydroxamic acid based chelating sorbent because of several advantages. In the study, the sorbent performances have been evaluated for its important parameters like isotherm, efficiency and kinetics. The equilibrium adsorption capacity (q e ) and distribution coefficient (K d ) of U(VI) have been evaluated as 3.24 mg/g sorbent and 805 ml/g sorbent respectively. Uranium has been recovered using HCl solution. Uranium removal from the feed was found to be more than 95% and the recovery of uranium was more than 99% from the adsorbed phase. Elution process is faster than sorption process. Taguchi optimization method has been applied for designing experimental study and also to identify the optimum operational conditions for uranium separation process.The developed process is useful for separation and recovery of uranium from acetate bearing wastewater generated in uranium processing facilities

  11. Enteric virus removal from water by coal-based sorbents: development of low-cost water filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, M.; Sattar, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using poliovirus type 1 (Sabin) and dechlorinated tap water, several coal-based sorbents were tested for their capacity to remove viruses from water. The sorbents included bituminous coal from Giridih, India, pretreated/impregnated with either alum, ferric hydroxide, lime or manganese dioxide. Filtrasorb-400, commercially available active carbon, was used as a reference. In batch tests, with input virus concentration of 2.34-2.83x10/sup 6/ PFU/1 and sorbent concentration of 10 g/l, alum pretreated coal removed about 96% of the virus when pH of the water was between 6.3 and 8.9. Virus sorption was rapid and a plateau was reached in 30 min. Compared with the active carbon, alum pretreated coal exhibited greater sorption energy and about one log higher limiting poliovirus sorption capacity. Downflow column study indicated the potential of alum pretreated coal as a filter media for removing enteric viruses from water. A previous study showed this sorbent to be capable of removing enteric bacteria as well. Water filters prepared from such low-cost material may prove useful for domestic use in rural areas of India and other developing countries. 19 refs.

  12. Research of a possibility of receiving sorbents for a sewage disposal from a wastage of coal preparation factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyantuev, S L; Stebenkova, Y Y; Khmelev, A B; Kondratenko, A S; Shishulkin, S Y

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the studies of the structure and porosity of the coal cake processed by electric arc plasma. The main limiting factor in processing of coal cakes sorbents is their high water content. As a result of coal washing, the main share of water introduced into the cake falls on hard-hydrate and colloidal components. This makes impossible application of traditional processes of manufacturing from a cake of coal sorbents. Using the electric arc intensifies the processes of thermal activation of coal cakes associated with thermal shock, destruction and vapor-gas reactions occurring at the surfaces of the particles at an exposure temperature of up to 3000 °C, which increases the title product outlet (sorbent) and thereby reduces manufacturing costs and improves environmental performance. The investigation of the thermal activation zone is carried out in the plasma reactor chamber by thermal imaging method followed by mapping-and 3D-modeling of temperature fields. the most important physical and chemical properties of the sorbents from coal cake activated by plasma was studied. The obtained results showed the possibility of coal cake thermal activation by electric arc plasma to change its material composition, the appearance of porosity and associated sorption capacity applied for wastewater treatment. (paper)

  13. Importance Role of Low-Cost Sorbent Produced from rice husk in Separation of zirconium from yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The agricultural waste, rice husk, was used as a precursor for the production of low-cost sorbent. Rice husk, a by-product of the rice milling industry, accounts for about 20 % of the whole rice. The argro-residue sorbent extracted from rice husk was employed in separation of zirconium from yttrium. The separation of Zr from the binary systems (Zr-Y) was achieved in batch and column modes. In a batch mode, the adsorption behavior was studied in deferent media, namely, hydrochloric acid, 0.1 M citrate buffer and 0.1 M acetate buffer. In addition, other factors affecting the sorption process of each metal e.g. ph-value of the medium and metal ion concentration were also studied. The breakthrough experiments were carried in the form of mini-column with different bed depths of sorbent at flow rates of 20 ml/min and 40 ml/min. These studies were performed to elucidate the valuable of use of locally, available, agro-residue for separation of Zr from Y target as a promising sorbent for purification of 88 Zr, 89 Zr from Y.

  14. Adsorption of chlorinated hydrocarbons from aqueous solutions by wetted and non-wetted synthetic sorbents:dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, G.; Rexwinkel, Glenn; Berkhout, J.T.A.M.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the present investigation the dynamics of the adsorption of several chlorinated hydrocarbons onto wetted and non-wetted synthetic sorbents was studied. A single particle model was developed to describe the adsorption behavior. The values of the mass transfer coefficient, needed to describe the

  15. 40 CFR Appendix K to Part 75 - Quality Assurance and Operating Procedures for Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pump. Use a leak-tight, vacuum pump capable of operating within the candidate system's flow range. 5.1... sorbent trap monitoring system typically operates. The gas flow meter shall be equipped with any necessary... system typically operates. You may either follow the procedures in section 10.3.1 of Method 5 in appendix...

  16. HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION: THE IN-SITU CAPTURE OF LEAD BY SORBENTS IN A LABORATORY DOWNFLOW COMBUSTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses experiments on a 17-kW downflow combustor to determine how sorbent injection into the postflame influenced the particle size distribution of a lead (Pb) aerosol formed from a surrogate Pb-containing waste. n the absence of chlorine (CI), the Pb aerosol size di...

  17. Poly(ethyleneimine) infused and functionalized Torlon®-silica hollow fiber sorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie; Labreche, Ying; Lively, Ryan P.; Lee, Jong Suk; Jones, Christopher W.; Koros, William J.

    2014-01-01

    -jet/wet-quench spinning process. In our study, a new technique for functionalizing polymeric silica hollow fiber sorbents with poly(ethyleneimine), followed by a post-spinning infusion step was studied. This two step process introduces a sufficient amount of poly

  18. Method of preparation of a CO.sub.2 removal sorbent with high chemical stability during multiple cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Rosencwaig, Shira

    2015-07-14

    Method for the production of a clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent prepared by integrating a clay substrate, basic alkali salt, and amine liquid. The basic alkali salt is present relative to the clay substrate in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 50 parts per 100 parts of the clay substrate. The amine liquid is present relative to a clay-alkali combination in a weight ratio of from about 1 part to about 10 parts per 10 parts of the clay-alkali combination. The clay substrate and basic alkali salt may be combined in a solid-solid heterogeneous mixture and followed by introduction of the amine liquid. Alternatively, an alkaline solution may be blended with the amine solution prior to contacting the clay substrate. The clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent is particularly advantageous for low temperature CO.sub.2 removal cycles in a gas stream having a CO.sub.2 concentration less than around 2000 ppm and an oxygen concentration around 21%, such as air. Results are presented illustrating the performance of the clay-alkali-amine CO.sub.2 sorbent compared to a clay-amine sorbent lacking the alkali inclusion.

  19. Research of a possibility of receiving sorbents for a sewage disposal from a wastage of coal preparation factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuev, S. L.; Kondratenko, A. S.; Shishulkin, S. Y.; Stebenkova, Y. Y.; Khmelev, A. B.

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the studies of the structure and porosity of the coal cake processed by electric arc plasma. The main limiting factor in processing of coal cakes sorbents is their high water content. As a result of coal washing, the main share of water introduced into the cake falls on hard-hydrate and colloidal components. This makes impossible application of traditional processes of manufacturing from a cake of coal sorbents. Using the electric arc intensifies the processes of thermal activation of coal cakes associated with thermal shock, destruction and vapor-gas reactions occurring at the surfaces of the particles at an exposure temperature of up to 3000 °C, which increases the title product outlet (sorbent) and thereby reduces manufacturing costs and improves environmental performance. The investigation of the thermal activation zone is carried out in the plasma reactor chamber by thermal imaging method followed by mapping-and 3D-modeling of temperature fields. the most important physical and chemical properties of the sorbents from coal cake activated by plasma was studied. The obtained results showed the possibility of coal cake thermal activation by electric arc plasma to change its material composition, the appearance of porosity and associated sorption capacity applied for wastewater treatment.

  20. Utilization of two invasive free-floating aquatic plants (Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes) as sorbents for oil removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xunan; Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-01-01

    Free-floating aquatic plants Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes are well-known invasive species in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to utilize the plants as cost-effective and environmentally friendly oil sorbents. Multilevel wrinkle structure of P. stratiotes leaf (PL), rough surface of E. crassipes leaf (EL), and box structure of E. crassipes stalk (ES) were observed using the scanning electron microscope. The natural hydrophobic structures and capillary rise tests supported the idea to use P. stratiotes and E. crassipes as oil sorbents. Experiments indicated that the oil sorption by the plants was a fast process. The maximum sorption capacities for different oils reached 5.1-7.6, 3.1-4.8, and 10.6-11.7 g of oil per gram of sorbent for PL, EL, and ES, respectively. In the range of 5-35 °C, the sorption capacities of the plants were not significantly different. These results suggest that the plants can be used as efficient oil sorbents.

  1. Off-Gas Treatment: Evaluation of Nano-structured Sorbents for Selective Removal of Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utgikar, Vivek; Aston, D. Eric; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2018-03-30

    Reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) is expected to play an important role for sustainable development of nuclear energy by increasing the energy extracted from the fuel and reducing the generation of the high level waste (HLW). However, aqueous reprocessing of UNF is accompanied by emission of off-gas streams containing radioactive nuclides including iodine, krypton, xenon, carbon, and tritium. Volatile iodine (129I), and krypton (85Kr) are long lived isotopes which have adverse effects on the environment as well as human health. Development of methods for the capture and long-term storage of radioactive gases is of crucial importance in order to manage their emissions that are anticipated to increase significantly with the growth of nuclear energy. For more than 70 years, porous solid sorbents have been in the forefront of radioactive contaminant removal due to promising results and their advantages such as high removal efficiency, low maintenance cost, simple equipment design and operation over other techniques. The research conducted in this project has focused on development of a novel nanostructured sorbent and its application for the capture of the above two contaminants of interest. Nanostructured carbon polyhedrons supported on Engelhard Titanosilicate-10 sorbent was synthesized using hydrothermal methods and subjected to structural and compositional characterization using various techniques including electron microscopy, Raman, x-ray diffraction and BET surface area analysis. Dynamic sorption experiments conducted using a flow-through column setup yielded information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of sorption in single-contaminant and multi-contaminant streams. Parameters varied in the study included carbon loading, temperature, contact time, contaminant concentration and humidity. The behavior of the system was modeled using models available in literature as well as development of a mass-transfer model from fundamental principles. Experimental

  2. Preparation of an aminopropyl imidazole-modified silica gel as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction of carboxylic acid compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Guo, Yong; Wang, Licheng; Liang, Xiaojing; Liu, Shujuan; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2014-05-21

    In this paper, a kind of aminopropyl imidazole-modified silica sorbent was synthesized and used as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for the determination of carboxylic acid compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The resultant aminopropyl imidazole-modified silica sorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis (EA) to ensure the successful binding of aminopropyl imidazole on the surface of silica gel. Then the aminopropyl imidazole-modified silica sorbent served as a SPE sorbent for the enrichment of carboxylic acid compounds and PAHs. The new sorbent exhibited high extraction efficiency towards the tested compounds and the results show that such a sorbent can offer multiple intermolecular interactions: electrostatic, π-π, and hydrophobic interactions. Several parameters affecting the extraction recovery, such as the pH of sample solution, the pH of eluent, the solubility of eluent, the volume of eluent, and sample loading, were also investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method was applied to the analysis of four carboxylic acid compounds and four PAHs in environmental water samples. Good linearities were obtained for all the tested compounds with R(2) larger than 0.9903. The limits of detection were found to be in the range of 0.0065-0.5 μg L(-1). The recovery values of spiked river water samples were from 63.2% to 112.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10.1% (n = 4).

  3. Engineering metal (hydr)oxide sorbents for removal of arsenate and similar weak-acid oxyanion contaminants: A critical review with emphasis on factors governing sorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Kiril D; Markovski, Jasmina

    2017-11-15

    To create an integrative foundation for engineering of the next generation inexpensive sorbent systems, this critical review addresses the existing knowledge gap in factor/performance relationships between weak-acid oxyanion contaminants and metal (hydr)oxide sorbents. In-depth understanding of fundamental thermodynamics and kinetics mechanisms, material fabrication, and analytical and characterization techniques, is necessary to engineer sorbent that exhibit high capacity, selectivity, stability, durability and mass transport of contaminants under a wide range of operating and water matrix conditions requirements. From the perspective of thermodynamics and kinetics, this critical review examines the factors affecting sorbent performances and analyzes the existing research to elucidate future directions aimed at developing novel sorbents for removal of weak-acid oxyanion contaminants from water. Only sorbents that allow construction of simple and inexpensive water treatment systems adapted to overcome fiscal and technological barriers burdening small communities could pave the road for providing inexpensive potable water to millions of people. Novel sorbents, which exhibit (1) poor performances in realistic operating and water matrix conditions and/or (2) do not comply with the purely driven economics factors of production scalability or cost expectations, are predestined to never be commercialized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of rice husk ash addition on CO2 capture behavior of calcium-based sorbent during calcium looping cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yingjie; Zhao, Changsui; Ren, Qiangqiang; Duan, Lunbo; Chen, Huichao; Chen, Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    Rice husk ash/CaO was proposed as a CO 2 sorbent which was prepared by rice husk ash and CaO hydration together. The CO 2 capture behavior of rice husk ash/CaO sorbent was investigated in a twin fixed bed reactor system, and its apparent morphology, pore structure characteristics and phase variation during cyclic carbonation/calcination reactions were examined by SEM-EDX, N 2 adsorption and XRD, respectively. The optimum preparation conditions for rice husk ash/CaO sorbent are hydration temperature of 75 C, hydration time of 8 h, and mole ratio of SiO 2 in rice husk ash to CaO of 1.0. The cyclic carbonation performances of rice husk ash/CaO at these preparation conditions were compared with those of hydrated CaO and original CaO. The temperature at 660 C-710 C is beneficial to CO 2 absorption of rice husk ash/CaO, and it exhibits higher carbonation conversions than hydrated CaO and original CaO during multiple cycles at the same reaction conditions. Rice husk ash/CaO possesses better anti-sintering behavior than the other sorbents. Rice husk ash exhibits better effect on improving cyclic carbonation conversion of CaO than pure SiO 2 and diatomite. Rice husk ash/CaO maintains higher surface area and more abundant pores after calcination during the multiple cycles; however, the other sorbents show a sharp decay at the same reaction conditions. Ca 2 SiO 4 found by XRD detection after calcination of rice husk ash/CaO is possibly a key factor in determining the cyclic CO 2 capture behavior of rice husk ash/CaO. (author)

  5. Synthesis and application of surface-imprinted activated carbon sorbent for solid-phase extraction and determination of copper (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Li, Jingwen; Wang, Yanbin; Wei, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    A new Cu(II)-imprinted amino-functionalized activated carbon sorbent was prepared by a surface imprinting technique for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Cu(II) prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Experimental conditions for effective adsorption of Cu(II) were optimized with respect to different experimental parameters using static and dynamic procedures in detail. Compared with non-imprinted sorbent, the ion-imprinted sorbent had higher selectivity and adsorption capacity for Cu(II). The maximum static adsorption capacity of the ion-imprinted and non-imprinted sorbent for Cu(II) was 26.71 and 6.86 mg g-1, respectively. The relatively selectivity factor values (αr) of Cu(II)/Zn(II), Cu(II)/Ni(II), Cu(II)/Co(II) and Cu(II)/Pb(II) were 166.16, 50.77, 72.26 and 175.77, respectively, which were greater than 1. Complete elution of the adsorbed Cu(II) from Cu(II)-imprinted sorbent was carried out using 2 mL of 0.1 mol L-1 EDTA solution. The relative standard deviation of the method was 2.4% for eleven replicate determinations. The method was validated for the analysis by two certified reference materials (GBW 08301, GBW 08303), the results obtained is in good agreement with standard values. The developed method was also successfully applied to the determination of trace copper in natural water samples with satisfactory results.

  6. Characteristic of New Solid-Phase Extraction Sorbent: Activated Carbon Prepared from Rice Husks under Base Treated Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrida Kurnia Putri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A characterization of activated carbon (ACs prepared from rice husks (RHs under base treated condition as a new sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE to extract 4-nonylphenol isomers (4-NPs in water samples has been done. The ACs prepared from RHs usually exhibits low specific surface area due to its high ash content, but in case of its application for SPE, there are other factors need to be considered, such as the existence of functional groups inside the sorbent, that can enhance interaction of non-polar sorbent with analyte in the water matrices. In this case, silanol groups from ash content may affect the extraction efficiency for 4-NPs. The ACs made from RHs were chemically impregnated with ZnCl2 and carbonized at 800oC. To investigate the role of silica, three types of ACs were prepared, i.e., untreated ACs (AC–Si, contain silica, base treated ACs (AC–B–Si, remain some silica inside, and ACs made by base treated RHs (AC–B, no silica, the surface area obtained from these treatments were 1352 m2/g, 1666 m2/g, and 1712m2/g respectively.  ACs made by base treatment has the highest surface area (related to BET, which indicat that silica removal process promotes the formation of open pore system on ACs and enhances the surface area of ACs. However, extraction efficiency measured by GC-MS in SPE process showed the reversal trends (i.e., AC–Si= 32.08%, AC–B–Si= 82.63%, AC–B=51.78%, among them the AC–B–Si sorbent reveal the best performance in SPE process. It is indicated that although silica usually exhibits low specific surface area, but control presence of silica as a polar functional group has a positive influence in the interaction between non-polar sorbent and 4-NPs.

  7. Effect of pH on lead removal from water using tree fern as the sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2005-07-01

    The sorption of lead from water onto an agricultural by-product, tree fern, was examined as a function of pH. The sorption processes were carried out using an agitated and baffled system. Pseudo-second-order kinetic analyses were performed to determine the rate constant of sorption, the equilibrium sorption capacity, and the initial sorption rate. Application of the pseudo-second-order kinetics model produced very high coefficients of determination. Results showed the efficiency of tree fern as a sorbent for lead. The optimum pH for lead removal was between 4 and 7, with pH 4.9 resulting in better lead removal. Ion exchange occurred in the initial reaction period. In addition, a relation between the change in the solution hydrogen ion concentration and equilibrium capacity was developed and is presented.

  8. A New Enzyme-linked Sorbent Assay (ELSA) to Quantify Syncytiotrophoblast Extracellular Vesicles in Biological Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhner, Claudia; Weber, Maja; Tannetta, Dionne S; Groten, Tanja; Plösch, Torsten; Faas, Marijke M; Scherjon, Sicco A; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R; Fitzgerald, Justine S

    2015-06-01

    The pregnancy-associated disease preeclampsia is related to the release of syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV) by the placenta. To improve functional research on STBEV, reliable and specific methods are needed to quantify them. However, only a few quantification methods are available and accepted, though imperfect. For this purpose, we aimed to provide an enzyme-linked sorbent assay (ELSA) to quantify STBEV in fluid samples based on their microvesicle characteristics and placental origin. Ex vivo placenta perfusion provided standards and samples for the STBEV quantification. STBEV were captured by binding of extracellular phosphatidylserine to immobilized annexin V. The membranous human placental alkaline phosphatase on the STBEV surface catalyzed a colorimetric detection reaction. The described ELSA is a rapid and simple method to quantify STBEV in diverse liquid samples, such as blood or perfusion suspension. The reliability of the ELSA was proven by comparison with nanoparticle tracking analysis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Use of Spent Zeolite Sorbents for the Preparation of Lightweight Aggregates Differing in Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Franus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight aggregates (LWAs made by sintering beidellitic clay deposits at high temperatures, with and without the addition of spent zeolitic sorbents (clinoptilolitic tuff and Na-P1 made from fly ash containing diesel oil, were investigated. Mineral composition of the aggregates determined by X-ray diffraction was highly uniformized in respect of the initial composition of the substrates. The microstructure of the LWAs, which were studied with a combination of mercury porosimetry, microtomography, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning electron microscopy, was markedly modified by the spent zeolites, which diminished bulk densities, increased porosities and pore radii. The addition of zeolites decreased water absorption and the compressive strength of the LWAs. The spent Na-P1 had a greater effect on the LWAs’ structure than the clinoptilolite.

  10. Application of Mineral Sorbents for Removal of Petroleum Substances: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Bandura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution with petroleum products has become a major problem worldwide, and is a consequence of industrial growth. The development of sustainable methods for the removal of petroleum substances and their derivatives from aquatic and terrestrial environments and from air has therefore become extremely important today. Advanced technologies and materials dedicated to this purpose are relatively expensive; sorption methods involving mineral sorbents are therefore popular and are widely described in the scientific literature. Mineral materials are easily available, low-cost, universal adsorbents and have a number of properties that make them suitable for the removal of petroleum substances. This review describes recent works on the use of natural, synthetic and modified mineral adsorbents for the removal of petroleum substances and their derivatives from roads, water and air.

  11. Relating Bioavailability Parameters to the Sorbent Characteristics of PAH Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolome, N.; Hilber, I.; Schulin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants (HOC) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is still based on total concentrations. However, many studies have demonstrated that not all of a pollutant’s content in soil is equally available to organisms (Reichenberg & Mayer 2006...... to several sorbent characteristics including organic and black carbon content. The results will provide a better understanding of bioavailability of PAHs in soils. Moreover, the outcomes will be discussed regarding to the potential application of chemical proxies in soil pollution risk assessment......). Over the last decade, intensive effort has been made to incorporate bioavailability into risk assessment (Cachada et al. 2014). Here, we compare total concentrations of PAH with two bioavailability parameters in 30 different soil samples from the archive of the standardized National and Zurich Cantonal...

  12. A critical review of microextraction by packed sorbent as a sample preparation approach in drug bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gilberto; Rodrigues, Márcio; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar; Queiroz, João

    2013-06-01

    Sample preparation is widely accepted as the most labor-intensive and error-prone part of the bioanalytical process. The recent advances in this field have been focused on the miniaturization and integration of sample preparation online with analytical instrumentation, in order to reduce laboratory workload and increase analytical performance. From this perspective, microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) has emerged in the last few years as a powerful sample preparation approach suitable to be easily automated with liquid and gas chromatographic systems applied in a variety of bioanalytical areas (pharmaceutical, clinical, toxicological, environmental and food research). This paper aims to provide an overview and a critical discussion of recent bioanalytical methods reported in literature based on MEPS, with special emphasis on those developed for the quantification of therapeutic drugs and/or metabolites in biological samples. The advantages and some limitations of MEPS, as well as its comparison with other extraction techniques, are also addressed herein.

  13. Application of polyurethane foam as a sorbent for trace metal pre-concentration — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, V. A.; Santos, M. S.; Santos, E. S.; Santos, M. J. S.; dos Santos, W. N. L.; Souza, A. S.; de Jesus, D. S.; das Virgens, C. F.; Carvalho, M. S.; Oleszczuk, N.; Vale, M. G. R.; Welz, B.; Ferreira, S. L. C.

    2007-01-01

    The first publication on the use of polyurethane foam (PUF) for sorption processes dates back to 1970, and soon after the material was applied for separation processes. The application of PUF as a sorbent for solid phase extraction of inorganic analytes for separation and pre-concentration purposes is reviewed. The physical and chemical characteristics of PUF (polyether and polyester type) are discussed and an introduction to the characterization of these sorption processes using different types of isotherms is given. Separation and pre-concentration methods using unloaded and loaded PUF in batch and on-line procedures with continuous flow and flow injection systems are presented. Methods for the direct solid sampling analysis of the PUF after pre-concentration are discussed as well as approaches for speciation analysis. Thermodynamic proprieties of some extraction processes are evaluated and the interpretation of determined parameters, such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy in light of the physico-chemical processes is explained.

  14. Uptake of metal ions by a silica-based tetraphenylporphyrin sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyrzynska, K.; Sadowska, M.; Trojanowicz, M.

    1999-09-01

    The [5-p-carboxyphenyl-10,15,20-triphenyl]porphyrin (TPP) covalently attached to aminopropyl silica gel was examined with respect to the sorption of transition metal ions. The distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) are reported for some metal ions with this new sorbent as a function of pH. It was found that in optimum pH conditions the sorption of Cu(II) and Fe(III) is much faster than that of Co(II) and Cr(III). The binding of metal ions is strongly affected by the presence of various species accelerating the complex formation. The application of porphyrin ligands for preconcentration and metal-matrix separation was also examined using complex formation in solution coupled with an anion exchange resin and column chelation procedure, e.g. sorption of metal on an anion exchanger previously loaded with tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin.

  15. Obtaining sorbents of metal ions based on yeast cells Rhodotorula glutinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Tattibayeva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ability to separate Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions from solution using yeast cells Rhodotorulа glutinis were considered. The degree of water purification in this case is of 60-70%. To increase the degree of binding of metal ions with cells and facilitate separation processes of water sorbents their immobilization on the surface of the water in the presence of polyethyleneimine was carried out. It is shown that under optimal conditions on the surface of 1 g diatomite 18 ∙ 106 cells is adsorbed. The high sorption capacity of diatomite justified its porosity. IR spectroscopic study of the interaction of the ions Cu2+ and Pb2+ with cell surface showed that high affinity Pb2 + ions to the surface of yeast cells is connected with form of slightly soluble compounds with the phosphate ions.

  16. Fabrication of ATALANTE Dissolver Off-Gas Sorbent-Based Capture System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Jr., Joseph Franklin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-30

    A small sorbent-based capture system was designed that could be placed in the off-gas line from the fuel dissolver in the ATALANTE hot cells with minimal modifications to the ATALANTE dissolver off-gas system. Discussions with personnel from the ATALANTE facility provided guidance that was used for the design. All components for this system have been specified, procured, and received on site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), meeting the April 30, 2015, milestone for completing the fabrication of the ATALANTE dissolver off-gas capture system. This system will be tested at ORNL to verify operation and to ensure that all design requirements for ATALANTE are met. Modifications to the system will be made, as indicated by the testing, before the system is shipped to ATALANTE for installation in the hot cell facility.

  17. Investigations of the sorption of cesium from acid solutions by various inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.; Pfrepper, G.

    1981-01-01

    Studies have been made to investigate the suitability of various inorganic sorbents for separating and obtaining cesium from acid solutions. In greater details, the distribution coefficients of cesium from nitric acid and ammonium nitrate solution were determined. To determine the saturation capacities it was necessary to plot the isotherms of adsorption from 0.5 N and 3.1 N nitric acid. Experimental sorption from a model solution, of which the composition was equal to that of the liquid Purex waste, enabled the suitability of the various exchangers for obtaining cesium from fission product solutions to be determined. From the results obtained it is apparent that ammonium phosphomolybdate is best suited for obtaining cesium from acid fission product solutions. (orig.)

  18. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  19. Granulated bog iron ores as sorbents in passive (bio)remediation systems for arsenic removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiec, Klaudia; Rzepa, Grzegorz; Bajda, Tomasz; Uhrynowski, Witold; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Krzysztoforski, Jan; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2018-03-01

    The main element of PbRS (passive (bio)remediation systems) are sorbents, which act as natural filters retaining heavy metals and carriers of microorganisms involved in water treatment. Thus, the effectiveness of PbRS is determined by the quality of the (ad)sorbents, which should be stable under various environmental conditions, have a wide range of applications and be non-toxic to (micro)organisms used in these systems. Our previous studies showed that bog iron ores (BIOs) meet these requirements. However, further investigation of the physical and chemical parameters of BIOs under environmental conditions is required before their large-scale application in PbRS. The aim of this study was (i) to investigate the ability of granulated BIOs (gBIOs) to remove arsenic from various types of contaminated waters, and (ii) to estimate the application potential of gBIOs in technologies dedicated to water treatment. These studies were conducted on synthetic solutions of arsenic and environmental samples of arsenic contaminated water using a set of adsorption columns filled with gBIOs. The experiments performed in a static system revealed that gBIOs are appropriate arsenic and zinc adsorbent. Dynamic adsorption studies confirmed these results and showed that the actual sorption efficiency of gBIOs depends on the adsorbate concentration and is directly proportional to them. Desorption analysis showed that As-loaded gBIOs are characterized by high chemical stability and they may be reused for the (ad)sorption of other elements, i.e. zinc. It was also shown that gBIOs may be used for remediation of both highly oxygenated waters and groundwater or settling ponds, where the oxygen level is low, as both forms of inorganic arsenic (arsenate and arsenite) were effectively removed. Arsenic concentration after treatment was <100 µg/L, which is below the limit for industrial water.

  20. Oil uptake by plant-based sorbents and its biodegradation by their naturally associated microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, Narjes; Ali, Nedaa; Khanafer, Majida; Radwan, Samir S.

    2017-01-01

    The plant waste-products, wheat straw, corn-cobs and sugarcane bagasse took up respectively, 190, 110 and 250% of their own weights crude oil. The same materials harbored respectively, 3.6 × 10 5 , 8.5 × 10 3 and 2.3 × 10 6  g −1  cells of hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, as determined by a culture-dependent method. The molecular, culture-independent analysis revealed that the three materials were associated with microbial communities comprising genera known for their hydrocarbonoclastic activity. In bench-scale experiments, inoculating oily media with samples of the individual waste products led to the biodegradation of 34.0–44.9% of the available oil after 8 months. Also plant-product samples, which had been used as oil sorbents lost 24.3–47.7% of their oil via their associated microorganisms, when kept moist for 8 months. In this way, it is easy to see that those waste products are capable of remediating spilled oil physically, and that their associated microbial communities can degrade it biologically. - Highlights: • Wheat straw, corn-cobs and sugarcane bagasse take up large amounts of oil. • The three materials harbor hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. • Inoculating oily liquid media with the three materials separately led to biodegradation of oil. - Plant-based oil sorbents harbor microorganisms with hydrocarbon-utilization potential which makes such natural materials valuable tools for bioremediation of oil spilled in the environment.