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Sample records for sorbent material concept

  1. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents: Concept, fabrication and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval

    2013-02-01

    Hollow fiber sorbents are pseudo-monolithic separations materials created with fiber spinning technology using a polymer \\'binder\\', impregnated with high loadings of sorbent \\'fillers\\' [1]. To increase purified gas recovery during the sorption step and to ensure consistent sorption capacity over repeated cycles, a dense, thin polymer barrier layer on the fiber sorbents is needed to allow only thermal interactions between the sorbate loaded layer and the thermal regeneration fluid. This paper considers materials and methods to create delamination-free dual layer fiber sorbents, with a porous core and a barrier sheath layer formed using a simultaneous co-extrusion process. Low permeability polymers were screened for sheath layer creation, with the core layer comprising cellulose acetate polymer as binder and zeolite NaY as sorbent fillers. Appropriate core and sheath layer dope compositions were determined by the cloud-point method and rheology measurements. The morphology of the as-spun fibers was characterized in detail by SEM, EDX and gas permeation analysis. A simplified qualitative model is described to explain the observed fiber morphology. The effects of core, sheath spin dope and bore fluid compositions, spinning process parameters such as air-gap height, spin dope and coagulation bath temperatures, and elongation draw ratio are examined in detail. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tunable polymeric sorbent materials for fractionation of model naphthenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed H; Wilson, Lee D; Headley, John V

    2013-04-04

    The sorption properties are reported for several examples of single-component carboxylic acids representing naphthenic acids (NAs) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based polyurethane sorbents. Seven single-component examples of NAs were chosen with variable z values, carbon number, and chemical structure as follows: 2-hexyldecanoic acid (z = 0 and C = 16; S1), n-caprylic acid (z = 0 and C = 8; S2), trans-4-pentylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (z = -2 and C = 12; S3), 4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid (z = -2 and C = 8; S4), dicyclohexylacetic acid (z = -4; C = 14; S5), 4-pentylbicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-carboxylic acid (z = -4; C = 14; S6), and lithocholic acid (z = -6; C = 24; S7). The copolymer sorbents were synthesized at three relative β-CD:diisocyanate mole ratios (i.e., 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3) using 4,4'-dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate (CDI) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents were characterized using equilibrium sorption isotherms in aqueous solution at pH 9.00 with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The equilibrium fraction of the unbound carboxylate anions was monitored in the aqueous phase. The sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents (i.e., Qm) were obtained from the Sips isotherm model. The Qm values generally decrease as the number of accessible β-CD inclusion sites in the copolymer framework decreases. The chemical structure of the adsorbates played an important role in their relative uptake, as evidenced by the adsorbate lipophilic surface area (LSA) and the involvement of hydrophobic effects. The copolymers exhibit molecular selective sorption of the single-component carboxylates in mixtures which suggests their application as sorbents for fractionation of mixtures of NAs. By comparison, granular activated carbon (GAC) and chitosan sorbents did not exhibit any significant molecular selective sorption relative to the copolymer materials; however, evidence of variable sorption capacity was

  3. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents: Concept, fabrication and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval; Olanrewaju, Kayode O.; Bessho, Naoki; Breedveld, Victor; Koros, William J.

    2013-01-01

    and to ensure consistent sorption capacity over repeated cycles, a dense, thin polymer barrier layer on the fiber sorbents is needed to allow only thermal interactions between the sorbate loaded layer and the thermal regeneration fluid. This paper considers

  4. Sorption of agrochemical model compounds by sorbent materials containing beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; Guo, Rui; Pratt, Dawn Y; Kwon, Jae Hyuck; Mahmud, Sarker T

    2010-04-01

    Polymeric sorbent materials that incorporate beta-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption behavior toward two model agrochemical contaminant compounds, p-nitrophenol (PNP) and methyl chloride examined. The sorption of PNP was studied in aqueous solution using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, whereas the sorption of methyl chloride from the gas phase was studied using a Langmuir adsorption method. The sorption results for PNP in solution were compared between granular activated carbon (GAC), modified GAC, CD copolymers, and CD-based mesoporous silica hybrid materials. Nitrogen porosimetry at 77 K was used to estimate the surface area and pore structure properties of the sorbent materials. The sorbents displayed variable surface areas as follows: copolymers (36.2-157 m(2)/g), CD-silica materials (307-906 m(2)/g), surface modified GAC (657 m(2)/g), and granular activated carbon (approximately 10(3) m(2)/g). The sorption capacities for PNP and methyl chloride with the different sorbents are listed in descending order as follows: GAC > copolymers > surface modified GAC > CD-silica hybrid materials. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the sorbents were related to the following: (i) surface area of the sorbent, (ii) CD content and accessibility, (iii) and the chemical nature of the sorbent material.

  5. Sorbent suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedder, M.

    1994-01-01

    Sorbents are used to absorb or contain spilled and leaking chemicals, oils, lubricants and other process fluids. They are commonly used around the base of machinery in industrial applications, and in remediating oil spills on land and water. Sorbents are made from biodegradable, inorganic or synthetic materials. Organic materials include corn cobs, wood pulp, paper fiber and cotton. Inorganic materials include clay, perlite, expanded silicates and expanded mica. Synthetic sorbents are made from petroleum- or plastic-based materials such as polyurethane, polyethylene or polypropylene. Sorbents are available in a variety of forms, including pads, rolls, booms, pillows and loose particulate

  6. Evaluation of silk-floss fiber and dog fur as sorbent materials for the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Lucas P. dos [Universidade Federal do Parana (PGMec/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Dubiella, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica; Perotta, Larissa [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa Interdisciplinar em Engenharia de Petroleo e Gas Natural; Satyanarayana, Kestur G. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Flores-Sahagun, Thais Sydenstricker [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    In this study silk-floss and dog fur were tested as sorbent materials for oils and the results were compared with peat, a commercial sorbent. Sorption tests were carried out in dry and aqueous systems, with and without stirring for different periods of time (5-1440 min). Density, hydrophobicity, buoyancy and water uptake by the fibers of the impregnated sorbents have been determined. The use of silk-floss and dog fur was also tested in columns to purify water containing toluene, benzene, motor oil or sunflower oil. Breakthrough curves during 120 min were drawn for each material with the samples (oily water or water containing benzene or toluene) and were analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy. It was concluded that the silk-floss is the best sorbent material (65.3 g oil/g sorbent) followed by the dog fur (34.6 g oil/g sorbent) and peat (19.5 g oil/g sorbent), for sorption time of 1 h in dynamic condition. The efficiency of the pollutant removal from water with the use of adsorption columns was high for both materials although the use of dog fur was preferable because of the slight superiority in efficiency compared to silk-floss and also, due to the easier packing of the dog fur in the column. (author)

  7. Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee D. Wilson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g, CDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g, and granular activated carbon (GAC ~103 m2/g. The sorption capacities for the copolymers sorbents are listed in descending order, as follows: GAC > CDI-3 copolymer ≈ MDI-3 copolymer. The sorption capacity for the aromatic adsorbates with each sorbent are listed in descending order, as follows: 2,4-dichlorophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid > pentachlorophenol. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents with the chlorinated organics were related to the following factors: (i surface area of the sorbent; (ii CD content and accessibility; and (iii and the chemical nature of the sorbent material.

  8. Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; Berhaut, Christopher L

    2011-08-29

    Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC) were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (granular activated carbon (GAC ~10³ m²/g). The sorption capacities for the copolymers sorbents are listed in descending order, as follows: GAC > CDI-3 copolymer ≈ MDI-3 copolymer. The sorption capacity for the aromatic adsorbates with each sorbent are listed in descending order, as follows: 2,4-dichlorophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid > pentachlorophenol. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents with the chlorinated organics were related to the following factors: (i) surface area of the sorbent; (ii) CD content and accessibility; and (iii) and the chemical nature of the sorbent material.

  9. Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Lee D.; Mohamed, Mohamed H.; Berhaut, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC) were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g), CDI-X cop...

  10. Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunciado, T R; Sydenstricker, T H D; Amico, S C

    2005-11-01

    Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. Various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85goil/g sorbent (in 24hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application.

  11. Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunciado, T.R.; Sydenstricker, T.H.D.; Amico, S.C. [Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, (Brazil). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-11-15

    Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85 g oil/g sorbent (in 24 hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application. (author)

  12. Novel sorbent materials for environmental remediation via Pyrolysis of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaniotou, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    showed the appearance of micropores to mesopores in the produced tire active carbons. Activated carbon prepared from olive kernel is a super active carbon and used as an adsorbent for the removal of pesticide from aqueous solutions (Bromopropylate). The higher removal achieved was 100% in 60 min. The produced activated carbon from agricultural residue was proved to be very effective for gas and water stream purification. Biomass can give a wide spectrum of fuels and materials in the integrated concept of biorefinery

  13. Using sorbent waste materials to enhance treatment of micro-point source effluents by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Verity; Surridge, Ben; Quinton, John; Matthews, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Sorbent materials are widely used in environmental settings as a means of enhancing pollution remediation. A key area of environmental concern is that of water pollution, including the need to treat micro-point sources of wastewater pollution, such as from caravan sites or visitor centres. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent one means for effective treatment of wastewater from small wastewater producers, in part because they are believed to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove a range of pollutants found in wastewater, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and carbon (C), whilst also reducing the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in effluents. However, there remain particular challenges for P and N removal from wastewater in CWs, as well as the sometimes limited BOD removal within these treatment systems, particularly for micro-point sources of wastewater. It has been hypothesised that the amendment of CWs with sorbent materials can enhance their potential to treat wastewater, particularly through enhancing the removal of N and P. This paper focuses on data from batch and mesocosm studies that were conducted to identify and assess sorbent materials suitable for use within CWs. The aim in using sorbent material was to enhance the combined removal of phosphate (PO4-P) and ammonium (NH4-N). The key selection criteria for the sorbent materials were that they possess effective PO4-P, NH4-N or combined pollutant removal, come from low cost and sustainable sources, have potential for reuse, for example as a fertiliser or soil conditioner, and show limited potential for re-release of adsorbed nutrients. The sorbent materials selected for testing were alum sludge from water treatment works, ochre derived from minewater treatment, biochar derived from various feedstocks, plasterboard and zeolite. The performance of the individual sorbents was assessed through

  14. Sorbent materials for rapid remediation of wash water during radiological event relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolin, William C.; Kaminski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Procedures for removing harmful radiation from interior and exterior surfaces of homes and businesses after a nuclear or radiological disaster may generate large volumes of radiologically contaminated waste water. Rather than releasing this waste water to potentially contaminate surrounding areas, it is preferable to treat it onsite. Retention barrels are a viable option because of their simplicity in preparation and availability of possible sorbent materials. This study investigated the use of aluminosilicate clay minerals as sorbent materials to retain 137Cs, 85Sr, and 152Eu. Vermiculite strongly retained 137Cs, though other radionuclides displayed diminished affinity for the surface. Montmorillonite exhibited increased affinity to sorb 85Sr and 152Eu in the presence of higher concentrations of 137Cs. To simulate flow within retention barrels, vermiculite was mixed with sand and used in small-scale column experiments. The GoldSim contaminate fate module was used to model breakthrough and assess the feasibility of using clay minerals as sorbent materials in retention barrels. The modeled radionuclide breakthrough profiles suggest that vermiculite-sand and montmorillonite-sand filled barrels could be used for treatment of contaminated water generated from field operations.

  15. Feasibility Study for the Use of Green, Bio-Based, Efficient Reactive Sorbent Material to Neutralize Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    REPORT Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents 14. ABSTRACT 16...way cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses interact as well as whole wood dissolution occurs in ILs. The present project was conducted to 1. REPORT...Feasibility study for the use of green, bio-based, efficient reactive sorbent material to neutralize chemical warfare agents Report Title ABSTRACT Over the

  16. F- and H-Area Seepage Basins Water Treatment System Process Optimization and Alternative Chemistry Ion Exchange/Sorbent Material Screening Clearwell Overflow Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2000-08-30

    This study investigated alternative ion exchange/sorbent materials and polishing chemistries designed to remove specific radionuclides not removed during the neutralization/precipitation/clarification process.

  17. Study of inorganic sorbents as materials for underground repositories in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhixiong, W.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1983, the construction of nuclear power plants has been taking place in Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces of China. The project is a part of the radwaste disposal plan of China. The project under the contract with IAEA studies absorption kinetics and mechanism of backfill material and selection of proper backfill material for the radwaste disposal plan. There are varieties of clay minerals as inorganic sorbents in China, such as zeolite, illite montomorillonite, kolinite, and so on. Bentonite is the first selected material for the research project. Bentonite is a common montonorillonite clay with good mechanical properties and chemical stability under certain conditions in a repository capacity. There are many huge bentonite deposits in China. China's LILW disposal will be possibly selected in the bentonite district. The investigation of China's bentonite will include the properties of China's sites, the study of migration of radionuclides and the geochemistry of actinides elements. Various bentonites of China have been studied to select one of good quality. The project is significant to assess the barrier ability of bentonite. The project also made the primary work for zeolite as a sorbent which has been used for the disposal of LILW liquid in China. Clinopliotite has been used in China's hydraulic fracture test of the radwaste liquid

  18. A Preliminary Study of Biodegradable Waste as Sorbent Material for Oil-Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, J.; Eyu, G. D.; Mansor, A. M.; Ahmad, Z.; Chukwuekezie, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill constitutes a major source of fresh and seawater pollution as a result of accidental discharge from tankers, marine engines, and underwater pipes. Therefore, the need for cost-effective and environmental friendly sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup cannot be overemphasized. The present work focuses on the preliminary study of empty palm fruit bunch fibre as a promising sorbent material. The morphology of the unmodified empty palm fruit bunch, EPFB fibre, was examined using an optical microcopy, scanning electron microcopy coupled with EDX and X-ray diffraction. The effects of oil volume, fibre weight, and time on oil absorption of EPFB fibre were evaluated with new engine oil from the model oil. The results show that EPFB fibre consists of numerous micro pores, hydrophobic, and partially crystalline and amorphous with approximately 13.5% carbon. The oil absorbency of the fibre increased with the increase in oil volume, immersion time, and fibre weight. However, sorption capacity decreased beyond 3 g in 100 mL. Additionally unmodified EPFB fibre showed optimum oil sorption efficiency of approximately 2.8 g/g within three days of immersion time. PMID:24693241

  19. New sorbent materials for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from human urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, Renata; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowaczyk, Alicja; Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Kordalewska, Marta; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Waszczuk-Jankowska, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Ewa; Kaliszan, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław; Markuszewski, Michał J

    2016-02-20

    An increase in cocaine consumption has been observed in Europe during the last decade. Benzoylecgonine, as a main urinary metabolite of cocaine in human, is so far the most reliable marker of cocaine consumption. Determination of cocaine and its metabolite in complex biological samples as urine or blood, requires efficient and selective sample pretreatment. In this preliminary study, the newly synthesized sorbent materials were proposed for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from urine samples. Application of these sorbent media allowed to determine cocaine and benzoylecgonine in urine samples at the concentration level of 100ng/ml with good recovery values as 81.7%±6.6 and 73.8%±4.2, respectively. The newly synthesized materials provided efficient, inexpensive and selective extraction of both cocaine and benzoylecgonine from urine samples, which can consequently lead to an increase of the sensitivity of the current available screening diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CO_2 capture with solid sorbent: CFD model of an innovative reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Gallorini, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new reactor solution based on rotating fixed beds was presented. • The preliminary design of the reactor was approached. • A CFD model of the reactor, including CO_2 capture kinetic, was developed. • The CFD model is validated with experimental results. • Sorbent exploitation increasing is possible thanks to the new reactor. - Abstract: In future decarbonization scenarios, CCS with particular reference to post-combustion technologies will be an important option also for energy intensive industries. Nevertheless, today CCS systems are rarely installed due to high energy and cost penalties of current technology based on chemical scrubbing with amine solvent. Therefore, innovative solutions based on new/optimized solvents, sorbents, membranes and new process designs, are R&D priorities. Regarding the CO_2 capture through solid sorbents, a new reactor solution based on rotating fixed beds is presented in this paper. In order to design the innovative system, a suitable CFD model was developed considering also the kinetic capture process. The model was validated with experimental results obtained by the authors in previous research activities, showing a potential reduction of energy penalties respect to current technologies. In the future, the model will be used to identify the control logic of the innovative reactor in order to verify improvements in terms of sorbent exploitation and reduction of system energy consumption.

  1. Basic concepts of materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of accounting for nuclear materials to the efficient, safe, and economical operation of nuclear facilities is introduced, and the following topics are covered: material balance equation; item control areas; material balance uncertainty; decision procedures for materials accounting; conventional and near-real-time accounting; regulatory requirements of the US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and a summary related to the development of a materials accounting system to implement the basic concepts described. The summary includes a section on each of the following: problem definition, system objectives, and system design

  2. New hybrid materials as Zn(II) sorbents in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Quintanilla, Damian; Sanchez, Alfredo; Hierro, Isabel del; Fajardo, Mariano; Sierra, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas have been chemically modified with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole (MTTZ) obtaining hybrid materials denominated MTTZ-MSU-2 and MTTZ-HMS. These materials were employed as Zn(II) sorbents from aqueous media at room temperature. The effect of several variables (stirring time, pH, presence of other metals) has been studied using batch and column techniques. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determinate Zn(II) concentration in the filtrate or in the eluted solution after the adsorption process. The results indicate that under pH 8, the maximum adsorption value was 0.94 ± 0.01 and 0.72 ± 0.01 mmol Zn(II)/g for MTTZ-MSU-2 and MTTZ-HMS, respectively. In tap water samples, a preconcentration factor of 200 was obtained. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically MSU-2 and HMS with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole and to use the resulting modified mesoporous silica as an effective adsorbent for Zn(II) in aqueous media.

  3. Composite materials based on inorganic sorbents and extractants - new sorbents for several radionuclides removal from liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyrin, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    A short review of recent investigation concerned with liquid radioactive waste treatment by means of composite materials. It is considered different aspects of technology of selective radionuclides removal and its direction connected with usage of composites. Results of research works in this line carried out under the direction of author are presented. (author)

  4. Aerogel sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begag, Redouane; Rhine, Wendell E.; Dong, Wenting

    2018-04-03

    The current invention describes methods and compositions of various sorbents based on aerogels of various silanes and their use as sorbent for carbon dioxide. Methods further provide for optimizing the compositions to increase the stability of the sorbents for prolonged use as carbon dioxide capture matrices.

  5. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-08-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper will cover the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper covers the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier

  7. Mercury removal sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  8. In vitro catheter and sorbent-based method for clearance of radiocontrast material during cerebral interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angheloiu, George O.; Hänscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph; Anderson, William D.; Kellum, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a severe condition resulting from the use of radiology contrast in patients with predisposing factors. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that a novel system including a device containing polymer resin sorbent beads and a custom-made suctioning catheter could efficiently remove contrast from an in vitro novel model of circulatory system (MOCS) mimicking the cerebral circulation. Methods: A custom-made catheter was built and optimized for cerebral venous approach. The efficiency of a system made of a polymer resin sorbent beads column (CST 401, Cytosorbents) and this particular catheter was tested in the MOCS running a solution composed of 0.9% saline and radio-contrast. During two series of 18 cycles of first-pass experiments we assessed the catheter's suctioning efficiency and the system's ability to clear radio-contrast injected into the MOCS's cerebral arterial segment. We also assessed the functioning and reliability of the MOCS. Results: Mean suctioning efficiency of the catheter was 84% ± 24%. The polymer sorbent column contrast removal rate was initially 96% and gradually decreased with subsequent cycles in a linear fashion during an experiment lasting approximately 90 minutes. The MOCS had a reliability of 0.9946×min −1 where 1 × min −1 was the optimum value. Conclusion: A system including a polymer resin sorbent beads column and a custom-made suctioning catheter had an excellent initial efficiency in quickly removing contrast from an artificial MOCS mimicking the cerebral circulation. MOCS is an inexpensive and relatively reliable custom-made system that can be used for training or testing purposes

  9. In vitro catheter and sorbent-based method for clearance of radiocontrast material during cerebral interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angheloiu, George O., E-mail: goangheloiu@drmc.org [Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Cardiology, Dubois Regional Medical Center, Dubois, PA (United States); Hänscheid, Heribert; Reiners, Christoph [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Würzburg, Würzburg (Germany); Anderson, William D. [Cardiology Department, Exempla Healthcare, Denver, CO (United States); Kellum, John A. [CRISMA Center, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a severe condition resulting from the use of radiology contrast in patients with predisposing factors. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that a novel system including a device containing polymer resin sorbent beads and a custom-made suctioning catheter could efficiently remove contrast from an in vitro novel model of circulatory system (MOCS) mimicking the cerebral circulation. Methods: A custom-made catheter was built and optimized for cerebral venous approach. The efficiency of a system made of a polymer resin sorbent beads column (CST 401, Cytosorbents) and this particular catheter was tested in the MOCS running a solution composed of 0.9% saline and radio-contrast. During two series of 18 cycles of first-pass experiments we assessed the catheter's suctioning efficiency and the system's ability to clear radio-contrast injected into the MOCS's cerebral arterial segment. We also assessed the functioning and reliability of the MOCS. Results: Mean suctioning efficiency of the catheter was 84% ± 24%. The polymer sorbent column contrast removal rate was initially 96% and gradually decreased with subsequent cycles in a linear fashion during an experiment lasting approximately 90 minutes. The MOCS had a reliability of 0.9946×min{sup −1} where 1 × min{sup −1} was the optimum value. Conclusion: A system including a polymer resin sorbent beads column and a custom-made suctioning catheter had an excellent initial efficiency in quickly removing contrast from an artificial MOCS mimicking the cerebral circulation. MOCS is an inexpensive and relatively reliable custom-made system that can be used for training or testing purposes.

  10. Neodymium Recovery by Chitosan/Iron(III Hydroxide [ChiFer(III] Sorbent Material: Batch and Column Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hary Demey

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A low cost composite material was synthesized for neodymium recovery from dilute aqueous solutions. The in-situ production of the composite containing chitosan and iron(III hydroxide (ChiFer(III was improved and the results were compared with raw chitosan particles. The sorbent was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analyses (SEM-EDX. The equilibrium studies were performed using firstly a batch system, and secondly a continuous system. The sorption isotherms were fitted with the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips models; experimental data was better described with the Langmuir equation and the maximum sorption capacity was 13.8 mg g-1 at pH 4. The introduction of iron into the biopolymer matrix increases by four times the sorption uptake of the chitosan; the individual sorption capacity of iron (into the composite was calculated as 30.9 mg Nd/g Fe. The experimental results of the columns were fitted adequately using the Thomas model. As an approach to Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets effluents, a synthetic dilute effluent was simulated at pH 4, in order to evaluate the selectivity of the sorbent material; the overshooting of boron in the column system confirmed the higher selectivity toward neodymium ions. The elution step was carried out using MilliQ-water with the pH set to 3.5 (dilute HCl solution.

  11. Peat hybrid sorbents for treatment of wastewaters and remediation of polluted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavins, Maris; Burlakovs, Juris; Robalds, Artis; Ansone-Bertina, Linda

    2015-04-01

    For remediation of soils and purification of polluted waters, wastewaters, sorbents might be considered as an prospective group of materials and amongst them peat have a special role due to low cost, biodegradability, high number of functional groups, well developed surface area and combination of hydrophilic/hydrophobic structural elements. Peat as sorbent have good application potential for removal of trace metals, and we have demonstrated peat sorption capacities, sorption kinetics, thermodynamics in respect to metals with different valencies - Tl(I), Cu(II), Cr(III). However peat sorption capacity in respect to nonmetallic (anionic species) elements is low. Also peat mechanical properties do not support application in large scale column processes. To expand peat application possibilities the approach of biomass based hybrid sorbents has been elaborated. The concept "hybrid sorbent" in our understanding means natural, biomass based sorbent modified, covered with another sorbent material, thus combining two types of sorbent properties, sorbent functionalities, surface properties etc. As the "covering layer" both inorganic substances, mineral phases (iron oxohydroxides, oxyapatite) both organic polymers (using graft polymerization) were used. The obtained sorbents were characterised by their spectral properties, surface area, elemental composition. The obtained hybrid sorbents were tested for sorption of compounds in anionic speciation forms, for example of arsenic, antimony, tellurium and phosphorous compounds in comparison with weakly basic anionites. The highest sorption capacity was observed when peat sorbents modified with iron compounds were used. Sorption of different arsenic speciation forms onto iron-modified peat sorbents was investigated as a function of pH and temperature. It was established that sorption capacity increases with a rise in temperature, and the calculation of sorption process thermodynamic parameters indicates the spontaneity of sorption

  12. Electrospun PVDF fibers and a novel PVDF/CoFe2O4 fibrous composite as nanostructured sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneanu, Petronela Pascariu; Cojocaru, Corneliu; Olaru, Niculae; Samoila, Petrisor; Airinei, Anton; Sacarescu, Liviu

    2017-12-01

    In this work, pure polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and PVDF/cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic fibrous composite were successfully prepared by electrospinning method for oil spill sorption applications. The pure spinel phase of CoFe2O4 and PVDF/CoFe2O4 composites were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Electrospun sorbent materials were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) as well as by contact angle measurements. In addition, the composite sorbent (PVDF/CoFe2O4) was characterized by magnetic measurements. It revealed good magnetic properties that are of real interest to facilitate the separation of the oil-loaded sorbent under the external magnetic field. Finally, the produced electrospun sorbents were tested for sorption of oily liquids, such as: decane, dodecane and commercial motor oils. We obtained good oil sorption capacity (between 9.751-23.615 g/g of pure PVDF) and (8.133-18.074 g/g for the magnetic composite) depending on the nature of oil tested. The present electrospun magnetic PVDF/CoFe2O4 fibrous composite could be potentially useful for the efficient removal of oil in water and recovery of sorbent material.

  13. Materials technologies for advanced nuclear energy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.; Harms, B.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance, advanced nuclear power plant concepts have emerged with major emphasis on lower capital costs, inherent safety, and increased reliability. The materials problems posed by these concepts are discussed and how the scientists and technologists at ORNL plan to solve them is described

  14. Carbon nanocomposite sorbent and methods of using the same for separation of one or more materials from a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2017-05-30

    The present invention relates to carbon nanocomposite sorbents. The present invention provides carbon nanocomposite sorbents, methods for making the same, and methods for separation of a pollutant from a gas that includes that pollutant. Various embodiments provide a method for reducing the mercury content of a mercury-containing gas.

  15. Concepts of IAEA nuclear materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakberg, John A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes nuclear material accounting from the standpoint of IAEA Safeguards and how this accounting is applied by the Agency. The basic concepts of nuclear material accounting are defined and the way these apply to States with INFCIRC/153-type safeguards agreements is presented. (author)

  16. A new certified reference material for benzene measurement in air on a sorbent tube: development and proficiency testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caurant, A. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, Paris (France); Universite Paris 12 et CNRS (UMR 7583), Faculte des Sciences et Technologie, Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, Unite Mixte de Recherche Universite Paris 7 (France); Lalere, B.; Schbath, M.C.; Stumpf, C.; Sutour, C.; Mace, T.; Vaslin-Reimann, S. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, Paris (France); Quisefit, J.P.; Doussin, J.F. [Universite Paris 12 et CNRS (UMR 7583), Faculte des Sciences et Technologie, Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, Unite Mixte de Recherche Universite Paris 7 (France)

    2010-11-15

    A certified matrix reference material (CRM) for the measurement of benzene in ambient air has been developed at Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d'Essais. The production of these CRMs was conducted using a gravimetric method fully traceable to the International System of Units. The CRMs were prepared by sampling an accurate mass of a gaseous primary reference material of benzene, using a high-precision laminar flowmeter and a mass flow controller, with a PerkinElmer sampler filled with Carbopack trademark X sorbent. The relative standard deviations obtained for the preparation of a batch of 20 tubes loaded with 500 ng of benzene were below 0.2%. Each CRM is considered independent from the others and with its own certified value and an expanded uncertainty estimated to be within 0.5%, lower than the uncertainties of benzene CRMs already available worldwide. The stability of these materials was also established up to 12 months. These CRMs were implemented during proficiency testing, to evaluate the analytical performances of seven French laboratories involved in benzene air monitoring. (orig.)

  17. Developing the MAPLE materials test reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Lidstone, R.F.; Donnelly, J.V.

    1992-05-01

    MAPLE-MTR is a new multipurpose research facility being planned by AECL Research as a possible replacement for the 35-year-old NRU reactor. In developing the MAPLE-MTR concept, AECL is starting from the recent design and licensing experience with the MAPLE-X10 reactor. By starting from technology developed to support the MAPLE-X10 design and adapting it to produce a concept that satisfies the requirements of fuel channel materials testing and fuel irradiation programs, AECL expects to minimize the need for major advances in nuclear technology (e.g., fuel, heat transfer). Formulation of the MAPLE-MTR concept is at an early stage. This report describes the irradiation requirements of the research areas, how these needs are translated into design criteria for the project and elements of the preliminary design concept

  18. Different Concepts of Materiality in Userdriven Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Tellerup, Susanne

    This paper introduces the Quadrant model for innovation. The model should be seen as a generative model for structuring processes in innovation with complex partnerships. The paper discusses the model and especially emphasises the need for, and the different concepts of materiality in innovation....

  19. Sorbent Film-Coated Passive Samplers for Explosives Vapour Detection Part A: Materials Optimisation and Integration with Analytical Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneff, Gillian L; Murphy, Bronagh; Webb, Tony; Wood, Dan; Irlam, Rachel; Mills, Jim; Green, David; Barron, Leon P

    2018-04-11

    A new thin-film passive sampler is presented as a low resource dependent and discrete continuous monitoring solution for explosives-related vapours. Using 15 mid-high vapour pressure explosives-related compounds as probes, combinations of four thermally stable substrates and six film-based sorbents were evaluated. Meta-aramid and phenylene oxide-based materials showed the best recoveries from small voids (~70%). Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-high resolution accurate mass spectrometry which also enabled tentative identification of new targets from the acquired data. Preliminary uptake kinetics experiments revealed plateau concentrations on the device were reached between 3-5 days. Compounds used in improvised explosive devices, such as triacetone triperoxide, were detected within 1 hour and were stably retained by the sampler for up to 7 days. Sampler performance was consistent for 22 months after manufacture. Lastly, its direct integration with currently in-service explosives screening equipment including ion mobility spectrometry and thermal desorption mass spectrometry is presented. Following exposure to several open environments and targeted interferences, sampler performance was subsequently assessed and potential interferences identified. High-security building and area monitoring for concealed explosives using such cost-effective and discrete passive samplers can add extra assurance to search routines while minimising any additional burden on personnel or everyday site operation.

  20. Use of natural clays as sorbent materials for rare earth ions: Materials characterization and set up of the operative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannicelli-Zubiani, Elena Maria; Cristiani, Cinzia; Dotelli, Giovanni; Gallo Stampino, Paola; Pelosato, Renato; Mesto, Ernesto; Schingaro, Emanuela; Lacalamita, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Two mineral clays of the montmorillonite group were tested as sorbents for the removal of Rare Earths (REs) from liquid solutions. Lanthanum and neodymium model solutions were used to perform uptake tests in order to: (a) verify the clays sorption capability, (b) investigate the sorption mechanisms and (c) optimize the experimental parameters, such as contact time and pH. The desorption was also studied, in order to evaluate the feasibility of REs recovery from waters. The adsorption-desorption procedure with the optimized parameters was also tested on a leaching solution obtained by dissolution of a dismantled NdFeB magnet of a hard-disk. The clays were fully characterized after REs adsorption and desorption by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); the liquid phase was characterized via Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analyses. The experimental results show that both clays are able to capture and release La and Nd ions, with an ion exchange mechanism. The best total efficiency (capture ≈ 50%, release ≈ 70%) is obtained when the uptake and release processes are performed at pH=5 and pH=1 respectively; in real leached scrap solutions, the uptake is around 40% but release efficiency is strongly decreased passing from a mono-ion system to a real system (from 80% to 5%). Furthermore, a strong matrix effect is found, with the matrix largely affecting both the uptake and the release of neodymium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. First-Principles Integrated Adsorption Modeling for Selective Capture of Uranium from Seawater by Polyamidoxime Sorbent Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladshaw, Austin P; Ivanov, Alexander S; Das, Sadananda; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S; Tsouris, Costas; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    2018-04-18

    Nuclear power is a relatively carbon-free energy source that has the capacity to be utilized today in an effort to stem the tides of global warming. The growing demand for nuclear energy, however, could put significant strain on our uranium ore resources, and the mining activities utilized to extract that ore can leave behind long-term environmental damage. A potential solution to enhance the supply of uranium fuel is to recover uranium from seawater using amidoximated adsorbent fibers. This technology has been studied for decades but is currently plagued by the material's relatively poor selectivity of uranium over its main competitor vanadium. In this work, we investigate the binding schemes between uranium, vanadium, and the amidoxime functional groups on the adsorbent surface. Using quantum chemical methods, binding strengths are approximated for a set of complexation reactions between uranium and vanadium with amidoxime functionalities. Those approximations are then coupled with a comprehensive aqueous adsorption model developed in this work to simulate the adsorption of uranium and vanadium under laboratory conditions. Experimental adsorption studies with uranium and vanadium over a wide pH range are performed, and the data collected are compared against simulation results to validate the model. It was found that coupling ab initio calculations with process level adsorption modeling provides accurate predictions of the adsorption capacity and selectivity of the sorbent materials. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that this multiscale modeling paradigm could be utilized to aid in the selection of superior ligands or ligand compositions for the selective capture of metal ions. Therefore, this first-principles integrated modeling approach opens the door to the in silico design of next-generation adsorbents with potentially superior efficiency and selectivity for uranium over vanadium in seawater.

  2. The carbonaceous sorbent based on the secondary silica-containing material from oil extraction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostina, I. V.; Stolyarov, D. V.; Anichina, Ya N.; Porozhnyuk, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    The object of research in this work is the silica-containing waste of oil extraction industry - the waste kieselghur (diatomite) sludge from precoat filtering units, used for the purification of vegetable oils from organic impurities. As a result of the thermal modification of the sludge, which contains up to 70% of organic impurities, a finely-dispersed low-porous carbonaceous mineral sorption material is formed. The modification of the sludge particles surface causes the substantial alteration of its physical, chemical, adsorption and structural properties - the organic matter is charred, the particle size is reduced, and on the surface of diatomite particles a carbon layer is formed, which deposits in macropores and partially occludes them. The amount of mesopores is increased, along with the specific surface of the obtained product. The optimal temperature of sludge modification is 500°C. The synthesized carbonaceous material can be used as an adsorbing agent for the purification of wastewater from heavy metal ions. The sorption capacity of Cu2+ ions amounted to 14.2 mg·g-1 and for Ni2+ ions - 17.0 mg·g-1. The obtained values exceed the sorption capacity values of the initial kieselghur, used as a filtering charge, for the researched metal ions.

  3. Novel sorbents for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Werner, David

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the major environmental problems is the pollution of aquatic systems and soil by persistent pollutants. Persistent pollutants have been found widespread in sediments, surface waters, and drinking water supplies. The removal of pollutants can be accomplished prior to their discharge to receiving bodies or by immobilizing them onto soil. Sorption is the most commonly applied process, and activated carbons have been widely used. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents including biosorbents, biochars, carbon-based nanoparticles, bio-nano hybrid materials, and iron-impregnated activated carbons. Sorbent materials have been used in environmental remediation processes and especially in agricultural soil, sediments and contaminated soil, water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sorbents may enhance the synergistic action of other processes, such as volatilization and biodegradation. Novel sorbents have been employed for the removal or immobilization of persistent pollutants such as and include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg), halogenated organic compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metalloids and non-metallic elements, and other organic pollutants. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry. The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove pollutants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc., but also the potential side-effects of their environmental applications. The aim of this work is to present the results of the use of biochar and impregnated carbon sorbents for the removal of organic pollutants and metals. Furthermore, the new findings from the forthcoming session

  4. Sorption-enhanced water gas shift reaction for high-purity hydrogen production: Application of a Na-Mg double salt-based sorbent and the divided section packing concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Hyun; Lee, Ki Bong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Na-Mg double salt-based sorbent was used for high-temperature CO 2 sorption. •Divided section packing concept was applied to the SE-WGS reaction. •High-purity H 2 was produced from the SE-WGS reaction with divided section packing. •High-purity H 2 productivity could be further enhanced by modifying packing method. -- Abstract: Hydrogen is considered a promising environmentally benign energy carrier because it has high energy density and produces no pollutants when it is converted into other types of energy. The sorption-enhanced water gas shift (SE-WGS) reaction, where the catalytic WGS reaction and byproduct CO 2 removal are carried out simultaneously in a single reactor, has received considerable attention as a novel method for high-purity hydrogen production. Since the high-purity hydrogen productivity of the SE-WGS reaction is largely dependent on the performance of the CO 2 sorbent, the development of sorbents having high CO 2 sorption capacity is crucial. Recently, a Na-Mg double salt-based sorbent has been considered for high-temperature CO 2 capture since it has been reported to have a high sorption capacity and fast sorption kinetics. In this study, the SE-WGS reaction was experimentally demonstrated using a commercial catalyst and a Na-Mg double salt-based sorbent. However, the SE-WGS reaction with a one-body hybrid solid, a physical admixture of catalyst and sorbent, showed poor reactivity and reduced CO 2 sorption uptake. As a result, a divided section packing concept was suggested as a solution. In the divided section packing method, the degree of mixing for the catalyst and sorbent in a column can be controlled by the number of sections. High-purity hydrogen (<10 ppm CO) was produced directly from the SE-WGS reaction with divided section packing, and the hydrogen productivity was further improved when the reactor column was divided into more sections and packed with more sorbent.

  5. Collection and identification of human remains volatiles by non-contact, dynamic airflow sampling and SPME-GC/MS using various sorbent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGreeff, Lauryn E; Furton, Kenneth G

    2011-09-01

    Human remains detection canines are used in locating deceased humans in diverse scenarios and environments based on odor produced during the decay process of the human body. It has been established that human remains detection canines are capable of locating human remains specifically, as opposed to living humans or animal remains, thus suggesting a difference in odor between the different sources. This work explores the collection and determination of such odors using a dynamic headspace concentration device. The airflow rate and three sorbent materials-Dukal cotton gauze, Johnson & Johnson cotton-blend gauze, and polyester material-used for odor collection were evaluated using standard compounds. It was determined that higher airflow rates and openly woven material, e.g., Dukal cotton gauze, yielded significantly less total volatile compounds due to compound breakthrough through the sorbent material. Collection from polymer- and cellulose-based materials demonstrated that the molecular backbone of the material is a factor in compound collection as well. Volatiles, including cyclic and straight-chain hydrocarbons, organic acids, sulfides, aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols, were collected from a population of 27 deceased bodies from two collection locations. The common compounds between the subjects were compared and the odor profiles were determined. These odor profiles were compared with those of animal remains and living human subjects collected in the same manner. Principal component analysis showed that the odor profiles of the three sample types were distinct.

  6. Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management Preliminary Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E; Dreicer, M.

    2006-01-01

    The world is at a turning point, moving away from the Cold War nuclear legacy towards a future global nuclear enterprise; and this presents a transformational challenge for nuclear materials management. Achieving safety and security during this transition is complicated by the diversified spectrum of threat 'players' that has greatly impacted nonproliferation, counterterrorism, and homeland security requirements. Rogue states and non-state actors no longer need self-contained national nuclear expertise, materials, and equipment due to availability from various sources in the nuclear market, thereby reducing the time, effort and cost for acquiring a nuclear weapon (i.e., manifestations of latency). The terrorist threat has changed the nature of military and national security requirements to protect these materials. An Integrated Global Nuclear Materials Management (IGNMM) approach would address the existing legacy nuclear materials and the evolution towards a nuclear energy future, while strengthening a regime to prevent nuclear weapon proliferation. In this paper, some preliminary concepts and studies of IGNMM will be presented. A systematic analysis of nuclear materials, activities, and controls can lead to a tractable, integrated global nuclear materials management architecture that can help remediate the past and manage the future. A systems approach is best suited to achieve multi-dimensional and interdependent solutions, including comprehensive, end-to-end capabilities; coordinated diverse elements for enhanced functionality with economy; and translation of goals/objectives or standards into locally optimized solutions. A risk-informed basis is excellent for evaluating system alternatives and performances, and it is especially appropriate for the security arena. Risk management strategies--such as defense-in-depth, diversity, and control quality--help to weave together various technologies and practices into a strong and robust security fabric. Effective

  7. CaO-based CO2 sorbents: from fundamentals to the development of new, highly effective materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierzkowska, Agnieszka M; Pacciani, Roberta; Müller, Christoph R

    2013-07-01

    The enormous anthropogenic emission of the greenhouse gas CO2 is most likely the main reason for climate change. Considering the continuing and indeed growing utilisation of fossil fuels for electricity generation and transportation purposes, development and implementation of processes that avoid the associated emissions of CO2 are urgently needed. CO2 capture and storage, commonly termed CCS, would be a possible mid-term solution to reduce the emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere. However, the costs associated with the currently available CO2 capture technology, that is, amine scrubbing, are prohibitively high, thus making the development of new CO2 sorbents a highly important research challenge. Indeed, CaO, readily obtained through the calcination of naturally occurring limestone, has been proposed as an alternative CO2 sorbent that could substantially reduce the costs of CO2 capture. However, one of the major drawbacks of using CaO derived from natural sources is its rapidly decreasing CO2 uptake capacity with repeated carbonation-calcination reactions. Here, we review the current understanding of fundamental aspects of the cyclic carbonation-calcination reactions of CaO such as its reversibility and kinetics. Subsequently, recent attempts to develop synthetic, CaO-based sorbents that possess high and cyclically stable CO2 uptakes are presented. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  9. Non-carbon sorbents for mercury removal from flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, G.O.; Dubovik, M.; Cesario, M. [TDA Research Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2005-07-01

    TDA Research Inc. is developing a new sorbent that can effectively remove mercury from flue gases. It is made of non-carbon based materials and will therefore not alter the properties of the fly ash. The sorbent can be produced as an injectable powder. The paper summarises the initial testing results of the new sorbent. The sorbent exhibited 7.5 to 11.0 mg/g mercury absorption capacity under representative flue gas streams depending on the operating temperature and gas hourly space velocity. The sorbent also showed resistance to sulfur poisoning by sulfur dioxide. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Evaluation of Cortaderia selloana (Capim-dos-pampas) blankets as sorbent materials for oil spills in simulated hydro equipment; Estudo do desempenho de tecidos e mantas para utilizacao como sorventes para petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, T.F.; Sydenstricker, T.H.D. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: thais@demec.ufpr.br; Amico, S.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Oil spills in aquatic environments may cause serious economy losses and severe environmental impact which both drive the development of commercial systems (e.g. sorbents) to control these accidents. One way of using sorbents is to encapsulate them with an involucre or cover, i.e. producing blankets. The focus of this research is to evaluate the key characteristics of interest (aerial density, water and oil sorption, mechanical strength and cost) of different materials to use as covers for blankets and to prepare blankets and compare their performance when made with various core materials, such as Cortaderia selloana fibers and different commercial sorbents. A simulated aqueous body with stream was used for the sorption experiments, where the oil and water phases were circulated and forced to pass under the blankets. On the sorption tests, the fibers of Cortaderia selloana reached a performance lower to that of commercial sorbents, mainly due to their low density and high volume (difficult packing), nevertheless a clear trend was noted, heavier blankets with higher sorption periods lead to higher sorption. (author)

  11. Tributyl phosphate removal from reprocessing off-gas streams using a selected sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory experiments used small laboratory-scale columns packed with selected sorbent materials to remove tributyl phosphate (TBP) and iodine at conditions approaching those in actual reprocessing off-gas streams. The sorbent materials for TBP removal were placed upstream of iodine sorbent materials to protect the iodine sorbent from the deleterious effects of TBP. Methyl iodide in an airstream containing 30% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) and water vapor was metered to two packed columns of sorbents simultaneously (in parallel). One column contained a segment of 8-in. x 14-in. mesh alumina sorbent for TBP removal, the other did not. The measure of the effectiveness of TBP sorbent materials for TBP removal was determined by comparing the iodine retention of the iodine sorbent materials in the two parallel columns. Results from an 18 wt % Ag substituted mordenite iodine sorbent indicated that the iodine retention capacity of the sorbent was reduced 60% by the TBP and that the column containing iodine sorbent material protected by the alumina TBP sorbent retained 30 times more iodine than the column without TBP sorbent. TBP concentration was up to 500 mg/m 3 . Similar experiments using a 7 wt % Ag impregnated silica gel indicated that the TBP vapor had little effect on the iodine retention of the silica gel material. The stoichiometric maximum amount of iodine was retained by the silica gel material. Further experiments were conducted assessing the effects of NO 2 on iodine retention of this 7 wt % Ag sorbent. After the two columns were loaded with iodine in the presence of TBP (in NPH), one column was subjected to 2 vol % NO 2 in air. From visual comparison of the two columns, it appeared that the NO 2 regenerated the silica gel iodine sorbent and that iodine was washed off the silica gel iodine sorbent leaving the sorbent in the original state

  12. Design concepts for improved thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, G A

    1997-07-01

    Some new guidelines are given that should be useful in the search for thermoelectric materials that are better than those currently available. In particular, clathrate and cryptoclathrate compounds with filler atoms in their cages offer the ability to substantially lower the lattice thermal conductivity.

  13. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.; Huybers, A.

    1998-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  15. CO2 Capacity Sorbent Analysis Using Volumetric Measurement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Roger; Richardson, Tra-My Justine; Belancik, Grace; Jan, Darrell; Knox, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In support of air revitalization system sorbent selection for future space missions, Ames Research Center (ARC) has performed CO2 capacity tests on various solid sorbents to complement structural strength tests conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The materials of interest are: Grace Davison Grade 544 13X, Honeywell UOP APG III, LiLSX VSA-10, BASF 13X, and Grace Davison Grade 522 5A. CO2 capacity was for all sorbent materials using a Micromeritics ASAP 2020 Physisorption Volumetric Analysis machine to produce 0C, 10C, 25C, 50C, and 75C isotherms. These data are to be used for modeling data and to provide a basis for continued sorbent research. The volumetric analysis method proved to be effective in generating consistent and repeatable data for the 13X sorbents, but the method needs to be refined to tailor to different sorbents.

  16. MATERIALS AND (LANGUAGE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT BASED ON MONTESSORI CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kristiyani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Montessori Education is widely spread in almost all countries in the world. Even though this school is meant for all kinds of learners including “normal” learners, the Montessori education concepts used in Montessori schools will be very supportive education for children with special needs. Therefore, the schools which adopt Montessori education concepts can facilitate inclusion, especially with the concepts of ‘I can do it myself.’ Inclusive education needs to be carefully prepared and implemented by schools. The movement brings about some challenges for teachers. This paper explores the environment and materials based on Montessori education concepts. The environment and materials are suitable for all types of learners and thus can be an option to be implemented in the inclusive education setting. Teaching materials rooted in Montessori education concepts indeed cater all ages and embrace the needs of all students.

  17. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  18. Polymeric Smart Skin Materials: Concepts, Materials, and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    Fudouzi, H. and Xia, Y., Langmuir 2003, 19, 9653-9658 (also see the highlight in Materials Today, 2003, December, p. 7). 15. Langmuir - Blodgett Silver...development of electroactive dendrimers, dendronized polymers, hyperbranched polymers, and phase- separating block copolymers. Development of such materials...Dalton, and A. K-Y. Jen, " Hyperbranched Fluorinated Aromatic Polyester from Mild One-Pot Polymerization of AB 2 Hydroxy Acid Monomer," Macromolecules

  19. Sorbent Scoping Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chancellor, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory-Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) office was tasked by the DOE CBFO, Office of the Manager to perform a review of the acceptable knowledge (AK) to identify the oxidizers and sorbents in transuranic (TRU) waste streams, to conduct scoping studies on the oxidizers and sorbents identified in AK review to inform the Quality Level 1 (QL1) testing, and to conduct a series of QL1 tests to provide the scientific data to support a basis of knowledge document for determining the criteria for (1) accepting waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without treatment, (2) determining waste that will require treatment, and (3) if treatment is required, how the treatment must be performed. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the AK review of sorbents present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the sorbent list, report the results of the scoping studies for the fastest-burning organic sorbent, and provide the list of organic and inorganic sorbents to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-001, Oxidizer Scoping Studies, has similar information for oxidizers identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  20. Sorbent Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Carlsbad, NM (United States). Difficult Waste Team

    2016-11-14

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory–Carlsbad Operations (LANL-CO) office was tasked by the DOE CBFO, Office of the Manager to perform a review of the acceptable knowledge (AK) to identify the oxidizers and sorbents in transuranic (TRU) waste streams, to conduct scoping studies on the oxidizers and sorbents identified in AK review to inform the Quality Level 1 (QL1) testing, and to conduct a series of QL1 tests to provide the scientific data to support a basis of knowledge document for determining the criteria for (1) accepting waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) without treatment, (2) determining waste that will require treatment, and (3) if treatment is required, how the treatment must be performed. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the AK review of sorbents present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the sorbent list, report the results of the scoping studies for the fastest-burning organic sorbent, and provide the list of organic and inorganic sorbents to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-001, Oxidizer Scoping Studies, has similar information for oxidizers identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  1. Electrospun Nanofibers: New Concepts, Materials, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiajia; Xie, Jingwei; Liu, Wenying; Xia, Younan

    2017-08-15

    Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique that relies on the electrostatic repulsion between surface charges to continuously draw nanofibers from a viscoelastic fluid. It has been applied to successfully produce nanofibers, with diameters down to tens of nanometers, from a rich variety of materials, including polymers, ceramics, small molecules, and their combinations. In addition to solid nanofibers with a smooth surface, electrospinning has also been adapted to generate nanofibers with a number of secondary structures, including those characterized by a porous, hollow, or core-sheath structure. The surface and/or interior of such nanofibers can be further functionalized with molecular species or nanoparticles during or after an electrospinning process. In addition, electrospun nanofibers can be assembled into ordered arrays or hierarchical structures by manipulation of their alignment, stacking, and/or folding. All of these attributes make electrospun nanofibers well-suited for a broad spectrum of applications, including those related to air filtration, water purification, heterogeneous catalysis, environmental protection, smart textiles, surface coating, energy harvesting/conversion/storage, encapsulation of bioactive species, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. Over the past 15 years, our group has extensively explored the use of electrospun nanofibers for a range of applications. Here we mainly focus on two examples: (i) use of ceramic nanofibers as catalytic supports for noble-metal nanoparticles and (ii) exploration of polymeric nanofibers as scaffolding materials for tissue regeneration. Because of their high porosity, high surface area to volume ratio, well-controlled composition, and good thermal stability, nonwoven membranes made of ceramic nanofibers are terrific supports for catalysts based on noble-metal nanoparticles. We have investigated the use of ceramic nanofibers made of various oxides, including SiO 2 , TiO 2

  2. Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1981-07-01

    The efficient removal of UF 6 from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications

  3. Solid-phase extraction of the alcohol abuse biomarker phosphatidylethanol using newly synthesized polymeric sorbent materials containing quaternary heterocyclic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mariana; Jagadeesan, Kishore Kumar; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Laurell, Thomas; Ekström, Simon

    2017-10-13

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is an interesting biomarker finding increased use for detecting long term alcohol abuse with high specificity and sensitivity. Prior to detection, sample preparation is an unavoidable step in the work-flow of PEth analysis and new protocols may facilitate it. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a versatile sample preparation method widely spread in biomedical laboratories due to its simplicity of use and the possibility of automation. In this work, SPE was used for the first time to directly extract PEth from spiked human plasma and spiked human blood. A library of polymeric SPE materials with different surface functionalities was screened for PEth extraction in order to identify the surface characteristics that control PEth retention and recovery. The plasma samples were diluted 1:10 (v/v) in water and spiked at different concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 5μM. The library of SPE materials was then evaluated using the proposed SPE method and detection was done by LC-MS/MS. One SPE material efficiently retained and recovered PEth from spiked human plasma. With this insight, four new SPE materials were formulated and synthesized based on the surface characteristics of the best SPE material found in the first screening. These new materials were tested with spiked human blood, to better mimic a real clinical sample. All the newly synthetized materials outperformed the pre-existing commercially available materials. Recovery values for the new SPE materials were found between 29.5% and 48.6% for the extraction of PEth in spiked blood. A material based on quaternized 1-vinylimidazole with a poly(trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) backbone was found suitable for PEth extraction in spiked blood showing the highest analyte recovery in this experiment, 48.6%±6.4%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Concept of a Conducting Composite Material for Lightning Strike Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Katunin A.; Krukiewicz K.; Herega A.; Catalanotti G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on development of a multifunctional material which allows conducting of electrical current and simultaneously holds mechanical properties of a polymeric composite. Such material could be applied for exterior fuselage elements of an aircraft in order to minimize damage occurring during lightning strikes. The concept introduced in this paper is presented from the points of view of various scientific disciplines including materials science, chemistry, structural physics and mec...

  5. Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Injection Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Carl [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Steen, William [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Triana, Eugenio [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Machalek, Thomas [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Davila, Jenny [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Schmit, Claire [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Wang, Andrew [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Temple, Brian [URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Lu, Yongqi [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Lu, Hong [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Zhang, Luzheng [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Ruhter, David [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Sayyah, Maryam [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Ito, Brandon [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States); Suslick, Kenneth [Illinois State Geological Survey - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This document summarizes the work performed on Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0000465, “Evaluation of Dry Sorbent Technology for Pre-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture,” during the period of performance of January 1, 2010 through September 30, 2013. This project involves the development of a novel technology that combines a dry sorbent-based carbon capture process with the water-gas-shift reaction for separating CO{sub 2} from syngas. The project objectives were to model, develop, synthesize and screen sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture from gasified coal streams. The project was funded by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory with URS as the prime contractor. Illinois Clean Coal Institute and The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign were project co-funders. The objectives of this project were to identify and evaluate sorbent materials and concepts that were suitable for capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from warm/hot water-gas-shift (WGS) systems under conditions that minimize energy penalties and provide continuous gas flow to advanced synthesis gas combustion and processing systems. Objectives included identifying and evaluating sorbents that efficiently capture CO{sub 2} from a gas stream containing CO{sub 2}, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at temperatures as high as 650 °C and pressures of 400-600 psi. After capturing the CO{sub 2}, the sorbents would ideally be regenerated using steam, or other condensable purge vapors. Results from the adsorption and regeneration testing were used to determine an optimal design scheme for a sorbent enhanced water gas shift (SEWGS) process and evaluate the technical and economic viability of the dry sorbent approach for CO{sub 2} capture. Project work included computational modeling, which was performed to identify key sorbent properties for the SEWGS process. Thermodynamic modeling was used to identify optimal physical properties for sorbents and helped down-select from the universe of possible sorbent

  6. RETIMAC: a real-time material control concept for strategic special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.E.

    1975-01-01

    As one possible means to upgrade licensee safeguards systems, the NRC is exploring a real-time material control concept. The concept incorporates process controls, material containment provisions, and extensive instrumentation. Plants incorporating this concept would be better able to prevent, deter, and detect diversion, and to assure that diversion has not gone undetected. A substantial methods development, evaluation, and preliminary standards development program is under way to develop the basis for future policy decisions

  7. Low Specific Activity materials concepts are being reevaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Many types of radioactive low-level waste are classified, packaged, and transported as Low-Specific Activity (LSA) material. The transportation regulations allow LSA materials to be shipped in economical packagings and, under certain conditions, waives compliance with other detailed requirements such as labeling. The fundamental concepts which support the LSA category are being thoroughly reevaluated to determine the defensibility of the provisions. A series of national and international events are leading to the development of new dose models which are likely to fundamentally change the ways these materials are defined. Similar basis changes are likely for the packaging requirements applicable to these materials

  8. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a sorbent material for the solid phase extraction of lead from urine and subsequent determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña Crecente, Rosa M.; Lovera, Carlha Gutiérrez; García, Julia Barciela; Méndez, Jennifer Álvarez; Martín, Sagrario García; Latorre, Carlos Herrero, E-mail: carlos.herrero@usc.es

    2014-11-01

    The determination of lead in urine is a way of monitoring the chemical exposure to this metal. In the present paper, a new method for the Pb determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) in urine at low levels has been developed. Lead was separated from the undesirable urine matrix by means of a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used as a sorbent material. Lead from urine was retained at pH 4.0 and was quantitatively eluted using a 0.7 M nitric acid solution and was subsequently measured by ETAAS. The effects of parameters that influence the adsorption–elution process (such as pH, eluent volume and concentration, sampling and elution flow rates) and the atomic spectrometry conditions have been studied by means of different factorial design strategies. Under the optimized conditions, the detection and quantification limits obtained were 0.08 and 0.26 μg Pb L{sup −1}, respectively. The results demonstrate the absence of a urine matrix effect and this is the consequence of the SPE process carried out. Therefore, the developed method is useful for the analysis of Pb at low levels in real samples without the influence of other urine components. The proposed method was applied to the determination of lead in urine samples of unexposed healthy people and satisfactory results were obtained (in the range 3.64–22.9 μg Pb L{sup −1}). - Highlights: • Lead determination in urine using a solid phase extraction procedure followed by ETAAS • Carbon nanotubes as SPE adsorbent for Pb in urine • Matrix elimination for the Pb determination in urine by using SPE based on carbon nanotubes • The detection limit was 0.08 μg Pb L{sup −1}.

  9. Laboratory studies and model simulations of sorbent material behavior for an in-situ passive treatment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloysius, D.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study combining laboratory experiments and model simulations in support of the design and construction of a passive treatment barrier (or filter wall) for retarding the migration of Sr-90 within a water-bearing surficial sand and gravel layer. Preliminary evaluation was used to select materials for column testing. A one-dimensional finite-difference model was used to simulate the laboratory column results and extrapolation of the calibrated model was then used to assess barrier performance over extended time frames with respect to Sr-90 breakthrough and loading on the filter media. The final results of the study showed that 20 by 50 mesh clinoptilolite will attenuate Sr-90 with a maximum life expentancy of approximately 10 years. This time period is based on allowable limits of Sr-90 activity on the filter media and is also a function of site-specific conditions

  10. The users manual and concepts of nuclear materials accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Du; Jeon, In

    1996-03-01

    This report is to describe the concepts, operation status and user's manuals of nuclear materials accounting system which was developed to not only make out, report and manage the IAEA accounting reports but also maintain the accounting information. Therefore, facility operator could effectively make use of the accounting system without a special training by using this report. 3 tabs., 15 figs., (Author) .new

  11. Life Science Research Facility materials management requirements and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Programs Office at NASA Ames Research Center has defined hypothetical experiments for a 90-day mission on Space Station to allow analysis of the materials necessary to conduct the experiments and to assess the impact on waste processing of recyclable materials and storage requirements of samples to be returned to earth for analysis as well as of nonrecyclable materials. The materials include the specimens themselves, the food, water, and gases necessary to maintain them, the expendables necessary to conduct the experiments, and the metabolic products of the specimens. This study defines the volumes, flow rates, and states of these materials. Process concepts for materials handling will include a cage cleaner, trash compactor, biological stabilizer, and various recycling devices.

  12. Application of clay minerals from Cayo Guan, Cuba, as sorbents of heavy metals and ceramic raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, D.; Barba, F.; Callejas, P.; Recio, P.

    2012-01-01

    It has been studied by Analysis Heating Microscope Optical the behaviour of some kaolinitic clays from a reservoir of Cayo Guan rich in iron oxides and low silica content proving to be a refractory materials whose softening appears after 1500 degree centigrade. It has obtained the workability diagram of the different clay minerals calculating the plasticity by the method of Casagrande spoon; only one of the samples is in the area suitable for extrusion. Vitrification diagrams report that the capacity of water absorption is 2 +, Cr 3 +. The results of the immobilization of these elements have been compared with those obtained with thermally activated vermiculite at 800 degree centigrade, showing that the treated samples show sorption of both cadmium and chromium below the vermiculite, but the non-treated ones are suitable to remove chromium; this is because these clays do not contain in its composition exchangeable ions (Ca 2 +, Mg 2 +, Na + , K + ), and even if they are chemically activated only the presence of Fe ions is which produces form bindings (Cr x .Fe 1 -x) (OH) 3 which favor Cr sorption. (Author) 26 refs.

  13. A novel approach to mitigating sulphur dioxide emissions and producing a mercury sorbent material using oil-sands fluid coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.; Jia, C.Q.; Tong, S.

    2008-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical smelting operations are a major source of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) which is a precursor to acid rain and increased levels of UV-B penetration in boreal lakes. Mercury is also released in copper smelter off-gas, which can bioaccumulate and cause neurological disorders and death in humans. Fluid coke is produced in massive quantities as a by-product of bitumen upgrading at Syncrude Canada's facility in Fort McMurray, Alberta. Oilsands fluid coke can be used to reduce SO 2 and produce elemental sulphur as a co-product. This process was dubbed SOactive. The reaction physically activates the fluid coke to produce a sulphur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) which is known as ECOcarbon. Some studies have indicated that SIAC is well suited for the removal of vapour phase mercury, mainly due to the formation of stable mercuric sulphide species. This paper discussed the findings made to date in relation to the SOactive process and the characterization of ECOcarbons. The paper discussed the use of fluid coke for reducing SO 2 emissions while producing elemental sulphur as well as coke-SO 2 -oxygen (O 2 ) and coke-SO 2 -water (H 2 O) systems. The paper also examined the production of SIAC products for use in capturing vapour phase mercury. The paper presented the materials and methodology, including an illustration of the apparatus used in reduction of SO 2 and activation of fluid coke. It was concluded that more work is still needed to analyse the effect of O 2 and SO 2 reduction and SIAC properties under smelter flue gas conditions. 10 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  14. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  15. Preliminary carbon dioxide capture technical and economic feasibility study evaluation of carbon dioxide capture from existing fired plants by hybrid sorption using solid sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Envergex, Srivats; Browers, Bruce; Thumbi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Barr Engineering Co. was retained by the Institute for Energy Studies (IES) at University of North Dakota (UND) to conduct a technical and economic feasibility analysis of an innovative hybrid sorbent technology (CACHYS™) for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation from coal combustion–derived flue gas. The project team for this effort consists of the University of North Dakota, Envergex LLC, Barr Engineering Co., and Solex Thermal Science, along with industrial support from Allete, BNI Coal, SaskPower, and the North Dakota Lignite Energy Council. An initial economic and feasibility study of the CACHYS™ concept, including definition of the process, development of process flow diagrams (PFDs), material and energy balances, equipment selection, sizing and costing, and estimation of overall capital and operating costs, is performed by Barr with information provided by UND and Envergex. The technology—Capture from Existing Coal-Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents Capture (CACHYS™)—is a novel solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, utilization of novel process chemistry, contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO2 heat of reaction and promote fast CO2 capture, and a low-cost method of heat management. The technology’s other key component is the use of a low-cost sorbent.

  16. Analysis of Ethane and Diethylbenzene Bridged Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    Textiles modified in this manner have been shown to reduce or eliminate transport of chemical warfare agents and simulants across the fabric barrier...B.J. Johnson; B.J. Melde; M.H. Moore; A.P. Malanoski; J.R. Taft, "Improving sorbents for glycerol capture in biodiesel refinement," Materials 10

  17. Material Identification Technology (MIT) concept technical feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.L.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y.; Johnson, L.O.

    1993-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has initiated the design and development of a novel pulsed accelerator-based, active interrogation concept. The proposed concept, referred to as the Material Identification Technology (MIT), enables rapid (between accelerator pulses), non-destructive, elemental composition analysis of both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Applications of this technique include material monitoring in support of counter-proliferation activities, such as export controls (at domestic and international inspection locations), SNM controls, nuclear weapon dismantlement, and chemical weapon verification. Material Identification Technology combines a pulsed, X-ray source (an electron accelerator) and a gamma detection system. The accelerator must maximize neutron production (pulse width, beam current, beam energy, and repetition rate) and minimize photon dose to the object. Current available accelerator technology can meet these requirements. The detection system must include detectors which provide adequate gamma energy resolution capability, rapid recovery after the initial X-ray interrogation pulse, and multiple single gamma event detection between accelerator pulses. Further research is required to develop the detection system. This report provides the initial feasibility assessment of the MIT concept

  18. Advances in nuclear fuel cycle materials and concepts. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the new trends in the materials used in various steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. This will cover fuels for various types of reactors (PWRs, HTRs, ... etc.) cladding materials, control rod materials, reactor structural materials, as well as materials used in the back end of the fuel cycle. Problems associated with corrosion of fuel cladding materials as well as those in control rod materials (B 4 C swelling...etc.), and approaches for combating these influences are reviewed. For the case of reactor pressure vessel materials issues related to the influences of alloy composition, design approaches including the use of more forged parts and minimizing, as for as possible, longitudinal welds especially in the central region, are discussed. Furthermore the application of techniques for recovery of pre-irradiation mechanical properties of PVS components is also covered. New candidate materials for the construction of high level waste containers including modified types of stainless steel (high Ni and high MO), nickel-base alloys and titanium alloys are also detailed. Finally, nuclear fuel cycle concepts involving plutonium and actinides recycling shall be reviewed. 28 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Advances in nuclear fuel cycle materials and concepts. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, A A [Materials Division, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the new trends in the materials used in various steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. This will cover fuels for various types of reactors (PWRs, HTRs, ... etc.) cladding materials, control rod materials, reactor structural materials, as well as materials used in the back end of the fuel cycle. Problems associated with corrosion of fuel cladding materials as well as those in control rod materials (B{sub 4} C swelling...etc.), and approaches for combating these influences are reviewed. For the case of reactor pressure vessel materials issues related to the influences of alloy composition, design approaches including the use of more forged parts and minimizing, as for as possible, longitudinal welds especially in the central region, are discussed. Furthermore the application of techniques for recovery of pre-irradiation mechanical properties of PVS components is also covered. New candidate materials for the construction of high level waste containers including modified types of stainless steel (high Ni and high MO), nickel-base alloys and titanium alloys are also detailed. Finally, nuclear fuel cycle concepts involving plutonium and actinides recycling shall be reviewed. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. PROCEEDINGS: MULTIPOLLUTANT SORBENT REACTIVITY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a compilation of technical papers and visual aids presented by representatives of industry, academia, and government agencies at a workshop on multipollutant sorbent reactivity that was held at EPA's Environmental Research Center in Research Triangle Park, NC, on July 19-20, 1994. There were 16 technical presentations in three sessions, and a panel discussion between six research experts. The workshop was a forum for the exchange of ideas and information on the use of sorbents to control air emissions of acid gases (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen chloride); mercury and dioxins; and toxic metals, primarily from fossil fuel combustion. A secondary purpose for conducting the workshop was to help guide EPA's research planning activities. A general theme of the workshop was that a strategy of controlling many pollutants with a single system rather than systems to control individual pollutants should be a research goal. Some research needs cited were: hazardous air pollutant removal by flue gas desulfurization systems, dioxin formation and control, mercury control, waste minimization, impact of ash recycling on metals partitioning, impact of urea and sorbents on other pollutants, high temperature filtration, impact of coal cleaning on metals partitioning, and modeling dispersion of sorbents in flue gas. information

  1. Preliminary concepts for materials measurement and accounting in critical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Sapir, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary concepts are presented for improved materials measurement and accounting in large critical facilities. These concepts will be developed as part of a study that will emphasize international safeguarding of critical facilities. The major safeguards problem is the timely verification of in-reactor inventory during periods of reactor operation. This will require a combination of measurement, statistical sampling, and data analysis techniques. Promising techniques include integral measurements of reactivity and other reactor parameters that are sensitive to the total fissile inventory, and nondestructive assay measurements of the fissile material in reactor fuel drawers and vault storage canisters coupled with statistical sampling plans tailored for the specific application. The effectiveness of proposed measurement and accounting strategies will be evaluated during the study

  2. The concept verification testing of materials science payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, C. S.; Johnston, M. H.; Whitaker, A.

    1976-01-01

    The concept Verification Testing (CVT) project at the Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, is a developmental activity that supports Shuttle Payload Projects such as Spacelab. It provides an operational 1-g environment for testing NASA and other agency experiment and support systems concepts that may be used in shuttle. A dedicated Materials Science Payload was tested in the General Purpose Laboratory to assess the requirements of a space processing payload on a Spacelab type facility. Physical and functional integration of the experiments into the facility was studied, and the impact of the experiments on the facility (and vice versa) was evaluated. A follow-up test designated CVT Test IVA was also held. The purpose of this test was to repeat Test IV experiments with a crew composed of selected and trained scientists. These personnel were not required to have prior knowledge of the materials science disciplines, but were required to have a basic knowledge of science and the scientific method.

  3. A novel superconducting toroidal field magnetic concept using advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.

    1991-01-01

    The plasma physics database indicates that two distinct approaches to tokamak design may lead to commercial fusion reactors: Low Aspect ratio, high plasma current, relatively low magnetic field devices, and high Aspect ratio, high field devices. The former requires significant enhancements in plasma performance, while the latter depends primarily upon technology development. The key technology for the commercialization of the high-field approach is large, high magnetic field superconducting magnets. In this paper, the physics motivation for the high field approach and key superconducting magnet (SCM) development issues are reviewed. Improved SCM performance may be obtained from improved materials and/or improved engineering. Superconducting materials ranging from NbTi to high-T c oxides are reviewed, demonstrating the broad range of potential superconducting materials. Structural material options are discussed, including cryogenic steel alloys and fiber-reinforced composite materials. The potential for improved magnet engineering is quantified in terms of the Virial Theorem Limit, and two examples of approaches to highly optimized magnet configurations are discussed. The force-reduced concept, which is a finite application of the force-free solutions to Ampere's Law, appear promising for large SCMs but may be limited by the electromagnetics of a fusion plasma. The Solid Superconducting Cylinder (SSC) concept is proposed. This concept combines the unique properties of high-T c superconductors within a low-T c SCM to obtain (1) significant reductions in the structural material volume, (2) a decoupling of the tri-axial (compressive and tensile) stress rate, and (3) a demountable TF magnet system. The advantages of this approach are quantified in terms of a 24 T commercial reactor TF magnet system. Significant reductions in the mechanical stress and the TF radial build are demonstrated. 54 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Advanced composite structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Advanced material concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kreisler S. Y.; Landis, Abraham L.; Chow, Andrea W.; Hamlin, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    To achieve acceptable performance and long-term durability at elevated temperatures (350 to 600 F) for high-speed transport systems, further improvements of the high-performance matrix materials will be necessary to achieve very long-term (60,000-120,000 service hours) retention of mechanical properties and damage tolerance. This report emphasizes isoimide modification as a complementary technique to semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN's) to achieve greater processibility, better curing dynamics, and possibly enhanced thermo-mechanical properties in composites. A key result is the demonstration of enhanced processibility of isoimide-modified linear and thermo-setting polyimide systems.

  5. Sorbent-based Oxygen Production for Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst. (WRI), Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Project DE-FE0024075 deals with the development of a moderate-temperature sorbent-based oxygen production technology. Sorbent-based oxygen production process utilizes oxygen-storage properties of Perovskites to (1) adsorb oxygen from air in a solid sorbent, and (2) release the adsorbed oxygen into a sweep gas such as CO2 and/or steam for gasification systems or recycled flue gas for oxy-combustion systems. Pure oxygen can be produced by the use of vacuum instead of a sweep gas to affect the pressure swing. By developing more efficient and stable, higher sorption capacity, newer class of materials operating at moderate temperatures this process represents a major advancement in air separation technology. Newly developed perovskite ceramic sorbent materials with order-disorder transition have a higher O2 adsorption capacity, potentially 200 °C lower operating temperatures, and up to two orders of magnitude faster desorption rates than those used in earlier development efforts. The performance advancements afforded by the new materials lead to substantial savings in capital investment and operational costs. Cost of producing oxygen using sorbents could be as much as 26% lower than VPSA and about 13% lower than a large cryogenic air separation unit. Cost advantage against large cryogenic separation is limited because sorbent-based separation numbers up sorbent modules for achieving the larger capacity.

  6. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  7. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot-gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Ortiz, A.; Harrison, D.P.; Groves, F.R.; White, J.D.; Zhang, S.; Huang, W.N.; Zeng, Y.

    1998-01-01

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500C to 700C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a

  8. The concept of audit materiality and attitudes towards materiality threshold disclosure among Maltese audit practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Azzopardi, Jana; Baldacchino, Peter J.;

    2009-01-01

    Materiality permeates the audit process and is a term often used to describe the scope of the auditor’s responsibility to the general public. This paper attempts to evaluate the Maltese auditing profession’s perceptions and use of the concept of materiality in the performance of an audit as well as attitudes towards disclosure of materiality thresholds. Results from personal in-depth interviews with twenty-four practitioners show that although considerable importance is a...

  9. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals. Pt.1 Concept, Preparation and Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakemi, H. A.; Santangelo, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is more than a decade since Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal (PDLC) film technology became the subject of a world-wide scientific and industrial research and development for commercial applications as large-area reflective displays and electrooptical windows, for privacy, security and light transmission control. In view of current interest and intensive fundamental and industrial research on PDLC, the authors attempt to provide a review of the state-of-art of this technology, from concept to its industrial production, in a series of articles. In the present introductory part, the authors discuss the basic concept, the principle of operation, the materials and the preparation techniques of a PDLC device by phase separation method [it

  10. The antimicrobial efficiency of silver activated sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Đolić, Maja B.; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N.; Štrbac, Svetlana B.; Rakočević, Zlatko Lj.; Veljović, Đorđe N.; Dimitrijević, Suzana I.; Rajaković, Ljubinka V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Different sorbents were activated by Ag + -ions and modified sorbents were determined by sorption capacities, in range of values: 42.06–3.28 mg/g. • Granulated activated carbon (GAC), natural zeolit (Z) and titanium dioxide (T) activated by Ag + -ions were tested against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. • The most successful bacteria removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, while the yeast cell reduction reached unsatisfactory effect for all three activated sorbents. • XRD, XPS and FE-SEM analysis showed that the chemical state of the silver activating agent affects the antimicrobial activity, as well as the structural properties of the material. • An overall microbial cell reduction, which is performed by separated antimicrobial tests on the Ag + -activated surface and Ag + -ions in aquatic solutions, is a consequence of both mechanisms. - Abstract: This study is focused on the surface modifications of the materials that are used for antimicrobial water treatment. Sorbents of different origin were activated by Ag + -ions. The selection of the most appropriate materials and the most effective activation agents was done according to the results of the sorption and desorption kinetic studies. Sorption capacities of selected sorbents: granulated activated carbon (GAC), zeolite (Z), and titanium dioxide (T), activated by Ag + -ions were following: 42.06, 13.51 and 17.53 mg/g, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of Ag/Z, Ag/GAC and Ag/T sorbents were tested against Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and yeast C. albicans. After 15 min of exposure period, the highest cell removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, 98.8 and 93.5%, respectively. Yeast cell inactivation was unsatisfactory for all three activated sorbents. The antimicrobial pathway of the activated sorbents has been examined by two separate tests – Ag + -ions desorbed from the activated surface to the

  11. Materials and design concepts for space-resilient structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mohannad Z.; Chehab, Alaa I.

    2018-04-01

    Space exploration and terraforming nearby planets have been fascinating concepts for the longest time. Nowadays, that technological advancements with regard to space exploration are thriving, it is only a matter of time before humans can start colonizing nearby moons and planets. This paper presents a state-of-the-art literature review on recent developments of "space-native" construction materials, and highlights evolutionary design concepts for "space-resilient" structures (i.e., colonies and habitats). This paper also details effects of harsh (and unique) space environments on various terrestrial and extraterrestrial construction materials, as well as on space infrastructure and structural systems. The feasibility of exploiting available space resources in terms of "in-situ resource utilization" and "harvesting of elements and compounds", as well as emergence of enabling technologies such as "cultured (lab-grown)" space construction materials are discussed. Towards the end of the present review, number of limitations and challenges facing Lunar and Martian exploration, and venues in-need for urgent research are identified and examined.

  12. IEA low NOx combustion project Stage III. Low NOx combustion and sorbent injection demonstration projects. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, R.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the main results from an IES project concerning the demonstration of low-NO x combustion and sorbent injection as techniques for the control of NO x and SO x emissions from pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The project has built upon information generated in two previous stages of activity, where NO x and SO x control processes were evaluated at both fundamental and pilot-scales. The concept for this stage of the project was for a unique collaboration, where the participating countries (Canada, Denmark and Sweden, together with the United States) have pooled information from full scale boiler demonstrations of low-NO x burner and sorbent injection technologies, and have jointly contributed to establishing a common basis for data evaluation. Demonstration testing was successfully carried out on five wall-fired commercial boiler systems which ranged in size from a 20 MW thermal input boiler used for district heating, up to a 300 MW electric utility boiler. All of these units were fired on high-volatile bituminous coals with sulfur contents ranging from 0.6-3.2 percent. At each site the existing burners were either modified or replaced to provide for low-NO x combustion, and provisions were made to inject calcium based sorbent materials into the furnace space for SO 2 emission control. The results of sorbent injection testing showed moderate levels of SO 2 removal which ranged from approximately 15 to 55 percent at an injected calcium to sulfur molar ratio to 2.0 and with boiler operation at nominal full load. Sulfur capture was found to depend upon the combined effects of parameters such as: sorbent type and reactivity; peak sorbent temperature; coal sulfur content; and the thermal characteristics of the boilers. (8 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs.)

  13. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing sorbent materials to prevent the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Screening studies identified promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite of clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent, adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 2 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  14. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs

  16. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  17. New polymer bounces into sorbent market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Spectacular spills like the Exxon Valdez capture headlines and dominate conversation, but most releases involve quantities too small to attract media attention. For these spills, companies often rely on sorbents to collect the oil and dispose it. These devices come in a variety of shapes, sizes and absorbent materials, including a new generation of products that offers solid results-literally. This paper reports on the Solidifier which absorbs oil, as well as chlorinated solvents, hydrocarbons and PCBs, and, as the name implies, solidifies into a rubber-like material. A polymer used extensively in the rubber industry is the key to the sorbent's success. Oil and other contaminants, act like catalysts. They dissolve into the polymer, causing its molecules to bond together and form a rubber-like mass. No. 2 diesel fuel oil can be bounced on the floor after it solidifies

  18. Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production by Sorption Enhanced Steam Reforming of Woodgas Containing TAR over a Commercial Ni Catalyst and Calcined Dolomite as CO2 Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Naso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of the catalytic steam reforming of a gaseous fuel obtained by steam biomass gasification to convert topping atmosphere residue (TAR and CH4 and to produce pure H2 by means of a CO2 sorbent. This experimental work deals with the demonstration of the practical feasibility of such concepts, using a real woodgas obtained from fluidized bed steam gasification of hazelnut shells. This study evaluates the use of a commercial Ni catalyst and calcined dolomite (CaO/MgO. The bed material simultaneously acts as reforming catalyst and CO2 sorbent. The experimental investigations have been carried out in a fixed bed micro-reactor rig using a slipstream from the gasifier to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. The reforming/sorption tests were carried out at 650 °C while regeneration of the sorbent was carried out at 850 °C in a nitrogen environment. Both combinations of catalyst and sorbent are very effective in TAR and CH4 removal, with conversions near 100%, while the simultaneous CO2 sorption effectively enhances the water gas shift reaction producing a gas with a hydrogen volume fraction of over 90%. Multicycle tests of reforming/CO2 capture and regeneration were performed to verify the stability of the catalysts and sorbents to remove TAR and capture CO2 during the duty cycle.

  19. A systematic concept of assuring structural integrity of components and parts for applying to highly ductile materials through brittle material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    2007-09-01

    Concepts of assuring structural integrity of plant components have been developed under limited conditions of either highly ductile or brittle materials. There are some cases where operation in more and more severe conditions causes a significant reduction in ductility for materials with a high ductility before service. Use of high strength steels with relatively reduced ductility is increasing as industry applications. Current concepts of structural integrity assurance under the limited conditions of material properties or on the requirement of no significant changes in material properties even after long service will fail to incorporate expected technological innovations. A systematic concept of assuring the structural integrity should be developed for applying to highly ductile materials through brittle materials. Objectives of the on-going research are to propose a detail of the systematic concept by considering how we can develop the concept without restricting materials and for systematic considerations on a broad range of material properties from highly ductile materials through brittle materials. First, background of concepts of existing structural codes for components of highly ductile materials or for structural parts of brittle materials are discussed. Next, issues of existing code for parts of brittle materials are identified, and then resolutions to the issues are proposed. Based on the above-mentioned discussions and proposals, a systematic concept is proposed for application to components with reduced ductility materials and for applying to components of materials with significantly changing material properties due to long service. (author)

  20. Bonding in phase change materials: concepts and misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. O.

    2018-04-01

    Bonding concepts originating in chemistry are surveyed from a condensed matter perspective, beginning around 1850 with ‘valence’ and the word ‘bond’ itself. The analysis of chemical data in the 19th century resulted in astonishing progress in understanding the connectivity and stereochemistry of molecules, almost without input from physicists until the development of quantum mechanics in 1925 and afterwards. The valence bond method popularized by Pauling and the molecular orbital methods of Hund, Mulliken, Bloch, and Hückel play major roles in the subsequent development, as does the central part played by the kinetic energy in covalent bonding (Ruedenberg and others). ‘Metallic’ (free electron) and related approaches, including pseudopotential and density functional theories, have been remarkably successful in understanding structures and bonding in molecules and solids. We discuss these concepts in the context of phase change materials, which involve the rapid and reversible transition between amorphous and crystalline states, and note the confusion that some have caused, in particular ‘resonance’ and ‘resonant bonding’.

  1. Potential mirror concepts for radiation testing of fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Studies under the University of Illinois PROMETHEUS (Plasma Reactor Optimized for Materials Experimentation for Thermonuclear Energy Usage) project are described that started in 1971 with the realization that a practical fusion-plasma neutron source was feasible with a net-power input (rather than production). The basic objectives were similar to those in later FERF (Fusion Engineering Research Facility) studies: namely, to maximize the neutron flux and usable experimental volume; to include the flexibility to handle a variety of both materials and engineering experiments; to minimize capital and operating costs; and to utilize near- term technology. The PROMETHEUS design provides a neutron flux of approximately 5x10 14 n/cm 2 s by injection of approximately 30 MW of neutral-beams into a 20 cm radius mirror-confined plasma. Charge-exchange bombardment of the first wall is viewed as a key problem in the design and is discussed in some detail. To gain yet higher neutron fluxes for accelerated testing, two alternate designs have been studied: a 'Twin-beam' injection device and a field reversed mirror concept. The latter potentially offers fluxes approaching 10 16 n/cm 2 s but involves more speculative technology. (Auth.)

  2. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process / equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines, 31 carbon based materials, 6 zeolites, 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding), 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  3. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for trace H2S removal from gas streams

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval A.; Bessho, Naoki; Koros, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Hollow fiber sorbents are pseudo monolithic materials with potential use in various adsorption based applications. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents have the potential to allow thermal regeneration without direct contact of the regeneration fluid with the sorbent particles. This paper considers the application of dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for a case involving trace amounts of H2S removal from a simulated gas stream and offers a comparison with single layer hollow fiber sorbents. The effect of spin dope composition and core layer zeolite loading on the gas flux, H2S transient sorption capacity and pore structure are also studied. This work can be used as a guide to develop and optimize dual layer hollow fiber sorbent properties beyond the specific example considered here. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for trace H2S removal from gas streams

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval A.

    2013-05-01

    Hollow fiber sorbents are pseudo monolithic materials with potential use in various adsorption based applications. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents have the potential to allow thermal regeneration without direct contact of the regeneration fluid with the sorbent particles. This paper considers the application of dual layer hollow fiber sorbents for a case involving trace amounts of H2S removal from a simulated gas stream and offers a comparison with single layer hollow fiber sorbents. The effect of spin dope composition and core layer zeolite loading on the gas flux, H2S transient sorption capacity and pore structure are also studied. This work can be used as a guide to develop and optimize dual layer hollow fiber sorbent properties beyond the specific example considered here. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing sorbent materials to prevent the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Screening studies identified promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent, adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt %), activated charcoal (6 wt %), synthetic zeolite (20 wt %), and soil (73 wt %) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Safeguards systems concepts for nuclear material transportation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldonado, O.C.; Kevany, M.; Rodney, D.; Pitts, D.; Mazur, M.

    1977-09-01

    The report describes the development of system concepts for the safeguarding of special strategic nuclear materials (SNM) against malevolent adversary action during the interfacility transport of the SNM. The methodology used includes techniques for defining, classifying, and analyzing adversary action sequences; defining safeguards system components; assessing the vulnerability of various safeguards systems and their component parts to the potential adversary action sequences, and conceptualizing system design requirements. The method of analysis is based primarily on a comparison of adversary actions with safeguards measures, to estimate vulnerability. Because of the paucity of the data available for assessing vulnerability, the Delphi approach was used to generate data: values were estimated in a structured exercise by a panel of experts in the safeguards and terrorist fields. It is concluded that the probability of successful attack against a truck/escort convoy manned by well-trained, well-armed personnel is low enough to discourage all but the strongest adversaries. Secrecy of operations and careful screening of personnel are very important. No reliance should be placed on current capabilities of local law enforcement agencies. The recommendation of the study is the use of road transport in the near future and air transport at a later time when the number of shipments reaches a level to justify it, and when present safety problems are resolved

  7. Prescriptive concepts for advanced nuclear materials control and accountability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Ford, W.; Tisinger, R.M.; Meyer, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    Networking- and distributed-processing hardware and software have the potential of greatly enhancing nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems, from both safeguards and process operations perspectives, while allowing timely integrated safeguards activities and enhanced computer security at reasonable cost. A hierarchical distributed system is proposed consisting of groups of terminal and instruments in plant production and support areas connected to microprocessors that are connected to either larger microprocessors or minicomputers. These micros and/or minis are connected to a main machine, which might be either a mainframe or a super minicomputer. Data acquisition, preliminary input data validation, and transaction processing occur at the lowest level. Transaction buffering, resource sharing, and selected data processing occur at the intermediate level. The host computer maintains overall control of the data base and provides routine safeguards and security reporting and special safeguards analyses. The research described outlines the distribution of MC and A system requirements in the hierarchical system and distributed processing applied to MC and A. Implications of integrated safeguards and computer security concepts for the distributed system design are discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs

  8. Research on using Mineral Sorbents for A Sorption Process in the Environment Contaminated with Petroleum Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijarowski Piotr Marek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A research on diatomite sorbents was carried out to investigate their ability to remove hazardous substances from oil spillages. We used two types of sorbents available on the market with differences in material density and particles size of composition. As sorbents we used Ekoterm oil and unleaded petrol 95 coming from refinery PKN Orlen S.A. Two types of sorbents with similar chemical composition but different granulometric composition were used. They are marked as D1 and C1 samples. The fastest absorbent was C1, but D1 sample was the most absorptive.

  9. Oil spill sorbents: Testing protocol and certification listing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.; Gausemel, I.

    1993-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Engineering Division is spearheading a program in conjunction with the Canadian General Standards Board that would see the development of a certification and listing program in addition to a national standard for the testing of sorbent materials. Funding for this program is provided by Environment Canada (EC), Canadian Coast Guard (CCG), Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), US Coast Guard (USCG), and US Minerals Management Service (MMS). The test methods are based upon those defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials and previous test methods developed by Environment Canada for our series of reports entitled Selection Criteria and Laboratory Evaluation of Oil Spill Sorbents. This series, which was started in 1975, encompasses a number of commercially available oil spill sorbents tested with different petroleum products and hydrocarbon solvents. The testing program will categorize the sorbents according to their operating characteristics. The main categories are oil spills on water, oil spills on land, and industrial use. The characteristics to be evaluated with the new test protocols include initial and maximum sorption capacities, water pickup, buoyancy, reuse potential, retention profile, disintegration (material integrity), and ease of application and retrieval. In the near future are plans to incorporate changes to the test that would involve increasing the list of test liquids to encompass spills in an industrial setting, in addition to testing sorbent booms and addressing the disposal problem

  10. Use of inorganic sorbents for treatment of liquid radioactive waste and backfill of underground repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This document presents the results of a four year Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the ''Use of Inorganic Sorbents for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste and Backfill of Underground Repositories'' (1987-1991). Many countries have research programmes aiming at developing processes which would provide efficient and safe concentration of radionuclides in waste streams into solid materials which could then be reliably immobilized into forms suitable for long term storage or disposal. Use of inorganic sorbents for this purpose is very attractive because of their resistance to radiation and chemical attack, strong affinity for one or more radionuclides, their compatibility with likely immobilization matrices and their availability at low cost. According to the fundamental multibarrier concept for disposal of radioactive waste, backfill material is one of the important engineered barriers. Inorganic materials such as clays, naturally occurring zeolites (clinoptilolite, modenite and chabasite) are promising backfill materials. Research in technical uses of inorganic material applications was covered within the framework of the Co-ordinated Research Programme reported in this technical document. Final contributions by participants at the last Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Rez, Czechoslovakia, from 4 to 8 November 1991, are presented here. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Physical protection concepts of nuclear materials. The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, G.; Artaud, R.

    1995-01-01

    As the nuclear energy was being developed, it appeared necessary to set up protections against its potential hazards, that should be more complete and elaborate than those implemented on the other industrial installations. This had to be done both in the safety field to prevent the environment and the populations from the consequences of severe casualties, and in the security field to avoid the risk of proliferation and limit to an acceptable level the results of voluntarily provoked accidents and sabotages. Taking advantage of the gathered experience, this document gives consideration to the concepts used in France in order to ensure the physical protection of the nuclear materials. The following topics are tackled: context inside which are envisaged the specific measures, coherence with the general dispositions taken to protect industrial installations, importance and limitations of the part played by the regulations, respective responsibilities of the plant operators and the public authorities, compromise between objectives in view and means to implement, adjustment between the physical protection system and the operating requirements. In addition, the ways in which these systems should be implemented are discussed, underlining the necessity to make progressive steps under a permanent will, in order, first, to update and bring under conformity the old installations, and second, to ensure the maintenance of the systems, taking account of the evolutions of needs and techniques. Those points are commented on examples taken among the different types of installations to be found in France, showing the differences in approach coming from the type and the age of the facilities, and giving the present trends for the new plants. (authors). 1 annexe

  12. Technical Meeting on Liquid Metal Reactor Concepts: Core Design and Structural Materials. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Liquid metal reactor concept: core design and structural materials” was to present and discuss innovative liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) core designs with special focus on the choice, development, testing and qualification of advanced reactor core structural materials. Main results arising from national and international R&D programmes and projects in the field were reviewed, and new activities to be carried out under the IAEA aegis were identified on the basis of the analysis of current research and technology gaps

  13. Adsorption of H2O and CO2 on supported amine sorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneman, Rens; Frigka, Natalia; Zhao, Wenying; Li, Zhenshan; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this work the adsorption of H2O and CO2 on Lewatit VP OC 1065 was studied in view of the potential application of this sorbent in post combustion CO2 capture. Both CO2 and H2O were found to adsorb on the amine active sites present on the pore surface of the sorbent material. However, where the

  14. Synthesis and test of sorbents based on calcium aluminates for SE-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Di Michele, A.; Gallorini, F.; Petrillo, C.; Sacchetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis strategy of CaO incorporation into calcium aluminates was approached. • Three innovative sorbents (M1, M2, M3) were synthesized and characterized. • Sorption capacity of developed sorbents was evaluated in multi-cycle processes. • M3 sorbent showed best performance, much higher than conventional CaO ones. • M3 sorbent functionality in SE-SR process was verified. - Abstract: Greenhouse gases emission of power generation plants will be continuously tightened to achieve European targets in terms of CO 2 emissions. In particular, the switching to a sustainable power generation using fossil fuels will be strongly encouraged in the future. In this context, sorption-enhanced steam reforming (SE-SR) is a promising process because it can be implemented as a CCS pre-combustion methodology. The purpose of this study is to develop and test innovative materials in order to overcome main limitations of standard CaO sorbent, usually used in the SE-SR process. The investigated innovative sorbents are based on incorporation of CaO particles into inert materials which significantly reduce the performance degradation. In particular, sorbent materials based on calcium aluminates were considered, investigating different techniques of synthesis. All synthesized materials were packed, together with the catalyst, in a fixed bed reactor and tested in sorption/regeneration cycles. Significant improvements were obtained respect to standard CaO regarding sorption capacity stability exhibited by the sorbent

  15. Concepts on integration of physical protection and material accounting functions in a safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Concepts on integration of physical protection and material accounting systems to enhance overall safeguards capability are developed and presented. These concepts identify ways in which material accounting systems can be used to enable effective monitoring of authorized movement of nuclear material through physical protection boundaries. Concepts are also discussed for monitoring user access to nuclear material and for tagging user identification to material accounting transactions through physical protection functions. These result in benefits in detecting diversion and in positively tracing material movement. Finally, coordination of safeguards information from both subsystems in such an integrated system through a safeguards coordination center is addressed with emphasis on appropriate response in case of discrepancies

  16. IMMOBILIZATION OF MICROALGAE ON THE SURFACE OF NEW CROSS-LINKED POLYETHYLENIMINE-BASED SORBENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilieva, Svetlana; Shibzukhova, Karina; Morozov, Alexey; Solovchenko, Alexei; Bessonov, Ivan; Kopitsyna, Maria; Lukyanov, Alexander; Chekanov, Konstantin; Lobakova, Elena

    2018-04-11

    We report on the use of the polyethylenimine-based (PEI) sorbents for immobilization and harvesting of microalgae (MA) cells. Specific materials assessed were porous solid polymers from highly-branched PEI synthesized by cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (ECH) or diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (DGDE). We estimated the effect of PEI/cross-linker ratio on the MA attachment and biocompatibility of the sorbents with the MA cells. A decrease in the cross-linker percentage resulted in the enhancement of the immobilization efficiency but impaired the cell viability as was manifested by inhibition of the photosynthetic activity of the MA cells. The rate of Chlorella vulgaris cell attachment to the sorbents with ECH was faster as compared to that of the PEI-DGDE-based polymers. The cells immobilized on the PEI-ECH sorbents showed a more profound decline in their viability (assessed via photosynthetic activity). The sorbents with 60% of DGDE were characterized by high immobilization efficiency. These sorbents supported a prolonged cultivation of the immobilized MA without impairing their viability and metabolic activity. We conclude that the sorbents with a lower percentage of DGDE (<30%) and sorbents with ECH are suitable for harvesting of the MA cells intended for immediate downstream processing, potentially without the cell desorption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on successful application of PEI-based sorbents in microalgal biotechnology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparative study of homemade C18 and commercial C18 sorbents for preconcentration of lead by minicolumn solid phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltez, H.F.; Curtius, A.J.; Carasek, E.; Melo, L.F.C.; Sales Fontes Jardim, I.C.; Nascimento de Queiroz do, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of commercial C 18 chemically immobilized on silica and homemade C 18 , as sorbents for Pb complexed with 0,0-diethyl-dithiophosphate (DDTP) in a flow injection preconcentration system is reported. The homemade C 18 sorbent was obtained by sorption of poly(methyloctadecylsiloxane) (PMODS) on the silica support followed by immobilization using thermal treatment. The method follows the concept of green chemistry, since there are no toxic residues after synthesis. The complexed Pb was formed in 1.0 mol L -1 HCI medium and retained on the minicolumn filled with the sorbents. The elution was carried out using ethanol, and the richest 210 μL fraction was collected and analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Chemical and flow variables were optimized for each sorbent. The results demonstrated that the performance of the proposed homemade C 18 sorbent for preconcentration of Pb complexed with DDTP is very similar to commercial C 18 chemically bonded on silica. By processing 25 mL, the enrichment factors were 129 and 125 for commercial C 18 and homemade C 18 , respectively. The limit of detection for commercial and homemade C 18 was 0.2 μg L -1 and 0.6 μg L -1 , respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was lower than 1.2 % for both sorbents for a Pb concentration of 100 μg L -1 . The method was also applied successfully to the analysis of water samples, and the accuracy was tested by recovery measurements on spiked samples and biological reference material. (author)

  18. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  19. Ecologically pure sorbents for power system of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, I. S.; Moryganova, Y. A.; Maung, Ko Ko; Arefeva, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, one of the most important problems of the thermal power plant, and many industrial enterprises in different countries is a wastewater treatment for oil products. When choosing the good sorbents is necessary to consider not only the properties and efficiency of the recommended materials, but also the cost, the possibility of environmentally friendly disposal of used sorbents and the possibility of using secondary resources. The purpose of this paper is to study the possibility of using agricultural waste in Myanmar as the sorbents in wastewater treatment containing oil products. The results of experiments have confirmed that rice hulls, and coconut fiber can be effectively used as the sorbents in wastewater treatment containing oil products at concentrations up to 10 mg/l. According to comparative analysis with the conventional sorbent-activated birch carbon (BAC-A) in the Russian power industry has shown that coconut fiber has very good sorption capacity and it is available to use as the raw materials for industries, which does not require to regenerate after using it and can be directly recycled in the factory.

  20. Sorbent application on the base of chitosan for radionuclides separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivarciova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste contains enormous amounts of radionuclides, which pollute the environment and can cause serious chemical and radiological toxicity threats to lower and higher living organism. Alternative process for the removal of heavy metal ions and radionuclides is sorption, which utilizes various certain natural materials of biological origin. Amino-polysaccharide-based sorbents e.g. chitosan represent suitable materials for binding of metal oxo-anion species because of numerous functional groups -OH and -NH_2 because of their suitable H-bond donor and acceptor sites. The sorbents on the base chitosan prepared through chemical modification were used for removal and separation certain radionuclides from aqueous media. The aim of this work was the study of physicochemical properties of prepared sorbents. The specific surface of sorbents was characterized with BET methods. Point of zero charge was identified with potentiometric titration. The size of particles and shape of sorbents were determined by scanning electron microscope. The sorption experiments for selected radionuclides were conducted under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of various parameters on the sorption "9"9"mTc, "6"0Co and the effect of pH on the separation of radionuclide mixture in the solution were studied. (author)

  1. Aminosilane-Functionalized Hollow Fiber Sorbents for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie

    2013-07-03

    Increasing carbon dioxide emissions are generally believed to contribute to global warming. Developing new materials for capturing CO2 emitted from coal-fired plants can potentially mitigate the effect of these CO 2 emissions. In this study, we developed and optimized porous hollow fiber sorbents with both improved sorption capacities and rapid sorption kinetics by functionalizing aminosilane (N-(2-aminoethyl)-3- aminoisobutyldimethylmethoxysilane) to cellulose acetate hollow fibers as a "proof of concept". A lumen-side barrier layer was also developed in the aminosilane-functionalized cellulose acetate fiber sorbent to allow for facile heat exchange without significant mass transfer with the bore-side heat transfer fluid. The functionalized cellulose acetate fiber sorbents were characterized by pressure decay sorption measurements, multicomponent column chromatography, FT-IR, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The carbon dioxide sorption capacity at 1 atm is 0.73 mmol/g by using the pressure decay apparatus. Multicomponent column chromatography measurements showed that aminosilane functionalized cellulose acetate fiber sorbent has a CO2 sorption capacity of 0.23 mmol/g at CO2 partial pressure 0.1 atm and 35 C in simulated flue gas. While this capacity is low, our proof of concept positions the technology to move forward to higher capacity with work that is underway. The presence of silicon and nitrogen elements in the elemental analysis confirmed the success of grafting along with FT-IR spectra which showed the absorbance peak (∼810 cm-1) for Si-C stretching. A cross-linked Neoprene material was used to form the lumen-side barrier layer. Preliminary data showed the required reduction in gas permeance to eliminate mixing between shell side and bore side fluid flows. Specifically the permeance was reduced from 10 000 GPUs for the neat fibers to 6.6 ± 0.1 and 3.3 ± 0.3 GPUs for the coated fibers. The selected lumen layer formation materials

  2. Aminosilane-Functionalized Hollow Fiber Sorbents for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie; Lively, Ryan P.; Lee, Jong Suk; Koros, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing carbon dioxide emissions are generally believed to contribute to global warming. Developing new materials for capturing CO2 emitted from coal-fired plants can potentially mitigate the effect of these CO 2 emissions. In this study, we developed and optimized porous hollow fiber sorbents with both improved sorption capacities and rapid sorption kinetics by functionalizing aminosilane (N-(2-aminoethyl)-3- aminoisobutyldimethylmethoxysilane) to cellulose acetate hollow fibers as a "proof of concept". A lumen-side barrier layer was also developed in the aminosilane-functionalized cellulose acetate fiber sorbent to allow for facile heat exchange without significant mass transfer with the bore-side heat transfer fluid. The functionalized cellulose acetate fiber sorbents were characterized by pressure decay sorption measurements, multicomponent column chromatography, FT-IR, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The carbon dioxide sorption capacity at 1 atm is 0.73 mmol/g by using the pressure decay apparatus. Multicomponent column chromatography measurements showed that aminosilane functionalized cellulose acetate fiber sorbent has a CO2 sorption capacity of 0.23 mmol/g at CO2 partial pressure 0.1 atm and 35 C in simulated flue gas. While this capacity is low, our proof of concept positions the technology to move forward to higher capacity with work that is underway. The presence of silicon and nitrogen elements in the elemental analysis confirmed the success of grafting along with FT-IR spectra which showed the absorbance peak (∼810 cm-1) for Si-C stretching. A cross-linked Neoprene material was used to form the lumen-side barrier layer. Preliminary data showed the required reduction in gas permeance to eliminate mixing between shell side and bore side fluid flows. Specifically the permeance was reduced from 10 000 GPUs for the neat fibers to 6.6 ± 0.1 and 3.3 ± 0.3 GPUs for the coated fibers. The selected lumen layer formation materials

  3. Anionic sorbents for arsenic and technetium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, Daniel A.; Moore, Robert Charles; Bontchev, Ranko Panayotov; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Two sorbents, zirconium coated zeolite and magnesium hydroxide, were tested for their effectiveness in removing arsenic from Albuquerque municipal water. Results for the zirconium coated zeolite indicate that phosphate present in the water interfered with the sorption of arsenic. Additionally, there was a large quantity of iron and copper present in the water, corrosion products from the piping system, which may have interfered with the uptake of arsenic by the sorbent. Magnesium hydroxide has also been proven to be a strong sorbent for arsenic as well as other metals. Carbonate, present in water, has been shown to interfere with the sorption of arsenic by reacting with the magnesium hydroxide to form magnesium carbonate. The reaction mechanism was investigated by FT-IR and shows that hydrogen bonding between an oxygen on the arsenic species and a hydrogen on the Mg(OH)2 is most likely the mechanism of sorption. This was also confirmed by RAMAN spectroscopy and XRD. Technetium exists in multiple oxidation states (IV and VII) and is easily oxidized from the relatively insoluble Tc(IV) form to the highly water soluble and mobile Tc(VII) form. The two oxidation states exhibit different sorption characteristics. Tc(VII) does not sorb to most materials whereas Tc(IV) will strongly sorb to many materials. Therefore, it was determined that it is necessary to first reduce the Tc (using SnCl2) before sorption to stabilize Tc in the environment. Additionally, the effect of carbonate and phosphate on the sorption of technetium by hydroxyapatite was studied and indicated that both have a significant effect on reducing Tc sorption

  4. Investigation of Pipeline Concepts, Materials and Construction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    Tite" Ethyl "Bell-Ring" Johns-Manville "Ring-Tite" Rehau "Mechan-O-Joint". Weights for 4 Inch, 6 Inch, and 8 inch diameter pipes are 1.86 LB/FT...415 Avenida Pico San Clemento, California 92672 C58 I Returned Reply Useful Used In By USPS Received Information Concept Rehau Plastiks, Incorporated

  5. Mixed and Doped Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The objectives of this presentation are to capture CO2 we need materials with optimal performance and low costs; establish a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO2 solid sorbents from a large solid material databank; computational synthesis new materials to fit industrial needs; and explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO2 solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage.

  6. Materials Meets Concepts in Molecule-Based Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ortmann, Frank

    2014-10-14

    In this contribution, molecular materials are highlighted as an important topic in the diverse field of condensed matter physics, with focus on their particular electronic and transport properties. A better understanding of their performance in various applications and devices demands for an extension of basic theoretical approaches to describe charge transport in molecular materials, including the accurate description of electron-phonon coupling. Starting with the simplest case of a molecular junction and moving on to larger aggregates of bulk organic semiconductors, charge-transport regimes from ballistic motion to incoherent hopping, which are frequently encountered in molecular systems under respective conditions, are discussed. Transport features of specific materials are described through ab initio material parameters whose determination is addressed. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Materials Meets Concepts in Molecule-Based Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ortmann, Frank; Radke, K. Sebastian; Gü nther, Alrun; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, molecular materials are highlighted as an important topic in the diverse field of condensed matter physics, with focus on their particular electronic and transport properties. A better understanding of their performance

  8. Materials concepts in PWR power plants. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa e Silva, A.L.V.

    1987-01-01

    Some measures to reduce the risk of exposure in case of nuclear accidents are presented. Some material questions concerning the integrity of reactor pressure vessel, the containment vessel and external systems are discussed. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Regulation Concepts for Clearance Level of Radionuclide in Solid Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanang Triagung Edi Hermawan

    2008-01-01

    Practices of nuclear energy have expanded in some fields such as researches and development, educations, agricultures, medicines and industries. Every practice beside give much benefit, could generate residue or waste. Radioactive waste needs management to ensure the safety of workers, member of the public, and for the eternal of environment. The product of radioactive waste management, in generally, is some containment of radionuclide concentration in solid matrix material after immobilization or conditioning process. Some kind of processed radioactive wastes with short half live then decay faster to stabile condition. The decay will reach clearance level in sometimes, so from the radiation protection views is harmless. This materials above didn’t need control and must be cleared from all determinate and regulation aspects of radioactive material practices. There is clearance for harmless material off course will be simplify management task and efficiency of money. So the regulation about clearance levels will be important as law basic for technical practices in field. (author)

  10. Data base concepts for managing the DOE nuclear material inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beams, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Information required by nuclear materials managers in the Department of Energy (DOE) is accessible with varying levels of difficulty. Currently, the most readily available information is provided by the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). Information not provided by NMMSS must be obtained either from field site data bases or collected through physical inventory inspections, both very costly and time-consuming alternatives. This paper discusses the possibility of providing more detailed information at DOE headquarters on nuclear material inventories than is provided by NMMSS. In particular, this paper considers some of the issues associated with managing materials at the lowest-level--the item-level--and uses a hypothetical item-level data base to describe some of the advantages and disadvantages of managing information at the item-level

  11. The concept of the materiality in the financial statement auditing

    OpenAIRE

    Raziūnienė, Daiva; Verbickaitė, Gintarė

    2017-01-01

    The financial auditors are required to provide the assurance for the public whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework. The International Federation of Accountants, the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board formulated general guidelines and principles of audit materiality assessments and provided that in auditing standards (IAA 320 and IAA 450). Financial auditors have independently to...

  12. Experimental research on combustion fluorine retention using calcium-based sorbents during coal combustion (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Q.; Ma, X.; Liu, J.; Wu, X.; Zhou, J.; Cen, K. [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). College of Resource and Environment Engineering

    2008-12-15

    Fluoride pollution produced by coal burning can be controlled with the calcium-based sorbent combustion fluorine technique in which calcium-based sorbents are mixed with the coal or sprayed into the combustion chamber. In a fixed bed tube furnace combustion experiment using one calcium-based natural mineral, limestone and one calcium-based building material, it was shown that the calcium-based sorbent particle grain size and pore structure have a big influence on the combustion fluorine retention effect. Reducing the calcium-based sorbent particle grain size and improving the calcium sorbent structure characteristics at very high temperature to enhance the fluorine retention effect is the important approach to the fluorine retention agent development. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. Caloric effects in ferroic materials: new concepts for cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehler, Sebastian; Roessler, Ulrich K. [IFW Dresden (Germany); Kastner, Oliver; Eggeler, Gunther [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Eckert, Juergen [IFW Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institut fuer Werkstoffwisssenschaft, Dresden (Germany); Emmerich, Heike [Universitaet Bayreuth (Germany); Entel, Peter [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Mueller, Stefan [Institut fuer Angewandte Mathematik, Bonn (Germany); Quandt, Eckhard [Institute for Materials Science, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet (CAU), Kiel (Germany); Albe, Karsten [TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Refrigeration is one of the main sinks of the German and European electricity consumption and accordingly contributes to worldwide CO{sub 2} emissions. High reduction potentials are envisaged if caloric effects in solid materials are used. The recent discovery of giant entropy changes associated with ferroelastic phase transformations promises higher efficiency. Ferroic transitions enhance the entropy change of magneto-, elasto-, baro-, and electro-caloric effects. Furthermore, because the refrigerant is in a solid state, this technology completely eliminates the need for halofluorocarbon refrigerants having a high global-warming potential. The smaller footprint for operation and the scalable mechanism open up further applications such as cooling of microsystems. While the principal feasibility of magnetocaloric refrigeration is already evident, it requires large magnetic fields (>2 T) which hampers wide industrial and commercial application. It is expected that this obstacle can be overcome by materials with lower hysteresis and by using stress- or electric fields. In order to accelerate research on ferroic cooling, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) decided to establish the priority program SPP 1599 in April 2011. In this article we will address the major challenges for introducing ferroic materials in practical cooling applications: energy efficiency, effect size, and fatigue behavior. Solid state cooling in this sense can be based on the following ''ferroic-caloric'' classes of materials: ferroelastic shape memory alloys, ferromagnetic shape memory alloys, and ferroelectric materials and their possible combinations in materials with ''multicaloric'' effects. The open questions require the interdisciplinary collaboration of material scientists, engineers, physicists, and mathematicians. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2010-04-20

    Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts are disclosed, including silver hollandite and cryptomelane. These materials can be used, for example, to catalyze the oxidation of CO.sub.x (e.g., CO), NO.sub.x (e.g., NO), hydrocarbons (e.g., C.sub.3H.sub.6) and/or sulfur-containing compounds. The disclosed materials also may be used to catalyze other reactions, such as the reduction of NO.sub.2. In some cases, the disclosed materials are capable of sorbing certain products from the reactions they catalyze. Silver hollandite, in particular, can be used to remove a substantial portion of certain sulfur-containing compounds from a gas or liquid by catalysis and/or sorption. The gas or liquid can be, for example, natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon.

  15. A factory concept for processing and manufacturing with lunar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    A conceptual design for an orbital factory sized to process 1.5 million metric tons per year of raw lunar fines into 0.3 million metric tons of manufacturing materials is presented. A conservative approach involving application of present earth-based technology leads to a design devoid of new inventions. Earth based counterparts to the factory machinery were used to generate subsystem masses and lumped parameters for volume and mass estimates. The results are considered to be conservative since technologies more advanced than those assumed are presently available in many areas. Some attributes of potential space processing technologies applied to material refinement and component manufacture are discussed.

  16. Report of the Working Group on novel concepts and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.K.; Brun, T.O.

    1997-09-01

    The working group meeting was chaired by Carpenter and Brun. This session was intended as a session to present ideas that had not yet been fully explored, as well as a place for discussion of topics that did not readily fit in any of the other workshop sessions. The first part of the session focused on moderator materials. During the course of the discussions of some novel potential moderator materials it became clear that there was not even agreement on what makes a good moderator for cold neutrons at short-pulse sources. There were two competing diametrically-opposed schools of thought.

  17. Comparative DNA isolation behaviours of silica and polymer based sorbents in batch fashion: monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore size distribution as a new sorbent for DNA isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günal, Gülçin; Kip, Çiğdem; Eda Öğüt, S; İlhan, Hasan; Kibar, Güneş; Tuncel, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore-size distribution were proposed as a high performance sorbent for DNA isolation in batch fashion under equilibrium conditions. The proposed sorbent including both macroporous and mesoporous compartments was synthesized 5.1 μm in-size, by a "staged shape templated hydrolysis and condensation method". Hydrophilic polymer based sorbents were also obtained in the form of monodisperse-macroporous microspheres ca 5.5 μm in size, with different functionalities, by a developed "multi-stage microsuspension copolymerization" technique. The batch DNA isolation performance of proposed material was comparatively investigated using polymer based sorbents with similar morphologies. Among all sorbents tried, the best DNA isolation performance was achieved with the monodisperse silica microspheres with bimodal pore size distribution. The collocation of interconnected mesoporous and macroporous compartments within the monodisperse silica microspheres provided a high surface area and reduced the intraparticular mass transfer resistance and made easier both the adsorption and desorption of DNA. Among the polymer based sorbents, higher DNA isolation yields were achieved with the monodisperse-macroporous polymer microspheres carrying trimethoxysilyl and quaternary ammonium functionalities. However, batch DNA isolation performances of polymer based sorbents were significantly lower with respect to the silica microspheres.

  18. Next generation multi-material 3D food printer concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, D.J.; Anderson, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    3D food printing is a new rapidly developing technology capable of creating food structures that are impossible to create with normal processing techniques. Challenges in this field are creating texture and multi-material food products. To address these challenges a next generation food printer will

  19. 21 CFR 876.5600 - Sorbent regenerated dialysate delivery system for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dialyzer. The device is used with the extracorporeal blood system and the dialyzer of the hemodialysis... dialysate conditions. The sorbent cartridge may include absorbent, ion exchange and catalytic materials. (b...

  20. Concepts of real time and semi-real time material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief consideration of the traditional material balance accounting on an MBA basis, this paper explores the basic concepts of real time and semi-real time material control, together with some of the major problems to be solved. Three types of short-term material control are discussed: storage, batch processing, and continuous processing. (DLC)

  1. Innovative Structural and Material Concepts for Low-Weight Low-Drag Aircraft Design, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of this multi-phase project is to explore, develop, integrate, and test several innovative structural design concepts and new material...

  2. Sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Smotraiev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The actual problem of water supply in the world and in Ukraine, in particular, is a high level of pollution in water resources and an insufficient level of drinking water purification. With industrial wastewater, a significant amount of pollutants falls into water bodies, including suspended particles, sulfates, iron compounds, heavy metals, etc. Aim: The aim of this work is to determine the impact of aluminum and manganese ions additives on surface and sorption properties of zirconium oxyhydroxide based sorbents during their production process. Materials and Methods: The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were prepared by sol-gel method during the hydrolysis of metal chlorides (zirconium oxychloride ZrOCl2, aluminum chloride AlCl3 and manganese chloride MnCl2 with carbamide. Results: The surface and sorption properties of sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were investigated. X-ray amorphous structure and evolved hydroxyl-hydrate cover mainly characterize the obtained xerogels. The composite sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide doped with aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 537 m2/g and manganese oxyhydroxide (aS = 356 m2/g have more developed specific surface area than single-component xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide (aS = 236 m2/g and aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 327 m2/g. The sorbent based on the xerogel of zirconium and manganese oxyhydroxides have the maximum SO42--ions sorption capacity. It absorbs 1.5 times more SO42–-ions than the industrial anion exchanger AN-221. The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide has the sorption capacity of Fe3+-ions that is 1.5…2 times greater than the capacity of the industrial cation exchanger KU-2-8. The Na+-ions absorption capacity is 1.47…1.56 mmol/g for each sorbent. Conclusions: Based on these data it can be concluded that the proposed method is effective for sorbents production based on

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz

    2001-01-01

    Four grades of sodium bicarbonate and two grades of trona were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface area, pore size distribution, and attrition. Surface area and pore size distribution determinations were conducted after calcination of the materials. The sorbent materials were subjected to thermogravimetric testing to determine comparative rates and extent of calcination (in inert gas) and sorption (in a simulated coal combustion flue gas mixture). Selected materials were exposed to five calcination/sorption cycles and showed no decrease in either sorption capacity or sorption rate. Process simulations were conducted involving different heat recovery schemes. The process is thermodynamically feasible. The sodium-based materials appear to have suitable physical properties for use as regenerable sorbents and, based on thermogravimetric testing, are likely to have sorption and calcination rates that are rapid enough to be of interest in full-scale carbon sequestration processes.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance. Advanced concepts and applications to quantum materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlrautz, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, three separate topics were presented. These include the development of novel experimental NMR methods and data analysis, as well as their application to current topics of condensed matter research. The first part concerns NMR at the highest magnetic fields, i.e., in time-dependent pulsed high-field magnets. After a discussion of consequences for NMR, a method to acquire broad spectra was presented. Here, an intensity-correction for off-resonance effects was applied and the Fourier transform was modified to use time-dependent base functions. Subsequently, the method was tested with a Knight shift measurement of metallic aluminum using a second compound as a shift reference. It could be shown that signal averaging of a weak signal is possible, even across multiple field pulses. Thus, in principle, the signal-to-noise ratio can always be increased at the cost of measurement time, despite the inherently limited reproducibility of subsequent field high-field pulses. In another set of experiments, the feasibility of T 1 measurements was shown. Here, a weak radio frequency field was used to perform an adiabatic inversion of the spin system in the time-dependent field. Ensuing small-angle RF pulses monitored the relaxation process. Using a mathematical model, T 1 was then determined. Finally, this method was applied for the investigation of the spin-dimer antiferromagnet SrCu 2 (BO 3 ) 2 . Evidence for a field-induced change in the ground state of the material was found. This appears to be the first convincing observation of a field-induced phenomenon with pulsed field NMR. It proves that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at the highest fields is able to produce unique insights into quantum materials. The second part of the thesis concerns NMR investigations and analysis of cuprate high-temperature superconductors in conventional static field measurements. Results on HgBa 2 CuO 4+δ for underdoped, optimally doped, and overdoped materials revealed

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance. Advanced concepts and applications to quantum materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlrautz, Jonas

    2017-05-22

    In this thesis, three separate topics were presented. These include the development of novel experimental NMR methods and data analysis, as well as their application to current topics of condensed matter research. The first part concerns NMR at the highest magnetic fields, i.e., in time-dependent pulsed high-field magnets. After a discussion of consequences for NMR, a method to acquire broad spectra was presented. Here, an intensity-correction for off-resonance effects was applied and the Fourier transform was modified to use time-dependent base functions. Subsequently, the method was tested with a Knight shift measurement of metallic aluminum using a second compound as a shift reference. It could be shown that signal averaging of a weak signal is possible, even across multiple field pulses. Thus, in principle, the signal-to-noise ratio can always be increased at the cost of measurement time, despite the inherently limited reproducibility of subsequent field high-field pulses. In another set of experiments, the feasibility of T{sub 1} measurements was shown. Here, a weak radio frequency field was used to perform an adiabatic inversion of the spin system in the time-dependent field. Ensuing small-angle RF pulses monitored the relaxation process. Using a mathematical model, T{sub 1} was then determined. Finally, this method was applied for the investigation of the spin-dimer antiferromagnet SrCu{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Evidence for a field-induced change in the ground state of the material was found. This appears to be the first convincing observation of a field-induced phenomenon with pulsed field NMR. It proves that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at the highest fields is able to produce unique insights into quantum materials. The second part of the thesis concerns NMR investigations and analysis of cuprate high-temperature superconductors in conventional static field measurements. Results on HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+δ} for underdoped, optimally doped, and

  6. Primary secondary amine as a sorbent material in dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up for the determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanming; Hu, Hongmei; Li, Tiejun; Xue, Lijian; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Yurong; Jin, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and novel method has been developed and validated for determination of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. 1 L of water samples containing 30 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate was first liquid-liquid extracted with an automated Jipad-6XB vertical oscillator using n-hexane/dichloromethane (1:1, v/v). The concentrated extract was cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with 100 mg of primary secondary amine as sorbent material. The linearity of this method ranged from 1.25 to 100 μg/L, with regression coefficients ranging between 0.9994 and 0.9999. The limits of detection were in the ng/L level, ranging between 0.2 and 0.3 ng/L. The recoveries of seven spiked polychlorinated biphenyls with external calibration method at different concentration levels in tap water, lake water, and sea water were in the ranges of 85-112, 76-116, and 72-108%, respectively, and with relative standard deviations of 3.3-4.5, 3.4-5.6, and 3.1-4.8% (n = 5), respectively. The performance of the proposed method was compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up methods, and comparable efficiencies were obtained. It is concluded that this method can be successfully applied for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in different water samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  8. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  9. Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah pada Materi Trigonometri Dikaji dari Self Concept Siswa Kelas XI IPA

    OpenAIRE

    Sartika, Ita; Jamiah, Yulis; Bistari

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to describe the problem-solving ability on the materials about trigonometry of students' self concept in SMA Kemala Bhayangkari 1 Kubu Raya eleven grade. The method is used descriptive method with case study of research. The sample of research was 9 students. The sample determination is done by taking 3 students who have high self concept, 3 students who have average self concept, and 3 students who have low self concept. The results of data analysis showed tha the problem-s...

  10. Technology assessment guide for application of engineered sorbent barriers to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Jones, E.O.; Depner, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    An engineered sorbent barrier (ESB) uses sorbent materials (such as activated carbon or natural zeolites) to restrict migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. The permeability of the ESB allows moisture to pass while the sorbent material traps or absorbs contaminants. In contrast, waste sites with impermeable barriers could fill with water, especially those waste sites in humid climates. A sorbent barrier can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for restricting radionuclide migration. This report provides information and references to be used in assessing the sorbent barrier technology for low-level waste disposal. The ESB assessment is based on sorbent material and soil properties, site conditions, and waste properties and inventories. These data are used to estimate the thickness of the barrier needed to meet all performance requirements for the waste site. This document addresses the following areas: (1) site information required to assess the need and overall performance of a sorbent barrier; (2) selection and testing of sorbent materials and underlying soils; (3) use of radionuclide transport models to estimate the required barrier thickness and long-term performance under a variety of site conditions; (4) general considerations for construction and quality assurance; and (5) cost estimates for applying the barrier. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept open-quotes leak before breakclose quotes (LBB)

  12. Between concept and material. Working with conceptual art: a conservator’s testimony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, S.

    2016-01-01

    Conceptual art challenges the idea of traditional art conservation. How can one preserve a concept when there is material to work with? Should this be done through keeping the material, even when it no longer conveys the message? Or through working with artist interviews or artist participation,

  13. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T. [CRISM Prometey, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-04-01

    The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept {open_quotes}leak before break{close_quotes} (LBB).

  14. Carbon-Containing Waste of Coal Enterprises in Magnetic Sorbents Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvashevaya, Ekaterina; Ushakova, Elena; Ushakov, Andrey

    2017-11-01

    The article shows the issues state of coal-mining enterprises carbonaceous wastes utilization, including by obtaining oil-sorbent. The characteristics of the feedstock are presented; experiment methods of obtaining a binder based on the livestock enterprises waste, of forming binder with filler (sawdust, coal waste); of pyrogenetic processing to obtain a sorbent are described. Possible options for the introduction of magnetite (a magnetic component) in the composition of the oil sorbent are considered: on the surface, in the volume of the granule and the magnetite core. In the course of the work it was found that the optimum content of coal dust in the sorbent granules is 75% by weight, and the most effective way of obtaining the magnetic sorbent is to apply the carbon material directly to the "core" of magnetite. However, in this case, the problem of finding an effective binder for magnetite arises. The option of applying magnetite on the surface of a carbon sorbent is not effective. Thus, at present, we use a mixture of coal waste, which binds to the uniform distribution of magnetite in the volume. The developed magnetic sorbents can be used in various weather conditions, including strong winds and icing of water bodies, as well as for small and medium currents.

  15. Lime-Based Sorbents for High-Temperature CO2 Capture—A Review of Sorbent Modification Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the research on CO2 capture by lime-based looping cycles undertaken at CanmetENERGY’s (Ottawa, Canada) research laboratories. This is a new and very promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as more cost-effective technologies for CO2 capture. This new technology is based on the use of lime-based sorbents in a dual fluidized bed combustion (FBC) reactor which contains a carbonator—a unit for CO2 capture, and a calciner—a unit for CaO regeneration. However, even though natural materials are cheap and abundant and very good candidates as solid CO2 carriers, their performance in a practical system still shows significant limitations. These limitations include rapid loss of activity during the capture cycles, which is a result of sintering, attrition, and consequent elutriation from FBC reactors. Therefore, research on sorbent performance is critical and this paper reviews some of the promising ways to overcome these shortcomings. It is shown that reactivation by steam/water, thermal pre-treatment, and doping simultaneously with sorbent reforming and pelletization are promising potential solutions to reduce the loss of activity of these sorbents over multiple cycles of use. PMID:20948952

  16. Lime-Based Sorbents for High-Temperature CO2 Capture—A Review of Sorbent Modification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Anthony

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the research on CO2 capture by lime-based looping cycles undertaken at CanmetENERGY’s (Ottawa, Canada research laboratories. This is a new and very promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as more cost-effective technologies for CO2 capture. This new technology is based on the use of lime-based sorbents in a dual fluidized bed combustion (FBC reactor which contains a carbonator—a unit for CO2 capture, and a calciner—a unit for CaO regeneration. However, even though natural materials are cheap and abundant and very good candidates as solid CO2 carriers, their performance in a practical system still shows significant limitations. These limitations include rapid loss of activity during the capture cycles, which is a result of sintering, attrition, and consequent elutriation from FBC reactors. Therefore, research on sorbent performance is critical and this paper reviews some of the promising ways to overcome these shortcomings. It is shown that reactivation by steam/water, thermal pre-treatment, and doping simultaneously with sorbent reforming and pelletization are promising potential solutions to reduce the loss of activity of these sorbents over multiple cycles of use.

  17. Waste Derived Sorbents and Their Potential Roles in Heavy Metal Remediation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Y. W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic waste materials that have the suitable inherent characteristics could be used as precursors for the synthesis of micro- and mesoporous materials, which present great potential to be re-utilized as sorbent materials for heavy metal remediation. Three inorganic waste materials were studied in the present work: water treatment residuals (WTRs from an integrated drinking water/wastewater treatment plant, and fly ash and bottom ash samples from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI. These wastes were converted into three sorbent materials: ferrihydrite-like materials derived from drying of WTRs, hydroxyapatite-like material derived from ultrasound assisted synthesis of MSWI fly ash with phosphoric acid solution, and a zeolitic material derived from alkaline hydrothermal conversion of MSWI bottom ash. The performance of these materials, as well as their equivalent commercially available counterparts, was assessed for the adsorption of multiple heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn from synthetic solutions, contaminated sediments and surface waters; and satisfactory results were obtained. In addition, it was observed that the combination of sorbents into sorbent mixtures enhanced the performance levels and, where applicable, stabilized inherently mobile contaminants from the waste derived sorbents.

  18. Who am I? The relationship between self-concept uncertainty and materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguti, Valeria; Bokeyar, Alexandra L

    2014-10-01

    It is well accepted that materialism may result in a number of negative consequences, hence the importance of improving its understanding. In this paper, we propose that materialism negatively relates to self-concept uncertainty. Uncertainty about oneself is aversive and those feeling uncertain may use the possession of material objects as a way to reduce the uncertainty. Inasmuch as material objects can serve as concrete signs of self-worth, self-concept uncertainty can therefore relate to more materialism. Over two studies, one in Australia and the other in the US, with a total of 390 participants, our research demonstrates that lower clarity about one's self-concept associates with higher levels of materialism. While this result holds for both genders, this relationship is considerably stronger for women compared to men. We also find that lower self-concept clarity relates to higher compulsive buying. We further demonstrate that materialism relates to higher positive moods during shopping, and also relates to higher negative moods after shopping, more notably negative moods towards what was purchased. This effect is significant even when controlling for general affective states. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan; Luebke David; Pennline, Henry

    2012-05-02

    We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for energy conversion; and to explore the optimal working conditions for the promising CO{sub 2} solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage, used for both pre- and post-combustion capture technologies.

  20. Application of clay minerals from Cayo Guan, Cuba, as sorbents of heavy metals and ceramic raw materials; Aplicaciones de los minerales arcillosos de Cayo Guan, Cuba, como adsorbentes de metales pesados y materia prima ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, D.; Barba, F.; Callejas, P.; Recio, P.

    2012-11-01

    It has been studied by Analysis Heating Microscope Optical the behaviour of some kaolinitic clays from a reservoir of Cayo Guan rich in iron oxides and low silica content proving to be a refractory materials whose softening appears after 1500 degree centigrade. It has obtained the workability diagram of the different clay minerals calculating the plasticity by the method of Casagrande spoon; only one of the samples is in the area suitable for extrusion. Vitrification diagrams report that the capacity of water absorption is <0.6 % when the temperature of 1400 degree centigrade is achieved. We have designed a program to calculate compositions of porcelain stoneware prepared from these modified clays adding low-cost raw materials that facilitate the formation of glassy phase ((potassium feldspar and glass cullet) and/or increase the silica (sand and diatomaceous earth used as filters in the brewing industry). With one of these compositions, prepared in the laboratory (60 % of clay, 30 % feldspar and 10 % of diatomaceous earth), calcined at 1250 degree centigrade with a heating rate of 15 degree centigrade/min, the results were: water absorption 0.8 %, and linear shrinkage 21 % without any deformation observed. These clays have been treated with acid to eliminate its high iron content and study its application as an sorbent of heavy metals as Cd{sup 2}+, Cr{sup 3}+. The results of the immobilization of these elements have been compared with those obtained with thermally activated vermiculite at 800 degree centigrade, showing that the treated samples show sorption of both cadmium and chromium below the vermiculite, but the non-treated ones are suitable to remove chromium; this is because these clays do not contain in its composition exchangeable ions (Ca{sup {sub 2}} +, Mg{sup 2} +, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}), and even if they are chemically activated only the presence of Fe ions is which produces form bindings (Cr{sub x}.Fe{sub 1}-x) (OH){sub 3} which favor Cr sorption

  1. Qualification of the ALKASORB sorbent for the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Selow, E.R.; Cobden, P.D.; Dijk, Van H.A.J.; Walspurger, S.; Verbraeken, P.A.; Jansen, D.

    2013-07-01

    For the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS) process, a new sorbent material has been qualified in a reactor of 2 m length under conditions close to industrial designs. The sorbent ALKASORB is a potassium-carbonate promoted hydrotalcite-based compound. ALKASORB is shown to have many favourable properties in comparison to the reference sorbent, in particular with respect to mechanical stability. The cyclic capacity of the new compound is substantially higher than the cyclic capacity of the reference sorbent, and it allows a reduction of the steam requirement of 50%. The sorbent has demonstrated catalytic activity for the water-gas shift reaction that is sufficient to omit a separate catalyst. It is demonstrated that the sorbent remains chemically and mechanically stable during operation of at least 2000 adsorption-desorption cycles, even in the presence of H2S in the feed. H2S is shown not to influence CO2 adsorption capacity and is co-captured with the CO2. In contrast to the reference material that showed mechanical degradation during extended adsorption-desorption cycles, the new material is stable and allows to obtain carbon capture levels exceeding 95% more efficiently and more economically since the required size of the vessels will be smaller.

  2. Disposal of radwastes and recycling of wastes and structural materials -fundamental principles, concepts, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, G.; Arens, G.; Brennecke, P.; Goertz, R.; Poschner, J.; Thieme, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the German concept for the disposal of radioactive waste, and the re-use or recycling of contaminated materials. All radioactive waste can be disposed of in deep geological formations (practised at ERAM disposal site, planned for Konrad disposal site). Radioactively contaminated material below clearance levels can proceed for disposal at waste disposal sites and incineration plants, or for re-use and recycling, especially where the material consists of contaminated steel and of buildings. The basic principles (dose limits and model structures for deriving recommendations), reference values, or limits are described. The latest concepts are described in greater detail. Waste management in Germany is compared with international concepts. (orig.) [de

  3. Sorbent Nanotechnologies for Water Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Snober

    Despite decades of regulatory efforts to mitigate water pollution, many chemicals, particularly heavy metals, still present risks to human health. In addition to direct exposure, certain metals such as mercury threaten public health due to its persistence, bioaccumulation and bioamplification throughout the food chain. A number of U.S. Federal and State regulations have been established to reduce the levels of mercury in water. Activated carbon (AC) has been widely explored for the removal of mercury. However, AC suffers from many limitations inherent to its chemical properties, and it becomes increasingly challenging to meet current and future regulations by simply modifying AC to enhance its performance. Recently, the performance of nanosorbents have been studied in order to removal pollutants. Nanosorbents utilize the ultra-high reactive surface of nanoparticles for rapid, effective and even permanent sequestration of heavy metals from water and air, thus showed promising results as compared to AC. The goal of this thesis research is to develop nanomaterial-based sorbents for the removal of mercury from water. It describes the development of a new solid-support assisted growth of selenium nanoparticles, their use for water remediation, and the development of a new nanoselenium-based sorbent sponge for fast and efficient mercury removal. The nanoselenium sorbent not only shows irreversible interaction with mercury but also exhibits remarkable properties by overcoming the limitations of AC. The nanoselenium sponge was shown to remove mercury to undetectable levels within one minute. This new sponge technology would have an impact on inspiring new stringent regulations and lowering costs to help industries meet regulatory requirements, which will ultimately help improve air and water quality, aquatic life and public health.

  4. Sorbent Structural Impacts Due to Humidity on Carbon Dioxide Removal Sorbents for Advanced Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Knox, James C.; West, Phillip; Stanley, Christine M.; Bush, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Life Support Systems Project (LSSP) under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program builds upon the work performed under the AES Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project focusing on the numerous technology development areas. The CO2 removal and associated air drying development efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art system on the International Space Station (ISS) utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. A component of the CO2 removal effort encompasses structural stability testing of existing and emerging sorbents. Testing will be performed on dry sorbents and sorbents that have been conditioned to three humidity levels. This paper describes the sorbent structural stability screening efforts in support of the LSS Project within the AES Program.

  5. Sorbents for waste water purification from radionuclides and other toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalone, R.F.; MakKlenason, L.Ts.

    1996-01-01

    The TRW firm (USA) developed the system for sorption and disposal of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic substances, based on utilization of carbon sorbents. The sorbent is produced through processing natural coal by alkali-salt solution and has a large specific pores surface (up to 1000 m 2 /g). The sorbent carboxyl ionogenic groups are able of absorbing heavy metals cations from waste waters. Sorption by uranium constituted 30 mg/l. The sorbent with absorbed substances may be burnt (it contains no sulfur) or delivered for vitrification. The volume of disposed materials constitutes in comparison with existing techniques for uranium isotopes 420000 : 1. The costs are reduced up to 0.26 doll/m 2 of reprocessed water. 2 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Application of fibrous complexing sorbents for trace elements preconcentration and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhartchenko, E.A.; Myasoedova, G.V.

    2003-01-01

    This article demonstrates the application of the 'filled' fibrous sorbents for preconcentration and separation of platinum metals, as well as heavy metals and radionuclides. The POLYORGS complexing sorbents and ion-exchangers were used as fillers. Dynamic preconcentration conditions should be set for complete sorption of the elements: diameter and mass of the sorbent disk or the column as well as flow rate of the solution. These conditions depend on specific features of materials to be analysed and the requirements of the experimental task or detection method. Extensive alteration of features as well as perfect kinetic properties and high selectivity of the 'filled' sorbents confirm their applicability for trace elements preconcentration and separation in technology and analytical chemistry. (authors)

  7. Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasael

    2010-03-23

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  8. Development of Composite Materials Under Ecological Aspects as Recycling Concept For Borosilicate Glass Containing Iron Slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, T.K.; Bossert, J.; Aly, H.F.; Bossert, J.

    1999-01-01

    Composite concept in materials science can be conveniently applied in the waste treatment technology to construct specific t ailor made c omposite materials, in which at least one of the phases is built by the waste material. In this work the applicability of this concept for the fixation and recycling of slags wastes is done, whereby different mixtures of blast furnace slags are mixed with two different borosilicate glasses, which serve as matrix material. Thermal behaviour of the produced compacts were studied. Both melting and powder technology are applied for the fabrication of dense products. The microstructure of sintered samples is investigated by electron microscopy. The mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture toughness are determined by a Vickers technique. An improvement of the fracture toughness of more than 50% over the value for the original glass VG 98 is achieved by slag addition

  9. Advanced composite structural concepts and material technologies for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Structural weight savings using advanced composites have been demonstrated for many years. Most military aircraft today use these materials extensively and Europe has taken the lead in their use in commercial aircraft primary structures. A major inhibiter to the use of advanced composites in the United States is cost. Material costs are high and will remain high relative to aluminum. The key therefore lies in the significant reduction in fabrication and assembly costs. The largest cost in most structures today is assembly. As part of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company has a contract to explore and develop advanced structural and manufacturing concepts using advanced composites for transport aircraft. Wing and fuselage concepts and related trade studies are discussed. These concepts are intended to lower cost and weight through the use of innovative material forms, processes, structural configurations and minimization of parts. The approach to the trade studies and the downselect to the primary wing and fuselage concepts is detailed. The expectations for the development of these concepts is reviewed.

  10. Concept selection of car bumper beam with developed hybrid bio-composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoodi, M.M.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ahmad, D.; Aidy, A.; Khalina, A.; Jonoobi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We simulate the low impact test by Abaqus Ver16R9 using the same material model. → Six different weighted criteria were discussed to nominate the best concept. → Double Hat Profile showed the best concept to fulfil the defined PDS. → Geometric parameters may overcome the weak inherent properties of bio composite. → Toughened bio-composite material may employ in structural automotive components. -- Abstract: Application of natural fibre composites is going to increase in different areas caused by environmental, technical and economic advantages. However, their low mechanical properties have limited their particular application in automotive structural components. Hybridizations with other reinforcements or matrices can improve mechanical properties of natural fibre composite. Moreover, geometric optimizations have a significant role in structural strength improvement. This study focused on selecting the best geometrical bumper beam concept to fulfill the safety parameters of the defined product design specification (PDS). The mechanical properties of developed hybrid composite material were considered in different bumper beam concepts with the same frontal curvature, thickness, and overall dimensions. The low-speed impact test was simulated under the same conditions in Abaqus V16R9 software. Six weighted criteria, which were deflection, strain energy, mass, cost, easy manufacturing, and the rib possibility were analyzed to form an evaluation matrix. Topsis method was employed to select the best concept. It is concluded that double hat profile (DHP) with defined material model can be used for bumper beam of a small car. In addition, selected concept can be strengthened by adding reinforced ribs or increasing the thickness of the bumper beam to comply with the defined PDS.

  11. Application of engineered sorbent barriers Summary of Laboratory Data for FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Jones, E.O.

    1989-09-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted in FY 1988 Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine the effect of contact time, pH, solution to solid ratio, and particle size on the performance of a number of materials in adsorbing radioactive cobalt, strontium, and cesium. The laboratory studies were conducted to provide background information useful in designing an engineered sorbent barrier, which restricts the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. Understanding how the variables affect the adsorption of ions on the sorbent materials is the key to estimating the performance of sorbent barriers under a variety of conditions. The scope of the studies was limited to three radionuclides and four sorbent materials, but the general approach can be used to evaluate other radionuclides and conditions. The sorbent materials evaluated in this study included clinoptilolite, activated carbon, bentonite clay, and Savannah River soil. The clinoptilolite and activated carbon were identified in previous studies as the most cost-effective materials for sorption of the three radionuclides under consideration. The bentonite clay was evaluated as a component of the barrier that could be used to modify the permeability of the barrier system. The Savannah River soil was used to represent soil from a humid site. 3 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Sorbents for effective removal of radioactive antimony during chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2014-01-01

    Removal of radioactive antimony is a challenging problem. Often, during decontamination, they get mobilized around the system and redeposit in different areas thus offsetting the reduction in the radiation field obtained by removing other activities such as 60 Co. Thus, there is a clear need for better antimony removing materials/strategies for effective reactor decontamination. In this regard, six commercially available sorbents namely, Tulsion A33 (strong base anion (-OH) resin), Amberlite IRC-718 (chelating resin), Radex ® Sb-1000, nano TiO 2 -special grade (Inorganic type IX), Chitosan (biosorbent) and Aeroxide p25 (nano TiO 2 , Inorganic type IX) were evaluated for their antimony sorption properties. Radex ® and TiO 2 based materials were found to be more effective in removing both Sb(V) and Sb(III). Solution pH was seen to significantly influence the antimony sorption and the effect was more prominent in anion resin, when tested under column conditions. Apart from the commercial sorbents, we have synthesised a robust high performing sorbent (TA-Chitosan beads) in the form of stable beads, using nano-TiO 2 and chitosan. The beads were found to retain the antimony sorption properties of the nano-TiO 2 , while adapting a physical format suitable for large scale operations. The sorbent exhibited almost complete sorption of antimony both in low (ppb level) as well as high concentrations of antimony. The suitability of the beads for use in column mode has been established and its radiation stability was probed in detail. The beads were found to be stable to irradiations as ascertained from the TOC values and unchanged sorption properties. The sorption properties of the CHITA beads in typical decontamination formulation containing mixture of complexing agents have been investigated in detail. (author)

  13. Novel Repair Concept for Composite Materials by Repetitive Geometrical Interlock Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zaremba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Material adapted repair technologies for fiber-reinforced polymers with thermosetting matrix systems are currently characterized by requiring major efforts for repair preparation and accomplishment in all industrial areas of application. In order to allow for a uniform distribution of material and geometrical parameters over the repair zone, a novel composite interlock repair concept is introduced, which is based on a repair zone with undercuts prepared by water-jet technology. The presented numerical and experimental sensitivity analyses make a contribution to the systematic development of the interlock repair technology with respect to material and geometrical factors of influence. The results show the ability of the novel concept for a reproducible and automatable composite repair.

  14. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2017-09-12

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  15. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S [Grand Forks, ND; Holmes, Michael J [Thompson, ND; Pavlish, John H [East Grand Forks, MN

    2008-10-14

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  16. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S [Grand Forks, ND; Holmes, Michael J [Thompson, ND; Pavlish, John H [East Grand Forks, MN

    2012-05-01

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  17. Sorption of short-lived radionuclides in a layer of sorbent with spherical granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    Sorption methods have found wide application in the purification of liquid radioactive wastes. The working element in sorption methods for this purpose is usually a sorption column with a fixed layer of sorbent. Continuous-action equipment with a moving layer of sorbent is very seldom used. When a fixed layer of sorbent is used its wear and prolonged mixing in the sorption column are reduced to a minimum, and maximum purification is achieved due to the advantages of the dynamic method of sorption over the static method. The time of protective action of the sorbent layer is determined by the time taken for the radionuclide to pass through the sorption column, and for the majority of radionuclides is determined by numerous parameters, including the type of sorbent and radionuclide, the rate of flow through the sorbent, the size of the sorbent granules, etc. The physical and chemical aspects of this process have been investigated in detail, and numerous methods for modeling it mathematically have been developed and have been used to develop methods of designing sorption column apparatus. The specific nature of the radionuclides as unstable materials enables the hypothetical case of a open-quotes perpetualclose quotes sorption filter to be represented. In fact, to achieve this it is only necessary to assume that the half-life of the radionuclide is so small that the rate of decay of the radionuclide in the sorption column (both in the sorbed state and in the aqueous phase of the sorption layer) is equal to the rate that it is fed into the column in the flow of liquid radioactive waste. In this case the sorption front of the radionuclide in the column wall remains fixed after a certain initial period. In this paper, a mathematical model of such a hypothetical filter for the case of spherical sorbent granules is considered

  18. Reactivity improvement of Ca(OH)2 sorbent using diatomaceous earth (DE) from Aceh Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, M.; Mahidin, M.; Mulana, F.; Agam, T.; Hafdiansyah, F.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the diatomaceous earth (DE) from Aceh Province was used to increase the reactivity of Ca(OH)2sorbent. The high silica (SiO2) content of about 97% in the diatomaceous earth allows the increasing reactivity of Ca(OH)2sorbent by forming calcium silicate hydrate (CSH). The CSH improved the porosity characteristic of the sorbent. The improvement process was performed by mixing Ca(OH)2sorbent, diatomaceous earth and water in a beaker glass at the Ca(OH)2/DE weight ratio of 1:10 for 2 hand then dried at 120 °C for 24 h. The dried sorbent was calcined at 500 °C and 800 °C for 2 h. The activated sorbent was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for the morphological properties; X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the materials characteristics. The adsorption capacity of thesorbent was tested by methylene blue adsorption. The results showed that the Ca(OH)2/DEsorbent had a higher porosity than the Ca(OH)2 adsorbent.The results also showed that Ca(OH)2/DE which was calcined at higher temperature of 800 °C had a higher adsorption capacity compared to Ca(OH)2/DE which was calcined at lower temperature of 500 °C.

  19. Activation and characterization of waste coffee grounds as bio-sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana; Marwan; Mulana, F.; Yunardi; Ismail, T. A.; Hafdiansyah, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    As the city well known for its culture of coffee drinkers, modern and traditional coffee shops are found everywhere in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. High number of coffee shops in the city generates large quantities of spent coffee grounds as waste without any effort to convert them as other valuable products. In an attempt to reduce environmental problems caused by used coffee grounds, this research was conducted to utilize waste coffee grounds as an activated carbon bio-sorbent. The specific purpose of this research is to improve the performance of coffee grounds bio-sorbent through chemical and physical activation, and to characterize the produced bio-sorbent. Following physical activation by carbonization, a chemical activation was achieved by soaking the carbonized waste coffee grounds in HCl solvent and carbonization process. The activated bio-sorbent was characterized for its morphological properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), its functional groups by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and its material characteristics using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Characterization of the activated carbon prepared from waste coffee grounds shows that it meets standard quality requirement in accordance with Indonesian National Standard, SNI 06-3730-1995. Activation process has modified the functional groups of the waste coffee grounds. Comparing to natural waste coffee grounds, the resulted bio-sorbent demonstrated a more porous surface morphology following activation process. Consequently, such bio-sorbent is a potential source to be used as an adsorbent for various applications.

  20. Sorption of methylxanthines by different sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, S. G.; Andreeva, E. Yu.; Tolmacheva, V. V.; Terent'eva, E. A.

    2013-05-01

    Sorption of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, diprophylline, and pentoxyphylline on different sorbents (supercross-linked polystyrene, surface-modified copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene Strata-X, and carbon nanomaterials Taunit and Diasorb-100-C16T) was studied in a static mode in an effort to find new sorbents suitable for sorption isolation and concentration of methylxanthines. The peculiarities of sorption of methylxanthines were explained in relation to the solution acidity, the nature of the sorbates and their concentration, the nature of the solvent, and the structural characteristics of the sorbents.

  1. Material recycling: Presence of chemicals and their influence on the circular economy concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    of the concept is the pursuit of sustainability through re-use and recycling of products and materials once they have served their purpose. Once such materials (e.g. paper, plastics) are recycled, chemicals that they contain are reintroduced,spread or even accumulate in the newly manufactured products (Figure 1...... the recyclability of waste materials with respect to the presence of substances. The outcomes of the work will provide crucial basis for future waste characterization activities, environmental and risk assessments of material recycling, as well as provide authorities, scientific community and society...... with a necessary basis for evaluating potential future limitations to recycling and address means of mitigating accumulation and spreading of chemicals in various materials....

  2. Backfilling techniques and materials in underground excavations: Potential alternative backfill materials in use in Posiva's spent fuel repository concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Keto, P.

    2009-05-01

    A variety of geologic media options have been proposed as being suitable for safely and permanently disposing of spent nuclear fuel or fuel reprocessing wastes. In Finland the concept selected is construction of a deep repository in crystalline rock (Posiva 1999, 2006; SKB 1999), likely at the Olkiluoto site (Posiva 2006). Should that site prove suitable, excavation of tunnels and several vertical shafts will be necessary. These excavations will need to be backfilled and sealed as emplacement operations are completed and eventually all of the openings will need to be backfilled and sealed. Clay-based materials were selected after extensive review of materials options and the potential for practical implementation in a repository and work over a 30+ year period has led to the development of a number of workable clay-based backfilling options, although discussion persists as to the most suitable clay materials and placement technologies to use. As part of the continuous process of re-evaluating backfilling options in order to provide the best options possible, placement methods and materials that have been given less attention have been revisited. Primary among options that were and continue to be evaluated as a potential backfill are cementitious materials. These materials were included in the list of candidate materials initially screened in the late 1970's for use in repository backfilling. Conventional cement-based materials were quickly identified as having some serious technical limitations with respect their ability to fulfil the identified requirements of backfill. Concerns related to their ability to achieve the performance criteria defined for backfill resulted in their exclusion from large-scale use as backfill in a repository. Development of new, less chemically aggressive cementitious materials and installation technologies has resulted in their re-evaluation. Concrete and cementitious materials have and are being developed that have chemical, durability

  3. Tailoring vibration mode shapes using topology optimization and functionally graded material concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, Wilfredo Montealegre; Paulino, Glaucio H; Silva, Emilio Carlos Nelli

    2011-01-01

    Tailoring specified vibration modes is a requirement for designing piezoelectric devices aimed at dynamic-type applications. A technique for designing the shape of specified vibration modes is the topology optimization method (TOM) which finds an optimum material distribution inside a design domain to obtain a structure that vibrates according to specified eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes. Nevertheless, when the TOM is applied to dynamic problems, the well-known grayscale or intermediate material problem arises which can invalidate the post-processing of the optimal result. Thus, a more natural way for solving dynamic problems using TOM is to allow intermediate material values. This idea leads to the functionally graded material (FGM) concept. In fact, FGMs are materials whose properties and microstructure continuously change along a specific direction. Therefore, in this paper, an approach is presented for tailoring user-defined vibration modes, by applying the TOM and FGM concepts to design functionally graded piezoelectric transducers (FGPT) and non-piezoelectric structures (functionally graded structures—FGS) in order to achieve maximum and/or minimum vibration amplitudes at certain points of the structure, by simultaneously finding the topology and material gradation function. The optimization problem is solved by using sequential linear programming. Two-dimensional results are presented to illustrate the method

  4. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Su, Sheng, E-mail: susheng_sklcc@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO{sub 2}. - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO{sub 2} on gas-phase Hg{sup 0} adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents' BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 Degree-Sign C and 180 Degree-Sign C. The presence of NO or SO{sub 2} could inhibit Hg{sup 0} capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  5. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-07-01

    Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but this could not be confirmed. In the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor, both the initial reaction rate of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water and the sorbent capacity decreased with increasing temperature, consistent with the results from the previous quarter. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration at constant temperature and water vapor concentration produced a measurable increase in rate, as did increasing the water vapor concentration at constant carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Runs conducted with a flatter TGA pan resulted in a higher initial reaction rate, presumably due to improved gas-solid contact, but after a short time, there was no significant difference in the rates measured with the different pans. Analyses of kinetic data suggest that the surface of the sodium carbonate particles may be much hotter than the bulk gas due to the highly exothermic reaction with carbon dioxide and water, and that the rate of heat removal from the particle may control the reaction rate. A material and energy balance was developed for a cyclic carbonation/calcination process which captures about 26 percent of the carbon dioxide present in flue gas available at 250 C.

  6. Cleanup of Savannah River Plant solvent using solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1985-04-01

    The degradation products produced in Purex solvent by exposure to nitric acid and radiation can be divided into two groups: those which are removed by scrubbing with sodium carbonate solutions and those which are not; these latter materials are called secondary degradation products. This study investigated the use of solid sorbents for removal of the secondary degradation products from first-cycle Savannah River Plant solvent that had been previously washed with sodium carbonate solution. Silica gel, activated charcoal, macroreticular resin, attapulgite clay and activated alumina were the sorbents investigated in preliminary testing. Activated alumina was found to be most effective for improving phase separation of the solvent from sodium carbonate solutions and for increasing the interfacial tension. The activated alumina was also the sorbent most useful for removing complexants which retain plutonium at low acidity, but it was less effective in removing anionic surfactants and ruthenium. We found that the capacity of the activated alumina was greatly improved by drying the solvent before treatment

  7. GREEN CONCEPTS AND MATERIAL FLOW COST ACCOUNTING APPLICATION FOR COMPANY SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochman Marota

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Health equipment and furniture become a complementary factor for good health services to the communities. Management of health equipment and furniture is started by manufacturers within the industry scope and sustainable business processes. This study aimed to apply green concepts and MFCA at PT XYZ, and to analyze their effects on the dimensions of the company sustainability. To measure the effects of green concepts and MFCA on the dimensions of corporate sustainability, a multiple regression analysis was used. The analysis showed that they gave significant effects from the results of the F test, t test and probability test. From these results, a number of suggestions for improvement of production process performance as managerial implications for maintaining the stability of the company sustainability index were formulated.Keywords: efficiency and effectiveness of production cost, green concepts, the company sustainability, material flow cost accounting

  8. Low-Cost Sorbents: A Literature Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Susan

    1997-01-01

    The capital and regeneration costs of activated carbon and ion exchange media suggest that better process economics may be achieved with disposable sorbents for the treatment of metals-contaminated...

  9. Preliminary concepts: coordinated safeguards for materials management in a thorium--uranium fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Barnes, J.W.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.; Shipley, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This report addresses preliminary concepts for coordinated safeguards materials management in a typical generic thorium--uranium-fueled light-water reactor (LWR) fuels reprocessing plant. The reference facility is designed to recover thorium and uranium from first-generation (denatured 235 U) startup fuels, first-recycle and equilibrium (denatured 233 U) thorium--uranium LWR fuels, and to recover the plutonium generated in the 238 U denaturant as well. 12 figures, 3 tables

  10. Transports of radioactive materials. Legal regulations, safety and security concepts, experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Guenther

    2012-01-01

    In Germany, approximately 650,000 to 750,000 units containing radioactive materials for scientific, medical and technical applications are shipped annually by surface, air and water transports. Legally speaking, radioactive materials are dangerous goods which can cause hazards to life, health, property and the environment as a result of faulty handling or accidents in transit. For protection against these hazards, their shipment therefore is regulated in extensive national and international rules of protection and safety. The article contains a topical review of the international and national transport regulations and codes pertaining to shipments of radioactive materials, and of the protection concepts underlying these codes so as to ensure an adequate standard of safety and security in shipping radioactive materials in national and international goods traffic. (orig.)

  11. Executive summary of safeguards systems concepts for nuclear material transportation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldonado, O.C.; Kevany, M.; Rodney, D.; Pitts, D.; Mazur, M.

    1977-09-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with System Development Corporation to develop integrated system concepts for the safeguard of special strategic nuclear materials (SSNM), which include plutonium, uranium 233 and uranium 235 of at least 20 percent enrichment, against malevolent action during interfacility transport. This executive summary outlines the conduct and findings of the project. The study was divided into three major subtasks: (1) The development of adversary action sequences; (2) The assessment of the vulnerability of the transport of nuclear materials to adversary action; (3) The development of conceptual safeguards system design requirements to reduce vulnerabilities

  12. The spectroscopic study of building composites containing natural sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, M; Mozgawa, W

    2011-08-15

    This work presents the results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of heavy metal cations (Ag(+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Cr(3+)) immobilization from aqueous solutions on natural sorbents. The sorption has been conducted on sodium forms of zeolite (clinoptilolite) and clay minerals (mixtures containing mainly montmorillonite and kaolinite) which have been separated from natural Polish deposit. In the next part of the work both sorbents were used to obtain new building composites. It was proven those heavy metal cations' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the zeolite and clay minerals. These alterations are dependent on the way the cations were sorbed. In the case of zeolite, variations of the bands corresponding to the characteristic ring vibrations have been observed. These rings occur in pseudomolecular complexes 4-4-1 (built of alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra) which constitute the secondary building units (SBU) and form spatial framework of the zeolite. The most significant changes have been determined in the region of pseudolattice vibrations (650-700 cm(-1)). In the instance of clay minerals, changes in the spectra occur at two ranges: 1200-800 cm(-1)--the range of the bands assigned to asymmetric Si-O(Si,Al) and bending Al-OH vibrations and 3800-3000 cm(-1)--the range of the bands originating from OH(-) groups stretching vibrations. Next results indicate possibilities of applying the used natural sorbents for the obtainment of new building materials having favourable composition and valuable properties. The zeolite was used for obtaining autoclaved materials with an addition of CaO, and the clay minerals for ceramic sintered materials with an addition of quartz and clinoptilolite were produced. FT-IR studies were also conducted on the obtained materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Materials Design and System Construction for Conventional and New-Concept Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong; Li, Lin; Yan, Jun-Min; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2017-06-01

    With the development of renewable energy and electrified transportation, electrochemical energy storage will be more urgent in the future. Supercapacitors have received extensive attention due to their high power density, fast charge and discharge rates, and long-term cycling stability. During past five years, supercapacitors have been boomed benefited from the development of nanostructured materials synthesis and the promoted innovation of devices construction. In this review, we have summarized the current state-of-the-art development on the fabrication of high-performance supercapacitors. From the electrode material perspective, a variety of materials have been explored for advanced electrode materials with smart material-design strategies such as carbonaceous materials, metal compounds and conducting polymers. Proper nanostructures are engineered to provide sufficient electroactive sites and enhance the kinetics of ion and electron transport. Besides, new-concept supercapacitors have been developed for practical application. Microsupercapacitors and fiber supercapacitors have been explored for portable and compact electronic devices. Subsequently, we have introduced Li-/Na-ion supercapacitors composed of battery-type electrodes and capacitor-type electrode. Integrated energy devices are also explored by incorporating supercapacitors with energy conversion systems for sustainable energy storage. In brief, this review provides a comprehensive summary of recent progress on electrode materials design and burgeoning devices constructions for high-performance supercapacitors.

  14. Regenerable sorbents for mercury capture in simulated coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Jorge; López-Antón, M Antonia; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; García, Roberto; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2013-09-15

    This work demonstrates that regenerable sorbents containing nano-particles of gold dispersed on an activated carbon are efficient and long-life materials for capturing mercury species from coal combustion flue gases. These sorbents can be used in such a way that the high investment entailed in their preparation will be compensated for by the recovery of all valuable materials. The characteristics of the support and dispersion of gold in the carbon surface influence the efficiency and lifetime of the sorbents. The main factor that determines the retention of mercury and the regeneration of the sorbent is the presence of reactive gases that enhance mercury retention capacity. The capture of mercury is a consequence of two mechanisms: (i) the retention of elemental mercury by amalgamation with gold and (ii) the retention of oxidized mercury on the activated carbon support. These sorbents were specifically designed for retaining the mercury remaining in gas phase after the desulfurization units in coal power plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of raw luffa as a natural hollow oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill cleanup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Abdelwahab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have a global concern due to its environmental and economical impact. Various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. However, plant biomass is renewable resource that can be converted into useful materials and energy. Luffa, an agricultural waste, was used as a sorbent material. The present study examines the adsorption capacity of raw luffa fibers for different types of oil and water pickup. The investigation revealed that the efficiency of fibers to remove crude oil from sea water was related to the surface properties of the fibers, concentration of the oil, amount of the fibers, as well as the temperature of the crude oil. The results show high sorption efficiency of luffa fibers for different kinds of oil. This sorbent also exhibited a good reusability since the decrease in sorption efficiency did not exceed 50% of the initial value after three sorption cycles.

  16. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maginn, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the Notre Dame component of the project was computational in nature. The goal was to provide a design tool for the synthesis of optimized sorbents for the removal of cesium, strontium and actinides from nuclear waste solutions. Molecular modeling enables us to observe and better understand the molecular level interactions that govern the selectivity of specific radionuclides in a particular sorbent. The research focused on the development and validation of a suitable and transferable model for all the cations and ion exchangers of interest, nd then subsequent simulations which determined the siting and mobility of water and cations. Speciic accomplishments include: (1) improving existing intermolecular force fields to accurately model the sorbents of interest; (2) utilizing energy-minimizations and molecular dynamics simulations for structural prediction of CST and niobium-substituted CST materials; (3) determining Na+/water positions in polyoxoniobate materials using molecular dynamics simulations; and (4) developing Hybrid Monte Carlo methods for improved structural prediction.

  17. Development and thermochemical characterizations of vermiculite/SrBr_2 composite sorbents for low-temperature heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.N.; Wang, R.Z.; Zhao, Y.J.; Li, T.X.; Riffat, S.B.; Wajid, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    Novel EVM/SrBr_2 composite sorbents with different salt contents were developed for low-temperature thermal energy storage (TES). Simulative sorption experiment was conducted to obtain the sorption kinetics diagram and identify threshold salt content that composite sorbents can hold without solution leakage. Distribution of salt embedded in EVM was observed by extreme-resolution scanning electron microscopy (ER-SEM). Thermochemical characterizations including desorption performance and desorption heat were fully investigated by analyzing simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) results. Results reveal that sorption process of composite sorbents is divided into three parts: water adsorption of EVM, water adsorption of SrBr_2 crystal and liquid-gas absorption of SrBr_2 solution. Since SrBr_2 solution can be hold in macrospores of EVM, water uptake and energy storage density are greatly increased. It appears that the composite sorbent of EVMSrBr_240 is a promising material for thermal energy storage, with water uptake of 0.53 g/g, mass energy storage density of 0.46 kWh/kg and volume energy storage density of 105.36 kWh/m"3. - Highlights: • Vermiculite/SrBr_2 composite sorbents were developed for thermal energy storage. • Water uptake of composite sorbents is divided into three phases. • Energy storage density of each sorption phase is evaluated via calculations. • EVMSrBr_240 is chosen as optimal sorbent without solution leakage.

  18. The IAEA concept of detection of diversion through nuclear material accountancy (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Mitsunori

    2005-01-01

    Diversion into D (falsification of accounting report) and diversion into MUF could be detected by the Inspectorate through nuclear material accountancy. The Inspectorate designs inspection activities to detect diversion into D in cost effective ways. As a result, detection of diversion into D is divided into two statistics, one is item difference statistics which could detect major defects and the other is material balance statistics which could detect remaining small defects. MUF statistics could detect Diversion into MUF. Item statistics has many useful characteristics from safeguards view points, so it is examined in details. Material balance statistics and MUF statistics stem from measurement error associated with equipment inevitably. The above-mentioned concept is called 'IAEA decision structure'. Hereafter, designing safeguards (inspection activities) approach will be based on the IAEA decision structure. (author)

  19. Meteorite as raw material for Direct Metal Printing: A proof of concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietaert, Karel; Thijs, Lore; Neirinck, Bram; Lapauw, Thomas; Morrison, Brian; Lewicki, Chris; Van Vaerenbergh, Jonas

    2018-02-01

    Asteroid mining as such is not a new concept, as it has been described in science fiction for more than a century and some of its aspects have been studied by academia for more than 30 years. Recently, there is a renewed interest in this subject due the more and more concrete plans for long-duration space missions and the need for resources to support industrial activity in space. The use of locally available resources would greatly improve the economics and sustainability of such missions. Due to its economy in material, use of additive manufacturing (AM) provides an interesting route to valorize these resources for the production of spare parts, tools and large-scale structures optimized for their local microgravity environment. Proof of concept has already been provided for AM of moon regolith. In this paper the concept of In-Situ Resource Utilization is extended towards the production of metallic objects using powdered iron meteorite as raw material. The meteorite-based powder was used to produce a structural part but further research is needed to obtain a high density part without microcracks.

  20. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  1. Materials Design and System Construction for Conventional and New‐Concept Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhong; Li, Lin

    2017-01-01

    With the development of renewable energy and electrified transportation, electrochemical energy storage will be more urgent in the future. Supercapacitors have received extensive attention due to their high power density, fast charge and discharge rates, and long‐term cycling stability. During past five years, supercapacitors have been boomed benefited from the development of nanostructured materials synthesis and the promoted innovation of devices construction. In this review, we have summarized the current state‐of‐the‐art development on the fabrication of high‐performance supercapacitors. From the electrode material perspective, a variety of materials have been explored for advanced electrode materials with smart material‐design strategies such as carbonaceous materials, metal compounds and conducting polymers. Proper nanostructures are engineered to provide sufficient electroactive sites and enhance the kinetics of ion and electron transport. Besides, new‐concept supercapacitors have been developed for practical application. Microsupercapacitors and fiber supercapacitors have been explored for portable and compact electronic devices. Subsequently, we have introduced Li‐/Na‐ion supercapacitors composed of battery‐type electrodes and capacitor‐type electrode. Integrated energy devices are also explored by incorporating supercapacitors with energy conversion systems for sustainable energy storage. In brief, this review provides a comprehensive summary of recent progress on electrode materials design and burgeoning devices constructions for high‐performance supercapacitors. PMID:28638780

  2. The J-integral concept for elastic-plastic material behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.; Kienzler, R.

    1987-03-01

    A simple analytical extension of the J integral has been presented which extends the J concept to apply for materials described by an incremental theory of plasticity. The stress work density replacing the strain energy density is load-history dependent. The J integral may be made path independent by virtue of an additional volume integral and may be understood as work dissipation rate. The discussion of the consequences for the applicability of the J concept to describe fracture processes showed that validity criteria proposed in the standards are not sufficient to yield configuration-independent J-resistance curves. However, a possibility is sketched to assess those structure-dependent resistance curves based on plastic-collapse considerations. With 6 figs., 33 refs

  3. Preliminary concepts: materials management in an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenak, C.A.; Whitty, W.J.; Dietz, R.J.

    1979-11-01

    Preliminary concepts of materials accountability are presented for an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository. A hypothetical reference repository that receives nuclear waste for emplacement in a geologic medium serves to illustrate specific safeguards concepts. Nuclear wastes received at the reference repository derive from prior fuel-cycle operations. Alternative safeguards techniques ranging from item accounting to nondestructive assay and waste characteristics that affect the necessary level of safeguards are examined. Downgrading of safeguards prior to shipment to the repository is recommended whenever possible. The point in the waste cycle where international safeguards may be terminate depends on the fissile content, feasibility of separation, and practicable recoverability of the waste: termination may not be possible if spent fuels are declared as waste

  4. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  5. Application of inorganic sorbents for sewage purification from copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelizarova, I.A.; Tomchuk, T.K.; Kalinin, N.F.; Vol'khin, V.V.; Levichek, M.S.; Gulyaeva, E.I.

    1986-01-01

    Article presents the results of elaboration of synthesis methods of sorbent on the base of phosphate and magnesium hydroxide. As a result of study the technology of sorbent production with optimal properties was elaborated.

  6. Immobilized humic substances and immobilized aggregates of humic substances as sorbent for solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Guillaume L; Gonçalves, Bruna M; Esteves, Valdemar I

    2013-09-06

    In this work, humic substances (HS) immobilized, as a thin layer or as aggregates, on silica gel were tested as material for solid phase extraction. Some triazines (simazine, atrazine, therbutylazine, atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl-2-hydroxy, ametryn and terbutryn), have been selected as test analytes due to their environmental importance and to span a large range of solubility and octanol/water partition coefficient (logP). The sorbent was obtained immobilizing a thin layer of HS via physisorption on a pre-coated silica gel with a cationic polymer (polybrene). While the sorbent could be used as it is, it was demonstrated that additional HS could be immobilized, via weak interactions, to form stable humic aggregates. However, while a higher quantity of HS could be immobilized, no significant differences were observed in the sorption parameters. This sorbent have been tested for solid phase extraction to concentrate triazines from aqueous matrixes. The sorbent demonstrated performances equivalent to commercial alternatives as a concentration factor between 50 and 200, depending on the type of triazines, was obtained. Moreover the low cost and the high flow rate of sample through the column allowed using high quantity of sorbent. The analytical procedure was tested with different matrixes including tap water, river water and estuarine water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Concepts on integration of physical protection and material accounting functions in a safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Concepts on integration of physical protection and material accounting systems to enhance overall safeguards capability are developed and presented. Integration is approached by coordinating all safeguards information through a safeguards coordination center. This center represents a higher level in a communication, data-processing, and decision-making structure which is needed for efficient real-time operation of the integrated system. The safeguards coordination center functions to assess alarm and warning data required to resolve threats in the safeguards system, coordinate information and interaction involving the material accounting, physical protection, and facility monitoring and control systems, and present a single unified interface for interaction with facility management, facility operations, safeguards system personnel, and response forces

  8. Materials learning from life: concepts for active, adaptive and autonomous molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merindol, Rémi; Walther, Andreas

    2017-09-18

    Bioinspired out-of-equilibrium systems will set the scene for the next generation of molecular materials with active, adaptive, autonomous, emergent and intelligent behavior. Indeed life provides the best demonstrations of complex and functional out-of-equilibrium systems: cells keep track of time, communicate, move, adapt, evolve and replicate continuously. Stirred by the understanding of biological principles, artificial out-of-equilibrium systems are emerging in many fields of soft matter science. Here we put in perspective the molecular mechanisms driving biological functions with the ones driving synthetic molecular systems. Focusing on principles that enable new levels of functionalities (temporal control, autonomous structures, motion and work generation, information processing) rather than on specific material classes, we outline key cross-disciplinary concepts that emerge in this challenging field. Ultimately, the goal is to inspire and support new generations of autonomous and adaptive molecular devices fueled by self-regulating chemistry.

  9. Core Design Concept and Core Structural Material Development for a Prototype SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jinwook

    2013-01-01

    • Core design Concept: – Initial core is Uranium metal fueled core, then it will evolve into TRU core; – Tight pressure drop constraint lowers power density; – Trade-off studies with relaxed pressure drop constraint (~0.4MPa) are on-going; – Major feature will be finalized this year. • KAERI is developing advanced cladding for high burnup fuel in Ptototype SFR: – Advanced cladding materials are now developing, which shows superior high temperature mechanical property to the conventional material; – Processing technologies related to tube making process are now developed to enhance high temperature mechanical propertyl – Preliminary HT9 cladding tube was manufactured and out-of pile mechanical properties were evaluated. Advanced cladding tube is now being developed and being prepared for irradiation test

  10. Long Life Moving-Bed Zinc Titanate Sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Robert J.; Cesario, Mike; Feinberg, Daniel A.; Sibold, Jack; Windecker, Brian; Yang, Jing

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test long-life sorbents for hot gas cleanup. Specifically, we measured the sulfur loading at space velocities typically used for absorption of H 2 S and regenerated the sorbent with diluted air for multiple cycles. Based on the experimental results, we prepared a conceptual design of the sorbent-fabrication system, and estimated the cost of sorbent production and of sulfur removal

  11. Experimentation of netlike hydro gel nitrogen containing polymer sorbents for biological liquids purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karieva, Z.M.; Karimova, N. Kh.

    2003-01-01

    The high efficiency of hydrogels synthesized earlier in comparison with Pharmacopoeia sorbents are interesting to study comprehensively for the number of the toxins of biological liquids. Taking into considerations the high electoral sorption ability of ethynilpiperidol polymers to the hydro phobic interaction it may be suggested that they have a high detoxication ability. The detoxication characteristics of studied polymers have advantages over the known sorbents. Experiences with animals showed that in identical conditions of experiment in application of netlike polymers the survival grew 90%. Synthesis and investigations of netlike hydrogels polymer materials on nitrogen containing monomers of ethynil piperidol were given in the work. (author)

  12. Lanthanide Selective Sorbents: Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe; Shaw, Wendy J.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Linehan, John C.; Nie, Zimin; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Kelly, Shelley

    2004-11-01

    Through the marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry, the genesis of a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials has been realized. By coating the mesoporous ceramic backbone with a monolayer terminated with a lanthanide-specific ligand, it is possible to couple high lanthanide binding affinity with the high loading capacity (resulting from the extremely high surface area of the support). This lanthanide-specific ligand field is created by pairing a “hard” anionic Lewis base with a suitable synergistic ligand, in a favorable chelating geometry. Details of the synthesis, characterization, lanthanide binding studies, binding kinetics, competition experiments and sorbent regeneration studies are summarized.

  13. Efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents for oil removal from engine washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilharduci, Viviane Vasques da Silva; Martelli, Patrícia Benedini; Gorgulho, Honória de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents in the sorption of oil from engine washing wastewater. The sorbents were obtained from sugarcane bagasse in the natural form (SB-N) and modified with either acetic anhydride (SB-Acet) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SB-APTS). The results showed that the sorption capacity of these materials decreased in the following order: SB-APTS > SB-N > SB-Acet. The superior oil sorption capacity observed for SB-APTS was attributed to the polar amino end groups in the silane structure, which acted to increase the hydrophilic character of the fibers. However, all the sorbents obtained in this study were able to clean a real sample of wastewater from engine washing, leading to significant reductions in suspended matter, sediment, anionic surfactants, and turbidity.

  14. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  15. Topical Report 5: Sorbent Performance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-05-31

    ADA-ES has completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649 with support from EPRI and industry cost-share participants. Tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas. The overall project objective is to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based postcombustion CO2 capture technology that can be retrofit to the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants. An important component of the viability assessment was to evaluate the state of development of sorbents and measure key performance characteristics under realistic operating conditions.

  16. Desulfurization Sorbents for Transport-Bed Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Vierheilig, Albert A.

    1997-01-01

    This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-(micro)m particle size range for transport reactor applications; (2) To transfer sorbent production technology to private sector; and (3) To provide technical support to Sierra Pacific Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and FETC's Hot-Gas Desulfurization Process Development Unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system

  17. Influence of lignin on properties of wood-inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remez, V.P.; Charina, M.V.; Klass, S.M.; Shubin, A.S.; Tkachev, K.V.; Isaeva, O.F.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to influence of lignin on properties of wood-inorganic sorbents. The influence of component composition of matrix on sorption properties of sorbents and their stability in different mediums is studied. The dependence of sorption capacity of sorbent on component matrix composition and its porous structure is defined.

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of cork based oil sorbent and cow manure or sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavaleiro, A.J.; Neves, T.M.; Guedes, A.P.; Alves, M.M.; Pinto, P.; Silva, S.P.; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Cork, a material with great economic, social and environmental importance in Portugal, is also a good oil sorbent that can be used in the remediation of oil spills. The oil-impregnated cork can be easily removed, but requires further treatment. In the case of vegetable oil spills, anaerobic

  19. A highly efficient and selective polysilsesquioxane sorbent for heavy metal removal

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaonan; Qi, Genggeng; Wang, Peng; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    Suited for heavy stuff: An efficient mesoporous sorbent based on a pure ethylendiamine-bridged polysilsesquioxane is presented. This material, with both a high amine loading and a high surface area, is applied for heavy metal ion removal. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Adsorption of gaseous RuO4 by various sorbents. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujisic, L.; Nikolic, R.

    1983-01-01

    Sorption of gaseous RuO 4 on impregnated Alcoa Alumina H-151, impregnated charcoal, silica gel and HEPA filter was investigated. The results obtained on various sorbents are compared and discussed in connection with possibilities to use the chosen material in air cleaning systems

  1. A highly efficient and selective polysilsesquioxane sorbent for heavy metal removal

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaonan

    2012-02-29

    Suited for heavy stuff: An efficient mesoporous sorbent based on a pure ethylendiamine-bridged polysilsesquioxane is presented. This material, with both a high amine loading and a high surface area, is applied for heavy metal ion removal. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system

  3. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system.

  4. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  5. Arsenic removal using natural biomaterial-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansone, Linda; Klavins, Maris; Viksna, Arturs

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic contamination of water is a major problem worldwide. A possible solution can be approached through developing new sorbents based on cost-effective and environmentally friendly natural biomaterials. We have developed new sorbents based on biomaterial impregnation with iron oxyhydroxide. In this study, raw peat material, iron-modified peat, iron-modified biomass (shingles, straw, sands, cane and moss) as well as iron humate were used for the removal of arsenate from contaminated water. The highest sorption capacity was observed in iron-modified peat, and kinetic studies indicated that the amount of arsenic sorbed on this material exceeds 90 % in 5 h. Arsenate sorption on iron-modified peat is characterised by the pseudo-second-order mechanism. The results of arsenic sorption in the presence of competing substances indicated that sulphate, nitrate, chloride and tartrate anions have practically no influence on As(V) sorption onto Fe-modified peat, whereas the presence of phosphate ions and humic acid significantly lowers the arsenic removal efficiency.

  6. Radon adsorption in fibrous carbon sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O.M.; Kish, A.O.; Chudakov, V.A.; Matvejchuk, S.V.; Sokolovskij, A.S.; Ugolev, I.I.

    2006-01-01

    Radon sorption in woven fibrous sorbents 'AUT-M' and 'Busofit' and nonwoven fiber in the temperature range 0-50 degrees centigrade was studied. Adsorption heat of radon from the ambient air in different types of carbon fiber was determined. (authors)

  7. Design optimization of cementless metal-backed cup prostheses using the concept of functionally graded material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedia, H S; El-Midany, T T; Shabara, M A N; Fouda, N [Production Engineering and M/C Design Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    Metal backing has been widely used in acetabular cup design. A stiff backing for a polyethylene liner was initially believed to be mechanically favourable. Yet, recent studies of the load transfer around acetabular cups have shown that a stiff backing causes two problems. It generates higher stress peaks around the acetabular rim than those caused by full polyethylene cups and reduces the stresses transferred to the dome of the acetabulum causing stress shielding. The aim of this study is to overcome these two problems by improving the design of cementless metal-backed acetabular cups using the two-dimensional functionally graded material (FGM) concept through finite-element analysis and optimization techniques. It is found that the optimal 2D FGM model must have three bioactive materials of hydroxyapatite, Bioglass and collagen. This optimal material reduces the stress shielding at the dome of the acetabulum by 40% and 37% compared with stainless steel and titanium metal backing shells, respectively. In addition, using the 2D FGM model reduces the maximum interface shear stress in the bone by 31% compared to the titanium metal backing shell.

  8. Concentration and immobilization of 137Cs from liquid radioactive waste using sorbents based on hydrated titanium and zirconium oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, A. V.; Noskova, A. Y.; Gritskevich, E. Y.; Mashkovtsev, M. A.; Semenishchev, V. S.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of use of sorbents based on hydrated titanium and zirconium oxides (T-3A, T-35, NPF-HTD) for concentration and immobilization of 137Cs from liquid radioactive waste of various chemical composition (fresh water, seawater, solutions containing NaNO3, ammonium acetate, EDTA) was evaluated. It was shown that the NPF-HTD and T-35 sorbents separate 137Cs from fresh water and seawater with distribution coefficients as high as 6.2.104 and 6.1.104, 4.0.105 and 1.6.105 L kg-1 respectively; in 1 M ammonium acetate these values were 2.0.103 and 1.0.103 L kg-1. The NPF-HTD sorbent showed the highest selectivity for cesium in NaNO3 solution: cesium distribution coefficients in 1M NaNO3 was 1.4.106 L kg-1. All studied sorbents are suitable for deactivation of solutions containing EDTA. Cesium distribution coefficients were around 102-103 L kg-1 depending on EDTA concentration. Chemical stability of the sorbents was also studied. It was shown that 137Cs leaching rate from all sorbents meet the requirements for matrix materials.

  9. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zengqiang; Xiang, Jun; Su, Sheng; Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. ► The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. ► The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO 2 . - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO 2 on gas-phase Hg 0 adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents’ BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 °C and 180 °C. The presence of NO or SO 2 could inhibit Hg 0 capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  10. Poly(ethyleneimine) infused and functionalized Torlon®-silica hollow fiber sorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials functionalized with amine-containing reagents are emerging as an important class of materials for capturing carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymeric silica hollow fiber sorbents are fabricated through the proven dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. In our study, a new technique for functionalizing polymeric silica hollow fiber sorbents with poly(ethyleneimine), followed by a post-spinning infusion step was studied. This two step process introduces a sufficient amount of poly(ethyleneimine) to the polymeric silica hybrid material support to improve the CO2 sorption capacity due to the added amine groups. The poly(ethyleneimine) infused and functionalized hollow fiber sorbents are also characterized by a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) to assess their CO2 sorption capacities. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sound Stuff? Naïve materialism in middle-school students' conceptions of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, Haim; Schwartz, Judah L.

    2006-06-01

    Few studies have dealt with students’ preconceptions of sounds. The current research employs Reiner et al. (2000) substance schema to reveal new insights about students’ difficulties in understanding this fundamental topic. It aims not only to detect whether the substance schema is present in middle school students’ thinking, but also examines how students use the schema’s properties. It asks, moreover, whether the substance schema properties are used as islands of local consistency or whether one can identify more global coherent consistencies among the properties that the students use to explain the sound phenomena. In-depth standardized open-ended interviews were conducted with ten middle school students. Consistent with the substance schema, sound was perceived by our participants as being pushable, frictional, containable, or transitional. However, sound was also viewed as a substance different from the ordinary with respect to its stability, corpuscular nature, additive properties, and inertial characteristics. In other words, students’ conceptions of sound do not seem to fit Reiner et al.’s schema in all respects. Our results also indicate that students’ conceptualization of sound lack internal consistency. Analyzing our results with respect to local and global coherence, we found students’ conception of sound is close to diSessa’s “loosely connected, fragmented collection of ideas.” The notion that sound is perceived only as a “sort of a material,” we believe, requires some revision of the substance schema as it applies to sound. The article closes with a discussion concerning the implications of the results for instruction.

  12. Understanding students' concepts through guided inquiry learning and free modified inquiry on static fluid material

    OpenAIRE

    Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto

    2017-01-01

    This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...

  13. Adsorption of Ammonia on Regenerable Carbon Sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Jesph E.; Serio, Michael A..; Wilburn, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide, moisture, and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Data on sorption and desorption of ammonia, which is a major TC of concern, are presented in this paper. The current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is non-regenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. In this study, several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested for ammonia sorption. Ammonia-sorption capacity was related to carbon pore structure characteristics, and the temperature of oxidative carbon-surface treatment was optimized for enhanced ammonia-sorption performance.

  14. Sorbents based on carbonized rice peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurova, R. M.; Taipova, R. A.; Zhylybaeva, N. K.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Bijsenbaev, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The process receiving of sorbents based on carbonized rice peel (RP) was received and their sorption properties were investigated. Processing carbonization of samples leading on station, this was developed in laboratory of hybrid technology. Carbonization of samples was realized in nitric atmosphere on 400-8000 deg. C. On raising temperature of carbonization content of carbon in samples is rice, hydrogen and oxygen is reduce as a result isolation of volatility products is discover. The samples carbonized on 650 deg. C (910 m 2 /g) owners with maximum removed surface is discover. On carbonization temperature 600-800 deh. C the sorption of ions, which carbonized by sorbents based on rice peel is run to 95-100 %. Electron-microscopic investigation of samples leaded on EM-125 mechanism by accelerating pressure 100 kV. From electron-microscopic print of original samples of RP it is evident, that sample consists of carbonic fractions of different species: carbonic fiber of rounded fractions, fractions of ellipsoid form and of more thickly carbonic structure. Increasing sizes of pores and modification structure of synthesized sorbent is occur during carbonization process. The RP-samples, which carbonized by 650 deg. C has the higher specific surface. Samples consist of thin carbonic scum and reducing specific surface, by higher temperature

  15. Phosphorus removal from aqueous solution using iron coated natural and engineered sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boujelben, N.; Bouzid, J.; Elouear, Z.; Feki, M.; Jamoussi, F.; Montiel, A.

    2008-01-01

    New filtration materials covered with metallic oxides are good adsorbents for both cation and anion forms of pollutants. Sfax is one of the most important industrial towns in Tunisia. Its phosphate manufacture in particular is causing considerable amounts of water pollution. Therefore, there is a need to find out a new way of getting rid of this excessive phosphate from water. This work is aimed to examining the potential of three sorbent materials (synthetic iron oxide coated sand (SCS), naturally iron oxide coated sand (NCS) and iron oxide coated crushed brick (CB)) for removing phosphate ions from aqueous solutions. According to our literature survey CB was not used as adsorbent previously. Phosphate ions are used here as species model for the elimination of other similar pollutants (arsenates, antimonates). Optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were used to investigate the surface properties and morphology of the coated sorbents. Infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were also used to characterize the sorbent structures. Results showed that iron coated crushed brick possess more micro pores and a higher surface area owing to its clay nature. The comparative sorption of PO 4 3- from aqueous solutions by SCS, CB and NCS was investigated by batch experiments. The estimated optimum pH of phosphate ion retention for the considered sorbents was 5. The equilibrium data were analysed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The sorption capacities of PO 4 3- at pH 5 were 1.5 mg/g for SCS, 1.8 mg/g for CB and 0.88 mg/g for NCS. The effect of temperature on sorption phenomenon was also investigated. The results indicated that adsorption is an endothermic process for phosphate ions removal. This study demonstrates that all the considered sorbents can be used as an alternative emerging technology for water treatment without any side effect or treatment process alteration

  16. Design of the breeder units in the new HCPB modular blanket concept and material requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Fischer, U.; Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.; Xu, Z.; Koehly, C.

    2004-01-01

    ; according to the experience from the old design no major problems are expected concerning stress levels and gap formation in the pebble beds; in fact, the situation should be more favourable due to the reduced dimensions (max. 20 cm) of the beds that should minimise ratcheting and particle flow phenomena. In respect to tritium extraction, the most favourable features of the HCPB concept (e.g. an overall low partial pressure of tritium in the beds that minimise permeation into the main coolant system) can be kept in the new design; a complication could be the necessity to provide each cell with a system of tubes to inlet the purge helium in the front part of the beds or to divide the purge flow for Be and CB. The modular design of the new HCPB blanket, that makes the breeder units almost independent on the structural design of the box, opens interesting possibilities in the development of these units. The present design can be optimised on the basis of the results of the present R and D programme on Be and CB. In addition, new requirements could appear to improve the design performances or manufacturing: i.e. in respect to filling procedures of the beds (use of pre-packed breeder units) or the necessity of insulating layer to thermally decouple the breeder units from the box or the selection of new materials with a better compatibility with Be and CB at high temperatures as protection of the steel structure. (author)

  17. Design and conception of an experiment setup for X-Ray absorption spectroscopy on radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabane, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of the nuclear cycle waste management, the law of december 30, 1991(article 4) gives the frame of the research programs to be conducted. This should lead to o political decision concerning the end of the nuclear fuel cycle. To date, efforts are coordinated by three research groups: PRACTIS, GEDEON and FORPRO. This work, dealing with the development of a radioactive cell for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy measurements (XAS) is part of PRACTIS goals. It devises into two parts that deal with the conception of the experiment setup (Chapter I) and with the first test that been carried out with X-ray Absorption measurements on radioactive materials (Chapter II), respectively. An introduction on the nuclear fuel cycle and the use of synchrotron radiation for XAS is also given. More precisely, in the first part of this work, we deal with the difficulties that are related to the development of such devises for radioactive samples on a synchrotron beam line. Two constrains have to be taken into account: the technical aspect and the safety aspect. In the second part, we consider the use of grabbing additional structural information on the actinide complexes, both in liquid and solid phases (as amorphous phases for instance). These data on the local order (EXAFS), as well as on the electronic information that can be obtained (XANES) are to be completed with results of the other probing techniques. (author)

  18. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of VVER components, basing on LBB concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T. [CRISM Prometey, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-04-01

    The paper demonstrates an insufficiency of some requirements native Norms (when comparing them with the foreign requirements for the consideration of calculating situations): (1) leak before break (LBB); (2) short cracks; (3) preliminary loading (warm prestressing). In particular, the paper presents (1) Comparison of native and foreign normative requirements (PNAE G-7-002-86, Code ASME, BS 1515, KTA) on permissible stress levels and specifically on the estimation of crack initiation and propagation; (2) comparison of RF and USA Norms of pressure vessel material acceptance and also data of pressure vessel hydrotests; (3) comparison of Norms on the presence of defects (RF and USA) in NPP vessels, developments of defect schematization rules; foundation of a calculated defect (semi-axis correlation a/b) for pressure vessel and piping components: (4) sequence of defect estimation (growth of initial defects and critical crack sizes) proceeding from the concept LBB; (5) analysis of crack initiation and propagation conditions according to the acting Norms (including crack jumps); (6) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states of brittle an ductile fracture and elastic-plastic region as applied to calculating situation: (a) LBB and (b) short cracks; (7) necessity to correct estimation methods of ultimate states with the consideration of static and cyclic loading (warm prestressing effect) of pressure vessel; estimation of the effect stability; (8) proposals on PNAE G-7-002-86 Norm corrections.

  19. Concepts for Reusing Composite Materials from Decommissioned Wind Turbine Blades in Affordable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C. Bank

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The very rapid growth in wind energy technology in the last 15 years has led to a rapid growth in the amount of non-biodegradable, thermosetting fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composite materials used in wind turbine blades. This paper discusses conceptual architectural and structural options for recycling these blades by reusing parts of wind turbine blades in new or retrofitted housing projects. It focuses on large-sized FRP pieces that can be salvaged from the turbine blades and can potentially be useful in infrastructure projects where harsh environmental conditions (water and high humidity exist. Since reuse design should be for specific regional locations and architectural characteristics the designs presented in this paper are for the coastal regions of the Yucatan province in Mexico on the Gulf of Mexico where low-quality masonry block informal housing is vulnerable to severe hurricanes and flooding. To demonstrate the concept a prototype 100 m long wind blade model developed by Sandia National Laboratories is used to show how a wind blade can be broken down into parts, thus making it possible to envision architectural applications for the different wind blade segments for housing applications.

  20. Neutron optics concept for the materials engineering diffractometer at the ESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šaroun, J.; Fenske, J.; Rouijaa, M.; Beran, P.; Navrátil, J.; Lukáš, P.; Schreyer, A.; Strobl, M.

    2016-09-01

    The Beamline for European Materials Engineering Research (BEER) has been recently proposed to be built at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The presented concept of neutron delivery optics for this instrument addresses the problems of bi-spectral beam extraction from a small moderator, optimization of neutron guides profile for long-range neutron transport and focusing at the sample under various constraints. They include free space before and after the guides, a narrow guide section with gaps for choppers, closing of direct line of sight and cost reduction by optimization of the guides cross-section and coating. A system of slits and exchangeable focusing optics is proposed in order to match various wavelength resolution options provided by the pulse shaping and modulation choppers, which permits to efficiently trade resolution for intensity in a wide range. Simulated performance characteristics such as brilliance transfer ratio are complemented by the analysis of the histories of “useful” neutrons obtained by back tracing neutrons hitting the sample, which helps to optimize some of the neutron guide parameters such as supermirror coating.

  1. Neutron optics concept for the materials engineering diffractometer at the ESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šaroun, J; Beran, P; Navrátil, J; Lukáš, P; Fenske, J; Rouijaa, M; Schreyer, A; Strobl, M

    2016-01-01

    The Beamline for European Materials Engineering Research (BEER) has been recently proposed to be built at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The presented concept of neutron delivery optics for this instrument addresses the problems of bi-spectral beam extraction from a small moderator, optimization of neutron guides profile for long-range neutron transport and focusing at the sample under various constraints. They include free space before and after the guides, a narrow guide section with gaps for choppers, closing of direct line of sight and cost reduction by optimization of the guides cross-section and coating. A system of slits and exchangeable focusing optics is proposed in order to match various wavelength resolution options provided by the pulse shaping and modulation choppers, which permits to efficiently trade resolution for intensity in a wide range. Simulated performance characteristics such as brilliance transfer ratio are complemented by the analysis of the histories of “useful” neutrons obtained by back tracing neutrons hitting the sample, which helps to optimize some of the neutron guide parameters such as supermirror coating. (paper)

  2. Advanced sorbent development progam; development of sorbents for moving-bed and fluidized-bed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, R.E.; Venkataramani, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system using high-temperature coal gas cleanup is one of the most promising advanced technologies for the production of electric power from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Unlike conventional low-temperature cleanup systems that require costly heat exchangers, high-temperature coal gas cleanup systems can be operated near 482-538 C (900-1000F) or higher, conditions that are a closer match with the gasifier and turbine components in the IGCC system, thus resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the IGCC power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other proprietary zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.s (TECo) Polk Power Station. Under cold startup conditions at TECo, desulfurization and regeneration may be carried out at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F), hence a versatile sorbent is desirable to perform over this wide temperature range. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The overall objective of this program is to develop regenerable sorbents for hydrogen sulfide removal from coal-derived fuel gases in the temperature range 343-538 C (650-1000 F). Two categories of reactor configurations are being considered: moving-bed reactors and fluidized-bed (bubbling and circulating) reactors. In addition, a cost assessment and

  3. High temperature capture of CO2 on lithium-based sorbents from rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Guo, Xin; Zhao, Pengfei; Wang, Fanzi; Zheng, Chuguang

    2011-05-15

    Highly efficient Li(4)SiO(4) (lithium orthosilicate)-based sorbents for CO(2) capture at high temperature, was developed using waste materials (rice husk ash). Two treated rice husk ash (RHA) samples (RHA1 and RHA2) were prepared and calcined at 800°C in the presence of Li(2)CO(3). Pure Li(4)SiO(4) and RHA-based sorbents were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and thermogravimetry. CO(2) sorption was tested through 15 carbonation/calcination cycles in a fixed bed reactor. The metals of RHA were doped with Li(4)SiO(4) resulting to inhibited growth of the particles and increased pore volume and surface area. Thermal analyses indicated a much better CO(2) absorption in Li(4)SiO(4)-based sorbent prepared from RHA1 (higher metal content sample) because the activation energies for the chemisorption process and diffusion process were smaller than that of pure Li(4)SiO(4). RHA1-based sorbent also maintained higher capacities during the multiple cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  5. Development of Problem-Based Learning Oriented Teaching Learning Materials to Facilitate Students’ Mastery of Concept and Critical Thinking Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Rahayu, Y. S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to develop problem-based learning oriented teaching materials to improve students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill. Its procedure was divided into two phases; developmental phase and experimental phase. This developmental research used Four-D Model. However, within this research, the process of development would not involve the last stages, which is disseminate. The teaching learning materials which were developed consist of lesson plan, student handbook, student worksheet, achievement test and critical thinking skill test. The experimental phase employs a research design called one group pretest-posttest design. Results show that the validity of the teaching materials which were developed was good and revealed the enhancement of students’ activities with positive response to the teaching learning process. Furthermore, the learning materials improve the students’ mastery of concept and critical thinking skill.

  6. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  7. Properties and reactivity of reactivated calcium-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davini, P. [Pisa University, Pisa (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2002-04-01

    Calcium-based sorbents used in the process of high temperature desulfurisation of flue gases are partly regenerable by hydration with steam; the best results are obtained for treatment temperatures of approximately 300{degree}C. The regeneration process, and the consequent increase in the sorbent consumption can be correlated to the surface characteristics (BET surface area, porosity and pore size distribution) of the sorbents themselves. In particular, the presence of suitable pore structure, also having pores large enough to let molecules easily penetrate the inner part of the sorbent particles, is very important. 27 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Application of TIO2 as A sorbent for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamroni, H.; Las, T.; Kamarz, H.

    1997-01-01

    The sorption properties of the neodymium has been studied by using TiO 2 sorbent. The experiment was carried out by batch methods to investigate the kinetic sorption, effect of pH and effect of NaNO 3 concentration in the solution. Neodymium uses for a model of trivalent actinide treated by TiO 2 which was known as materials having high thermal and radiation stabilities as well as potentially used for immobilization of waste with cement or vitrification. the results show that the optimum of kinetic sorption was obtained after one day experiment to reach the equilibrium in sorption on pH 4, and the increasing of NaNO 3 concentrations will increase the sorption of neodymium in solution (author)

  9. Engineering metal (hydr)oxide sorbents for removal of arsenate and similar weak-acid oxyanion contaminants: A critical review with emphasis on factors governing sorption processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Kiril D; Markovski, Jasmina

    2017-11-15

    To create an integrative foundation for engineering of the next generation inexpensive sorbent systems, this critical review addresses the existing knowledge gap in factor/performance relationships between weak-acid oxyanion contaminants and metal (hydr)oxide sorbents. In-depth understanding of fundamental thermodynamics and kinetics mechanisms, material fabrication, and analytical and characterization techniques, is necessary to engineer sorbent that exhibit high capacity, selectivity, stability, durability and mass transport of contaminants under a wide range of operating and water matrix conditions requirements. From the perspective of thermodynamics and kinetics, this critical review examines the factors affecting sorbent performances and analyzes the existing research to elucidate future directions aimed at developing novel sorbents for removal of weak-acid oxyanion contaminants from water. Only sorbents that allow construction of simple and inexpensive water treatment systems adapted to overcome fiscal and technological barriers burdening small communities could pave the road for providing inexpensive potable water to millions of people. Novel sorbents, which exhibit (1) poor performances in realistic operating and water matrix conditions and/or (2) do not comply with the purely driven economics factors of production scalability or cost expectations, are predestined to never be commercialized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wenbin [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-08

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be

  11. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be

  12. Development of a Catalyst/Sorbent for Methane Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.H. Shans; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus Satrio; Karl Albrecht; Tanya Harris Janine Keeley; Ben Silva; Aaron Shell; Molly Lohry; Zachary Beversdorf

    2008-12-31

    This project led to the further development of a combined catalyst and sorbent for improving the process technology required for converting CH{sub 4} and/or CO into H{sub 2} while simultaneously separating the CO{sub 2} byproduct all in a single step. The new material is in the form of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consists of a CaO core surrounded by an alumina-based shell capable of supporting a Ni catalyst. The Ni is capable of catalyzing the reactions of steam with CH{sub 4} or CO to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, whereas the CaO is capable of absorbing the CO{sub 2} as it is produced. The absorption of CO{sub 2} eliminates the reaction inhibiting effects of CO{sub 2} and provides a means for recovering the CO{sub 2} in a useful form. The present work showed that the lifecycle performance of the sorbent can be improved either by incorporating a specific amount of MgO in the material or by calcining CaO derived from limestone at 1100 C for an extended period. It also showed how to prepare a strong shell material with a large surface area required for supporting an active Ni catalyst. The method combines graded particles of {alpha}-alumina with noncrystalline alumina having a large specific surface area together with a strength promoting additive followed by controlled calcination. Two different additives produced good results: 3 {micro}m limestone and lanthanum nitrate which were converted to their respective oxides upon calcination. The oxides partially reacted with the alumina to form aluminates which probably accounted for the strength enhancing properties of the additives. The use of lanthanum made it possible to calcine the shell material at a lower temperature, which was less detrimental to the surface area, but still capable of producing a strong shell. Core-in-shell pellets made with the improved shell materials and impregnated with a Ni catalyst were used for steam reforming CH{sub 4} at different temperatures and pressures. Under all

  13. Developing an Instructional Material Using a Concept Cartoon Adapted to the 5E Model: A Sample of Teaching Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birisci, Salih; Metin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Using different instructional materials adapted within the constructivist learning theory will enhance students' conceptual understanding. From this point of view, an instructional instrument using a concept cartoon adapted with 5E model has developed and introduced in this study. The study has some deficiencies in investigating students'…

  14. The Effectiveness of Interactive Computer Assisted Modeling in Teaching Study Strategies and Concept Mapping of College Textbook Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, Larry

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of a series of print materials and interactive computer-guided study programs designed to lead undergraduate students to apply basic textbook reading and concept mapping strategies to the study of science and social science textbooks. Following field testing with 25 learning skills students, 50 freshman biology…

  15. Removal of metals from industrial wastewater and urban runoff by mineral and bio-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Harshita; Leiviskä, Tiina; Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Postila, Heini; Tanskanen, Juha

    2018-03-01

    The study was performed to evaluate chemically modified biosorbents, hydrochloric acid treated peat (HCl-P) and citric acid treated sawdust (Citric acid-SD) for their metal removal capacity from dilute industrial wastewater and urban runoff and compare their efficiency with that of commercially available mineral sorbents (AQM PalPower M10 and AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite). Batch and column experiments were conducted using real water samples to assess the sorbents' metal sorption capacity. AQM PalPower M10 (consisting mainly of magnesium, iron and silicon oxides) exhibited excellent Zn removal from both industrial wastewater and spiked runoff water samples even at low dosages (0.1 g/L and 0.05 g/L, respectively). The high degree of Zn removal was associated with the release of hydroxyl ions from the sorbent and subsequent precipitation of zinc hydroxide. The biosorbents removed Ni and Cr better than AQM PalPower M10 from industrial wastewater and performed well in removing Cr and Cu from spiked runoff water, although at higher dosages (0.3-0.75 g/L). The main mechanism of sorption by biosorbents was ion exchange. The sorbents required a short contact time to reach equilibrium (15-30 min) in both tested water samples. AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite was the worst performing sorbent, leaching Zn into both industrial and runoff water and Ni into runoff water. Column tests revealed that both HCl-P and AQM PalPower M10 were able to remove metals, although some leaching was witnessed, especially As from AQM PalPower M10. The low hydraulic conductivity observed for HCl-P may restrict the possibilities of using such small particle size peat material in a filter-type passive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  17. Imprint-coating synthesis of selective functionalized ordered mesoporous sorbents for separation and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Burleigh, Mark C.; Shin, Yongsoon

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to mesoporous sorbent materials having high capacity, high selectivity, fast kinetics, and molecular recognition capability. The invention also relates to a process for preparing these mesoporous substrates through molecular imprinting techniques which differ from convention techniques in that a template molecule is bound to one end of bifunctional ligands to form a complex prior to binding of the bifunctional ligands to the substrate. The present invention also relates to methods of using the mesoporous sorbent materials, for example, in the separation of toxic metals from process effluents, paints, and other samples; detection of target molecules, such as amino acids, drugs, herbicides, fertilizers, and TNT, in samples; separation and/or detection of substances using chromatography; imaging agents; sensors; coatings; and composites.

  18. Evaluation of Sorbents for Acetylene Separation in Atmosphere Revitalization Loop Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Barton, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art carbon dioxide reduction technology uses a Sabatier reactor to recover water from metabolic carbon dioxide. In order to maximize oxygen loop closure, a byproduct of the system, methane, must be reduced to recover hydrogen. NASA is currently exploring a microwave plasma methane pyrolysis system for this purpose. The resulting product stream of this technology includes unreacted methane, product hydrogen, and acetylene. The hydrogen and the small amount of unreacted methane resulting from the pyrolysis process can be returned to the Sabatier reactor thereby substantially improving the overall efficiency of the system. However, the acetylene is a waste product that must be removed from the pyrolysis product. Two materials have been identified as potential sorbents for acetylene removal: zeolite 4A, a commonly available commercial sorbent, and HKUST-1, a newly developed microporous metal. This paper provides an explanation of the rationale behind acetylene removal and the results of separation testing with both materials

  19. Quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica sorbents for the solid-phase extraction of aromatic amines under normal phase conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Robin, Orlane; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2013-04-12

    Quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica materials were synthesized and applied for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of aromatic amines, which are classified as priority pollutants by US Environmental Protection Agency. Hexamethylenetetramine used for silica surface modification for the first time was employed as SPE sorbent under normal phase conditions. Hexaminium-functionalized silica demonstrated excellent extraction efficiencies for o-toluidine, 4-ethylaniline and quinoline (recoveries 101-107%), while for N,N-dimethylaniline and N-isopropylaniline recoveries were from low to moderate (14-46%). In addition, the suitability of 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica as SPE sorbent was tested under normal phase conditions. The recoveries achieved for the five aromatic amines ranged from 89 to 99%. The stability of the sorbent was evaluated during and after 150 extractions. Coefficients of variation between 4.5 and 10.2% proved a high stability of the synthesized sorbent. Elution was carried out using acetonitrile in the case of hexaminium-functionalized silica and water for 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica sorbent. After the extraction the analytes were separated and detected by liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The retention mechanism of the materials was primarily based on polar hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions. Comparison made with activated silica proved the quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials to offer different selectivity and better extraction efficiencies for aromatic amines. Finally, 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica sorbent was successfully tested for the extraction of wastewater and soil samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Moisture performance of building materials: From material characterization to building simulation using the Moisture Buffer Value concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Marc Olivier [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil); LEPTAB, University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle, 17042 Cedex 1 (France); Mendonca, Katia Cordeiro [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Predicting the indoor air relative humidity evolution is of great importance to evaluate people thermal comfort, perceived air quality and energy consumption. In building environments, porous materials of the envelope and furniture act on the indoor air humidity by reducing its variations. Solving the physical processes involved inside the porous materials requires the knowledge of the material hygrothermal properties that needs multiple and, for some of them, time-consuming experimental procedures. Recently, both the NORDTEST Project and Japanese Industrial Standard described a new Moisture Buffer Capacity index that accounts for surrounding air vapor concentration variation. The Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) indicates the amount of water vapor that is transported in or out of a material, during a certain period of time, when the vapor concentration of the surrounding air varies. The MBV evaluation requires only one experimental procedure and its value permits a direct comparison of the building materials moisture performance. However, two limitations can be distinguished: first, no relation between the MBV and the usual material hygrothermal properties has been clearly identified and second, no model has been proposed to actually use the MBV in building simulation. The present study aims to solve these two problems. First, the MBV fundamentals are introduced and discussed; followed by its relation with the usual material properties. Then, a lumped model for building simulation, whose parameters can be determined from the MBV experimental procedure, is described. To finish, examples of the use of this MBV-based lumped model for moisture prediction in buildings are presented. (author)

  1. Sorption of radionuclides on mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate: a new sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehrian, H. [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Labs., Nuclear Science and Technology Research Inst., AEOI, Tehran (Iran); Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran); Yavari, R.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M. [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Labs., Nuclear Science and Technology Research Inst., AEOI, Tehran (Iran); Husain, S.W. [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-07-01

    Four different samples of mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate with varying mole ratio of Si/Sn have been used to study the sorption behavior of 18 radionuclides on these materials. Ion-exchange capacity, SEM, distribution coefficient and chemical stability have been studied and discussed. Separation of Tl(I) from Th(IV), Cs(I) from Th(IV) and Cs(I) from Zr(IV) have been developed on columns of this sorbent. (orig.)

  2. Sorption of radionuclides on mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate: a new sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehrian, H.; Yavari, R.; Ghannadi Maragheh, M.; Husain, S.W.

    2008-01-01

    Four different samples of mesoporous Sn(IV) silicate with varying mole ratio of Si/Sn have been used to study the sorption behavior of 18 radionuclides on these materials. Ion-exchange capacity, SEM, distribution coefficient and chemical stability have been studied and discussed. Separation of Tl(I) from Th(IV), Cs(I) from Th(IV) and Cs(I) from Zr(IV) have been developed on columns of this sorbent. (orig.)

  3. From carbon nanostructures to high-performance sorbents for chromatographic separation and preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnov, V N; Rodinkov, O V; Moskvin, L N; Novikov, A G; Bugaichenko, A S; Krokhina, O A

    2016-01-01

    Information on carbon nanostructures (fullerenes, nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamond and nanodispersed active carbon) used to develop high-performance sorbents of organics and heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions is collected and analyzed. The advantages in the synthesis of hybrid carbon nanostructures and the possibilities of surface modification of these systems in order to carry out fast sorption pre-concentration are considered. Prospects for application of these materials in sorption technologies and analytical chemistry are discussed. The bibliography includes 364 references

  4. TRUEX process solvent cleanup with solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan; Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Solid sorbents, alumina, silica gel, and Amberlyst A-26 have been tested for the cleanup of degraded TRUEX-NPH solvent. A sodium carbonate scrub alone does not completely remove acidic degradation products from highly degraded solvent and cannot restore the stripping performance of the solvent. By following the carbonate scrub with either neutral alumina or Amberlyst A-26 anion exchange resin, the performance of the TRUEX-NPH is substantially restored. The degraded TRUEX-NPH was characterized before and after treatment by supercritical fluid chromatography. Its performance was evaluated by americium distribution ratios, phase-separation times, and lauric acid distribution coefficients. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Colloid stable sorbents for cesium removal: Preparation and application of latex particles functionalized with transition metals ferrocyanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramenko, Valentin [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 ave 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Bratskaya, Svetlana, E-mail: sbratska@ich.dvo.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 ave 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Zheleznov, Veniamin; Sheveleva, Irina [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 ave 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Voitenko, Oleg [Far Eastern Federal University, Laboratory of Electron Microscopy and Image Processing, 27, Oktyabr' skaya Street, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Sergienko, Valentin [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 ave 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-28

    In this paper we suggest a principally new approach to preparation of colloid stable selective sorbents for cesium uptake using immobilization of transition metals (cobalt, nickel, and copper) ferrocyanides in nanosized carboxylic latex emulsions. The effects of ferrocyanide composition, pH, and media salinity on the sorption properties of the colloid stable sorbents toward cesium ions were studied in solutions containing up to 200 g/L of sodium nitrate or potassium chloride. The sorption capacities of the colloid sorbents based on mixed potassium/transition metals ferrocyanides were in the range 1.3-1.5 mol Cs/mol ferrocyanide with the highest value found for the copper ferrocyanide. It was shown that the obtained colloid-stable sorbents were capable to penetrate through bulk materials without filtration that made them applicable for decontamination of solids, e.g. soils, zeolites, spent ion-exchange resins contaminated with cesium radionuclides. After decontamination of liquid or solid radioactive wastes the colloid-stable sorbents can be easily separated from solutions by precipitation with cationic flocculants providing localization of radionuclides in a small volume of the precipitates formed.

  6. Assessment of spent mushroom substrate as sorbent of fungicides: influence of sorbent and sorbate properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a sorbent of fungicides was evaluated for its possible use in regulating pesticide mobility in the environment. The sorption studies involved four different SMS types in terms of nature and treatment and eight fungicides selected as representative compounds from different chemical groups. Nonlinear sorption isotherms were observed for all SMS-fungicide combinations. The highest sorption was obtained by composted SMS from Agaricus bisporus cultivation. A significant negative and positive correlation was obtained between the K(OC) sorption constants and the polarity index values of sorbents and the K(OW) of fungicides, respectively. The statistic revealed that more than 77% of the variability in the K(OW) could be explained considering these properties jointly. The other properties of both the sorbent (total carbon, dissolved organic carbon, or pH) and the sorbate (water solubility) were nonsignificant. The hysteresis values for cyprodinil (log K(OW)= 4) were for all the sorbents much higher (>3) than for other fungicides. This was consistent with the remaining sorption after desorption considered as an indicator of the sorption efficiency of SMS for fungicides. Changes in the absorption bands of fungicides sorbed by SMS observed by FTIR permitted establishing the interaction mechanism of fungicides with SMS. The findings of this work provide evidence for the potential capacity of SMS as a sorbent of fungicides and the low desorption observed especially for some fungicides, although they suggest that more stabilized or humified organic substrates should be produced to enhance their efficiency in environmental applications. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Using of clay-salt slimes of 'Belaruskali' factory as a sorbents of radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskalchuk, L.

    2010-01-01

    minimization of radioactive waste volume by concentration and condensation. The concept about differentiated collection of liquid radioactive waste opens ample opportunities for introduction sorption processes for direct purifying of waste right after their collection. Sorption method of purification of liquid radioactive waste would considerably facilitate further water-salt solution disposal after radionuclide extraction and would prevent further storage of concentrated liquid radioactive waste, formed at evaporation of initial liquid radioactive waste, would exclude necessity of expansion and service of short term storage of concentrated liquid radioactive waste, would eliminate the use of time-taking and expensive technologies for processing and concentration of liquid radioactive waste. The main task of sorption method application is choice and reception of selective sorbents. Application of the natural inorganic material with sorption properties attracts that in contrast to expensive synthetic sorbents it is widespread, accessible and have rather low cost price thanks to presence of the great storage in developed and studied deposits. The review of the scientific and technical data about structural and sorption properties of natural mineral shows, that the most perspective material for extraction of radionuclides of cesium and strontium, and also the most toxic transuranium elements, from liquid waste are aluminum silicates. By the preliminary researches realized in the JIPNR - Sosny of NAS of Belarus it is established, those clay-salt slimes are complex formations which basic components: potassium and sodium chlorides, dolomite, field spars, illite and quartz. The specific structure of clay-salt slimes causes: - Possibility of synthesis of wide scale materials of various special-purpose functions, - Updating of clay-salt slimes for reception of sorbents with set physical, chemical and sorption properties. It is shown that clay-salt slimes possess a considerable specific

  8. The role of graphene-based sorbents in modern sample preparation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toffoli, Ana Lúcia; Maciel, Edvaldo Vasconcelos Soares; Fumes, Bruno Henrique; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2018-01-01

    The application of graphene-based sorbents in sample preparation techniques has increased significantly since 2011. These materials have good physicochemical properties to be used as sorbent and have shown excellent results in different sample preparation techniques. Graphene and its precursor graphene oxide have been considered to be good candidates to improve the extraction and concentration of different classes of target compounds (e.g., parabens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, pyrethroids, triazines, and so on) present in complex matrices. Its applications have been employed during the analysis of different matrices (e.g., environmental, biological and food). In this review, we highlight the most important characteristics of graphene-based material, their properties, synthesis routes, and the most important applications in both off-line and on-line sample preparation techniques. The discussion of the off-line approaches includes methods derived from conventional solid-phase extraction focusing on the miniaturized magnetic and dispersive modes. The modes of microextraction techniques called stir bar sorptive extraction, solid phase microextraction, and microextraction by packed sorbent are discussed. The on-line approaches focus on the use of graphene-based material mainly in on-line solid phase extraction, its variation called in-tube solid-phase microextraction, and on-line microdialysis systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The analysis of the mathematics concept comprehension of senior high school student on dynamic fluid material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristian, P. L. Y.; Cari, C.; Sunarno, W.

    2018-04-01

    This study purposes to describe and analyse the students' concept understanding of dynamic fluid. The subjects of this research are 10 students of senior high school. The data collected finished the essay test that consists of 5 questions have been adapted to the indicators of learning. The data of this research is analysed using descriptive-qualitative approach by referring of the student's argumentations about their answer from the questions that given. The results showed that students still have incorrect understanding the concept of dynamic fluids, especially on the Bernoulli’s principle and its application. Based on the results of this research, the teachers should emphasize the concept understanding of the students therefore the students don not only understand the physics concept in mathematical form.

  10. Supplementary material on passive solar heating concepts. A compilation of published articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    A compilation of published articles and reports dealing with passive solar energy concepts for heating and cooling buildings is presented. The following are included: fundamental of passive systems, applications and technical analysis, graphic tools, and information sources. (MHR)

  11. Method of making ionic liquid mediated sol-gel sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abdul; Shearrow, Anne M.

    2017-01-31

    Ionic liquid (IL)-mediated sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic materials present enormous potential for effective use in analytical microextraction. One obstacle to materializing this prospect arises from high viscosity of ILs significantly slowing down sol-gel reactions. A method was developed which provides phosphonium-based, pyridinium-based, and imidazolium-based IL-mediated advanced sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid materials for capillary microextraction. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrate that ILs can serve as porogenic agents in sol-gel reactions. IL-mediated sol-gel coatings prepared with silanol-terminated polymers provided up to 28 times higher extractions compared to analogous sol-gel coatings prepared without any IL in the sol solution. This study shows that IL-generated porous morphology alone is not enough to provide effective extraction media: careful choice of the organic polymer and the precursor with close sol-gel reactivity must be made to ensure effective chemical bonding of the organic polymer to the created sol-gel material to be able to provide the desired sorbent characteristics.

  12. Post-combustion carbon capture - solid sorbents and membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R.M.

    2009-01-15

    This report follows on from that on solvent scrubbing for post-combustion carbon capture from coal-fired power plants by considering the use of solid sorbents and membranes instead of solvents. First, mesoporous and microporous adsorbents are discussed: carbon-based adsorbents, zeolites, hydrotalcites and porous crystals. Attempts have been made to improve the performance of the porous adsorbent by functionalising them with nitrogen groups and specifically, amine groups to react with CO{sub 2} and thus enhance the physical adsorption properties. Dry, regenerable solid sorbents have attracted a good deal of research. Most of the work has been on the carbonation/calcination cycle of natural limestone but there have also been studies of other calcium-based sorbents and alkali metal-based sorbents. Membranes have also been studied as potential post-combustion capture devices. Finally, techno-economic studies predicting the economic performance of solid sorbents and membranes are discussed. 340 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Detoxication and recycling of radioactive waters using selective mineral sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berak, L.

    1980-01-01

    Activated BaSO 4 (designated AB 70) was proposed for use in decontaminating concentrated calcium salt solutions containing a small amount of 226 Ra. The AB 70 concentration factor amounts to 2x1a 3 . A sorption contactor for applying the powder sorbent was proposed and will be tested. The AB 70 sorbent liberates small amounts of sulphates into the decontaminated solution, and thus another suitable mineral sorbent was sought. A new sorbent could be synthetized and tested, called RAS-1 whose Ra/Ca selectivity is comparable to that of AB 70 while its Ra/Ba selectivity is considerably higher. The RAS-1 sorbent is also suitable for radiochemical separation in the analysis and concentration of Ra. (Ha)

  14. A real-time material control concept for safeguarding special nuclear material in United States licensed processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes general safeguards research being undertaken by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Efforts to improve the ability of United States licensed plants to contend with the perceived threat of covert material theft are emphasized. The framework for this improvement is to break down the internal control and accounting system into subsystems to achieve material isolation, inventory control, inventory characterization, and inventory containment analysis. A general programme is outlined to develop and evaluate appropriate mechanisms, integrate selected mechanisms into subsystems, and evaluate the subsystems in the context of policy requirements. (author)

  15. The adoption of the materiality concept in social and environmental reporting assurance:A field study approach

    OpenAIRE

    Edgley, Carla; Jones, Michael; Atkins, Jill

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the logics or values that shape the social and environmental reporting (SER) and SER assurance (SERA) process. The influence of logics is observed through a study of the conceptualisation and operationalisation of the materiality concept by accounting and non-accounting assurors and their assurance statements. We gathered qualitative data from interviews with both accounting and non-accounting assurors. We analysed the interplay between old and new logics that are shap...

  16. Transports of radioactive materials. Legal regulations, safety and security concepts, experience; Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. Rechtsvorschriften, Sicherheits- und Sicherungskonzept, Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Guenther

    2012-07-15

    In Germany, approximately 650,000 to 750,000 units containing radioactive materials for scientific, medical and technical applications are shipped annually by surface, air and water transports. Legally speaking, radioactive materials are dangerous goods which can cause hazards to life, health, property and the environment as a result of faulty handling or accidents in transit. For protection against these hazards, their shipment therefore is regulated in extensive national and international rules of protection and safety. The article contains a topical review of the international and national transport regulations and codes pertaining to shipments of radioactive materials, and of the protection concepts underlying these codes so as to ensure an adequate standard of safety and security in shipping radioactive materials in national and international goods traffic. (orig.)

  17. Lanthanide Selective Sorbents: Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe; Shaw, Wendy J.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Linehan, John C.; Nie, Zimin; Kemner, K. M.; Kelly, Shelley

    2004-11-01

    Through the marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry, the genesis of a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials has been realized. By coating the mesoporous ceramic backbone with a monolayer terminated with a lanthanide-specific ligand, it is possible to couple high lanthanide binding affinity with the high loading capacity (resulting from the extremely high surface area of the support). This lanthanide-specific ligand field is created by pairing a ''hard'' anionic Lewis base with a suitable synergistic ligand, in a favorable chelating geometry. Details of the synthesis, characterization, lanthanide binding studies, binding kinetics, competition experiments and sorbent regeneration studies are summarized

  18. Materials science problems of blankets in Russian concept of fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.

    1998-01-01

    Structural materials, beryllium and tritium breeding materials proposed for blanket of Russian reactor DEMO and Test Modules for ITER are discussed. Main requirements for the materials are concerned with basis current designs of blankets and modules and possibility meet of ones for presence and developed alloys and materials discussed considered. Main properties and results of test of ferrite-martensite and vanadium alloys for DEMO and Test Modules are cited. Beryllium compositions used as component of first wall and neutron multiplier are discussed. Liquid lithium and ceramic (lithium orthosilicate) are treated as tritium breeding materials. Russian development of reactor experimental unit for tritium breeding zone using beryllium, lithium ceramic and ferrite-martensite alloys for structural materials is presented. (orig.)

  19. Solar Energy: Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts: Student Material. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, bibliographies, and illustrations for seven course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the…

  20. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  1. NIFSIL - a composite sorbent for caesium - properties and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajec, P.; Orechovska, J.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of the potassium-nickel ferrocyanides K 2 NiFe(CN) 6 , KNi 1,5 Fe(CN) 6 and Ni 2 Fe(CN) 6 were prepared and their properties studied with respect to their use as sorbents for caesium. Caesium is fixed on mixed alkaline-nickel ferrocyanide without structural change. The capacity of Cs retention never reached the theoretic value corresponding to a total release of the monovalent ions of the solid. High distribution coefficients (K D in the order of 10 4 cm 3 /g) determined in batch experiments show that these sorbents have a very high affinity for caesium ions, even in the presence of competing K + , Na + and Ca 2+ ions. The sorbents have a good chemical stability in a wide pH-range (2-12). The irradiation of some sorbent samples with high energy gamma-rays ( 60 Co) of a total dose of 1.10 5 Gy caused no remarkable changes in the sorbent properties (K D , sorption capacity and kinetics, mechanical stability). The sorbents were also tested for 85 Sr and 239 Pu and the results carried out under dynamic and batch experiments have shown that sorbents are not suitable for removal of these radionuclides. Potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate incorporated in silica-gel matrix could compete with others sorbents based on insoluble hexacyanoferrates, has the advantage of good radiation stability and suitable granulometry. The sorbent was prepared on a pilot scale with a capacity about 1000 kg per year with the prospect that it could be easily upgraded to an industrial scale

  2. Extraction of trace nitrophenols in environmental water samples using boronate affinity sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Mei, Meng; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the applicability of a new sorbent based on boronate affinity material is demonstrated. For this purpose, six strong polar nitrophenols were selected as models which are difficult to be extracted in neutral form (only based on hydrophobic interactions). The extracted nitrophenols were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The sorbent was synthesized by in situ copolymerization of 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid and divinylbenzene using dimethyl sulfoxide and azobisisobutyronitrile as porogen solvent and initiator, respectively. The effect of the preparation parameters in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was investigated in detail. The size and morphology of the sorbent have been characterized via different techniques such as infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The important parameters influencing the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized thoroughly. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantification (S/N = 10) for the target nitrophenols were 0.097–0.28 and 0.32–0.92 μg/L, respectively. The precision of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of intra- and inter-assay variability calculated as RSD, and it was found that the RSDs were all below 9%. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for environmental water samples such as wastewater, tap, lake and river water. The recoveries varied within the range of 71.2–115% with RSD below 11% in all cases. The results well demonstrate that the new boronate affinity sorbent can extract nitrophenols effectively through multi-interactions including boron–nitrogen coordination, hydrogen-bond and hydrophobic interactions between sorbent and analytes. - Highlights: • A new boronate affinity sorbent (BAS) was prepared. • The BAS was used as the extractive medium of stir

  3. Nanosilica supported CaO: A regenerable and mechanically hard CO2 sorbent at Ca-looping conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Jimenez, P.E.; Perez-Maqueda, L.A.; Valverde, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A synthetic CO 2 sorbent is prepared by impregnation of calcium nitrate on a nanosilica matrix. • Sintering of the nascent CaO in the calcination stage of carbonation/calcination cycles is hindered. • CaO conversion reaches a stable value well above the residual conversion of natural limestone. • Particle fragmentation as caused by ultrasonic irradiation in a liquid dispersion is hindered. - Abstract: This work presents a CO 2 sorbent that may be synthesized from low-cost and widely available materials following a simple method basically consisting of impregnation of a nanostructured silica support with a saturated solution of calcium nitrate. In a first impregnation stage, the use of a stoichiometric CaO/SiO 2 ratio serves to produce a calcium silicate matrix after calcination. This calcium silicate matrix acts as a thermally stable and mechanically hard support for CaO deposited on it by further impregnation. The CaO-impregnated sorbent exhibits a stable CaO conversion at Ca-looping conditions whose value depends on the CaO wt% deposited on the calcium silicate matrix, which can be increased by successive reimpregnations. A 10 wt% CaO impregnated sorbent reaches a stable conversion above 0.6 whereas the stable conversion of a 30 wt% CaO impregnated sorbent is around 0.3, which is much larger than the residual conversion of CaO derived from natural limestone (between 0.07 and 0.08). Moreover, particle size distribution measurements of samples predispersed in a liquid and subjected to high energy ultrasonic waves indicate that the CaO-impregnated sorbent has a relatively high mechanical strength as compared to limestone derived CaO

  4. A novel molybdenum disulfide nanosheet self-assembled flower-like monolithic sorbent for solid-phase extraction with high efficiency and long service life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Fanpeng; Liu, Hongmei; Wang, Xiaoqi; Guo, Yong

    2017-07-21

    A novel material consisting of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) nanosheet that self-assemble into flower-like microspheres which aggregate to form a monolithic matrix with a micro or nano-scaled mesopore structure was successfully synthesized and used as an efficient sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) due to its large specific adsorption area and good stability. The extraction properties of the as-prepared sorbent were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with variable wavelength detection (HPLC-VWD) by analyzing four flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol). Under optimal conditions, the LODs and LOQs were found to be in the ranges of 0.1-0.25 and 0.4-0.5μgL -1 , respectively, and wide linear ranges were obtained with correlation coefficients (R) ranging from 0.9991 to 0.9996. Compared with commercial C18 and Alumina-N sorbents, the as-prepared sorbent showed high extraction efficiency at different concentrations of flavonoids. After 100 uses, the extraction ability of the self-assembled MoS 2 nanosheet monolithic sorbent had no evident decline, denoting a long service life. Finally, the SPE-HPLC-VWD method using the as-prepared sorbent was applied to flavonoid analysis in beverage samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential of Cogon Grass as an Oil Sorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Barlianti, Vera; Anggraini, Irni Fitria; Hendarsyah, Hendris

    2012-01-01

    Experiments on the potential of Cogon grass (lmperata cylindrica), a weed harmful to other plants, for use as a low-cost and biodegradable oil sorbent were carried out under various spill conditions. Flowers of Cogon grass adsorbed much larger amount of high-viscosity lubricating oil (57.9 g-oil/g-sorbent) than that adsorbed by Peat Sorb (7.7 g-oil/g-sorbent), a commercial oilsorbent based on peat. However, the flowers adsorbed only 27.9 g of low-viscosity crude oillgsorbent. In an oil-water ...

  6. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Technical Meeting on Liquid Metal Reactor Concepts: Core Design and Structural Materials. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Technical Meeting is to present and discuss innovative liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) core designs with special focus on the choice, development, testing and qualification of advanced reactor core structural materials

  8. The Effect of Subsuming Concepts on Student Achievement on Unfamiliar Science Learning Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Richard A.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Presents data that contradict the facilitating effect of advanced organizers demonstrated in 1960 by Ausubel when using the same materials. Suggests possible reasons for the discrepancy and lists conditions where organizers may be effective. (AL)

  9. Supercritical CO2 Foaming of Thermoplastic Materials Derived from Maize: Proof-of-Concept Use in Mammalian Cell Culture Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Portales-Cabrera, Cynthia Guadalupe; Portillo-Lara, Roberto; Araiz-Hernández, Diana; Del Barone, Maria Cristina; García-López, Erika; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; de los Angeles De Santiago-Miramontes, María; Segoviano-Ramírez, Juan Carlos; García-Lara, Silverio; Rodríguez-González, Ciro Ángel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Di Maio, Ernesto; Iannace, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Background Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds. Methodology/Principal Findings We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively) and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively). Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145) attached to and proliferated on zein foams. Conclusions/Significance We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves). Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity) for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein

  10. Supercritical CO2 foaming of thermoplastic materials derived from maize: proof-of-concept use in mammalian cell culture applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Portales-Cabrera, Cynthia Guadalupe; Portillo-Lara, Roberto; Araiz-Hernández, Diana; Del Barone, Maria Cristina; García-López, Erika; Rojas-de Gante, Cecilia; de Los Angeles De Santiago-Miramontes, María; Segoviano-Ramírez, Juan Carlos; García-Lara, Silverio; Rodríguez-González, Ciro Ángel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Di Maio, Ernesto; Iannace, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds. We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively) and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively). Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145) attached to and proliferated on zein foams. We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves). Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity) for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein foams for extended time periods.

  11. Supercritical CO2 foaming of thermoplastic materials derived from maize: proof-of-concept use in mammalian cell culture applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago

    Full Text Available Foams are high porosity and low density materials. In nature, they are a common architecture. Some of their relevant technological applications include heat and sound insulation, lightweight materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Foams derived from natural polymers are particularly attractive for tissue culture due to their biodegradability and bio-compatibility. Here, the foaming potential of an extensive list of materials was assayed, including slabs elaborated from whole flour, the starch component only, or the protein fraction only of maize seeds.We used supercritical CO2 to produce foams from thermoplasticized maize derived materials. Polyethylene-glycol, sorbitol/glycerol, or urea/formamide were used as plasticizers. We report expansion ratios, porosities, average pore sizes, pore morphologies, and pore size distributions for these materials. High porosity foams were obtained from zein thermoplasticized with polyethylene glycol, and from starch thermoplasticized with urea/formamide. Zein foams had a higher porosity than starch foams (88% and 85%, respectively and a narrower and more evenly distributed pore size. Starch foams exhibited a wider span of pore sizes and a larger average pore size than zein (208.84 vs. 55.43 μm2, respectively. Proof-of-concept cell culture experiments confirmed that mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 and two different prostate cancer cell lines (22RV1, DU145 attached to and proliferated on zein foams.We conducted screening and proof-of-concept experiments on the fabrication of foams from cereal-based bioplastics. We propose that a key indicator of foamability is the strain at break of the materials to be foamed (as calculated from stress vs. strain rate curves. Zein foams exhibit attractive properties (average pore size, pore size distribution, and porosity for cell culture applications; we were able to establish and sustain mammalian cell cultures on zein foams for extended time periods.

  12. PROGRAM ASTEC (ADVANCED SOLAR TURBO ELECTRIC CONCEPT). PART 1. CANDIDATE MATERIALS LABORATORY TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A space power system of the type envisioned by the ASTEC program requires the development of a lightweight solar collector of high reflectance...capable of withstanding the space environment for an extended period. A survey of the environment of interest for ASTEC purposes revealed 4 potential...developed by the solar-collector industry for use in the ASTEC program, and to test the effects of space environment on these materials. Of 6 material

  13. Hierarchy concepts: classification and preparation strategies for zeolite containing materials with hierarchical porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Wilhelm; Machoke, Albert Gonche; Weissenberger, Tobias; Inayat, Amer; Selvam, Thangaraj; Klumpp, Michael; Inayat, Alexandra

    2016-06-13

    'Hierarchy' is a property which can be attributed to a manifold of different immaterial systems, such as ideas, items and organisations or material ones like biological systems within living organisms or artificial, man-made constructions. The property 'hierarchy' is mainly characterised by a certain ordering of individual elements relative to each other, often in combination with a certain degree of branching. Especially mass-flow related systems in the natural environment feature special hierarchically branched patterns. This review is a survey into the world of hierarchical systems with special focus on hierarchically porous zeolite materials. A classification of hierarchical porosity is proposed based on the flow distribution pattern within the respective pore systems. In addition, this review might serve as a toolbox providing several synthetic and post-synthetic strategies to prepare zeolitic or zeolite containing material with tailored hierarchical porosity. Very often, such strategies with their underlying principles were developed for improving the performance of the final materials in different technical applications like adsorptive or catalytic processes. In the present review, besides on the hierarchically porous all-zeolite material, special focus is laid on the preparation of zeolitic composite materials with hierarchical porosity capable to face the demands of industrial application.

  14. Computational Modeling of Mixed Solids for CO2 CaptureSorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Since current technologies for capturing CO2 to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO2 capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO2 sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO2 adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO2 sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO2 capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO2 capture Technologies.

  15. Application of Chemically Modified and Unmodified Waste Biological Sorbents in Treatment of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kanayochukwu Nduka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein wastes (feathers, goat hair and cellulosic wastes (corn cob, coconut husks were collected and washed with detergent solution, thoroughly rinsed and sun dried for 2 days before drying in an oven, and then ground. One-half of ground material was carbonized at a maximum temperature of 500°C after mixing with H2SO4. The carbonized parts were pulverized; both carbonized and uncarbonized sorbents were sieved into two particle sizes of 325 and 625 μm using mechanical sieve. Sorbents of a given particle size were packed into glass column.Then, textile wastewater that had its physicochemical parameters previously determined was eluted into each glass column and a contact time of 60 and 120 mins was allowed before analysis. Results showed 48.15–99.98 percentage reduction of NO3−, EC, Cl−, BOD, COD, DO, TSS, and TDS, 34.67–99.93 percentage reduction of NO3−, EC, Cl−, BOD, COD, DO, TSS, and TDS, 52.83–97.95 percentage reduction of Pb2+, Ni2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ and 34.59–94.87 percentage reduction of Pb2+, Ni2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+. Carbonization, small particle, size and longer contact time enhanced the sorption capabilities of the sorbents. These show that protein and cellulosic wastes can be used to detoxify wastewater.

  16. Magnetite impregnation effects on the sorbent properties of activated carbons and biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhantao; Sani, Badruddeen; Mrozik, Wojciech; Obst, Martin; Beckingham, Barbara; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Werner, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses the sorbent properties of magnetic activated carbons and biochars produced by wet impregnation with iron oxides. The sorbents had magnetic susceptibilities consistent with theoretical predictions for carbon-magnetite composites. The high BET surface areas of the activated carbons were preserved in the synthesis, and enhanced for one low surface area biochar by dissolving carbonates. Magnetization decreased the point of zero charge. Organic compound sorption correlated strongly with BET surface areas for the pristine and magnetized materials, while metal cation sorption did not show such a correlation. Strong sorption of the hydrophobic organic contaminant phenanthrene to the activated carbon or biochar surfaces was maintained following magnetite impregnation, while phenol sorption was diminished, probably due to enhanced carbon oxidation. Copper, zinc and lead sorption to the activated carbons and biochars was unchanged or slightly enhanced by the magnetization, and iron oxides also contributed to the composite metal sorption capacity. While a magnetic biochar with 219 ± 3.7 m(2)/g surface area nearly reached the very strong organic pollutant binding capacity of the two magnetic activated carbons, a magnetic biochar with 68 ± 2.8 m(2)/g surface area was the best metal sorbent. Magnetic biochars thus hold promise as more sustainable alternatives to coal-derived magnetic activated carbons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New Design Concept for an Excavator Arms by Using Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzi, L.; Assi, A.; Ceresoli, F.

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to lightweight design an excavator arms, by using a different materials and in particular composite material. Specifically, the research is based on the study of a commercial excavator, by determining its geometry and analyzing the load conditions to which it is exposed. These are determined in relation to either the load diagram of the machine or the possible utilities of the excavator, such as the rotation of the machine. The materials used and implemented in the different analytical and numerical elaborations are classic construction steel S 355 (UNI EN 10025-3), high-resistance steel S 890 (UNI EN 10025-6), aluminum Al 6063 T6 (UNI EN 573-3) and the composite material made by carbon fiber and epoxy resin. The adopted constraints for the design of new arms with different materials, non-conventional for these applications, are numerous. The new solutions must present a safety factor either with respect to the yield tensile strength or to the critical load of buckling greater than or equal to the one determined for the excavator in its original geometrical conformation. Another criterion, which has heavily conditioned the geometry of the arms, was given by the fact that the developed solutions must present a very similar value of the maximum displacement in the different load conditions analyzed. A new geometry for arms made by composite material was developed. It was an elliptical conic section, instead of the classic rectangular section, in order to use the filament winding technological process. As for the adoption of the composite material, we focused on the study and the design of this material as long as the interaction with the extremities (made of aluminum) which are interfaced either with the link between the arms or with the elements of the hydraulic plant which serves for the arms movement. From the results developed, it emerges that the solution developed by adopting composite materials is the one that permits the

  18. Silica-Silver Nanocomposites as Regenerable Sorbents for Hg0 Removal from Flue Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tiantian; Li, Zhen; Xiong, Yong; Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; Bisson, Teresa; Gupta, Rajender; Xu, Zhenghe

    2017-10-17

    Silica-silver nanocomposites (Ag-SBA-15) are a novel class of multifunctional materials with potential applications as sorbents, catalysts, sensors, and disinfectants. In this work, an innovative yet simple and robust method of depositing silver nanoparticles on a mesoporous silica (SBA-15) was developed. The synthesized Ag-SBA-15 was found to achieve a complete capture of Hg 0 at temperatures up to 200 °C. Silver nanoparticles on the SBA-15 were shown to be the critical active sites for the capture of Hg 0 by the Ag-Hg 0 amalgamation mechanism. An Hg 0 capture capacity as high as 13.2 mg·g -1 was achieved by Ag(10)-SBA-15, which is much higher than that achievable by existing Ag-based sorbents and comparable with that achieved by commercial activated carbon. Even after exposure to more complex simulated flue gas flow for 1 h, the Ag(10)-SBA-15 could still achieve an Hg 0 removal efficiency as high as 91.6% with a Hg 0 capture capacity of 457.3 μg·g -1 . More importantly, the spent sorbent could be effectively regenerated and reused without noticeable performance degradation over five cycles. The excellent Hg 0 removal efficiency combined with a simple synthesis procedure, strong tolerance to complex flue gas environment, great thermal stability, and outstanding regeneration capability make the Ag-SBA-15 a promising sorbent for practical applications to Hg 0 capture from coal-fired flue gases.

  19. Evaluation of 137Cs sorbents for fixation in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the long-term waste management program at the Savannah River Laboratory, several 137 Cs sorbents were evaluated for incorporation into concrete. The sorbents studied were: Linde AW-300, AW-500, 13-X, and SK-40; Norton Zeolon 200, 500, and 900; clinoptilolite; and vermiculite. The parameters studied were sorption kinetics, leachability, and compressive strength of the concrete. The best sorbents identified were Linde AW-500 and Norton Zeolon 900. In all tests, these two sorbents performed almost identically; sorption kinetics were acceptable; both strengthened the concrete, and both gave relatively leach-resistant concrete. Vermiculite that had been heated to collapse its lattice around 137 Cs gave the most leach-resistant concrete. However, it sorbed cesium slowly, and the resulting concrete was very weak. When silica gel was added to concrete to react with free calcium, the addition had no effect on cesium leachability

  20. Novel Sorbent to Clean Up Biogas for CHPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gökhan O. [TDA Research, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Jayataman, Ambalavanan [TDA Research, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Schaefer, Matthew [TDA Research, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Ware, Michael [TDA Research, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, CO (United States); Hunt, Jennifer [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States); Dobek, Frank [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2015-05-30

    In this project, TDA Research Inc. (TDA) has developed low-cost (on a per unit volume of gas processed basis), high-capacity expendable sorbents that can remove both the H2S and organic sulfur species in biogas to the ppb levels. The proposed sorbents will operate downstream of a bulk desulfurization system as a polishing bed to provide an essentially sulfur-free gas to a fuel cell (or any other application that needs a completely sulfur-free feed). Our sorbents use a highly dispersed mixed metal oxides active phase with desired modifiers prepared over on a mesoporous support. The support structure allows the large organic sulfur compounds (such as the diethyl sulfide and dipropyl sulfide phases with a large kinetic diameter) to enter the sorbent pores so that they can be adsorbed and removed from the gas stream.

  1. New Design Concept for a Lifting Platform Made of Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzi, L.; Scalmana, R.

    2013-08-01

    Elevating work platforms are hoists equipment that are increasingly used in many applications, like in the construction industry and in the maintenance field. The maintenance of the hub of the wind turbines, for example, can be done through the use of a working platform; these structures have to reach great heights and obviously they have to satisfy the constraints induced by the highway standards, like the maximum axle load and the maximum overall dimensions. To satisfy these requests the material of the structures changed from the classic structural steel (S235 JR, S275 JR or S355JR) to high strength steel (S700 to S1100 or more), characterized by a significantly higher specific resistance. The idea of this paper is to use a composite material for the construction of the arms of an elevating platform in order to reduce the global weight of the machine. The analyses on the new kind of platform show the technical possibility to change the material of the arms with composite materials and this produces a significant reduction of the weight of the machine components, about 50 %. Being a feasibility study, still remain open some problems such as the mechanical behavior of the used composite materials (fatigue, environment effects, etc.).

  2. Development of carbon/carbon composite control rod for HTTR. 2. Concept, specifications and mechanical test of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Motokuni; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Ishihara, Masahiro; Hanawa, Satoshi.

    1998-01-01

    A concept and specifications of carbon/carbon composite (C/C) control rod were proposed, aiming at the application of the material to the HTTR. The outer diameter and length of the control rod were kept as the same as those of the present control rod, i.e., 113 mm and 3094 mm, respectively. According to the concept, the rod consists of ten units which are connected in series using bolts. Then, the stresses generated by dead loads in the control rod elements were estimated and compared with the design strengths which were derived from the results of measurements of tensile, compressive, bending and shear strengths of two candidate materials, AC250 (Across Co.) and CX-270 (Toyo Tanso Co.). Design strength was preliminarily determined as one-third or one-fifth of the mean strength. Ratio of the design strength to generated stress for the AC250 (2D) was : Tensile stress in the outer sleeve tube, 66, tensile and shear stresses in the M16 bolt, 8.8 and 8.5, shear stress in the plug support bolt M8, 2.43. These results are believed to indicate the mechanical integrity of the control rod structure. Data available on the candidate materials were also compiled in the Appendix. (author)

  3. Concept of an integrated waste economy represented on the example of recycling of valuable materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, H

    1980-08-01

    The historical development of waste elimination is discussed, followed by the waste problem in an environmental discussion, the possibilities of recycling within the framework of a waste industry, and the solution of the waste problem from a waste-economy viewpoint, including the definition of 'waste' and the grouping by types of waste, their amounts and increase rates, composition and valuable materials in community wastes with a review of waste technologies under waste-economy viewpoints. This is followed by a discussion of the sales possibilities for valuable components from mechanical sorting facilities, including used paper, old glass, hard substances, metals, plastics, succeeded by a comparative evaluation method, and the national economy aspect of the waste industry, with the savings effect in raw materials for different branches, effects on raw material reserves, the problem of dependence on imports, waste rates and living standard, and the importance of environmental instruments which are discussed in detail.

  4. Biodegradable packaging materials conception based on starch and polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced with cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Fatma; Bessadok, Atef; Dammak, Mohamed; Jaziri, Mohamed; Ammar, Emna

    2016-10-01

    The plastic materials used for packaging are increasing leading to a considerable amount of undegradable solid wastes. This work deals with the reduction of conventional plastics waste and the natural resources preservation by using cellulosic polymers from renewable resources (alfa and luffa). Plasticized starch films syntheses were achieved at a laboratory scale. These natural films showed some very attractive mechanical properties at relatively low plasticizers levels (12 to 17 % by weight). Furthermore, mixtures including polylactic acid polymer (PLA) and cellulose fibers extracted from alfa and luffa were investigated by melt extrusion technique. When used at a rate of 10 %, these fibers improved the mixture mechanical properties. Both developed materials were biodegradable, but the plasticized starch exhibited a faster biodegradation kinetic compared to the PLA/cellulose fibers. These new materials would contribute to a sustainable development and a waste reduction.

  5. Water purification from radionuclides with using fibroid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R. A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purification waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, organic contamination is one of the important problems today. For solving this problem we have created three types of fibroid sorbents on the base of Polyester: cationic and anionic exchange and carbonic. Main properties of these sorbents are described in this article. For example characteristics of the sorbents for removing radionuclides Co-60,57, Zn-65, Sr-89,90, Cs-134,137, etc., radionuclides containing organic molecules M-P-32, M-I-131, M-Mo-99+Tc-99m, M-C-14, etc., heavy metal ions Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Pb, Cd, Cr, U, etc., organic molecules (pesticides, phenols, dioxin, benzene, toluene, etc.) were investigated. Influence of pH on percent removal, influence of K, Na and another ions concentrations in the liquid on the percent removal, decreasing of the saturation capacity from number of regeneration and another characteristics are described. Static exchange capacity of the cationic sorbents is 1-2 mg-equ/g and anionic - 0.5-1 mg-equ/g. Capacity of the carbonic sorbents for benzene is 100 mg/g. Time of chemical balance setting is 1-2 s. The sorbents are effective in removing the low concentrations of contamination from the water (lower than 100-200 mg/l) and the air (lower than 100 mg/m 3 ). The use of sorbents in drinking water filters and mini-systems is described. The industrial water purification system consists of coagulating unit, sorbent unit and disinfectant unit. The systems are used in atomic power stations, electroplating plants, matches plants, leather and skin treating plants, car-washing stations, etc

  6. Oil sorbents from plastic wastes and polymers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Adil Riaz, Muhammad; Gordon, McKay

    2018-01-05

    A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst others. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) have been reported. In recent years, the idea of using plastic wastes as the feed for the production of oil sorbents has gained momentum. However, the studies undertaking such feasibility are rather scattered. This review paper is the first of its kind reporting, compiling and reviewing these various processes. The production of an oil sorbent from plastic wastes is being seen to be satisfactorily achievable through a variety of methods Nevertheless, much work needs to be done regarding further investigation of the numerous parameters influencing production yields and sorbent qualities. For example, differences in results are seen due to varying operating conditions, experimental setups, and virgin or waste plastics being used as feeds. The field of producing oil sorbents from plastic wastes is still very open for further research, and seems to be a promising route for both waste reduction, and the synthesis of value-added products such as oil sorbents. In this review, the research related to the production of various oil sorbents based on plastics (plastic waste and virgin polymer) has been discussed. Further oil sorbent efficiency in terms of oil sorption capacity has been described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. REMOVAL OF ANIONIC SURFACTANTS FROM WASTEWATER BY MAGNETIC MINERAL SORBENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Vladimirova Makarchuk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The simplest and most effective method of removing low concentrations of anionic surfactants such as sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS is adsorption. Among adsorbents the natural clays are cheap and promising for these purposes. However, there are significant difficulties in removal of spent sorbent after the adsorption process. So, the creation of magnetic sorbents that can be effectively removed from water after sorption by magnetic separation will be a successful decision. The aim of this investigation is the creation of cheap and efficient magnetic sorbents based on natural clays and magnetite for anionic surfactant removal from wastewater. We have synthesized a series of magnetic sorbents from different natural clays with a content of magnetite from 2 to 10 wt%. The ability of magnetic sorbents to remove SDBS and SLS from aqueous solutions has been studied for different adsorbate concentrations by varying the amount of adsorbent, temperature and shaking time. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated from the slope and intercept of the linear plots of ln K against 1/T. Analysis of adsorption results obtained at different temperatures showed that the adsorption pattern on magnetic sorbents correspond to the Langmuir isotherm. It is shown that with increasing the content of magnetite in the magnetic sorbents improves not only their separation from water by magnetic separation, but adsorption capacity to SDBS and SLS. Thus, we obtained of cheap magnetic sorbents based on natural clays and magnetite by the easy way, which not only quickly separated from the solution by magnetic separation, but effectively remove anionic surfactants.

  8. Effectiveness of liquid radioactive waste purification by inorganic granulated sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarevskij, V.M.; Stepanets, O.V.; Sharygin, L.M.; Matveev, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Study results on purification of simulative and real liquid radioactive wastes from fission products radionuclides and by inorganic corrosion-nature sorbents 'Thermoxide' are presented. Properties by sorption of cesium, strontium and cobalt are studied; results of experiments on purification of weakly-salted water solutions (waste waters, ships drainage tanks, showers and laundries) of the Beloyarsk NPP are presented. Sorbents source characteristics are determined. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Consecutive Course Modules Developed with Simple Materials to Facilitate the Learning of Basic Concepts in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulu, Hasan Zuhtu; Oguz-Unver, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of teaching, the huge natural laboratory that astronomy provides constitutes the most prominent connection between astronomy and other branches of science. The purpose of this research was to provide educators with activities of observation using simple materials that were developed to facilitate the teaching of basic concepts…

  10. Applying Fuzzy and Probabilistic Uncertainty Concepts to the Material Flow Analysis of Palladium in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material flow analysis (MFA) is a widely applied tool to investigate resource and recycling systems of metals and minerals. Owing to data limitations and restricted system understanding, MFA results are inherently uncertain. To demonstrate the systematic implementation of uncertainty analysis in ...

  11. Construction and testing of simple airfoils to demonstrate structural design, materials choice, and composite concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, L. Roy; Piippo, Steven W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this educational exercise is to have students build and evaluate simple wing structures, and in doing so, learn about materials choices and lightweight construction methods. A list of equipment and supplies and the procedure for the experiment are presented.

  12. Application of the basic concepts of dynamic materials accountancy to the Tokai spent fuel reprocessing facilityssing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, J.E.; Ikawa, Koji; Hirata, Mitsuho; Augustson, R.H.

    1980-11-01

    During 1978 and 1979 individuals from the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute investigated the feasibility of applying the basic concepts of dynamic materials accountancy to PNC-Tokai reprocessing facility in Japan. The system developed for Tokai requires weekly in-process physical inventories for the process MBA, and allows 2-3 additional days for completion of measurements and for data reduction and evaluation. The study concluded that such a system would be feasible, and recommended that an actual field test should be conducted as soon as feasible. (author)

  13. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Jung, Jae Hee; Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2012-01-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO 2 and NO X emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO 2 -rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO 3 , which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO 3 sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO 2 atmosphere due to the higher CO 2 partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO 2 atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain–subgrain structure model in both the air and CO 2 atmospheres.

  14. "Intelligent" design of molecular materials: Understanding the concepts of design in supramolecular synthesis of network solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Brian D.

    This work endeavors to delineate modern paradigms for crystal engineering, i.e. the design and supramolecular synthesis of functional molecular materials. Paradigms predicated on an understanding of the geometry of polygons and polyhedra are developed. The primary focus is on structural determination by single crystal X-ray crystallography, structural interpretation using a suite of graphical visualization and molecular modeling software, and on the importance of proper graphical representation in the presentation and explanation of crystal structures. A detailed analysis of a selected series of crystal structures is presented. The reduction of these molecular networks to schematic representations that illustrate their fundamental connectivity facilitates the understanding of otherwise complex supramolecular solids. Circuit symbols and Schlafli notation are used to describe the network topologies, which enables networks of different composition and metrics to be easily compared. This reveals that molecular orientations in the crystals and networks are commensurate with networks that can be derived from spherical close packed lattices. The development of a logical design strategy for a new class of materials based on our understanding of the chemical composition and topology of these networks is described. The synthesis and crystal structure of a series of new materials generated by exploitation of this design strategy is presented, in addition to a detailed analysis of the topology of these materials and their relationship to a 'parent' structure. In summary, this dissertation demonstrates that molecular polygons can self-assemble at their vertexes to produce molecular architectures and crystal structures that are consistent with long established geometric dogma. The design strategy represents a potentially broad ranging approach to the design of nanoporous structures from a wide range of chemical components that are based on molecular shape rather than chemical

  15. Development of advanced material composites for use as internal insulation for LH2 tanks (gas layer concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A program is described that was conducted to develop an internal insulation system for potential application to the liquid hydrogen tanks of a reusable booster, where the tanks would be subjected to repeated high temperatures. The design of the internal insulation is based on a unique gas layer concept, in which capillary or surface tension effects are used to maintain a stable gas layer, within a cellular core structure, between the tank wall and the contained liquid hydrogen. Specific objectives were to select materials for insulation systems that would be compatible with wall temperatures of 350 F and 650 F during reentry into the earth's atmosphere, and to fabricate and test insulation systems under conditions simulating the operating environment. A materials test program was conducted to evaluate the properties of candidate materials at elevated temperatures and at the temperature of liquid hydrogen, and to determine the compatibility of the materials with a hydrogen atmosphere at the appropriate elevated temperature. The materials that were finally selected included Kapton polyimide films, silicone adhesives, fiber glass batting, and in the case of the 350 F system, Teflon film.

  16. New concept of damage evaluation method for core internal materials considering radiation induced stress relaxation (1). Experiments and modeling of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yukio; Kondo, Keietsu; Okubo, Nariaki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsukada, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    In order to build the new concept of material damage evaluation method, synergistic effect of radiation and residual stress on material degradation was estimated experimentally, and the effect of radiation induced stress relaxation on retardation of material degradation was observed. (author)

  17. New Sorbents for Removing Arsenic From Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConchie, D. M.; Genc-Fuhrman, H.; Clark, M. W.; Caldicott, W.; Davies-McConchie, F. G.

    2004-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in the drinking water used in many countries, including some of the poorest developing countries, and recognition that consuming this water can have serious consequences for human health, have led to increased investigations of ways to obtain safe water supplies. Finding new groundwater resources is a possible solution but this is a costly strategy that has no guarantee of success, particularly in areas where water is already a scarce commodity. The alternative is to treat water that is already available, but existing technologies are usually too expensive, too difficult to operate and maintain, or not completely effective when used in less developed countries or remote areas. There is therefore, an urgent need to find a simple and effective but inexpensive sorbent for arsenic that can be used to treat large volumes of water under less than ideal conditions. In this paper we present the results of field and laboratory trials that used a new, highly cost-effective, sorbent to remove arsenic from contaminated water. BauxsolT is the name given to the cocktail of minerals prepared by treating caustic bauxite refinery residues with Mg and Ca to produce a substance with a reaction pH of about 8.5, a high acid neutralizing capacity and an excellent ability to trap trace metals, metalloids and some other ionic species. The trapped ions are tightly bound by processes that include; precipitation of low solubility neoformational minerals, isomorphous substitution, solid-state diffusion, and adsorption; it is also an excellent flocculant. Although ordinary BauxsolT has an excellent ability to bind arsenate, and to a lesser extent arsenite, this ability can be further increased for particular water types by using activated BauxsolT or BauxsolT combined with small amounts of other reagents. Field trials conducted at the Gilt Edge Mine, South Dakota, showed that the addition of BauxsolT to highly sulfidic waste rock reduced the arsenic

  18. Biochar from Coffee Residues: A New Promising Sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi; Manariotis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is mainly used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility as well as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. The objective of the present study was to characterize the surface properties of biochar produced, and to investigate the effect of thermal treatment conditions on key characteristics that affect sorptive properties. The espresso coffee residue was obtained after the coffee was brewed through espresso machines in coffee shops. The coffee residue was dried and kept in an oven at 50oC until its pyrolysis at 850oC. Pyrolysis with different coffee mass and containers were tested in order to find optimum biochar characteristics. Detailed characterization techniques were carried out to determine the properties of the produced biochar. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using the t-plot method and the Harkins & Jura equation. Total organic carbon was also determined because it is an important factor that affects sorption. The results were compared with the corresponding properties of activated carbons. The biochar produced exhibited a wide range of surface area from 21 to 770 m2/g and open surface area from 21 to 65 m2/g. It is obvious that the surface area results from the formation of pores. Actually it was calculated that up to 90% of the porosity is due to the micropores. More specifically the

  19. Conception for the protection of mineable raw materials in the Land of Brandenburg (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopf, M.

    1995-01-01

    The pit and quarry industry in Brandenburg will within a few years the same importance as the lignite industry. Both industries together may have up to 20 000 employees beyond the year 2000. The same number of employees could result in the enterprises of local and other subcontractors and mine suppliers. The government of Brandenburg creates at present the legal prerequisites to secure the supply with mineable raw materials. The regulation of the protection of mineable raw materials is proposed to be realised within the scope of the second plan for the development of the country, and within the regional plannings. The protection of the basic conditions for mining industries is a permanent task for administration and politics. By encouraged engagement in the case of opposed interests, those of mining can be considered with acceptable results provided the parties are ready to compromise. (orig.) [de

  20. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 1. Hydraulic Calcium Silicate Cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinzadeh, A T; Jongsma, L; de Groot-Kuin, D; Cristescu, R; Neirynck, N; Camilleri, J

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic Calcium Silicate Cements (HCSCs) constitute a group of materials that have become increasingly popular in endodontics since the introduction of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) in the 1990s. MTA is Portland cement to which bismuth oxide has been added to increase its radiopacity. The most important property of MTA is its capacity to set in water or a humid environment. However, MTA also has important limitations, for example, it's difficult to work with and can discolour teeth. Recently, numerous products based on HCSC chemistry, which can be considered as modifications of MTA intended to reduce its limitations, have become available on the market. Despite their potential advantages, all of these materials have their own specific limitations that are currently insufficiently known and investigated.

  1. Materials Design and System Construction for Conventional and New?Concept Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Zhong; Li, Lin; Yan, Jun?min; Zhang, Xin?bo

    2017-01-01

    With the development of renewable energy and electrified transportation, electrochemical energy storage will be more urgent in the future. Supercapacitors have received extensive attention due to their high power density, fast charge and discharge rates, and long?term cycling stability. During past five years, supercapacitors have been boomed benefited from the development of nanostructured materials synthesis and the promoted innovation of devices construction. In this review, we have summar...

  2. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program: Develop and test sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed during FY 1995 under the task open-quotes Develop and Test Sorbents,close quotes the purpose of which is to develop high-capacity, selective solid extractants to recover cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. This work is being done for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP), operated by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's Office of Technology Development. The task is under the direction of staff at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with key participation from industrial and university staff at 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota; IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Forks, Utah; AlliedSignal, Inc., Des Plaines, Illinois, and Texas A ampersand M University, College Station, Texas. 3M and IBC are responsible for ligand and membrane technology development; AlliedSignal and Texas A ampersand M are developing sodium titanate powders; and PNL is testing the materials developed by the industry/university team members. Major accomplishments for FY 1995 are summarized in this report

  3. Water Utility Lime Sludge Reuse – An Environmental Sorbent ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime sludge can be used as an environmental sorbent to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and acid gases, by the ultra-fine CaCO3 particles, and to sequester mercury and other heavy metals, by the Natural Organic Matter and residual activated carbon. The laboratory experimental set up included a simulated flue gas preparation unit, a lab-scale wet scrubber, and a mercury analyzer system. The influent mercury concentration was based on a range from 22 surveyed power plants. The reactivity of the lime sludge sample for acid neutralization was determined using a method similar to method ASTM C1318-95. Similar experiments were conducted using reagent calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate to obtain baseline data for comparing with the lime sludge test results. The project also evaluated the techno-economic feasibility and sustainable benefits of reusing lime softening sludge. If implemented on a large scale, this transformative approach for recycling waste materials from water treatment utilities at power generation utilities for environmental cleanup can save both water and power utilities millions of dollars. Huge amounts of lime sludge waste, generated from hundreds of water treatment utilities across the U.S., is currently disposed in landfills. This project evaluated a sustainable and economically-attractive approach to the use of lime sludge waste as a valuable resource for power generation utilities.

  4. Development and application of charcoal sorbents for cryopumping fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA). Space Systems Div.)

    1989-06-01

    Progress has been made in defining the capabilities of charcoal as the most promising absorbent to be used in cryopumps for fusion power application. The capabilities of alternative methods of cryopumping helium have been examined in a literature survey and by test, and the results are described here. Considerations include pumping speed, capacity to accumulate pumped gas, ease of reconditioning, use of alternative materials and tolerance to the fusion environment. Vacuum pumps for future fusion devices must handle large quantities of helium/hydrogen isotopes and other impurities. Cryopumps or turbomolecular pumps have demonstrated the capability on a small scale, and each has an important advantage: TMPs do not accumulate gases; cryopumps can separate helium from other effluents. This paper includes a review of a method for selecting charcoals for helium cryopumping, testing of a continuously operating cryopump system, and definition of a design that is based on the requirements of the Next European Torus. Tritium limits are satisfied. The pump design incorporates the charcoal sorbent system that has been recently developed and is based on a reasonable extrapolation of current state-of-the-art. Evaluation of alternative methods of separating helium and other gases led to selection of a movable barrier as the preferred solution. (orig.).

  5. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Structural response and failure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, William J.; Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Tien; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.

    1992-01-01

    Non-linear analysis methods were adapted and incorporated in a finite element based DIAL code. These methods are necessary to evaluate the global response of a stiffened structure under combined in-plane and out-of-plane loading. These methods include the Arc Length method and target point analysis procedure. A new interface material model was implemented that can model elastic-plastic behavior of the bond adhesive. Direct application of this method is in skin/stiffener interface failure assessment. Addition of the AML (angle minus longitudinal or load) failure procedure and Hasin's failure criteria provides added capability in the failure predictions. Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis modules were developed as interactive pre-and post-processors. Each module provides the means of performing self-initiated finite elements based analysis of primary structures such as a flat or curved stiffened panel; a corrugated flat sandwich panel; and a curved geodesic fuselage panel. This module brings finite element analysis into the design of composite structures without the requirement for the user to know much about the techniques and procedures needed to actually perform a finite element analysis from scratch. An interactive finite element code was developed to predict bolted joint strength considering material and geometrical non-linearity. The developed method conducts an ultimate strength failure analysis using a set of material degradation models.

  6. Cadmium adsorption by coal combustion ashes-based sorbents-Relationship between sorbent properties and adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsamo, Marco; Di Natale, Francesco; Erto, Alessandro; Lancia, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Montagnaro, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.montagnaro@unina.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Santoro, Luciano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    A very interesting possibility of coal combustion ashes reutilization is their use as adsorbent materials, that can also take advantage from proper beneficiation techniques. In this work, adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions was taken into consideration, with the emphasis on the intertwining among waste properties, beneficiation treatments, properties of the beneficiated materials and adsorption capacity. The characterization of three solid materials used as cadmium sorbents (as-received ash, ash sieved through a 25 {mu}m-size sieve and demineralized ash) was carried out by chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy, laser granulometry and mercury porosimetry. Cadmium adsorption thermodynamic and kinetic tests were conducted at room temperature, and test solutions were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Maximum specific adsorption capacities resulted in the range 0.5-4.3 mg g{sup -1}. Different existing models were critically considered to find out an interpretation of the controlling mechanism for adsorption kinetics. In particular, it was observed that for lower surface coverage the adsorption rate is governed by a linear driving force while, once surface coverage becomes significant, mechanisms such as the intraparticle micropore diffusion may come into play. Moreover, it was shown that both external fluid-to-particle mass transfer and macropore diffusion hardly affect the adsorption process, which was instead regulated by intraparticle micropore diffusion: characteristic times for this process ranged from 4.1 to 6.1 d, and were fully consistent with the experimentally observed equilibrium times. Results were discussed in terms of the relationship among properties of beneficiated materials and cadmium adsorption capacity. Results shed light on interesting correlations among solid properties, cadmium capture rate and maximum cadmium uptake.

  7. Enteric virus removal from water by coal-based sorbents: development of low-cost water filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, M.; Sattar, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using poliovirus type 1 (Sabin) and dechlorinated tap water, several coal-based sorbents were tested for their capacity to remove viruses from water. The sorbents included bituminous coal from Giridih, India, pretreated/impregnated with either alum, ferric hydroxide, lime or manganese dioxide. Filtrasorb-400, commercially available active carbon, was used as a reference. In batch tests, with input virus concentration of 2.34-2.83x10/sup 6/ PFU/1 and sorbent concentration of 10 g/l, alum pretreated coal removed about 96% of the virus when pH of the water was between 6.3 and 8.9. Virus sorption was rapid and a plateau was reached in 30 min. Compared with the active carbon, alum pretreated coal exhibited greater sorption energy and about one log higher limiting poliovirus sorption capacity. Downflow column study indicated the potential of alum pretreated coal as a filter media for removing enteric viruses from water. A previous study showed this sorbent to be capable of removing enteric bacteria as well. Water filters prepared from such low-cost material may prove useful for domestic use in rural areas of India and other developing countries. 19 refs.

  8. Research of a possibility of receiving sorbents for a sewage disposal from a wastage of coal preparation factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyantuev, S L; Stebenkova, Y Y; Khmelev, A B; Kondratenko, A S; Shishulkin, S Y

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the studies of the structure and porosity of the coal cake processed by electric arc plasma. The main limiting factor in processing of coal cakes sorbents is their high water content. As a result of coal washing, the main share of water introduced into the cake falls on hard-hydrate and colloidal components. This makes impossible application of traditional processes of manufacturing from a cake of coal sorbents. Using the electric arc intensifies the processes of thermal activation of coal cakes associated with thermal shock, destruction and vapor-gas reactions occurring at the surfaces of the particles at an exposure temperature of up to 3000 °C, which increases the title product outlet (sorbent) and thereby reduces manufacturing costs and improves environmental performance. The investigation of the thermal activation zone is carried out in the plasma reactor chamber by thermal imaging method followed by mapping-and 3D-modeling of temperature fields. the most important physical and chemical properties of the sorbents from coal cake activated by plasma was studied. The obtained results showed the possibility of coal cake thermal activation by electric arc plasma to change its material composition, the appearance of porosity and associated sorption capacity applied for wastewater treatment. (paper)

  9. Research of a possibility of receiving sorbents for a sewage disposal from a wastage of coal preparation factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuev, S. L.; Kondratenko, A. S.; Shishulkin, S. Y.; Stebenkova, Y. Y.; Khmelev, A. B.

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the studies of the structure and porosity of the coal cake processed by electric arc plasma. The main limiting factor in processing of coal cakes sorbents is their high water content. As a result of coal washing, the main share of water introduced into the cake falls on hard-hydrate and colloidal components. This makes impossible application of traditional processes of manufacturing from a cake of coal sorbents. Using the electric arc intensifies the processes of thermal activation of coal cakes associated with thermal shock, destruction and vapor-gas reactions occurring at the surfaces of the particles at an exposure temperature of up to 3000 °C, which increases the title product outlet (sorbent) and thereby reduces manufacturing costs and improves environmental performance. The investigation of the thermal activation zone is carried out in the plasma reactor chamber by thermal imaging method followed by mapping-and 3D-modeling of temperature fields. the most important physical and chemical properties of the sorbents from coal cake activated by plasma was studied. The obtained results showed the possibility of coal cake thermal activation by electric arc plasma to change its material composition, the appearance of porosity and associated sorption capacity applied for wastewater treatment.

  10. Unburned Carbon from Samlaung Coal as Environmental Friendly Sorbent Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaw Naing; Tin Tin Aye; Nyunt Wynn; Kyaw Myo Naing

    2005-09-01

    The increasing role of coal as a source of energy in the 21st century will demand enviromental and cost-effective strategies for the use of carbonaceous waste products from coal combustion. The carbonaceous in fly ash, unburned carbon (UC), is a potential precursor for the production of adsorbent carbons, since it has gone through a devolatization process while in the combustion, and therefore, only requires to be activated. This paper demonstrates the potential for converting UC from Samlaung coal to activated carbons. After heat activation at 970C, the UC sample was generated to activated carbons having microporous structure. This study concerns with adsorption behavior (decolourization and metal uptake) of UC from Samlaung coal. Batch tests and column tests were carried out. Adsorption isotherms has been obtained from these tests. Results show that the UC have equal or better adsorption capacity comparing with other activated carbons. It was found that heat treatment of Samlaung coal in the presence of air at 970C enhanced the adsorption capacity

  11. Concepts and Strategies for Transparency Monitoring of Nuclear Materials at the Back End of the Fuel/Weapons Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COSTIN, LAURENCE; DAVIES, PETER; PREGENZER, ARIAN L.

    1999-01-01

    Representatives of the Department of Energy, the national laboratories, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), and others gathered to initiate the development of broad-based concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle, including both geologic disposal and monitored retrievable storage. The workshop focused on two key questions: ''Why should we monitor?'' and ''What should we monitor?'' These questions were addressed by identifying the range of potential stakeholders, concerns that stakeholders may have, and the information needed to address those concerns. The group constructed a strategic framework for repository transparency implementation, organized around the issues of safety (both operational and environmental), diversion (assuring legitimate use and security), and viability (both political and economic). Potential concerns of the international community were recognized as the possibility of material diversion, the multinational impacts of potential radionuclide releases, and public and political perceptions of unsafe repositories. The workshop participants also identified potential roles that the WIPP may play as a monitoring technology development and demonstration test-bed facility. Concepts for WIPP'S potential test-bed role include serving as (1) an international monitoring technology and development testing facility, (2) an international demonstration facility, and (3) an education and technology exchange center on repository transparency technologies

  12. Complex layered materials and periodic electromagnetic band-gap structures: Concepts, characterizations, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosallaei, Hossein

    The main objective of this dissertation is to characterize and create insight into the electromagnetic performances of two classes of composite structures, namely, complex multi-layered media and periodic Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) structures. The advanced and diversified computational techniques are applied to obtain their unique propagation characteristics and integrate the results into some novel applications. In the first part of this dissertation, the vector wave solution of Maxwell's equations is integrated with the Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization method to provide a powerful technique for characterizing multi-layered materials, and obtaining their optimal designs. The developed method is successfully applied to determine the optimal composite coatings for Radar Cross Section (RCS) reduction of canonical structures. Both monostatic and bistatic scatterings are explored. A GA with hybrid planar/curved surface implementation is also introduced to efficiently obtain the optimal absorbing materials for curved structures. Furthermore, design optimization of the non-uniform Luneburg and 2-shell spherical lens antennas utilizing modal solution/GA-adaptive-cost function is presented. The lens antennas are effectively optimized for both high gain and suppressed grating lobes. The second part demonstrates the development of an advanced computational engine, which accurately computes the broadband characteristics of challenging periodic electromagnetic band-gap structures. This method utilizes the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique with Periodic Boundary Condition/Perfectly Matched Layer (PBC/PML), which is efficiently integrated with the Prony scheme. The computational technique is successfully applied to characterize and present the unique propagation performances of different classes of periodic structures such as Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS), Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) materials, and Left-Handed (LH) composite media. The results are

  13. The materials concept in German light water reactors. A contribution to plant safety, economic performance and damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilg, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    Major decisions taken as early as in the planning and construction phases of nuclear power plants may influence overall plant life. Component quality at the beginning of plant life is determined very much also by a balanced inclusion of the 'design, choice of materials, manufacturing and inspection' elements. One example of the holistic treatment of design, choice of material, and manufacture of important safety-related components in pressurized water reactors is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in which the ferritic compound tubes, with inside claddings, for the control rod drive nozzles are screwed into the vessel top. Also the choice of Incoloy 800 for the steam generator tubes, and the design of the main coolant pipes with inside claddings as seamless pipe bends / straight pipes with integrated nozzles connected to mixed welds with austenitic pipes are other special design features of the Siemens/KWU plants. A demonstrably high quality standard by international comparison to this day has been exhibited by the austenitic RPV internals of boiling water reactors, which were made of a low-carbon Nb-stabilized austenitic steel grade by optimum manufacturing technologies. The same material is used for backfitting austenitic pipes. Reliable and safe operation of German nuclear power plants has been demonstrated for more than 4 decades. One major element in this performance is the materials concept adopted in Germany also in the interest of damage prevention. (orig.)

  14. [Physics of materials and female stress urinary continence: New concepts: I) Elasticity under bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerquin, B

    2015-09-01

    Improving the understanding of the adaptation to stress of urinary continence. A transversal analysis between physics of materials and the female anatomy. Laws of physics of the materials and of their viscoelastic behavior are applied to the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall. The anterior vaginal wall may be divided into two segments of different viscoelastic behavior, the vertical segment below the urethra and the horizontal segment below the bladder. If the urethra gets crushed on the first segment according to the hammock theory, the crushing of the bladder on the second segment is, on the other hand, damped by its important elasticity. The importance of this elasticity evokes an unknown function: damping under the bladder that moderates and delays the increase of intravesical pressure. This damping function below the bladder is increased in the cystocele, which is therefore a continence factor; on the other hand, it is impaired in obesity, which is therefore a factor of SUI. It is necessary to include in the theory of stress continence, the notion of a damping function below the bladder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The Risk Tolerance Concept for Internal Controls Over Financial Reporting in the auditors’ perspective: some empirical evidence from an inter-industry analysis of overall materiality measures

    OpenAIRE

    N. Pecchiari; G. Pogliani

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute towards a deeper debate about the concept of risk tolerance and its relationship with the principle of materiality relevant for the audit of internal controls over financial reporting. Despite the recognition of the fundamental role of the materiality principle in auditing, there is little guidance provided as to how this concept might be actually made and integrated in practice, thus leaving it up to the judgment of individual auditors and, residual...

  16. Assessing the concept of structure sensitivity or insensitivity for sub-nanometer catalyst materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Andrew S.; Rötzer, Marian D.; Ridge, Claron J.; Yoon, Bokwon; Schweinberger, Florian F.; Landman, Uzi; Heiz, Ueli

    2016-10-01

    The nature of the nano-catalyzed hydrogenation of ethylene, yielding benchmark information pertaining to the concept of structure sensitivity/insensitivity and its applicability at the bottom of the catalyst particle size-range, is explored with experiments on size-selected Ptn (n = 7-40) clusters soft-landed on MgO, in conjunction with first-principles simulations. As in the case of larger particles both the direct ethylene hydrogenation channel and the parallel hydrogenation-dehydrogenation ethylidyne-producing route must be considered, with the fundamental uncovering that at the reaction exhibits characteristics consistent with structure sensitivity, in contrast to the structure insensitivity found for larger particles. In this size-regime, the chemical properties can be modulated and tuned by a single atom, reflected by the onset of low temperature hydrogenation at T > 150 K catalyzed by Ptn (n ≥ 10) clusters, with maximum room temperature reactivity observed for Pt13 using a pulsed molecular beam technique. Structure insensitive behavior, inherent for specific cluster sizes at ambient temperatures, can be induced in the more active sizes, e.g. Pt13, by a temperature increase, up to 400 K, which opens dehydrogenation channels leading to ethylidyne formation. This reaction channel was, however found to be attenuated on Pt20, as catalyst activity remained elevated after the 400 K step. Pt30 displayed behavior which can be understood from extrapolating bulk properties to this size range; in particular the calculated d-band center. In the non-scalable sub-nanometer size regime, however, precise control of particle size may be used for atom-by-atom tuning and manipulation of catalyzed hydrogenation activity and selectivity.

  17. The concept of an integrated quality record nuclear material accountancy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Wachtendonk, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    RBU had already started in 1976 with the computerisation of its nuclear material accountancy system. It used the hardware and the software which were at hand at that time. The development of the software needed about 3 years, and so, the system, was fully introduced in 1979 and has been used since then with only minor changes. But with the time, the overwhelming progress in computer and software technology has overcome the existing system. Upgrading the old system would need a lot of effort, so RBU decided to modernize its system fundamentally. In the time between RBU has developed a quality record and documentation system for the purposes of quality assurance and quality control. This system shall be enlarged, so that it can overtake the tasks of NMA, too. The quality record system contains already nearly 80 % of all NMA-relevant data. The presented paper will describe the main changes between the present and the future system

  18. Deposition of additives onto surface of carbon materials by blending method--general conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przepiorski, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fibers loaded with potassium carbonate and with metallic copper were prepared by applying a blending method. Raw isotropic coal pitch was blended with KOH or CuBr 2 and obtained mixtures were subjected to spinning. In this way KOH and copper salt-blended fiber with uniform distribution of potassium and copper were spun. The raw fibers were exposed to stabilization with a mixture of CO 2 and air or air only through heating to 330 deg. C and next to treatment with carbon dioxide or hydrogen at higher temperatures. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) analyses showed presence of potassium carbonate or metallic copper predominantly in peripheral regions of the obtained fibers. Basing on the mechanisms of potassium and copper diffusion over the carbon volume, generalized method for the deposition of additives onto surface of carbon materials is proposed

  19. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  20. Concepts on the contribution of chemistry to a sustainable development. Renewable raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, J.O.; Eissen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The principles of the Rio Conference (1992) and Agenda 21 address the pressing problems of today and also aim at preparing the world for the challenges of this century. The conservation and management of resources for development are the main foci of interest, to which chemistry will have to make a considerable contribution. Since base chemicals are produced in large quantities and important product lines are synthesized from them, their resource-saving production is especially important for a sustainable development. New processes based on renewable feedstocks are significant here. Most products that are obtained from renewable raw materials may, at present, not be able to compete with the products of the petrochemical industry, but this will change as oil becomes scarcer and oil prices rise. The design of chemical products should make sustainable processing and recycling possible, and should prevent their bioaccumulation. Methods and criteria to assess their contribution to a sustainable development are necessary. The time necessary to introduce the new more sustainable processes and products has to be diminished by linking their development with operational innovation management and with efficient environmental-political control procedures. (authors)

  1. New concepts and materials for the manufacturing of MR-compatible guide wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Christian; Emonts, Michael; Brack, Alexander; Wasiak, Christian; Schütte, Adrian; Krämer, Nils; Bruhn, Robin

    2014-04-01

    This paper shows the development of a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible guide wire made from fiber-reinforced plastics. The basic material of the developed guide wire is manufactured using a specially developed micro-pullwinding technology, which allows the adjustment of tensile, bending, and torsional stiffness independent from each other. Additionally, the micro-pullwinding technology provides the possibility to vary the stiffness along the length of the guide wire in a continuous process. With the possibilities of this technology, the mechanical properties of the guide wire were precisely adjusted for the intended usage in MRI-guided interventions. The performance of the guide wire regarding the mechanical properties was investigated. It could be shown, that the mechanical properties could be changed independently from each other by varying the process parameters. Especially, the torsional stiffness could be significantly improved with only a minor influence on bending and tensile properties. The precise influence of the variation of the winding angle on the mechanical and geometrical properties has to be further investigated. The usability of the guide wire as well as its visibility in MRI was investigated by radiologists. With the micro-pullwinding technology, a continuous manufacturing technique for highly stressable, MRI-safe profiles is available and can be the trigger for a new class of medical devices.

  2. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  3. Animating Instructional Materials in Computer Education: An Approach to Designing and Teaching Concepts in Data Structures Using LATEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Osikoya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Animation gives a different perception on what is being visually presented. Research has shown that students are likely to understand what is being taught from the combination of animation and text than just with text. Students easily understand scientific concepts in narrative and animated forms. Data structure is a way of storing and arranging data. The efficacy of searching these stored data is very important, so is it vital that they are stored with the right algorithm. This paper presents animations designed to support teaching in computer education. Our main focus is to present controlled animated instructional materials in teaching topics in data structures. We have created three scientifically animated instructional materials in data structures consisting of the Stacks, Queues and Trees. These scientific spheres have been chosen to demonstrate the basic ideas of this work, because of its simplicity in representing the animations. We hope to develop reasonable sets of instructional material of different subject areas that will be stored in a database repository. These are intended to be delivered to students through an e-learning website and/or Mobile phones to support them with additional learning opportunities.

  4. Synthesis and application of surface-imprinted activated carbon sorbent for solid-phase extraction and determination of copper (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Li, Jingwen; Wang, Yanbin; Wei, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    A new Cu(II)-imprinted amino-functionalized activated carbon sorbent was prepared by a surface imprinting technique for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Cu(II) prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Experimental conditions for effective adsorption of Cu(II) were optimized with respect to different experimental parameters using static and dynamic procedures in detail. Compared with non-imprinted sorbent, the ion-imprinted sorbent had higher selectivity and adsorption capacity for Cu(II). The maximum static adsorption capacity of the ion-imprinted and non-imprinted sorbent for Cu(II) was 26.71 and 6.86 mg g-1, respectively. The relatively selectivity factor values (αr) of Cu(II)/Zn(II), Cu(II)/Ni(II), Cu(II)/Co(II) and Cu(II)/Pb(II) were 166.16, 50.77, 72.26 and 175.77, respectively, which were greater than 1. Complete elution of the adsorbed Cu(II) from Cu(II)-imprinted sorbent was carried out using 2 mL of 0.1 mol L-1 EDTA solution. The relative standard deviation of the method was 2.4% for eleven replicate determinations. The method was validated for the analysis by two certified reference materials (GBW 08301, GBW 08303), the results obtained is in good agreement with standard values. The developed method was also successfully applied to the determination of trace copper in natural water samples with satisfactory results.

  5. Post combustion carbon capture - solid sorbents and membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R.M. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This report follows on from that on solvent scrubbing for post-combustion carbon capture from coal-fired power plants by considering the use of solid sorbents and membranes instead of solvents. First, mesoporous and microporous adsorbents are discussed: carbon-based adsorbents, zeolites, hydrotalcites and porous crystals. Attempts have been made to improve the performance of the porous adsorbent by functionalising them with nitrogen groups and specifically, amine groups to react with CO{sub 2} and thus enhance the physical adsorption properties. Dry, regenerable solid sorbents have attracted a good deal of research. Most of the work has been on the carbonation/calcination cycle of natural limestone but there have also been studies of other calcium-based sorbents and alkali metal-based sorbents. Membranes have also been studied as potential post-combustion capture devices. Finally, techno-economic studies predicting the economic performance of solid sorbents and membranes are discussed. The report is available from IEA Clean Coal Centre as report no. CCC/144. See Coal Abstracts entry April 2009 00406. 340 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Solid amine sorbents for CO2 capture by chemical adsorption: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Erdal Ünveren

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Amines are well-known for their reversible reactions with CO2, which make them ideal for CO2 capture from several gas streams, including flue gas. In this respect, selective CO2 absorption by aqueous alkanolamines is the most mature technology but the process is energy intensive and has also corrosion problems. Both disadvantages can be diminished to a certain extent by chemical adsorption of CO2 selectively. The most important element of the chemical adsorption of CO2 involves the design and development of a suitable adsorbent which consist of a porous support onto which an amine is attached or immobilized. Such an adsorbent is often called as solid amine sorbent. This review covers solid amine-based studies which are developed and published in recent years. First, the review examines several different types of porous support materials, namely, three mesoporous silica (MCM-41, SBA-15 and KIT-6 and two polymeric supports (PMMA and PS for CO2 adsorption. Emphasis is given to the synthesis, modifications and characterizations -such as BET and PXRD data-of them. Amination of these supports to obtain a solid amine sorbent through impregnation or grafting is reviewed comparatively. Focus is given to the adsorption mechanisms, material characteristics, and synthesis methods which are discussed in detail. Significant amount of original data are also presented which makes this review unique. Finally, relevant CO2 adsorption (or equilibrium capacity data, and cyclic adsorption/desorption performance and stability of important classes of solid amine sorbents are critically reviewed. These include severa PEI or TEPA impregnated adsorbents and APTES-grafted systems.

  7. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Deep-bed iodine sorption testing has been done to evaluate the performance of solid sorbents for capturing iodine in off-gas streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The objectives of the FY 2011 deep bed iodine sorbent testing are: (1) Evaluate sorbents for iodine capture under various conditions of gas compositions and operating temperature (determine sorption efficiencies, capacities, and mass transfer zone depths); and (2) Generate data for dynamic iodine sorption modeling. Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of this report or a future report. Testing was somewhat delayed and limited this year due to initial activities to address some questions of prior testing, and due to a period of maintenance for the on-line GC. Each test consisted of (a) flowing a synthetic blend of gases designed to be similar to an aqueous dissolver off-gas stream over the sorbent contained in three separate bed segments in series, (b) measuring each bed inlet and outlet gas concentrations of iodine and methyl iodide (the two surrogates of iodine gas species considered most representative of iodine species expected in dissolver off-gas), (c) operating for a long enough time to achieve breakthrough of the iodine species from at least one (preferably the first two) bed segments, and (d) post-test purging

  8. Composite sorbents of inorganic ion-exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix. Methods of modification of properties of inorganic ion-exchangers for application in column packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods of preparation of granules of inorganic ion exchangers as well as methods for improvement of granular strength of these materials are reviewed. The resulting ion exchangers are classified in three groups - 'intrinsic', supported and composite ion exchangers. Their properties are compared and possibilities of their technological application are evaluated. A new method of preparation of inorganic-organic composite sorbents of inorganic ion-exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix is described, advantages and disadvantages of such sorbents are discussed. Proposed fields of application include tratment of liquid radioactive and/or hazardous wastes, decontamination of natural water as well as analytical applications. (author)

  9. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, KIST 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin [Environmental Systems Research Division, KIMM 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Soo, E-mail: sskim@kaist.ac.kr [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO{sub 3} sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere due to the higher CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain-subgrain structure model in both the air and CO{sub 2} atmospheres.

  10. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H 2 S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct. The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading process for producing an elemental sulfur byproduct in hot-gas desulfurization systems, incurs a coal gas use penalty, because coal gas is required to reduce the SO 2 in regeneration off-gas to elemental sulfur. Alternative regeneration schemes, which avoid coal gas use and produce elemental sulfur, will be evaluated. These include (i) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using SO 2 ; (ii) partial oxidation of sulfided sorbent in an O 2 starved environment; and (iii) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using steam to produce H 2 S followed by direct oxidation of H 2 S to elemental sulfur. Known regenerable sorbents will be modified to improve the feasibility of the above alternative regeneration approaches. Performance characteristics of the modified sorbents and processes will be obtained through lab- and bench-scale testing. Technical and economic evaluation of the most promising processes concept(s) will be carried out

  11. Dithizone-modified graphene oxide nano-sheet as a sorbent for pre-concentration and determination of cadmium and lead ions in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam Zadeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadvand, Parvaneh; Behbahani, Ali; Amini, Mostafa M; Sayar, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide nano-sheet was modified with dithizone as a novel sorbent for selective pre-concentration and determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in food. The sorbent was characterised by various analytical methods and the effective parameters for Cd(II) and Pb(II) adsorption were optimised during this work. The high adsorption capacity and selectivity of this sorbent makes the method capable of fast determinations of the Cd(II) and Pb(II) content in complicated matrices even at μg l(-1) levels using commonly available instrumentation. The precision of this method was < 1.9% from 10 duplicate determinations and its accuracy verified using standard reference materials. Finally, this method was applied to the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in common food samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

  12. Itaconic acid based potential sorbent for uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyan, Y.; Naidu, G.R.K.; Das, Sadananda; Pandey, A.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Cross-linked hydrogels and adsorptive membranes containing Itaconic acid, Acrylamide, Penta erythritol tetra acrylate and α, α-dimethyl- α-phenyl aceto phenone were prepared by UV-initiated bulk polymerization. These hydrogels and adsorptive membranes were characterized for pH uptake, sorption and desorption kinetics and selectivity towards uranium. The sorption ability of the sorbents towards uranyl ion was thoroughly examined. The developed itaconic acid based sorbents were evaluated for the recovery of uranium from lean sources like sea water. (author)

  13. Bench-scale studies on capture of mercury on mineral non-carbon based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wendt, Jost O.L. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    A new high-temperature, mineral non-carbon based dispersed sorbent derived from paper recycling products has been shown to capture mercury at high temperatures in excess of 600 C. The sorbent is consisted of kaolinite/calcite/lime mixtures. Experiments have been conducted on chemi-sorption of elemental mercury in air on a packed bed. The sorption occurs at temperatures between 600 and 1,100 C and requires activation of the minerals contained within the sorbents. Mercury capture is dominated by temperature and capture on sorbents over long time scales. The capture shows a maximum effectiveness at 1,000 C and increases monotonically with temperature. The presence of oxygen is also the required. Freshly activated sorbent is the most effective, and deactivation of sorbents occurs at high temperatures with long pre-exposure times. This activation is suspected to involve a solid-solid reaction between intimately mixed calcium oxide and silica that are both contained within the sorbent. Deactivation occurs at temperatures higher than 1,000 C, and this is due to melting of the substrate and pore closure. The situation in packed beds is complicated because the bed also shrinks, thus allowing channeling and by-passing, and consequent ambiguities in determining sorbent saturation. Sorbent A had significantly greater capacity for mercury sorption than did Sorbent B, for all temperatures and exposure time examined. The effect of SiO{sub 2} on poor Sorbent B is much larger than sorbent A.

  14. Silver-Loaded Aluminosilicate Aerogels As Iodine Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Kroll, Jared O. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Peterson, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Matyáš, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Olszta, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Li, Xiaohong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States

    2017-09-14

    This paper discusses the development of aluminosilicates aerogels as scaffolds for Ag0 nanoparticles used for chemisorption of I2(g). The starting materials for these scaffolds included both Na-Al-Si-O and Al-Si-O aerogels, both synthesized from metal alkoxides. The Ag0 particles are added by soaking the aerogels in AgNO3 followed by drying and flowing under H2/Ar to reduce Ag+ → Ag0. In some cases, samples were soaked in 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane under supercritical CO2 to add –SH tethers to the aerogel surfaces for more effective binding of Ag+. During the Ag+-impregnation steps, for the Na-Al-Si-O aerogels, Na was replaced with Ag, and for the Al-Si-O aerogel, Si was replaced with Ag. The Ag-loading of thiolated versus non-thiolated Na-Al-Si-O aerogels was comparable at ~35 at% whereas the Ag-loading in unthiolated Al-Si-O aerogels was significantly lower at ~ 7 at% after identical treatment. Iodine loadings in both thiolated and unthiolated Ag0-functionalized Na-Al-Si-O aerogels were > 0.5 g g-1 showing almost complete utilization of the Ag through chemisorption to form AgI. Iodine loading in the thiolated Al-Si-O aerogel was 0.31 g g-1. The control of Ag uptake over solution residence time and [AgNO3] demonstrates the ability to customize the Ag-loading in the base sorbent to regulate the capacity of iodine chemisorption. Consolidation experimental results are also presented.

  15. Efficacy of the Molded Carbon Sorbent VNIITU-1 Used in Obstetric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Dolgikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop a technology for obtaining the molded sorbent VNIITU1, to study its physicochemical and biomedical properties, and to evaluate its efficacy in preventing and treating pyoinflammatory complications in obstetrics.Materials and methods. The molded sorbent VNIITU-1 was designed from the carbon porous material based on nanodispersed carbon by mixing with a vehicle, extruding the mixture, drying the extrudate in an inert atmosphere, thermally treating and activating by steam, followed by washing with distilled water and drying (TU 9398043710698342013. The molded sorbent VNIITU-1 is apyrogenic and nontoxic (Toxicity Study Conclusion No. 1998.013.P dated 14.08.2013; Engineering Testing Assessment No. 12.404 ORTI/2013 dated 26.08.2013, it is destined for single administration, sterile, placed in a removable thread capron mesh container, and used to treat and prevent pyoseptic complications in puerperas at risk for infection, such as acute nonspecific postpartum endometritis. A total of 52 puerperas were examined and treated. They had been divided into 2 groups: a study group (n=37 and a comparison group (n=15. In the study group, the hemosorbent VNIITU1 as a porous carbon applicator was postpartum inserted into the uterine cavity, by concurrently performing traditional antibiotic therapy to prevent infectious complications. The comparison group received only traditional antibiotic therapy. The uterine cavity aspirate was examined for IL1β and IL6 levels, its microbial profile, and microbial growth patterns in culture media. The data were processed using a package of applied STATISTICA6.1 programs and standard mathematical tables in Microsoft Excel. Descriptive and variation statistical methods were applied. The data were presented as Me [low quartilehigh quartile (LQHQ]; two pre and posttreatment dependent variables were compared using the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests.Results. The molded carbon sorbent VNIITU1 was

  16. Synthesis and investigation of sorbing materials based on natural and synthetic dispersed oxide systems for sorbing active leaching products of lava-like fuel-containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryip, Yi.M.; Shimchuk, T.V.; Tokarchuk, M.V.; Tokarchuk, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory sorbent samples were synthesized on the basis of modified natural clayey raw material and fumed silica. Using chemical methods, composition of synthesized sorbents was established. Oxide and hydroxide structures, plated on the fumed silica and natural montmorillonite clay surface were identified. A forecast about sorbing properties of synthesized materials is made

  17. Natural sorbents as barriers against migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, I.; Gradev, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The sorption properties of Bulgarian inorganic sorbents - clinoptilolite, vermiculite, bentonite, glauconite, celadonite and loess, which can be used as buffer, backfill and sealing materials in radwaste repository are studied. Experimental data about sorption and desorption capacities, radiation and thermal stability of sorbents from different Bulgarian deposits are reported and compared. Clinoptilolite from Beli Plast and its sodium variety from Kostino and Moryantsi is recommended as a barrier against radionuclide migration from radwaste repository due to their high sorption capacity of 137 Ce, 90 Sr and 60 Co. The high selectivity of vermiculite for polyvalent ions ( 144 Ce, 59 Fe and 90 Sr) gives grounds to include the sorption on vermiculite as a second step in the ion exchange technology for low level laundry waste decontamination. Bentonite is studied as a proposed buffer, backfill and sealing material. Its selectivity for cesium is lower compared to those of clinoptilolite. Thus a tailored-made mixture of bentonite and clinoptilolite will act as a barrier against radionuclides in different oxidation state. Glauconite can be successfully used as a barrier against migration of 144 Ce, 90 Sr, 54 Mn and 65 Zn. Loess is also included in the study, as the Kozloduy NPP is sited on loess formation and it is a natural potential site for low and intermediate level waste burial. It is concludes that zeolites and clays of Bulgarian deposits can be used effectively against radionuclide migration from radioactive waste repositories. 59 refs., 5 tabs. (author)

  18. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Max J. H.; Kucera, Renata L.; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Gibson, Christopher T.; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Alboaiji, Salah F. K.; Muller, Katherine A.; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R.; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M.; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Lewis, David A.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury‐rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low‐cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by‐product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury‐capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi‐kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. PMID:28763123

  19. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Max J H; Kucera, Renata L; Albuquerque, Inês S; Gibson, Christopher T; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D; Campbell, Jonathan A; Alboaiji, Salah F K; Muller, Katherine A; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M; Bhargava, Suresh K; Ippolito, Samuel J; Lewis, David A; Quinton, Jamie S; Ellis, Amanda V; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Chalker, Justin M

    2017-11-16

    Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury-rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low-cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by-product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury-capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi-kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. Preparation of calcium oxalate-bromopyrogallol red inclusion sorbent and application to treatment of cationic dye and heavy metal wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2009-05-01

    Dye pollutants are a major class of environmental contaminants. Over 100,000 dyes have been synthesized worldwide and more than 700,000 tons are produced annually and over 5% are discharged into aquatic environments. The adsorption or sorption is one of the most efficient methods to remove dye and heavy metal pollutants from wastewater. However, most of the present sorbents often bear some disadvantages, e.g. low sorption capacity, difficult separation of spoil, complex reproduction, or secondary pollution. Development of novel sorbents that can overcome these limitations is desirable. On the basis of the chemical coprecipitation of calcium oxalate (CaC(2)O(4)), bromopyrogallol red (BPR) was embedded during the growing of CaC(2)O(4) particles. The ternary C(2)O(4) (2-)-BPR-Ca(2+) sorbent was yielded by the centrifugation. Its composition was determined by spectrophotometry and AAS, and its structure and morphology were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particle-size analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption of ethyl violet (EV) and heavy metals, e.g. Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II) were carried out and their removal rate determined by spectrophotometry and ICP-OES. The adsorption performance of the sorbent was compared with powder activated carbon. The Langmuir isothermal model was applied to fit the embedment of BPR and adsorption of EV. The saturation number of BPR binding to CaC(2)O(4) reached 0.0105 mol/mol and the adsorption constant of the complex was 4.70 x 10(5) M(-1). Over 80% of the sorbent particles are between 0.7 and 1.02 microm, formed by the aggregation of the global CaC(2)O(4)/BPR inclusion grains of 30-50 nm size. Such a material was found to adsorb cationic dyes selectively and sensitively. Ethyl violet (EV) was used to investigate the adsorption mechanism of the material. One BPR molecule may just bind with one EV molecule. The CaC(2)O(4)/BPR inclusion material adsorbed EV over two times more

  1. Sorption of europium (3) by polymer sorbents with grafted heterocyclic nitrogen-containing groupings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'tyukova, S.V.; Kravchenko, T.B.; Balamtsarashvili, G.M.; Roska, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    On polymer sorbents (copolymer of styrene-divinylbenzene) with grafted heterocyclic nitrogen-containing functional groupings of tetrazole, triazole and imidazole (sorbents 1,2,3, respectively). It is stated that europium sorption takes place from neutral solutions in presence of organic solvents. Luminescent properties of europium on sorbent are used to develope methods of its determination in high purity lanthanide and yttrium oxides. Europium determination limits consist 7.5·10 -5 μg/ml on 1 and 3 sorbents and 1.5·10 -4 μg/ml on sorbent 2, S p value is 0.089 and 0.075, respectivaly

  2. Novel composite sorbent AAm/MA hydrogels containing starch and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel polymer/clay composite sorbent based on acrylamide/maleic acid, starch and clay such as kaolin was synthesized with free radical solution polymerization by using ammonium persulfate/,,','-tetramethylethylenediamine as redox initiating pair in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate as a crosslinker.

  3. New Composite Sorbents for Caesium and Strontium Ions Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kartel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite lignocellulose-inorganic sorbents derived from plant residues of agriculture and food industry, modified with ferrocyanides of d-metals and hydrated antimony pentoxide were prepared. Caesium and strontium ions removal from water was tested by radiotracer method. Sorption of heavy metal ions, methylene blue, gelatin, vitamin B12 was also studied.

  4. Evaluation of inorganic sorbent treatment for LWR coolant process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents results of a survey of the literature and of experience at selected nuclear installations to provide information on the feasibility of replacing organic ion exchangers with inorganic sorbents at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. Radioactive contents of the various streams in boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors were examined. In addition, the methods and performances of current methods used for controlling water quality at these plants were evaluated. The study also includes a brief review of the physical and chemical properties of selected inorganic sorbents. Some attributes of inorganic sorbents would be useful in processing light water reactor (LWR) streams. The inorganic resins are highly resistant to damage from ionizing radiation, and their exchange capacities are generally equivalent to those of organic ion exchangers. However, they are more limited in application, and there are problems with physical integrity, especially in acidic solutions. Research is also needed in the areas of selectivity and anion removal before inorganic sorbents can be considered as replacements for the synthetic organic resins presently used in LWRs. 11 figures, 14 tables

  5. Comments on "Ceria-Zirconia High-Temperature Desulfurization Sorbents".

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2006), s. 1548-1549 ISSN 0888-5885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : hydrogen sulfide * desulfurization * cerium sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2006

  6. Natural sorbents for decontamination of objects of urban territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movchan, N.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Zlobenko, B.; Spigoun, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an information about the use of film coverings, based on natural sorbents, in decontamination of buildings, contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. This method has incontrovertible advantages in the beginning period after the accident and can be used for cleaning considerable areas of urban territories

  7. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  8. MERCURY CONTROL WITH CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS AND OXIDIZING AGENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2002-06-01

    The initial tasks of this DOE funded project to investigate mercury removal by calcium-based sorbents have been completed, and initial testing results have been obtained. Mercury monitoring capabilities have been obtained and validated. An approximately 1MW (3.4 Mbtu/hr) Combustion Research Facility at Southern Research Institute was used to perform pilot-scale investigations of mercury sorbents, under conditions representative of full-scale boilers. The initial results of ARCADIS G&M proprietary sorbents, showed ineffective removal of either elemental or oxidized mercury. Benchscale tests are currently underway to ascertain the importance of differences between benchscale and pilot-scale experiments. An investigation of mercury-capture temperature dependence using common sorbents has also begun. Ordinary hydrated lime removed 80 to 90% of the mercury from the flue gas, regardless of the temperature of injection. High temperature injection of hydrated lime simultaneously captured SO{sub 2} at high temperatures and Hg at low temperatures, without any deleterious effects on mercury speciation. Future work will explore alternative methods of oxidizing elemental mercury.

  9. Advances in organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants in different types of food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nyuk-Ting; Kamaruddin, Amirah Farhan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of the extraction and removal of pollutants from food and the environment has been an important issue in analytical science. By incorporating inorganic species into an organic matrix, a new material known as an organic-inorganic hybrid material is formed. As it possesses high selectivity, permeability, and mechanical and chemical stabilities, organic-inorganic hybrid materials constitute an emerging research field and have become popular to serve as sorbents in various separaton science methods. Here, we review recent significant advances in analytical solid-phase extraction employing organic-inorganic composite/nanocomposite sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants from various types of food and environmental matrices. The physicochemical characteristics, extraction properties, and analytical performances of sorbents are discussed; including morphology and surface characteristics, types of functional groups, interaction mechanism, selectivity and sensitivity, accuracy, and regeneration abilities. Organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combined with extraction techniques are highly promising for sample preparation of various food and environmental matrixes with analytes at trace levels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Adsorption of iron by using hybrid Akar Putra and commercialized chicken eggshells as bio-sorbents from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Nasir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination in the environment could cause harmful effects both to human health and aquatic life. Numerous remediation methods had been developed to encounter with the contamination problem prior to degrade, decrease and to purify the contaminated water at minimal concentration as low as possible. Therefore, in current study, commercialized chicken eggshells and hybrid Akar Putra chicken eggshells were conducted in batch experiment to testify the capabilities of bio-sorbent materials in iron (II ion removal from aqueous solution at optimized level of dosage and equilibrium contact time. The optimum condition for iron (II removal for commercialized chicken eggshells and hybrid Akar Putra chicken eggshells bio-sorbents reached at 0.30 g with optimum contact time of 50 minutes and 91.83% and 91.07% of removal percentage with 0.60 g at 40 minutes. The final concentration from both bio-sorbents is achieved below than drinking water guideline (0.30 mg/L, 0.1635 mg/L and 0.1785 mg/L, respectively. The isotherm adsorption results showed it fitted better in Langmuir Isotherm Model than in Freundlich Isotherm Model, however with weak bonding, which could not held onto the heavy metal ions in long time period. In brief, commercialized chicken eggshells and hybrid Akar Putra chicken eggshells have considerable potential in removing heavy metal in aqueous solution. The selection of the bio-sorbent materials is more favorable as it reduces dependency towards chemical usage in water treatment which could have complied with drinking water guideline that can be obtained easily, abundance in amount, cheap and biodegradable.

  11. Concept and Idea-Project for Yugoslav Low and Intermediate level Radioactive Waste Materials Final Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peric, A.

    1997-01-01

    Encapsulation of rad waste in a mortar matrix and displacement of such solidified waste forms into the shallow land burial system, engineered trench system type is suggested concept for the final disposal of low and intermediate level rad waste. The mortar-rad waste mixtures are cured in containers of either concrete or metal for an appropriate period of time, after which solidified rad waste-mortar monoliths are then placed in the engineered trench system, parallelepiped honeycomb structure. Trench consists of vertical barrier-walls, bottom barrier-floors, surface barrier-caps and permeable-reactive walls. Surroundings of the trench consists of buffer barrier materials, mainly clay. Each segment of the trench is equipped with the independent drainage system, as a part of the main drainage. Encapsulation of each filled trench honeycomb segment is performed with concrete cap. Completed trench is covered with impermeable plastic foil and soil leaner, preferably clay. Paper presents an overview of the final disposal facility engineered trench system type. Advantages in comparison with other types of final disposal system are given. (author)

  12. Polyethyleneimine-Functionalized Polyamide Imide (Torlon) Hollow-Fiber Sorbents for Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie

    2013-05-24

    Carbon dioxide emitted from existing coal-fired power plants is a major environmental concern due to possible links to global climate change. In this study, we expand upon previous work focused on aminosilane-functionalized polymeric hollow-fiber sorbents by introducing a new class of polyethyleneimine (PEI)-functionalized polymeric hollow-fiber sorbents for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture. Different molecular weight PEIs (Mn≈600, 1800, 10 000, and 60 000) were studied as functional groups on polyamide imide (PAI, Torlon) hollow fibers. This imide ring-opening modification introduces two amide functional groups and was confirmed by FTIR attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. The carbon dioxide equilibrium sorption capacities of PEI-functionalized Torlon materials were characterized by using both pressure decay and gravimetric sorption methods. For equivalent PEI concentrations, PAI functionalized with lower molecular weight PEI exhibited higher carbon dioxide capacities. The effect of water in the ring-opening reaction was also studied. Up to a critical value, water in the reaction mixture enhanced the degree of functionalization of PEI to Torlon and resulted in higher carbon dioxide uptake within the functionalized material. Above the critical value, roughly 15 % w/w water, the fiber morphology was lost and the fiber was soluble in the solvent. PEI-functionalized (Mn≈600) PAI under optimal reaction conditions was observed to have the highest CO2 uptake: 4.9 g CO2 per 100 g of polymer (1.1 mmol g-1) at 0.1 bar and 35°C with dry 10 % CO2/90 % N2 feed for thermogravimetric analysis. By using water-saturated feeds (10 % CO2/90 % N2 dry basis), CO2 sorption was observed to increase to 6.0 g CO2 per 100 g of sorbent (1.4 mmol g-1). This material also demonstrated stability in cyclic adsorption-desorption operations, even under wet conditions at which some highly effective sorbents tend to lose performance. Thus, PEI-functionalized PAI fibers can be

  13. Analysis of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} trapped {sup 14}C Sorbent, and {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H Radioactivity Determination in Resins and Oils from Nuclear Power Plants Using a Combustion Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Young Gun; Kim, Chang Jong; Choi, Geun Sik; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Tritium ({sup 3}H, T) generated in the heavy water and C fourteen ({sup 14}C) originated from the graphite moderator or structural materials of the nuclear power plant can cause acute and/or chronic harmful effects by inhalation and ingestion of these radionuclides owing to their binding affinity toward biomolecules and gas phase. {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C radioactivity in ion exchange resins and oils from nuclear power plants were determined by an oxidation (combustion) method. The 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} solution and the {sup 14}C sorbent trapped the {sub 3}H and {sup 14}C respectively in the gas from the combustion of samples. All samples were burned without ash in the combustion system. The reaction of CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}C sorbent was investigated by FT-IR analysis. The study demonstrated the different reaction mechanism according to the CO{sub 2} concentration. In the FT-IR study, it is clearly confirmed that CO{sub 2} from the burned 1 g of sample can be trapped in the {sup 14}C sorbent completely. During the reaction of CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}C sorbent, the temperature and the viscosity of {sup 14}C sorbent increased due to the decrease of enthalpy change and the bonding between each molecules of the sorbent. We expect that our FT-IR study could motivate the development of {sup 14}C sorbent and confirm the {sup 14}C trapping performance of the {sup 14}C sorbent.

  14. Oil uptake by plant-based sorbents and its biodegradation by their naturally associated microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, Narjes; Ali, Nedaa; Khanafer, Majida; Radwan, Samir S.

    2017-01-01

    The plant waste-products, wheat straw, corn-cobs and sugarcane bagasse took up respectively, 190, 110 and 250% of their own weights crude oil. The same materials harbored respectively, 3.6 × 10 5 , 8.5 × 10 3 and 2.3 × 10 6  g −1  cells of hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, as determined by a culture-dependent method. The molecular, culture-independent analysis revealed that the three materials were associated with microbial communities comprising genera known for their hydrocarbonoclastic activity. In bench-scale experiments, inoculating oily media with samples of the individual waste products led to the biodegradation of 34.0–44.9% of the available oil after 8 months. Also plant-product samples, which had been used as oil sorbents lost 24.3–47.7% of their oil via their associated microorganisms, when kept moist for 8 months. In this way, it is easy to see that those waste products are capable of remediating spilled oil physically, and that their associated microbial communities can degrade it biologically. - Highlights: • Wheat straw, corn-cobs and sugarcane bagasse take up large amounts of oil. • The three materials harbor hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. • Inoculating oily liquid media with the three materials separately led to biodegradation of oil. - Plant-based oil sorbents harbor microorganisms with hydrocarbon-utilization potential which makes such natural materials valuable tools for bioremediation of oil spilled in the environment.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of imprinted sorbent for separation of gramine from bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luliński, Piotr; Klejn, Dorota; Maciejewska, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient sorbent for separation of N,N-dimethyl-3-aminomethylindole (gramine) from bovine serum albumin. An imprinting technology was involved in the synthesis of polymers from nine different functional monomers in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. The analysis of binding capacities showed that the highest specificity towards gramine was achieved when 4-vinylbenzoic acid was used as the functional monomer in methanol to form the bulk imprinted polymer, MIP1 (imprinting factor equal to 21.3). The Scatchard analysis of MIP1 showed two classes of binding sites with the dissociation constants K_d equal to 0.105 and 6.52 μmol L"−"1. The composition and morphology of polymers were defined by "1"3C CP/MAS NMR, BET and SEM-EDS analyses. The recognition mechanism of MIP1 was tested using the structurally related bioanalytes, and the dominant role of indole moiety and ethylamine side chain was revealed. A new MISPE protocol was optimized for separation of gramine. The total recoveries on MIP1 were equal to 94 ± 12 % from standard solutions and 85 ± 11 % from bovine serum albumin. - Highlights: • Indole alkaloid (gramine) imprinted polymer was synthesized. • Very high specifity of sorbent towards gramine was achieved. • Physico-chemical characteristics of novel material was presented. • Efficient MISPE protocol was proposed for separation of gramine from model sample.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of imprinted sorbent for separation of gramine from bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luliński, Piotr; Klejn, Dorota; Maciejewska, Dorota, E-mail: dmaciejewska@wum.edu.pl

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient sorbent for separation of N,N-dimethyl-3-aminomethylindole (gramine) from bovine serum albumin. An imprinting technology was involved in the synthesis of polymers from nine different functional monomers in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. The analysis of binding capacities showed that the highest specificity towards gramine was achieved when 4-vinylbenzoic acid was used as the functional monomer in methanol to form the bulk imprinted polymer, MIP1 (imprinting factor equal to 21.3). The Scatchard analysis of MIP1 showed two classes of binding sites with the dissociation constants K{sub d} equal to 0.105 and 6.52 μmol L{sup −1}. The composition and morphology of polymers were defined by {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR, BET and SEM-EDS analyses. The recognition mechanism of MIP1 was tested using the structurally related bioanalytes, and the dominant role of indole moiety and ethylamine side chain was revealed. A new MISPE protocol was optimized for separation of gramine. The total recoveries on MIP1 were equal to 94 ± 12 % from standard solutions and 85 ± 11 % from bovine serum albumin. - Highlights: • Indole alkaloid (gramine) imprinted polymer was synthesized. • Very high specifity of sorbent towards gramine was achieved. • Physico-chemical characteristics of novel material was presented. • Efficient MISPE protocol was proposed for separation of gramine from model sample.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that

  18. Application of Mineral Sorbents for Removal of Petroleum Substances: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Bandura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution with petroleum products has become a major problem worldwide, and is a consequence of industrial growth. The development of sustainable methods for the removal of petroleum substances and their derivatives from aquatic and terrestrial environments and from air has therefore become extremely important today. Advanced technologies and materials dedicated to this purpose are relatively expensive; sorption methods involving mineral sorbents are therefore popular and are widely described in the scientific literature. Mineral materials are easily available, low-cost, universal adsorbents and have a number of properties that make them suitable for the removal of petroleum substances. This review describes recent works on the use of natural, synthetic and modified mineral adsorbents for the removal of petroleum substances and their derivatives from roads, water and air.

  19. Miniaturized solid-phase extraction of macrolide antibiotics in honey and bovine milk using mesoporous MCM-41 silica as sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li-Jing; Yi, Ling; Ye, Li-Hong; Chen, Yu-Bo; Cao, Jun; Peng, Li-Qing; Shi, Yu-Ting; Wang, Qiu-Yan; Hu, Yu-Han

    2018-02-16

    A simple and effective method of miniaturized solid-phase extraction (mini-SPE) was developed for the simultaneous purification and enrichment of macrolide antibiotics (MACs) (i.e. azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, lincomycin and roxithromycin) from honey and skim milk. Mesoporous MCM-41 silica was synthesized and used as sorbent in mini-SPE. Several key parameters affecting the performance of mini-SPE procedure were thoroughly investigated, including sorbent materials, amount of sorbent and elution solvents. Under the optimized condition, satisfactory linearity (r 2  > 0.99), acceptable precision (RSDs, 0.3-7.1%), high sensitivity (limit of detection in the range of 0.01-0.76 μg/kg), and good recoveries (83.21-105.34%) were obtained. With distinct advantages of simplicity, reliability and minimal sample requirement, the proposed mini-SPE procedure coupled with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry could become an alternative tool to analyze the residues of MACs in complex food matrixes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  1. Final Project Report for DOE/EERE High-Capacity and Low-Cost Hydrogen-Storage Sorbents for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hong-Cai [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Liu, Di-Jia [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report provides a review of the objectives, progress, and milestones of the research conducted during this project on the topic of developing innovative metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and porous organic polymers (POPs) for high-capacity and low-cost hydrogen-storage sorbents in automotive applications.1 The objectives of the proposed research were to develop new materials as next-generation hydrogen storage sorbents that meet or exceed DOE’s 2017 performance targets of gravimetric capacity of 0.055 kg H2/kgsystem and volumetric capacity of 0.040 kg H2/Lsystem at a cost of $400/kg H2 stored. Texas A&M University (TAMU) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) collaborated in developing low-cost and high-capacity hydrogen-storage sorbents with appropriate stability, sorption kinetics, and thermal conductivity. The research scope and methods developed to achieve the project’s goals include the following: Advanced ligand design and synthesis to construct MOF sorbents with optimal hydrogen storage capacities, low cost and high stability; Substantially improve the hydrogen uptake capacity and chemical stability of MOF-based sorbents by incorporating high valent metal ions during synthesis or through the post-synthetic metal metathesis oxidation approach; Enhance sorbent storage capacity through material engineering and characterization; Generate a better understanding of the H2-sorbent interaction through advanced characterization and simulation. Over the course of the project 5 different MOFs were developed and studied: PCN-250, PCN-12, PCN-12’, PCN-608 and PCN-609.2-3 Two different samples were submitted to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in order to validate their hydrogen adsorption capacity, PCN-250 and PCN-12. Neither of these samples reached the project’s Go/No-Go requirements but the data obtained did further prove the hypothesis that the presence of open metal

  2. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  3. The effect of preparation of biogenic sorbent on zinc sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jenčárová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prepare biogenic sulphides by using bacteria for the removal of zinc cations from their solutions. Theproduction was realized in a bioreactor under anaerobic conditions at 30 °C. Sorbents were prepared by sulphate-reducing bacteria indifferent nutrient medium modifications, under two modes of bacteria cultivation. Created precipitates of iron sulphides were removedfrom the liquid phase of the cultivation medium by filtration, dried and used for the sorption experiments.

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO(sub 2) as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO(sub 2) stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests conducted at LSU indicated that exposure of sorbent to water vapor prior to contact with carbonation gas does not significantly increase the reaction rate. Calcined fine mesh trona has a greater initial carbonation rate than calcined sodium bicarbonate, but appears to be more susceptible to loss of reactivity under severe calcination conditions. The Davison attrition indices for Grade 5 sodium bicarbonate, commercial grade sodium carbonate and extra fine granular potassium carbonate were, as tested, outside of the range suitable for entrained bed reactor testing. Fluidized bed testing at RTI indicated that in the initial stages of reaction potassium carbonate removed 35% of the carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas, and is reactive at higher temperatures than sodium carbonate. Removals declined to 6% when 54% of the capacity of the sorbent was exhausted. Carbonation data from electrobalance testing was correlated using a shrinking core reaction model. The activation energy of the reaction of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water vapor was determined from nonisothermal thermogravimetry

  5. Ionic liquids: solvents and sorbents in sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin D; Emaus, Miranda N; Varona, Marcelino; Bowers, Ashley N; Anderson, Jared L

    2018-01-01

    The applications of ionic liquids (ILs) and IL-derived sorbents are rapidly expanding. By careful selection of the cation and anion components, the physicochemical properties of ILs can be altered to meet the requirements of specific applications. Reports of IL solvents possessing high selectivity for specific analytes are numerous and continue to motivate the development of new IL-based sample preparation methods that are faster, more selective, and environmentally benign compared to conventional organic solvents. The advantages of ILs have also been exploited in solid/polymer formats in which ordinarily nonspecific sorbents are functionalized with IL moieties in order to impart selectivity for an analyte or analyte class. Furthermore, new ILs that incorporate a paramagnetic component into the IL structure, known as magnetic ionic liquids (MILs), have emerged as useful solvents for bioanalytical applications. In this rapidly changing field, this Review focuses on the applications of ILs and IL-based sorbents in sample preparation with a special emphasis on liquid phase extraction techniques using ILs and MILs, IL-based solid-phase extraction, ILs in mass spectrometry, and biological applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Virtual laboratory learning media development to improve science literacy skills of mechanical engineering students on basic physics concept of material measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, E. D.; Setiawan, A.; Siahaan, P.; Rochman, C.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to determine the description of virtual laboratory learning media development to improve science literacy skills of Mechanical Engineering students on the concept of basic Physics. Quasi experimental method was employed in this research. The participants of this research were first semester students of mechanical engineering in Majalengka University. The research instrument was readability test of instructional media. The results of virtual laboratory learning media readability test show that the average score is 78.5%. It indicates that virtual laboratory learning media development are feasible to be used in improving science literacy skill of Mechanical Engineering students in Majalengka University, specifically on basic Physics concepts of material measurement.

  7. ThermoData Engine (TDE): Software Implementation of the Dynamic Data Evaluation Concept. 8. Properties of Material Streams and Solvent Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D.; Muzny, Chris D.

    2013-01-01

    ThermoData Engine (TDE) is the first full-scale software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept, as reported in this journal. The present paper describes the first application of this concept to the evaluation of thermophysical properties for material streams involving any number...... of chemical components with assessment of uncertainties. The method involves construction of Redlich-Kister type equations for individual properties (excess volume, thermal conductivity, viscosity, surface tension, and excess enthalpy) and activity-coefficient models for phase equilibrium properties (vapor...

  8. Different sorbents in calcium looping cycle for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Cong; Zheng, Ying; Ding, Ning [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    Cyclic CO{sub 2} capture using commercial pure micro CaCO{sub 3} and nano CaCO{sub 3} is investigated in this paper which focuses on the different characteristics two different sorbents during high temperature reactions. The results indicate that the nano CaCO{sub 3} sorbent has higher carbonation conversions and carbonation rates than the micro CaCO{sub 3} sorbent in the cyclic reactions. Furthermore, nano sorbent can retain its fast carbonation rates at the beginning dozens of seconds during each cycle. In contrast, the carbonation rates of micro sorbent diminish with the increase of cycle number. But, unfortunately, CaO derived from nano CaCO3 sorbent sinter much easily. Its grains, which are composed of numerous spherical nanocrystallites, experience dramatic morphological changes during high temperature reactions.

  9. A fracture mechanics safety concept to assess the impact behavior of ductile cast iron containers for shipping and storage of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelzke, H.; Roedel, R.; Droste, B.

    1994-01-01

    Within the scope of the German licensing procedures for shipping and storage containers for radioactive materials made of ductile cast iron, BAM performs approval design tests including material tests to ensure the main safety goals of shielding, leaktightness and subcriticality under ''Type B accident conditions''. So far the safety assessment concept of BAM is based essentially on the experimental proof of container strength by prototype testing under most damaging test conditions in connection with complete approval design tests, and has been developed especially for cylindrical casks like CASTOR- and TN-design. In connection with the development of new container constructions such as ''cubic cast containers'', and the fast developments in the area of numerical calculation methods, there is a need for a more flexible safety concept especially considering fracture mechanics aspects.This paper presents the state of work at BAM for such an extended safety concept for ductile cast iron containers, based on a detailed brittle fracture safe design proof. The requirements on stress analysis (experimental or numerical), material properties, material qualification, quality assurance provisions and fracture mechanics safety assessment, including well defined and justified factors of safety, are described. ((orig.))

  10. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  11. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, or ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, five cycle thermogravimetric tests were conducted at the Louisiana State University (LSU) with sodium bicarbonate Grade 3 (SBC{number_sign}3) which showed that carbonation activity declined slightly over 5 cycles following severe calcination conditions of 200 C in pure CO{sub 2}. Three different sets of calcination conditions were tested. Initial carbonation activity (as measured by extent of reaction in the first 25 minutes) was greatest subsequent to calcination at 120 C in He, slightly less subsequent to calcination in 80% CO{sub 2}/20% H{sub 2}O, and lowest subsequent to calcination in pure CO{sub 2} at 200 C. Differences in the extent of reaction after 150 minutes of carbonation, subsequent to calcination under the same conditions followed the same trend but were less significant. The differences between fractional carbonation under the three calcination conditions declined with increasing cycles. A preliminary fixed bed reactor test was also conducted at LSU. Following calcination, the sorbent removed approximately 19% of the CO{sub 2} in the simulated flue gas. CO{sub 2} evolved during subsequent calcination was consistent with an extent of carbonation of approximately 49%. Following successful testing of SBC{number_sign}3 sorbent at RTI reported in the last quarter, a two cycle fluidized bed reactor test was conducted with trona as the sorbent precursor, which was calcined to sodium carbonate. In the first

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO(sub 2) as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, or ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO(sub 2) stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, five cycle thermogravimetric tests were conducted at the Louisiana State University (LSU) with sodium bicarbonate Grade 3 (SBC(number s ign)3) which showed that carbonation activity declined slightly over 5 cycles following severe calcination conditions of 200 C in pure CO(sub 2). Three different sets of calcination conditions were tested. Initial carbonation activity (as measured by extent of reaction in the first 25 minutes) was greatest subsequent to calcination at 120 C in He, slightly less subsequent to calcination in 80% CO(sub 2)/20% H(sub 2)O, and lowest subsequent to calcination in pure CO(sub 2) at 200 C. Differences in the extent of reaction after 150 minutes of carbonation, subsequent to calcination under the same conditions followed the same trend but were less significant. The differences between fractional carbonation under the three calcination conditions declined with increasing cycles. A preliminary fixed bed reactor test was also conducted at LSU. Following calcination, the sorbent removed approximately 19% of the CO(sub 2) in the simulated flue gas. CO(sub 2) evolved during subsequent calcination was consistent with an extent of carbonation of approximately 49%. Following successful testing of SBC(number s ign)3 sorbent at RTI reported in the last quarter, a two cycle fluidized bed reactor test was conducted with trona as the sorbent precursor, which was calcined to sodium carbonate. In the first carbonation cycle, CO

  13. Use of biomass sorbents for oil removal from gas station runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Virojnagud, Wanpen; Ratpukdi, Thunyalux

    2004-11-01

    The use of biomass sorbents, which are less expensive and more biodegradable than synthetic sorbents, for oil removal from gas station runoff was investigated. A bench-scale flume experiment was conducted to evaluate the oil removal and retention capabilities of the biomass sorbents which included kapok fiber, cattail fiber, Salvinia sp., wood chip, rice husk, coconut husk, and bagasse. Polyester fiber, a commercial synthetic sorbent, was also experimented for comparison purpose. Oil sorption and desorption tests were performed at a water flow rate of 20 lmin-1. In the oil sorption tests, a 50 mgl(-1) of used engine oil-water mixture was synthesized to simulate the gas station runoff. The mass of oil sorbed for all sorbents, except coconut husk and bagasse, was greater than 70%. Cattail fiber and polyester fiber were the sorbents that provided the least average effluent oil concentrations. Oil selectivity (hydrophobic properties) and physical characteristics of the sorbents are the two main factors that influence the oil sorption capability. The used sorbents from the sorption tests were employed in the desorption tests. Results indicated that oil leached out of all the sorbents tested. Polyester fiber released the highest amount of oil, approximately 4% (mass basis) of the oil sorbed. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Application of polyurethane foam as a sorbent for trace metal pre-concentration — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, V. A.; Santos, M. S.; Santos, E. S.; Santos, M. J. S.; dos Santos, W. N. L.; Souza, A. S.; de Jesus, D. S.; das Virgens, C. F.; Carvalho, M. S.; Oleszczuk, N.; Vale, M. G. R.; Welz, B.; Ferreira, S. L. C.

    2007-01-01

    The first publication on the use of polyurethane foam (PUF) for sorption processes dates back to 1970, and soon after the material was applied for separation processes. The application of PUF as a sorbent for solid phase extraction of inorganic analytes for separation and pre-concentration purposes is reviewed. The physical and chemical characteristics of PUF (polyether and polyester type) are discussed and an introduction to the characterization of these sorption processes using different types of isotherms is given. Separation and pre-concentration methods using unloaded and loaded PUF in batch and on-line procedures with continuous flow and flow injection systems are presented. Methods for the direct solid sampling analysis of the PUF after pre-concentration are discussed as well as approaches for speciation analysis. Thermodynamic proprieties of some extraction processes are evaluated and the interpretation of determined parameters, such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy in light of the physico-chemical processes is explained.

  15. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  16. EFFECTS OF THE LITHIUM – CONTAINING SORBENT ON TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS UNDER CHRONIC ALCOHOL INTOXICATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotlyarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium preparations are widely used for stabilize mood in case of bipolar affective disorder. Currently neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of lithium are of interest as in case of acute brain injury, also in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, alcoholism, Alzheimer disease, etc. [1–5]. In clinical practice use of lithium preparations is limited due to difficult adjustment of drug dosage, necessity of monitoring its concentration in blood, side effects development as a result of accumulation of lithium in a body. For the purpose of improvement of pharmacologic properties lithium is combined with other agents (for example modifying sorbent thus it can produce longer-term and more harmless (less side reactions effect in the long view. Lithium immobilization on sorption basis will allow to use sorbent as detoxicant and carrying agent of drugs to body. The purpose of the work is studying the effect of the lithium – containing sorbent on terms of behavioral reactions under chronic alcohol intoxication model.Materials and methods. During the work we used nonlinear mice – males, which weight 25–30 g (180 animals. Chronic alcohol intoxication was precipitated via 40% proof spirit injections (oral supplementation in quantity of 3 g/kg during 2 weeks, additionally mice drunk 5% proof spirit from drinking bowl. Each experimental group consisted of 10 animals. Study drugs were inserted inside while ethanol injecting. Control animals were inserted 0,9% salin solution. Emotional state of animals was assessed through forced swim test, short – term memory assessment was performed through conditioned passive avoidance reflex. Effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on the parameters of conditioned reflex activity was measured every 7 days.Results. It was found that the investigated lithium-containing sorbent increases: the number of mice are trained passive avoidance reflex, remembering percent of electric shock

  17. Kinetics Studies on the Process of Zn Removal from Wastewater Using Ultrasonically Activated Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Flores

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals pollution in industrial wastewater is a great environmental challenge. Several techniques and materials have been recently proposed in order to overcome this problem, such as the adsorption process; however, in order to be competitive, new improved low-cost materials must be proposed or developed. In the present work, the remediation of Zn-contaminated water using fly ash and Tonsil was studied. Both materials are considered low-cost sorbents since they are a byproduct of an industrial process, or locally abundant in nature. To increase the Zn uptake, the materials were activated by applying ultrasonic energy. It was found that the pH is an important parameter to be controlled since the larger sorption capacity occurred at pH = 4. Also, the materials activated with ultrasound were able to adsorb greater Zn quantities at the studied experimental conditions. Finally, the kinetics of the adsorption process was analyzed, and several mathematical models were proposed to simulate the experimental data. After making some statistical discrimination, the Lagergren model was selected to represent the sorption of Zn on the different materials studied.

  18. Novel D2EHPA-polysiloxane-based sorbent for titanium (IV) extraction and separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza R, L. G.; Rodriguez de San Miguel, E.; Pardo G, D. Y.; De Gyves, J.; Sanchez G, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of a novel sorbent material used for the solid-phase extraction of titanium (IV) from hydrochloric acid medium is described. The material was prepared by the sol-gel route incorporating bis(2-ethylhexyl phosporic acid) (D2EHPA) as extractant within a polymeric matrix based on polysiloxanes and characterized through Ftir-Atr, XRD, 29 Si and 31 P NMR, TGA and DSC. In studies of titanium sorption and desorption in batch mode several factors related with the extraction and back-extraction operations were evaluated, such as: contact time, titanium concentration, nature and composition of the aqueous media, and extractant concentration in the sorbent. The maximum sorption was observed at 30 min of contact time in a 1 mol L -1 HCl + 0.1% KCl medium, while the maximum desorption was observed at 60 min in a 1.5 mol L -1 H 2 SO 4 + 20% v/v H 2 O 2 medium when titanium concentration was 70 mg L -1 . Under optimal conditions the recovered percent of titanium was nearly 90%. In addition, the characterization of the extraction equilibrium was performed. The selectivity of the method was studied adding Al(III), Fe(III) and V(v) to the extraction medium. A high selectivity for Ti over Al and Fe was observed, even at high concentrations of the interferences; 50% of Ti, only 7% of Fe, 3% of Al and less than 1% of V were recovered under the established conditions. The method was finally applied for titanium recovery from a certified fly ash sample generated from a municipal incineration plant. (Author)

  19. Novel D2EHPA-polysiloxane-based sorbent for titanium (IV) extraction and separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza R, L. G.; Rodriguez de San Miguel, E.; Pardo G, D. Y.; De Gyves, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Sanchez G, J. P., E-mail: degyves@unam.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Laboratorio de Evaluacion Molecular, Eje Central Norte Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Apdo. Postal 14-805, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this work the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of a novel sorbent material used for the solid-phase extraction of titanium (IV) from hydrochloric acid medium is described. The material was prepared by the sol-gel route incorporating bis(2-ethylhexyl phosporic acid) (D2EHPA) as extractant within a polymeric matrix based on polysiloxanes and characterized through Ftir-Atr, XRD, {sup 29}Si and {sup 31}P NMR, TGA and DSC. In studies of titanium sorption and desorption in batch mode several factors related with the extraction and back-extraction operations were evaluated, such as: contact time, titanium concentration, nature and composition of the aqueous media, and extractant concentration in the sorbent. The maximum sorption was observed at 30 min of contact time in a 1 mol L{sup -1} HCl + 0.1% KCl medium, while the maximum desorption was observed at 60 min in a 1.5 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 20% v/v H{sub 2}O{sub 2} medium when titanium concentration was 70 mg L{sup -1}. Under optimal conditions the recovered percent of titanium was nearly 90%. In addition, the characterization of the extraction equilibrium was performed. The selectivity of the method was studied adding Al(III), Fe(III) and V(v) to the extraction medium. A high selectivity for Ti over Al and Fe was observed, even at high concentrations of the interferences; 50% of Ti, only 7% of Fe, 3% of Al and less than 1% of V were recovered under the established conditions. The method was finally applied for titanium recovery from a certified fly ash sample generated from a municipal incineration plant. (Author)

  20. Solid-phase extraction of galloyl- and caffeoylquinic acids from natural sources (Galphimia glauca and Arnicae flos) using pure zirconium silicate and bismuth citrate powders as sorbents inside micro spin columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shah; Schönbichler, Stefan A; Güzel, Yüksel; Sonderegger, Harald; Abel, Gudrun; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2013-10-01

    Galloyl- and caffeoylquinic acids are among the most important pharmacological active groups of natural compounds. This study describes a pre-step in isolation of some selected representatives of these groups from biological samples. A selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for these compounds may help assign classes and isomer designations within complex mixtures. Pure zirconium silicate and bismuth citrate powders (325 mesh) were employed as two new sorbents for optimized SPE of phenolic acids. These sorbents possess electrostatic interaction sites which accounts for additional interactions for carbon acid moieties as compared to hydrophilic and hydrophobic sorbents alone. Based on this principle, a selective SPE method for 1,3,4,5-tetragalloylquinic acid (an anti-HIV and anti-asthamatic agent) as a starting compound was developed and then deployed upon other phenolic acids with success. The recoveries and selectivities of both sorbents were compared to most commonly applied and commercially available sorbents by using high performance liquid chromatography. The nature of interaction between the carrier sorbent and the acidic target molecules was investigated by studying hydrophilic (silica), hydrophobic (C18), mixed-mode (ionic and hydrophobic: Oasis(®) MAX) and predominantly electrostatic (zirconium silicate) materials. The newly developed zirconium silicate and bismuth citrate stationary phases revealed promising results for the selective extraction of galloyl- and caffeoylquinic acids from natural sources. It was observed that zirconium silicate exhibited maximum recovery and selectivity for tetragalloylquinic acid (84%), chlorogenic acid (82%) and dicaffeoylquinic acid (94%) among all the tested sorbents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavropoulos George G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior.

  2. Properties of sorbents from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2000-07-01

    The surface and sorptional properties of carbonaceous materials prepared from brown coal and their relation to minerals content and coal bulk density as technologically important parameters of starting coal were described. Chars were prepared from brown coal of North Bohemian Brown Coal District and activated with CO{sub 2} in a large-scale laboratory unit. Their surface and sorptive properties were investigated. It was found that mineral matter/ash content favourably affects the mesoporosity development in chars/activated chars as the sorption capacity increased with increasing ash content in chars. No influence of ash content on the macroporosity was observed. With the activated chars, both the inner surface and sorption capacity showed the maximum in the burn-off range of 41-64%. Optimization of the process is discussed.

  3. Preconcentration of traces of radionuclides and elements with foamed polyurethane sorbents in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Braun, T.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of preconcentration and the permanent need of efficient preconcentrating agents in environmental analysis are pointed out. Foamed polyurethane sorbents draw attention as novel agents in separation chemistry. A survey is presented of recent applications of unloaded and reagent-loaded open-cell type resilient polyurethane foams in the separation and preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, and of the latest uses of these foams in the preconcentration and detection of traces of some, mainly inorganic materials in environmental samples, using radioanalytical techniques. Possible future uses of polyurethane foams in trace element detection in environmental analysis are outlined. (author)

  4. Sequential SO{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} capture enhanced by steam reactivation of a CaO-based sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilije Manovic; Edward J. Anthony [CANMET Energy Technology Centre-Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Natural Resources Canada

    2008-07-15

    The steam hydration reactivation characteristics of three limestone samples after multiple CO{sub 2} looping cycles are presented here. The CO{sub 2} cycles were performed in a tube furnace (TF) and the resulting samples were hydrated by steam in a pressure reactor (PR). The reactivation was performed with spent samples after carbonation and calcination stages. The reactivation tests were done with a saturated steam pressure at 200{sup o}C and also at atmospheric pressure and 100 {sup o}C. The characteristics of the reactivation samples were examined using BET and BJH pore characterization (for the original and spent samples, and samples reactivated under different conditions) and also by means of a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The levels of hydration achieved by the reactivated samples were determined as well as the conversions during sulphation and multiple carbonation cycles. It was found that the presence of a CaCO{sub 3} layer strongly hinders sorbent hydration and adversely affects the properties of the reactivated sorbent with regard to its behavior in sulphation and multiple carbonation cycles. Here, hydration of calcined samples under pressure is the most effective method to produce superior sulphur sorbents. However, reactivation of calcined samples under atmospheric conditions also produces sorbents with significantly better properties in comparison to those of the original sorbents. These results show that separate CO{sub 2} capture and SO{sub 2} retention in fluidized bed systems enhanced by steam reactivation is promising even for atmospheric conditions if the material for hydration is taken from the calciner. 49 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Technology for the oil spills clean-up which provides preliminary accumulation of sorbents into the area of emergence and localization oil spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.Soroka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of measures for the prevention and spill of dangerous goods is an important aspect of sustainable development of railway transport. oil spills accident are the most dangerous. They are accompanied by significant pollution of all environmental objects. Studying and development of oil localization and clean-up technologies of such accidents is an important problem of environmental protection to modern conditions of railway transport development. The purpose: to improve the effectiveness of traditional methods of oil spill elimination and the development of new clean-up technologies adapted to the real conditions of the railway transport of Ukraine. Methods: To achieve the research purposes was used analysis of material flows, typical for places emergence and localization of the oil spill on the railways. Results: Analysis of standard technological scheme for the oil spills eliminations has shown that the most difficult task of effective clean-up surfaces is the timely delivery of oil sorbents and special equipment to the area spill containment. The general effectiveness of the elimination activities specifies the time from the beginning contact of dangerous goods with environmental objects to the absorption it into the structure of sorbent . Us was developed the technological scheme of oil spill elimination. This scheme provide a permanent and fast access to the sorbents into the oil spill localization area. It was proposed to device that allows you to transport the sorbent into sorption booms directly on the tank for transportation of petroleum products. Conclusions: Preventative accumulation of sorbents to the oil spill elimination into the localization area provides the organizational and operational simplicity of all stages of clean-up technology. Technical and economic assessment shows that the proposed technology is effective, technologically feasible and economically competitive.

  6. Development of composite calcium hydroxide sorbent in mechanical operations and evaluation of its basic sorption properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gara Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research carried out on the possibility of obtaining composite calcium hydroxide sorbent in the process of two-step granulation, containing additional compounds of Al, Mg and Fe, and their textural and sorption studies. For this purpose, attempts were undertaken to compact commercial calcium hydroxide powder with six additives in the laboratory roll press. The resulting compacts were crushed and sieved in order to achieve the assumed sieve fraction. Based on the obtained results, basic parameters of the process of formation of composite sorbent have been determined. Both, the selected composite sorbents fractions and additives were subsequently subjected to textural studies (determination of the specific surface area and porosity and sorption capacity performance. In addition, for the better interpretation of the results, thermogravimetric studies were carried out both for the additives and composite sorbents, as well as the grain size distribution of the additives. The results of the physicochemical tests of the obtained composite sorbents were compared with analogic results from the study on fine-grained hydroxide sorbent without additives and carbonate sorbent. The presented results showed that in a two-step granulation process it is possible to obtain the granular Ca(OH2 sorbent, as well as composite sorbents possessing better SO2 sorption capacity in comparison to the powder Ca(OH2 and/or to the calcium carbonate sorbent. This can be attributed to the combination of capability of the sorbent to appropriate thermal decomposition and the formation of a group of pores in the range of 0.07-0.3 microns.

  7. Proceedings of a specialists' meeting on application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance: Implications for the management of radioactive materials. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The international principles developed to help in the regulation and deregulation of low-activity materials require elaboration, and there is a need for guidance regarding their practical application. The objectives of the meeting, organized by the Agency were: To provide a forum in which concerns and issues concerned with the regulatory management of materials containing very low levels of radioactivity can be discussed; to develop strategies for resolving the issues through international action; to develop advice for Agency work in drafting guidance material for safety standards

  8. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  9. Operational decision support for material management in continuous mining systems : From simulation concept to practical full-scale implementations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleymani Shishvan, M.; Benndorf, J.

    2017-01-01

    Material management in opencast mines is concerned with planning, organizing, and control of the flow of materials from their extraction points to destinations. It can be strongly affected by operational decisions that have to be made during the production process. To date, little research has

  10. Matrix molecularly imprinted mesoporous sol-gel sorbent for efficient solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Kehagia, Maria; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2016-03-31

    Highly selective and efficient chloramphenicol imprinted sol-gel silica based inorganic polymeric sorbent (sol-gel MIP) was synthesized via matrix imprinting approach for the extraction of chloramphenicol in milk. Chloramphenicol was used as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) as the functional precursors, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as the cross-linker, isopropanol as the solvent/porogen, and HCl as the sol-gel catalyst. Non-imprinted sol-gel polymer (sol-gel NIP) was synthesized under identical conditions in absence of template molecules for comparison purpose. Both synthesized materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, which unambiguously confirmed their significant structural and morphological differences. The synthesized MIP and NIP materials were evaluated as sorbents for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) of chloramphenicol in milk. The effect of critical extraction parameters (flow rate, elution solvent, sample and eluent volume, selectivity coefficient, retention capacity) was studied in terms of retention and desorption of chloramphenicol. Competition and cross reactivity tests have proved that sol-gel MIP sorbent possesses significantly higher specific retention and enrichment capacity for chloramphenicol compared to its non-imprinted analogue. The maximum imprinting factor (IF) was found as 9.7, whereas the highest adsorption capacity of chloramphenicol by sol-gel MIP was 23 mg/g. The sol-gel MIP was found to be adequately selective towards chloramphenicol to provide the necessary minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg set forth by European Commission after analysis by LC-MS even without requiring time consuming solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step, often considered as an integral part in solid phase extraction work-flow. Intra and

  11. Microwave synthesis of nanostructured oxide sorbents doped with lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrofanov, Andrey A., E-mail: mitrofanov-a@icloud.com; Silyavka, Elena S.; Shilovskikh, Vladimir V.; Kolonitckii, Petr D.; Sukhodolov, Nikolai G.; Selyutin, Artem A., E-mail: selutin@inbox.ru [Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    A number of nanostructured mesoporous oxide systems based on aluminum oxide, doped with lanthanide ions have been obtained in this study. Structure and morphology of oxides obtained have been examined by X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy. The surface area of the samples was determined by the BET method. The dependence of the adsorption of insulin on synthesized oxides from the concentration was investigated. The containing of insulin in solutions after adsorption was determined by the Bradford method. The isotherms of adsorption of insulin on resulting oxide sorbents were plotted, the dependence capacity of the sorption of insulin from the lanthanide dopant was determined.

  12. The use of clays as sorbents and catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    The paper attempts to show the structural, physical and chemical properties of clay minerals relate to their laboratory, industrial and environmental uses as sorbents and catalysts. A brief review of the formulae and structures of clays and their relationship to their chemical and physical properties follows. Clay minerals are also useful in environmental protection as they can adsorb crude oils from spills and they are used, sometimes mixed into concrete, as containment barriers for radionuclides caesium 137 and strontium 90. Clay soils can also act as natural barriers to the migration of radionuclides in the environment

  13. Development of Teaching Materials Based Interactive Scientific Approach towards the Concept of Social Arithmetic For Junior High School Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, M. K.; Pujiastuti, H.; Assaat, L. D.

    2017-02-01

    The scientific approach is the characteristic of the curriculum 2013. In learning to use a scientific approach, learning process consists of five stages: observe, ask, try, reasoning and convey. In the curriculum 2013 the source of learning is a book, print media, electronic and about nature or relevant learning resources. Most of the print instructional materials on the market does not appropriate in the curriculum 2013. Teaching materials with a scientific approach, beside that to the teaching materials should motivate students to not be lazy, do not get bored, and more eager to learn mathematics. So the development of scientific-based interactive teaching materials that if this approach to answer the challenge. The purpose of this research is to create teaching materials appropriate to the curriculum 2013 that is based on scientific approach and interactive. This study used research and developed methodology. The results of this study are scientific based interactive teaching materials can be used by learners. That can be used by learners are then expected to study teaching materials can be used in android smartphone and be used portable.

  14. The use of multi representative learning materials: definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic, and practice in analyzing students’ concept understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilaningsih, E.; Wulandari, C.; Supartono; Kasmui; Alighiri, D.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to compose learning material which contains definitive macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic to analyze students’ conceptual understanding in acid-base learning materials. This research was conducted in eleven grade, natural science class, senior high school 1 (SMAN 1) Karangtengah, Demak province, Indonesia as the low level of students’ conceptual understanding and the high level of students’ misconception. The data collecting technique is by test to assess the cognitive aspect, questionnaire to assess students’ responses to multi representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic), and observation to assess students’ macroscopic aspects. Three validators validate the multi-representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic). The results of the research show that the multi-representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopes, symbolic) being used is valid in the average score 62 of 75. The data is analyzed using the descriptive qualitative method. The results of the research show that 72.934 % students understand, 7.977 % less understand, 8.831 % do not understand, and 10.256 % misconception. In comparison, the second experiment class shows 54.970 % students understand, 5.263% less understand, 11.988 % do not understand, 27.777 % misconception. In conclusion, the application of multi representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic) can be used to analyze the students’ understanding of acid-base materials.

  15. SORBENT/UREA SLURRY INJECTION FOR SIMULTANEOUS SO2/NOX REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of sorbent injection and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) technologies has been investigated for simulataneous SO2/NOx removal. A slurry composed of a urea-based solution and various Ca-based sorbents was injected at a range of tempera...

  16. Synthesis of hydroxide type sorbents from industry high-iron wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanenko, E.K.; Smirnov, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    Article presents the results of studies on possibility of using of technological iron containing wastes for the obtaining of hydroxide type sorbents in granular form. The scheme of technology of synthesis of hydroxide type sorbents from high-iron wastes is elaborated.

  17. Evaluation of hydrous ferric oxide loaded activated carbon as a granular composite sorbent for radiostrontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A composite sorbent was prepared in granular form by depositing hydrous ferric oxide inside the pores of activated carbon. The composite sorbent was found to show excellent sorption of radiostrontium in the presence of high sodium concentration under alkaline conditions. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Coating membranes for a sorbent-based artificial liver: adsorption characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H. W.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Bantjes, A.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques are described for the coating of sorbents to be used in an artificial liver support system based on mixed sorbent bed hemoperfusion. Activated charcoal has been coated with cellulose acetate (CA) by solvent evaporation. With Amberlite XAD-4, the Wurster technique was used for coating with

  19. Cross-linked poly(tetrahydrofuran) as promising sorbent for organic solvent/oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yati, Ilker; Ozan Aydin, Gulsah; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal, E-mail: hayalsonmez@gtu.edu.tr

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Poly(tetrahydrofuran) based sorbents were prepared. • PTHF sorbents demonstrate reusability at least for ten times. • PTHF based sorbents show fast and quick absorption-desorption process. • 19 g of oil can be absorbed by 1 g of PTHF based sorbent. - Abstract: In this study, a series of different molecular weights of poly(tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), which is one of the most important commercial polymers around the world, was condensed with tris[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]isocyanurate (ICS) to generate a cross-linked 3-dimensional network in order to obtain organic solvent/oil sorbents having high swelling capacity. The prepared sorbents show high and fast swelling capacity in oils such as dichloromethane (DCM), tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone, t-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), gasoline, euro diesel, and crude oil. The recovery of the absorbed oils from contaminated surfaces, especially from water, and the regeneration of the sorbents after several applications are effective. The characterization and thermal properties of the sorbents are identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA), respectively. The new usage area of PTHF is emerged by the preparation of PTHF-based network structure with high oil absorption capacity and having excellent reusability as an oil absorbent for the removal of organic liquids from the spill site.

  20. Development of New Potassium Carbonate Sorbent for CO2 Capture under Real Flue Gas Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Esmaili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of a new potassium carbonateon alumina support sorbent prepared by impregnating K2CO3 with an industrial grade of Al2O3 support was investigated. The CO2 capture capacity was measured using real flue gas with 8% CO2 and 12% H2O in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 65 °C using breakthrough curves. The developed sorbent showed an adsorption capacity of 66.2 mgCO2/(gr sorbent. The stability of sorbent capture capacity was higher than the reference sorbent. The SO2 impurity decreased sorbent capacity about 10%. The free carbon had a small effect on sorbent capacity after 5 cycles. After 5 cycles of adsorption and regeneration, the changes in the pore volume and surface area were 0.020 cm3/gr and 5.5 m2/gr respectively. Small changes occurred in the pore size distribution and surface area of sorbent after 5 cycles.

  1. Removing Copper from Contaminated Water Using Activated Carbon Sorbent by Continuous Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Salmani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A major concern of human being is accumulation and toxicity of heavy metals in their body. Copper is a heavy metal ion that in concentration of 2 mg/l can cause numerous complications. Different treatment methods have been proposed for removing metals from contaminated water by researchers. Among these methods, sorption seems a better method with high removal efficiency. In this study, conditions for removal of copper ions by activated carbon sorbent were studied with continuous flow. Materials & Methods: This was a laboratory – experimental study. A 20mg/l solution of copper ions was prepared and passed through a 5 × 10 cm column with average output rate of 1.85 ml/min. Output of column was sampled every 30 minutes and the remaining amount of copper ion in each sample was measured by flame atomic absorption. Results: The empty bed volume (EBV was equal to 138 ml. The highest removal efficiency was 99.7 percent at 127 minutes. From equilibrium time, the removal efficiency was constant with time. The adsorption capacity of activated carbon was 0.25mg.g-1. The isotherm study indicated that the sorption data can be obeyed by both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms (R2>0.95 but Langmuir model had higher agreement with this experimental data (R2= 0.988. Conclusion: The binding of ions to the sorbent in the adsorption process is extremely important. For this column 62.5 minutes after filling was appropriate, so the highest removal efficiency was obtained. Equilibrium time was dependent on the speed of influent through the column in the continuous flow. For selected column, the rate of 1.85 ml/min is a good performance.

  2. Evaluation of single-walled carbon nanohorns as sorbent in dispersive micro solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Soto, Juan Manuel; Cardenas, Soledad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building, Campus de Rabanales, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1meobj@uco.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building, Campus de Rabanales, University of Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of single walled carbon nanohorns in dispersive solid phase microextraction has been evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was characterized for the extraction of PAHs from waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single walled carbon nanohorns were better extractant than carbon nanotubes and carbon nanocones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The limits of detection were adequate for the target analytes in environmental waters. - Abstract: A new dispersive micro solid-phase extraction method which uses single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) as sorbent is proposed. The procedure combines the excellent sorbent properties of the nanoparticles with the efficiency of the dispersion of the material in the sample matrix. Under these conditions, the interaction with the analytes is maximized. The determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was selected as model analytical problem. Two dispersion strategies were evaluated, being the functionalization via microwave irradiation better than the use of a surfactant. The extraction was accomplished by adding 1 mL of oxidized SWHNs (o-SWNHs) dispersion to 10 mL of water sample. After extraction, the mixture was passed through a disposable Nylon filter were the nanoparticles enriched with the PAHs were retained. The elution was carried out with 100 {mu}L of hexane. The limits of detection achieved were between 30 and 60 ng L{sup -1} with a precision (as repeatability) better than 12.5%. The recoveries obtained for the analytes in three different water samples were acceptable in all instances. The performance of o-SWNHs was favourably compared with that provided by carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes and thermally treated carbon nanocones.

  3. The correlation between concept mastery and stage of moral reasoning student using socio-scientific issues on reproductive system material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, T. A.; Saefudin; Priyandoko, D.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to analyze the correlation between concept mastery and moral stages of students. The research method using a correlational study with stratified random sampling technique. The population in this research is all of eleventh grade students in Senior High School Bandung. Data were collected from 297 eleventh grade students of three Senior High School in Bandung with use the instrument in the form of examination and stage of moral reasoning questionnaire. The stage of moral reasoning in this research consists of two student’s moral reasoning categories based on 16 questionnaire as the indicators from Jones et al. (2007). The results of this research shows that the average of eleventh grade student’s moral reasoning stage is the advanced stage. The results of this research shows that the concept mastery and the stage of moral reasoning indicates that there are 0.370 0f a positive correlation. This research provides an overview of eleventh grade student about concept mastery and stage of moral reasoning using socio-scientific issues.

  4. Investigations on construction material and construction concepts in order to obtain dose-reducing effects in the dismantling of the biological shield of a 1300 MWe-PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, A.; Jungwirth, D.; Knell, M.; Schnitzler, L.

    1984-04-01

    Numerical values of neutron fluxes, activations, dose rates etc. as a function of characteristic values of materials required for optimization purposes to reduce the radiation effect of the biological shield of a PWR are not available. Design concepts are presented for biological shields of PWRs made of concrete with respect to both the most suitable application of materials and the design principles aiming at reduced radiation exposure as compared to present designs during entering, waste disposal and ultimate storage. To evaluate the present-state design the above values have been calculated. Suggested alternative designs are biological shields with selective material application, built from precast elements with or without boron carbide layer arranged in front of it. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Investigation of tritium inventory and permeation behaviour in the liquid breeder blanket concept of Demo as a function of design and material parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominetti, S.; Perujo, A.; Reiter, F.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical code has been used to estimate the time dependence of tritium inventory and of tritium transport into the coolant, into the first wall boxes and through the liquid breeder in the Pb-17Li blanket concept of DEMO. Several issues in both design and material parameters have been considered and the effect on inventory and permeation of coatings with low surface recombination coefficient and/or low diffusivity at various surfaces of the structural material has been studied. TiC has been chosen as reference material for these calculations and a general database on coating efficiency as a function of its properties has also been produced on the basis of TiC data

  6. The material concept in German light water reactors. Contribution to plant safety economic efficiency and failure provision; Das Werkstoffkonzept in deutschen Leichtwasserreaktoren. Beitrag zur Anlagensicherheit, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Schadensvorsorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilg, Ulf [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH (Germany). Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg; Koenig, Guenter [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH (Germany). Kernkraftwerk Neckarwestheim; Erve, Manfred [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In the design and construction stage of nuclear power plants relevant decisions may affect the service life of a component, and thus influence safety and availability of the plant. The German ''basic safety concept'' has an important effect on the quality of the BOL (begin of life) status. Materials selection and qualification are of significant importance for the component lifetime and the profitability of the plant. Examples for the implementation of this concept are demonstrated for the steam generator tubing material Incoloy 800, the inside-plated ferritic compound tubes as control rod drive mechanism nozzle through the RPV head of BWR plants that are not susceptible for corrosion enhanced cracking that was observed for Inconel 600 tubing. A fundamental failure analysis of crack formation in Ti stabilized austenitic pipes of BWR plants found since 1993 were definitely identified as intergranular stress corrosion caused by a local sensitization of the welding process induced overheated structured in the heat affected zone. This allowed target-oriented mitigation measures. The safety culture implemented in German nuclear plants in connection with the break preclusion or integrity concept, respectively, including a continuous actualization with respect to the state-of-the art are the technical prerequisites for damage precaution and possible life time extension.

  7. Proposals for the Future Development of the Russian Automated Federal Information System for Nuclear Material Control and Accounting: The Universal Reporting Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyanov, Alexander; Pitel, Victor; Kasumova, Leila; Babcock, Rose A.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.

    2004-01-01

    Development of the automated Russian Federation Federal Information System for Nuclear Material Control and Accounting (FIS) started in 1996. From the beginning, the creation of the FIS was based on the concept of obtaining data from the material balance areas of the organizations, which would enable the system to collect detailed information on nuclear material. In December 2000, the organization-level summarized reporting method was mandated by the Russian Federation and subsequently implemented for all organizations. Analysis of long-term FIS objectives, reporting by all the MBAs in Russia, showed that the present summarized reporting approach decreed by regulations posed a fair number of problems. We need alternative methods that allow the FIS to obtain more detailed information on nuclear material but which accurately reflect the technical and economic resources available to Russian organizations. One possible solution is the universal reporting method. In August 2003, the proposals of the FIS working group to transition to the universal reporting method were approved at the fourth meeting of the Joint Coordinating Committee for Implementation of the Russian Federation and U.S. Government-to-Government Agreement on Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Material Physical Protection, Control and Accounting (JCC). One of the important elements of universal reporting is that organizations handling nuclear material will establish 'reporting areas' in cooperation with MinAtom of Russia. A reporting area may consist of one MBA, several MBAs, or even an entire organization. This paper will discuss the universal reporting concept and its major objectives and methods for the FIS.

  8. Effect of characteristic of sorbents on their sulfur capture capability at a fluidized bed condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leming Cheng; Bo Chen; Ni Liu; Zhongyang Luo; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Clean Energy and Environment Engineering Key Lab of Ministry of Education, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering

    2004-05-01

    This research was intent for finding relationships among physical and/or chemical properties of sorbents and their sulfur capture capability at a fluidized bed condition. Three limestones and two seashells were chosen as a SO{sub 2} sorbent. Characteristics of sorbents were evaluated based on atomic absorption spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope and mercury-penetration porosimeter analyses. Their sulfur capture capabilities were measured on a fluidized bed test system at 800, 850, 900 and 950{sup o}C. Conversion of the sobents was computed and analyzed depending on the sorbents' morphology and microstructure analysis. Results showed pore size and specific surface might have large influence on sorbents' desulfurization ability in the range of 800 950{sup o}C. 14 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Preparation and characterisation of a sorbent suitable for technetium separation from environmental matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosova, A.; Rajec, P.; Reich, M.

    2003-01-01

    A sorbent based on Aliquat 336 anchored on hydrophobised silica gel support as an ion exchanger was prepared. Prepared sorbent was suitable for separation of technetium-99 from environmental matrices. The sorbent properties, sorption characteristic and distribution coefficient of 99 mTcO 4 - in various medium was studied. The chemical yield of Tc during separation process was determined using 99m Tc tracer and gamma measurement. Typical sorption recoveries of Tc for this sorbent from 0.1 M HNO 3 were more than 98 %. Typical desorption recoveries using 8 M HNO 3 were in the range 92 - 96 %. The commercial TEVA Spec resin from Eichrom Industries for comparison purpose was used as well. It was found that the prepared sorbent is suitable for separation of technetium from environmental matrices. (authors)

  10. A Non-Ventilated Solar Façade Concept Based on Selective and Transparent Insulation Material Integration: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Čekon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new solar façade concept based on transparent insulation and a selective absorber is proposed, tested and compared with conventional insulation and a non-selective type of absorber, respectively. The presented study focuses on an experimental non-ventilated solar type of façade exposed to solar radiation both in the laboratory and in outdoor tests. Due to the high solar absorbance level of the façade, high- and low-emissivity contributions were primarily analysed. All of the implemented materials were contrasted from the thermal and optical point of view. An analysis was made of both thermodynamic and steady state procedures affecting the proposed solar façade concept. Experimental full scale tests on real building components were additionally involved during summer monitoring. An indicator of the temperature response generated by solar radiation exposure demonstrates the outdoor performance of the façade is closely related to overheating phenomena. From the thermal point of view, the proposed transparent insulation and selective absorber concept corresponds to the performance of conventional thermal insulation of identical material thickness; however, the non-selective prototype only provides 50% thermal performance. The results of the solar-based experiments show that with a small-scale experimental prototype, approximately no significant difference is measured when compared with a non-selective absorber type. The only difference was achieved at the maximum of 2.5 K, when the lower temperature was obtained in the solar selective concept. At the full-scale outdoor mode, the results indicate a maximum of 3.0 K difference, however the lower temperature achieves a non-selective approach. This solar façade can actively contribute to the thermal performance of building components during periods of heating.

  11. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlish, John; Thompson, Jeffrey; Dunham, Grant

    2014-09-30

    Owners of fossil fuel-fired power plants face the challenge of measuring stack emissions of trace metals and acid gases at much lower levels than in the past as a result of increasingly stringent regulations. In the United States, the current reference methods for trace metals and halogens are wet-chemistry methods, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 29 and 26 or 26A, respectively. As a possible alternative to the EPA methods, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a novel multielement sorbent trap (MEST) method to be used to sample for trace elements and/or halogens. Sorbent traps offer a potentially advantageous alternative to the existing sampling methods, as they are simpler to use and do not require expensive, breakable glassware or handling and shipping of hazardous reagents. Field tests comparing two sorbent trap applications (MEST-H for hydrochloric acid and MEST-M for trace metals) with the reference methods were conducted at two power plant units fueled by Illinois Basin bituminous coal. For hydrochloric acid, MEST measured concentrations comparable to EPA Method 26A at two power plant units, one with and one without a wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber. MEST-H provided lower detection limits for hydrochloric acid than the reference method. Results from a dry stack unit had better comparability between methods than results from a wet stack unit. This result was attributed to the very low emissions in the latter unit, as well as the difficulty of sampling in a saturated flue gas. Based on these results, the MEST-H sorbent traps appear to be a good candidate to serve as an alternative to Method 26A (or 26). For metals, the MEST trap gave lower detection limits compared to EPA Method 29 and produced comparable data for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cobalt, manganese, selenium, and mercury for most test runs. However, the sorbent material produced elevated blanks for cadmium, nickel, lead, and chromium at levels

  12. Insert Concepts for the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The Material Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit NASA's planned inserts include the Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI). The QMI is a high-gradient Bridgman-type vacuum furnace with quench capabilities used for experiments on directional solidification of metal alloys. The DMI is a vacuum Bridgman-Stockbarger-type furnace for experiments on Fickian and Soret diffusion in liquids. This paper discusses specific design features and performance capabilities of each insert. The paper also presents current prototype QMI hardware analysis and testing activities and selected results.

  13. Solid-phase extraction sorbent consisting of alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants immobilized onto strong cation-exchange polystyrene resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kendra R; Kennedy, Lonnie J; Crick, Eric W; Conte, Eric D

    2002-10-25

    Presented is a solid-phase extraction sorbent material composed of cationic alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants attached to a strong cation-exchange resin via ion-exchange. The original hydrophilic cation-exchange resin is made hydrophobic by covering the surface with alkyl chains from the hydrophobic portion of the surfactant. The sorbent material now has a better ability to extract hydrophobic molecules from aqueous samples. The entire stationary phase (alkyltrimethylammonium surfactant) is removed along with the analyte during the elution step. The elution step requires a mild elution solvent consisting of 0.25 M Mg2+ in a 50% 2-propanol solution. The main advantage of using a removable stationary phase is that traditionally utilized toxic elution solvents such as methylene chloride, which are necessary to efficiently release strongly hydrophobic species from SPE stationary phases, may now be avoided. Also, the final extract is directly compatible with reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The performance of this procedure is presented using pyrene as a test molecule.

  14. Long-Term Stability Testing Results Using Surrogates And Sorbents For Savannah River Site Organic And Aqueous Wastestreams - 10016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, H.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating the long-term stability of various commercially available sorbent materials to solidify two organic surrogate wastestreams (both volatile and nonvolatile), a volatile organic surrogate with a residual aqueous phase, an aqueous surrogate, and an aqueous surrogate with a residual organic phase. The Savannah River Site (SRS) Legacy and F-Canyon plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste surrogates constituted the volatile organic surrogates, and various oils constituted the nonvolatile organic surrogates. The aqueous surrogates included a rainwater surrogate and an aqueous organic surrogate. MSE also evaluated the PUREX surrogate with a residual aqueous component with and without aqueous type sorbent materials. Solidification of the various surrogate wastestreams listed above was performed from 2004 to 2006 at the MSE Test Facility located in Butte, Montana. This paper summarizes the comparison of the initial liquid release test (LRT) values with LRT results obtained during subsequent sampling events in an attempt to understand and define the long-term stability characteristics for the solidified wastestreams.

  15. Evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Sorbents and Catalysts for Control of Ammonia and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Bernadette; Somi, George; Winchester, J. Parker; Grose, Jeffrey; Mulloth, Lila; Perry, Jay L.

    2013-01-01

    Designers of future space vehicles envision simplifying the Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) system by combining the functions of trace contaminant (TC) control and carbon dioxide removal into one swing-bed system. Flow rates and bed sizes of the TC and CO2 systems have historically been very different. There is uncertainty about the ability of trace contaminant sorbents to adsorb adequately in high-flow or short bed length configurations, and to desorb adequately during short vacuum exposures. There is also concern about ambient ammonia levels in the absence of a condensing heat exchanger. In addition, new materials and formulations have become commercially available, formulations never evaluated by NASA for purposes of trace contaminant control. The optimal air revitalization system for future missions may incorporate a swing-bed system for carbon dioxide (CO2) and partial trace contaminant control, with a reduced-size, low-power, targeted trace contaminant system supplying the remaining contaminant removal capability. This paper describes the results of a comparative experimental investigation into materials for trace contaminant control that might be part of such a system. Ammonia sorbents and low temperature carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation catalysts are the foci. The data will be useful to designers of AR systems for future flexible path missions. This is a continuation of work presented in a prior year, with extended test results.

  16. The Enhancement of Students’ Skill in Classifying and Concept Mastery in Salt Hydrolysis Material Through Problem Solving Learning Model

    OpenAIRE

    Safitri, Esty Indriyani; Rosilawati, Ila; Efkar, Tasviri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out effectiveness of problem solving learning model on salt hydrolysis material in improve the skill of classifying and concept mastery. The population of the research was all students in XI science class in SMAN I Way Jepara number in 120 students. The samples were 30 students in XI science 3 class and 30 students in XI science 4 that have equal academic abilities. This research was a quasi experiment using non equivalent (pretest-postest) control grou...

  17. Regional concepts for the energetic utilization of biogenic residual materials exemplified by the county Holzminden; Regionale Konzepte zur energetische Nutzung biogener Reststoffe am Beispiel Landkreis Holzminden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, Thomas [IGLUX Witzenhausen GmbH (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Biomass is one of the most valuable sources of renewable energy since it can be stored and used as a fuel for a variety of conversion technologies. So far mainly renewable raw materials were in the focus of attention in the District of Holzminden, but recently the use of organic residues gained importance since these resources do not compete for land with food production. During the preparation of the climate protection concept of the district, where the regional waste management authority was involved, the relevance of organic residues was clearly determined. Against this background the District of Holzminden contracted an inventory of all organic residues that accrue on a regular basis. This should document the existing material flows in the district and help to initiate a targeted material flow management. The essential public and private players working with these materials should be identified and the quantities they handle should be recorded. Special attention was given to biowaste and green wastes - the treatment of these fractions is only contracted up to 2013 - and residues from countryside preservation from various sources. In addition to the inventory results presented in this paper, first technical and economical assessments to utilize these materials were made.(orig.)

  18. Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-03

    This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

  19. Enhancement of reactivity in Li4SiO4-based sorbents from the nano-sized rice husk ash for high-temperature CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Zhao, Pengfei; Guo, Xin; Li, Yimin; Han, Dongtai; Chao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Li 4 SiO 4 sorbent from nano-sized rice husk ash was prepared and characterized. • The Aerosil and Quartz were comparably used for synthesized Li 4 SiO 4 . • The structure of sorbent was depended on the morphology of heated silicon materials. • The pretreatment sorbent showed increase in the CO 2 uptake and kinetic behavior. • This promising sorbent also maintained higher capacities during the multiple cycles. - Abstract: Using the cost-effective, renewable and nano-sized of citric acid pretreatment rice husk ash (CRHA) as silicon source, high efficient Li 4 SiO 4 (lithium orthosilicate)-based sorbents (CRHA-Li 4 SiO 4 ) for high-temperature CO 2 capture were prepared through the solid-state reaction at lower temperature (700 °C). Two typical raw materials (nano-structured Aerosil and crystalline Quartz powders) were used to synthesize Li 4 SiO 4 sorbents (Aerosil-Li 4 SiO 4 and Quartz-Li 4 SiO 4 ) for comparison purposes. The phase composition behavior, surface area, and morphology of the silicon sources, heat treated raw materials and as-received Li 4 SiO 4 sorbents were studied by analytical techniques. The CO 2 adsorption capacity and adsorption–desorption performance were tested by the thermo-gravimetric analyses (CO 2 atmosphere) and a fixed bed reactor, respectively. Compared with the case of its original samples, the morphology of heat treated raw materials had a greater effect on the phase composition, microstructure, special surface area and CO 2 adsorption properties of their resulting sorbents. Although the calcined Quartz sample maintained the structure of micron particles, its reactivity was not enough to react completely with Li 2 CO 3 . Due to the greater reactivity of nanoparticles, Aerosil-Li 4 SiO 4 presented pure of Li 4 SiO 4 whereas it obtained large particles with dense morphology, which was coming from the pronounced fusing of silica nanoparticles during the calcined process. Conversely, CRHA-Li 4 SiO 4

  20. Ultrathin-shell boron nitride hollow spheres as sorbent for dispersive solid-phase extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meizhen; Xing, Hanzhu; Chen, Xiangfeng; Chen, Fan; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence; Zhao, Rusong; Cheng, Chuange

    2014-11-21

    Boron nitride hollow spheres with ultrathin-shells were synthesized and used as sorbents for dispersive solid-phase extraction of aromatic pollutants at trace levels from environmental water samples. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were selected as target compounds. Sample quantification and detection were performed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Extraction parameters influencing the extraction efficiency were optimized through response surface methodology using the Box-Behnken design. The proposed method achieved good linearity within the concentration range of 0.15-250 ng L(-1) PCBs, low limits of detection (0.04-0.09 ng L(-1), S/N=3:1), good repeatability of the extractions (relative standard deviation, spring waters were analyzed using the developed method. Results demonstrated that the hexagonal boron nitride-based material has significant potential as a sorbent for organic pollutant extraction from environmental water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Humic acid-bonded silica as a novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction of benzo[a]pyrene in edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Dan; Yu Qiongwei; Yin Hongrui; Feng Yuqi

    2007-01-01

    A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent, humic acid-bonded silica (HAS), was prepared. Humic acids (HAs) were grafted onto silica matrices via an amide linkage between humyl chloride and the amido terminus of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS)-silica gel. The resulting material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption analysis. This sorbent exhibits an excellent adsorption capacity for some electron-abundant analytes owing to its peculiar structure. In this paper, we choose benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in oil as a probe to validate the adsorption capacity of the material. Thus a fast, cheap and simple SPE method with humic acid-bonded silica cartridge for edible oil clean-up, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection was established. The effects of experimental variables, such as washing and elution solvents, and the amount of sorbents have been studied. The recoveries of BaP in edible oils spiked at 0.2-100 μg kg -1 were in the range of 78.8-102.7% with relative standard deviations ranging between 1.3 and 9.3%; the limit of detection was -0.06 μg kg -1

  2. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sidney [Hudson, OH

    2011-02-15

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Engineered Structured Sorbents for Atmosphere Revitalization Systems On Board Crewed Space Vehicles and Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.; Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Engineered structured (ES) sorbents are being developed to meet the technical challenges of future crewed space exploration missions. ES sorbents offer the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other physical adsorbents but with greater structural integrity and process control to improve durability and efficiency over packed beds. ES sorbent techniques that are explored include thermally linked and pressure-swing adsorption beds for water-save dehumidification and sorbent-coated metal meshes for residual drying, trace contaminant control, and carbon dioxide control. Results from sub-scale performance evaluations of a thermally linked pressure-swing adsorbent bed and an integrated sub-scale ES sorbent system are discussed.

  4. Physical concepts of materials for novel optoelectronic device applications II: Device physics and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 28-Nov. 2, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razeghi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on physical concepts for materials for novel optoelectronic device applications encompasses the device physics and applications including visible, IR, and far-IR sources, optoelectronic quantum devices, the physics and applications of high-Tc superconducting materials, photodetectors and modulators, and the electronic properties of heterostructures. Other issues addressed include semiconductor waveguides for optical switching, wide band-gap semiconductors, Si and Si-Ge alloys, transport phenomena in heterostructures and quantum wells, optoelectronic integrated circuits, nonlinear optical phenomena in bulk and multiple quantum wells, and optoelectronic technologies for microwave applications. Also examined are optical computing, current transport in charge-injection devices, thin films of YBaCuO for electronic applications, indirect stimulated emission at room temperature in the visible range, and a laser with active-element rectangular geometry

  5. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures. Structural response and failure analysis: ISPAN modules users manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Ten; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.

    1992-01-01

    The ISPAN Program (Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis) is an interactive design tool that is intended to provide a means of performing simple and self contained preliminary analysis of aircraft primary structures made of composite materials. The program combines a series of modules with the finite element code DIAL as its backbone. Four ISPAN Modules were developed and are documented. These include: (1) flat stiffened panel; (2) curved stiffened panel; (3) flat tubular panel; and (4) curved geodesic panel. Users are instructed to input geometric and material properties, load information and types of analysis (linear, bifurcation buckling, or post-buckling) interactively. The program utilizing this information will generate finite element mesh and perform analysis. The output in the form of summary tables of stress or margins of safety, contour plots of loads or stress, and deflected shape plots may be generalized and used to evaluate specific design.

  6. Application of lightweight materials in structure concept design of large-scale solar energy unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Lv, Shengli; Guan, XiQi

    2017-09-01

    Carbon fiber composites and film materials can be effectively used in light aircraft structures, especially for solar unmanned aerial vehicles. The use of light materials can reduce the weight of the aircraft, but also can effectively improve the aircraft's strength and stiffness. The structure of the large aspect ratio solar energy UAV was analyzed in detail, taking Solar-impulse solar aircraft as an example. The solar energy UAV has a wing aspect ratio greater than 20, and the detailed digital model of the wing structure including beam, ribs and skin was built, also the Finite Element Method was applied to analyze the static and dynamic performance of the structure. The upper skin of the wing is covered with silicon solar cells, while the lower skin is light and transparent film. The single beam truss form of carbon fiber lightweight material is used in the wing structure. The wing beam is a box beam with rectangular cross sections. The box beam connected the front parts and after parts of the ribs together. The fuselage of the aircraft was built by space truss structure. According to the static and dynamic analysis with Finite Element method, it was found that the aircraft has a small wingtip deflection relative to the wingspan in the level flight state. The first natural frequency of the wing structure is pretty low, which is closed to the gust load.

  7. Operational Decision Support for Material Management in Continuous Mining Systems: From Simulation Concept to Practical Full-Scale Implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Soleymani Shishvan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Material management in opencast mines is concerned with planning, organizing, and control of the flow of materials from their extraction points to destinations. It can be strongly affected by operational decisions that have to be made during the production process. To date, little research has focused on the application of simulation modeling as a powerful supportive tool for decision making in such systems. Practical experiences from implementing a simulation model of a mine for the operational support on an industrial scale are not known to the authors. This paper presents the extension of a developed stochastic simulation model by the authors from a conceptual stage (TRL4 to a new Technology Readiness Level (TRL 6 by implementing it in an industrially relevant environment. A framework for modeling, simulation, and validation of the simulation model applied to two large opencast lignite mines is presented in detail. Operational implementation issues, experiences, and challenges in practical applications are discussed. Furthermore, the strength of applying the simulation modeling as an operational decision support for material management in coal mining is demonstrated. Results of the case studies are used to describe the details of the framework, and to illustrate the strength and limitations of its application.

  8. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. Testing conducted previously confirmed that the reaction rate and achievable CO{sub 2} capacity of sodium carbonate decreased with increasing temperature, and that the global rate of reaction of sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate increased with an increase in both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O concentrations. Energy balance calculations indicated that the rate of heat removal from the particle surface may determine the reaction rate for a particular particle system. This quarter, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted which indicated that calcination of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures as high as 200 C did not cause a significant decrease in activity in subsequent carbonation testing. When sodium bicarbonate was subjected to a five cycle calcination/carbonation test, activity declined slightly over the first two cycles but was constant thereafter. TGA tests were also conducted with two other potential sorbents. Potassium carbonate was found to be less active than sodium carbonate, at conditions of interest in preliminary TGA tests. Sodium carbonate monohydrate showed negligible activity. Testing was also conducted in a 2-inch internal diameter quartz fluidized-bed reactor system. A five cycle test demonstrated that initial removals of 10 to 15 percent of the carbon dioxide in a simulated flue gas could be achieved. The carbonation reaction proceeded at temperatures as low as 41 C. Future work by TGA and in fixed

  9. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO(sub 2) as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO(sub 2) stream after condensation of water vapor. Testing conducted previously confirmed that the reaction rate and achievable CO(sub 2) capacity of sodium carbonate decreased with increasing temperature, and that the global rate of reaction of sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate increased with an increase in both CO(sub 2) and H(sub 2)O concentrations. Energy balance calculations indicated that the rate of heat removal from the particle surface may determine the reaction rate for a particular particle system. This quarter, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted which indicated that calcination of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures as high as 200 C did not cause a significant decrease in activity in subsequent carbonation testing. When sodium bicarbonate was subjected to a five cycle calcination/carbonation test, activity declined slightly over the first two cycles but was constant thereafter. TGA tests were also conducted with two other potential sorbents. Potassium carbonate was found to be less active than sodium carbonate, at conditions of interest in preliminary TGA tests. Sodium carbonate monohydrate showed negligible activity. Testing was also conducted in a 2-inch internal diameter quartz fluidized-bed reactor system. A five cycle test demonstrated that initial removals of 10 to 15 percent of the carbon dioxide in a simulated flue gas could be achieved. The carbonation reaction proceeded at temperatures as low as 41 C. Future work by TGA and in fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and transport

  10. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO(sub X) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO(sub 3) formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO(sub X) control than at removing SO(sub 3) formed in the furnace. The SO(sub 3) removal results were presented in the

  11. Thermochemical Characterizations of Novel Vermiculite-LiCl Composite Sorbents for Low-Temperature Heat Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To store low-temperature heat below 100 °C, novel composite sorbents were developed by impregnating LiCl into expanded vermiculite (EVM in this study. Five kinds of composite sorbents were prepared using different salt concentrations, and the optimal sorbent for application was selected by comparing both the sorption characteristics and energy storage density. Textural properties of composite sorbents were obtained by extreme-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (ER-SEM and an automatic mercury porosimeter. After excluding two composite sorbents which would possibly exhibit solution leakage in practical thermal energy storage (TES system, thermochemical characterizations were implemented through simulative sorption experiments at 30 °C and 60% RH. Analyses of thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC curves indicate that water uptake of EVM/LiCl composite sorbents is divided into three parts: physical adsorption of EVM, chemical adsorption of LiCl crystal, and liquid–gas absorption of LiCl solution. Energy storage potential was evaluated by theoretical calculation based on TGA/DSC curves. Overall, EVMLiCl20 was selected as the optimal composite sorbent with water uptake of 1.41 g/g, mass energy storage density of 1.21 kWh/kg, and volume energy storage density of 171.61 kWh/m3.

  12. Development of the advanced coolside sorbent injection process for SO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withum, J.A.; Maskew, J.T.; Rosenhoover, W.A. [Consol, Inc., Library, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a low-capital-cost process capable of over 90% SO{sub 2} removal as an economically attractive option for compliance with the Clean Air Act. The Advanced Coolside Process uses a contactor to simultaneously remove fly ash and saturate the flue gas with water, followed by sorbent injection into the highly humid flue gas and collection of the sorbent by the existing particulate collector High sorbent utilization is achieved by sorbent recycle. The original performance targets of 90% SO{sub 2} removal and 60% sorbent utilization were exceeded in 1000 acfm pilot plant operations using commercial hydrated lime as the only sorbent. Process optimization simplified the process equipment, resulting in significant cost reduction. Recent accomplishments include completion of equipment testing and sorbent optimization, a waste management study, and a long-term performance test. An economic evaluation for the optimized process projects capital costs 55% to 60 % less than those of limestone forced oxidation wet FGD. The projected levelized control cost is 15% to 35% lower than wet FGD (25% lower for a 260 MWe plant burning a 2.5% sulfur coal), depending on plant size and coal sulfur content.

  13. Organically functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 as sorbents for removal of selected pharmaceuticals from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, Tung Xuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seo-Young [International Environmental Research Center (IERC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Hyup [Water Environment Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Heechul, E-mail: hcchoi@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} SBA-15 grafted with aminopropyl, hydroxymethyl, and trimethylsilyl groups as sorbents. {yields} Sorbents for removal of a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals from water. {yields} Hydroxymethyl-SBA-15 shows similar adsorption efficiency like SBA-15. {yields} Aminopropyl-SBA-15 makes increase for clofibric acid, diclofenac, decrease for atenolol, estrone, trimethoprim. {yields} Trimethylsilyl-SBA-15 makes increase for 9 compounds; 7 compounds from 70.6% to 98.9%. - Abstract: Mesoporous silica SBA-15 and its postfunctionalized counterparts with hydroxymethyl (HM-SBA-15), aminopropyl (AP-SBA-15), and trimethylsilyl (TMS-SBA-15) were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The removal of a mixture of 12 selected pharmaceuticals was investigated by batch adsorption experiments onto SBA-15 and the grafted materials. SBA-15 showed to have moderate adsorption affinity with amino-containing (atenolol, trimethoprim) and hydrophobic pharmaceuticals, but it displayed minimal adsorption affinity toward hydrophilic compounds. HM-SBA-15 was analogous with SBA-15 in terms of the adsorption efficiency toward all pharmaceuticals. AP-SBA-15 exhibited an increase in the adsorption of two acidic compounds (clofibric acid, diclofenac) but a decrease in the adsorption of estrone and the two amino-containing compounds. Among the grafted materials, TMS-SBA-15 had the highest adsorption affinity toward most pharmaceuticals. Moreover, the adsorption of nine pharmaceuticals to TMS-SBA-15 was significantly higher than that to SBA-15; seven of which showed the removal percentages from 70.6% to 98.9% onto TMS-SBA-15. The number of pharmaceuticals showing high adsorption efficiency onto TMS-SBA-15 did not alter significantly as the pH changed in the range of 5.5-7.6. The results suggest that TMS-SBA-15 is a promising material for the removal of pharmaceuticals

  14. Organically functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 as sorbents for removal of selected pharmaceuticals from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Tung Xuan; Kang, Seo-Young; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Heechul

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → SBA-15 grafted with aminopropyl, hydroxymethyl, and trimethylsilyl groups as sorbents. → Sorbents for removal of a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals from water. → Hydroxymethyl-SBA-15 shows similar adsorption efficiency like SBA-15. → Aminopropyl-SBA-15 makes increase for clofibric acid, diclofenac, decrease for atenolol, estrone, trimethoprim. → Trimethylsilyl-SBA-15 makes increase for 9 compounds; 7 compounds from 70.6% to 98.9%. - Abstract: Mesoporous silica SBA-15 and its postfunctionalized counterparts with hydroxymethyl (HM-SBA-15), aminopropyl (AP-SBA-15), and trimethylsilyl (TMS-SBA-15) were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption-desorption measurement, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The removal of a mixture of 12 selected pharmaceuticals was investigated by batch adsorption experiments onto SBA-15 and the grafted materials. SBA-15 showed to have moderate adsorption affinity with amino-containing (atenolol, trimethoprim) and hydrophobic pharmaceuticals, but it displayed minimal adsorption affinity toward hydrophilic compounds. HM-SBA-15 was analogous with SBA-15 in terms of the adsorption efficiency toward all pharmaceuticals. AP-SBA-15 exhibited an increase in the adsorption of two acidic compounds (clofibric acid, diclofenac) but a decrease in the adsorption of estrone and the two amino-containing compounds. Among the grafted materials, TMS-SBA-15 had the highest adsorption affinity toward most pharmaceuticals. Moreover, the adsorption of nine pharmaceuticals to TMS-SBA-15 was significantly higher than that to SBA-15; seven of which showed the removal percentages from 70.6% to 98.9% onto TMS-SBA-15. The number of pharmaceuticals showing high adsorption efficiency onto TMS-SBA-15 did not alter significantly as the pH changed in the range of 5.5-7.6. The results suggest that TMS-SBA-15 is a promising material for the removal of pharmaceuticals from aqueous phase

  15. Highly stable and regenerable Mn-based/SBA-15 sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.M.; Liu, B.S.; Zhang, Y.; Guo, Y.H.; Wan, Z.Y.; Subhan, Fazle

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A series of mesoporous Cu x Mn y O z /SBA-15 sorbents were fabricated for hot coal gas desulfurization. ► 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 sorbent with high breakthrough sulfur capacity is high stable and regenerable. ► Utilization of SBA-15 constrained the sintering and pulverization of sorbents. - Abstract: A series of mesoporous xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents with different Cu/Mn atomic ratios were prepared by wet impregnation method and their desulfurization performance in hot coal gas was investigated in a fixed-bed quartz reactor in the range of 700–850 °C. The successive nine desulfurization–regeneration cycles at 800 °C revealed that 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 presented high performance with durable regeneration ability due to the high dispersion of Mn 2 O 3 particles incorporated with a certain amount of copper oxides. The breakthrough sulfur capacity of 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 observed 800 °C is 13.8 g S/100 g sorbents, which is remarkably higher than these of 40 wt%LaFeO 3 /SBA-15 (4.8 g S/100 g sorbents) and 50 wt%LaFe 2 O x /MCM-41 (5.58 g S/100 g sorbents) used only at 500–550 °C. This suggested that the loading of Mn 2 O 3 active species with high thermal stability to SBA-15 support significantly increased sulfur capacity at relatively higher sulfidation temperature. The fresh and used xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents were characterized by means of BET, XRD, XPS, XAES, TG/DSC and HRTEM techniques, confirmed that the structure of the sorbents remained intact before and after hot coal gas desulfurization.

  16. Projects for the implementation of science technology society approach in basic concept of natural science course as application of optical and electrical instruments’ material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satria, E.

    2018-03-01

    Preservice teachers in primary education should be well equipped to meet the challenges of teaching primary science effectively in 21century. The purpose of this research was to describe the projects for the implementation of Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach in Basic Concept of Natural Science course as application of optical and electrical instruments’ material by the preservice teachers in Elementary Schools Teacher Education Program. One of the reasons is the lack of preservice teachers’ ability in making projects for application of STS approach and optical and electrical instruments’ material in Basic Concept of Natural Science course. This research applied descriptive method. The instrument of the research was the researcher himself. The data were gathered through observation and documentation. Based on the results of the research, it was figured out that preservice teachers, in groups, were creatively and successful to make the projects of optical and electrical instruments assigned such as projector and doorbell. It was suggested that the construction of the instruments should be better (fixed and strong structure) and more attractive for both instruments, and used strong light source, high quality images, and it could use speaker box for projector, power battery, and heat sink for electrical instruments.

  17. Cognitive stereotypes, forming the concept “business lady” in naïve world picture (on the material of Russian and German languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badanyan Irina Felixovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On the material of modern media texts in Russian and German it is described linguacultural specificity of the concept “business lady” through the cognitive system of stereotypes, reflecting the typical notions of modern business lady in the naive picture of the world. The practical material for the article was the text information, analytical and business publications, published in the print or electronic media in Russian and German. The study implied the methods of frame modeling and contextual analysis. It is identified cognitive layers of the concept, investigated the specificity of its lexical and semantic representations. On the basis of the selected cognitive signs frame structure “business lady” is considered as a set of slots that objectifies the typical signs of a business lady, typical of Russian and German world pictures. It was found that the stereotypical image of a business lady has a certain set of features – professional and moral qualities, intellectual ability, education, behavior, appearance, age, etc. Thus the formation of a business lady’s image in media texts takes place in close connection with the formation of stereotypes about women in the field of business relations, i.e. relying on certain standardized representation of business lady, which are fixed in the public mind.

  18. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  19. Concept of perceptual carrying capacity and its use in the creation of promotional materials of tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Mokrý

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to introduce results of research of perceptual carrying capacity of selected area. Concept of perceptual tourist carrying capacity aims to find the number of visitors of tourist destination that the visitor is willing to accept before deciding to prefer travelling to another tourist destination. In order to determine the perceptual carrying capacity the visual method is used. The photos of destination that depict different level of visitors are presented to respondents when using this method. The primary research method used in this investigation was the questionnaire survey which was conducted via online questionnaires. The questionnaire used computer-generated images that depict different number of visitors of the particular destination – nature trail around the church of St. John of Nepomuk in Žďár nad Sázavou (UNESCO monument. The questionnaire also contained samples of photos taken from photo gallery section of CzechTourism agency (photo.czechtourism.com, which were used to determine the preferred destination for recreation. The survey was conducted within the period from May 2012 to July 2012 on a sample of 736 respondents from The Czech Republic.

  20. Selection of the reference concept for the surface examination stations in the fuels and materials examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, G.B.; Nash, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    The prototype surface examination station for the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) will use closed circuit television (CCTV) for routine modes of operation along with a nuclear periscope for special examination needs. The CCTV and the nuclear periscope were evaluated against prescribed station requirements and compared in a side-by-side demonstration. A quantitative evaluation of their outputs showed that both systems were capable of meeting surface anomaly detection requirements. The CCTV system was superior in its ability to collect, suppress and present data into a more useful form for the experimenters

  1. Phosphorus organic extragents and sorbents of radioactive a heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, B.A.; Gusarova, N.K.; Malysheva, S.F.; Sukhov, B.G.

    2002-01-01

    A fundamentally new method for activation of phosphorus in heterogenous super-base media including the conditions of mechanical, ultrasonic and X-ray activation, opening up a new way to C-P bond formation is developed. The method is opens principally new possibilities for direct atom-economic synthesis of previously unknown or difficult to obtain organophosphorus compounds (primary, secondary, tertiary phosphines and phosphine oxides) from elemental phosphorus and orga-nyl halides, electrophilic alkenes, acetylenes and oxiranes. Thus, the phosphothion and phosphorylation of organic compounds with elemental phosphorus, phosphines and phosphine oxides opens the principal new approach to the synthesis of specific and selective extra-gents, sorbents and complex-forming agents which can be used in the processes of purification and disinfecting of soil and water from radioactive and heavy metals

  2. Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-16

    A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

  3. Hot fuel gas dedusting after sorbent-based gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Advanced power generation technologies, such as Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC), require gas cleaning at high temperatures in order to meet environmental standards and to achieve high thermal efficiencies. The primary hot gas filtration process, which removes particulates from the cooled raw fuel gas at up to 600{degree}C is the first stage of gas cleaning prior to desulphurization and ammonia removal processes. The dust concentration in the fuel gas downstream of the sorbent processes would be much lower than for the hot gas filtration stage and would have a lower sulphur content and possibly reduced chlorine concentration. The main aim of this project is to define the requirements for a hot gas filter for dedusting fuel gas under these conditions, and to identify a substantially simpler and more cost effective solution using ceramic or metal barrier filters.

  4. Efficient CO2 sorbents based on silica foam with ultra-large mesopores

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng; Fu, Liling; Choi, Brian Hyun; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    A series of high-capacity, amine impregnated sorbents based on a cost-effective silica foam with ultra-large mesopores is reported. The sorbents exhibit fast CO2 capture kinetics, high adsorption capacity (of up to 5.8 mmol g-1 under 1 atm of dry CO2), as well as good stability over multiple adsorption-desorption cycles. A simple theoretical analysis is provided relating the support structure to sorbent performance. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Inorganic sorbents for radiostrontium removal from waste solutions: selectivity and role of calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.; Belikov, K.; Drapailo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge in the remediation of 90 Sr-contaminated waters arises from the need to achieve very high removal efficiencies to meet discharge targets from waste effluents containing relatively high concentrations of non-radioactive cations. Low-cost natural zeolites are not selective for strontium over other divalent cations, notably such ions as calcium; and produce low 90 Sr removal performance, and large volumes of spent sorbent waste. The synthesis and use of selective, synthetic inorganic sorbents could prove to be a feasible approach for high 90 Sr removal efficiencies, and much smaller volumes of secondary solid waste generation. The essential advantages of inorganic sorbents include their stability and resistance to radiation, and the potential for producing stable waste forms such as vitrified glass or ceramics for disposal. However, the cost of strontium-specific sorbents is prohibitive for large-scale applications at present. This paper is a review of the reported information on removal mechanisms and performance of Sr-specific inorganic sorbents. The analysis has revealed promising performance, efficiency and selectivity for strontium removal from solutions containing low and high concentrations of salts. The leading sorbents are crystalline silicotitanate and oxides of metals such as titanium. An initial assessment has also been made of the performance of calixarene-based macrocyclic compounds. These are known for their selectivity for strontium in solvent extraction processes. From the initial strontium removal results in bench-scale tests using different solid substrates, impregnated with calixarene derivatives, only sodium-mordenite impregnated with calyx[8]arene octamide gave an overall strontium removal efficiency in the range of 90 to 95% in the presence of 3.5 ppm calcium. There was no improvement observed for strontium-removal efficiency or selectivity over calcium in the calixarene-impregnated inorganic sorbent matrix. In several tests, the

  6. Development of a Microwave Regenerative Sorbent-Based Hydrogen Purifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Dewberry, Ross H.; McCurry, Bryan D.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a Microwave Regenerative Sorbent-based Hydrogen Purifier (MRSHP). This unique microwave powered technology was developed for the purification of a hydrogen stream produced by the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA). The PPA is a hydrogen recovery (from methane) post processor for NASA's Sabatier-based carbon dioxide reduction process. Embodied in the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), currently aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Sabatier reaction employs hydrogen to catalytically recover oxygen, in the form of water, from respiratory carbon dioxide produced by the crew. This same approach is base-lined for future service in the Air Revitalization system on extended missions into deep space where resupply is not practical. Accordingly, manned exploration to Mars may only become feasible with further closure of the air loop as afforded by the greater hydrogen recovery permitted by the PPA with subsequent hydrogen purification. By utilizing the well-known high sorbate loading capacity of molecular sieve 13x, coupled with microwave dielectric heating phenomenon, MRSHP technology is employed as a regenerative filter for a contaminated hydrogen gas stream. By design, freshly regenerated molecular sieve 13x contained in the MRSHP will remove contaminants from the effluent of a 1-CM scale PPA for several hours prior to breakthrough. By reversing flow and pulling a relative vacuum the MRSHP prototype then uses 2.45 GHz microwave power, applied through a novel coaxial antenna array, to rapidly heat the sorbent bed and drive off the contaminants in a short duration vacuum/thermal contaminant desorption step. Finally, following rapid cooling via room temperature cold plates, the MRSHP is again ready to serve as a hydrogen filter.

  7. New lubrication concepts for environmental friendly machines. Tribological, thermophysical and viscometric properties of lubricants interacting with triboactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.; Klingenberg, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Woydt, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The present research report was elaborated in close cooperation with Renault SAS, FUCHS Petrolub AG and Ingenieurgesellschaft Auto und Verkehr (IAV). The use of alternative oils for the lubrication of automobile engines has a potential of ecological and technical advantages. It requires the detailed knowledge of several thermophysical and viscometric properties in a large temperature range (mapping). Therefore, the following properties of up to twenty-eight different oils have been measured in the temperature range from 22 C to 150 C: density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, viscosity at ambient pressure, viscosity under shear rates above 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}, and the viscosity at elevated pressures (maximum 100 MPa). The last two have been measured with a substantially improved and a newly developed apparatus, respectively. The pressure-viscosity coefficient has been measured on four hydrocarbon-based, factory-fill oils, a paraffin oil and twenty-three alternative oils. Nine of the alternative oils are based partly or completely on esters, the other fourteen on polyglycols, two of them additionally on water. Based on the piston ring/cylinder liner simulation tests of BAM performed outside of engines and the SRV {sup registered} tests both performed only under conditions of mixed/boundary lubrication, it is reasonable that thermally sprayed TiO{sub x}-based, Ti{sub n-2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 2n-1} and (Ti,Mo)(C,N)+23NiMo piston ring coatings, so called 'lubricious or triboactive oxides', can substitute common materials and serve as a promising alternative to commercial piston ring coatings made of strategic Molybdenum and super-finishing intensive blends of WC/Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}. Some couples qualified for 'zero' wear. In combination with bionotox ester- and polyglycol-based lubricants the coefficient of friction can be reduced fulfilling simultaneously stronger European exhaust emission regulations. Thermally sprayed Ti-based coatings with their

  8. Supported modified hydrotalcites as sorbent for CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meis, N.

    2010-02-15

    The average concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has been increasing since the start of the industrial revolution in the 18th century from 280 ppm to 385 ppm nowadays, and continues to increase because of the enormous human usage of fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal). This can strongly affect the climate, causing the Earth's surface to warm up, the so called 'amplified greenhouse effect'. To alleviate these environmental concerns regarding the current CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is investigated as one of the possible routes. Due to the acidic character of CO2, basic oxides are expected to be suitable sorbents. Hydrotalcite, a natural clay, is specifically suitable for pre-combustion capture (250- 400{sup o}C), due to its acceptable sorption capacity and facile regeneration. The influence of lateral platelet size ({+-}40 nm - 2 {mu}m), the use of a support (carbon nanofibers, CNF) and addition of a promoter (alkali carbonate: K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) on the CO2 capture properties of HT was investigated. There was no significant difference in the CO2 sorption capacities at 523K for all unsupported HTs, regardless the platelet size of the HT precursor ({+-}0.1 mmol.g{sup -1}). The use of activated, promoted (alkali carbonate) hydrotalcites showed a much higher capacity ({+-}0.3 mmol.g{sup -1}) at 523K. In addition, the capacities of the activated supported HT at 523K were significantly increased compared to the activated unsupported HT (1.3-2.5 mmol.g{sup -1} HT). The alkali-loaded supported HTs showed capacities slightly higher than the capacity of supported unpromoted HT. The increase in capacity for the promoted and/or supported HTs points to a higher concentration of defects (low-coordination of oxygen sites) on the surface of the activated (alkali-)loaded HTs compared to the unloaded and unsupported HT. The higher concentration of adsorption for the promoted (supported) HTs, might be caused by the

  9. Ab initio Thermodynamic Approach to Identify Mixed Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua eDuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Because the current technologies for capturing CO2 are still too energy intensive, new materials must be developed that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. At a given CO2 pressure, the turnover temperature (Tt of the reaction of an individual solid that can capture CO2 is fixed. Such Tt may be outside the operating temperature range (ΔTo for a practical capture technology. To adjust Tt to fit the practical ΔTo, in this study, three scenarios of mixing schemes are explored by combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations. Our calculated results demonstrate that by mixing different types of solids, it’s possible to shift Tt to the range of practical operating temperature conditions. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the mixed solids of interest, we were able to identify the mixing ratios of two or more solids to form new sorbent materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions.

  10. Cytokine Adsorption onto the Modified Carbon Sorbent Surface in vitro in Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Dolgikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of cytokine sorption with carbon with a locally aminocaproic acid-modified surface from the plasma of patients with general purulent peritonitis. Materials and methods. The material of the investigation was the plasma obtained during plasmapheresis in 10 patients with acute pancreatitis complicated by pancreonecrosis and general purulent peritonitis, which was used to estimate before and after sorption the content of the cytokines: interleukin (IL-1/8, IL-4, and IL-8 by enzyme immunoassay. The sorption properties of carbon hemosor-bent and aminocaproic acid-modified sorbent were comparatively evaluated. Results. Aminocaproic acid-induced modification of the carbon adsorbent surface with its further polycondensation results in the higher content of superficial functional groups (oxygen- and nitrogen-containing that enhance the hydrophility of the surface and the specific pattern of sorption, thus acting as a means for controlling and regulating the plasma concentration of regulatory proteins, primarily the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1^3, the chemokine IL-8 and the T-helper cell clone cytokine IL-4.

  11. A polyaniline-magnetite nanocomposite as an anion exchange sorbent for solid-phase extraction of chromium(VI) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvani, Mehdi; Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Shekari, Nafiseh

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a novel polyaniline-magnetite nanocomposite and its application to the preconcentration of Cr(VI) anions. The material was obtained by oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles. The parameters affecting preconcentration were optimized by a Box-Behnken design through response surface methodology. Extraction time, amount of magnetic sorbent and pH value were selected as the main factors affecting sorption. The sorption capacity of the sorbent for Cr(VI) is 54 mg g −1 . The type, volume and concentration of the eluents, and the elution time were selected as main factors in the optimization study of the elution step. Following sorption and elution, the Cr(VI) ions were reacted with diphenylcarbazide, and the resulting dye was quantified by HPLC with optical detection at 546 nm. The limit of detection is 0.1 μg L −1 , and all the relative standard deviations are <6.3 %. The nanocomposite was successfully applied to the rapid extraction and determination of trace quantities of Cr(VI) ions in spiked water samples. (author)

  12. Preparation and characterization of an organic/inorganic hybrid sorbent (PLE) to enhance selectivity for As(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byungryul; Kim, Hakchan; Park, Chanhyuk; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2015-05-30

    For the selective removal of arsenate (As(V)) a hybrid sorbent was prepared using a non-toxic natural organic material, chitosan, by loading a transition metal, nickel. The immobilization of nickel was achieved by coordination with a deprotonated amino group (NH2) in the chitosan polymer chain. The amount of nickel was directly correlated to the presence of the amino group and was calculated to be 62 mg/g. FTIR spectra showed a peak shift from 1656 to 1637 cm(-1) after Ni(2+) loading, indicating the complexation between the amino group and nickel, and a peak of As(V) was observed at 834 cm(-1). An increase of sulfate concentration from 100 mg/L to 200 mg/L did not significantly affect As(V) sorption, and an increase in the concentration of bicarbonate reduced the As(V) uptake by 33%. The optimal pH of the solution was determined at pH 10, which is in accordance with the fraction of HAsO4(2-) and AsO4(-3). According to a fixed column test, a break through behavior of As(V) revealed that selectivity for As(V) was over sulfate. Regeneration using 5% NaCl extended the use of sorbent to up to uses without big loss of sorption capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of the preparation technology of macroporous sorbent for industrial off-gas treatment including 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil

    2001-01-01

    For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO 2 capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. 14 CO 2 , specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO 2 capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO 2 and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered

  14. Development of the preparation technology of macroporous sorbent for industrial off-gas treatment including {sup 14}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Il Hoon; Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Guen Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, June Hyung; Ahn, Byung Kil

    2001-01-01

    For environmental and health effects due to increasing levels of pollution in the atmosphere, it is necessary to develop environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CFC, etc.) and acid gases (SOx, NOx, etc.). Specifically, advanced technology for CO{sub 2} capturing is currently one of the most important environmental issues in worldwide. {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, specially which has been gradually emerging issue in the nuclear facilities, is generated about 330 ppm from the CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor) nuclear power plant and the DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) process which is the process of spent fuel treatment. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop the most efficient treatment technology of CO{sub 2} capture by various lime materials in semi- or dry process, it should be also considering a removal performance, waste recycling and safety of disposal. In order to develop a highly active slaked lime as a sorbent for CO{sub 2} and high temperature desulfurization, macroporous slaked lime is necessarily prepared by modified swelling process and equipment, which was developed under carrying out this project. And also for the optimal removal process of off-gases the removal performance tests of various sorbents and the effects of relative humidity and bed depth on the removal capacity must be considered.

  15. Development and testing of inorganic sorbents made by the internal gelation process for radionuclide and heavy metal separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, B.Z.; Collins, J.L.; Anderson, K.K.; Chase, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop, prepare, and test microspheres and granular forms of inorganic ion exchangers to remove radionuclides and heavy metals from waste streams occurring at various sites. Several inorganic materials, such as hexacyanoferrates, titanates, phosphates, and oxides have high selectivities and efficiencies for separating and removing radionuclides such as uranium, technetium, cesium, and strontium, and metals such as cobalt, silver, zinc, and zirconium from aqueous waste streams. However, these sorbents frequently exist only as powders and consequently are not readily adaptable to continuous processing such as column chromatography. Making these inorganic ion exchangers as microspheres or granular forms improves the flow dynamics for column operations and expands their practical applications. Microspheres of several materials have been prepared at ORNL, and the effectiveness of zirconium monohydrogen phosphate and hydrous titanium oxide microspheres for removing radionuclides from hot cell waste solutions has been demonstrated

  16. Evaluation of ultrasound-assisted in situ sorbent formation solid-phase extraction method for determination of arsenic in water, food and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddin, Maryam; Majidi, Behrooz; Abdi, Khosrou

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid ultrasound-assisted in situ sorbent formation solid-phase extraction (UAISFSPE) coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry detection (ET-AAS) was developed for preconcentration and determination of arsenic (As) in various samples. A small amount of cationic surfactant is dissolved in the aqueous sample containing As ions, which were complexed by ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate After shaking, a little volume of hexafluorophosphate (NaPF6) as an ion-pairing agent was added into the solution by a microsyringe. Due to the interaction between surfactant and ion-pairing agent, solid particles are formed. The alkyl groups of the surfactant in the solid particles strongly interact with the hydrophobic groups of analytes and become bound. Sonication aids the dispersion of the sorbent into the sample solution and mass transfer of the analyte into the sorbent, thus reducing the extraction time. The solid particles are centrifuged, and the sedimented particles can be dissolved in an appropriate solvent to recover the absorbed analyte. After separation, total arsenic (As(III) and As(V)) was determined by ET-AAS. Several experimental parameters were investigated and optimized. A detection limit of 7 ng L(-1) with preconcentration factor of 100 and relative standard deviation for 10 replicate determinations of 0.1 µg L(-1) As(III) were 4.5% achieved. Consequently, the method was applied to the determination of arsenic in certified reference materials, water, food and biological samples with satisfactory results.

  17. Chitosan–Zinc(II Complexes as a Bio-Sorbent for the Adsorptive Abatement of Phosphate: Mechanism of Complexation and Assessment of Adsorption Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Roza Yazdani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines zinc(II–chitosan complexes as a bio-sorbent for phosphate removal from aqueous solutions. The bio-sorbent is prepared and is characterized via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and Point of Zero Charge (pHPZC–drift method. The adsorption capacity of zinc(II–chitosan bio-sorbent is compared with those of chitosan and ZnO–chitosan and nano-ZnO–chitosan composites. The effect of operational parameters including pH, temperature, and competing ions are explored via adsorption batch mode. A rapid phosphate uptake is observed within the first three hours of contact time. Phosphate removal by zinc(II–chitosan is favored when the surface charge of bio-sorbent is positive/or neutral e.g., within the pH range inferior or around its pHPZC, 7. Phosphate abatement is enhanced with decreasing temperature. The study of background ions indicates a minor effect of chloride, whereas nitrate and sulfate show competing effect with phosphate for the adsorptive sites. The adsorption kinetics is best described with the pseudo-second-order model. Sips (R2 > 0.96 and Freundlich (R2 ≥ 0.95 models suit the adsorption isotherm. The phosphate reaction with zinc(II–chitosan is exothermic, favorable and spontaneous. The complexation of zinc(II and chitosan along with the corresponding mechanisms of phosphate removal are presented. This study indicates the introduction of zinc(II ions into chitosan improves its performance towards phosphate uptake from 1.45 to 6.55 mg/g and provides fundamental information for developing bio-based materials for water remediation.

  18. High efficiency nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture based on amine-functionalized mesoporous capsules

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng; Wang, Yanbing; Estevez, Luis; Duan, Xiaonan; Anako, Nkechi; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa; Li, Wen; Jones, Christopher W.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel high efficiency nanocomposite sorbent for CO2 capture has been developed based on oligomeric amine (polyethylenimine, PEI, and tetraethylenepentamine, TEPA) functionalized mesoporous silica capsules. The newly synthesized sorbents exhibit extraordinary capture capacity up to 7.9 mmol g-1 under simulated flue gas conditions (pre-humidified 10% CO 2). The CO2 capture kinetics were found to be fast and reached 90% of the total capacities within the first few minutes. The effects of the mesoporous capsule features such as particle size and shell thickness on CO2 capture capacity were investigated. Larger particle size, higher interior void volume and thinner mesoporous shell thickness all improved the CO2 capacity of the sorbents. PEI impregnated sorbents showed good reversibility and stability during cyclic adsorption-regeneration tests (50 cycles). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Application of magnetic sorbent in the removal of cadmium from soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lovás

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A contamination of soil by heavy metals is a common problem at many metalliferous mining sites. There are various treatment processes for the cleanup of soil contaminated with heavy metals. A method designed for the decontamination of soil polluted by Cd is described. The method utilizes a magnetic sorbent – sludges from the hydrometallurgic processing of nickel mineral, activated by milling. The influence of sorbent concentration, pH and microwave energy on the sorption capacity and content of Cd ions in a soil was studed. The effectiveness of Cd desorption from the soil was 75 %, the maximal sorption capacity of sorbent was 9,8 mg/g. The content of Cd in water is function of pH and the concentration of sorbent. The influence of microwave energy (90 W was negligible.

  20. Rubidium extraction using an organic polymer encapsulated potassium copper hexacyanoferrate sorbent

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Jeong, Sanghyun; Johir, Md.Abu Hasan; To, Vu Hien Phuong; Kandasamy, Jaya; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2016-01-01

    Sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) brine contains significant quantity of Rb. As an economically valuable metal, extracting Rb using a suitable and selective extraction method would be beneficial. An inorganic sorbent, copper based potassium

  1. Arsenic removal from aqueous solutions by sorption onto zirconium- and titanium-modified sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljubiša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic reduction in drinking water can include treatment by adsorption, switching to alternative water sources, or blending with water that has a lower arsenic concentration. Commercial sorbents MTM, Greensand and BIRM (Clack Corporation were modified with zirconium and titanium after activation. The modifications were performed with titanium tetrachloride and zirconium tetrachloride. The modified sorbents were dried at different temperatures. The sorption of arsenate and arsenite dissolved in drinking water (200μg L-1 onto the sorbents were tested using a batch procedure. After removal of the sorbent, the concentration of arsenic was determined by HG-AAS. Zirconium-modified BIRM showed the best performance for the removal of both arsenite and arsenate. Modification of the greensand did not affect arsenic sorption ability. Zirconium-modified BIRM diminished the concentration of total As to below 5 μg L-1.

  2. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon [Ada-Es, Inc., Highlands Ranch, CO (United States)

    2016-06-02

    ADA completed a DOE-sponsored program titled Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture under program DE-FE0004343. During this program, sorbents were analyzed for use in a post-combustion CO2 capture process. A supported amine sorbent was selected based upon superior performance to adsorb a greater amount of CO2 than the activated carbon sorbents tested. When the most ideal sorbent at the time was selected, it was characterized and used to create a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA). A preliminary 550 MW coal-fired power plant using Illinois #6 bituminous coal was designed with a solid sorbent CO2 capture system using the selected supported amine sorbent to both facilitate the TEA and to create the necessary framework to scale down the design to a 1 MWe equivalent slipstream pilot facility. The preliminary techno-economic analysis showed promising results and potential for improved performance for CO2 capture compared to conventional MEA systems. As a result, a 1 MWe equivalent solid sorbent system was designed, constructed, and then installed at a coal-fired power plant in Alabama. The pilot was designed to capture 90% of the CO2 from the incoming flue gas at 1 MWe net electrical generating equivalent. Testing was not possible at the design conditions due to changes in sorbent handling characteristics at post-regenerator temperatures that were not properly incorporated into the pilot design. Thus, severe pluggage occurred at nominally 60% of the design sorbent circulation rate with heated sorbent, although no handling issues were noted when the system was operated prior to bringing the regenerator to operating temperature. Testing within the constraints of the pilot plant resulted in 90% capture of the incoming CO2 at a flow rate equivalent of 0.2 to 0.25 MWe net electrical generating equivalent. The reduction in equivalent flow rate at 90% capture was

  3. Chitosan-ferrocyanide sorbent for Cs-137 removal from mineralized alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorin, Andrei [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ozyorsk Technical Institute MEPHI, Ozersk (Russian Federation); Tokar, Eduard [Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zemskova, Larisa [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    An organomineral sorbent based on mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide and chitosan to be used in removal of Cs-137 radionuclide from highly mineralized media with high pH has been fabricated. The synthesized sorbent was applied to remove Cs-137 from model solutions under static and dynamic conditions. The effects of contact time, pH, and presence of sodium ions and complexing agents in the process of Cs-137 removal have been investigated. The sorbent is distinguished by increased stability to the impact of alkaline media containing complexing agents, whereas the sorbent capacity in solutions with pH 11 exceeds 1000 bed volumes with the Cs-137 removal efficiency higher than 95%.

  4. Hydroxyapatite-based sorbents: elaboration, characterization and application for the removal of catechol from the aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebei, Haroun; Pham Minh, Doan; Lyczko, Nathalie; Sharrock, Patrick; Nzihou, Ange

    2017-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is highly considered as good sorbent for the removal of metals from the aqueous phase. However, soluble metals co-exist with organic pollutants in wastewaters. But little work has been devoted to investigate the reactivity of HAP for the removal of organic compounds. The main objective of this work is to study the reactivity of HAP-based sorbents for the removal of catechol as a model organic pollutant from an aqueous solution. Thus, HAP sorbents were firstly synthesized using calcium carbonate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate under moderate conditions (25-80°C, atmospheric pressure). A zinc-doped HAP was also used as sorbent, which was obtained from the contact of HAP with an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate. All the sorbents were characterized by different standard physico-chemical techniques. The sorption of catechol was carried out in a batch reactor under stirring at room temperature and pressure. Zinc-doped HAP sorbent was found to be more reactive than non-doped HAP sorbents for the fixation of catechol. The highest sorption capacity was of 15 mg of C per gram of zinc-doped HAP sorbent. The results obtained suggest the reaction scheme of HAP sorbents with metals and organic pollutants when HAP sorbents were used for the treatment of complex wastewaters.

  5. Silver nanoparticles embedded polymer sorbent for preconcentration of uranium from bio-aggressive aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sadananda; Pandey, Ashok K.; Athawale, Anjali A.; Subramanian, M.; Seshagiri, T.K.; Khanna, Pawan K.; Manchanda, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Adsorptive sorbent for bio-aggressive natural aqueous media like seawater was developed by one pot simultaneous synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag nps) and poly(ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate) (PEGMP) by UV-initiator induced photo-polymerization. The photo-polymerization was carried out by irradiating N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution containing appropriate amounts of the functional monomer (ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate), UV initiator (α,α'-dimethoxy-α-phenyl acetophenone), and Ag + ions with 365 nm UV light in a multilamps photoreactor. To increase mechanical strength, nano-composite sorbent (Ag-PEGMP) was also reinforced with thermally bonded non-woven poly(propylene) fibrous sheet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the nano-composite sorbent showed uniform distribution of spherical Ag nanoparticles with particles size ranging from 3 to 6 nm. The maximum amount of Ag 0 that could be anchored in the form of nanoparticles were 5 ± 1 and 10 ± 1 wt.% in self-supported PEGMP and poly(propylene) reinforced PEGMP matrices, respectively. Ag-PEGMP sorbent was found to be stable under ambient conditions for a period of six months. Ag-PEGMP composite sorbent did not exhibit growth at all after incubation with pre-grown Escherichia coli cells, and showed non-adherence of this bacteria to the composite. This indicated that composite sorbent has the bio-resistivity due to bacterial repulsion and bactericidal properties of Ag nanoparticles embedded in the PEGMP. Sorption of U(VI) in PEGMP and Ag-PEGMP nano-composite sorbents from well-stirred seawater was studied to explore the possibility of using it for uranium preconcentration from bio-aggressive aqueous streams. The nano-composite sorbent was used to preconcentrate U(VI) from a process aqueous waste stream.

  6. The influence of the static wind load concept on the material requirements for reinforced-concrete natural-draught cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnach, R.

    1977-01-01

    The natural wind is the decisive risk factor in natural-draught cooling towers; therefore, the establishment of an assumed velocity is indispensable for the safety and reliability of the construction. In the framework of a statistical wind concept, static substitution loads for the assumed dynamic wind pressure have been determined, also including dynamic wind effects and the resonance response of the structure. On this basis, it has been studied how wind loads with different periodicity affect the material requirements of reinforced-concrete natural-draught cooling towers. It is found that the additional steel requirements, related to the total building cost, remain within acceptable limits even for extreme wind loads. (orig.) [de

  7. High temperature CO2 capture using calcium oxide sorbent in a fixed-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Binlin; Song Yongchen; Liu Yingguang; Feng Cong

    2010-01-01

    The gas-solid reaction and breakthrough curve of CO 2 capture using calcium oxide sorbent at high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor are of great importance, and being influenced by a number of factors makes the characterization and prediction of these a difficult problem. In this study, the operating parameters on reaction between solid sorbent and CO 2 gas at high temperature were investigated. The results of the breakthrough curves showed that calcium oxide sorbent in the fixed-bed reactor was capable of reducing the CO 2 level to near zero level with the steam of 10 vol%, and the sorbent in CaO mixed with MgO of 40 wt% had extremely low capacity for CO 2 capture at 550 deg. C. Calcium oxide sorbent after reaction can be easily regenerated at 900 deg. C by pure N 2 flow. The experimental data were analyzed by shrinking core model, and the results showed reaction rates of both fresh and regeneration sorbents with CO 2 were controlled by a combination of the surface chemical reaction and diffusion of product layer.

  8. Simulation of mercury capture by sorbent injection using a simplified model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingtao; Zhang, Zhongxiao; Jin, Jing; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2009-10-30

    Mercury pollution by fossil fuel combustion or solid waste incineration is becoming the worldwide environmental concern. As an effective control technology, powdered sorbent injection (PSI) has been successfully used for mercury capture from flue gas with advantages of low cost and easy operation. In order to predict the mercury capture efficiency for PSI more conveniently, a simplified model, which is based on the theory of mass transfer, isothermal adsorption and mass balance, is developed in this paper. The comparisons between theoretical results of this model and experimental results by Meserole et al. [F.B. Meserole, R. Chang, T.R. Carrey, J. Machac, C.F.J. Richardson, Modeling mercury removal by sorbent injection, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 49 (1999) 694-704] demonstrate that the simplified model is able to provide good predictive accuracy. Moreover, the effects of key parameters including the mass transfer coefficient, sorbent concentration, sorbent physical property and sorbent adsorption capacity on mercury adsorption efficiency are compared and evaluated. Finally, the sensitive analysis of impact factor indicates that the injected sorbent concentration plays most important role for mercury capture efficiency.

  9. Experimental evaluation of sorbents for sulfur control in a coal-fueled gas turbine slagging combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, L.H.; Wen, C.S.; LeCren, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a slagging combustor that has been used to evaluate three calcium-based sorbents for sulfur capture efficiency in order to assess their applicability for use in a oil-fueled gas turbine. Testing is competed in a bench-scale combustor with one-tenth the heat input needed for the full-scale gas turbine. The bench-scale rig is a two-stage combustor featuring a fuel-rich primary zone an a fuel-lean secondary zone. The combustor is operated at 6.5 bars with inlet air preheated to 600 K. Gas temperatures of 1840 K are generated in the primary zone and 1280 K in the secondary zone. Sorbents are either fed into the secondary zone or mixed with the coal-water mixture and fed into the primary zone. Dry powered sorbents are fed into the secondary zone by an auger into one of six secondary air inlet ports. The three sorbents tested in the secondary zone include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and hydrated lime. Sorbents have been tested while burning coal-water mixtures with coal sulfur loadings of 0.56 to 3.13 weight percent sulfur. Sorbents are injected into the secondary zone at varying flow rates such that the calcium/sulfur ratio varies from 0.5 to 10.0

  10. Retrofit acid gas emission control for municipal waste incineration application of dry sorbent injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmuda, J.T.; Smith, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    Dry sorbent injection (DSI) has been successfully demonstrated on coal fired boiler applications as a means of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions. More recently, the dry sorbent injection process was applied to an existing municipal waste incinerator to provide acid gas emission controls. The results obtained from the successful demonstration of the sorbent injection system on an existing municipal incinerator are presented. Removal efficiencies of compounds such as HCl, SO 2 , SO 3 , mercury, and others by the use of sorbent injection are shown. Effects of the DSI system on downstream equipment, such as electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, ash handling systems, and waste management is included. The impacts of the DSI system on the furnace is also discussed. In this paper a discussion of dry sorbent injection as a means of reducing acid gas and other emissions from existing municipal waste incinerators which may be affected by the regulations is presented. An application case study will outline typical exhaust conditions, expected pollution reductions, capital and operating costs, and type of available sorbents and their costs

  11. Release of iodine radionuclides from gas media in a system of selective block sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvin, L.N.; Miroshnikov, V.S.; Mel'nikov, V.A.; Chetverikov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme of extracting iodine radionuclides from gas flows in a system of selective sorbents has been developed. The method provides separation of three forms of iodine: the aerosol component, the elementary iodine and organic-iodine compounds. Aerosols are trapped by a mechanical filter made of porous polytetrafluoroethylene with pores of no more than 1 μm. Silver-based sorbents for the elementary iodine are made by sintering the granular polytetrafluoroethylene (the size of granules is 0.1-0.5 mm) with of finely dispersed solver (5% mass). Organic iodine compounds are extracted by a silica sorbent impregnated with silver nitrate. The efficiency of sorbents was tested in gas flows with a known content of 131 I in the form of elementary iodine and methyl iodide. The results of experiments show that the efficiency of sorption of elementary iodine by a metallic-silver sorbent and of methyl iodide by a SiO 2 /AgNO 3 sorbent constitutes no less than 99% at a flow rate of up to 200 l/h. The iodine has been extracted at a flow rate of 100 l/h during 100 hours and for that time the efficiency of the iodine sorbtion has not changed. The suggested variant of extracting iodine radionuclides from gaseous media can be used both for fast control of iodine content in gas blowoffs and for researches aimed at studying the distribution of iodine forms in steam-and-gas media depending on nuclear plant operating conditions

  12. CaO-Based CO2 Sorbents Effectively Stabilized by Metal Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad Awais; Armutlulu, Andac; Imtiaz, Qasim; Müller, Christoph R

    2017-11-17

    Calcium looping (i.e., CO 2 capture by CaO) is a promising second-generation CO 2 capture technology. CaO, derived from naturally occurring limestone, offers an inexpensive solution, but due to the harsh operating conditions of the process, limestone-derived sorbents undergo a rapid capacity decay induced by the sintering of CaCO 3 . Here, we report a Pechini method to synthesize cyclically stable, CaO-based CO 2 sorbents with a high CO 2 uptake capacity. The sorbents synthesized feature compositional homogeneity in combination with a nanostructured and highly porous morphology. The presence of a single (Al 2 O 3 or Y 2 O 3 ) or bimetal oxide (Al 2 O 3 -Y 2 O 3 ) provides cyclic stability, except for MgO which undergoes a significant increase in its particle size with the cycle number. We also demonstrate a direct relationship between the CO 2 uptake and the morphology of the synthesized sorbents. After 30 cycles of calcination and carbonation, the best performing sorbent, containing an equimolar mixture of Al 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 , exhibits a CO 2 uptake capacity of 8.7 mmol CO 2  g -1 sorbent, which is approximately 360 % higher than that of the reference limestone. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. First results of the post-irradiation examination of the Ceramic Breeder materials from the Pebble Bed Assemblies Irradiation for the HCPB Blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegeman, J.; Magielsen, A.J.; Peeters, M.; Stijkel, M.P.; Fokkens, J.H.; Laan, J.G. van der

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of developing the European Helium Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) blanket an irradiation test of pebble-bed assemblies is performed in the HFR Petten. The experiment is focused on the thermo-mechanical behavior of the HCPB type breeder pebble-bed at DEMO representative levels of temperature and defined thermal-mechanical loads. To achieve representative conditions a section of the HCPB is simulated by EUROFER-97 cylinders with a horizontal bed of ceramic breeder pebbles sandwiched between two beryllium beds. Floating Eurofer-97 steel plates separate the pebble-beds. The structural integrity of the ceramic breeder materials is an issue for the design of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed concept. Therefore the objective of the post irradiation examination is to study deformation of pebbles and the pebble beds and to investigate the microstructure of the ceramic pebbles from the Pebble Bed Assemblies. This paper concentrates on the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the four ceramic pebble beds that have been irradiated in the Pebble Bed Assembly experiment for the HCPB blanket concept. Two assemblies with Li 4 SiO 4 pebble-beds are operated at different maximum temperatures of approximately 600 o C and 800 o C. Post irradiation computational analysis has shown that both have different creep deformation. Two other assemblies have been loaded with a ceramic breeder bed of two types of Li 2 TiO 3 beds having different sintering temperatures and consequently different creep behavior. The irradiation maximum temperature of the Li 2 TiO 3 was 800 o C. To support the first PIE result, the post irradiation thermal analysis will be discussed because thermal gradients have influence on the pebble-bed thermo-mechanical behavior and as a result it may have impact on the structural integrity of the ceramic breeder materials. (author)

  14. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, Rafal; Zawisza, Beata; Talik, Ewa; Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) covalently bonded to the spherical silica. • Very stable sorbent for SPE of metal ions. • Excellent contact with solution due to the softness and flexibility of GO nanosheets. • Several adsorption–elution cycles without any loss of adsorptive properties. • High adsorption capacity due to the wrinkled structure of GO nanosheets. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO 2 ). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g −1 , respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption–elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO 2 was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200–250) and detection

  15. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitko, Rafal, E-mail: rafal.sitko@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Zawisza, Beata [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Talik, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) covalently bonded to the spherical silica. • Very stable sorbent for SPE of metal ions. • Excellent contact with solution due to the softness and flexibility of GO nanosheets. • Several adsorption–elution cycles without any loss of adsorptive properties. • High adsorption capacity due to the wrinkled structure of GO nanosheets. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO{sub 2}). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption–elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO{sub 2} was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200–250) and

  16. Synthesis of Zeolite from Coal Fly Ash: Its Application as Water Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasert Pavasant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal fly ash (CFA was used as raw material for zeolite synthesis by fusion method. In detail, it was mixed with NaOH (with ratio of 2.25 and treated under various temperatures. Synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques i.e. X-rayfluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and BET surface area analysis. It was found that the surface area of synthesized zeolite were in the range of 49.407-69.136 m2/g depending on the preparing condition, compared to the surface area of CFA about 17.163 m2/g. In addition, according to the XRD result, it was proven that the form of zeolite was Sodium Aluminum Silicate Hydrate (1.08Na2O.Al2O3.1.68SiO2.1.8H2O. The synthesized zeolite was then applied as water sorbent to remove water from ethanol solution (95%. The testing results revealed that the optimal fusion temperature was 450.C, which provided maximum percentage of water removal from ethanol solution (from 95% ethanol to 99.25% ethanol. For comparison, commercial-grade molecular sieve was also tested and was found to increase ethanol concentration from 95% to 99.61%. Hence, it is concluded that our synthesized zeolite provides comparable performance to the commercial-grade molecular sieve.

  17. Aluminum drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs) as sorbent for mercury: Implications for soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepyan, Anna; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2009-05-15

    The potential of readily available and non-hazardous waste material, aluminum drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs), to efficiently sorb and immobilize mercury (Hg) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Al-WTR samples with average specific surface area of 48m(2)/g and internal micropore surface area of 120m(2)/g were used in a series of batch sorption experiments. Obtained sorption isotherms indicated a strong affinity of Hg for Al-WTRs. Using the Langmuir adsorption model, a relatively high maximum sorption capacity of 79mg Hg/g Al-WTRs was determined. Sorption kinetic data was best fit to a pseudo-first-order model, while the use of the Weber-Morris and Bangham models suggested that the intraparticle diffusion could be the rate-limiting step. Also, Al-WTRs effectively immoblized Hg in the pH range of 3-8. The results from these short-term experiments demonstrate that Al-WTRs can be effectively used to remove Hg from aqueous solutions. This ability points to the potential of Al-WTRs as a sorbent in soil remediation techniques based on Hg-immobilization.

  18. Zinc oxide crystal whiskers as a novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Licheng; Shangguan, Yangnan; Hou, Xiudan; Jia, Yong; Liu, Shujuan; Sun, Yingxin; Guo, Yong

    2017-08-15

    As a novel solid-phase extraction material, zinc oxide crystal whiskers were used to extract flavonoid compounds and showed good extraction abilities. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and surface area/pore volume characterized the sorbent. The zinc oxide was packed into a solid-phase extraction micro-column and its extraction ability was evaluated by four model flavonoid compounds. The sample loading and elution parameters were optimized and the zinc oxide based analytical method for flavonoids was established. It showed that the method has wide linearities from 1 to 150μg/L and low limits of detection at 0.25μg/L. The relative standard deviations of a single column repeatability and column to column reproducibility were less than 6.8% and 10.6%. Several real samples were analyzed by the established method and satisfactory results were obtained. The interactions between flavonoids and zinc oxide were calculated and proved to be from the Van der Waals' forces between the 4p and 5d orbitals from zinc atom and the neighboring π orbitals from flavonoid phenyl groups