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Sample records for sooty terns onychoprion

  1. Sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus survival, oil spills, shrimp fisheries, and hurricanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Migratory seabirds face threats from climate change and a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Although most seabird research has focused on the ecology of individuals at the colony, technological advances now allow researchers to track seabird movements at sea and during migration. We combined telemetry data on Onychoprion fuscatus (sooty terns with a long-term capture-mark-recapture dataset from the Dry Tortugas National Park to map the movements at sea for this species, calculate estimates of mortality, and investigate the impact of hurricanes on a migratory seabird. Included in the latter analysis is information on the locations of recovered bands from deceased individuals wrecked by tropical storms. We present the first known map of sooty tern migration in the Atlantic Ocean. Our results indicate that the birds had minor overlaps with areas affected by the major 2010 oil spill and a major shrimp fishery. Indices of hurricane strength and occurrence are positively correlated with annual mortality and indices of numbers of wrecked birds. As climate change may lead to an increase in severity and frequency of major hurricanes, this may pose a long-term problem for this colony.

  2. Geolocation Reveals Year-Round at-Sea Distribution and Activity of a Superabundant Tropical Seabird, the Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Jaeger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a fundamental aspect of the ecology and evolutionary history of many animals, driven by seasonal changes in resource availability and habitat structure. Seabird migration has been investigated extensively in highly seasonal temperate and polar environments. By contrast, the relationships between migration and seasonal environmental changes have rarely been studied in tropical marine habitats. The sooty tern Onychoprion fuscatus is the most abundant tropical seabirds, and has been ranked as the most important tropical species in terms of its annual estimated consumption of marine resources. We used global location sensing (GLS loggers to describe for the first time the year-round at-sea distribution and activity patterns of sooty terns from a large breeding colony in the western Indian Ocean (Bird Island, Seychelles. While breeding, they foraged within 1,074 ± 274 km of the colony. After breeding, birds undertook an extensive post-breeding migration throughout the Indian Ocean; average distances traveled exceeded 50,000 km per individual. Sooty terns used mainly four distinct core oceanic areas during the non-breeding period; in the Bay of Bengal (A, northeast to an area straddling the Chagos-Laccadive plateau (B, southeast to an area on each side of the 90 East Ridge (C and southwest to an area around Comoros (D. Individuals exhibited a high degree of fidelity to these core areas in successive years. We also established that they performed an unusual behavior for a non-Procellariiformes seabird; most individuals undertook a 1-month pre-laying exodus, during which they foraged in a specific area c. 2,000 km to the south-east of the colony. Year-round at-sea activity of sooty terns revealed that they spent only 3.72% of their time in contact with seawater, so indicating that they must sleep in flight. Activity parameters exhibited seasonal (breeding vs. non-breeding periods and daily variations; they notably never land on the water

  3. Conservation of Sooty Terns on Wake Atoll Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Ascension Island. Atlantic Seabirds 1:159-168. Robertson, W. B. 1964. The terns of the Dry Tortugas . Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 8:1-94 Saliva...Science 60(2):299–303. Sprunt, A. Jr. 1948. The tern colonies of the Dry Tortugas Keys. Auk 65: 1-19. Surman, C. A. and L. W. Nicholson. 2009...5:518-531. Watson, J. B. 1908. The behavior of Noddy and Sooty Terns. Papers from the Tortugas Lab 2:187-255. Wilcove, D. S., D. Rothstein, J

  4. An inventory of Sooty Terns (Sterna fuscata) in the western Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The western Indian Ocean supports over 6 200 000 pairs of Sooty Terns, some in very large colonies. During the past two centuries colonies have exhibited increase, stability, decline and extinction. The main drivers of these trends have been habitat change and unregulated human exploitation, especially of adults; ...

  5. Ocean control of the breeding regime of the sooty tern in the southwest Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquemet, S.; Le Corre, M.; Quartly, G. D.

    2007-01-01

    Food availability, which is often seasonal, is regarded as a key factor in the breeding success of seabirds. In oceanic tropical areas, the resources are mostly patchy and ephemeral at the surface, and the seasonality is less marked than at higher latitudes. Such a situation influences greatly the breeding strategies of the oceanic seabird species. We conducted a comparative study of the breeding phenology of the sooty tern ( Sterna fuscata) in relation to the local and regional oceanographic conditions around the four major colonies (Europa, Juan de Nova, Lys and Bird Islands) of the southwest Indian Ocean. Over the 1997-2003 period, around all the studied locations, the sea-surface temperature (SST) and the chlorophyll concentration in the Mozambique Channel and the Seychelles area showed clear seasonal differences related to the southern climate and the monsoon phenomena. The breeding activity is synchronized at each studied colony, but the timings are very different. Seasonal reproduction occurs in austral winter at Europa and Bird Island and in austral summer at Juan de Nova; at Lys Island the reproduction is non-seasonal. For the seasonal colonies, there is a large monthly change in SST just before the beginning of reproduction, which is a proxy indicating the annual phytoplankton bloom. This variation is accompanied by the development of oceanic features such as fronts that favour aggregation of prey, and may also play an important role in the presence of schools of surface tuna, which are very important for the foraging success of sooty terns. Conversely, around Lys Island the seasonal variations of the marine environment do not lead to pronounced development of oceanic structures, and consequently, the longer-lasting phytoplankton bloom could explain the non-seasonal breeding regime there. Further studies will help discern the advantages and disadvantages of seasonal and non-seasonal reproduction regime in response to unpredictable fluctuations of the

  6. Incidence of plastic debris in Sooty Tern nests: A preliminary study on Trindade Island, a remote area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Petersen, Elisa; Krüger, Lucas; Dezevieski, Alexandre; Petry, MariaVirginia; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2016-04-15

    Plastic is abundant in the oceans, reaching pelagic zones away from continents. Here we present the first recordings of plastic used as nest material in Sooty Tern nests, on a remote oceanic island. We describe our findings in terms of quantity, size and color of plastic debris. A total of 78 plastics were noted in 54 nests. Four color categories were found: Blue, White, Green and Red. Blue fragments were the most frequent color, present three times as much as white debris. This pattern was present despite blue fragments being smaller and lighter. The plastic debris of lowest frequency were the larger and heavier pieces (red). To our knowledge this is the first record of plastic in Sooty Tern nests. Trindade Island is on an oceanic zone expected to accumulate garbage due to the dynamic ocean currents. Such findings call for a closer inspection of pollution in the Atlantic Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental study of fuel sootiness effects on flashover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Kuang-Chung, E-mail: tsaikc@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw [Dept. of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, 2 Juoyue Road, Nantzu, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hung-Hsiang [Dept. of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, 2 Juoyue Road, Nantzu, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    Previous fire safety studies have demonstrated that flashover can result in severe injure and death and heat radiating back to a fuel is an important mechanism. Fuel sootiness dominates in radiative heat transfer. However, empirical correlations from previous investigations did not consider the fuel sootiness but nevertheless generated reasonably good predictions of flashover. In this study, a series of experiments was employed to examine fuel sootiness effects on flashover. The fuels used, in the order of their sootiness, were gasoline, n-hexane, iso-propanol and methanol. These fuels were filled in circular pans 100-320 mm in diameter to generate fires with different heat release rates and levels of sootiness. The pans were in 1/3 the size of the ISO 9705 test chamber. After ignition, the heat release rate (HRR), temperature inside the chamber, as well as heat flux on the floor and time to flashover (t{sub fo}) were determined. Experimental data show that HRR at flashover and t{sub fo} were strongly corrected and their relationship was independent of the fuel burned. Although heat feedback to the floor increased as fuel sootiness increased, consequently enhancing the burning of sooty fuels, flashover occurs only when the HRR at flashover criterion is reached.

  8. Feeding ecology of wintering terns in Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, A; Stienen, EWM; Klaassen, M; Kersten, M.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the feeding ecology of Little Terns Sterna albifrons , Sandwich Terns S. sandvicensis and Royal Terns S. maxima in the Archipelago dos Bijagos (11degrees40'N, 15degrees45'W) in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) during the winter of 1992/1993. More than 95% of all prey taken by these terns were

  9. Recent population trends of sooty and light-mantled albatrosses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the greater conservation concern for the sooty albatross, we recommend that dedicated annual counts be conducted during the early incubation period, and be repeated shortly after the chicks hatch (late December), mid-way through the nestling period (late February) and prior to fledging (late April), to give a better ...

  10. Prey capture success and chick diet of Damara terns Sterna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding terns are affected by a variety of environmental conditions. We studied prey capture success of Damara terns Sterna balaenarum in relation to six variables at two breeding colonies in southern Namibia: tidal phase, wind speed, water clarity, cloud cover, water depth and locality. Damara terns dived most ...

  11. Migration and breeding biology of arctic terns in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, Carsten

    (Sandøen) in high-Arctic Northeast Greenland. The level of knowledge of the Arctic tern in Greenland before 2002 was to a large extent poor, with aspects of its biology being completely unknown in the Greenland population. This thesis presents novel findings for the Arctic tern, both on an international...... scale and on a national scale. The study on Arctic tern migration (Manus I) – the longest annual migration ever recorded in any animal – is a study with an international appeal. The study documented how Greenland and Iceland breeding terns conduct the roundtrip migration to the Weddell Sea in Antarctica...

  12. Biological dimensions of tern management-a case study of the least tern in Sonora, Mexico, and a comparative analysis of reproductive investment in terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; van Riper, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Least terns (Sternula antillarum) are threatened by rapid human development on the northern coast of Sonora, Mexico. Terns are bellwethers for changes along the world's coastlines, as their coastal breeding habitat is vulnerable to flooding and development. We conducted targeted ground and aerial surveys for least tern colonies along 160 kilometers of coast, and document our findings on colony sizes at nine sites over 3 years in the first portion of this report. Like many taxa, terns lay larger clutches at higher latitudes. In the second portion of this report, we evaluate least tern breeding lifespan, food availability, and nest predation as potential ecological reasons behind this differing clutch-size pattern. After correcting for phylogenetic relationships, we found that food availability, not breeding lifespan or nest predation rate, was related to reproductive investment across 46 species and populations of terns. We conclude that coastal development may have a greater impact on nesting terns in tropical regions as compared to temperate breeding locations, because global oceanic patterns of decreased food availability reduce reproductive investment in the tropics.

  13. Reproductive traits of marine terns (Sternidae): evidence for food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both tree- and K-means clustering, based on four traits excluding chick provisioning mode, identified two groups of terns — those that breed on tropical oceanic islands and those that breed along mainland coasts and at temperate islands (>40° from the Equator). Among mainland terns, there is a tendency for reduced clutch ...

  14. Efficacy of using radio transmitters to monitor least tern chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, Joanna B.; Leslie, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about Least Tern (Sterna antillarum) chicks from the time they leave the nest until fledging because they are highly mobile and cryptically colored. We evaluated the efficacy of using radiotelemetry to monitor Interior Least Tern (S. a. athalassos) chicks at Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma. In 1999, we attached radio transmitters to 26 Least Tern chicks and tracked them for 2-17 days. No adults abandoned their chicks after transmitters were attached. Transmitters did not appear to alter growth rates of transmittered chicks (P = 0.36) or prevent feather growth, although dermal irritation was observed on one chick. However, without frequent reattachment, transmitters generally did not remain on chicks feather growth and transmitter removal, presumably by adult terns. Although the presence of transmitters did not adversely affect Least Tern chicks, future assessments should investigate nonintrusive methods to improve retention of transmitters on young chicks and reduce the number of times that chicks need to be handled.

  15. Dissoconiaceae associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck on fruits in China and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.Y.; Sun, G.Y.; Zhai, X.R.; Batzer, J.C.; Mayfield, D.A.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Gleason, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Zasmidium angulare, a novel species of Mycosphaerellaceae, and several novel taxa that reside in Dissoconiaceae, were identified from a collection of apples and Cucurbita maxima (cv. Blue Hubbard) from China and the USA that exhibited sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) signs on their host substrata.

  16. Influence of application strategy of coconut soap on the development of sooty blotch on apple

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, J. G.; Haseli, A.; Tamm, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sooty blotch causes heavy losses in Swiss organic apple production. In 2000 and 2001 a late season application strategy with coconut soap (Biofa Cocana RF) was evaluated. Coconut soap reduced disease occurrence in ali experiments. However, the efficacy was much higher in 2000 than in 2001, probably due to a much higher disease pressure in 2001.

  17. Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, Siti Izera; Batzer, Jean Carlson; Harrington, Thomas C.; Crous, Pedro W.; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Li, Huanyu; Gleason, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so we

  18. Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, Siti Izera; Batzer, Jean Carlson; Harrington, Thomas C.; Crous, Pedro W.; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Li, Huanyu; Gleason, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so

  19. Australia's TERN: Advancing Ecosystem Data Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Guru, S.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, there is a consistent movement towards more open, collaborative and transparent science, where the publication and citation of data is considered standard practice. Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a national research infrastructure investment designed to support the ecosystem science community through all stages of the data lifecycle. TERN has developed and implemented a comprehensive network of ';hard' and ';soft' infrastructure that enables Australia's ecosystem scientists to collect, publish, store, share, discover and re-use data in ways not previously possible. The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how TERN has successfully delivered infrastructure that is enabling a significant cultural and practical shift in Australia's ecosystem science community towards consistent approaches for data collection, meta-data, data licensing, and data publishing. TERN enables multiple disciplines, within the ecosystem sciences to more effectively and efficiently collect, store and publish their data. A critical part of TERN's approach has been to build on existing data collection activities, networks and skilled people to enable further coordination and collaboration to build each data collection facility and coordinate data publishing. Data collection in TERN is through discipline based facilities, covering long term collection of: (1) systematic plot based measurements of vegetation structure, composition and faunal biodiversity; (2) instrumented towers making systematic measurements of solar, water and gas fluxes; and (3) satellite and airborne maps of biophysical properties of vegetation, soils and the atmosphere. Several other facilities collect and integrate environmental data to produce national products for fauna and vegetation surveys, soils and coastal data, as well as integrated or synthesised products for modelling applications. Data management, publishing and sharing in TERN are implemented through a tailored data

  20. First description of autumn migration of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor from the United Arab Emirates to Madagascar using satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Sàlim; Douglas, David C.; Khan, Shahid Noor; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Ali Al Hammadi, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The movement and migration pattern of the 'Near Threatened' Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is poorly known. Sooty Falcons breed on the islands of the Arabian Gulf after arriving from their non-breeding areas that are mainly in Madagascar. In the first satellite tracking of the species we fitted a 9.5 g Argos solar powered transmitter on an adult breeding Sooty Falcon off the western coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The bird successfully undertook autumn migration to Madagascar, a known wintering area for the species. We document the Sooty Falcon's autumn migration route and stop-over sites. The adult Sooty Falcon initiated its migration at night and with tailwinds, and travelled mainly during daytime hours for 13 days over an inland route of more than 5,656 km. The three stop-over sites in East Africa were characterised by moderate to sparse shrub cover associated with potential sources of water. We discuss the migration pattern of the tracked bird in relation to importance of non-breeding areas for Sooty Falcons and recent declines in numbers in their breeding range.

  1. Relationship between Fe2+ Ca2+ ions and cyclodextrin in olive trees infected with sooty mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragão, P H A; Andrade, C G T J; Ota, A T; Costa, M F

    2012-01-01

    In this work, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to observe the peak areas of chemical elements present in healthy and infected samples and a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to study the damage caused by sooty mold on olive tree leaves from the Mediterranean. Leaves infected with sooty mold presented a high concentration of Fe 2+ and a low concentration of Ca 2+ . Our results show that the infected leaves cause a metabolic imbalance in the plants due to an anomalous behavior of macronutrients and micronutrients. Infected leaves start to develop a thin layer of glucose (Cyclodextrin) on their surface. Cyclodextrin (CD) molecules are oligosaccharides consisting of α-D-glucopyranose units linked to glucosides. The most common is β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), which has seven units of α-D-glucopyranose. There are different CDs which are widely used as molecular reactors. In this work, some connections between CD molecules conformations that were obtained in order to observe the relationship of Fe 2+ and Ca 2+ in the olive tree infected with sooty mold were studied. The results are discussed in terms of number of ions found inside and outside the cavity formed by the CD molecules.

  2. Food preferences of the common tern, sterna hirundo (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seabirds are important in the dynamics of marine ecosystems because they recycle important biomass of lower trophic level organisms. Their faeces and carcasses provide important food sources for terrestrial and benthic scavengers. As a result of the abundance of food resources along the coast of Ghana, common terns ...

  3. Migration flyway of the Mediterranean breeding Lesser Crested Tern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis emigratus breeding population in the Mediterranean is found exclusively in Libya, on the two coastal islands of Gara and Elba and one wetland on the mainland coast at Benghazi. In order to improve knowledge of the species migration to wintering quarters in West Africa, ...

  4. First breeding records for Damara Terns and density of other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Damara Tern Sterna balaenarum is a small coastal-nesting seabird that breeds in the Namib Desert, with a stronghold in Namibia. About 125 pairs are known from scattered localities in South Africa, and there are suggestions that it breeds in the northern end of the Namib in Angola. During a three-day survey in ...

  5. Oxidative stress response of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) to mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in liver, kidney, and brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2011-01-01

    Bioindicators of oxidative stress were examined in prebreeding and breeding adult and chick Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and in prebreeding adult Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in San Francisco Bay, California. Highest total mercury (THg) concentrations (mean±standard error;μg/g dry wt) in liver (17.7±1.7), kidney (20.5±1.9), and brain (3.0±0.3) occurred in breeding adult Forster's terns. The THg concentrations in liver were significantly correlated with hepatic depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG):GSH ratio, and decreased hepatic gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in adults of both tern species. Prefledging Forster's tern chicks with one-fourth the hepatic THg concentration of breeding adults exhibited effects similar to adults. Total mercury-related renal GSSG increased in adults and chicks. In brains of prebreeding adults, THg was correlated with a small increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity, suggestive of a compensatory response. Brain THg concentrations were highest in breeding adult Forster's terns and brain tissue exhibited increased lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, loss of protein bound thiols (PBSH), and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, GSSG reductase (GSSGrd), and G-6-PDH. In brains of Forster's tern chicks there was a decrease in total reduced thiols and PBSH. Multiple indicator responses also pointed to greater oxidative stress in breeding Forster's terns relative to prebreeding terns, attributable to the physiological stress of reproduction. Some biondicators also were related to age and species, including thiol concentrations. Enzymes GGT, G-6-PDH, and GSSGred activities were related to species. Our results indicate that THg concentrations induced oxidative stress in terns, and suggest that histopathological, immunological, and behavioral effects may occur in terns as reported in other species.

  6. A simulation program for the timing of fungicides to control Sooty Blotch in organic apple growing. First results in 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Marc

    2004-01-01

    A simulation program for infections by Sooty Blotch was developed based on literature data and expert judgements. The value of the model as tool for timing fungicide sprays to control Sooty Blotch was tested in 2003 in two randomized plot trials, and four “on farm” trials where the treatments where made by the growers. Disease pressure was relative low due to the warm and dry summer of 2003. Two to five post infection treatments with lime sulfur or coconut soap aimed at severe ...

  7. Camouflage and Clutch Survival in Plovers and Terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Kupán, Krisztina; Eyster, Harold N.; Rojas-Abreu, Wendoly; Cruz-López, Medardo; Serrano-Meneses, Martín Alejandro; Küpper, Clemens

    2016-09-01

    Animals achieve camouflage through a variety of mechanisms, of which background matching and disruptive coloration are likely the most common. Although many studies have investigated camouflage mechanisms using artificial stimuli and in lab experiments, less work has addressed camouflage in the wild. Here we examine egg camouflage in clutches laid by ground-nesting Snowy Plovers Charadrius nivosus and Least Terns Sternula antillarum breeding in mixed aggregations at Bahía de Ceuta, Sinaloa, Mexico. We obtained digital images of clutches laid by both species. We then calibrated the images and used custom computer software and edge detection algorithms to quantify measures related to three potential camouflage mechanisms: pattern complexity matching, disruptive effects and background color matching. Based on our image analyses, Snowy Plover clutches, in general, appeared to be more camouflaged than Least Tern clutches. Snowy Plover clutches also survived better than Least Tern clutches. Unexpectedly, variation in clutch survival was not explained by any measure of egg camouflage in either species. We conclude that measures of egg camouflage are poor predictors of clutch survival in this population. The behavior of the incubating parents may also affect clutch predation. Determining the significance of egg camouflage requires further testing using visual models and behavioral experiments.

  8. GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardellach, Estel; Wickert, Jens; Baggen, Rens

    2018-01-01

    . Over polar areas, the G-TERN will measure sea ice surface elevation (polarimetry aspects at 30-km resolution and 3-days full coverage. G-TERN will implement the interferometric GNSS reflectometry concept, from a single satellite in near-polar orbit with capability...

  9. Decline of the Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) population in the Klamath Basin, Oregon, 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime L. Stephens; Sarah M. Rockwell; C. John Ralph; John D Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We monitored the Black Tern (Childonias niger) population at Agency and Upper Klamath Lakes, in the Klamath Basin, Oregon, from 2001–2010. We estimated that the population of adult Black Terns declined at these 2 joined waterbodies by 8.4% annually. In contrast, our analysis of Breeding Bird Survey data for the Bird...

  10. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American kestrels, and common terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Eisemann, J.D.; Spann, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of PCB congeners, PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentaCB) and PCB 77 (3,3'4,4'-tetraCB), were examined in chicken (Gallus gallus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryos through hatching, following air cell injections on day 4. PCB 126 caused malformations and edema in chickens starting at 0.3 ppb, in kestrels at 2.3 ppb, but in terns only at levels affecting hatching success (44 ppb). Extent of edema was most severe in chickens and least in terns. Defects of the beak were common in all species, but with crossed beak most prevalent in terns. Effects on embryo growth were most apparent for PCB 126 in chickens and kestrels. The approximate LD50 for PCB 126 in chickens was 0.4 ppb, in kestrels was 65 ppb, and in terns was 104 ppb. The approximate LD50 for PCB 77 in chickens was 2.6 ppb and in kestrels was 316 ppb. Induction of cytochrome P450 associated monooxygenase activity (EROD activity) by PCB 126 in chick embryo liver was about 800 times more responsive than in tern and at least 1000 times more responsive than in kestrel. High concentrations of PCB 126 found in bald eagle eggs are nearly 20-fold higher than the lowest toxic concentration tested in kestrels. Concentrations of PCB 126 causing low level toxic effects in common tern eggs are comparable to highest levels in common terns and Forster's terns in the field, suggesting additional involvement of other compounds in the Great Lakes.

  11. Breeding colonies of least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; van Riper, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We document distribution of breeding least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008. We report breeding activity at six sites with active colonies, including three previously undocumented colonies.

  12. First report and breeding record of the Chinese Crested Tern Thalasseus bernsteini on the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Kyu Song

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Crested Tern Thalasseus bernsteini is a critically endangered species (as designated by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. This report expands the known breeding grounds of these birds eastward. An individual of the Chinese Crested Tern was first observed at an uninhabited island of Jeollanam-do in Korea on April 28, 2016. On May 9, 2016 five Chinese Crested Terns (consisting of 2 breeding pairs and a single bird were observed. Nests from the breeding pairs were found, at a distance of 0.6 m from each other; each pair was observed incubating one egg in the nest. To our knowledge, this is the easternmost record of breeding grounds for the Chinese Crested Tern.

  13. Selection of nest-site habitat by interior least terns in relation to sandbar construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered interior least terns (Sternula antillarum) nest on bare or sparsely vegetated sandbars on midcontinent river systems. Loss of nesting habitat has been implicated as a cause of population declines, and managing these habitats is a major initiative in population recovery. One such initiative involves construction of mid-channel sandbars on the Missouri River, where natural sandbar habitat has declined in quantity and quality since the late 1990s. We evaluated nest-site habitat selection by least terns on constructed and natural sandbars by comparing vegetation, substrate, and debris variables at nest sites (n = 798) and random points (n = 1,113) in bare or sparsely vegetated habitats. Our logistic regression models revealed that a broader suite of habitat features was important in nest-site selection on constructed than on natural sandbars. Odds ratios for habitat variables indicated that avoidance of habitat features was the dominant nest-site selection process on both sandbar types, with nesting terns being attracted to nest-site habitat features (gravel and debris) and avoiding vegetation only on constructed sandbars, and avoiding silt and leaf litter on both sandbar types. Despite the seemingly uniform nature of these habitats, our results suggest that a complex suite of habitat features influences nest-site choice by least terns. However, nest-site selection in this social, colonially nesting species may be influenced by other factors, including spatial arrangement of bare sand habitat, proximity to other least terns, and prior habitat occupancy by piping plovers (Charadrius melodus). We found that nest-site selection was sensitive to subtle variation in habitat features, suggesting that rigor in maintaining habitat condition will be necessary in managing sandbars for the benefit of least terns. Further, management strategies that reduce habitat features that are avoided by least terns may be the most beneficial to nesting least terns.

  14. Foraging ecology of least terns and piping plovers nesting on Central Platte River sandpits and sandbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Stucker, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Federally listed least terns (Sternula antillarum) and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest on riverine sandbars on many major midcontinent river systems. On the Central Platte River, availability of sandbar habitat is limited, and both species nest on excavated sandpits in the river's floodplain. However, the extent to which sandpit-nesting birds use riverine habitats for foraging is unknown. We evaluated use of foraging habitats by least terns and piping plovers by collecting data on movements, behavior, foraging habitat, and productivity. We radiomarked 16 piping plovers and 23 least terns in 2009-2010 and monitored their movements using a network of fixed telemetry dataloggers. Piping plovers were detected primarily by the datalogger located in their nesting sandpit, whereas least terns were more frequently detected on dataloggers outside of the nesting sandpit. Telemetry data and behavioral observations showed that least terns tended to concentrate at the Kearney Canal Diversion Gates, where forage fish were apparently readily available. Fish sampling data suggested that forage fish were more abundant in riverine than in sandpit habitats, and behavioral observations showed that least terns foraged more frequently in riverine than in sandpit habitats. Piping plovers tended to forage in wet substrates along sandpit shorelines, but also used dry substrates and sandpit interior habitats. The greater mobility of least terns makes a wider range of potential foraging habitats available during brood rearing, making them able to exploit concentrations of fish outside the nesting colony. Thus, our data suggest that different spatial scales should be considered in managing nesting and foraging habitat complexes for piping plovers and least terns.

  15. Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Izera; Batzer, Jean Carlson; Harrington, Thomas C; Crous, Pedro W; Lavrov, Dennis V; Li, Huanyu; Gleason, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so we attempted to infer their origins by means of ancestral state reconstruction on a phylogenetic tree built utilizing genes for the nuc 28S rDNA (approx. 830 bp from near the 59 end) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). The analyzed taxa included the well-known genera of SBFS as well as non-SBFS fungi from seven families within the Capnodiales. The non-SBFS taxa were selected based on their distinct ecological niches, including plant-parasitic and saprophytic species. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that most SBFS species in the Capnodiales are closely related to plant-parasitic fungi. Ancestral state reconstruction provided strong evidence that plant-parasitic fungi were the ancestors of the major SBFS lineages. Knowledge gained from this study may help to better understand the ecology and evolution of epiphytic fungi. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  16. Bystanders intervene to impede grooming in Western chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuni, Liran; Preis, Anna; Wittig, Roman M.

    2017-01-01

    Grooming interactions benefit groomers, but may have negative consequences for bystanders. Grooming limits bystanders' grooming access and ensuing alliances could threaten the bystander's hierarchy rank or their previous investment in the groomers. To gain a competitive advantage, bystanders could intervene into a grooming bout to increase their own grooming access or to prevent the negative impact of others' grooming. We tested the impact of dominance rank and social relationships on grooming intervention likelihood and outcome in two sympatric primate species, Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys). In both species, rather than increasing their own access to preferred partners, bystanders intervened mainly when an alliance between groomers could have a negative impact on them: when the lower-ranking groomer was close to the bystander in rank, when either groomer was an affiliation partner whose services they could lose, or the groomers were not yet strongly affiliated with each other. Thus, bystanders in both species appear to monitor grooming interactions and intervene based on their own dominance rank and social relationships, as well as triadic awareness of the relationship between groomers. While the motivation to intervene did not differ between species, mangabeys appeared to be more constrained by dominance rank than chimpanzees. PMID:29291114

  17. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  18. Accuracy of the Missouri River Least Tern and Piping Plover Monitoring Program: considerations for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Roche, Erin A.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Buhl, Thomas K.; Dovichin, Colin M.

    2013-01-01

    The upper Missouri River system provides nesting and foraging habitat for federally endangered least terns (Sternula antillarum; hereafter “terns”) and threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter “plovers”). These species are the subject of substantial management interest on the Missouri River for several reasons. First, ecosystem recovery is a goal for management agencies that seek to maintain or restore natural functions and native biological communities for the Missouri River system. Terns and plovers are recognized as important ecosystem components that are linked with the river’s ecological functions. Second, although both species breed beyond the Missouri River system, the Missouri River is one of the principal breeding areas in the Northern Great Plains; thus, the river system is a focal area for recovery actions targeted at regional population goals. Third, a Biological Opinion for Missouri River operations established annual productivity goals for terns and plovers, and the recovery plan for each species established annual population goals. Meeting these goals is a key motivation in management decision making and implementation with regard to both species. A myriad of conservation and management interests necessitate understanding numbers, distribution, and productivity of terns and plovers on the Missouri River system. To this end, a Tern and Plover Monitoring Program (TPMP) was implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (hereafter “Corps”) in 1986, and has since provided annual estimates of tern and plover numbers and productivity for five Missouri River reservoirs and four river reaches (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1993). The TPMP has served as the primary source of information about the status of terns and plovers on the Missouri River, and TPMP data have been used for a wide variety of purposes. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) was tasked by the Corps to

  19. Premature feather loss among common tern chicks in Ontario: the return of an enigmatic developmental anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Arnold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In July 2014, we observed premature feather loss (PFL among non-sibling, common tern Sterna hirundo chicks between two and four weeks of age at Gull Island in northern Lake Ontario, Canada. Rarely observed in wild birds, to our knowledge PFL has not been recorded in terns since 1974, despite the subsequent banding of hundreds of thousands of tern chicks across North America alone. The prevalence, 5% of chicks (9/167, and extent of feather loss we report is more extreme than in previous reports for common terns but was not accompanied by other aberrant developmental or physical deformities. Complete feather loss from all body areas (wing, tail, head and body occurred over a period of a few days but all affected chicks appeared vigorous and quickly began to grow replacement feathers. All but one chick (recovered dead and submitted for post-mortem most likely fledged 10–20 days after normal fledging age. We found no evidence of feather dystrophy or concurrent developmental abnormalities unusual among affected chicks. Thus, the PFL we observed among common terns in 2014 was largely of unknown origin. There was striking temporal association between the onset of PFL and persistent strong southwesterly winds that caused extensive mixing of near-shore surface water with cool, deep lake waters. One hypothesis is that PFL may have been caused by unidentified pathogens or toxins welling up from these deep waters along the shoreline but current data are insufficient to test this. PFL was not observed among common terns at Gull Island in 2015, although we did observe similar feather loss in a herring gull Larus argentatus chick in that year. Comparison with sporadic records of PFL in other seabirds suggests that PFL may be a rare, but non-specific, response to a range of potential stressors. PFL is now known for gulls, penguins and terns.

  20. Australia's TERN: Building, Sustaining and Advancing Collaborative Long Term Ecosystem Research Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEld, A. A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    TERN is Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (www.tern.org.au) is one of several environmental data collection, storage and sharing projects developed through the government's research infrastructure programs 2008-2014. This includes terrestrial and coastal ecosystem data collection infrastructure across multiple disciplines, hardware, software and processes used to store, analyse and integrate data sets. TERN's overall objective is to build the collaborations, infrastructure and programs to meet the needs of ecosystem science communities in Australia in the long term, through institutional frameworks necessary to establish a national terrestrial ecosystem site and observational network, coordinated networks enabling cooperation and operational experience; public access to quality assured and appropriately licensed data; and allowing the terrestrial ecosystem research community to define and sustain the terrestrial observing paradigm into the longer term. This paper explains how TERN was originally established, and now operates, along with plans to sustain itself in the future. TERN is implemented through discipline/technical groups referred to as "TERN Facilities". Combined, the facilities provide observations of surface mass and energy fluxes over key ecosystems, biophysical remote sensing data, ecological survey plots, soils information, and coastal ecosystems and associated water quality variables across Australia. Additional integrative facilities cover elements of ecoinformatics, data-scaling and modelling, and linking science to management. A central coordination and portal facility provides meta-data storage, data identification, legal and licensing support. Data access, uploading, meta-data generation, DOI attachment and licensing is completed at each facility's own portal level. TERN also acts as the open-data repository of choice for Australian scientists required to publish their data. Several key lessons we have learnt, will be presented

  1. Lack of clinical AIDS in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys with significant CD4+ T cell loss is associated with double-negative T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milush, Jeffrey M.; Mir, Kiran D.; Sundaravaradan, Vasudha; Gordon, Shari N.; Engram, Jessica; Cano, Christopher A.; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Anton, Elizabeth; O’Neill, Eduardo; Butler, Eboneé; Hancock, Kathy; Cole, Kelly S.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Else, James G.; Silvestri, Guido; Sodora, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    SIV infection of natural host species such as sooty mangabeys results in high viral replication without clinical signs of simian AIDS. Studying such infections is useful for identifying immunologic parameters that lead to AIDS in HIV-infected patients. Here we have demonstrated that acute, SIV-induced CD4+ T cell depletion in sooty mangabeys does not result in immune dysfunction and progression to simian AIDS and that a population of CD3+CD4–CD8– T cells (double-negative T cells) partially compensates for CD4+ T cell function in these animals. Passaging plasma from an SIV-infected sooty mangabey with very few CD4+ T cells to SIV-negative animals resulted in rapid loss of CD4+ T cells. Nonetheless, all sooty mangabeys generated SIV-specific antibody and T cell responses and maintained normal levels of plasma lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, all CD4-low sooty mangabeys elicited a de novo immune response following influenza vaccination. Such preserved immune responses as well as the low levels of immune activation observed in these animals were associated with the presence of double-negative T cells capable of producing Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines. These studies indicate that SIV-infected sooty mangabeys do not appear to rely entirely on CD4+ T cells to maintain immunity and identify double-negative T cells as a potential subset of cells capable of performing CD4+ T cell–like helper functions upon SIV-induced CD4+ T cell depletion in this species. PMID:21317533

  2. A brief history of the discovery of natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections in captive sooty mangabey monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormus, Bobby J; Martin, Louis N; Baskin, Gary B

    2004-01-01

    Experimental leprosy studies using Mycobacterium leprae inoculum isolated from a sooty mangabey monkey (SMM) resulted in the accidental discovery that SMM's asymptomatically carry simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is pathogenic in macaques. We showed that the SMM virus, SIVDelta, was antigenically related to SIVmac, which had been identified in macaques, and to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Similar asymptomatic natural SIV infections had been reported in African green monkeys (AGM). Our results together with observations of others led us to propose that both SIVmac and SIVDelta originated in SMM and that SIV emerged in humans as a result of early African nonhuman primate SIV trans-species infections in humans.

  3. Effects of nest density, location, and timing on breeding success of Caspian Terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolos, Michelle; Roby, D.D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Anderson, Scott K.; Collis, K.

    2006-01-01

    One of the proposed benefits of colonial nesting in birds is the protection afforded against avian predators. This advantage may be counter-balanced by the negative effects of intraspecific aggression on breeding success. Effects of nest density, nest location within the colony, and timing of nest initiation on productivity of Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) were investigated on Crescent Island in the mid-Columbia River, Washington, USA. In the absence of intense nest predation at the Crescent Island tern colony, it was hypothesized that nest density would be negatively associated with productivity. A rangefinder was used to determine spatial distribution of Caspian Tern nests, and these data used to calculate nest characteristics (nest density, nearest neighbor distance, and distance to colony edge) for a randomly-selected subset of nests monitored for nest chronology and productivity. Productivity did not differ between nests in high- and low-density areas of the colony, and was positively associated with earlier nest initiation. Early nests were more productive, were located in areas of higher nest density, and were further from the colony edge than late nests. The strong effect of timing may have been attributable to seasonal declines in prey resources for terns at this site. Our results suggest that Caspian Terns nesting at the highest densities observed in this study did not incur immediate reproductive costs, despite increased potential for encounters between chicks and aggressive conspecific adults.

  4. Winter distribution and oiling of common terns in Trinidad: A further look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Smith, G.J.; Clapp, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Common Terns were studied during January and March 1985 in Trinidad as part of wintering terns in Latin America. Eighty-nine birds were captured, 33 in January, 56 in March. Terns averaged 102 .+-. 0.9 g, with March birds weighing more than those caught in January. This weight is similar to that reported earlier by Blokpoel et al. (1982, 1984) and is considerably less than weights of either premigratory immature or adult Common Terns. Terns in Trinidad appear to be opportunistic, using human fishing for their food source and roosting on boats, oil platforms and other man-made structures. One-half of the captured sample of birds had at least detectable amounts of oil on the plumage. This represents the highest frequency of oiling reported yet for any seabird living under 'baseline' (non-spill) conditions in North or Central America. Oiling had no apparent major effect on the condition of birds since oiled birds had similar weights and blood parameters when compared to unoiled birds.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Forster's tern (breeding) - Gulf and Atlantic coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard P.; Zwank, Phillip J.

    1987-01-01

    The nesting range of Forster's terns hosts three allopatric breeding populations. The first and most important breeding area, in terms of the number of nes t i ng pairs, includes the western guIf coas t from the Louisiana-Mississippi border to northern Tamaulipas, Mexico (American Ornithologists' Union [AOUJ 1983). In addition, small numbers of Forster's terns have nested in Mobile County, Alabama (Imhof 1976). Although this species has not been recorded nesting in Mississippi (J. Jackson, Mississippi State University, Starkville; pers. comm.), it is observed in the coastal regions of that State every summer, and several thousand nest in adjacent Louisiana (Portnoy 1977; Clapp et ale 1983). The two largest colonies of Forster's terns documented in the literature were both in Louisiana: one of 2,750 pairs in Lake Borgne on the Louisiana-Mississippi border and one of 2,263 pairs in Calcasieu Lake (Portnoy 1977).

  6. Hematology and absence of hemoparasites in breeding common terns (Sterna hirundo) from Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V; Nisbet, Ian C T; Hatch, Jeremy J; Corsiglia, Carolyn; Pokras, Mark A

    2009-09-01

    In June and July 1995, 98 breeding common terns (Sterna hirundo) were captured, weighed, and bled as a part of ongoing research on the population health and reproductive biology of this species of special concern. Packed cell volume, total and differential white blood cell counts, and blood smears were obtained. Blood smears from 75 terns were examined. No hemoparasites were found. There were some significant differences among hematologic parameters in birds from different islands, and between birds nesting earlier versus later in the season, but there were no significant differences associated with body mass, sex, or age. The absence of hemoparasites in the blood smears of these terns is noteworthy, especially because other studies of seabirds (including Charadriiformes) have revealed low prevalences of hematozoa.

  7. Population census of a large common tern colony with a small unmanned aircraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Chabot

    Full Text Available Small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS may be useful for conducting high-precision, low-disturbance waterbird surveys, but limited data exist on their effectiveness. We evaluated the capacity of a small UAS to census a large (>6,000 nests coastal Common tern (Sterna hirundo colony of which ground surveys are particularly disruptive and time-consuming. We compared aerial photographic tern counts to ground nest counts in 45 plots (5-m radius throughout the colony at three intervals over a nine-day period in order to identify sources of variation and establish a coefficient to estimate nest numbers from UAS surveys. We also compared a full colony ground count to full counts from two UAS surveys conducted the following day. Finally, we compared colony disturbance levels over the course of UAS flights to matched control periods. Linear regressions between aerial and ground counts in plots had very strong correlations in all three comparison periods (R2 = 0.972-0.989, P < 0.001 and regression coefficients ranged from 0.928-0.977 terns/nest. Full colony aerial counts were 93.6% and 94.0%, respectively, of the ground count. Varying visibility of terns with ground cover, weather conditions and image quality, and changing nest attendance rates throughout incubation were likely sources of variation in aerial detection rates. Optimally timed UAS surveys of Common tern colonies following our method should yield population estimates in the 93-96% range of ground counts. Although the terns were initially disturbed by the UAS flying overhead, they rapidly habituated to it. Overall, we found no evidence of sustained disturbance to the colony by the UAS. We encourage colonial waterbird researchers and managers to consider taking advantage of this burgeoning technology.

  8. Two hybrid common x roseate terns fledge at Falkner Island, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingo, James M.; Church, Christopher A.; Spendelow, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Although these two similarly-sized species are sympatric throughout much of their breeding range, there are few published records of hybridization between Roseate (Sterna dougallii) and Common (S. hirundo) Terns. Records include at least five from Europe (Witherby and Ticehurst 1908, Perry 1972, Robbins 1974, Burggraeve 1977, van den Berg 1980) and only one from North America (Hays 1975), but we are aware of several unpublished records of hybridization at colonies in Massachusetts (I. Nisbet, pers. comm.) and New York (J. Burger, pers. comm.). Differences in sexual display probably serve as the principal barrier to hybridization (Palmer 1941 ), and in the northeastem United States where both species breed, Common Terns tend to nest in more open areas while Roseate Terns tend to nest in or under cover (Hays 1975, Nisbet 1981, Spendelow 1982, Burger and Gochfeld 1988).From 1984 through 1993, we recorded several instances of interbreeding in a mixed colony of several thousand Common Terns and a few hundred Roseates at the Falkner Island Unit of the Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge. This 2-ha island is located at 41 °13'N and 72° 39'W in Long Island Sound, approximately 5 km off the coast of Guilford, Connecticut. Spendelow (1982) briefly described the island and the areas used by the nesting terns; a more detailed description of the island is in Helander (1988). The mixed pair we observed in 1993 nested in a subcolony of about 25 pairs of Roseates on the southeast section of the island's rocky beach, where we put out 30 boxes to create more protected nest sites for Roseate Terns. Here we present a summary of their successful nesting, which we followed almost daily from several days prior to the laying of the first egg until departure of these birds from the colony site.

  9. Fatal Ichthyocotylurus erraticus infestation in Inca terns (Larosterna inca) in a zoological collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Wouter; Hoyer, Mark; Verstappen, Frank; Wolters, Marno; Ijzer, Jooske; de Jong, Sara; Cremers, Herman; Kik, Marja

    2014-06-01

    In a breeding group of Inca terns (Larosterna inca), 14 birds died without antemortem signs of illness. Other than a poor body condition and a bloody cloaca, no symptoms were observed. Gross necropsy revealed severe segmental hemorrhagic enteritis with intralesional trematodes in most birds. Histopathologic examination revealed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes in the lamina propria of the duodenum and cross-sections of trematodes in the lumen. The parasites were identified as Ichthyocotylurus erraticus, a trematode of fish-eating birds. The cause of the infestation most likely was the feeding of unfrozen fresh fish. We describe the first case of a lethal I. erraticus infestation in Inca terns.

  10. Black Terns Chlidonias niger and their dietary problems in Dutch wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, Albert J.; van der Winden, Jan; Baarspul, Teun; de Krijger, Jan Pieter; van Oers, Kees; Keller, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Black Terns Chlidonias niger have shown a decrease of well over 90% as a breeding bird in The Netherlands during the twentieth century. Two hypotheses have been put forward for this decline: the disappearance of the floating plant Water Soldier Stratiotes aloides, which used to be the favourite

  11. No evidence of extra-pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, M.; Matessi, Giuliano; Marin, G.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...

  12. Nesting success of White Terns and White-tailed Tropicbirds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the breeding success of two tropical seabirds that exploit dissimilar nesting habitats on Cousine Island in the Seychelles archipelago, the White Tern Gygis alba and the White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus, which nest in trees and in crevices on the ground, respectively. Both species have a ...

  13. Breeding success of Oystercatcher, terns and gulls in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Thorup, Ole; Jensen, Peter Emil

    2015-01-01

    breeding of Sandwich Terns was recorded on Langli in most of the years during 2006-2010. The Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls that nested on Langli were fairly successful in raising young to fledging during 2009-2013, whereas Common Gulls suffered from predation by Herring Gulls and they hardly...

  14. [Von den Restgütern zu den Sowchosen in Estland 1939-1953. Dokumentensammlung] / Olev Liivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivik, Olev, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Von den Restgütern zu den Sowchosen in Estland 1939-1953 : Dokumentensammlung / Hrsg. von David Feest, Karsten Brüggemann. Berlin : Lit Verlag, 2010. (Schriften der Baltischen historischen Kommission ; Bd. 15)

  15. History, distribution, and seasonal abundance of the Least Tern Sternula antillarum (Aves: Charadriiformes: Sternidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio J. Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We review existing data on the distribution of the Least Tern, Sternula antillarum along the Brazilian coast, based on the literature and museum specimens, and present results of a year-long study (October 2008 to September 2009 on the seasonal abundance of this species on a large tidal flat area, Cajuais Bank, in the State of Ceará, north-eastern Brazil. We evaluate whether the observed variation in the abundance of terns is due to the occurrence of an undocumented breeding colony, or alternatively, whether it results from an influx of migrants from the Northern Hemisphere. The recovery of historical data revealed that all literature references on the distribution of birds in the Americas, published up to the late 1990s include Brazil in the non-breeding range of the Least Tern. This inclusion is based on a few, old (late 19th and early 20th centuries museum specimens, all of which have been collected on the northern and north-eastern coasts of this country'. From the late 1980s, birds continued to be occasionally recorded along the coastline, running from the State of Amapá (01°N up to the State of Bahia (10°S, with records of single individuals in south-eastern and southern Brazil. An alleged record from Rocas Atoll, 260 km off the Brazilian mainland, might tentatively refer to the Old World Little Tern S. albifrons. At Cajuais Bank, Least Terns occurred from October 2008 to April 2009, and in September 2009. The highest numbers (> 800 individuals were recorded in January-February (Southern Hemisphere's summer. The species was observed in rather small numbers (< 30 in March-April (early-mid Southern Hemisphere fall and in September (early Southern Hemisphere spring, being absent from the area in May-August (Southern Hemisphere's fall and winter. In October-December 2008 (Southern Hemisphere's spring, and September 2009 (early Southern Hemisphere's summer, no birds were in breeding plumage. In January, about 32% of the birds were in

  16. Impacts of trapping and banding activities on productivity of Roseate Terns (Sterna Dougallii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingo, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Although Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) habituate to many research activities, trapping and handling breeding adults, or repeatedly handling chicks, may affect reproductive success or chick growth. Protocols for trapping adult Roseate Terns that reduce the chances of nest desertion, neglect of chicks, and injury to adults were developed in the early 1980s, but neither short-term nor long-term effects of research activities on this endangered species have been fully investigated. Therefore, this study had the following main objectives: 1) examine long-term data (1978-1996) to determine if trapping activities have had a major effect on annual reproductive success of a Roseate Tern colony, 2) evaluate the effects of trapping adult terns on reproductive success and chick growth, and 3) evaluate the effects of handling chicks on their growth and survival. There were no significant correlations between measures of trapping disturbance and annual reproductive success in 1978-1996 for the Falkner Island (Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Connecticut) colony, suggesting that trapping from late incubation through chick rearing using the field protocols described herein does not have a major effect on nesting success of Roseate Terns. In 1987-1996, adult trapping did not reduce prefledging survival of first-hatched chicks, and reduced survival of second-hatched chicks only in 1994 and 1995. Results of more detailed research in 1994-1996 suggest that Roseate Terns may be susceptible to trapping effects only when also faced with extreme conditions such as low food availability and/or high predation pressure. Trapping effects did not occur in most years under apparently average or typical conditions, and otherwise seem to be much less important than other factors affecting nesting success (e.g., predation and food availability). Analyses of chick growth data from 1987-1996 showed that while trapping significantly reduced early growth compared to untrapped controls

  17. No evidence of extra-pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, M.; Matessi, Giuliano; Marin, G.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...... was found in any of the families. The results are discussed in the light of life-history strategies, the benefits of coloniality and the evolution of adoption behaviour in the species.......The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...

  18. Least tern and piping plover nesting at sand pits in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, John G.; Kirsch, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Endangered Least Terns (Sterna antillarum) and threatened Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest at commercial sand and gravel mining operations (sand pits) along the Platte River system in Nebraska. Sandbar habitat has been disappearing since the early 1900's along the Platte River system, but numbers of sand pits have increased. We hypothesized that birds would more fully utilize sand pits where suitable sandbar habitat was limited. We inventoried sand pits and censused terns and plovers on both habitats along the Loup River, part of the North Loup River, and most of the Platte River during 1988-1991. Using aircraft, we also quantified features of suitable sand pits present on the central Platte in 1988 and lower Platte in 1990, and related features to abundance and presence of birds. We found 225 sand pits of which 78 were suitable and 187 were unsuitable for nesting. Along the central Platte, where sandbar habitat is severely degraded, birds nested at 81% of the suitable sand pits (N = 32) at least once during 1988-1991, and most birds (61-94%) nested on sand pits. Along the lower Platte, where both sandbar and sand pit habitat are plentiful, birds nested at 60% of the suitable sand pits (N = 35) at least once during 1988-1991, and most birds (60-86%) nested on sandbars. Numbers of terns and plovers were more weakly correlated with features of sand pits on the central Platte than on the lower Platte. Least Terns and Piping Plovers seem to use more of the suitable sand pit habitat on the central Platte than on the lower Platte. Sand pits probably have influenced the birds' distribution by providing alternative nesting habitat along rivers where suitable sandbars are rare or absent.

  19. Ecology of tern flight in relation to wind, topography and aerodynamic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Åkesson, Susanne

    2016-09-26

    Flight is an economical mode of locomotion, because it is both fast and relatively cheap per unit of distance, enabling birds to migrate long distances and obtain food over large areas. The power required to fly follows a U-shaped function in relation to airspeed, from which context dependent 'optimal' flight speeds can be derived. Crosswinds will displace birds away from their intended track unless they make compensatory adjustments of heading and airspeed. We report on flight track measurements in five geometrically similar tern species ranging one magnitude in body mass, from both migration and the breeding season at the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea. When leaving the southern point of Öland, migrating Arctic and common terns made a 60° shift in track direction, probably guided by a distant landmark. Terns adjusted both airspeed and heading in relation to tail and side wind, where coastlines facilitated compensation. Airspeed also depended on ecological context (searching versus not searching for food), and it increased with flock size. Species-specific maximum range speed agreed with predicted speeds from a new aerodynamic theory. Our study shows that the selection of airspeed is a behavioural trait that depended on a complex blend of internal and external factors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Response of roseate tern to a shoreline protection project on Falkner Island, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C.J.; Spendelow, J.A.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Fischer, Richard A.; Pashley, David N.; Lott, Casey A.

    2007-01-01

    Construction was initiated following the 2000 tern breeding season for Phase 1 of a planned two-phase ?Shoreline Protection and Erosion Control Project? at the Falkner Island Unit of the USFWS Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge located in Long Island Sound off the coast of Guilford, CT. When the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) and federally endangered Roseate Tern (S. dougallii) arrived in spring 2001, they encountered several major habitat changes from what had existed in previous years. These changes included: a rock revetment covering most of the former nesting habitat on the beach from the northwestern section around the northern tip and covering about 60% of the eastern side; an elevated 60- ? 4-m shelf covering the beach and lower bank of the southwestern section; and about 2,000 sq m of devegetated areas on top of the island on the northeast side above the revetment, and about one-third of the southern half of the island. The southwest shelf was created by bulldozing and compacting extra construction fill and in situ materials. This shelf differed in internal structure from the main revetment on the north and eastern sections of the island because it lacked the deep internal crevices of the revetment. The deep internal crevices were created from the large stones and boulders (up to 2 tons) used in the construction of the main revetment. Small rock and gravel was used to fill the crevices to within 3 feet (0.9 m) of the surface of the revetment. Because half-buried tires and nest boxes for the six Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii) sub-colony areas were deployed in similar patterns on the remaining beach, and nest boxes were placed on the newly elevated shelf areas several meters above previous locations on the now-covered beach areas, the distribution of Roseate Tern nests did not change much from 2000 to 2001. However, the movements of Roseate Tern chicks ? in many cases led by their parents towards traditional hiding places ? into the labyrinth of

  1. Challenges and prospects of population genetic studies in terns (Charadriiformes, Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia J. Faria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available about the population structure of communally nesting terns (Sternidae and skimmers (Rynchopidae throughout the world. In order to fill this gap, a survey of molecular markers was carried out for six species of terns (Anous stolidus, Sterna hirundinacea, S. fuscata, S. superciliaris, Thalasseus maximus and Phaetusa simplex and one species of skimmer (Rynchops niger. First, we describe the results of the construction of genomic DNA libraries and document problems encountered during this procedure. Secondly, we tested the cross-amplification of 18 microsatellite loci previously described for related species (the number of polymorphic loci ranged from three to seven. Thirdly, we tested the usefulness of mtDNA (control region, ND2, Cytochrome b and ATPase 6/8 for phylogeographic studies in this group of birds. The occurrence of nuclear copies of the mitochondrial control region is reported. Nucleotide divergence in the mtDNA genes analyzed ranged from 0.0 to 0.006. Despite the difficulties associated with the selection of variable markers in this group of seabirds, we were able to select polymorphic markers for each species tested and we anticipate these results will help the development of genetic studies concerning important biological questions in terns.

  2. Survival of postfledging Forster's terns in relation to mercury exposure in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Iverson, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined factors influencing mercury concentrations in 90 fledgling Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and evaluated whether mercury influenced postfledging survival in San Francisco Bay, California. Mercury concentrations (??SE) in chicks 21-29 days old (just before fledging) were 0.33 ?? 0.01 ??g g-1 ww for blood and 6.44 ?? 0.28 ??g g -1 fw for breast feathers. Colony site had an overriding influence on fledgling contamination, however hatching date and age also affected blood, but not feather, mercury concentrations. Blood mercury concentrations decreased by 28% during the 50-day hatching period and increased with chick age by 30% during the last week prior to fledging. Using radio-telemetry, we calculated that cumulative survival during the 35-day postfledging time period was 0.81 ?? 0.09 (SE). Postfledging survival rates increased with size-adjusted mass, and cumulative survival probability was 61% lower for terns with the lowest, compared to the highest, observed masses. Conversely, survival was not influenced by blood mercury concentration, time since fledging, sex, or hatch date. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of fledglings found dead at nesting colonies also were no different than those in live chicks. Our results indicate that colony site, hatching date, and age influenced mercury concentrations in fledgling Forster's terns, but that mercury did not influence postfledging survival. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. Pelagic cephalopods in the western Indian Ocean: New information from diets of top predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Frédéric; Potier, Michel; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Romanov, Evgeny; Sabatié, Richard; Cherel, Yves

    2013-10-01

    Using a combination of diverse large predatory fishes and one seabird, we collected information on the cephalopod fauna of the western Indian Ocean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 35 fishes representing ten families (Xiphiidae, Istiophoridae, Scombridae, Carangidae, Coryphaenidae, Alepisauridae, Dasyatidae, Carcharhinidae, Alopiidae and Sphyrnidae) and of the sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata of the Mozambique Channel from 2000 to 2010. Both fresh and accumulated beaks were used for identifying cephalopod prey. Cephalopods were important prey for twelve predators; swordfish Xiphias gladius had the highest cephalopod proportion; sooty tern (O. fuscata) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) had high proportions too. We recovered 23 cephalopod families and identified 38 species. Ten species from four Teuthida families (Ommastrephidae, Onychoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae and Ancistrocheiridae) and two Octopoda families (Argonautidae and Bolitaenidae) occurred very frequently in the stomach contents, while Sepiida were rare. Ommastrephidae were the most cephalopod food sources: the purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis was the most prevalent prey by far, Ornithoteuthis volatilis was important for eleven predators and few but large specimens of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii were recovered in the stomachs of swordfish in the Indian South Subtropical Gyre province only. Predators' groups were identified based on cephalopod prey composition, on depth in which they forage, and on prey size. Surface predators' diets were characterized by lower cephalopod diversity but greater average numbers of cephalopod prey, whereas the deep-dwelling predators (swordfish and bigeye tuna) preyed on larger specimens than surface predators (O. fuscata or yellowfin tunas Thunnus albacares). Our findings emphasized the usefulness of a community of marine predators to gain valuable information on the biology and the distribution of the cephalopod forage fauna that are

  4. Objectives, priorities, reliable knowledge, and science-based management of Missouri River interior least terns and piping plovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark; Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry; Sovada, Marsha; Stucker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Supporting recovery of federally listed interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos; tern) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus; plover) populations is a desirable goal in management of the Missouri River ecosystem. Many tools are implemented in support of this goal, including habitat management, annual monitoring, directed research, and threat mitigation. Similarly, many types of data can be used to make management decisions, evaluate system responses, and prioritize research and monitoring. The ecological importance of Missouri River recovery and the conservation status of terns and plovers place a premium on efficient and effective resource use. Efficiency is improved when a single data source informs multiple high-priority decisions, whereas effectiveness is improved when decisions are informed by reliable knowledge. Seldom will a single study design be optimal for addressing all data needs, making prioritization of needs essential. Data collection motivated by well-articulated objectives and priorities has many advantages over studies in which questions and priorities are determined retrospectively. Research and monitoring for terns and plovers have generated a wealth of data that can be interpreted in a variety of ways. The validity and strength of conclusions from analyses of these data is dependent on compatibility between the study design and the question being asked. We consider issues related to collection and interpretation of biological data, and discuss their utility for enhancing the role of science in management of Missouri River terns and plovers. A team of USGS scientists at Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center has been conducting tern and plover research on the Missouri River since 2005. The team has had many discussions about the importance of setting objectives, identifying priorities, and obtaining reliable information to answer pertinent questions about tern and plover management on this river system. The objectives of this

  5. Comparative embryotoxicity of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture to common terns (Sterna hirundo) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Heinz, Gary H.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra L.; Hale, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from San Francisco Bay have been reported to range up to 63 μg g−1 lipid weight. This value exceeds the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (1.8 μg g−1 egg wet weight; ∼32 μg−1 lipid weight) reported in an embryotoxicity study with American kestrels (Falco sparverius). As a surrogate for Forster’s terns, common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs were treated by air cell injection with corn oil vehicle (control) or a commercial penta-BDE formulation (DE-71) at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 20 μg g−1 egg. As a positive control, kestrel eggs received vehicle or 20 μg DE-71 g−1 egg. In terns, there were no effects of DE-71 on embryonic survival, and pipping or hatching success; however, treated eggs hatched later (0.44 d) than controls. Organ weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, and bone lengths did not differ, and histopathological observations were unremarkable. Several measures of hepatic oxidative stress in hatchling terns were not affected by DE-71, although there was some evidence of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; 8-OH-dG). Although DE-71 did not impair pipping and hatching of kestrels, it did result in a delay in hatch, shorter humerus length, and reduced total thyroid weight. Concentrations of oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and 8-OH-dG in liver were greater in DE-71-treated kestrels compared to controls. Our findings suggest common tern embryos, and perhaps other tern species, are less sensitive to PBDEs than kestrel embryos.

  6. Emergent Sandbar Construction for Least Terns on the Missouri River: Effects on Forage Fishes in Shallow-Water Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucker, J.H.; Buhl, D.A.; Sherfy, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Emergent sandbars on the Missouri River are actively managed for two listed bird species, piping plovers and interior least terns. As a plunge-diving piscivore, endangered least terns rely on ready access to appropriately sized slender-bodied fish: nesting habitat for plovers and terns, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers mechanically created several emergent sandbars on the Missouri River. However, it was unknown whether sandbar construction is a benefit or a detriment to forage abundance for least terns. Therefore, we studied the shallowwater (nesting seasons (2006-2008). We sampled every 2 weeks each year from late May to July within 15-16 areas to document the relative abundance, species richness and size classes of fish. Fish relative abundance was negatively related to depth. Catches were dominated by schooling species, including emerald shiner, sand shiner, spotfin shiner and bigmouth buffalo. Significant inter-annual differences in relative abundance were observed, with generally increasing trends in intra-seasonal relative abundance of shiners and the smallest size classes of fish (<34 mm). Significant differences in the fish communities between the sandbar types were not detected in this study. Results suggest that mechanical sandbar habitats host comparable fish communities at similar levels of relative abundance. Further analyses are required to evaluate if the levels of fish relative abundance are adequate to support least tern foraging and reproduction.

  7. Wetland selection by breeding and foraging black terns in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Valerie A.; Powell, Abby N.

    2012-01-01

    We examined wetland selection by the Black Tern (Chlidonias niger), a species that breeds primarily in the prairie pothole region, has experienced population declines, and is difficult to manage because of low site fidelity. To characterize its selection of wetlands in this region, we surveyed 589 wetlands throughout North and South Dakota. We documented breeding at 5% and foraging at 17% of wetlands. We created predictive habitat models with a machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, to explore the relative role of local wetland characteristics and those of the surrounding landscape and to evaluate which characteristics were important to predicting breeding versus foraging. We also examined area-dependent wetland selection while addressing the passive sampling bias by replacing occurrence of terns in the models with an index of density. Local wetland variables were more important than landscape variables in predictions of occurrence of breeding and foraging. Wetland size was more important to prediction of foraging than of breeding locations, while floating matted vegetation was more important to prediction of breeding than of foraging locations. The amount of seasonal wetland in the landscape was the only landscape variable important to prediction of both foraging and breeding. Models based on a density index indicated that wetland selection by foraging terns may be more area dependent than that by breeding terns. Our study provides some of the first evidence for differential breeding and foraging wetland selection by Black Terns and for a more limited role of landscape effects and area sensitivity than has been previously shown.

  8. Quantifying the effect of predators on endangered species using a bioenergetics approach : Caspian terns and juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roby, DD; Lyons, DE; Craig, DP; Collis, K; Visser, GH

    We estimated the consumption of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) and other forage fishes by Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) nesting on Rice Island in the Columbia River estuary in 1997 and 1998 using a bioenergetics modeling approach. The study was prompted by concern that Caspian tern predation

  9. Use of Fatty Acid Analysis to Determine Dispersal of Caspian Terns in the Columbia River Basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranto, C.J.; Parrish, J.K.; Herman, D.P.; Punt, A.E.; Olden, J.D.; Brett, M.T.; Roby, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Lethal control, which has been used to reduce local abundances of animals in conflict with humans or with endangered species, may not achieve management goals if animal movement is not considered. In populations with emigration and immigration, lethal control may induce compensatory immigration, if the source of attraction remains unchanged. Within the Columbia River Basin (Washington, U.S.A.), avian predators forage at dams because dams tend to reduce rates of emigration of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.), artificially concentrating these prey. We used differences in fatty acid profiles between Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia) at coastal and inland breeding colonies and terns culled by a lethal control program at a mid-Columbia River dam to infer dispersal patterns. We modeled the rate of loss of fatty acid biomarkers, which are fatty acids that can be traced to a single prey species or groups of species, to infer whether and when terns foraging at dams had emigrated from the coast. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed that coastal terns had high levels of C20 and C22 monounsaturated fatty acids, whereas fatty acids of inland breeders were high in C18:3n3, C20:4n6, and C22:5n3. Models of the rate of loss of fatty acid showed that approximately 60% of the terns collected at Rock Island Dam were unlikely to have bred successfully at local (inland) sites, suggesting that terns foraging at dams come from an extensive area. Fatty acid biomarkers may provide accurate information about patterns of dispersal in animal populations and may be extremely valuable in cases where populations differ demonstrably in prey base. ??2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Egg turning behavior and incubation temperature in Forster’s terns in relation to mercury contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory T.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Shaffer, Scott A.

    2018-01-01

    Egg turning behavior is an important determinant of egg hatchability, but it remains relatively understudied. Here, we examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri). We used artificial eggs containing a data logger with a 3-D accelerometer, a magnetometer, and a temperature thermistor to monitor parental incubation behavior of 131 tern nests. Overall, adults turned their eggs an average (±SD) of 3.8 ± 0.8 turns h-1, which is nearly two times higher than that of other seabirds. Egg turning rates increased with nest initiation date. We also examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in relation to egg mercury contamination. Mercury contamination has been shown to be associated with reduced egg hatchability, and we hypothesized that mercury may decrease egg hatchability via altered egg turning behavior by parents. Despite the high variability in egg turning rates among individuals, the rate of egg turning was not related to mercury concentrations in sibling eggs. These findings highlight the need for further study concerning the potential determinants of egg turning behavior.

  11. PCB concentrations and metabolism patterns in common terns (Sterna hirundo) from different breeding colonies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2001-01-01

    PCB levels in blood of common terns (Sterna hirundo) from Terneuzen, a breeding colony in The Netherlands with relatively low breeding success, were significantly higher than in birds from two Dutch reference colonies, one nearby (Oesterdam) and one further away (the Isle of Griend). However, a

  12. Habitat selection by Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) at multiple spatial scales in an urbanized estuary: The importance of salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluso-Demers, Jill; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Peterson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The highly urbanized San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA, is currently undergoing large-scale habitat restoration, and several thousand hectares of former salt evaporation ponds are being converted to tidal marsh. To identify potential effects of this habitat restoration on breeding waterbirds, habitat selection of radiotagged Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) was examined at multiple spatial scales during the pre-breeding and breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006. At each spatial scale, habitat selection ratios were calculated by season, year, and sex. Forster's Terns selected salt pond habitats at most spatial scales and demonstrated the importance of salt ponds for foraging and roosting. Salinity influenced the types of salt pond habitats that were selected. Specifically, Forster's Terns strongly selected lower salinity salt ponds (0.5–30 g/L) and generally avoided higher salinity salt ponds (≥31 g/L). Forster's Terns typically used tidal marsh and managed marsh habitats in proportion to their availability, avoided upland and tidal flat habitats, and strongly avoided open bay habitats. Salt ponds provide important habitat for breeding waterbirds, and restoration efforts to convert former salt ponds to tidal marsh may reduce the availability of preferred breeding and foraging areas.

  13. Effect of brood size and hatching sequence on prefledging mortality of Sandwich terns: why lay two eggs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, E.W.M.; Brenninkmeijer, A.

    2006-01-01

    The mortality of Sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis chicks held in enclosures was studied in colonies on Griend, in the Dutch Wadden Sea, from 1992 to 1999, and on Hirsholm, in the Danish Kattegat, in 1997. Survival of chicks until fledging was 73% for chicks hatching from first-laid eggs or

  14. Effect of brood size and hatching sequence on prefledging mortality of Sandwich terns : why lay two eggs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, Eric W. M.; Brenninkmeijer, Alex

    2006-01-01

    The mortality of Sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis chicks held in enclosures was studied in colonies on Griend, in the Dutch Wadden Sea, from 1992 to 1999, and on Hirsholm, in the Danish Kattegat, in 1997. Survival of chicks until fledging was 73% for chicks hatching from first-laid eggs or

  15. Variation in growth in sandwich tern chicks Sterna sandvicensis and the consequences for pre- and post-fledging mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, E.W.M.; Brenninkmeijer, A.

    2002-01-01

    Fitness consequences of variation in body mass growth and body condition were studied in a sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis colony on Griend, Dutch Wadden Sea, during 1990-2000. Body mass increment during the linear growth phase predicted nestling survival probabilities accurately. Chicks growing

  16. Variation in growth in Sandwich Tern chicks Sterna sandvicensis and the consequences for pre- and post-fledging mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, EWM; Brenninkmeijer, A

    2002-01-01

    Fitness consequences of variation in body mass growth and body condition were studied in a Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicensis colony on Griend, Dutch Wadden Sea, during 1990-2000. Body mass increment during the linear growth phase predicted nestling survival probabilities accurately. Chicks growing

  17. Environment Assessment for Grand Bay Range, Bemiss Field, and Moody Explosive Ordnance Disposal Range Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    were potentially linked to a mass hatch failure of Sooty Terns on the Dry Tortugas (Austin et al. 1970). The cause of the failure was not certain, but...W.B. Robertson, Jr., and G.B. Wolfenden. 1970. Mass Hatching Failure in Dry Tortugas Sooty Terns (Sterna fuscata). Proceedings of the XVth

  18. Prey fish returned to Forster's tern colonies suggest spatial and temporal differences in fish composition and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex

    2018-01-01

    Predators sample the available prey community when foraging; thus, changes in the environment may be reflected by changes in predator diet and foraging preferences. We examined Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) prey species over an 11-year period by sampling approximately 10,000 prey fish returned to 17 breeding colonies in south San Francisco Bay, California. We compared the species composition among repeatedly-sampled colonies (≥ 4 years), using both relative species abundance and the composition of total dry mass by species. Overall, the relative abundances of prey species at seven repeatedly-sampled tern colonies were more different than would be expected by chance, with the most notable differences in relative abundance observed between geographically distant colonies. In general, Mississippi silverside (Menidia audens) and topsmelt silverside (Atherinops affinis) comprised 42% of individuals and 40% of dry fish mass over the study period. Three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) comprised the next largest proportion of prey species by individuals (19%) but not by dry mass (6%). Five additional species each contributed ≥ 4% of total individuals collected over the study period: yellowfin goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus; 10%), longjaw mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis; 8%), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii; 6%), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax; 4%), and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus; 4%). At some colonies, the relative abundance and biomass of specific prey species changed over time. In general, the abundance and dry mass of silversides increased, whereas the abundance and dry mass of three-spined stickleback and longjaw mudsucker decreased. As central place foragers, Forster's terns are limited in the distance they forage; thus, changes in the prey species returned to Forster's tern colonies suggest that the relative availability of some fish species in the environment has changed, possibly in response to alteration of the available habitat.

  19. Prey fish returned to Forster’s tern colonies suggest spatial and temporal differences in fish composition and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, C. Alex

    2018-01-01

    Predators sample the available prey community when foraging; thus, changes in the environment may be reflected by changes in predator diet and foraging preferences. We examined Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) prey species over an 11-year period by sampling approximately 10,000 prey fish returned to 17 breeding colonies in south San Francisco Bay, California. We compared the species composition among repeatedly-sampled colonies (≥ 4 years), using both relative species abundance and the composition of total dry mass by species. Overall, the relative abundances of prey species at seven repeatedly-sampled tern colonies were more different than would be expected by chance, with the most notable differences in relative abundance observed between geographically distant colonies. In general, Mississippi silverside (Menidia audens) and topsmelt silverside (Atherinops affinis) comprised 42% of individuals and 40% of dry fish mass over the study period. Three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) comprised the next largest proportion of prey species by individuals (19%) but not by dry mass (6%). Five additional species each contributed ≥ 4% of total individuals collected over the study period: yellowfin goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus; 10%), longjaw mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis; 8%), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii; 6%), northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax; 4%), and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus; 4%). At some colonies, the relative abundance and biomass of specific prey species changed over time. In general, the abundance and dry mass of silversides increased, whereas the abundance and dry mass of three-spined stickleback and longjaw mudsucker decreased. As central place foragers, Forster’s terns are limited in the distance they forage; thus, changes in the prey species returned to Forster’s tern colonies suggest that the relative availability of some fish species in the environment has changed, possibly in response to alteration of the available

  20. California Least Tern Foraging Ecology in Southern California: A Review of Foraging Behavior Relative to Proposed Dredging Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    additional data are necessary to understand the relationship among turbidity plumes, behavior of CLT prey fish , and CLT foraging behavior. KBC...activities. Fish actively seek out or avoid turbid waters for a number of reasons, including predator avoidance and food resources, and this...Birds 14:57-72. Atwood, J. L., and P. R. Kelly. 1984. Fish dropped on breeding colonies as indicators of Least Tern food habits. Wilson Bulletin 96: 34

  1. GPS-tracking and colony observations reveal variation in offshore habitat use and foraging ecology of breeding Sandwich Terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijn, R. C.; de Jong, J.; Courtens, W.; Verstraete, H.; Stienen, E. W. M.; Poot, M. J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Breeding success of seabirds critically depends on their foraging success offshore. However, studies combining at-sea tracking and visual provisioning observations are scarce, especially for smaller species of seabirds. This study is the first in which breeding Sandwich Terns were tracked with GPS-loggers to collect detailed data on foraging habitat use in four breeding seasons. The maximum home range of individual Sandwich Terns comprised approximately 1900 km2 and the average foraging range was 27 km. Trip durations were on average 135 min with average trip lengths of 67 km. Actual foraging behaviour comprised 35% of the time budget of a foraging trip. Substantial year-to-year variation was found in habitat use and trip variables, yet with the exception of 2012, home range size remained similar between years. Food availability, chick age and environmental conditions are proposed as the main driving factors between inter- and intra-annual variations in trip variables. Our multi-method approach also provided geo-referenced information on prey presence and we conclude that future combining of colony observations and GPS-loggers deployments can potentially provide a near complete insight into the feeding ecology of breeding Sandwich Terns, including the behaviour of birds at sea.

  2. Juvenile survival in a tropical population of roseate terns: Interannual variation and effect of tick parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, David; Ramos, Jaime A.; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Spendelow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Many demographic studies on long-lived seabirds have focused on the estimation of adult survival, but much less is known about survival during the early years of life, especially in tropical species. We report analyses of a capture–recapture dataset of 685 roseate terns ringed as fledglings and adults between 1998 and 2005 on Aride Island, Seychelles, and recaptured/resighted at the same colony site over a 5 yr (2002 to 2006) period. A multistate model was used to estimate survival for different age classes, including juvenile (first-year) birds returning as non-breeding prospectors. The effect of infestation by parasites (ticks) on survival was also examined. Overall, the estimated return of first-year individuals to the natal colony was very variable, ranging from 2 to 22%. Conditioned on survival, the probability of returning from Age 2 yr onwards increased to 70%. Survival rates were best modeled as time-specific, with estimates varying from 0.02 to 1.00 (mean 0.69) in first-year birds with a marked negative effect of tick infestation. In older birds (minimum age of 2 yr), the annual estimates fell between 0.69 and 0.86 (mean 0.77). Using a components of variance approach for estimation of year-to-year variation, we found high temporal variability for first-year individuals (coefficient of variation [CV] = 65%) compared to much less variation in the survival rate of older birds (CV = 9%). These findings agree with the life-history prediction that demographic rates of juveniles are usually lower and more variable than those of older individuals. Our results are also consistent with the predicted negative effect of tick parasitism on juvenile survival. Compared with data from other roseate tern populations, survival over the first 2 yr (Age 0 to 2 yr) was 18 to 40% higher in this study, suggesting that a high ‘young’ survival rate may be an important demographic trait in this tropical population to compensate for the low annual reproductive success. Our

  3. Detection probability of least tern and piping plover chicks in a large river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Erin A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Dovichin, Colin M.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the abundance and stability of populations of conservation concern is often complicated by an inability to perfectly detect all members of the population. Mark-recapture offers a flexible framework in which one may identify factors contributing to imperfect detection, while at the same time estimating demographic parameters such as abundance or survival. We individually color-marked, recaptured, and re-sighted 1,635 federally listed interior least tern (Sternula antillarum; endangered) chicks and 1,318 piping plover (Charadrius melodus; threatened) chicks from 2006 to 2009 at 4 study areas along the Missouri River and investigated effects of observer-, subject-, and site-level covariates suspected of influencing detection. Increasing the time spent searching and crew size increased the probability of detecting both species regardless of study area and detection methods were not associated with decreased survival. However, associations between detection probability and the investigated covariates were highly variable by study area and species combinations, indicating that a universal mark-recapture design may not be appropriate.

  4. Maternal steroids and contaminants in common tern eggs: A mechanism of endocrine disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Schwabl, H.

    2001-01-01

    We looked for evidence for the hypothesis that exposure of female birds to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) results in alteration of blood steroid hormone concentrations and alters subsequent hormone transfer of steroids to eggs. Eggs of three-egg clutches were collected from a PCB-exposed common tern (Sterna hirundo) colony (Ram Island, Buzzards Bay, MA, USA) and from a relatively clean colony (Bodkin Island, Chesapeake Bay, MD, USA), and were analyzed for concentrations of organochlorine contaminants and steroid hormones (17β-estradiol, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and androstenedione). There was no relationship between total PCBs and steroid concentrations considering all eggs together, considering eggs of different laying order or considering differences between sequentially laid eggs in a clutch. Similarly, concentrations of di- and tri-chlorinated biphenyls and steroids in eggs were not related. The concentrations of PCBs, mercury and selenium were below estimated thresholds for toxicity to embryos. Maternal steroids, except estradiol, were present in yolk of all eggs, with increasing concentrations in the second and third eggs laid. Our data provided no evidence for a maternal toxicological event that might alter the amount of maternal steroid hormone transferred to eggs.

  5. Consequences of least tern (Sternula antillarum) microhabitat nest-site selection on natural and mechanically constructed sandbars in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucker, Jennifer H.; Buhl, Deborah A.; Sherfy, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Nest-habitat selection in colonial species has rarely been assessed at multiple spatial scales to evaluate its fitness consequences. Management for the federally endangered U.S. Interior population of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) has focused on maintenance of breeding habitats, including mechanical construction of sandbars from dredged material. Least Terns are attracted to large areas of unvegetated substrate, yet small-scale habitat features are thought to trigger selection for nesting. We evaluated nest-scale habitat selection to determine (1) whether selection differs between constructed and natural sandbars and (2) the subsequent consequences of habitat selection on nest success. During 2006–2008, we examined 869 Least Tern nest sites on constructed and natural sandbars in the Missouri River for evidence of microhabitat selection at the nest in relation to habitat within the surrounding 3-m area. Least Tern nest sites had coarser and larger substrate materials at the nest, more debris, and less vegetation than the surrounding area. Nests in constructed habitats had a greater percentage of coarse substrates and less vegetation or debris than nests in naturally created habitats. Apparent nest success was 1.8× greater on constructed than on natural sandbars. Nest success was best predicted by models with two spatial scales of predictors, including substrates (nest) and vegetation and debris (nest or surrounding area). Our results indicate that Least Terns select nest microhabitat characteristics that are associated with wind- and water-scoured habitats, and that nest success increases when these habitats are selected.

  6. Reproductive success of Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida in eastern Spain in relation to water level variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Lledó, Álvaro; Vidal Mateo, Javier; Urios Moliner, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    A study on the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida was carried out between 2002 and 2009 in wetlands of eastern Spain to evaluate how water level fluctuation affects its reproductive success (hatching, fledgling and breeding success). This species is catalogued as Vulnerable in Spain and has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. Our study includes 18 sampling areas from five wetlands, covering a total of 663 nests, 1,618 eggs, 777 nestlings and 225 fledglings. The colonies were visited at least twice per week in breeding period. The number of eggs and/or nestlings present in each nest were annotated each time the colonies were visited with the aim to compare the evolution of these parameters with time. Hatching success was calculated as the proportion of egg that hatched successfully. Fledgling success and breeding success were calculated as the proportion of chicks that fledged successfully and the proportion of eggs that produced fledglings. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to analyze the differences in the dependent variables hatching, fledgling and breeding success among the wetlands and the sampling areas. We explored the relationship between the different reproductive success with the average fluctuation rate and the anchoring depth of nests, using statistics of the linear regression. It was observed that the reproductive success varied significantly in the interaction among the different categories of water level fluctuation and the different areas (using the Kruskal-Wallis test). Our records showed that pronounced variations in water level destroyed several nests, which affected the Whiskered Tern reproductive success. Considering all events that occurred in 18 areas, the mean (±SD) of nests, eggs and nestlings that were lost after water level fluctuations were of 25.60 ± 21.79%, 32.06 ± 27.58% and 31.91 ± 21.28% respectively, also including the effects of rain and predation. Unfavorable climatic events, such as strong wind, rain or hail, also

  7. Reproductive success of Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida in eastern Spain in relation to water level variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ortiz Lledó

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background A study on the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida was carried out between 2002 and 2009 in wetlands of eastern Spain to evaluate how water level fluctuation affects its reproductive success (hatching, fledgling and breeding success. This species is catalogued as Vulnerable in Spain and has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. Methods Our study includes 18 sampling areas from five wetlands, covering a total of 663 nests, 1,618 eggs, 777 nestlings and 225 fledglings. The colonies were visited at least twice per week in breeding period. The number of eggs and/or nestlings present in each nest were annotated each time the colonies were visited with the aim to compare the evolution of these parameters with time. Hatching success was calculated as the proportion of egg that hatched successfully. Fledgling success and breeding success were calculated as the proportion of chicks that fledged successfully and the proportion of eggs that produced fledglings. We used the Kruskal–Wallis test to analyze the differences in the dependent variables hatching, fledgling and breeding success among the wetlands and the sampling areas. We explored the relationship between the different reproductive success with the average fluctuation rate and the anchoring depth of nests, using statistics of the linear regression. Results It was observed that the reproductive success varied significantly in the interaction among the different categories of water level fluctuation and the different areas (using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Our records showed that pronounced variations in water level destroyed several nests, which affected the Whiskered Tern reproductive success. Considering all events that occurred in 18 areas, the mean (±SD of nests, eggs and nestlings that were lost after water level fluctuations were of 25.60 ± 21.79%, 32.06 ± 27.58% and 31.91 ± 21.28% respectively, also including the effects of rain and predation. Discussion Unfavorable

  8. Human harvest, climate change and their synergistic effects drove the Chinese Crested Tern to the brink of extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic effect refers to simultaneous actions of separate factors which have a greater total effect than the sum of the individual factor effects. However, there has been a limited knowledge on how synergistic effects occur and individual roles of different drivers are not often considered. Therefore, it becomes quite challenging to manage multiple threatening processes simultaneously in order to mitigate biodiversity loss. In this regard, our hypothesis is, if the traits actually play different roles in the synergistic interaction, conservation efforts could be made more effectively. To understand the synergistic effect and test our hypothesis, we examined the processes associated with the endangerment of critically endangered Chinese Crested Tern (Thalasseus bernsteini, whose total population number was estimated no more than 50. Through monitoring of breeding colonies and investigations into causative factors, combined with other data on human activities, we found that widespread human harvest of seabird eggs and increasing frequency of typhoons are the major factors that threatened the Chinese Crested Tern. Furthermore, 28 percent of breeding failures were due to the synergistic effects in which egg harvest-induced renestings suffered the higher frequent typhoons. In such combined interactions, the egg harvest has clearly served as a proximal factor for the population decline, and the superimposition of enhanced typhoon activity further accelerated the species toward imminent extinction. Our findings suggest that species endangerment, on one hand, should be treated as a synergistic process, while conservation efforts, on the other hand, should focus principally on combatting the threat that triggers synergistic effects.

  9. Immunoreactive cortisone in droppings reflect stress levels, diet and growth rate of gull-billed tern chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Noelia; Santiago-Quesada, Francisco; Masero, José A; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M; Möstl, Erich

    2015-03-01

    Blood levels of corticosterone have been traditionally analyzed to assess stress levels in birds; however, measuring steroid hormone metabolites in feces and droppings has gained much interest as a noninvasive technique successfully used for such purposed in vertebrates. Diet may affect these fecal metabolite levels (e.g., due to nutritional stress), however, this variable has not been taken into account in studies with chicks despite the great dietary flexibility of many avian species. In this study, we addressed for the first time this key issue and validated the technique in wild gull-billed tern chicks (Gelochelidon nilotica). Several enzyme immunoassays were used to determine the most appropriate test to measure the stress response. Subsequently, we performed an experiment in captivity to assess adrenocortical activity in gull-billed tern chicks fed with two diets: piscivorous vs. insectivorous. Finally, the relation between the chicks' growth rate and excreted immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites (EGMs) was also evaluated. We found the immunoreactive cortisone metabolites to be a good index of stress (as being an index of adrenocortical reactivity) in chicks of this species. Fish-fed chicks had higher levels of cortisone metabolites when comparing both concentration and total daily excreted metabolites. Within each treatment diet, cortisone metabolite levels and growth rates were negatively correlated. These findings suggest that the diet should be considered when using this technique for comparative purposes and highlight the trade-off between stress levels and chicks growth rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of a nesting platform by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers at the Salton Sea, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Kathy C.; Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Schoneman, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, we constructed an elevated nesting platform at the Salton Sea, California, and monitored its use by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers over three subsequent breeding seasons. Black Skimmers were the first to colonize the platform with a total of five nests in 2006. In 2007 Gull-billed Terns colonized the platform with a total of 28 nests and the number of Black Skimmer nests increased to 20. Neither species nested on the platform in 2008. Low success for both species was probably influenced by at least two factors. First, when both species nested on the platform, nest densities were higher than is typical of their colonies on larger, earthen islands, and colony success may have been reduced by overcrowding. Second, lack of access to water may have reduced chicks' ability to thermoregulate effectively in the hot environment of the Salton Sea. Refinements to the size, design, and location of artificial nesting habitats are necessary to enhance productivity of colonial groundnesting birds at the Salton Sea successfully.

  11. The function of female and male ornaments in the Inca Tern: evidence for links between ornament expression and both adult condition and reproductive performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velando, A.; Lessells, C.M.; Marquez, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Inca Terns Larosterna inca are medium-size seabirds that breed along the Peruvian and Chilean coast. They are monogamous and both sexes incubate and contribute to chick provisioning. The sexes are similar in appearance and have elaborate ornaments, including a long white moustache of feathers and

  12. Contrasted structuring effects of mesoscale features on the seabird community in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquemet, S.; Ternon, J. F.; Kaehler, S.; Thiebot, J. B.; Dyer, B.; Bemanaja, E.; Marteau, C.; Le Corre, M.

    2014-02-01

    The Mozambique Channel (western Indian Ocean) is a dynamic environment characterised by strong mesoscale features, which influence all biological components of the pelagic ecosystem. We investigated the distribution, abundance and feeding behaviour of seabirds in the Mozambique Channel in relation to physical and biological environmental variables, with a specific interest in mesoscale features. Seabird censuses were conducted in summer and winter during 7 cruises in the southern and northern Mozambique Channel. Tropical species accounted for 49% of the 37 species identified and 97% of the individuals, and species from the sub-Antarctic region constituted 30% of the identifications. The typically tropical sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscata) was the dominant species during all cruises, and overall accounted for 74% of the species observations and 85% of counted birds. Outputs of Generalised Linear Models at the scale of the Mozambique Channel suggested that higher densities of flying and feeding birds occurred in areas with lower sea surface temperatures and lower surface chlorophyll a concentrations. Most of the flocks of feeding birds did not associate with surface schools of fish or marine mammals, but when they did, these flocks were larger, especially when associated with tuna. While tropical species seemed to favour cyclonic eddies, frontal and divergence zones, non-tropical species were more frequently recorded over shelf waters. Sooty terns foraged preferentially in cyclonic eddies where zooplankton, micronekton and tuna schools were abundant. Among other major tropical species, frigatebirds (Fregata spp.) predominated in frontal zones between eddies, where tuna schools also frequently occurred and where geostrophic currents were the strongest. Red-footed boobies (Sula sula) concentrated in divergence zones characterised by low sea level anomalies, low geostrophic currents, and high zooplankton biomass close to the surface. Our results highlight the importance

  13. Evaluation of Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) and snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) nesting on modified islands at the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California—2016 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Strong, Cheryl; Trachtenbarg, David; Shore, Crystal A.

    2017-05-08

    Executive SummaryIn order to address the 2008/10 and Supplemental 2014 NOAA Fisheries Biological Opinion for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) developed and have begun implementation of Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) management plans. This implementation includes redistribution of the Caspian terns in the Columbia River estuary and the mid-Columbia River region to reduce predation on salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act. Key elements of the plans include (1) reducing nesting habitat for Caspian terns in the Columbia River estuary and the mid-Columbia River region, and (2) creating or modifying nesting habitat at alternative sites within the Caspian tern breeding range. USACE and Reclamation developed Caspian tern nesting habitat at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge (DENWR), California, prior to the 2015 nesting season. Furthermore, to reduce or eliminate potential conflicts between nesting Caspian terns and threatened western snowy plovers (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus), nesting habitat for snowy plovers also was developed. Seven recently constructed islands within two managed ponds (Ponds A16 and SF2) of DENWR were modified to provide habitat attractive to nesting Caspian terns (5 islands) and snowy plovers (2 islands). These 7 islands were a subset of 46 islands recently constructed in Ponds A16 and SF2 to provide waterbird nesting habitat as part of the South Bay Salt Pond (SBSP) Restoration Project.We used social attraction methods (decoys and electronic call systems) to attract Caspian terns and snowy plovers to these seven modified islands, and conducted surveys between March and September of 2015 and 2016 to evaluate nest numbers, nest density, and productivity. Results from the 2015 nesting season, the first year of the study, indicated that island modifications and social

  14. Measuring behavioral responses of sea turtles, saltwater crocodiles, and crested terns to drone disturbance to define ethical operating thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Elizabeth; Whiting, Scott; Tucker, Tony; Guinea, Michael; Raith, Andrew; Douglas, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1.4 kg) multirotor drone flown in Northern Territory and Western Australia. Sea turtles in nearshore waters off nesting beaches or in foraging habitats exhibited no evasive behaviors (e.g. rapid diving) in response to the drone at or above 20-30 m altitude, and at or above 10 m altitude for juvenile green and hawksbill turtles foraging on shallow, algae-covered reefs. Adult female flatback sea turtles were not deterred by drones flying forward or stationary at 10 m altitude when crawling up the beach to nest or digging a body pit or egg chamber. In contrast, flyovers elicited a range of behaviors from crocodiles, including minor, lateral head movements, fleeing, or complete submergence when a drone was present below 50 m altitude. Similarly, a colony of crested terns resting on a sand-bank displayed disturbance behaviors (e.g. flight response) when a drone was flown below 60 m altitude. The current study demonstrates a variety of behavioral disturbance thresholds for diverse species and should be considered when establishing operating conditions for drones in behavioral and conservation studies.

  15. Measuring behavioral responses of sea turtles, saltwater crocodiles, and crested terns to drone disturbance to define ethical operating thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Scott; Tucker, Tony; Guinea, Michael; Raith, Andrew; Douglas, Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Drones are being increasingly used in innovative ways to enhance environmental research and conservation. Despite their widespread use for wildlife studies, there are few scientifically justified guidelines that provide minimum distances at which wildlife can be approached to minimize visual and auditory disturbance. These distances are essential to ensure that behavioral and survey data have no observer bias and form the basis of requirements for animal ethics and scientific permit approvals. In the present study, we documented the behaviors of three species of sea turtle (green turtles, Chelonia mydas, flatback turtles, Natator depressus, hawksbill turtles, Eretmochelys imbricata), saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus), and crested terns (Thalasseus bergii) in response to a small commercially available (1.4 kg) multirotor drone flown in Northern Territory and Western Australia. Sea turtles in nearshore waters off nesting beaches or in foraging habitats exhibited no evasive behaviors (e.g. rapid diving) in response to the drone at or above 20–30 m altitude, and at or above 10 m altitude for juvenile green and hawksbill turtles foraging on shallow, algae-covered reefs. Adult female flatback sea turtles were not deterred by drones flying forward or stationary at 10 m altitude when crawling up the beach to nest or digging a body pit or egg chamber. In contrast, flyovers elicited a range of behaviors from crocodiles, including minor, lateral head movements, fleeing, or complete submergence when a drone was present below 50 m altitude. Similarly, a colony of crested terns resting on a sand-bank displayed disturbance behaviors (e.g. flight response) when a drone was flown below 60 m altitude. The current study demonstrates a variety of behavioral disturbance thresholds for diverse species and should be considered when establishing operating conditions for drones in behavioral and conservation studies. PMID:29561901

  16. Trophic ecology drives contaminant concentrations within a tropical seabird community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiano, Manrico; Bustamante, Paco; Eulaers, Igor; Malarvannan, Govindan; Mendez-Fernandez, Paula; Churlaud, Carine; Blévin, Pierre; Hauselmann, Antoine; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel; Costantini, David; Chastel, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    To support environmental management programs, there is an urgent need to know about the presence and understand the dynamics of major contaminants in seabird communities of key marine ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the concentrations and trophodynamics of trace elements in six seabird species and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in three seabird species breeding on Grand Connétable Island (French Guiana), an area where the increase in human population and mining activities has raised concerns in recent years. Red blood cell Hg concentrations in adults were the highest in Magnificent frigatebirds Fregata magnificens (median: 5.6 μg g -1 dw; range: 3.8-7.8 μg g -1 dw) and lowest in Sooty terns Onychoprion fuscatus (median: 0.9 μg g -1 dw; range: 0.6-1.1 μg g -1 dw). Among POPs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was the most abundant compound in plasma of Cayenne terns Thalasseus sandvicensis (median: 1100 pg g -1 ww; range: 160 ± 5100 pg g -1 ww), while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most abundant compound class in plasma of Magnificent frigatebirds (median: 640 pg g -1 ww; range 330 ± 2700 pg g -1 ww). While low intensity of POP exposure does not appear to pose a health threat to this seabird community, Hg concentration in several adults Laughing gulls Leucophaeus atricilla and Royal terns Thalasseus maximus, and in all Magnificent frigatebirds was similar or higher than that of high contaminated seabird populations. Furthermore, nestling red blood cells also contained Hg concentrations of concern, and further studies should investigate its potential health impact in this seabird community. Differences in adult trophic ecology of the six species explained interspecific variation in exposure to trace element and POPs, while nestling trophic ecology provides indications about the diverse feeding strategies adopted by the six species, with the consequent variation in exposure to contaminants. Copyright

  17. Foraging plasticity in seabirds: A non-invasive study of the diet of greater crested terns breeding in the Benguela region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Marine predators, such as seabirds, are useful indicators of marine ecosystem functioning. In particular, seabird diet may reflect variability in food-web composition due to natural or human-induced environmental change. Diet monitoring programmes, which sample diet non-invasively, are valuable aids to conservation and management decision-making. We investigated the diet of an increasing population of greater crested terns Thalasseus bergii in the Western Cape, South Africa, during three successive breeding seasons (2013 to 2015), when populations of other seabirds feeding on small pelagic schooling fish in the region were decreasing. Breeding greater crested terns carry prey in their bills, so we used an intensive photo-sampling method to record their diet with little disturbance. We identified 24,607 prey items from at least 47 different families, with 34 new prey species recorded. Fish dominated the diet, constituting 94% of prey by number, followed by cephalopods (3%), crustaceans (2%) and insects (1%). The terns mainly targeted surface-schooling Clupeiformes, with anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus the most abundant prey in all three breeding seasons (65% overall). Prey composition differed significantly between breeding stages and years, with anchovy most abundant at the start of the breeding season, becoming less frequent as the season progressed. The proportion of anchovy in the diet also was influenced by environmental factors; anchovy occurred more frequently with increasing wind speeds and was scarce on foggy days, presumably because terns rely in part on social facilitation to locate anchovy schools. The application of this intensive and non-invasive photo-sampling method revealed an important degree of foraging plasticity for this seabird within a context of locally reduced food availability, suggesting that, unlike species that specialise on a few high-quality prey, opportunistic seabirds may be better able to cope with reductions in the abundance of

  18. Human exposure to PCDDs and their precursors from heron and tern eggs in the Yangtze River Delta indicate PCP origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yihui; Yin, Ge; Asplund, Lillemor; Stewart, Kathryn; Rantakokko, Panu; Bignert, Anders; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Qiu, Yanling; Ma, Zhijun; Bergman, Åke

    2017-06-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly toxic to humans and wildlife. In the present study, PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the eggs of whiskered terns (Chlidonias hybrida), and genetically identified eggs from black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) sampled from two lakes in the Yangtze River Delta area, China. The median toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs were 280 (range: 95-1500) and 400 (range: 220-1100) pg TEQ g -1 lw (WHO, 1998 for birds) in the eggs of black-crowned night heron and whiskered tern, respectively. Compared to known sources, concentrations of PCDDs relative to the sum of PCDD/Fs in bird eggs, demonstrated high abundance of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD indicating pentachlorophenol (PCP), and/or sodium pentachlorophenolate (Na-PCP) as significant sources of the PCDD/Fs. The presence of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), hydroxylated and methoxylated polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH- and MeO-PCDEs, known impurities in PCP products), corroborates this hypothesis. Further, significant correlations were found between the predominant congener CDE-206, 3'-OH-CDE-207, 2'-MeO-CDE-206 and OCDD, indicating a common origin. Eggs from the two lakes are sometimes used for human consumption. The WHO health-based tolerable intake of PCDD/Fs is exceeded if eggs from the two lakes are consumed regularly on a weekly basis, particularly for children. The TEQs extensively exceed maximum levels for PCDD/Fs in hen eggs and egg products according to EU legislation (2.5 pg TEQ g -1 lw). The results suggest immediate action should be taken to manage the contamination, and further studies evaluating the impacts of egg consumption from wild birds in China. Likewise, studies on dioxins and other POPs in common eggs need to be initiated around China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Response of testosterone and corticosterone plasma levels to the challenge of sibling competition: a study in common terns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Alexander; Becker, Peter H; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2014-08-01

    The hormonal response to social challenges has been widely studied, however, most work focused on adult behavior in a reproductive context although developing animals also encounter important social challenges early in life. We studied the relationship between acute sibling competition and plasma corticosterone (CORT) and testosterone (T) in common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks, a species whose young compete for access to food by scramble interactions. Blood samples were taken in nests with two and only one single chick both immediately after a feeding bout and in non-challenged controls. We found that T levels were lower in siblings challenged by a feeding bout as compared to controls, which may be explained by the fact that T suppresses begging behavior and is only elevated in response to territorial intrusion but not sibling competition in a related species. Singletons had, corrected for body condition, generally lower CORT levels than siblings suggesting that growing up with siblings creates a competitive environment in which high CORT levels are sustained irrespective of a social challenge. CORT levels were also negatively correlated with body condition and were higher in males than in females. The latter may be related to sex-specific food requirements and susceptibility to stress. Our results suggest a possible suppressive effect of acute sibling competition on T secretion, and a positive effect on CORT levels by longer term sibling competition. The degree to which these dynamics are related to begging or aggression, or both, needs further experimental work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comment on "Exposure to mercury and Aroclor 1268 congeners in least terns (Sternula antillarum) in coastal Georgia, USA" by G. L. Robinson, G. L. Mills, A. H. Lindell, S. H. Schweitzer and S. M. Hernandez, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 2015, 17, 1424.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchsman, P C; Henning, M H; Magar, V S

    2016-02-01

    In a recent paper published in this journal (Robinson et al., Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 2015, 17, 1424), Robinson et al. reported concentrations of Aroclor 1268 congeners in least tern eggs in coastal Georgia, USA. This comment describes important omissions in Robinson et al.'s interpretation of those egg concentrations that alter the overall conclusions of the least tern study.

  1. Evaluation of social attraction measures to establish Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) nesting colonies for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, San Francisco Bay, California—2017 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Wang, Yiwei; Strong, Cheryl

    2018-05-31

    Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), historically one of the most numerous colonial-breeding waterbirds in South San Francisco Bay, California, have had recent decreases in the number of nesting colonies and overall breeding population size. The South Bay Salt Pond (SBSP) Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh habitat in South San Francisco Bay. This restoration will remove much of the historical island nesting habitat used by Forster’s terns, American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), and other waterbirds. To address this issue, the SBSP Restoration Project organized the construction of new nesting islands in managed ponds that will not be restored to tidal marsh, thereby providing enduring island nesting habitat for waterbirds. In 2012, 16 new islands were constructed in Pond A16 in the Alviso complex of the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, increasing the number of islands in this pond from 4 to 20. However, despite a history of nesting on the four historical islands in Pond A16 before 2012, no Forster’s terns have nested in Pond A16 since the new islands were constructed.In 2017, we used social attraction measures (decoys and electronic call systems) to attract Forster’s terns to islands within Pond A16 to re-establish nesting colonies. We maintained these systems from March through August 2017. To evaluate the effect of these social attraction measures, we also completed waterbird surveys between April and August, where we recorded the number and location of all Forster’s terns and other waterbirds using Pond A16, and monitored waterbird nests. We compared bird survey and nest monitoring data collected in 2017 to data collected in 2015 and 2016, prior to the implementation of social attraction measures, allowing for direct evaluation of social attraction efforts on Forster’s terns.To increase the visibility and stakeholder involvement of this project, we engaged in

  2. Changes in cytochrome P4501A activity during development in common tern chicks fed polychlorinated biphenyls, as measured by the caffeine breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feyk, L.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Van den Berg, M.

    2000-03-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYPIA) activity is often used as a biomarker of exposure of wildlife to polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons and is usually measured ex vivo in liver tissue. A caffeine breath test (CBT) with radiolabeled substrate ({sup 14}C-caffeine) was used to measure in vivo CYP1A activity twice during development in 14 common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks treated with polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons. Tern hatchlings were fed fish spiked with 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) such that the diet contained an average of 23, 99, or 561 pg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents per gram of fish for 21 d. Sixteen additional common tern chicks were similarly dosed with polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons but were not subjected to the CBT procedure. In weeks 1 and 2, caffeine N-demethylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity on day 21 were elevated in birds that received the greatest PCB dose. There was less constitutive and greater induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity than caffeine N-demethylation. The {sup 14}C-CBT was less invasive than the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assay. Only one morphological parameter differed significantly between CBT subjects and no-CBT subjects fed the same level of PCBs. Bursa weight was significantly less in control CBT subjects than in control no-CBT subjects, but bursa weights did not differ among CBT and no-CBT birds from the two PCB treatment groups. No alterations of survival or growth occurred in CBT subjects compared with no-CBT subjects.

  3. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil to Terra del Fuego (Argentina. This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos Island has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast.Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 é uma ave migratória que nidifica na costa do Pacífico (do Peru ao Chile e ao longo do Atlântico Sul do Espírito Santo (Brasil até a Terra do Fogo (Argentina. Este trabalho descreve o sucesso reprodutivo do trinta-réis do bico-vermelho na ilha dos Cardos, Florianópolis, Brasil, durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2003, 2005 e 2006. A formação da colônia ocorreu em maio de 2003 e inicio de abril nos outros anos, com um total de ninhos variando entre 1.852 em 2006 a 2.486 em 2005. O sucesso de incubação foi estimado em 76,39% (2006, 62,73% (2003 e 41,1% em 2005, sendo que os menores valores puderam ser atribuídos a predação dos gaviões Caracara plancus, lagartos Tupinambis merianae e urubus Coragyps atratus. As primeiras eclosões foram

  4. Combined impacts of Black-crowned Night-Heron predation/disturbance and various management activities on Roseate Tern productivity in 2003, and testing of a video surveillance system for recording the diurnal and nocturnal behavior of terns and night-herons at Falkner Island, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Connecticut, in 2004: Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Westbrook, Connecticut and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 5 Regional Office, Hadley, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendelow, J.A.; Kuter, M.

    2004-01-01

    Falkner Island (FICT), a unit of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (SBMNWR) since 1985, is located in Long Island Sound 5 km south of Guilford, CT. For more than three decades it has been the site of the only large breeding colony in Connecticut of the federally endangered Northwest Atlantic population of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) and the state's largest colony of Common Terns (S. hirundo). Both species have been studied at this site since 1978 as part of the Falkner Island Tern Project (FITP), and since 1987 also as part of a regional Cooperative Roseate Tern Metapopulation Dynamics and Ecology Project (CRTMP), both coordinated by Dr. Jeffrey A. Spendelow of the U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (USGS-PWRC). From 1997-2002 the Roseate Tern breeding population at this site declined by more than 50% from about 150 to about 70 nesting pairs, mostly as a result of the nocturnal predation and disturbance of tern chicks and eggs by Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). Here we report the results of research done with the goal of improving management of nocturnal predators and developing new practices/structures to reduce losses of tern eggs and chicks so as to prevent the abandonment of this site by Roseate Terns. Notification of release of the USGS 'Quick Response Funds' (QRF) that were to be used to support the part of this study entitled 'Nocturnal behavior/interactions of endangered Roseate Terns and Black-crowned Night-Herons', and final approval of the Study Plan for this research did not occur until after the breeding season in 2003 was well underway. As a result, some work will need to be completed during the 2004 field season. There are two major objectives of this study. The first is to collect basic information (a) on the nocturnal behavior and interactions of Roseate (and Common) Terns with predatory Black-crowned Night-Herons, and (b) on how the behavior of the

  5. Regulation of breeding behavior: do energy-demanding periods induce a change in prolactin or corticosterone baseline levels in the common tern (Sterna hirundo)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechert, Juliane; Chastel, Olivier; Becker, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Hormones are involved in reproductive decisions, linking environmental cues and body condition and adapting behavior. Mass loss is often accompanied by decreased prolactin and increased corticosterone concentrations, influencing incubation and brooding behavior and ultimately triggering nest desertion. Using blood-sucking bugs (Dipetalogaster maxima), we measured baseline prolactin, corticosterone, and ketone body values in incubating common terns (Sterna hirundo) between 2006 and 2009 during energy-demanding periods: 50 pairs were sampled hungry (after an incubation bout) and again fed (after foraging). In a second approach, we sampled 57 other pairs (experienced and inexperienced birds) three times over their individual breeding period, because reproduction, especially chick rearing, is a very energy-demanding process. In line with the common physiological pattern of fasting, we found significantly lower baseline prolactin values in hungry terns, which were negatively related to mass loss over the incubation bout, whereas corticosterone and ketone body levels were marginally increased. Compared to that in the incubation phase, the prolactin level dropped after hatching of chicks in inexperienced birds, perhaps indicating lower parental expenditure. Corticosterone, on the other hand, increased after hatching in males, probably linked to higher foraging activity, as males mainly deliver food during the first days. These energy-demanding periods clearly influenced hormones and ketone bodies, maybe reinforced by the low energy margin of this small seabird species, but energy reserves were not depleted to a level affecting behavior or reproductive success.

  6. Chemometric comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl residues and toxicologically active polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the eggs of Forster's Terns (Sterna fosteri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Stalling, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The separation and characterization of complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is approached from the perspective of a problem in chemometrics. A technique for quantitative determination of PCB congeners is described as well as an enrichment technique designed to isolate only those congener residues which induce mixed aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzyme activity. A congener-specific procedure is utilized for the determination of PCBs in whichn-alkyl trichloroacetates are used as retention index marker compounds. Retention indices are reproducible in the range of ±0.05 to ±0.7 depending on the specific congener. A laboratory data base system developed to aid in the editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatography was employed to quantitate chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in VAX-DSM (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the VAX-DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.) family of computers.In the chemometric evaluation of these complex chromatographic profiles, data are viewed from a single analysis as a point in multi-dimensional space. Principal Components Analysis was used to obtain a representation of the data in a lower dimensional space. Two-and three-dimensional proections based on sample scores from the principal components models were used to visualize the behavior of Aroclor® mixtures. These models can be used to determine if new sample profiles may be represented by Aroclor profiles. Concentrations of individual congeners of a given chlorine substitution may be summed to form homologue concentration. However, the use of homologue concentrations in classification studies with environmental samples can lead to erroneous conclusions about sample similarity. Chemometric applications are discussed for evaluation of Aroclor mixture analysis and compositional description of environmental residues of PCBs in eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna fosteri) collected from colonies near Lake Poygan

  7. Least tern (Sterna antillarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B.C.; Jackson, J.J.; Burger, J.; Hill, L.A.; Kirsch, E.M.; Atwood, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    This species account discusses: distinguishing characteristics, distribution, systematics, migration, habitat, food habits, vocalizations, behavior (locomotion, maintenance, agonistic, sexual, social, interspecific), breeding (phenology, nest site, nest, eggs, incubation, development of the young, parental care), demography and populations (life span, mortality, dispersal and philopatry, population status), conservation and management, plumages and molt, and measurements. There is also a bibliography which lists key references for additional information. (DBO)

  8. A Markov model for planning and permitting offshore wind energy: A case study of radio-tracked terns in the Gulf of Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Alexana; Smetzer, Jennifer R; Welch, Linda; Baker, Erin

    2017-05-15

    Quantifying and managing the potential adverse wildlife impacts of offshore wind energy is critical for developing offshore wind energy in a sustainable and timely manner, but poses a significant challenge, particularly for small marine birds that are difficult to monitor. We developed a discrete-time Markov model of seabird movement around a colony site parameterized by automated radio telemetry data from common terns (Sterna hirundo) and Arctic terns (S. paradisaea), and derived impact functions that estimate the probability of collision fatality as a function of the distance and bearing of wind turbines from a colony. Our purpose was to develop and demonstrate a new, flexible tool that can be used for specific management and wind-energy planning applications when adequate data are available, rather than inform wind-energy development at this site. We demonstrate how the tool can be used 1) in marine spatial planning exercises to quantitatively identify setback distances under development scenarios given a risk threshold, 2) to examine the ecological and technical trade-offs of development alternatives to facilitate negotiation between objectives, and 3) in the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process to estimate collision fatality under alternative scenarios. We discuss model limitations and data needs, and highlight opportunities for future model extension and development. We present a highly flexible tool for wind energy planning that can be easily extended to other central place foragers and data sources, and can be updated and improved as new monitoring data arises. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  10. Are morphometrics sufficient for estimating age of pre-fledging birds in the field? A test using common terns (Sterna hirundo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy N Wails

    Full Text Available Age is a key component of fitness, affecting survival and reproductive capacities. Where it is not possible to study known individuals from birth, morphometrics (predominantly patterns of plumage development for birds are most often used to estimate age. Although criteria for age estimations exist for many species, the degree to which these criteria improve the precision of estimates remains to be tested, restricting their widespread acceptance. We develop a photographic tool for estimating ages of Common Tern (Sterna hirundo chicks and test it using 100 human observers of varying prior experience across four breeding colonies (three North American sites and one European site and under controlled laboratory conditions. We followed the design approach of other morphometric tools, expanding it to create a user-friendly guide (divided into six age groupings. The majority (86% of observers improved in chick-aging accuracy when using the tool by an average of 20.1% (±1.4 SE and correctly estimated 60.3% (±1.4 of chick ages. This was similar to the intrinsic aging ability of our best field observer (63.3%. Observers with limited experience showed the greatest increases in chick-aging accuracy over experienced observers who likely had established a method for estimating chick ages prior to using the tool. Even the best observers only correctly estimated ages of chicks 62.9% (±2.8 of the time in the field and 84.0% (±2.9 of the time in the lab when using the tool and typically underestimated ages. This indicates that developmental variation between individual chicks can prevent completely reliable age estimates and corroborates the few existing data that suggest that morphometric criteria fail to achieve robust levels of accuracy and may introduce error into studies that rely on them. We conclude that novel approaches for estimating age, not only morphometric criteria, must be pursued.

  11. Coupled solar-magnetic orientation during leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) long-distance migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Zerbini, A.; Andriolo, A.; Clapham, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Determining how animals perform long-distance animal migration remains one of the most enduring and fundamental mysteries of behavioural ecology. It is widely accepted that navigation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and significant experimental research has documented a variety of viable orientation and navigation cues. However, relatively few investigations have attempted to reconcile experimentally determined orientation and navigation capacities of animals with empirical remotely sensed animal track data, leaving most theories of navigation and orientation untested. Here we show, using basic hypothesis testing, that leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) migration paths are non-randomly distributed in magnetic coordinate space, with local peaks in magnetic coordinate distributions equal to fractional multiples of the angular obliquity of Earth’s axis of rotation. Time series analysis of humpback whale migratory behaviours, including migration initiation, changes in course, and migratory stop-overs, further demonstrate coupling of magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These unexpected and highly novel results indicate that diverse taxa integrate magnetic and celestial orientation cues during long-distance migration. These results are compatible with a 'map and compass' orientation and navigation system. Humpback whale migration track geometries further indicate a map and compass orientation system is used. Several humpback whale tracks include highly directional segments (Mercator latitude vs. longitude r2>0.99) exceeding 2000 km in length, despite exposure to variable strength (c. 0-1 km/hr) surface cross-currents. Humpback whales appear to be able to compensate for surface current drift. The remarkable directional

  12. Risk evaluation for federally listed (roseate tern, piping plover) or candidate (red knot) bird species in offshore waters: A first step for managing the potential impacts of wind facility development on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Conserve Wildlife, 516 Farnsworth Avenue, Bordentown, NJ 08505 (United States); Gordon, Caleb; Newman, James; Forcey, Greg [Pandion Systems, Inc. 102 NE 10th Ave, Gainesville, FL 32601 (United States); Lawrence, J. [Conserve Wildlife, 516 Farnsworth Avenue, Bordentown, NJ 08505 (United States); Vlietstra, Lucy [Department of Science, US Coast Guard Academy, 27 Mohegan Drive, New London, CT 06320 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    With a worldwide increase in attention toward developing a reliance on renewable energy, there is a need to evaluate the effects of these facilities (solar, wind, hydropower) on ecosystems. We conduct a hazard and risk evaluation for three species of birds that are listed, or candidates for listing, as federally threatened or endangered in the US, and that might occur offshore on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (AOCS) where wind power facilities could be developed. Our objectives were to: 1) provide conceptual models for exposure for each species, and 2) examine potential exposure and hazards of roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) and piping plover (Charadrius melodus, both federally endangered in the US) and red knot (Calidris canutus rufa, candidate species) in the AOCS. We used a weight-of-evidence approach to evaluate information from a review of technical literature. We developed conceptual models to examine the relative vulnerability of each species as a function of life stage and cycle (breeding, staging, migratory, wintering). These methods are useful for conducting environmental assessments when empirical data are insufficient for a full risk assessment. We determined that 1) Roseate terns are likely to be exposed to risk during the migratory and breeding season when they occur in the AOCS, as well as while staging. 2) Piping plovers are not likely to be at risk during the breeding season, but may be at risk during spring or fall migrations. Risk to this species is likely to be low from turbines located far from land as this species migrates mainly along the coast. 3) Red knots are potentially exposed to some risk during migration, especially long-distance migrants whose migratory routes take them over the AOCS. More information is required on exact spatio-temporal migration routes, flight altitudes (especially during ascent and descent), and behavioral avoidance of turbines by birds to ascertain their risk. (author)

  13. Pulau Ling: an important seabird hotspot on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmaula Hamza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulau Ling is a small rocky island located to the south of Pulau Redang, forming with other southeast small islands, the Redang Archipelago, in the state of Terengganu, Malaysia. The island was highlighted in the early 1950s as an important seabird site, although little was then known on the status of seabirds on the island. Field visits were made between May 2015 and September 2015 to assess the importance of this small island to seabird species. Four tern species were identified: two of them, black-naped tern Sterna sumatrana and bridled tern Onychoprion anaethetus, were found to breed there, while the other two species, great crested tern Thalasseus bergii and roseate tern Sterna dougallii were found to use the island as a stopover site without any evidence of breeding. Furthermore, the Pacific Eastern Reef egret Egretta sacra (the black morph, was also found to breed on the island. Other species encountered included white-bellied sea eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster (recorded once in June 2015, soaring over the island. These preliminary data show the importance of such small rocky outcrops for tropical breeding and migrating seabirds, where food availability and lack of disturbance may be the two main drivers for diversity and survival.

  14. Misturas binárias e ternárias de gorduras hidrogenadas e óleo de soja Binary and ternary blends of hydrogenated fats and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Sumiyoshi SIMÕES

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Na formulação de produtos gordurosos, é comum a mistura de óleos e gorduras, para se alcançar as especificações do produto final. As interações que ocorrem entre os triacilgliceróis nas misturas promovem alterações nas propriedades físicas das gorduras. Comparado às técnicas tradicionais, os experimentos planejados poupam tempo e recursos, identificam pontos ótimos verdadeiros, e permitem que os efeitos das variáveis individuais ou interações entre elas sejam determinados. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar interações que ocorrem em misturas binárias e ternárias de duas gorduras hidrogenadas (FATGILL PF38 e FATGILL PF42 e um óleo de soja, analisando suas propriedades físicas e químicas. Foram elaboradas 10 misturas, representadas por 3 amostras individuais, 3 misturas binárias e 4 misturas ternárias. As amostras foram analisadas quanto aos ácidos graxos, índices de iodo e saponificação, pontos de amolecimento e fusão, viscosidade cinemática, dureza e consistência. Aplicou-se, para algumas respostas, um modelo de regressão múltipla do tipo cúbico especial. A análise dos resultados indicou que as interações entre os três componentes não foram significativas. A dureza dependeu apenas da gordura hidrogenada FATGILL PF42. Por outro lado, a viscosidade foi dependente dos três componentes, enquanto os pontos de fusão e amolecimento foram decorrentes das gorduras hidrogenadas. Os coeficientes negativos para a propriedade de dureza demonstraram um efeito antagônico, característico das interações eutéticas entre gorduras. Estabeleceram-se, ainda, diagramas triangulares, onde foram indicadas curvas de nível. Um modelo perfeito de mistura foi evidenciado para a viscosidade e pontos de amolecimento e de fusão.In the formulation of fat products, it is an usual practice the blending of oils and fats, to meet final product specifications. Alterations in fat mixtures properties are advanced by triacylglycerols

  15. Emission of particulate matter from ternary blends consisting of biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil: a comparison with conventional dieselEmissão de material particulado por misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal: uma comparação com o óleo diesel convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Daniel de Melo Innocentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the particulate matter emission from ternary blends comprehending biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil in a Diesel cycle engine, and an identical engine working with petrol diesel as control. To compare the fuels’ emissions, the particulate matter from the engine’s exhaust was collected, using a fiberglass circular filter paper, which was coupled by means of a steel flange at the end of the exhaust pipe. The results with ternary blends showed expressive reduction of particulate matter level exhausted by the engine, in its maximum load. We can conclude that the utilization of ternary blends, with the methods and conditions of this experiment, was efficient to reduce the emission of particulate matter contained in the exhaust gases of Diesel cycle engine.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a emissão de material particulado de misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal em um motor de ciclo Diesel, tendo como testemunha um motor idêntico funcionando com óleo diesel de petróleo. Para a comparação da emissão dos dois combustíveis, foi realizada a coleta de material particulado proveniente dos escapamentos dos motores com um filtro circular confeccionado de fibra de vidro, que foi acoplado com um flange de aço, no final da tubulação de escape. Os resultados obtidos com a utilização das misturas ternárias de biocombustíveis indicaram uma redução expressiva no nível de material particulado emitido pelo motor em sua carga máxima. Pode-se concluir que a utilização das misturas ternárias, nas condições e métodos de realização do experimento, foi eficiente na redução de emissão de material particulado presente nos gases de exaustão do motor de ciclo Diesel.

  16. Influência da relação estequiométrica resina/endurecedor em propriedades mecânicas de compósitos ternários hierárquicos resina - epóxi/tecido de fibra de carbono/nanotubos de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kássio André Lacerda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de materiais que apresentem alto desempenho em suas aplicações exige avanços tecnológicos e científicos. Os elevados valores de resistência à tração e módulo de elasticidade, aliados à flexibilidade, baixa densidade e alta razão de aspecto, fazem dos nanotubos de carbono excepcionais candidatos para reforçar compósitos poliméricos. Preparamos por laminação sistemas compósitos ternários à base de resina epóxi/tecidos de fibra de carbono (para os binários, acrescendo nanotubos de carbono para os sistemas ternários. Os parâmetros estequiométricos do sistema epoxídico (valor de Phr e concentração de nanotubos de carbono empregado nos sistemas compósitos tiveram avaliadas suas morfologias (MEV, propriedades térmicas (TG e mecânicas (ASTM D790. Embora o sistema epoxídico com Phr 10,0 tenha apresentado uma maior estabilidade térmica, os compósitos ternários produzidos a partir do sistema com Phr 26,6 mostraram valores de tensão máxima e módulo de elasticidade até 8 vezes maiores que aqueles produzidos com o sistema Phr 10. A adição de nanotubos de carbono aos compósitos com Phr 26,6 resultou em ganhos adicionais de aproximadamente 38 e 15% na tensão máxima e no módulo de elasticidade, respectivamente. Esses resultados revelaram a limitação nos métodos de integralização de nanoestruturas a sistemas compósitos, onde as dispersões estão limitadas a uma série de fatores inerentes a interação química e/ou física durante a fabricação dos compósitos nanoestruturados.

  17. Estudo do equilíbrio líquido-líquido nos sistemas ternários biodiesel de óleo de palma+etanol+glicerina e biodiesel de óleo de palma+etanol+água

    OpenAIRE

    Enio Gomes de Azevedo Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: O biodiesel é uma fonte de energia renovável promissora e é do interesse das matrizes energéticas brasileiras e mundiais em razão da futura escassez de combustíveis fósseis, e das considerações ambientais sobre a diminuição das emissões poluentes. Este trabalho objetiva a produção de biodiesel etílico a partir de óleo de palma da região amazônica, e a determinação experimental e modelagem termodinâmica de dados de equilíbrio líquido-líquido em sistemas ternários compostos por biodiese...

  18. Caspian Tern Range - CWHR [ds604

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  19. Ashtabula Breakwater Common Tern (Sterna Hirundo) Nesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    spring . ERDC TN-EWN-16-1 May 2016 8 Figure 7. Carabineers and links used to attach the cabling for easy assembly and disassembly. were all...from Mad River Decoy, Waitsfield, VT were made of hollow , rotomolded polyethylene material, filled with sand, and sealed with duct tape in order to

  20. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIII; Appraisal of System-Wide Survival Estimation of Snake River Yearling Chinook Salmon Released in 1997 and 1988, Using PIT-Tags Recovered from Caspian Tern and Double-Crested Cormorant Breeding Colonies on Rice Island, 1997-1998 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-05-01

    PIT-tags recovered from tern and cormorant breeding colonies at Rice Island and observations from the interrogation systems at John Day and Bonneville Dams were incorporated into survival analyses. Whether the estimates for the upper reaches of the system, between Lower Granite and McNary Dams were as expected (with weighted averages S{sub LGR-LGS} = 0.996, S{sub LGS-LMN} = 0.837, and S{sub LMN-McN} = 0.941), those for the lower reaches, between John Day and Bonneville Dams, appeared positively biased with survival estimates typically greater than 1. Their weighted averages were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.707 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.792 for 1997 releases. For the 1998 releases, they were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.795 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.312. If the estimates for the lower reaches were biased, the estimates for the whole project would also be biased (S{sub LGR-BON} = 0.819). We determined that bias could have arisen if the terns and cormorants of Rice Island fished for salmon yearlings in waters of the BON-Rice reach at low rates (M{sub BON-Rice} {le} 0.2), and the rates of tag-deposition and tag-detection were low (R{sub D} x R{sub R} {le} 0.4). Moreover, unknown levels of uncensored post-detection mortality and scavenging of previously dead salmon yearlings may have also added to the bias.

  1. Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    emphasize the need for early climate change adaptation and mitigation planning, especially for species with limited breeding distributions and/or ranges restricted primarily to the low-lying NWHI: Cyperus pennatiformis var. bryanii, Black-footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), Bonin Petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca), Gray-backed Tern (Onychoprion lunatus), Laysan Teal (Anas laysanensis), Laysan Finch (Telespiza cantans), and Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi). Furthermore, SLR scenarios that include the effects of wave dynamics and groundwater rise may indicate amplified vulnerability to climate change driven habitat loss on low-lying islands. In chapter 2, we incorporated the combined effects of SLR, dynamic wave-driven inundation, and rising groundwater in a quantitative study specifically for the Laysan Island ecosystem. This is the first hydrodynamic model to simulate the combined impacts of SLR and wave-driven inundation in the NWHI. We developed a high-resolution digital elevation model (mean vertical accuracy of 0.32 m) for the island. Then using recent satellite imagery, geospatial models, and historical oceanographic, storm, and biological data we estimated potential inundation extent, habitat loss, and wildlife population impacts for a range of potential SLR scenarios (0.00, +0.50, +1.00, +1.50, and +2.00 m) that may occur over the next century. Additionally, we estimated the carrying capacity of Laysan Island for five species based on the available population monitoring data and described how potential losses in nesting habitat could influence population dynamics for Black-footed Albatross, Laysan Albatross, Red-footed Booby (Sula sula), Laysan Teal, and Laysan Finch. For some other seabird populations (Masked Booby, S. dactylatra; Brown Booby, S. leucogaster; Great Frigatebird, Fregata minor; and Sooty Tern, Onychoprion fuscata), we used recent colony distribution data, land cover maps, and nesting behavior to estimate

  2. Tern Island Orthoimagery Service, Tern Island HI, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This service displays a licensed dataset from DigitalGlobe, Inc. USDA-NRCS-National Geospatial Center of Excellence acquired this dataset from the NOAA-Pacific...

  3. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeff S; Reynolds, Michelle H; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Krause, Crystal M

    2012-08-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds. Conservation Biology ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original

  4. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeff S.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds.

  5. Birds and Aircraft on Midway Islands, 1956-57 Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, K.W.; Rice, D.W.; Robbins, C.S.; Aldrich, J.W.

    1958-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which certain species of birds contribute to the hazard to aircraft at Midway; to learn more about the population dynamics and habits of these species to determine what type of control measures might be possible without endangering the species; and to test methods of control which are suggested. Most of the study has been devoted to the two species of albatrosses and the sooty terns nesting at Midway because of the current belief that these species offered the greatest danger to aircraft safety.

  6. Food preferences of the common tern, sterna hirundo (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While earlier studies of food habits of seabirds worldwide used examination of ... birds included marine and fresh or brackish water fish, crustaceans and worms. ... showed that S. hirundo utilized the Panbros lagoon fish resource in feeding, ...

  7. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of seven species of free-ranging tropical pelagic seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.

    1996-01-01

    I established reference values for weight, hematology, and serum chemistry for seven species of free-ranging Hawaiian tropical pelagic seabirds comprising three orders (Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Charadriiformes) and six families (Procellariidae, Phaethontidae, Diomedeidae, Sulidae, Fregatidae, and Laridae). Species examined included 84 Hawaiian dark-rumped petrels (Pterodoma phaeopygia), 90 wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), 151 Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis), 69 red-footed boobies (Sula sula), 154 red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaeton rubricauda), 90 great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), and 72 sooty terns (Sterna fuscata). Hematocrit, total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Among and within species, hematology and chemistry values varied with age, sex, season, and island of collection. Despite this variation, order-wide trends were observed.

  8. Otimização de propriedades mecânicas de misturas ternárias de polipropileno (PP/borracha de etileno-propileno-dieno (EPDM/pó de pneus (SRT sob tração e impacto usando a metodologia da superfície de resposta (MSR Optimization of mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP/ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber (EPDM/scrap rubber tire (SRT ternary mixtures under tensile and impact using the response surface methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helson M. da Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A metodologia da superfície de resposta (MSR é uma coleção de técnicas estatísticas e matemáticas para desenvolver, melhorar e otimizar processos. Neste estudo, a técnica MSR foi aplicada na investigação do comportamento mecânico de diferentes misturas ternárias de PP/EPDM/SRT. Após a mistura apropriada em uma extrusora de dupla rosca co-rotante e a moldagem por injeção, as propriedades mecânicas (resistência à tração e a resistência ao impacto foram determinadas e usadas como variáveis de resposta. A microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV foi usada para investigar a morfologia das diferentes misturas e interpretar os resultados. Com ferramentas estatísticas específicas, um número mínimo de experimentos permitiu o desenvolvimento de um modelo de superfície de resposta e a otimização das concentrações dos componentes de acordo com o desempenho mecânico. Valores elevados de resistência ao impacto são alcançados (>80 J.m-1 quando, de acordo com as condições experimentais estudadas, a mistura física de PP/EPDM/SRT mantém as proporções de EPDM e SRT em torno de 25%.The response surface methodology (RSM is a collection of statistical and mathematical techniques for developing, improving and optimizing processes. In this study, RSM technique was applied to the investigation of the mechanical behavior of different PP/EPDM/SRT ternary mixtures. After appropriate processing in a co-rotating twin extruder and injection molding, the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and impact strength, were determined and used as response variables. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for investigating the morphology of the different blends and to interpret the results. With specific statistical tools, a minimum number of experiments allowed the response surface model to be developed and the concentrations of the components to be optimized according to the mechanical performance. High values of impact

  9. Attendance of scavenging seabirds at trawler discards off Galicia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Valeiras

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of scavenger seabirds at fishing trawlers was studied off Galicia, Spain. A total of 9,368 seabirds of 23 species were recorded during 92 fishing operations in 1998 and 1999. The most common species were the yellow-legged and lesser black-backed gull (Larus cachinnans and L. fuscus, Sabine´s gull (L. sabini, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus, the great shearwater (Puffinus gravis, sooty shearwater (P. griseus, the Manx and Balearic shearwater (P. puffinus and P. mauretanicus, the great skua (Catharacta skua and terns (mainly Sterna hirundo and S. paradisaea. Other species occurred in small numbers: Leach´s petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, the storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus, the little shearwater (Puffinus assimilis, Cory´s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea, the parasitic skua (Stercorarius parasiticus, the pomarine skua (S. pomarinus, the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus, the glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus, the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, the sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis, the black tern (Chlidonias niger, the guillemot (Uria aalge and the little auk (Alle alle. The maximum number of seabirds recorded at a haul was 320. The maximum number of a particular species ranged from 120 great shearwaters to 250 yellow-legged/lesser black-backed gulls during a single haul. The differences in ship-follower species abundance are related to migratory movements but fisheries could also have a strong influence at a smaller scale on the distribution of seabirds off Galicia. The degree to which seabirds rely on fishery discards as food was not quantified, but may be important for several species.

  10. Tern Island - French Frigate Shoal - Locations of Marine Debris Removal by NOAA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset corresponds to Figure 5-1 in DRAFT TECHNICAL SUPPORT DOCUMENT TO THE PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT FOR THE FWS - HAWAIIAN ISLANDS NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE:...

  11. Is it possible long-tern operation of Spanish nuclear power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regano, M.

    2004-01-01

    The long term operation of nuclear power plants beyond 40 years is a reality. Worlswide accumulated operating experience, national and international R and D projects related with the ageing of materials and the specific studies presented to the NRC by more than thirty American plant guarantee that the operation of nuclear power plants beyond 40 years will be carried out with the same or greater safety and reliability factors. The advantages of the long term operation of Spain nuclear power plants are obvious. The implementation of this option will play an important role in complying with the Kyoto compromises, avoiding the emission of 50 million tons of CO2 will contribute to guaranteeing the supply of electricity by generating an additional 600,000 GWh and will contribute to keeping electricity prices down. The total generating cost for the long term operation of nuclear power plants is approximately half that of a new coal or combined cycle plant. Spain is hugely dependent on energy. In this situation, all energies are necessary and the long term operation of nuclear power plants can of course play an important role in covering the gap between offer and demand, guaranteeing supply in the most economic way possible and with the greatest respect for the environment. (Author)

  12. The Dnieper River Aquatic System Radioactive Contamination; Long-tern Natural Attenuation And Remediation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Laptev, Genadiy; Kanivets, Vladimir; Konoplev, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Near 27 year passed after the Chernobyl Accident, and the experience gained to study radionuclide behavior in the aquatic systems and to mitigate water contamination are still pose of interest for scientists, society and regulatory austerities. There are different aspects of radionuclide transport in the environment were studied since the Chernobyl fallout in 1986 covered the river catchments, wetlands, river, lakes/reservoirs and reached the Black Sea. The monitoring time series data set and also data on the radionuclides behavior studies in the water bodies (river, lakes and the Black Sea) are available now in Ukraine and other affected countries. Its causation analyses, considering the main geochemical, physical and chemical and hydrological process, governing by radionuclide mobility and transport on the way from the initially contaminated catchments, through the river-reservoir hydrological system to the Black Sea can help in better understanding of the main factors governing be the radionuclide behavior in the environment. Radionuclide washout and its hydrological transport are determined speciation of radionuclides as well as soil types and hydrological mode and also geochemistry and landscape conditions at the affected areas. Mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are determined by ratio of radionuclide chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization as well as sorption-desorption of mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). In many cases the natural attenuation processes governing by the above mentioned processes supported by water flow transportation and sedimentation played the key role in self-rehabilitation of the aquatic ecosystems. The models developed during post-Chernobyl decade and process parameters studies can help in monitoring and remediation programs planed for Fukusima Daichi affected watersheds areas as well. Some most important monitoring data collection results and experience gained during post-Chernobyl decades at the Dnieper River aquatic system are presented (catchments, river and reservoirs). This experience show that only information on radionuclide deposition levels is not enough for accurate predictions on radionuclide wash-out and transport in the hydrological systems. Data on speciation in fallout, rates of transformation processes and site-specific environmental characteristics determining these rates are needed. Information on radionuclide chemical forms, their transformation in other words mobility and bioavailability should be taken into account when rehabilitation and decontamination strategies are developed on local or regional scale. Number of inadequate water protection measures carried out during initial post-accidental period took place because lack of preparedness, data and decision making support tools were in use, Environmental radiation monitoring network has not been developed and huge impact of social stressing and inadequate risk perception took place. Many experimental data, models developed and experience for safe management at the contaminated watersheds and water bodies can be useful and in particular those, who dealing with consequences of Fucusima accident 2011. The paper gives extended overview and describes experience of authors in justification and evaluation of the remedial actions applied after Chernobyl accident with focus on most important lessons learned and potentially utilized in future.

  13. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infants: Long-Tern Consequences and Modern Approaches for Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya G. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses modern ideas about the genesis of the most common variants of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID in infants, and their ability to lead to long-term negative consequences for the health of the child. The article provides data on role of intestinal microbiota in development of FGID in infants and current approaches to prevention and correction using probiotics with proven effectiveness. 

  14. Riparian Vegetation, Natural Succession, and the Challenge of Maintaining Bare Sandbar Nesting Habitat for Least Terns and Piping Plovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    and eastern red cedar will become established through avian-dispersed seed. As soon as shrubs/ trees reach a height where they serve as perches for...effects of such disposal may be negligible compared to the annual load of allocthonous material provided to rivers by deciduous trees . If complete...Fowells, H.A. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United States. Agricultural Handbook No. 271. Washington , DC: U.S. Dept. Agriculture. Friedman

  15. Die Konstruktion von Müttern, Vätern und Eltern The Construction of Mothers, Fathers, and Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Forster

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Durch die Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung wurde der Blick der Wohlfahrtsstaatsanalysen auf die unbezahlte Arbeit von Ehefrauen und Müttern sowie die wohlfahrtsstaatlichen Reformen für diese Gruppen ausgedehnt. Die vorliegende Untersuchung knüpft an die zunächst auf Mutterschaftskonzepte zentrierte Wohlfahrtsstaatsforschung an, geht jedoch darüber hinaus, indem sie den Gegenstandsbereich um die Erforschung der Vater- und Elternschaft erweitert.Thanks to women’s and gender studies, the analysis of social welfare states has expanded to include the unpaid work of wives and mothers, as well as the social welfare reforms for these groups. The study at hand begins with the current research on social welfare states that center on concepts of motherhood but expands the area of study to include the examination of fatherhood and parenthood.

  16. Misturas binárias e ternárias de gorduras hidrogenadas e óleo de soja

    OpenAIRE

    SIMÕES,Ilka Sumiyoshi; GIOIELLI,Luiz Antonio; OLIVEIRA,Maricê Nogueira

    1997-01-01

    Na formulação de produtos gordurosos, é comum a mistura de óleos e gorduras, para se alcançar as especificações do produto final. As interações que ocorrem entre os triacilgliceróis nas misturas promovem alterações nas propriedades físicas das gorduras. Comparado às técnicas tradicionais, os experimentos planejados poupam tempo e recursos, identificam pontos ótimos verdadeiros, e permitem que os efeitos das variáveis individuais ou interações entre elas sejam determinados. O objetivo do traba...

  17. Combined Joint Task Force Exercise (CJTFEX) 04-2 ARIES-TERN Network Connectivity Experiment Quicklook Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marshall, Paul; Valdes, Todd

    2004-01-01

    ...) technologies, is enhanced through Fleet demonstrations. Technology demonstrations garner and maintain Fleet advocacy for OMCM FNC initiatives and assist in the validation and improvement of the military utility of prototype systems...

  18. Response of testosterone and corticosterone plasma levels to the challenge of sibling competition : A study in common terns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braasch, Alexander; Becker, Peter H.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2014-01-01

    The hormonal response to social challenges has been widely studied, however, most work focused on adult behavior in a reproductive context although developing animals also encounter important social challenges early in life. We studied the relationship between acute sibling competition and plasma

  19. Messungen der fest-flüssig Grenzflächenenergie in ternären Systemen

    OpenAIRE

    Bulla, Annemarie Karin

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to point out a methodology to determine the solid-liquid interface energy sigmaSL in ternary alloy systems, mainly the Al-Cu-Ag system, and to present the results of these experiments. The solid-liquid interface energy is of major importance during phase transformation, i.e. phase nucleation, crystal growth and the final grain structure. In addition to cooling rate and chemical diffusion this quantity governs the microstructural length scale of solidificatio...

  20. Ships on the sea are responsible for enormous emissions. A sea journey which is sooty...; Schiffe auf dem Meer sind fuer gewaltige Emissionen verantwortlich. Eine Seefahrt, die ist russig...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehleisen, Martin

    2012-03-15

    Since the conversion from sailing ships to steamships at the end of the 18th century, ships emit large amounts of sulfur, nitrogen oxides and soot into the air. Environment, passengers and residents of port cities constantly are exposed to health hazards. The conversion to environmentally friendly propulsion technology at the maritime shipping as well as the inland waterway transport is a tough process.

  1. Systematische Rezepturentwicklung für die Walzenkompaktierung Anhand binärer und ternärer Mischungen ausgewählter Komponenten

    OpenAIRE

    Brudy, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Optimierung von Tabletten, die aus walzenkompaktiertem Material hergestellt werden. Obwohl die Walzenkompaktierung immer mehr Interesse seitens der pharmazeutischen Industrie erfährt sind der Prozess und die Einsatzmöglichkeiten noch nicht komplett verstanden. Vor allem die Formulierungsentwicklung ist noch nicht systematisch untersucht und basiert bisher auf „trial-and-error“ Methoden. Ziel dieser Dissertation war es zwei Expertensysteme zu ers...

  2. Físico-química experimental: uma proposta para abordar equilíbrio de fases em sistemas ternários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quelen Bulow Reiznautt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On undergraduate courses, practical classes represent periods in which students can verify the concepts presented in theoretical classes. Conversely, the teaching internship in graduate programs allows these students to incorporate pedagogical practices into their experience, predominantly involving observation and reproduction of methods adopted by supervisors. We propose internship teaching as a period for reflection on our pedagogical practice and present a methodology for an experimental physical chemistry classroom. The students can interact with the experiment and instructor, furthering the study of ternary systems while developing their skills for investigative work.

  3. South African red data book – Birds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brooke, RK

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic Tern Kerguelen Tern. All are included because of feral cat Felis catus predation on Marion Island. Only the Common Diving Petrel and the Kerguelen Tern do not visit South African coastal waters. It is also instructive to examine the 102...

  4. Roland Weber first part

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The Sooty bloch complex - species identity, infection biology and control options. Rubbery rot and Black summer rot - two new diseases of apple......The Sooty bloch complex - species identity, infection biology and control options. Rubbery rot and Black summer rot - two new diseases of apple...

  5. Distribution and Abundance of the Interior Population of the Least Tern (Sternula Antillarum), 2005; A Review of the First Complete Range-Wide Survey in the Context of Historic and Ongoing Monitoring Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Richard A. Fischer and Michael P. Guilfoyle (ERDC-EL). When this study was performed, COL Richard B. Jenkins was Commander and Executive Director of ERDC...Engineers, Tulsa District. 65 pp. Haig, S. M., C. L. Ferland, R. J. Cuthbert, J. Dingledine, J. P. Goossen , A. Hecht, and N. McPhillips. 2005. A

  6. OBIS - ARGOS Satellite Tracking of Animals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various species have been tracked using ARGOS PTT trackers since the early 1990's. These include Emperor, King and Adelie pengiuns, Light-mantled Sooty, Grey-headed...

  7. Impact of phenolic compounds and related enzymes in Sorghum varieties for resistance and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Barro, C.; Traore, A.S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Contents of phenolic compounds and related enzymes before and after sorghum grain germination were compared between varieties either resistant or susceptible to biotic (sooty stripe, sorghum midge, leaf anthracnose, striga, and grain molds) and abiotic (lodging, drought resistance, and photoperiod

  8. Whitefly Pest Species (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Citrus Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Žanić; Sonja Kačić; Miro Katalinić

    2000-01-01

    Today, the Citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), is a very important pest on all Citrus species throughout the citrus growing areas in Croatia. It causes direct damage by sucking the plant juice from the leaves. Furthermore, immatures excrete honeydew that stimulates sooy mold. The presence of sooty mold on contaminated leaves interferes with the photosynthesis of plants. Citrus fruits coated by sooty mold lose its market value. Because Dialeurodes citri is poorly known in Croatia, th...

  9. Status, biometrics, moult and possible relationships of the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding population of Roseate Terns in southern Africa was estimated to be 250–260 pairs in 2000. Adult birds caught during nocturnal tern roost mist-netting on Bird Island and at Cape Recife, both in Algoa Bay, were closest to their North Atlantic counterparts in wing, bill, total head length, tail and mass ...

  10. Estimates of numbers of kelp gulls and Kerguelen and Antarctic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four species are regular breeders at the islands: Subantarctic skua Catharacta antarctica, kelp gull Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern Sterna vittata and Kerguelen tern S. virgata. The latter three species currently each have populations of below 150 breeding pairs at the islands. Kelp gull numbers appear to be relatively ...

  11. Een onderzoek naar verschillen in fourageeractiviteit tussen Visdief Sterna hirundo en Noordse Stern Sterna paradisaea op de Engelsmanplaat (NL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Ron; Schuckard, Rot

    1976-01-01

    The foraging activity of Common Tern Sterna hirundo and Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea was studied on the low sandy island of Engelsmanplaat in the Dutch Waddensea area (53°28’N – 06°30’E). The foraging activity was measured by counting birds carrying food to the colony and birds flying towards the

  12. Variation in Population Synchrony in a Multi-Species Seabird Community: Response to Changes in Predator Abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail S Robertson

    Full Text Available Ecologically similar sympatric species, subject to typical environmental conditions, may be expected to exhibit synchronous temporal fluctuations in demographic parameters, while populations of dissimilar species might be expected to show less synchrony. Previous studies have tested for synchrony in different populations of single species, and those including data from more than one species have compared fluctuations in only one demographic parameter. We tested for synchrony in inter-annual changes in breeding population abundance and productivity among four tern species on Coquet Island, northeast England. We also examined how manipulation of one independent environmental variable (predator abundance influenced temporal changes in ecologically similar and dissimilar tern species. Changes in breeding abundance and productivity of ecologically similar species (Arctic Sterna paradisaea, Common S. hirundo and Roseate Terns S. dougallii were synchronous with one another over time, but not with a species with different foraging and breeding behaviour (Sandwich Terns Thalasseus sandvicensis. With respect to changes in predator abundance, there was no clear pattern. Roseate Tern abundance was negatively correlated with that of large gulls breeding on the island from 1975 to 2013, while Common Tern abundance was positively correlated with number of large gulls, and no significant correlations were found between large gull and Arctic and Sandwich Tern populations. Large gull abundance was negatively correlated with productivity of Arctic and Common Terns two years later, possibly due to predation risk after fledging, while no correlation with Roseate Tern productivity was found. The varying effect of predator abundance is most likely due to specific differences in the behaviour and ecology of even these closely-related species. Examining synchrony in multi-species assemblages improves our understanding of how whole communities react to long-term changes

  13. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  14. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting seabirds (alcids, pelagic birds), gulls, terns, diving birds, and raptors in the Bristol Bay...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for gulls and terns in Mississippi. Vector points in this data set represent bird nesting sites. Species...

  16. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, raptors, diving birds, and gulls and terns in for the Florida Panhandle....

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting and roosting gulls, terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and T/E species in Southern California. Vector...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in Northwest...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, diving birds, raptors, waterfowl, wading birds, terns, and gulls for the Upper Coast of...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  3. Allocation of optimal distributed generation using GA for minimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    quality of supply and reliability in tern extending equipment maintenance intervals and ... The performance of the method is tested on 33-bus test system and ... minimum real power losses of the system by calculating DG size at different buses.

  4. Site preparation savings through better utilization standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Watson; B.J. Stokes; I.W. Savelle

    1984-01-01

    This reports preliminary paper results of a study to determine the savings in the cost of site preparation that can be accomplished by the intensive utiliiation of understory biomass. mechanized sys terns can potentially be used for recovering this material.

  5. Hydrogeological characterization and assessment of groundwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this perspective, assessment of groundwater quality in shallow aquifers in vicinity of the ... contributes about 60% of the total wastewater that gets discharged from ...... tern and effective groundwater management; Proc. Indian. Nat. Sci. Acad.

  6. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, raptors, diving birds, passerine birds, and gulls and terns in North...

  8. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  9. Bet-hedging applications for conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bet hedging; Bitterroot wilderness; environmental correlation; grizzly bear; least tern; Sterna antillarum; Ursus arctos horribilis ... market, a hedging investor can reduce the risk of devas- ..... populations were approximated by three methods:.

  10. 40 CFR 420.127 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Galvanizing, terne coating, and other coatings—(1) Strip, sheet, and miscellaneous products. Subpart L...) (1) 1 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) [Reserved] (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenol Ethers (PBDEs) in Current and Historical Samples of Avian Eggs from Nesting Sites in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs from breeding colonies in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA. Eggs from two piscivorous bird species, common (Sterna hirundo) and roseate (Sterna dougallii) terns, were collected...

  13. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-07-08

    This report describes investigations into predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River basin during 2008. East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary again supported the largest known breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in the world (approximately 10,700 breeding pairs) and the largest breeding colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America (approximately 10,950 breeding pairs). The Caspian tern colony increased from 2007, but not significantly so, while the double-crested cormorant colony experienced a significant decline (20%) from 2007. Average cormorant nesting success in 2008, however, was down only slightly from 2007, suggesting that food supply during the 2008 nesting season was not the principal cause of the decline in cormorant colony size. Total consumption of juvenile salmonids by East Sand Island Caspian terns in 2008 was approximately 6.7 million smolts (95% c.i. = 5.8-7.5 million). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continued to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony, predation rates were highest on steelhead in 2008; minimum predation rates on steelhead smolts detected passing Bonneville Dam averaged 8.3% for wild smolts and 10.7% for hatchery-raised smolts. In 2007, total smolt consumption by East Sand Island double-crested cormorants was about 9.2 million juvenile salmonids (95% c.i. = 4.4-14.0 million), similar to or greater than that of East Sand Island Caspian terns during that year (5.5 million juvenile salmonids; 95% c.i. = 4.8-6.2 million). The numbers of smolt PIT tags recovered on the cormorant colony in 2008 were roughly proportional to the relative availability of PIT-tagged salmonids released in the Basin, suggesting that cormorant predation on salmonid smolts in the estuary was less selective than tern

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  15. Measurements of total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pH (on total scale) and other variables collected from water column (discrete) observations using Nondispersive infrared (NDIR) method, Gran titration method, Radiometer pHC2401-7 combination electrode and other instruments from R/V Ocean Researcher I in the East China Sea during the cruise ORI-1086 (EXPOCODE 21OR20140820) from 2014-08-20 to 2014-08-31 (NCEI Accession 0162291)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise is a part of the Long-tern Observation and Research in the East China Sea by Institute of Marine Environmental Chemistry and Ecology National Taiwan...

  16. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  17. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  18. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: NESTS (Nest Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  19. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  20. Southeast Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls, and terns in Southeast Alaska. Points in this...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerines, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, pelagic birds, and shorebirds in Central California. Vector points...

  3. When females trade grooming for grooming : Testing partner control and partner choice models of cooperation in two primate species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fruteau, C.; Lemoine, S.; Hellard, E.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Noe, R.

    2011-01-01

    We tested predictions following from the biological market paradigm using reciprocated grooming sessions among the adult females in a sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys, group with 35 females (Ivory Coast) and in two groups of vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus aethiops (South Africa) with four and seven

  4. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Dark-mantled sooty albatross. 564. 1 000. 1 564 .... albatrosses (dark-mantled P. fusca and light-mantled .... Affairs and Tourism 2001, www.environment.gov.za); the decision to .... is of a nature that may negatively impact on the sur- vival of a ...

  5. 75 FR 54822 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Jemez...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... fine gold to brassy coloring with stippling dorsally (on the back and sides) and is sooty gray..., generally May through September, when summer monsoon rains occur. Unfortunately, methods for determining... log (rounds) to provide immediate cover for salamanders before summer rains (Interagency BAER Team...

  6. 78 FR 55599 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... occasional fine gold to brassy coloring with stippling dorsally (on the back and sides) and is sooty gray... likely influenced by melting snow and summer monsoon rains. When active above ground, the species is... summer monsoon rains occur. Unfortunately, methods for determining locations to survey salamanders over...

  7. Nonprogressing HIV-infected children share fundamental immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Adland, Emily; Karimanzira, Owen

    2016-01-01

    nonprogressors. These children therefore express two cardinal immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys-low immune activation despite high viremia and low CCR5 expression on long-lived central memory CD4 T cells-suggesting closer similarities with nonpathogenetic mechanisms evolved...

  8. Hysteresis and transition in swirling nonpremixed flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, M.J.; Hübner, A.W.; van Veen, E.H.; Hanjalic, K.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly swirling nonpremixed flames are known to exhibit a hysteresis when transiting from an attached long, sooty, yellow flame to a short lifted blue flame, and vice versa. The upward transition (by increasing the air and fuel flow rates) corresponds to a vortex breakdown, i.e. an abrupt change

  9. Invited article summarizing the Science To Achieve Results research portfolio on Black Carbon for the journal EM of the Air and Waste Management Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where there’s smoke, there’s fire – and black carbon. Black carbon is the sooty material emitted from combustion processes, including diesel engines and other sources that burn fossil fuels, biofuels, or biomass. This soot contributes to fine particulate matter,...

  10. Black bark as an indicator of bird peck defect in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Ohman; K.J., Jr. Kessler

    1964-01-01

    Portions of the lower bole of occasional sugar maples (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in Lake States northern hardwood stands are sooty black in sharp contrast to the normal gray. The blackened areas may encircle the entire stem or be confined to a narrow band; they have been observed as high as 25 feet but generally extend about 15 feet above the ground....

  11. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a

  12. Diverse honeydew-consuming fungal communities associated with scale insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet K Dhami

    Full Text Available Sooty mould fungi are ubiquitous, abundant consumers of insect-honeydew that have been little-studied. They form a complex of unrelated fungi that coexist and compete for honeydew, which is a chemically complex resource. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy in combination with T-RFLP community profiling and ITS-based tag-pyrosequencing to extensively describe the sooty mould community associated with the honeydews of two ecologically important New Zealand coelostomidiid scale insects, Coelostomidia wairoensis and Ultracoelostoma brittini. We tested the influence of host plant on the community composition of associated sooty moulds, and undertook limited analyses to examine the influence of scale insect species and geographic location. We report here a previously unknown degree of fungal diversity present in this complex, with pyrosequencing detecting on average 243 operational taxonomic units across the different sooty mould samples. In contrast, T-RFLP detected only a total of 24 different "species" (unique peaks. Nevertheless, both techniques identified similar patterns of diversity suggesting that either method is appropriate for community profiling. The composition of the microbial community associated with individual scale insect species varied although the differences may in part reflect variation in host preference and site. Scanning electron microscopy visualised an intertwined mass of fungal hyphae and fruiting bodies in near-intact physical condition, but was unable to distinguish between the different fungal communities on a morphological level, highlighting the need for molecular research. The substantial diversity revealed for the first time by pyrosequencing and our inability to identify two-thirds of the diversity to further than the fungal division highlights the significant gap in our knowledge of these fungal groups. This study provides a first extensive look at the community diversity of the fungal community

  13. Predator removal enhances waterbird restoration in Chesapeake Bay (Maryland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R. Michael; McGowan, Peter C.; Reese, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This report represents an update to an earlier report(Erwin et al. 2007a) on wildlife restoration on the largest dredge material island project in the United States underway in Talbot County, Maryland (Figure 1) in the mid–Chesapeake Bay region, referred to as the Paul Sarbanes Ecosystem Restoration Project at Poplar Island (www.nab.usace.army.mil/projects/Maryland/PoplarIsland/documents.html). An important component of this largescale restoration effort focused on water birds, as many of these species have undergone significant declines in the Chesapeake region over the past 30 years (Erwin et al. 2007b). The priority waterbird species include common terns (Sterna hirundo), least terns (S. antillarum), snowy egrets (Egretta thula), and ospreys (Pandion haliaetus). Although significant numbers of common terns (more than 800 pairs in 2003), least terns (62 pairs in 2003), snowy egrets (50 or more pairs by 2005), and ospreys (7 to 10 pairs) have nested on Poplar Island since early 2000, tern productivity especially had been strongly limited by a combination of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) predation. Fox trapping began in 2004, and four were removed that year; no more evidence of fox presence was found in 2005 or subsequently. The owls proved to be more problematic.

  14. A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing his colonial nesting waterbird survey experiences along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in a paper presented to the Colonial Waterbird Group of the Waterbird Society (Portnoy 1978), bird biologist John W. Portnoy stated, “This huge concentration of nesting waterbirds, restricted almost entirely to the wetlands and estuaries of southern Louisiana, is unmatched in all of North America; for example, a 1975 inventory of wading birds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida [Custer and Osborn, in press], tallied 250,000 breeding [waterbirds] of 14 species, in contrast with the 650,000 birds of 15 species just from Sabine Pass to Mobile Bay.” The “650,000 birds” to which Portnoy referred, were tallied by him in a 1976 survey of coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama (see below, under “Major Surveys” section). According to the National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-82 (Spendelow and Patton 1988), the percentages of the total U.S. populations of Laughing Gull (11%), Forster's Tern (52%), Royal Tern (16%), Sandwich Tern (77%), and Black Skimmer (44%) which annually nest in Louisiana are significant – perhaps crucially so in the cases of Forster's Tern, Sandwich Tern, and Black Skimmer. Nearly three decades after Spendelow and Patton's determinations above, coastal Louisiana still stands out as the major center of colonial wading bird and seabird nesting in all of the United States. Within those three intervening decades, however, the

  15. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  16. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-11-06

    Emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in the Missouri River Mainstem System is a critical habitat element for several federally listed bird species: the endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River and is responsible under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to take actions within its authorities to conserve listed species. To comply with the 2000 USFWS BiOp and the 2003 amended USFWS BiOp, the Corps has created habitats below Gavins Point Dam using mechanical means. Initial monitoring indicates that constructed sandbars provide suitable habitat features for nesting and foraging least terns and piping plovers. Terns and plovers are using constructed sandbars and successfully reproducing at or above levels stipulated in the BiOp. However, whether such positive impacts will persist cannot yet be adequately assessed at this time.

  17. Haemoproteus iwa n. sp. in great frigatebirds (Fregata minor [Gmelin]) from Hawaii: parasite morphology and prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Rameyer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new species of Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890 from great frigatebirds (Fregata minor [Gmelin]) captured on Tern Island-French Frigate Shoals and Laysan Island in Hawaii. Parasite prevalence on Laysan Island (35%) was not significantly different than that of Tern Island (36%). On Laysan, prevalence was highest in juveniles (52%), followed by adult males (29%) and adult females (19%). Prevalence on Tern was 36% both for adult females and juveniles, and 28% for adult males. Parasitemia was low (mean parasites/10,000 red blood cell). Parasitized red cells had significantly greater areas than unparasitized cells. We named this parasite Haemoproteus iwa after the Hawaiian name for frigatebirds (iwa). This is the first documentation of a hemoparasite from tropical pelagic seabirds in Hawaii and the first description of an endemic hemoparasite in the archipelago.

  18. Plastic ingestion by fulmars and shearwaters at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Provencher, Jennifer F; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Lucas, Zoe N

    2014-10-15

    Plastic pollution is widespread in the marine environment, and plastic ingestion by seabirds is now widely reported for dozens of species. Beached Northern Fulmars, Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters and Cory's Shearwaters are found on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada regularly, and they can be used to assess plastic pollution. All species except Cory's Shearwaters contained plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts. Northern Fulmars, Sooty Shearwaters and Great Shearwaters all showed high prevalence of plastic ingestion (>72%), with Northern Fulmars having the highest number and mass of plastics among the species examined. There was no difference in plastic ingestion between sexes or age classes. In all species user plastics made up the majority of the pieces found, with industrial pellets representing only a small proportion in the samples. Sable Island could be an important monitoring site for plastic pollution in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimating migratory connectivity of birds when re-encounter probabilities are heterogeneous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emily B.; Hostelter, Jeffrey A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Marra, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the biology and conducting effective conservation of migratory species requires an understanding of migratory connectivity – the geographic linkages of populations between stages of the annual cycle. Unfortunately, for most species, we are lacking such information. The North American Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) houses an extensive database of marking, recaptures and recoveries, and such data could provide migratory connectivity information for many species. To date, however, few species have been analyzed for migratory connectivity largely because heterogeneous re-encounter probabilities make interpretation problematic. We accounted for regional variation in re-encounter probabilities by borrowing information across species and by using effort covariates on recapture and recovery probabilities in a multistate capture–recapture and recovery model. The effort covariates were derived from recaptures and recoveries of species within the same regions. We estimated the migratory connectivity for three tern species breeding in North America and over-wintering in the tropics, common (Sterna hirundo), roseate (Sterna dougallii), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). For western breeding terns, model-derived estimates of migratory connectivity differed considerably from those derived directly from the proportions of re-encounters. Conversely, for eastern breeding terns, estimates were merely refined by the inclusion of re-encounter probabilities. In general, eastern breeding terns were strongly connected to eastern South America, and western breeding terns were strongly linked to the more western parts of the nonbreeding range under both models. Through simulation, we found this approach is likely useful for many species in the BBL database, although precision improved with higher re-encounter probabilities and stronger migratory connectivity. We describe an approach to deal with the inherent biases in BBL banding and re-encounter data to demonstrate

  20. Continental Scale research of the coupled carbon and water cycles in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleugh, Helen; van Gorsel, Eva; Held, Alex; Huete, Alfredo; Karan, Mirko; Liddell, Michael; Phinn, Stuart; Prentice, Colin

    2013-04-01

    It is essential to understand the drivers and processes that regulate uptake and release of carbon and water by the terrestrial biosphere to quantify the sink and source strengths under current climatic conditions. In addition, understanding the consequences of a changing climate on the capacity of the biosphere to sequester carbon by using a certain amount of water and the impacts of disturbances on resilience and thresholds of the terrestrial biosphere is critical. Recently there has been increasing general interest in how human activities may be affecting Australia's natural carbon cycles. Quantification of carbon and water exchanges requires process understanding over long temporal and large spatial scales, but at fine levels of detail. This requires integration of long term, high frequency observations, models and information from process studies and can only be achieved through research infrastructure that can provide easy access to meta-data and data that have been collected in a systematic and standardized way. The Australian Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) provides such nationally networked infrastructure, along with multi-disciplinary capabilities and end-user-focused products to deliver better ways of measuring and estimating Australia's current and future environmental carbon stocks and flows. Multiple Facilities in TERN are studying carbon and water dynamics across a range of distance and time scales. OzFlux, the Australasian arm of the global initiative Fluxnet, is the most obvious deployment of field hardware in TERN with close to 30 flux towers and their associated micrometeorological instrumentation in place around the country, from Central Australia to the Alps, covering ecosystems ranging from rainforest to alpine grasslands to mulga. Intensive monitoring is carried out at the 10 TERN Supersites which carry a suite of environmental instrumentation and perform standardised vegetation, faunal, soil and water monitoring.TERN Aus

  1. Multiscale Modeling of Ionospheric Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-22

    numerical simulations of ionospheric plasma density structures associated with nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in...model was developed to resolve the transport pat- terns of plasma density coupled with neutral atmospheric dynamics. Inclusion of neutral dynamics in...trapping electromagnetic (EM) waves in parabolic cavities, which are created by the refractive index gradients along the propagation paths. Keywords

  2. poten~,'9fCoQs~~Weua"ds ~ ~'Alt~~*tive',fo~ W~ewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constructed Wetbnd' (HSSFCW) SYstem' in polishing pre-ire~ied ... applied in thereclatfiation of wastewater for irrigation to bene.fit the society in terns .... existing Vpward Anaerbbi,c Sludge Blanket From the design perspecti\\re. the problem of.

  3. Textural and morphological studies on zinc–iron alloy electrodeposits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ness of the coating was measured in Vicker's hard- ness number (VHN) by static indentation method, using. Leco microhardness tester (Model M 400) at a given load for 15 seconds time duration. X-ray diffraction pat- terns were taken by using JEOL PANalytical, X' per. PRO model. Samples were scanned between 20. ◦ and.

  4. Udvikling i ynglebestanden af Fjordterner i Danmark 1970-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Jørgensen, Hans Erik

    2013-01-01

    of declines in these areas are generally unknown. However, there are indications that for some of the former key localities, declining numbers were related to increasing occurrence of red fox Vulpes vulpes. In recent years, Common Terns have bred in fairly high numbers and with high success on small islets...

  5. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Earthquakes cause tremendous loss of life and to the built environment. The amount of ... and reasonable decisions about categories of pat- terns. The main .... tion data. A classification criterion was formulated and tested. Seismicity data was compiled from var- ious earthquake catalogues, tectonic data was stud- ied and ...

  6. Bottle discrete measurements of DIC, alkalinity, pH (on total scale), temperature, salinity and nutrients from R/V Professor Gagarinsky cruise PGB_201408 (EXPOCODE 90G220140827) in the Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea from 2014-08-27 to 2014-09-05 (NCEI Accession 0162317)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise is a part of the Long-tern Observation and Research in the Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan by the V.I. Il’ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute of...

  7. Surface measurements of alkalinity, pH (on total scale), temperature and salinity from R/V Professor Gagarinsky PGB_200911 (EXPOCODE 90G220091104) in the Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea from 2009-11-04 to 2009-11-09 (NCEI Accession 0162316)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise is a part of the Long-tern Observation and Research in the Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan by the V.I. Il’ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute of...

  8. Application of PFN capacitors in high power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The application of lightweight reliable capacitors in a mobile energy store is discussed. The relationship of system design parameters to capacitor size and life is displayed. Electric fields and weights of a 21 J/lb and a 77 J/lb pulse discharge capacitor design are given. Estimates of future near-tern development are made

  9. Specific safety measures for emergency lanes and shoulders of motorways : a proposal for motorways' authorities in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackage 1.1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braimaister, L.

    1999-01-01

    This workpackage is one of seven workpackages of the European SAFESTAR project, launched by DG VII. Directing on safety standards and recommendations for the Trans-European Roadway Network (TERN), the workpackage considered safety measures on emergency lanes (stopping strips), which are inherent

  10. A REVIEW OF FLUOTHANE *

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the circulatory, re piratory, and ympathetic nervous y terns ... principal anaesthetic agent. ... the quantity of drug inhaled, a situation comparable to that ... ration must be assisted on the least suspicion. Failure .... system tends to be more dramatic, and falls in blood pressure .... International Physiological Congress, Brussels, p.

  11. A Brief History of the NPS Field Experimentation Program: Spanning STAN, TNT, and JIFX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    military student body and its proximity to Silicon Valley provide a unique opportunity to conduct this type of project. CDTEMS provides funds to finance ...Eagle, Rascal, Raven, Tern, Zephyr, Unicorn ) and various quad/hex- rotor aircraft. CAVR’s primary research is focused on advanced control with

  12. Teilzeitväter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hipp, Lena; Molitor, Friederike; Leschke, Janine

    2017-01-01

    In der aktuellen Debatte um eine verbesserte Vereinbarkeit von Familie und Beruf geht es zunehmend auch um kürzere Arbeitszeiten von Vätern. Trotz eines leichten Anstiegs teilzeitarbeitender Männer in den letzten Jahren hat sich die sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung bislang vornehmlich mit...

  13. Phosphate uptake and growth characteristics of transgenic rice with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... In this study, we investigated phosphate uptake pat- terns and growth ... at 50°C OsPT1 and actin amplication, second strand cDNA synthesis for 2 min at .... weight of the stem in wild-type plants increased signifi- cantly under ...

  14. UNUSUAL BREEDING BY SEABIRDS AT MARION ISLAND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1997/98, breeding at subantarctic Marion Island was exceptionally good for five species of seabirds capable of foraging over wide areas and for a tern. The number of king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus chicks surviving to the start of spring in 1997 was considerably more than previously recorded. Greater numbers of ...

  15. SAMJ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the use of a cement gun, with or without venting, and effective ... have all been u ed in an anempt ro redu e the tiffne ofthefemoral tern ... acetabular revi ion in tho e components ....'ith 32 .... ing technology, cost-containment must remain a prag-.

  16. Management of radioactive waste generated from nuclear power reactors in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Mook Kim

    2000-01-01

    Fundamental objectives and efforts to safely manage radioactive wastes generating from the expanding nuclear power industry in the Republic of Korea are described. Management, treatment and storage of radioactive wastes arising in different form are addressed. A long tern plan to reduce the volume of solid waste is outlined. (author)

  17. Shaping Air Mobility Forces for Future Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    King Air University Press 600 Chennault Circle, Building 1405 Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6010 afri.aupress@us.af.mil http://aupress.au.af.mil...the congressional study’s Persian Gulf scenario.37 Later Defense Department air mobility plans continued the CMMS pat- tern of paring down air mobility

  18. 40 CFR 420.120 - Applicability; description of the hot coating subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... works resulting from the operations in which steel is coated with zinc, terne metal, or other metals by the hot dip process, and those rinsing operations associated with that process. (b) The BPT and BAT... facilities achieving, during periods of normal production, zinc discharge levels more stringent than those...

  19. A helping hand: artificial nest site provisioning increases breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common white terns Gygis alba lay a single egg balanced on rocks or branches and consequently are at risk of low nesting success. A novel technique of hollowing out coconut husks and providing artificial nest sites was developed on Cousine Island, Seychelles. Our study aimed to critically assess whether common white ...

  20. Polemics and Synthesis: Ernst Mayr and Evolutionary Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A hundred years is but an instant in evolutionary time; however during his life that spanned a century, Ernst Mayr (1904-2005) made outstanding contributions to our understanding of the pat- tern and process of evolution. An ornithologist and systematist by training, Mayr embraced Darwinism and championed the cause of.

  1. Challenge and Response, Strategies for Survival in a Rapidly Changing Forest Products Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Schuler; Craig Adair; Paul Winistorfer

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. has long been the world's largest market for wood and wood products, fueled by its demand for wood-frame housing. But forest product markets are changing, both in terns of where the products originate (domestically or abroad),and what products are being produced and consumed.

  2. Effective doses associated with the common hybrid scans performed in nuclear medicine to adult patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho Lopez, C.; Garcia Martinez, M. T.; Martin Vidal, J. F.; Falgas Lacuela, M.; Vercher Conejero, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to outline the effective dose (E) that can be taught in hybrid SPECT-CT scans and PET-CT performed more common in adult patients. E is expressed as the Natural Radiation Equivalent Time (TERN) and consider, for each scan, the percentage of the total dose due to TC.

  3. Multiparent intercross populations in analysis of quantitative traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... Discovery of DNA structure by Watson and Crick (1953), and subsequent ... tified 11 QTL for seed dormancy in Arabidopsis by simul- taneously analysing six ..... for seed dormancy in Arabidopsis is regulated by additive genetic and .... Sax K. 1923 Association of size differences with seed–coat pat- tern and ...

  4. On adaptive radiation in gulls (tribe Larini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, N.

    1964-01-01

    In 1930 Professor Boschma, then Head of the Leiden Department of Zoology, generously allowed one of his undergraduates to spend an entire spring away from the laboratory, observing the love rituals of Terns. He even accepted the rather incoherent account this young man wrote of his observations as

  5. 40 CFR 420.123 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best available technology economically achievable. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating and other coatings—(1... 0.0000501 1 The limitations for hexavalent chromium shall be applicable only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewater from the chromate rinse step. (2) [Reserved] (b) Galvanizing and other...

  6. 40 CFR 420.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best practicable control technology currently available. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating, and other... shall apply only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewaters from the chromate rinse step. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) [Reserved] (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire products and...

  7. 40 CFR 420.125 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for existing sources. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating and other coatings—(1) Strip, sheet, and... limitations for hexavalent chromium shall be applicable only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewaters from the chromate rinse step. (2) [Reserved] (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire products...

  8. 40 CFR 420.124 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to this subpart shall not exceed the standards set forth below. (a) Galvanizing, terne coating and... hexavalent chromium shall be applicable only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewaters from the chromate rinse step. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) [Reserved] (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1...

  9. 40 CFR 420.126 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Galvanizing, terne coatings and other coatings—(1) Strip, sheet, and miscellaneous products. Subpart L... chromium shall be applicable only to galvanizing operations which discharge wastewaters from the chromate rinse step. (2) [Reserved] (b) Galvanizing and other coatings—(1) Wire products and fasteners. Subpart L...

  10. Impact of monsoon rainfall on the total foodgrain yield over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Agriculture Cooperation (DES 2010) which is a mirror of progress in the agriculture sector at all-India level as well as across the states. The foodgrain yield exhibits an increasing trend since early 70's, mainly due to expanded use of high- yielding varieties of crops, changing cropping pat- terns and agricultural practices as ...

  11. The influence of early age at breeding on reproductive parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002–2006), early-age (2–5 years) Roseate Terns Sterna dougallii nested in more concealed sites than older-age (6–7 years) birds, possibly because of a relatively lower competitive ability. Fledging success and breeding productivity were ...

  12. A shallow-diving seabird predator as an indicator of prey availability in southern California waters: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, M. H.; Whitcombe, C. D.

    2015-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the Elegant Tern (Thalasseus elegans), a plunge-diving predator, is an indicator of changes in the prey community in southern California coastal waters. Shannon diversity (H‧) of the tern's diet determined from dropped fish collected variously at the three nesting sites for 18 years over a 21-year interval (1993-2013) showed no significant change in diet diversity. Based on a species-accumulation curve, total diet species represented about 70% of an extrapolated asymptotic richness. Abundance patterns of five prey species making up > 75% of prey numbers for all years were compared with abundance patterns of the same species in independent surveys obtained from zooplankton tows, bottom trawls and power-plant entrapments. Three of the five species - northern anchovy, kelp pipefish and California lizardfish - showed significant, positive correlations between diet and survey abundances. Even though the tern's diet has been dominated by anchovy and pipefish, its diet is still broad, with prey taxa representing > 75% of the 42 species groups making up the California shelf fish fauna. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that the Elegant Tern, with its flexible diet, is a qualitative indicator, a sentinel, of changes in the prey communities in southern California coastal waters.

  13. Relationship between body composition and homeothermy in neonates of precocial and semiprecocial birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, GH; Ricklefs, RE

    We dissected carcasses of neonates belonging to ducks and geese (Anatidae; 8 species), shorebirds (Charadriidae and Scolopacidae; 12 species), gulls and terns (Laridae; 3 species), and nonanseriform water birds (Podicipedidae and Rallidae; 2 species) ranging in yolk-free lean wet body mass from 2.5

  14. Better the devil you know

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Colchero, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    In a monogamous species two partners contribute to the breeding process. We study pair formation as well as the effect of pair bond length and age on breeding performance, incorporating individual heterogeneity, based on a high quality dataset of a long-lived seabird, the common tern (Sterna hiru...

  15. 76 FR 29217 - Notice of Availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... support tern and plover populations on the Missouri River in a safe, efficient and cost-effective manner... Avenue, Omaha, NE 68102-4901, or by e-mail: [email protected] . For inquires from the media... recreation. After detailed consideration of the environmental and social impacts, and cumulative effects, of...

  16. Missouri River Emergent Sandbar Habitat Monitoring Plan - A Conceptual Framework for Adaptive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Anteau, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat conditions are one of the most important factors determining distribution and productivity of least terns (Sternula antillarum) and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) in the upper Missouri River system (Ziewitz and others, 1992; Kruse and others, 2002). Habitat conditions are known to change within and among seasons in response to variation in river flows, weather conditions, and management actions targeted at providing for the needs of terns and plovers. Although these principles are generally agreed upon, there is little empirical information available on the quantity and quality of tern and plover habitats in this system, particularly with reference to the major life history events that must be supported (egg laying, incubation, and brood rearing). Habitat requirements for these events are composed of two major categories: nesting and foraging habitat. In the case of piping plovers, these two requirements must occur on the same area because plover chicks are constrained to foraging near nesting sites prior to fledging (Knetter and others, 2002; Haffner, 2005). In contrast, least terns chicks are fed by the adults, allowing food procurement for broods to occur outside the immediate nesting area; however, food resources must be close enough to nesting locations to minimize foraging time. The complexity and dynamics of the upper Missouri River system introduce considerable uncertainty into how best to manage tern and plover habitats, and how best to evaluate the effectiveness of this management. An extensive program of habitat monitoring will be needed to address this complexity and support the management of least terns and piping plovers under the Missouri River Recovery Program. These needs are being addressed, in part, through a program of habitat creation and management targeted at improving quality and quantity of habitats for terns and plovers. Given the momentum of these projects and their associated costs, it is imperative that the capacity be

  17. Estimating Regions of Oceanographic Importance for Seabirds Using A-Spatial Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Richard Woodrow Humphries

    Full Text Available Advances in GPS tracking technologies have allowed for rapid assessment of important oceanographic regions for seabirds. This allows us to understand seabird distributions, and the characteristics which determine the success of populations. In many cases, quality GPS tracking data may not be available; however, long term population monitoring data may exist. In this study, a method to infer important oceanographic regions for seabirds will be presented using breeding sooty shearwaters as a case study. This method combines a popular machine learning algorithm (generalized boosted regression modeling, geographic information systems, long-term ecological data and open access oceanographic datasets. Time series of chick size and harvest index data derived from a long term dataset of Maori 'muttonbirder' diaries were obtained and used as response variables in a gridded spatial model. It was found that areas of the sub-Antarctic water region best capture the variation in the chick size data. Oceanographic features including wind speed and charnock (a derived variable representing ocean surface roughness came out as top predictor variables in these models. Previously collected GPS data demonstrates that these regions are used as "flyways" by sooty shearwaters during the breeding season. It is therefore likely that wind speeds in these flyways affect the ability of sooty shearwaters to provision for their chicks due to changes in flight dynamics. This approach was designed to utilize machine learning methodology but can also be implemented with other statistical algorithms. Furthermore, these methods can be applied to any long term time series of population data to identify important regions for a species of interest.

  18. Vif Proteins from Diverse Primate Lentiviral Lineages Use the Same Binding Site in APOBEC3G

    OpenAIRE

    Letko, Michael; Silvestri, Guido; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederick; Gokcumen, Omer; Simon, Viviana; Ooms, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) is a cytidine deaminase that restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other lentiviruses. Most of these viruses encode a Vif protein that directly binds A3G and leads to its proteasomal degradation. Both Vif proteins of HIV-1 and African green monkey simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVagm) bind residue 128 of A3G. However, this position does not control the A3G degradation by Vif variants derived from HIV-2 and SIVmac, which both originated from SIV of sooty man...

  19. Radioactive fallout collected in Tokyo on November 26, 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Y; Kanazawa, T

    1956-01-01

    A large nuclear weapon test by Russia was reported November 23, 1955 as having occurred the previous day. Rain water and fallout samples taken in Tokyo before and after the 22nd indicated the test had produced a secondary fallout from some previous explosion. Rain water of the 21st and fallout of the 29th had radioactive content of 13 days half-life; fallout of the 26th, rain of the 27th 3 days half-life. Sample of the 26th consisted of 15 mg of sooty material giving nearly 2000 counts/min at that time.

  20. Mercury in birds of San Francisco Bay-Delta, California: trophic pathways, bioaccumulation, and ecotoxicological risk to avian reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heinz, Gary; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A. Keith; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Herzog, Mark P.; Bluso-Demers, Jill D.; Demers, Scott A.; Herring, Garth; Hoffman, David J.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Willacker, James J.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Maurer, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    San Francisco Bay Estuary in northern California has a legacy of mercury contamination, which could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds in the estuary. The goal of this study was to use an integrated field and laboratory approach to evaluate the risks of mercury exposure to birds in the estuary. We examined mercury bioaccumulation, and other contaminants of concern, in five waterbird species that depend heavily on San Francisco Bay Estuary for foraging and breeding habitat: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata). These species have different foraging habitats and diets that represent three distinct foraging guilds within the estuary’s food web. In this report, we provide an integrated synthesis of the primary findings from this study and results are synthesized from 54 peer-reviewed publications generated to date with other unpublished results.

  1. Rencontres de Moriond EW 2012: Addressing symmetry breaking and mass hierarchy

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2012-01-01

    Last Friday at the Moriond conference in La Thuile in Italy, Lisa Randall from Harvard University reminded the audience how all fields are related: electroweak symmetry breaking must take into account flavour physics for example. Every good model should address this intrinsic connection.   Despite many expectations, no signs for supersymmetry (SUSY) of any type has been found to date. So Lisa Randall worked with Csaba Csaki and John Terning to explore alternatives and developed a version of supersymmetry built on the Minimal Composite Supersymmetry Standard Model (MCSSM) that Csaki, Shirman, and Terning had developed, incorporating a strongly interacting theory with compositeness that addresses among other things the fact that the top quark is so much heavier than all other quarks. Randall and collaborators showed that this model, when supersymmetry is incorporated, naturally accommodates both a Higgs boson around 125 GeV and a light stop, the supersymmetric partner to the top quark. &a...

  2. Status of breeding seabirds on the Northern Islands of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Aloufi, Abdulhadi A

    2014-07-01

    We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder's Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts. The predicted increases in temperatures (Ta ) could have a negative effect on species survival in the future, especially on those whose nests that are in the open. Finally, disturbance, predation and egg collection were probably the main immediate threats affecting the breeding seabird species in the northern Red Sea.

  3. Boekbesprekings/Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Venter

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Enoch and Qumran origins: New light on a forgotten connection The life of a Galilean Shaman: Jesus of Nazareth in anthropological perspective Darwin’s nemesis: Phillip Johnson and the intelligent design movement The new perspective on Paul: Collected essays Slavery in Early Christianity Biblische Gestalten bei den Kirchenvätern: Adam (Biblische Gestalten bei den Kirchenvätern Lutheran questions, Lutheran answers: Exploring Christian faith Bethlehem besieged: Stories of hope in times of trouble Naar een nieuwe kerkenraad (Apeldoornse Studies, no 48 “Stärker als Männer und tapferer als Ritter”: Pilgerinnen in Spätantike und Mittelalter The end of wisdom: A reappraisal of the historical and canonical function of Ecclesiastes Verzameld Werk, deel I: De aard van de theologie (Besorgd door Dr D van Keulen Augustinus – Belydenisse: Getuienis oor ’n lewe in God Liefde is die grootste: Oor erotiek en seksualiteit

  4. Pearl Harbor and South Coast of OAHU Hurricane Haven Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    LASNIS. (TERN Is. NEKE 1 /AA*s**OAH/ DISAPPEARING IS. /NIHOA MOLOKAI NIIHAU MU 20ON LANAI-’ ’ KAHOOLAWE 0 0 lo HAWAII (0 U) Figure 1...of Niihau and Kauai near 240300Z. Its closest point of approach to Oahu occurred when it was northwest of the island at approximatly 240430Z and...Section 4.2, the most exten- sively documented occurrence of storm surge in the Hawaiian Islands came with Hurricane Iwa. Kauai and Niihau bore the

  5. Uptake of planar polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins by birds nesting in the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Lodge, Keith B.; Harris, Hallett J.; Beaver, Donald L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; Giesy, John P.; Jones, Paul D.; Hagley, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    The uptake of persistent polychlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) by four avian species was investigated at upper trophic levels of two aquatic food chains of the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin. Accumulation of total and specific planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), and H411E rat hepatoma cell bioassay-derived 2,37,8-tetrachlorodibenzop-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) was evaluated in Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks, and in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) nestlings from colonies nesting in several locations within the watershed. Concentrations of the PCHs were greatest in eggs and chicks of the two tern species, less in the tree swallows and least in the red-winged blackbirds. Young of all four species accumulated total PCBs, PCB congeners 77, 105, 126, and 169, and TCDD-EQ. The young birds also accumulated small concentrations of several 2,3,7,8-sbustituted PCDF and PCDD congeners. Uptake rates for certain of the PCHs for the Forster's tern chicks were: 15 μg/day for total PCBs, 70, 200, 6.5, and 0.14 ng/day for PCB congeners 77, 105, 126, and 169, respectively, and 270 μg/day for TCDD-EQ. Principal components analysis revealed that the patterns of PCH concentrations in the samples were influenced by species of bird, their age (or length of exposure) and nesting location. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that exposure of avian species to contaminants derived from aquatic food chains can be characterized and quantified for the purposes of ecological risk assessment.

  6. Neue Shandite und Parkerite. Darstellung und röntgenographische Charakterisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Anusca, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, neue Verbindungen mit Shandit- und Parkeritstruktur zu darstellen und mittels röntgenographischen Methoden (Pulverdiffraktometrie und Einkristallanalyse), das thermische Verhalten durch DTA / DSC - Messungen und Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen (REM, EDX) zu charakterisieren. Die vorliegende Arbeit ist wie folgt im zwei Themen gegliedert: Shandite und Parkerite. Der ersten Teil dieser Arbeit befaßt sich mit metallreichen ternären Chalkogeniden M3A2X2, ...

  7. Fehlverhalten und Courage am Arbeitsplatz – analysiert anhand des Schweizer HR-Barometers

    OpenAIRE

    Staffelbach, Bruno; Arnold, Alexandra; Feierabend, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Human Resource Management (HRM) ist ein Teil betriebswirtschaftlicher Praxis. Dazu gehören alle Personen, Institutionen und Funktionen, die der Gewinnung, Nutzung und Entwicklung der Qualifikationen und Motivationen von Führungskräften, Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeitern als Grundlage und Bestandteil der Unternehmensführung dienen. Die Menschen im Betrieb stehen somit im Zentrum. Diese sind auch moralische Akteure. Sie wägen ab zwischen verschiedenen Gütern, zwischen Geboten und Verboten, zwis...

  8. Eating difficulties and parental feeding strategies during and after childhood cancer treatment: The experiences of parents. : A systematic literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe, Kaat

    2017-01-01

    Childhood cancer is a life-threatening disease with a profound impact on the family. Treatment side-effects and accompanied dietary difficulties are for example severe stressors, as appropriate nutrition is important for the treatment success and quality of life. In addition, (unhealthy) dietary patterns established in childhood tend to maintain in survivors. Parents are key players in feeding and establishing these pat-terns, though, systematic research on how parents experience these dietar...

  9. Universelle Fernservice-Infrastruktur für eingebettete Systeme

    OpenAIRE

    Jazdi, Nasser

    2003-01-01

    Globalisierung ist ein Vorgang, durch den Märkte und Produktionen in verschiedenen Ländern immer mehr kooperieren, aber auch voneinander abhängig werden. Ursache hierfür ist die Dynamik des Handels mit Gütern und Dienstleistungen sowie die Bewegungen von Kapital und Technologie. Die Differenzierung erfolgt nicht mehr nur durch das Produkt selbst, sondern zunehmend durch dazugehörige Dienstleistungen, wie Wartung und Software-Updates. Die globale Bereitstellung solcher Dienstleistungen ist jed...

  10. An Analysis of American Animated Movies Marketing Strategies on the Angle of Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康静丹

    2016-01-01

    In a global age, the American animated film in⁃dustry that features a solid industrial foundation with the mature operational mechanism and takes a large share of global market. The thesis is going to illustrate the operational system and pat⁃terns of American animated film industry on the basis of the sta⁃tus quo of American cartoon movie market, to be a reference to the further development of Chinese cartoon movie industry.

  11. Sea-Based X-Band (SBX) Radar Vessel Maintenance and Repair. Draft Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    little vegetation, and nearby fishing waters are used for nesting. California least tern nests are simple depressions in the substrate either lined or...Park Centennial Park Coronado Hospital Sharp Coronado Hospital Crown School Bay View Park Cruise Ship Terminal S a n D i e g o B a y Naval Air...Village Glorietta School Triangle Park Palm Park SDG and E Park Centennial Park Coronado Hospital Sharp Coronado Hospital Crown School Bay View Park Cruise

  12. Improving Situational Awareness in the Counter-IED Fight with the Utilization of Unmanned Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles, which were designed to withstand an antitank mine (Eisler, 2007). An EFP can penetrate a thickness of armored...These robots weigh less than 100 pounds, are man-portable, and move on small treads with seven speed settings. The TALON is controlled with a...is powered by a two-stroke piston engine and has a steerable nose and main gear, with tires suitable for rough terrain. The Tern utilizes a GPS

  13. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of eight avian influenza A viruses of H5 subtype for chickens, turkeys, ducks and quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D J; Parsons, G; Manvell, R J

    1986-01-01

    Clinical signs, death, virus excretion and immune response were measured in 2-week-old chickens, turkeys, quail and ducks infected by intramuscular, intranasal and contact routes with eight influenza viruses of H5 subtype. Six of the viruses: A/chicken/Scotland/59 (H5N1), ck/Scot; A/tern/South Africa/61 (H5N3), tern/SA; A/turkey/Ontario/ 7732/66 (H5N9); ty/Ont; A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 (H5N2); Pa/1370; A/turkey/Ireland/83 (H5N8); ty/Ireland, and A/duck/Ireland/ 113/84 (HSN8); dk/Ireland, were highly pathogenic for chickens and turkeys. Two viruses, A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1/83 (H5N2), Pa/1 and A/turkey/Italy/ZA/80 (H5N2), ty/Italy, were of low pathogenicity. Ck/Scot was more pathogenic for chickens than turkeys while ty/Ont was more pathogenic for turkeys than chickens. Other viruses showed little difference in their pathogenicity for these two hosts. No clinical signs or deaths were seen in any of the infected ducks. Only two viruses, dk/Ireland and ty/Ireland, produced consistent serological responses in ducks, although intramuscular infection with tern/SA and ty/Italy resulted in some ducks with positive HI titres. These four were the only viruses reisolated from ducks. Quail showed some resistance to viruses which were highly pathogenic for chickens and turkeys, most notably to ck/Scot and ty/Ont and to a lesser extent tern/SA and Pa/1370. Transmission of virus from intranasally infected birds to birds placed in contact varied considerably with both host and infecting virus and the various combinations of these.

  14. Components of Individual Differences in Human Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    York: Macmillan, 1978. Craik , F. I. M. & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal...what might be referred to as the " level of processing " to which they seek to ascribe the antecedents of intelligent performance, with levels ranging...in terns of processes operating at just a single level (or narrow range of levels , since levels are best conceived of as continuous), most theorists

  15. The Cognitive, Perceptual, and Neural Bases of Skilled Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    illumination or INFORM AL PRESENT \\TIONS CARPE\\TERn, 4-6 P.M. other background energy distortions; classification of feedback networks; ANALYSIS OF ART 3...dynamics in forming a medium- illumination or other background energy network, especially focusing on recurrent term memory representation distinct from...quantization; LR parsers; dynamic program- son between motion and attention; neurobio - ming and Viterbi alignment; disambiguation Ing logical correlates, of

  16. Multi-species Management Using Modeling and Decision Theory Applications to Integrated Natural Resources Management Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Engelmann oak and fire (D.M. Lawson); 2) Orcutt’s spineflower (D.M. Lawson); 3) Dead wart -stemmed ceanothus (D.M. Lawson); 4) San Clemente Island sage...sparrow (Nicole Munkwitz) 5) Live wart - stemmed ceanothus (D.M. Lawson) 6) California Least Tern (Steven Eric Smith...41  Figure A1. Generic woody plant model structure. Ovals signify significant life stages and S are survival within and between stages and F

  17. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem 2004-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duberstein, Corey A.

    2011-04-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River Main Stem Reservoir System. Management of the Missouri River has generally reduced peak river flows that form and maintain emergent sandbar habitat. Emergent sandbars provide non-vegetated nesting habitat for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). Since 2000, piping plover nesting habitat within the Gavins Point Reach, Garrison Reach, Lake Oahe, and Lake Sakakawea has fledged the majority of piping plovers produced along the Missouri River system. Habitats within Lewis and Clark Lake have also recently become important plover production areas. Mechanical construction of emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) within some of these reaches within the Missouri River began in 2004. Through 2009, 11 sandbar complexes had been constructed (10 in Gavins Point Reach, 1 in Lewis and Clarke Lake) totaling about 543 ac of piping plover and interior least tern nesting habitat. ESH Construction has resulted in a net gain of tern and plover nesting habitat. Both terns and plovers successfully nest and fledge young on constructed sandbars, and constructed habitats were preferred over natural habitats. Natural processes may limit the viability of constructed sandbars as nesting habitat. Continued research is needed to identify if changes in constructed sandbar engineering and management increase the length of time constructed habitats effectively function as nesting habitat. However, the transfer of information from researchers to planners through technical research reports may not be timely enough to effectively foster the feedback mechanisms of an adaptive management strategy.

  18. Premalignant Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations in Tubal Epithelium from Women with BRCA1 Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    both the maternal and paternal alleles in B lymphoblasts that express IGF2BP1 primarily from one allele. Thus, allele-specific control of RNA...expression, gene expression pat- terns of clonal cell populations are also modified by random or stochastic silencing of either the maternal or paternal ...to the paternal allele, preventing its role as an insulator and allowing long-range interactions of the IGF2 promoter with enhancer elements downstream

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement. F-15E Beddown at Seymour Johnson AFB, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-18

    ulc.rs, c:lotis, asthma , and headaches; I ncreased risX of disease irom general lowering of resistance rel.ted to the fatigue effect, oi noise exposure...tern, gray bat, Indiana bat, Kemp’s (atlantic) ridley sea I turtle, leatherback sea turtle, and the recently proposed endangered northeastern beach tiger ...Fish and Wildlife Service’s Raleigh Field Office. There would be no construction activity in the habitats of the shrew and tiger beetle and the Iong

  20. Estimating KC-137 Aircraft Ownership Costs in the Brazilian Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    voadas pelo esquad~o, 1996 por ano (soma de todlas as aeronaves) Consumno de combustivel por hora Consumno de 6Ieo por hora Consumo de outros...Manutengdo 2.2.1.1 Materiais de Aeronaves Este parece ser urn item dificil. Ele inclui o custo de materials de consumo e pegas usados regularmente...itens, repar~veis, consumo , ferramentas, etc. Ser6 que o suprirnento do Parque tern como fornecer este apanhado geral? Se for necess~rio (e possivel

  1. Ganzheitlich prozessorientierte Entscheidungsunterstützung am Beispiel der Automobillackierung : Ein Beitrag zum industriellen Stoffstrommanagement

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenau-Tornow, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Im Rahmen der sich verknappenden Ressourcen, der Anforderungen durch die Umweltgesetzgebung sowie des Gedankens einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung wird es für Unternehmen zunehmend wichtiger, den Aufwand für die Herstellung von Gütern und Dienstleistungen effizienter zu gestalten. Dabei gewinnt eine ganzheitliche Sichtweise unternehmerischer Entscheidung im Sinne von Technik, Ökonomie und Ökologie an Bedeutung, die eine Entkopplung von Wirtschaftswachstum und Ressourcenverbrauch bewirkt. Für betr...

  2. Environmental Assessment: Space Innovation and Development Center Schriever AFB, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    coloradensis T Greenback cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki stomias T Least tern (interior population) .A Sterna antillarum E Mexican spotted owl Strix...Haliaeetus leucocephalus T Boreal toad Bufo boreas boreas c Canada lynx Lynx canadensis T Greenback cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki stomias T Least...T CUSTER Bald eagle IIaliaeetus leucocephalus T Canada lynx Lynx canadensis T Greenback cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki stomias T Mexican

  3. Vseživljenjsko svetovanje. Življenjska zgodba in njen pomen v svetovanju odraslim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Avtorica preucuje cas postmoderne, ko se nekdanja druzbena struktura preobrazi in drobi na manjse koscke, ko se paradigmna druzbenih sprememb siri. v tem casu srno prica vecanju praznega, vmesnega prostora. To nas vodi v negotovost, taka da potrebujemo vse vee svetovanja. Posledicno nastajajo tudi novi svetovalni poklici ali pa nekateri stari poklici dobivajo nove svetovalne razseznosti. Pri tern avtorica poudari, da je svetovanje potrebno skozi celo življenje in na vseh zivljenjskih podrocjih.

  4. Dileme današnjega sveta so tudi dileme v izobraževanja odraslih. Vzgajati potrošnike ali državljane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Avtorica v prispevku opozarja na novo svetovno kulturo, ki jo imenuje kultura trosenja in ki je povzrocila pojav brezosebnih, standardiziranih odnosov med ljudmi. V potrosniski kulturi spada znanje med proizvode virtualnega sektorja. Z njim zeli ustvarjati dobicek, kar pomeni, da preprecuje nenadzorovano in neplacano distribucijo znanja. Pri tern, opozarja avtorica, se pojavi temeljna dilema izobrazevanja odraslih. ce zelimo, da se znanje oplaja, semora svobodno pretakati.

  5. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2017-06-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1599-1605. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  6. Mercury exposure may influence fluctuating asymmetry in waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2017-01-01

    Variation in avian bilateral symmetry can be an indicator of developmental instability in response to a variety of stressors, including environmental contaminants. The authors used composite measures of fluctuating asymmetry to examine the influence of mercury concentrations in 2 tissues on fluctuating asymmetry within 4 waterbird species. Fluctuating asymmetry increased with mercury concentrations in whole blood and breast feathers of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), a species with elevated mercury concentrations. Specifically, fluctuating asymmetry in rectrix feather 1 was the most strongly correlated structural variable of those tested (wing chord, tarsus, primary feather 10, rectrix feather 6) with mercury concentrations in Forster's terns. However, for American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), the authors found no relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and either whole-blood or breast feather mercury concentrations, even though these species had moderate to elevated mercury exposure. The results indicate that mercury contamination may act as an environmental stressor during development and feather growth and contribute to fluctuating asymmetry of some species of highly contaminated waterbirds.

  7. Inter- and intraclutch variation in egg mercury levels in marine bird species from the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akearok, Jason A.; Hebert, Craig E.; Braune, Birgit M.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that has been of increasing concern in the Canadian Arctic. We measured total Hg in eggs of three marine birds (Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea, common eiders Somateria mollissima borealis, long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that breed in the Canadian Arctic, to compare Hg laying order effects from the same clutch and to examine Hg among species. Early-laid eggs of all three species had 24-48% higher Hg concentrations than late laid eggs. Arctic terns had approximately twice the concentration of Hg in their eggs as the two duck species, and Hg in eider eggs from the High Arctic was higher than Hg in eggs from the Low Arctic. Higher Hg in tern eggs was consistent with this species occupying a higher trophic position in marine food webs, as indicated by stable nitrogen isotope (δ 15 N) values. The egg-laying sequence may need to be considered for Hg biomonitoring studies where small samples sizes are planned, and early eggs may be preferable for such studies since early eggs may be more representative of potential maximum levels of Hg in the marine food webs.

  8. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  9. Rapid changes in small fish mercury concentrations in estuarine wetlands: Implications for wildlife risk and monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2009-01-01

    Small fish are commonly used to assess mercury (Hg) risk to wildlife and monitor Hg in wetlands. However, limited research has evaluated short-term Hg variability in small fish, which can have important implications for monitoring programs and risk assessment. We conducted a time-series study of Hg concentrations in two small fish species representing benthic (longjaw mudsuckers [Gillichthys mirabilis]) and pelagic (threespine sticklebacks [Gasterosteus aculeatus]) food-webs within three wetland habitats in San Francisco Bay Estuary. We simultaneously monitored prey deliveries, nest initiation, and chick hatching dates of breeding Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), the most abundant nesting piscivore in the region. Mudsuckers and sticklebacks were the predominant prey fish, comprising 36% and 25% of tern diet, and Hg concentrations averaged (geometric mean ?? SE, ??g/g dw) 0.44 ?? 0.01 and 0.68 ?? 0.03, respectively. Fish Hg concentrations varied substantially over time following a quadratic form in both species, increasing 40% between March and May then decreasing 40% between May and July. Importantly, Forster's terns initiated 68% of nests and 31% of chicks hatched during the period of peak Hg concentrations in prey fish. These results illustrate the importance of short-term temporal variation in small fish Hg concentrations for both Hg monitoring programs and assessing wildlife risk.

  10. Diversity and abundance of water birds in a subarctic lake during three decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Klemetsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The numbers of divers, ducks, gulls, terns and waders in the 15 km2 oligotrophic lake Takvatn, North Norway were estimated six times during 1983-2012. Systematic mapping surveys were done by boat within the first week after ice-break in June. Twenty-one species were observed over the years and 12 were regarded as breeding on the lake. Red-breasted merganser Mergus serrator was the dominant diving bird, with estimated minimum number of pairs varying from 15 to 39 among years. Black-throated diver Gavia arctica (1-3 pairs, tufted duck Aythya fuligula (2-15 pairs and common scoter Melanitta nigra (1-5 pairs bred regularly, while velvet scoter Melanitta fusca (1-2 and goldeneye Bucephala clangula (2-4 were found in some years and mallard Anas platyrhynchos (1 pair and wigeon Anas penelope (1 pair in one year. Common gull Larus canus (6-30 pairs and arctic tern Sterna paradisaea (2-35 pairs bred in all years. Common sandpiper Tringa hypoleucos (3-9 pairs and redshank Tringa totanus (1-4 pairs were regular waders. Density variations of mergansers, gulls and terns are possibly related to density variations of three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus, their dominant fish prey. The water birds are important links in the food web of the lake.

  11. Embryo malposition as a potential mechanism for mercury-induced hatching failure in bird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, G.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of embryo malpositions and deformities in relation to total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs in San Francisco Bay (CA, USA) during 2005 to 2007. Overall, 11% of embryos were malpositioned in eggs ???18 d of age (n=282) and 2% of embryos were deformed in eggs ???13 d of age (n=470). Considering only those eggs that failed to hatch (n=62), malpositions occurred in 24% of eggs ???18 d of age and deformities occurred in 7% of eggs ???13 d of age. The probability of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns, but not in avocets or stilts. The probability of embryo deformity was not related to egg THg concentrations in any species. Using a reduced dataset with both Se and THg concentrations measured in eggs (n=87), we found no interaction between Se and THg on the probability of an embryo being malpositioned or deformed. Results of the present study indicate that embryo malpositions were prevalent in waterbird eggs that failed to hatch and the likelihood of an embryo being malpositioned increased with egg THg concentrations in Forster's terns. We hypothesize that malpositioning of avian embryos may be one reason for mercury-related hatching failure that occurs late in incubation, but further research is needed to elucidate this potential mechanism. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  12. Vocal activity as a low cost and scalable index of seabird colony size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borker, Abraham L; McKown, Matthew W; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2014-08-01

    Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost-effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer-aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost-effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of birds is that measures of acoustic activity at colony sites are correlated with the relative abundance of nesting birds. We tested this assumption for nesting Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay for 2 breeding seasons. Sensors recorded ambient sound at 7 colonies that had 15-111 nests in 2009 and 2010. Colonies were spaced at least 250 m apart and ranged from 36 to 2,571 m(2) . We used spectrogram cross-correlation to automate the detection of tern calls from recordings. We calculated mean seasonal call rate and compared it with mean active nest count at each colony. Acoustic activity explained 71% of the variation in nest abundance between breeding sites and 88% of the change in colony size between years. These results validate a primary assumption of acoustic indices; that is, for terns, acoustic activity is correlated to relative abundance, a fundamental step toward designing rigorous and scalable acoustic monitoring programs to measure the effectiveness of conservation actions for colonial birds and other acoustically active wildlife. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Mercury bioaccumulation and risk to three waterbird foraging guilds is influenced by foraging ecology and breeding stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; De La Cruz, Susan E.W.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated mercury (Hg) in five waterbird species representing three foraging guilds in San Francisco Bay, CA. Fish-eating birds (Forster's and Caspian terns) had the highest Hg concentrations in thier tissues, but concentrations in an invertebrate-foraging shorebird (black-necked stilt) were also elevated. Foraging habitat was important for Hg exposure as illustrated by within-guild differences, where species more associated with marshes and salt ponds had higher concentrations than those more associated with open-bay and tidal mudflats. Importantly, Hg concentrations increased with time spent in the estuary. Surf scoter concentrations tripled over six months, whereas Forster's terns showed an up to 5-fold increase between estuary arrival and breeding. Breeding waterbirds were at elevated risk of Hg-induced reproductive impairment, particularly Forster's terns, in which 48% of breeding birds were at high risk due to their Hg levels. Our results highlight the importance of habitat and exposure timing, in addition to trophic position, on waterbird Hg bioaccumulation and risk. - The influence of foraging habitat, trophic position, and exposure timing on mercury bioaccumulation and risk to reproduction is evaluated in three waterbird guilds.

  14. Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R2 ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R2 = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R2 = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues.

  15. Selective bird predation on the peppered moth: the last experiment of Michael Majerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L M; Grant, B S; Saccheri, I J; Mallet, J

    2012-08-23

    Colour variation in the peppered moth Biston betularia was long accepted to be under strong natural selection. Melanics were believed to be fitter than pale morphs because of lower predation at daytime resting sites on dark, sooty bark. Melanics became common during the industrial revolution, but since 1970 there has been a rapid reversal, assumed to have been caused by predators selecting against melanics resting on today's less sooty bark. Recently, these classical explanations of melanism were attacked, and there has been general scepticism about birds as selective agents. Experiments and observations were accordingly carried out by Michael Majerus to address perceived weaknesses of earlier work. Unfortunately, he did not live to publish the results, which are analysed and presented here by the authors. Majerus released 4864 moths in his six-year experiment, the largest ever attempted for any similar study. There was strong differential bird predation against melanic peppered moths. Daily selection against melanics (s ≈ 0.1) was sufficient in magnitude and direction to explain the recent rapid decline of melanism in post-industrial Britain. These data provide the most direct evidence yet to implicate camouflage and bird predation as the overriding explanation for the rise and fall of melanism in moths.

  16. Mineralogical-geochemical specificity of the uranium mineralization superposed on the oxidized rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulatov, S.G.; Shchetochkin, V.N.

    1975-01-01

    Taking as an example a uranium deposit connected with oxidation zones developing along the strata, the author examines the mineralogical and geochemical features of a pitchblende-sooty uraninite mineralization superimposed on limonitized sandstones. The typical relations between ore mineralization with new formations of the infiltration oxidation process and the changes caused by the action of rising thermal solutions on the rocks are given. Based on these relations, two generations of different ages of rich pitchblende-sooty uraninite ores are distinguished, separated by the time of development of the oxidation processes. The typical change around the ore is a reduction of limonitized rocks, accompanied by their pyritization, clarification and hematitization. The ore concentrations were formed as a result of the action of rising thermal solutions that had interacted with oxidized rocks. The development of late oxidation processes caused the redistribution of these ore concentrations and their downward shift along the stratum slope following the limonitization boundary. On the basis of the data presented, comments of a forecasting and prospecting nature are made. (author)

  17. Shearwater foraging in the Southern Ocean: the roles of prey availability and winds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Raymond

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sooty (Puffinus griseus and short-tailed (P. tenuirostris shearwaters are abundant seabirds that range widely across global oceans. Understanding the foraging ecology of these species in the Southern Ocean is important for monitoring and ecosystem conservation and management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tracking data from sooty and short-tailed shearwaters from three regions of New Zealand and Australia were combined with at-sea observations of shearwaters in the Southern Ocean, physical oceanography, near-surface copepod distributions, pelagic trawl data, and synoptic near-surface winds. Shearwaters from all three regions foraged in the Polar Front zone, and showed particular overlap in the region around 140 degrees E. Short-tailed shearwaters from South Australia also foraged in Antarctic waters south of the Polar Front. The spatial distribution of shearwater foraging effort in the Polar Front zone was matched by patterns in large-scale upwelling, primary production, and abundances of copepods and myctophid fish. Oceanic winds were found to be broad determinants of foraging distribution, and of the flight paths taken by the birds on long foraging trips to Antarctic waters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The shearwaters displayed foraging site fidelity and overlap of foraging habitat between species and populations that may enhance their utility as indicators of Southern Ocean ecosystems. The results highlight the importance of upwellings due to interactions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current with large-scale bottom topography, and the corresponding localised increases in the productivity of the Polar Front ecosystem.

  18. Mosca-Branca, Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em feijoeiro: Características gerais, bioecologia e métodos de controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Silva

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. Common bean plants are infested by insects, which can ultimately affect the crop production before and after harvest, with estimated losses ranging from 33 to 86%. Among the insect pests infesting the common beans the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. stands out. This species cause direct injury by feeding on the plants and indirect injury by excreting sugary honeydew that is after colonized by the sooty mold. In addition, the most serious damage caused by B. tabaci is the transmission of virus diseases, especially the common bean golden mosaic, responsible for economic losses varying from 30 to 100%. This review aims at providing information on important aspects of B. tabaci including its geographical distribution, bioecology, population dynamics, host plants, and methods of pest control. We expect that this review can provide valuable subsidies for future studies on the whitefly in common beans.

  19. Production of a carbon reducing agent and hydrogen by the thermocatalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons on the surface of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borok, B A; Kel' tsev, V V

    1973-01-01

    In a series of laboratory experiments, natural gas containing 98.7% methane and 1.3% nitrogen was passed through a tube packed with particles of a reduced material containing 62% iron. At 900/sup 0/C and 25 vol/vol/hr space velocity, conversion was 99%, and the exit gas contained 98.4% hydrogen. The solid product, called sooty iron, obtained in the experiments contained 20 to 60% carbon; the volume of sponge iron treated with methane at 900/sup 0/C increased when the carbon content reached 30%. Runs with natural gas at a range of temperatures and constant space velocity or at 900/sup 0/C and increasing space velocity, runs with propane feed instead of methane, and the activity of the iron-carbon complex are discussed.

  20. A Metabarcoding Survey on the Fungal Microbiota Associated to the Olive Fruit Fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacrinò, Antonino; Schena, Leonardo; Campolo, Orlando; Laudani, Francesca; Mosca, Saveria; Giunti, Giulia; Strano, Cinzia Patricia; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of interaction between insects and fungi is interesting from an ecological point of view, particularly when these interactions involve insect pests and plant pathogens within an agroecosystem. In this study, we aimed to perform an accurate analysis on the fungal microbiota associated to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) through a metabarcoding approach based on 454 pyrosequencing. From this analysis, we retrieved 43,549 reads that clustered into 128 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which 29 resulted in the "core" associate fungi of B. oleae. This fungal community was mainly represented by sooty mould fungi, such as Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp. and Aureobasidium spp., by plant pathogens like Colletotrichum spp. and Pseudocercospora spp., along with several other less abundant taxa whose ecology is unclear in most of the cases. Our findings lead to new insights into the microbial ecology of this specific ecological niche, enabling the understanding of a complex network of interactions within the olive agroecosystem.

  1. Cascading effects of a highly specialized beech-aphid–fungus interaction on forest regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Cook-Patton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Specialist herbivores are thought to often enhance or maintain plant diversity within ecosystems, because they prevent their host species from becoming competitively dominant. In contrast, specialist herbivores are not generally expected to have negative impacts on non-hosts. However, we describe a cascade of indirect interactions whereby a specialist sooty mold (Scorias spongiosa colonizes the honeydew from a specialist beech aphid (Grylloprociphilus imbricator, ultimately decreasing the survival of seedlings beneath American beech trees (Fagus grandifolia. A common garden experiment indicated that this mortality resulted from moldy honeydew impairing leaf function rather than from chemical or microbial changes to the soil. In addition, aphids consistently and repeatedly colonized the same large beech trees, suggesting that seedling-depauperate islands may form beneath these trees. Thus this highly specialized three-way beech-aphid–fungus interaction has the potential to negatively impact local forest regeneration via a cascade of indirect effects.

  2. First report on the whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm.

  3. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Greaves, G.N. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gng@aber.ac.uk; Hargrave, G.K. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Jarvis, S. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Wildman, P. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Meneau, F. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE CRG/ESRF, P.O. Box 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Bras, W. [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE CRG/ESRF, P.O. Box 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Thomas, G. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s{sup -1} we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene.

  4. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, C.; Greaves, G.N.; Hargrave, G.K.; Jarvis, S.; Wildman, P.; Meneau, F.; Bras, W.; Thomas, G.

    2005-01-01

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s -1 we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene

  5. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C.; Greaves, G. N.; Hargrave, G. K.; Jarvis, S.; Wildman, P.; Meneau, F.; Bras, W.; Thomas, G.

    2005-08-01

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s-1 we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene.

  6. ANÁLISE TERMODINÂMICA DA DESTERPENAÇÃO DO ÓLEO DA CASCA DE LARANJA COM CO2 SUPERCRÍTICO A PARTIR DE UMA MISTURA SINTÉTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio A.B. VIEIRA DE MELO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O projeto do processo de desterpenação do óleo da casca de laranja com CO2 supercrítico exige o bom conhecimento do comportamento de fases da mistura envolvida. Neste trabalho, faz-se uma análise termodinâmica preliminar desse processo, calculando-se a seletividade a partir da modelagem do equilíbrio líquido-vapor (ELV para o sistema CO2-limoneno-linalol, com base em dados ternários medidos recentemente. Utilizou-se uma modificação da equação de Peng-Robinson e, com dados binários de ELV, avaliou-se a sua capacidade preditiva considerando-se 2 aspectos: a predição do equilíbrio a uma certa temperatura usando-se os parâmetros estimados em outra temperatura e a predição do comportamento de fases do sistema ternário com os parâmetros estimados dos sistemas binários. Foram determinados também os parâmetros de interação entre limoneno e linalol a partir dos dados experimentais do ternário.Process design for supercritical CO2 deterpenation of orange peel oil requires accurate knowledge of phase behavior. This work is focused on modeling high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium for the ternary system CO2-limonene-linalool, owing to do a preliminary thermodynamics analysis of this process based on calculated selectivity values. A modification of Peng-Robinson equation of state was adopted to regress binary interaction parameters from experimental VLE data and its capacity for temperature extrapolating calculations was investigated. A comparison of ternary VLE obtained from the respective binary systems and that calculated using additionally ternary informations was done.

  7. Fitness prospects: effects of age, sex and recruitment age on reproductive value in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Rebke, Maren; Becker, Peter H; Bouwhuis, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive value is an integrated measure of survival and reproduction fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics, but little is known about intraspecific variation in reproductive value and factors explaining such variation, if any. By applying generalized additive mixed models to longitudinal individual-based data of the common tern Sterna hirundo, we estimated age-specific annual survival probability, breeding probability and reproductive performance, based on which we calculated age-specific reproductive values. We investigated effects of sex and recruitment age (RA) on each trait. We found age effects on all traits, with survival and breeding probability declining with age, while reproductive performance first improved with age before levelling off. We only found a very small, marginally significant, sex effect on survival probability, but evidence for decreasing age-specific breeding probability and reproductive performance with RA. As a result, males had slightly lower age-specific reproductive values than females, while birds of both sexes that recruited at the earliest ages of 2 and 3 years (i.e. 54% of the tern population) had somewhat higher fitness prospects than birds recruiting at later ages. While the RA effects on breeding probability and reproductive performance were statistically significant, these effects were not large enough to translate to significant effects on reproductive value. Age-specific reproductive values provided evidence for senescence, which came with fitness costs in a range of 17-21% for the sex-RA groups. Our study suggests that intraspecific variation in reproductive value may exist, but that, in the common tern, the differences are small. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  8. Are arrival date and body mass after spring migration influenced by large-scale environmental factors in a migratory seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lesley eSzostek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the timing of migratory events have been observed recently in many migratory species, most likely in response to climatic change. In the common tern Sterna hirundo we examined such changes in spring arrival date and body mass based on a 19 year individual-based longitudinal data from a transponder marked colony from 1994 - 2012. Although no long-term trend was observed in either trait, strong inter-annual and age-specific variation in arrival date and mass was evident. We investigated whether environmental factors such as (i global climate phenomena North Atlantic and Southern Oscillation Indices NAOI and SOI, or (ii local factors, such as food abundance in the wintering and breeding area, represented by fish stock or marine primary productivity, could explain this variation. We found that 2-year-old birds on their first spring migration advanced arrival relative to spring NAOI and delayed arrival relative to sprat Sprattus sprattus abundance. The arrival date of 3-year-olds also advanced in relation to NAOI and delayed in relation to winter SOI. In contrast, adults delayed arrival with NAOI and advanced relative to SOI. Within age groups, earlier annual arrival coincided with higher mass, indicating that a fast and/or early migration did not come at a cost to body condition. Changes in arrival mass relative to environmental covariates were found only in 2-year-olds on their first spring migration: in these birds arrival mass was positively related to herring Clupea harengus and sprat abundance in the breeding area as well as spring NAOI and negatively related to SOI. In conclusion, traits related to migration of common terns were linked with environmental conditions, but showed no long-term trends over the past two decades. Age-related differences were marked, suggesting that common terns might be subject to differing environmental constraints or respond differently to conditions during their annual cycle depending on age.

  9. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg-laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, the authors determined that accurate estimation of a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  10. Maternal transfer of contaminants in birds: Mercury and selenium concentrations in parents and their eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a detailed assessment of the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in three bird species (n = 107 parents and n = 339 eggs), and developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in six tissues of the mother (blood, muscle, liver, kidney, breast feathers, and head feathers). Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in each of the mother's internal tissues (R"2 ≥ 0.95), but generally not with feathers. For each species, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury concentrations in the mother increased. At the same maternal mercury concentration, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species, such that Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) females transferred more methylmercury to their eggs than American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) females. Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with selenium concentrations in the mother's liver (R"2 = 0.87). Furthermore, mercury and selenium concentrations in tern eggs were positively correlated with those in the father (R"2 = 0.84). Incubating male terns had 21% higher mercury concentrations in blood compared to incubating females at the same egg mercury concentration. We provide equations to predict contaminant concentrations in eggs from each of the commonly sampled bird tissues. - Highlights: • We developed predictive equations linking contaminant concentrations in eggs to those in the mother. • Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with those in the mother. • The proportion of mercury transferred to eggs decreased as mercury in the mother increased. • The proportion of mercury transferred to eggs differed among species. • Selenium concentrations in eggs also were correlated with those in the mother's liver. - We examined the maternal transfer of mercury and selenium to eggs in

  11. Species-specific activity of SIV Nef and HIV-1 Vpu in overcoming restriction by tetherin/BST2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin, also known as BST2, CD317 or HM1.24, was recently identified as an interferon-inducible host-cell factor that interferes with the detachment of virus particles from infected cells. HIV-1 overcomes this restriction by expressing an accessory protein, Vpu, which counteracts tetherin. Since lentiviruses of the SIV(smm/mac/HIV-2 lineage do not have a vpu gene, this activity has likely been assumed by other viral gene products. We found that deletion of the SIV(mac239 nef gene significantly impaired virus release in cells expressing rhesus macaque tetherin. Virus release could be restored by expressing Nef in trans. However, Nef was unable to facilitate virus release in the presence of human tetherin. Conversely, Vpu enhanced virus release in the presence of human tetherin, but not in the presence of rhesus tetherin. In accordance with the species-specificity of Nef in mediating virus release, SIV Nef downregulated cell-surface expression of rhesus tetherin, but did not downregulate human tetherin. The specificity of SIV Nef for rhesus tetherin mapped to four amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of the molecule that are missing from human tetherin, whereas the specificity of Vpu for human tetherin mapped to amino acid differences in the transmembrane domain. Nef alleles of SIV(smm, HIV-2 and HIV-1 were also able to rescue virus release in the presence of both rhesus macaque and sooty mangabey tetherin, but were generally ineffective against human tetherin. Thus, the ability of Nef to antagonize tetherin from these Old World primates appears to be conserved among the primate lentiviruses. These results identify Nef as the viral gene product of SIV that opposes restriction by tetherin in rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys, and reveal species-specificity in the activities of both Nef and Vpu in overcoming tetherin in their respective hosts.

  12. Mycobacterium leprae genomes from naturally infected nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honap, Tanvi P; Pfister, Luz-Andrea; Housman, Genevieve; Mills, Sarah; Tarara, Ross P; Suzuki, Koichi; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Rosenberg, Michael S; Stone, Anne C

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy is caused by the bacterial pathogens Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Apart from humans, animals such as nine-banded armadillos in the Americas and red squirrels in the British Isles are naturally infected with M. leprae. Natural leprosy has also been reported in certain nonhuman primates, but it is not known whether these occurrences are due to incidental infections by human M. leprae strains or by M. leprae strains specific to nonhuman primates. In this study, complete M. leprae genomes from three naturally infected nonhuman primates (a chimpanzee from Sierra Leone, a sooty mangabey from West Africa, and a cynomolgus macaque from The Philippines) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the cynomolgus macaque M. leprae strain is most closely related to a human M. leprae strain from New Caledonia, whereas the chimpanzee and sooty mangabey M. leprae strains belong to a human M. leprae lineage commonly found in West Africa. Additionally, samples from ring-tailed lemurs from the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, and chimpanzees from Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, were screened using quantitative PCR assays, to assess the prevalence of M. leprae in wild nonhuman primates. However, these samples did not show evidence of M. leprae infection. Overall, this study adds genomic data for nonhuman primate M. leprae strains to the existing M. leprae literature and finds that this pathogen can be transmitted from humans to nonhuman primates as well as between nonhuman primate species. While the prevalence of natural leprosy in nonhuman primates is likely low, nevertheless, future studies should continue to explore the prevalence of leprosy-causing pathogens in the wild.

  13. Herstellung und Charakterisierung von ZnO1-xSx-Dünnschichten : Dotierung mit Wasserstoff und Einsatz in ZnO1-xSx/GaN-Heterostruktur-Leuchtdioden

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenberger, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Das ternäre Materialsystem ZnO1-xSx ist für den Einsatz als Cd-freie Pufferschicht in Solarzellen, für Halbleiter-Heterostrukturen (z.B. Leuchtdioden) oder als Bandkanten-Filter interessant, da sich die energetische Lage von Valenzband-Maximum und Leitungsband-Minimum und somit ebenfalls die Energie der Bandlücke durch die Komposition beeinflussen lassen. Zusätzlich eignet es sich aufgrund der damit einhergehenden Veränderung der elektrischen und phononischen Eigenschaften als Modelsystem für...

  14. Analysis of the AD sequence in Zion plant using the March 1.1 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriolo, F.; Paci, S.

    1985-01-01

    The analyses of the AD sequences for the Zion power plant, made at the Pisa University, in the framework of the participation in the Source Tern Working Group. After a short description of the plant and the sequence under analysis, the model used for the reference computation and the results obtained using the March 1.1 code are shown. Together with the reference computation a series of parametric tests have been also made, concerning some input code variables, in order to ascertain their influence on the transient trend. The results of these analyses are shown in Appendix

  15. Waterbirds (other than Laridae nesting in the middle section of Laguna Cuyutlán, Colima, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mellink

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Laguna de Cuyutlán, in the state of Colima, Mexico, is the only large coastal wetland in a span of roughly 1150 km. Despite this, the study of its birds has been largely neglected. Between 2003 and 2006 we assessed the waterbirds nesting in the middle portion of Laguna Cuyutlán, a large tropical coastal lagoon, through field visits. We documented the nesting of 15 species of non-Laridae waterbirds: Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Tricolored Egret (Egretta tricolor, Snowy Egret (Egretta thula, Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea, Great Egret (Ardea alba, Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis, Black-crowned Nightheron (Nycticorax nycticorax, Yellow-crowned Night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea, Green Heron (Butorides virescens, Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja, White Ibis (Eudocimus albus, Black-bellied Whistling-duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis, Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris, Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus, and Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus. These add to six species of Laridae known to nest in that area: Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla, Royal Terns (Thalasseus maximus, Gull-billed Terns (Gelochelidon nilotica, Forster’s Terns (S. forsteri, Least Terns (Sternula antillarum, and Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger, and to at least 57 species using it during the non-breeding season. With such bird assemblages, Laguna Cuyutlán is an important site for waterbirds, which should be given conservation status. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 391-397. Epub 2008 March 31.Durante la prospección de la parte media de la Laguna Cuyutlán, una gran laguna costera en Colima, México, entre 2003 y 2006, documentamos la anidación de 15 especies de aves acuáticas que no pertenecer a la familia Laridae: Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Egretta tricolor, Egretta thula, Egretta caerulea, Ardea alba, Bubulcus ibis, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea, Butorides virescens, Platalea ajaja, Eudocimus albus, Dendrocygna autumnalis, Rallus longirostris

  16. Ein Vorschlag zur Wahl der Zuchtwerte bei der Anwendung dermarkergestützten Selektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Hauke

    2009-01-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Simulationsstudie wurde ein Enkelinnendesign mit 10 Großvätern erstellt, um die Einflüsse unterschiedlicher Eingabevariablen in der markergestützten Selektion zu untersuchen. Dabei wurden genotypische und phänotypische Daten für die Großväter, Großmütter und 500 Söhne simuliert. ......,89), so dass empfohlen wird diese Eingabevariable in der markergestützten Zuchtwertschätzung zu verwenden...

  17. Review and Evaluation of Army Aviation Depot NDI (Nondestructive Inspection) and Reliability Centered Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-31

    TAILBOOM ATTACH FITTINC UPPER & LOWER RH 2n _3 S C Y J D U R FUELL CELL AFT BULKHEAD PANEl. R/H Ib 54 S C Y J D U R FUEL CELL UPPER OUTBOARD PANEL R/H...in the real world. terns i-n tnis cIass are generally simple (so-called "sg- cell ") components such as tarts wich are subject to metal ’atizue or otner...AH-64 airframe, the automated airframe logbooK, the upgraded RCA data base management system, the ACE/AACE, CFD, PEM , breakout and other programs as

  18. E-Beam Written Computer Generated Holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    the V2 parabola is tested without aid of the computer generated hologram, and the interferogram of Figure 3-5a results. It shows about 40 waves of...bymricl crain Atso, whee PCGH ae • " in ihe lowret Thae vroush considerations wih respect t he degnos Thi mCHaeanis. cussed in the folowing siectionsuo.e...spacing of 0.5 has proven to be a greater challenge than achieving the correct milling depth, particularly for higher spatial frequency pat- terns

  19. Initial research on planning and design of today's Buddhist temple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinjian LI; Guangya ZHU

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the reconstruction planning for the Chongyuan Temple in Suzhou Industrial Park, the planners explored the elements of contemporary Buddhism architecture planning and design in terms of the social multi-requirement, environmental utilization fitted for a given time and place, appropriate temple pat-tern on specification and institution, functional division for harmonic relationship between monks and laymen, etc. For realization of historic mission: carrying forward the cultural tradition and constructing harmonic society, this paper proposes some principles of creation, which have historical evidence and are keeping pace with the times.

  20. Quail and other short-lived birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M A

    2001-04-01

    Japanese quail are small galliforms that are migratory and generally live 2 to 3years in the wild. Although there is evidence for other environmental cues, they primarily respond to long daylength for regulation of reproduction. In contrast to the Common Tern, a long-lived sea bird that shows little evidence of reproductive aging, Japanese quail follow a well-defined process of aging with evidence of declining function in reproductive, metabolic, and sensory systems. Our studies focus on neuroendocrine changes associated with reproductive aging in the Japanese quail, with emphasis on the male in order to study both endocrine and behavioral components of reproduction and the process of reproductive aging.

  1. Folly Beach, South Carolina. Survey Report on Beach Erosion Control and Hurricane Protection. Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    Animal species which may be observed in this community include the ground dove, mockingbird , robin, blackbird, grackle, opossum, rabbit, raccoon, gray...Laughing gull Larus- atricilia Least tern Sterna al bi fruncs Lesser yellowlegs Totanus flavip es Marsh hawk Circus cyaneus Mockingbird rlinus...ve’c It kill 0Iinltso ilt -iolIr;nt pet erilfi I grasses-- slit It Is- ci uiis (l~iiP j il it i I - il-it) .0 bit i ci 1tutu I grass 0’a n i tie

  2. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    South-South Cooperation with the Caribbean community. 6.1.6 Health The WHO, together with the Pan -American Health Organization (PAHO) and the...Date: Fri , 27 Aug 2010 11:10:53 -0400 From: Paul Werbos <werbos@ieee.org> To: Global Energy Network global-energy@mp.cim3.net Subject: [global...or any other application. This in tern inhibits the manufacturers to use them in their EV/HEV designs. It is a game of " chicken and egg": no

  3. Relacionamentos externos no âmbito da inovação empresarial : modelo aplicado aos avanços inovadores

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria José Madeira; Raposo, Mário Lino Barata; Ferrão, Maria Eugenia; Jiménez Moreno, Juan José

    2005-01-01

    A inovação assume-se cada vez mais como um factor chave da competitividade empresarial. Várias abordagens teóricas, desenvolvidas nos últimos anos, sustentam que a inovação não é algo que resulta da acção isolada de um único actor, mas é vista como um processo não linear, complexo, evolucionário e interactivo entre as empresas e o seu meio envolvente. Esta investigação tern por finalidade analisar se a capacidade inovadora empresarial, ao nível dos avanços inovadores, e estimulada pelos...

  4. Study of Aerospace Materials, Coatings, Adhesions and Processes. Aircraft Icing Processes. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-14

    tensio’n DC de salida del anemo’metro, Ts la tempe- ratura de funcionamiento del sensor, T la temperatura ambiente, Fla densidad y V la velocidad. A, B y n...funcionamiento del sensor, T la temperatura ambiente, la densidad y v la velocidad. A, B y n son las constantes de cal- z braci6n propias del sensor...salida del anemo~metro, T la tern S- peratura de funcionarniento del sensor, T la temperatura am- biente, ? la densidad y V la velocidad. A, B y n son

  5. Systems Engineering Management Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-03-10

    hls -iii-rit. -miiiirme 4 --tandnirdized hle iil*ri oa;iu ’ -enperfrm)a- -yýfefi ~lall uitm l--im eniai~ atar n which will lumPremiiieuiea -. v-imli m...with standard component/part selection. and de- tile total system requirements stated in the Sys- tailed functional and physical interfaces: eval- tern...system survivability requirAent. As physical , interface, time, environment, use of these facility requirements are bei developed, standard perts; and

  6. Occurrence of human pharmaceuticals in water resources of the United States: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, M.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Furlong, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread environmental presence of some pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds has been documented globally (e.g. Buser et al. 1998; Ternes 1998; Stumpf et al.1999; Heberer et al. 2001; Kümmerer 2001; Ternes et al. 2001; Scheytt et al. 2001; Golet et al. 2002; Kolpin et al. 2002; Boyd et al. 2003; Metcalf et al. 2003). Recently, there have been several literature reviews and summary studies of the occurrence, fate, transport, and treatment of targeted human pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and associated environmental waters across the globe (e.g. Daughton and Ternes 1999; Sedlak et al. 2000; Suter and Giger 2000; Daughton and Jones-Lepp 2001; Jones et al. 2001; Heberer 2002; and Drewes et al. 2002). The occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in water resources is explained by their ubiquitous use, excretion of large percentages of the mass consumed, and incomplete removal during wastewater treatment (Stumpf et al.1999). The recent increase in detection of trace concentrations (typically less than a part per billion) of pharmaceuticals in water resources across the globe reflects improvements in laboratory analytical methods (Sedlak et al. 2000) and the associated increases in field surveys. The detection of pharmaceutical compounds in large rivers in Europe and in the North Sea (Buser et al. 1998; Ternes 1998; Stumpf et al. 1999) highlighted the fact that highly soluble, trace organic compounds, such as pharmaceuticals, may escape removal in wastewater treatment, and the mixing and concentration of wastewaters through conventional wastewater treatment processes could provide a means of delivering these chemicals to environmental waters in a manner that would contaminate water resources on a large scale at trace levels (Richardson and Bowron 1985). In the United States, some of the first detections of a limited number of pharmaceutically active compounds or their transformation products were found in waters associated with landfill

  7. Optical Pattern Recognition for Missile Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-15

    directed to novel pattern recognition algo- rithms (that allow pattern recognition and object classification in the face of various geometrical and...I wats EF5 = 50) p.j/t’ni 2 (for btith image pat tern recognitio itas a preproicessing oiperatiton. Ini devices). TIhe rt’ad light intensity (0.33t mW...electrodes on its large faces . This Priz light modulator and the motivation for its devel- SLM is known as the Prom (Pockels real-time optical opment. In Sec

  8. Organizing as becoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Schulze, Pernille

    Studying a university hospital undergoing radical organizational change, the paper discusses the creation and constitution of new leadership roles. The discussion focuses on how respons-es to isomorphic pressures are related to local variations of organizational structures and pat-terns of instit......Studying a university hospital undergoing radical organizational change, the paper discusses the creation and constitution of new leadership roles. The discussion focuses on how respons-es to isomorphic pressures are related to local variations of organizational structures and pat...

  9. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1996-01-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species' diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p birds from the Lower Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  10. Entrepreneurial proliferation: Russia`s nuclear industry suits the buyers market. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, T.D.; Williams, A.R.

    1995-06-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991, bringing an end to four decades of the Cold War. A system of tight centralized controls has given way to chaotic freedom and un-managed, entrepreneurial capitalism. Of immediate concern to most world leaders has been the control and safety of over 30,000 Soviet nuclear weapons. After 1991, the Soviet, centralized system of management lost one key structural element: a reliable `human factor` for nuclear material control. The Soviet systems for physical security and material control are still in place in the nuclear inheritor states - Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhnstan, and Belarus - but they do not restrain or regulate their nuclear industry. In the chaos created by the Soviet collapse, the nonproliferation regime may not adequately temper the supply of the nuclear materials of the new inheritor states. This could permit organizations or states seeking nuclear weapons easier access to fissile materials. New initiatives such as the United States Cooperative Threat Reduction program, which draws upon U.S. technology and expertise to help the NIS solve these complex problems, are short-tern tactics. At present there are no strategies which address the long-tern root problems caused by the Soviet collapse.This thesis demonstrates the extent of the nuclear control problems in Russia. Specifically, we examine physical security, material control and accounting regulation and enforcement, and criminal actions. It reveals that the current lack of internal controls make access to nuclear materials easier for aspiring nuclear weapons States.

  11. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  12. Combining Methods to Describe Important Marine Habitats for Top Predators: Application to Identify Biological Hotspots in Tropical Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiers, Laurie; Louzao, Maite; Ridoux, Vincent; Le Corre, Matthieu; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-01-01

    In tropical waters resources are usually scarce and patchy, and predatory species generally show specific adaptations for foraging. Tropical seabirds often forage in association with sub-surface predators that create feeding opportunities by bringing prey close to the surface, and the birds often aggregate in large multispecific flocks. Here we hypothesize that frigatebirds, a tropical seabird adapted to foraging with low energetic costs, could be a good predictor of the distribution of their associated predatory species, including other seabirds (e.g. boobies, terns) and subsurface predators (e.g., dolphins, tunas). To test this hypothesis, we compared distribution patterns of marine predators in the Mozambique Channel based on a long-term dataset of both vessel- and aerial surveys, as well as tracking data of frigatebirds. By developing species distribution models (SDMs), we identified key marine areas for tropical predators in relation to contemporaneous oceanographic features to investigate multi-species spatial overlap areas and identify predator hotspots in the Mozambique Channel. SDMs reasonably matched observed patterns and both static (e.g. bathymetry) and dynamic (e.g. Chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature) factors were important explaining predator distribution patterns. We found that the distribution of frigatebirds included the distributions of the associated species. The central part of the channel appeared to be the best habitat for the four groups of species considered in this study (frigatebirds, brown terns, boobies and sub-surface predators).

  13. Combining Methods to Describe Important Marine Habitats for Top Predators: Application to Identify Biological Hotspots in Tropical Waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Thiers

    Full Text Available In tropical waters resources are usually scarce and patchy, and predatory species generally show specific adaptations for foraging. Tropical seabirds often forage in association with sub-surface predators that create feeding opportunities by bringing prey close to the surface, and the birds often aggregate in large multispecific flocks. Here we hypothesize that frigatebirds, a tropical seabird adapted to foraging with low energetic costs, could be a good predictor of the distribution of their associated predatory species, including other seabirds (e.g. boobies, terns and subsurface predators (e.g., dolphins, tunas. To test this hypothesis, we compared distribution patterns of marine predators in the Mozambique Channel based on a long-term dataset of both vessel- and aerial surveys, as well as tracking data of frigatebirds. By developing species distribution models (SDMs, we identified key marine areas for tropical predators in relation to contemporaneous oceanographic features to investigate multi-species spatial overlap areas and identify predator hotspots in the Mozambique Channel. SDMs reasonably matched observed patterns and both static (e.g. bathymetry and dynamic (e.g. Chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature factors were important explaining predator distribution patterns. We found that the distribution of frigatebirds included the distributions of the associated species. The central part of the channel appeared to be the best habitat for the four groups of species considered in this study (frigatebirds, brown terns, boobies and sub-surface predators.

  14. Manejo de un sitio de anidación para la conservación de Sternula antillarum (Charadriiformes: Laridae en Baja California Sur, México Nesting site management for Sternula antillarum (Charadriiformes: Laridae conservation in Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Amador

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El gallito marino menor (Sternula antillarum es una especie sujeta a protección especial, que anida en colonias pequeñas en hábitats costeros. Las mareas altas son un problema para la anidación de S. antillarum en Baja California Sur, pues causan la inundación de algunas colonias. Para reducir el impacto potencial del flujo de marea alta sobre los nidos, se elevó 20 cm el nivel del suelo por medio de una plataforma elevada construida con llantas de desecho rellenas y cubiertas de arena. La ocupación de este sitio por S. antillarum se monitoreó durante las temporadas reproductivas de 1990, y de 2002 a 2005. Las mareas altas no afectaron los nidos establecidos sobre la plataforma y la densidad de nidos sobre ella fue mayor que la que hubo en el terreno natural de la planicie costera adyacente. Este método de manejo del hábitat de anidación de S. antillarum es una buena alternativa en los sitios con riesgo por flujo de marea.The Least Tern (Sternula antillarum is a threatened seabird species that breeds in small colonies on coastal habitats. High tides constitute a problem for their reproduction in Baja California Sur, since they cause flooding of some colonies. To reduce the potential impact of high tides on the nests, the level of the ground was elevated by 20 cm, through an elevated platform that was built by using discarded tires filled and covered with sand. The occupation of this site by Least Terns was monitored during the breeding seasons of 1990 and from 2002 to 2005. High tides did not affect the nests established on the platform and density of nests on this platform was higher than on the natural adjacent mudflat area. This nesting habitat management method for the Least Tern is an appropriate alternative for those sites affected by high tides.

  15. Community structure of waterbirds in several type of wetland utilization in East Coast of Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil Siti Rihadini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural wetlands are the natural habitat of waterbirds, but it is very diffi cult to fi nd an unspoiled wetlands without human intervention curently. East coast of Surabaya is wetlands area in Surabaya that most of the region have change into fi shpond and residental. The aims of this reasearch are to determine the community structure of waterbirds in each type of wetland utilization and to determine if the different type of wetland utilization infl uence the community structure of waterbirds in East Coast of Surabaya. Data were collected during August 2012 to January 2013 with point count method. Six sampling plots have been selected. Six sampling plots representing four types of use of wetlands, which are bozem, the former fi shpond, fi shpond with vegetation, and fi shponds without vegetation (fi shpond 1, fi shpond 2 and fi shpond 3. In bozem recorded 19 species of waterbirds (1107 individual, dominated by shorebirds, with a diversity index (H' 1.86, and evenness index (J' 0.63. In former fi shpond recorded 7 species of water birds (168 individual, dominated by rails and moorhen, with H’ = 1.12 and J’ = 0.57. In fi shpond with vegetation recorded 12 species of water birds (137 individual, dominated by large wader, with H’ = 1.85 and J’ = 0.74. In fi shpond 1 recorded 18 species of water birds (299 individual, dominated by terns, with H’ = 1.96 and J’ = 0.68. In fi shpond 2 recorded 9 species of water birds (70 individual, dominated by terns, with H’ = 1.73 and J’ = 0.79. In fi shpond 3 recorded 10 species of water birds (83 individual, dominated by terns, with H’ = 1.84 and J’ = 0.80. Chi-square test showed that X2 count is greater than X2 table with α < 0.05, which indicates that there is a signifi cant difference of the number of individuals of each species and the number of individual of each water birds’ group for each type of use of wetlands, so it can be

  16. Collision and displacement vulnerability among marine birds of the California Current System associated with offshore wind energy infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Kelsey, Emily C.; Felis, Jonathan J.; Pereksta, David M.

    2016-10-27

    With growing climate change concerns and energy constraints, there is an increasing need for renewable energy sources within the United States and globally. Looking forward, offshore wind-energy infrastructure (OWEI) has the potential to produce a significant proportion of the power needed to reach our Nation’s renewable energy goal. Offshore wind-energy sites can capitalize open areas within Federal waters that have persistent, high winds with large energy production potential. Although there are few locations in the California Current System (CCS) where it would be acceptable to build pile-mounted wind turbines in waters less than 50 m deep, the development of technology able to support deep-water OWEI (>200 m depth) could enable wind-energy production in the CCS. As with all human-use of the marine environment, understanding the potential impacts of wind-energy infrastructure on the marine ecosystem is an integral part of offshore wind-energy research and planning. Herein, we present a comprehensive database to quantify marine bird vulnerability to potential OWEI in the CCS (see https://doi.org/10.5066/F79C6VJ0). These data were used to quantify marine bird vulnerabilities at the population level. For 81 marine bird species present in the CCS, we created three vulnerability indices: Population Vulnerability, Collision Vulnerability, and Displacement Vulnerability. Population Vulnerability was used as a scaling factor to generate two comprehensive indicies: Population Collision Vulnerability (PCV) and Population Displacement Vulnerability (PDV). Within the CCS, pelicans, terns (Forster’s [Sterna forsteri], Caspian [Hydroprogne caspia], Elegant [Thalasseus elegans], and Least Tern [Sternula antillarum]), gulls (Western [Larus occidentalis] and Bonaparte’s Gull [Chroicocephalus philadelphia]), South Polar Skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and Brandt’s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) had the greatest PCV scores. Brown Pelican (Pelicanus occidentalis

  17. Surface elevation dynamics in vegetated Spartina marshes versus unvegetated tidal ponds along the mid-Atlantic coast, USA, with implications to waterbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R. Michael; Cahoon, Donald R.; Prosser, Diann J.; Sanders, Geoffrey; Hensel, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    -dependent seaside sparrows Ammodramus maritimus, saltmarsh sharp-tailed sparrows A. caudacutus, black rails Laterallus jamaicensis, clapper rails Rallus longirostris, Forster's terns Sterna forsteri, common terns Sterna hirundo, and gull-billed terns Sterna nilotica. Although short-term inundation of many lagoonal marshes may benefit some open-water feeding ducks, geese, and swans during winter, the long-term ecosystem effects may be detrimental, as wildlife resources will be lost or displaced. With the reduction in area of emergent marsh, estuarine secondary productivity and biotic diversity will also be reduced.

  18. Ferramenta para tomada de decisão considerando a interação dos sistemas de produção e o meio ambiente Decision-making tool considering the interaction of the production systems and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio A. Barrella

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagramas ternários são apresentados como ferramenta gráfica no auxílio da contabilidade ambiental e tomada de decisões ambientais baseadas na análise emergética. Além de inquestionáveis vantagens da interpretação gráfica sobre análise de tabelas, o uso dos diagramas ternários, largamente empregados para a avaliação da físico-química de diagrama de fases para sistemas de três componentes, permite o uso das propriedades do diagrama de fases para avaliação da dependência dos sistemas sobre entradas renováveis e não-renováveis e a avaliação do suporte ambiental para diluição e redução de emissões dos processos e da eficiência dos sistemas. A imediata visualização dos dados da contabilidade emergética permite a comparação de processos e sistemas com e sem serviços dos ecossistemas, para avaliar melhorias e acompanhamento do desempenho dos sistemas ao longo do tempo. Com a objetividade dos diagramas ternários, aspectos como a interação entre sistemas e a interação entre sistemas e meio ambiente podem ser prontamente reconhecidos e avaliados.Ternary diagrams are presented as graphic tools to assist environmental accounting and environmental decision-making based on emergy analysis. Besides the unquestionable advantages of graphic interpretation over table analysis, the use of ternary diagrams, widely used for physical chemistry evaluation of three components systems, or three components phase diagrams, permits the use of phase diagrams properties to assess the dependence of the system upon renewable and non renewable inputs, the environmental support for dilution and abatement of process emissions and the system efficiency. The prompt visualization of the emergy accounting data makes possible to compare processes and systems with and without ecosystem services, to evaluate improvements and to follow the system performance over time. With the aim of ternary diagrams, aspects such as the interaction between

  19. USO DA EQUAÇÃO DE ESTADO DE PENG-ROBINSON COM REGRA DE MISTURA DEPENDENTE DA COMPOSIÇÃO NA PREDIÇÃO DO EQUILÍBRIO DE FASES DO SISTEMA TERNÁRIO CO2-LIMONENO-CITRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lopes de OLIVEIRA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Dados de equilíbrio de fases a pressões elevadas dos sistemas binários CO2-Limoneno e CO2-Citral e do sistema ternário CO2-Limoneno-Citral foram coletados da literatura e usados na modelagem termodinâmica que emprega a equação de estado de PENG-ROBINSON [1] com: 1 Regra de mistura clássica; 2 Regra de mistura dependente da composição de STRYJEK & VERA [2]. Os parâmetros de interação binária entre CO2-Limoneno e CO2-Citral foram obtidos pelo ajuste dos modelos a dados experimentais, fazendo uso de dois programas computacionais, os quais envolvem a minimização de uma função objetivo, pelo método Simplex de NELDER & MEAD (3, que foi escrita em termos dos desvios relativos entre os pontos experimentais e os calculados pelos modelos. O equilíbrio de fases do sistema ternário foi calculado utilizando-se os parâmetros de interação binária ajustados previamente e considerando parâmetros nulos entre os componentes Limoneno e Citral. A análise dos resultados indica, para as condições supercríticas, que os dois modelos foram capazes de predizer qualitativamente o sistema ternário, fornecendo resultados compatíveis, em ordem de grandeza, com os valores experimentais.Phase equilibrium data at high pressures for CO2-Limonene and CO2-Citral binary systems and for CO2-Limonene-Citral ternary systems were collected from literature and employed in a thermodynamic modelling that uses the PENG-ROBINSON equation of state with: (1 classical mixture rule; (2 STRYJEK & VERA composition dependant mixture rule. The binary interaction parameters for the CO2-Limonene and CO2-Citral systems were obtained by fitting the models to the experimental data using two computational programmes that involved the minimisation of an objective function by the simplex method as suggested by NELDER & MEAD, written as a function of the deviation between experimental and calculated data. The phase equilibrium for the ternary systems was calculated using the

  20. Relationship of Quantity of Citric Acid and Protein Content of Mycelia during Citric Acid Production by Three Strains of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah-Al-Mahin; Alamgir Z. Chowdhury; Rehana Begum

    2006-01-01

    The amount of protein in the surface grown mycelia of three strains of Aspergillus niger (CA16,79/20 and 318) was found to decrease with the increase of citric acid production in sucrose based fermentation medium. Throughout the study period of 6 to 10 days of fermentation, highest amount of citric acid was produced by Aspergillus niger 318 although the amount of protein in mycelia was lowest for this strain. On the other hand, lowest amount of citric acid was produced by the strain CA 16 which in tern produced highest amount of mycelial protein. Aspergillus niger 79/20 produced both intermediate level of protein and citric acid. The Protein was estimated by three commonly used methods namely: Kjeldahl, Biuret and Lowry methods. Kjeldahl and Lowry method gave the highest and lowest results respectively for protein determination in all cases.(authors)

  1. An Interoperability Framework and Capability Profiling for Manufacturing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M.; Arai, E.; Nakano, N.; Wakai, H.; Takeda, H.; Takata, M.; Sasaki, H.

    ISO/TC184/SC5/WG4 is working on ISO16100: Manufacturing software capability profiling for interoperability. This paper reports on a manufacturing software interoperability framework and a capability profiling methodology which were proposed and developed through this international standardization activity. Within the context of manufacturing application, a manufacturing software unit is considered to be capable of performing a specific set of function defined by a manufacturing software system architecture. A manufacturing software interoperability framework consists of a set of elements and rules for describing the capability of software units to support the requirements of a manufacturing application. The capability profiling methodology makes use of the domain-specific attributes and methods associated with each specific software unit to describe capability profiles in terms of unit name, manufacturing functions, and other needed class properties. In this methodology, manufacturing software requirements are expressed in terns of software unit capability profiles.

  2. Fukushima. A preliminary assessment in July 2011; Fukushima. Eine vorlaeufige Bilanz im Juli 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Rolf

    2011-07-01

    Four months after the reactor accidents in Fukushima Daiichi a preliminary assessment of the accident sequence vents is performed based on the available incomplete information. The following topics are discussed: initiating events and accident sequences, radioactive materials release and dispersion, fundamentals on radiation exposure following the accident in the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi, contamination of food stuff, fission product release into the Pacific Ocean, source tern and external radiation exposure in the first year, preliminary radiological assessment, radiological situation throughout the different accident phases (radioactive cloud and fallout, late phase), estimation of radiation exposure in the first year due to decay of short-lived radionuclides based on the state end of July 2011, comparison of the reactor accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi.

  3. Berechnung verkehrlicher Substitutionseffekte im Personenverkehr bei Online-Shopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter; Rauh, Jürgen; Breidenbach, Petra

    Für Güter des täglichen, mittelfristigen und langfristigen Bedarfs sowie für das Beispiel Baumarktartikel wird das Potenzial für Personenverkehrsaufwand von Einkaufsaktivtäten quantitativ abgeschätzt. Die entwickelten Algorithmen behandeln die einkaufsvorbereitende Information und den eigentlichen Einkauf, d.h. den Erwerb eines Gutes, separat. Informationsaktivitäten haben insbesondere bei höherwertigen Gütern einen hohen Stellenwert und damit auch verkehrliche Relevanz. Wie Berechnungen zeigen, spart Online-Shopping Informations- und Einkaufsverkehrsaufwand im Pkw-Verkehr ein. Die notwendigen Eingangsdaten wie differenzierte Informations- und Einkaufshäufigkeiten sowie verkehrliche Parameter zu Verkehrsmittelwahl, Entfernungen und Wegekopplungen wurden aus eigenen Erhebungen gewonnen.

  4. Curr ent Status of the Przewalski’s Horse Populations Reintroduced to Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarkhuu Enkhtur

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992 the reintroduction program of the Przewalski’s horses in Mongolia was initiated, and totally 84 individuals of Przewalski’s horses were brought to the Hustai National Park between 1992 and 2000. At the same time another reintroduction program of the Przewalski’s horses was started, and 87 individuals were released in the Ta hiin T al (Bijiin Gol area in the semi-desert ecosystem of Southwestern Mongolia. Recently , in the Khomyn Tal ar ea of We s tern Mongolia transferred 24 individuals of Przewalski’s horses from zoos (the reintroduction program was started in 2004. All captive Przewalski’s horses were released into the wild (in 1994 in Hustai, and 1996 in Tah iin T al, and the populations of horses are gradually increasing in both sites. In this work, the results of analyses on the population dynamics of Przewalski’ s horses, reintroduced in these two sites are discussed.

  5. Designing a Sustainable Future through Creation of North America’s only International Wildlife Refuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Zarull

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future was necessary to rally stakeholders and move them forward together. Project examples include: lake sturgeon and common tern restoration; soft shoreline engineering; ecotourism; sustainable redevelopment of a brownfield; and indicator reporting. Key success factors include: a consensus long-term vision; a multi-stakeholder process that achieves cooperative learning; strong coupling of monitoring/research programs with management; implementing actions consistent with adaptive management; measuring and celebrating successes; quantifying benefits; building capacity; and developing the next generation of sustainability practitioners and entrepreneurs.

  6. INCORPORAÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS NA FABRICAÇÃO DE TIJOLOS SOLO-CIMENTO

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Josiane Rodrigues; do Amaral, Adriana Garcia; Schneider, Roselene Maria

    2014-01-01

    O modo inadequado de extração de recursos naturais e a poluição provocada por resíduos geram impactos sobre o meio ambiente. Visando oferecer alternativas de destinação dos resíduos sólidos urbanos, como os resíduos de tornearia mecânica, objetivou-se analisar as características físicas e mecânicas de tijolos compostos por misturas ternárias de solo-cimento-resíduo e avaliar a viabilidade da sua utilização em construções. Os tijolos solo-cimento-resíduo foram moldados em prensa manual, empreg...

  7. Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Aniruddha, E-mail: anibabun@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rajdaju@rediffmail.com [Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700075 (India); Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata 700006 (India); Bhar, Radhaballav [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Khan, Manoranjan, E-mail: mkhan.ju@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India)

    2017-02-12

    The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through ‘viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation’ in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem. - Highlights: • In weak gravitational field, viscoelastic quantum fluid exhibits symmetry breaking instability. • Gaussian perturbation produces quasi-periodic gravito-acoustic waves into the system. • There exists no chaotic state of the system against long wavelength perturbations.

  8. Models for coolant void reactivity evaluation in Candu Generation II and III+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Alexi V.; Chambon, Richard P.; Le Tellier, Romain; Marleau, Guy; Hebert, Alain

    2008-01-01

    In the simulation of large-break loss-of-coolant accidents, homogenised cross-sections from trans- port calculations are used. These are usually computed in single cells or lattices representative for an infinite repeated pattern. Large coolant accidents in Candu, however, usually exhibit a checkerboard pattern of cooled and voided channels represented by lattices. It is reasonable, therefore, that homogenised cross-sections be produced in assemblies of lattices. This allows simulating the checkerboard voiding pat- tern and more realistically reproducing the lattice boundary conditions. The result is better simulation of the accident and more precise evaluation of coolant-void reactivity. For the present study, homogenised cross-sections are generated in a 2x2 heterogeneous assembly of four lattices for Generation II and III+ Candu designs. Results of reactivity calculations with the reactor code are compared to those using the traditional method. The difference is significant for Generation III+ Candu. (authors)

  9. Rezension zu: Hildegard Maria Nickel, Andreas Heilmann, Hasko Hüning, Max Lill: Geschlechterpolitik in Krisenzeiten. Eine Fallstudie im Bankensektor. Berlin: edition sigma 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Schulze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Am Beispiel der LandesBank Berlin zeigen die Autor/-innen konkrete Auswirkungen der Bankenkrise auf in Unternehmen agierende betriebliche Akteur/-innen. Inwiefern diese eigene Handlungsspielräume entwickeln (können und welche Kontinuitäten betriebliche Vergeschlechtlichungsprozesse aufweisen, belegt die Studie eindrücklich. Der mit dem Wandel von Erwerbsarbeit verknüpfte Eigensinn zeigt sich in den Vorstellungen von Zuständigkeiten der weiblichen Angestellten und in den veränderten Antworten auf Work-Life-Balance-Fragen ─ bei jungen männlichen Angestellten und bei älteren Führungskräften, die jungen Vätern einen Mentalitätswandel unterstellen. So könnten sich neue Kollektivierungen jenseits von Geschlecht bilden, insofern an geteilte Interessen in Krisensituationen angeknüpft werden würde.

  10. Estimating exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish to mercury in California lakes using prey fish monitoring: a predictive tool for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Davison, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Numerous water bodies in California are listed under the Clean Water Act as being impaired due to mercury (Hg) contamination. The Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP), via the Bioaccumulation Oversight Group (BOG), has recently completed statewide surveys of contaminants in sport fish tissue from more than 250 lakes and rivers in California and throughout coastal waters. This effort focused on human health issues but did not include beneficial uses by wildlife. Many piscivorous birds such as grebes, terns, cormorants, and mergansers eat fish smaller than those that were sampled by BOG, and sport fish Hg concentrations are not always indicative of wildlife exposure to Hg; therefore, the BOG surveys could not address whether wildlife were at risk due to Hg-induced reproductive impairment in these lakes.

  11. Militärisch-Industrieller Komplex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Aufgedeckte Fehlentwicklungen und Missstände bei der Beschaffung von Rüstungsgütern für die Bundeswehr schrecken die deutsche Öffentlichkeit immer wieder – wenn auch nur kurzfristig – auf. Dabei werden in den Diskussionen häufig Argumentationsmuster und Begriffe aus der Zeit des Kalten Krieges...... verwendet, die auch damals schon nur bedingt der Realität entsprachen. So ist zum Beispiel der weithin bekannte Begriff des »Militärisch-Industriellen Komplexes« für die Verhältnisse in Deutschland bis zum heutigen Tag unpassend. Dennoch ist weder in der Geschichts-, noch in der Politik- oder in den...

  12. Innovating a business model for services with storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Morten

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the notion of business models has been able to innovate the way companies create new business opportunities. However, because business models most often constitute on a complex interplay of several actors, there is a need to be able to explore the nature of a business model....... This paper will propose to describe a business model by means of storytelling. In addition the paper will introduce the concept of archetypes of business models with the aim to seek a pat- tern in the light of the numerous business models available. Two cases will illustrate and dis- cuss storytelling...... and archetypes, and lead to the conclusion that they represent a valuable ap- proach to understanding and innovating business models....

  13. Remotely Sensed Information and Field Data are both Essential to Assess Biodiversity CONDITION!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, B.; Schaefer, M.; Scarth, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Lowe, A. J.; O'Neill, S.; Thurgate, N.; Wundke, D.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past year the TERN Ausplots facility has hosted a process to determine the definition of Biodiversity Condition in an Australian Continental Context, and conducted a wide collaborative process to determine which environmental attributes are required to be measures to accurately inform on biodiversity condition. A major output from this work was the acknowledgement that good quality data from both remotely sensed sources and good quality field collected data are both essential to provide the best information possible on biodiversity condition. This poster details some background to the project, the assesment of which attributes to measure, and if the are sources primarily from field based or remotely sensed measures. It then proceeds to provide three examples of ways in which the combination of data types provides a superior product as output, with one example being provided for the three cornerstone areas of condition: Structure, Function and Composition.

  14. Mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone levels in juvenile birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T; Herzog, Mark P

    2012-06-05

    Mercury exposure has been associated with a wide variety of negative reproductive responses in birds, however few studies have examined the potential for chick impairment via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis regulates corticosterone levels during periods of stress. We examined the relationship between baseline fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations and mercury concentrations in down feathers of recently hatched (feathers (decreasing by 45% across the range of observed mercury concentrations) while accounting for stronger positive correlations between corticosterone concentrations and colony nest abundance and date. These results indicate that chronic mercury exposure may suppress baseline corticosterone concentrations in tern chicks and suggests that a juvenile bird's ability to respond to stress may be reduced via the downregulation of the HPA axis.

  15. Is “Islamic Fundamentalism” Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşet TOKU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentalism is the religious Protestant movement that developed upon the spreading of the “millennium” belief, which belongs to the Christian theo-logy, in the USA towards the end of 19th century. Nowadays the word “funda-mentalism” is used, sometimes explicitly and sometimes implicitly, to refer to Islam as an equivalent of intolerance, pro-violence and fanaticism. This propa-ganda is so great that recognition of Islam by a Muslim raises the risk for him to be qualified as fundamentalist. In this essay, we will interrogate whether it is possible or not to establish a relation between fundamentalism, which is a wes-tern phenomenon, and Islam by examining historical and cultural background of the both.

  16. Seabird colonies in the Melville Bay, Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, David; Huffeldt, Nicholas Per

    This report describes the results of a survey for breeding and colonial seabirds in a hitherto un-surveyed area of Northwest Greenland - the Melville Bay. The results shall be included as background data for oil spill sensitivity mapping, preparation of environmental impact assessments of petroleum...... activities in Baffin Bay and for the regulation (by the Greenland government) of petroleum activities. The survey showed, that compared to other coasts of West Greenland, the Melville Bay holds only few breeding colonies and low numbers of breeding seabirds. The most widespread and numerous species...... is the black guillemot followed by the glaucous gull. However, one colony is of national significance – Sabine Øer, with high numbers of breeding Arctic terns and Sabine’s gulls. Other noteworthy observations were puffins on Thom Ø and many new Iceland gull colonies that extended the known northern breeding...

  17. Equilibrio liquido-liquido-vapor de misturas ternarias : algoritimo de calculo e aspectos termodinamicos

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena Cano de Andrade

    1991-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho é uma contribuição ao estudo de processos de separação envolvendo fases em equilibrio liquido-liquido-vapor. Os seguintes aspectos são abordados: (1) desenvolvimento de um algoritmo eficiente de cálculo de flash liquido-liquido-vapor e sua aplicação para gerar diagramas de fases e em cálculos de destilação; (2) avaliação da utilização de parâmetros binários do modelo UNIQUAC obtidos de dados bifásicos em cálculos trifásicos de misturas ternárias; (3) medidas experimentai...

  18. ESTUDO DO COMPORTAMENTO DE BLENDAS DE POLIAMIDA 6/RESÍDUO DE BORRACHA DA INDÚSTRIA DE CALÇADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bruno Barreto Luna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O reaproveitamento de borrachas tem sido bastante explorado, por meio de misturas com polímeros virgens, para gerar compostos utilizados em diversas aplicações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir blendas poliméricas a partir de uma matriz de poliamida 6 com resíduos de borracha reciclada (SBR-R. Foram realizados estudos sobre reologia, temperatura de deflexão térmica (HDT, análise térmica dinâmico-mecânica (DMTA e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR. As blendas de poliamida 6/resíduo de borracha reciclada foram preparadas em uma extrusora de rosca dupla corrotacional e os grânulos extrusados foram moldados por injeção. Os resultados obtidos com o estudo reológico mostraram que quanto maior a percentagem de SBR-R adicionado, maiores os valores de torque. As temperaturas de deflexão térmica das blendas reduziram pouco, quando comparadas à da poliamida 6. No ensaio de DMTA, as blendas binárias e ternárias tiveram deslocamento dos picos para, aproximadamente, -10°C e o deslocamento da relaxação α da PA6, para valores maiores. Os resultados do FTIR evidenciaram que as bandas características da PA6 não foram modificadas pela presença do SBR-R e nem pelo aumento da percentagem nas blendas binárias e pela presença de PE-g-MA nas blendas ternárias, mostrando que os seus grupamentos químicos não foram afetados.

  19. Extending a prototype knowledge and object based image analysis model to coarser spatial resolution imagery: an example from the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Laurence L.

    2012-01-01

    A prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model was developed to inventory and map least tern and piping plover habitat on the Missouri River, USA. The model has been used to inventory the state of sandbars annually for 4 segments of the Missouri River since 2006 using QuickBird imagery. Interpretation of the state of sandbars is difficult when images for the segment are acquired at different river stages and different states of vegetation phenology and canopy cover. Concurrent QuickBird and RapidEye images were classified using the model and the spatial correspondence of classes in the land cover and sandbar maps were analysed for the spatial extent of the images and at nest locations for both bird species. Omission and commission errors were low for unvegetated land cover classes used for nesting by both bird species and for land cover types with continuous vegetation cover and water. Errors were larger for land cover classes characterized by a mixture of sand and vegetation. Sandbar classification decisions are made using information on land cover class proportions and disagreement between sandbar classes was resolved using fuzzy membership possibilities. Regression analysis of area for a paired sample of 47 sandbars indicated an average positive bias, 1.15 ha, for RapidEye that did not vary with sandbar size. RapidEye has potential to reduce temporal uncertainty about least tern and piping plover habitat but would not be suitable for mapping sandbar erosion, and characterization of sandbar shapes or vegetation patches at fine spatial resolution.

  20. Extending a prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model to coarser spatial resolution imagery: an example from the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Laurence L.

    2012-01-01

    A prototype knowledge- and object-based image analysis model was developed to inventory and map least tern and piping plover habitat on the Missouri River, USA. The model has been used to inventory the state of sandbars annually for 4 segments of the Missouri River since 2006 using QuickBird imagery. Interpretation of the state of sandbars is difficult when images for the segment are acquired at different river stages and different states of vegetation phenology and canopy cover. Concurrent QuickBird and RapidEye images were classified using the model and the spatial correspondence of classes in the land cover and sandbar maps were analysed for the spatial extent of the images and at nest locations for both bird species. Omission and commission errors were low for unvegetated land cover classes used for nesting by both bird species and for land cover types with continuous vegetation cover and water. Errors were larger for land cover classes characterized by a mixture of sand and vegetation. Sandbar classification decisions are made using information on land cover class proportions and disagreement between sandbar classes was resolved using fuzzy membership possibilities. Regression analysis of area for a paired sample of 47 sandbars indicated an average positive bias, 1.15 ha, for RapidEye that did not vary with sandbar size. RapidEye has potential to reduce temporal uncertainty about least tern and piping plover habitat but would not be suitable for mapping sandbar erosion, and characterization of sandbar shapes or vegetation patches at fine spatial resolution.

  1. Classification of Birds and Bats Using Flight Tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; Matzner, Shari; Duberstein, Corey A.

    2015-05-01

    Classification of birds and bats that use areas targeted for offshore wind farm development and the inference of their behavior is essential to evaluating the potential effects of development. The current approach to assessing the number and distribution of birds at sea involves transect surveys using trained individuals in boats or airplanes or using high-resolution imagery. These approaches are costly and have safety concerns. Based on a limited annotated library extracted from a single-camera thermal video, we provide a framework for building models that classify birds and bats and their associated behaviors. As an example, we developed a discriminant model for theoretical flight paths and applied it to data (N = 64 tracks) extracted from 5-min video clips. The agreement between model- and observer-classified path types was initially only 41%, but it increased to 73% when small-scale jitter was censored and path types were combined. Classification of 46 tracks of bats, swallows, gulls, and terns on average was 82% accurate, based on a jackknife cross-validation. Model classification of bats and terns (N = 4 and 2, respectively) was 94% and 91% correct, respectively; however, the variance associated with the tracks from these targets is poorly estimated. Model classification of gulls and swallows (N ≥ 18) was on average 73% and 85% correct, respectively. The models developed here should be considered preliminary because they are based on a small data set both in terms of the numbers of species and the identified flight tracks. Future classification models would be greatly improved by including a measure of distance between the camera and the target.

  2. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g{sup -1} wet weight). The highest {sigma}DDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g{sup -1}). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g{sup -1}), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines ({sigma}OHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile.

  3. Science to Manage a Very Rare Fish in a Very Large River - Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Colvin, M. E.; Marmorek, D.; Randall, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) seeks to revise river-management strategies to avoid jeopardizing the existence of three species: pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), interior least tern (Sterna antillarum)), and piping plover (Charadrius melodus). Managing the river to maintain populations of the two birds (terns and plovers) is relatively straightforward: reproductive success can be modeled with some certainty as a direct, increasing function of exposed sandbar area. In contrast, the pallid sturgeon inhabits the benthic zone of a deep, turbid river and many parts of its complex life history are not directly observable. Hence, pervasive uncertainties exist about what factors are limiting population growth and what management actions may reverse population declines. These uncertainties are being addressed by the MRRP through a multi-step process. The first step was an Effects Analysis (EA), which: documented what is known and unknown about the river and the species; documented quality and quantity of existing information; used an expert-driven process to develop conceptual ecological models and to prioritize management hypotheses; and developed quantitative models linking management actions (flows, channel reconfigurations, and stocking) to population responses. The EA led to development of a science and adaptive-management plan with prioritized allocation of investment among 4 levels of effort ranging from fundamental research to full implementation. The plan includes learning from robust, hypothesis-driven effectiveness monitoring for all actions, with statistically sound experimental designs, multiple metrics, and explicit decision criteria to guide management. Finally, the science plan has been fully integrated with a new adaptive-management structure that links science to decision makers. The reinvigorated investment in science stems from the understanding that costly river-management decisions are not socially or politically supportable without

  4. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Y Takekawa

    Full Text Available Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus, and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri. Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction

  5. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Brand, Arriana; Graham, Tanya R.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Topping, Brent R.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Kuwabara, James S.; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sara L.; Athearn, Nicole D.

    2015-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO) event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus), and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction of water quality

  6. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y; Ackerman, Joshua T; Brand, L Arriana; Graham, Tanya R; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Topping, Brent R; Shellenbarger, Gregory G; Kuwabara, James S; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sara L; Athearn, Nicole D

    2015-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO) event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus), and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction of water quality

  7. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g -1 wet weight). The highest ΣDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g -1 ). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g -1 ), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (ΣOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile

  8. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal-care products, and other organic wastewater contaminants in water resources: Recent research activities of the U.S. Geological Survey's toxic substances hydrology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent decades have brought increasing concerns for potential contamination of water resources that could inadvertently result during production, use, and disposal of the numerous chemicals offering improvements in industry, agriculture, medical treatment, and even common household products. Increasing knowledge of the environmental occurrence or toxicological behavior of these contaminants from various studies in Europe, United States, and elsewhere has resulted in increased concern for potential adverse environmental and human health effects (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). Ecologists and public health experts often have incomplete understandings of the toxicological significance of many of these contaminants, particularly long-term, low-level exposure and when they occur in mixtures with other contaminants (Daughton and Ternes, 1999; Kümmerer, 2001). In addition, these ‘emerging contaminants’ are not typically monitored or assessed in ambient water resources. The need to understand the processes controlling the transport and fate of these contaminants in the environment, and the lack of knowledge of the significance of long-term exposures have increased the need to study environmental occurrence down to trace (nanogram per liter) levels. Furthermore, the possibility that mixtures of environmental contaminants may interact synergistically or antagonistically has increased the need to characterize the types of mixtures that are found in our waters. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Toxic Substances Hydrology Program (Toxics Program) is developing information and tools on emerging water-quality issues that will be used to design and improve water-quality monitoring and assessment programs of the USGS and others, and for proactive decision-making by industry, regulators, the research community, and the public (http://toxics.usgs.gov/regional/emc.html). This research on emerging water-quality issues includes a combination of laboratory work to develop new analytical

  9. Keeping it regular: Development of thermoregulation in four tropical seabird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lorinda A; Downs, Colleen T; Brown, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The thermoregulatory capacity of a species can determine which climatic niche it occupies. Its development in avian chicks is influenced by numerous factors. Furthermore, it is suggested that altricial chicks develop their thermoregulatory capacity post-hatching, while precocial chicks develop aspects of this in the egg. We investigated the development of thermoregulation of four co-occurring seabird species in the Seychelles; namely white, ground-nesting white-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon lepturus) and tree-nesting fairy terns (Gygis alba); and dark plumaged, tree-nesting lesser noddies (Anous tenuirostris) and ground- and tree-nesting brown noddies (A. stolidus). White-tailed tropicbirds have semi-altricial chicks, while the remaining species have semi-precocial chicks. Cloacal temperatures (T b ) were measured at five day intervals from newly hatched chicks and compared over time, and with adult T b s. Initial T b s of all chicks, except fairy terns, were lower than those taken when chicks were older. Brooding cessation generally coincided with feather development, as did an increase in T b. Mean chick T b was significantly lower than mean adult T b for all species, but only white-tailed tropicbird and brown noddy chicks in tree nests differed significantly from mean adult T b when chick T b at five day intervals were considered. There was a significant interactive effect of nest site and age on brown noddy chick T b, but chick colour did not have a significant effect on T b . However, brown noddy chicks on dune crests maintained a constant T b sooner than chicks in tree nests. Our results demonstrate that tropical seabird species have a more delayed onset of thermoregulatory capabilities when compared with those in temperate environments, perhaps as nest sites are less thermally challenging. Nest microhabitats and behavioural thermoregulation, are likely more important during early chick development for these species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Mercury concentrations in seabird tissues from Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alexander L., E-mail: abond@mun.ca [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Diamond, Antony W. [Atlantic Cooperative Wildlife Ecology Research Network, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada); Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Mercury is a pervasive environmental contaminant, the anthropogenic portion of which is increasing globally, and in northeastern North America in particular. Seabirds frequently are used as indicators of the marine environment, including mercury contamination. We analysed paired samples for total mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers and blood from adult and chick, albumen, and lipid-free yolk of seven seabirds breeding on Machias Seal Island, New Brunswick, Canada - Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea), Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), Leach's Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa), and Razorbill (Alca torda). We also used stable-isotope ratios of carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C), and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) to evaluate the relationship between carbon source and trophic position and mercury. We found high Hg concentrations across tissue types in Leach's Storm-petrels, and Razorbills, with lower concentrations in other species, the lowest being in Common Eiders. Storm-petrels prey on mesopelagic fish that accumulate mercury, and Razorbills feed on larger, older fish that bioaccumulate heavy metals. Biomagnification of Hg, or the increase in Hg concentration with trophic position as measured by {delta}{sup 15}N, was significant and greater in albumen than other tissues, whereas in other tissues, {delta}{sup 15}N explained little of the overall variation in Hg concentration. Hg concentrations in egg components are higher on Machias Seal Island than other sites globally and in the Gulf of Maine region, but only for some species. Further detailed investigations are required to determine the cause of this trend.

  11. Human exploitation assisting a threatened species? The case of muttonbirders and Buller's albatross.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Waugh

    Full Text Available Albatrosses are flexible and adaptable predators, relying on live prey as well as carrion. Use of predictable food sources and reliance on human-produced resources are well-known trait in long-range feeders like albatrosses and petrels. Breeding Buller's albatrosses studied at Solander I. (Hautere, New Zealand fed their chicks the remains of sooty shearwater juveniles (tītī in Māori, which are harvested from nearby muttonbirding sites. Evidence of this food type was found at over 10% of nests examined, and 17-40% birds that were fitted with GPS loggers visited muttonbirding sites in this and previous studies. Muttonbirding is a traditional practice that has continued for centuries, with up to 120 tonnes of offal discharged to the sea annually during the present day harvest. It coincides with the energetically-demanding early chick period for the albatrosses. Our finding suggests that the offal may be an important, but overlooked element in the albatross diet. As an important supplementary food for the albatrosses it is likely to have contributed to the 3% per annum growth of their populations since the first comprehensive population surveys in 1969.

  12. REGISTRO DA COCHONILHA-ROSADA-DO-HIBISCO INFESTANDO FRUTÍFERAS EM MACEIÓ, ALAGOAS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÔNIA MARIA FORTI BROGLIO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported for the first time the occurrence of the pink hibiscus mealybug Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil attacking the following fruit species: soursop (Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae, guava (Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, mango (Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae, carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae, acerola (Malpighia glaba L. (Malpighiaceae, cajazeiro (Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae and cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma gran-diflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. (Malvaceae. The percentages of injured plants were recorded for each plant species in the field. Damaged plants showed short internodes, wrinkled leaves, fruit deformation, and sooty mold developed on the honeydew excreted by the mealybugs. Infested plant structures were taken to the Laboratory of Entomology of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Alagoas, where the mealybug species was identified through morphological characteristics. The following injury percentages were recorded on the plants: soursop (100%, guava (10%, mango (10%, carambola (100%, acerola (100%, cajá (50% and cupuaçu (100%. The mealybug collected in Maceió, AL; Brazil was identified as Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. It was the first record of this species in the state of Alagoas and infestation by pink hibiscus mealybug on the host plants mango, acerola and cajazeiro in Brazil.

  13. The Structure of the Blue Whirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Sriram Bharath; Hu, Yu; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael; Oran, Elaine

    2017-11-01

    Recent experiments have led to the discovery of the blue whirl, a small, stable regime of the fire whirl that burns typically sooty liquid hydrocarbons without producing soot. The physical structure consists of three regions - the blue cone, the vortex rim and the purple haze. The physical nature of the flame was further investigated through digital imaging techniques, which suggest that the transition (from the fire whirl to the blue whirl) and shape of the flame may be influenced by vortex breakdown. The flame was found to develop over a variety of surfaces, which indicates that the formation of the blue whirl is strongly influenced by the flow structure over the incoming boundary layer. The thermal structure was investigated using micro-thermocouples, thin-filament pyrometry and OH* spectroscopy. These revealed a peak temperature around 2000 K, and that most of the combustion occurs in the relatively small, visibly bright vortex rim. The results of these investigations provide a platform to develop a theory on the structure of the blue whirl, a deeper understanding of which may affirm potential for applications in the energy industry. This work was supported by an NSF EAGER award and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  14. The Use of Various Vegetation Level by Bird Community on Mbarek Spring, Gedangan, Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparno Suparno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of correlation between vegetation and birds could show how great the impact of Figs (Ficus spp. towards wildlife. Mbarek spring has a unique microhabitat by Figs. These trees expected to provide a high potential role and benefit related to supporting bird life. This study aims to analyze the use of vegetation by birds in the sphere of Mbarek’s spring microhabitat. Study was held in Mulyosari sub-village, Sumberejo village, Gedangan subdistrict, Malang regency. The study was conducted from 26-29 October 2017. Bird observation point was chosen on Ficus racemosa, known locally as ‘Lo’, which suspected to have a major influence on the presence of birds. Each of observation results were identified, counted, and recorded. Documentation were done incidentally. The results are visualized by descriptive representations of the use of vegetation composition on 4 vegetation classifications : seedling (high = 0-1.5 m, sapling (high≥1.5 m, pole (diameter = 10-20 cm, tree (diameter> 20 cm. Sooty-headed Bulbul (Pycnonotus aurigaster is the dominant bird during observation. Most of birds observed at the canopy  with the activity of sunbathing. Figs became a favorite location for birds to rest and parenting during the day. Sedges (Cyperus sp. is the greatest importance on study site. Keywords: Birds, Figs, Mbarek, Sedges

  15. Dense Fe cluster-assembled films by energetic cluster deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, D.L.; Yamada, H.; Hihara, T.; Uchida, T.; Sumiyama, K.

    2004-01-01

    High-density Fe cluster-assembled films were produced at room temperature by an energetic cluster deposition. Though cluster-assemblies are usually sooty and porous, the present Fe cluster-assembled films are lustrous and dense, revealing a soft magnetic behavior. Size-monodispersed Fe clusters with the mean cluster size d=9 nm were synthesized using a plasma-gas-condensation technique. Ionized clusters are accelerated electrically and deposited onto the substrate together with neutral clusters from the same cluster source. Packing fraction and saturation magnetic flux density increase rapidly and magnetic coercivity decreases remarkably with increasing acceleration voltage. The Fe cluster-assembled film obtained at the acceleration voltage of -20 kV has a packing fraction of 0.86±0.03, saturation magnetic flux density of 1.78±0.05 Wb/m 2 , and coercivity value smaller than 80 A/m. The resistivity at room temperature is ten times larger than that of bulk Fe metal

  16. Immunovirological analyses of chronically simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmnd-1- and SIVmnd-2-infected mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Cristian; Sumpter, Beth; Souquiere, Sandrine; Chahroudi, Ann; Makuwa, Maria; Reed, Patricia; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Pandrea, Ivona; Roques, Pierre; Silvestri, Guido

    2011-12-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in African nonhuman primate (NHP) natural hosts is usually nonpathogenic, despite high levels of virus replication. We have previously shown that chronic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys (SMs) and African green monkeys (AGMs) is associated with low levels of immune activation and bystander T cell apoptosis. To compare these features with those observed in another natural host, the mandrill (MND), we conducted a cross-sectional survey of the 23 SIV-infected and 25 uninfected MNDs from the only semifree colony of mandrills available worldwide. Viral loads (VLs) were determined and phenotypic and functional analysis of peripheral blood- and lymph node-derived lymphocytes was performed. We found that mandrills chronically infected with SIVmnd-1 or SIVmnd-2 have similar levels of viral replication, and we observed a trend toward lower CD4+ T cell counts in chronically SIVmnd-2-infected MNDs than SIVmnd-1-infected MNDs. No correlation between CD4+ T cell counts and VLs in SIV-infected MNDs could be established. Of note, the levels of T cell activation, proliferation, and apoptosis were comparable between SIVmnd-1- and SIVmnd-2-infected MNDs and to those observed in uninfected animals, with the only exception being an increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing CD8+ T cells in SIVmnd-2-infected MNDs. Overall, these findings recapitulate previous observations in SIV-infected SMs and AGMs and lend further evidence to the hypothesis that low levels of immune activation protect natural SIV hosts from disease progression.

  17. An experimental study on the effects of swirling oxidizer flow and diameter of fuel nozzle on behaviour and light emittance of propane-oxygen non-premixed flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javareshkian Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stability and the light emittance of non-premixed propane-oxygen flames have been experimentally evaluated with respect to swirling oxidizer flow and variations in fuel nozzle diameter. Hence, three types of the vanes with the swirl angles of 30°, 45°, and 60° have been chosen for producing the desired swirling flows. The main aims of this study are to determine the flame behaviour, light emittance, and also considering the effect of variation in fuel nozzle diameter on combustion phenomena such as flame length, flame shape, and soot free length parameter. The investigation into the flame phenomenology was comprised of variations of the oxidizer and fuel flow velocities (respective Reynolds numbers and the fuel nozzle diameter. The results showed that the swirl effect could change the flame luminosity and this way could reduce or increase the maximum value of the flame light emittance in the combustion zone. Therefore, investigation into the flame light emittance can give a good clue for studying the mixing quality of reactants, the flame phenomenology (blue flame or sooty flame, localized extinction, and the combustion intensity in non-premixed flames.

  18. Fungi associated with black mould on baobab trees in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruywagen, Elsie M; Crous, Pedro W; Roux, Jolanda; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    There have been numerous reports in the scientific and popular literature suggesting that African baobab (Adansonia digitata) trees are dying, with symptoms including a black mould on their bark. The aim of this study was to determine the identity of the fungi causing this black mould and to consider whether they might be affecting the health of trees. The fungi were identified by sequencing directly from mycelium on the infected tissue as well as from cultures on agar. Sequence data for the ITS region of the rDNA resulted in the identification of four fungi including Aureobasidium pullulans, Toxicocladosporium irritans and a new species of Rachicladosporium described here as Rachicladosporium africanum. A single isolate of an unknown Cladosporium sp. was also found. These fungi, referred to here as black mould, are not true sooty mould fungi and they were shown to penetrate below the bark of infected tissue, causing a distinct host reaction. Although infections can lead to dieback of small twigs on severely infected branches, the mould was not found to kill trees.

  19. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae), a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanan; Dietrich, Christopher H.; Dai, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae) is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments) and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera. PMID:27253390

  20. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  1. General Biology and Current Management Approaches of Soft Scale Pests (Hemiptera: Coccidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Ernesto Robayo; Chong, Juang-Horng

    We summarize the economic importance, biology, and management of soft scales, focusing on pests of agricultural, horticultural, and silvicultural crops in outdoor production systems and urban landscapes. We also provide summaries on voltinism, crawler emergence timing, and predictive models for crawler emergence to assist in developing soft scale management programs. Phloem-feeding soft scale pests cause direct (e.g., injuries to plant tissues and removal of nutrients) and indirect damage (e.g., reduction in photosynthesis and aesthetic value by honeydew and sooty mold). Variations in life cycle, reproduction, fecundity, and behavior exist among congenerics due to host, environmental, climatic, and geographical variations. Sampling of soft scale pests involves sighting the insects or their damage, and assessing their abundance. Crawlers of most univoltine species emerge in the spring and the summer. Degree-day models and plant phenological indicators help determine the initiation of sampling and treatment against crawlers (the life stage most vulnerable to contact insecticides). The efficacy of cultural management tactics, such as fertilization, pruning, and irrigation, in reducing soft scale abundance is poorly documented. A large number of parasitoids and predators attack soft scale populations in the field; therefore, natural enemy conservation by using selective insecticides is important. Systemic insecticides provide greater flexibility in application method and timing, and have longer residual longevity than contact insecticides. Application timing of contact insecticides that coincides with crawler emergence is most effective in reducing soft scale abundance.

  2. Molecular and morphological analysis reveals five new species of Zygophiala associated with flyspeck signs on plant hosts from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Gao

    Full Text Available Species in the genus Zygophiala are associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck disease on a wide range of hosts. In this study, 63 Zygophiala isolates collected from flyspeck colonies on a range of plants from several regions of China were used for phylogeny, host range and geographic distribution analysis. Phylogenetic trees were constructed on four genes--internal transcribed spacer (ITS, partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF, β-tubulin (TUB2, and actin (ACT--both individually and in combination. Isolates were grouped into 11 clades among which five new species, Z. emperorae, Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora, were described. Species of Zygophiala differed in observed host range and geographic distribution. Z. wisconsinensis and Z. emperorae were the most prevalent throughout the sampled regions of China, whereas Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora were collected only in southern China. The hosts of Z. wisconsinensis and Z. emperorae were mainly in the family Rosaceae whereas Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora were found mainly on banana (Musa spp.. Cross inoculation tests provided evidence of host specificity among SBFS species.

  3. Comparative Programs for Arthropod, Disease and Weed Management in New York Organic Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Agnello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success.

  4. Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) of LaPO4 monazite and beta-alumina on alumina fibers for ceramic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, T.J.; Hendrick, M.R.; Shao, H.; Hornis, H.G.; Hunt, A.T.

    1998-01-01

    This research used the low cost, open atmosphere combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD SM ) method to efficiently deposit protective coatings onto alumina fibers (3M Nextel TM 610) for use in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). La-monazite (LaPO 4 ) and beta-alumina were the primary candidate debonding coating materials investigated. The coated fibers provide thermochemical stability, as well as desired debonding/sliding interface characteristics to the CMC. Dense and uniform La-phosphate coatings were obtained at deposition temperatures as low as 900-1000 C with minimal degradation of fibers. However, all of the β-alumina phases required high deposition temperatures and, thus, could not be applied onto the Nextel TM 610 alumina fibers. The fibers appeared to have complete and relatively uniform coatings around individual filaments when 420 and 1260 filament tows were coated via the CCVD process. Fibers up to 3 feet long were fed through the deposition flame in the laboratory of MicroCoating Technologies (MCT). TEM analyses performed at Wright-Patterson AFB on the CCVD coated fibers showed a 10-30 nm thick La-rich layer at the fiber/coating interface, and a layer of columnar monazite 0.1-1 μm thick covered with sooty carbon of <50 nm thick on the outside. A single strength test on CCVD coated fibers performed by 3M showed that the strength value fell in the higher end of data from other CVD coated samples. (orig.)

  5. Critical role of CD4 T cells in maintaining lymphoid tissue structure for immune cell homeostasis and reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Paiardini, Mirko; Engram, Jessica C; Beilman, Greg J; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Schacker, Timothy W; Silvestri, Guido; Haase, Ashley T

    2012-08-30

    Loss of the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network in lymphoid tissues during HIV-1 infection has been shown to impair the survival of naive T cells and limit immune reconstitution after antiretroviral therapy. What causes this FRC loss is unknown. Because FRC loss correlates with loss of both naive CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets and decreased lymphotoxin-β, a key factor for maintenance of FRC network, we hypothesized that loss of naive T cells is responsible for loss of the FRC network. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the consequences of antibody-mediated depletion of CD4 and CD8 T cells in rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys. We found that only CD4 T-cell depletion resulted in FRC loss in both species and that this loss was caused by decreased lymphotoxin-β mainly produced by the CD4 T cells. We further found the same dependence of the FRC network on CD4 T cells in HIV-1-infected patients before and after antiretroviral therapy and in other immunodeficiency conditions, such as CD4 depletion in cancer patients induced by chemotherapy and irradiation. CD4 T cells thus play a central role in the maintenance of lymphoid tissue structure necessary for their own homeostasis and reconstitution.

  6. Carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 enrichment in coastal forest foliage from nutrient-poor and seabird-enriched sites in southern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, D.J.; Newman, J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of nutrient inputs from breeding seabirds on forest foliage δ 13 C and δ 15 N, we collected foliage samples from two contrasting locations. Olearia lyallii forest on North East Island at The Snares hosts large numbers of (in particular) breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus). At Mason Bay (Rakiura/Stewart Island), samples of Brachyglottis rotundifolia, Griselinia littoralis, and Dracophyllum longifolium were collected from two strata within diverse dune forest and one stratum from the open dunes. The δ 13 C results were typical of C 3 plants and did not differ significantly between Mason Bay and North East Island. In contrast, the δ 15 N results from Mason Bay (mean ± standard deviation, -6.1 ± 1.7 permille) were significantly lower than expected for temperate forest (95% confidence interval of difference, 2.7-3.9 permille), and dramatically lower (19.1-21.5 permille) than North East Island where enrichments (+14.2 ± 3.1 permille) were among the highest ever reported for vegetation. (author). 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  8. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper and boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D

    1966-06-04

    Spectrochemical analyses of garden soils sampled in the Edinburgh and Dundee areas indicate that there is substantial contamination of urban soils with copper and boron. These soils were analyzed spectrochemically with respect to total copper and water-extractable boron content with the view of comparing the levels obtained in urban areas with levels in arable soils in rural areas. The results indicate that urban garden soils contain about four times as much copper and two to three times as much water-soluble boron as rural arable soils. The existence of such a marked disparity between the levels of two potentially toxic elements in urban and rural areas is evidence of slow poisoning of the soil environment in built-up areas and is cause for concern. While the major source of contamination of soils with copper and boron is still a matter for speculation, it is probable that the addition of soot to garden soils and the fall-out of sooty material in built-up areas where atmospheric pollution is a problem make a substantial contribution to the water-extractable boron content of urban soils. Three samples of soot from domestic chimneys, obtained from independent sources, were found on analysis to contain 640, 650 and 555 p.p.m. water-extractable boron, and it is evident that the addition to soil of even small amounts of soot with a boron content of this order would have a marked effect on its water-extractable boron content.

  9. Conformational adaptation of Asian macaque TRIMCyp directs lineage specific antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M J Ylinen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available TRIMCyps are anti-retroviral proteins that have arisen independently in New World and Old World primates. All TRIMCyps comprise a CypA domain fused to the tripartite domains of TRIM5alpha but they have distinct lentiviral specificities, conferring HIV-1 restriction in New World owl monkeys and HIV-2 restriction in Old World rhesus macaques. Here we provide evidence that Asian macaque TRIMCyps have acquired changes that switch restriction specificity between different lentiviral lineages, resulting in species-specific alleles that target different viruses. Structural, thermodynamic and viral restriction analysis suggests that a single mutation in the Cyp domain, R69H, occurred early in macaque TRIMCyp evolution, expanding restriction specificity to the lentiviral lineages found in African green monkeys, sooty mangabeys and chimpanzees. Subsequent mutations have enhanced restriction to particular viruses but at the cost of broad specificity. We reveal how specificity is altered by a scaffold mutation, E143K, that modifies surface electrostatics and propagates conformational changes into the active site. Our results suggest that lentiviruses may have been important pathogens in Asian macaques despite the fact that there are no reported lentiviral infections in current macaque populations.

  10. Distribution of marine birds on the mid- and North-Atlantic US outer continental shelf. Technical progress report, January 1978-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, K.D.; Pittman, G.L.; Fitch, S.J.

    1980-09-01

    The species composition, distribution, and abundance of marine birds on continental shelf waters from Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy were examined using ships-of-opportunity. Northern Fulmar, Cory's Shearwater, Greater Shearwater, Sooty Shearwater, Wilson's Storm-Petrel, Gannet, Red Phalarope, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, and Black-legged Kittiwake were the most abundant and common species. These species were ecologically dominant within the bird community in numbers and biomass. Georges Bank and Gulf of Marine regions generally had greatest estimates of standing stock and biomass; whereas, in the Middle Atlantic region these estimates were consistently lowest. Species diversity throughout the study area was greatest in spring and least in fall. Oceanic fronts at the continental shelf break and at Nantucket Shoals influenced the distribution of Wilson's Storm-Petrels and Red Phalaropes. Fishing activities were particularly important to Larus gull distribution. Fishes, squids, and crustaceans were the most important groups of prey items in diets of nine bird species. An oiled bird or pollution index was developed. According to the index, frequency of oiled birds was greatest in winter and spring, and gulls made up the majority of species with oiled plumages.

  11. A possible early muttonbirder's fire on Poutama, a Rakiura titi island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, D.; Newman, J.; Moller, H.; Wixon, J.

    2003-01-01

    Muttonbirding for sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) on islands around Rakiura is an ongoing traditional activity of local Maori. There is little archaeological evidence to pinpoint the onset of large-scale birding, so some researchers have suggested that widespread systematic muttonbirding only began in protohistoric times. We present AMS radiocarbon data from an archaeological fire found 65 cm subsurface on Poutama, an island off Rakiura. Duplicate analyses of charcoal and a single analysis of underlying peat were used to date the fire, constrained by C accumulation calculations and chemical and isotopic analysis. By comparing C:N ratios and C accumulation calculations with literature values, the peat result (176 ± 55 BP) was shown to be invalid because of contamination via bioturbation. The combined charcoal radiocarbon data were consistent with being estimates of a single value (326 ± 42 BP). After calibration, the fire was dated at AD 1470-1660 (95% confidence interval). Carbon-13 analysis was consistent with charcoal from different individual plants. The C accumulation rate (61-96 g C m -2 yr -1 ) was at the upper end of literature values, consistent with a high nutrient and well-oxygenated soil environment. Our results highlight the need for more systematic data collection and experimentation to better assess the time of onset of systematic muttonbirding. (author). 46 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae, a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Hao

    Full Text Available Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera.

  13. Model-based prediction of potential distribution of the invasive insect pest, spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae, by using CLIMEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Min Jung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lycorma delicatula is one of the major invasive pests of Korea. Careful monitoring is required to protect domestic agriculture as this pest causes severe damage to agricultural crops, such as wilting and sooty mold. This study was designed to confirm the potential distribution of L. delicatula using the modeling software CLIMEX and to suggest fundamental data for preventing agricultural damage by L. delicatula. Our results show that Korean weather seems to be adequate for L. delicatula habitation, indicating that approximately 60% of areas examined have a very high possibility of potential distribution. Particularly, we showed that Gyeongsang-do and Jeonla-do, which have not yet been invaded by L. delicatula, were very suitable locations for its growth. Therefore, although it is necessary to set up feasible strategies for preventing further L. delicatula invasions, subsequent studies are needed for assessing other invasive species considering the impact of future climate change. Keywords: CLIMEX software, invasive pest, Lycorma delicatula, potential distribution

  14. Plastic ingestion in marine-associated bird species from the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, S; Provencher, J F; Morgan, K H; Bertram, D F

    2013-07-15

    In addition to monitoring trends in plastic pollution, multi-species surveys are needed to fully understand the pervasiveness of plastic ingestion. We examined the stomach contents of 20 bird species collected from the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific, a region known to have high levels of plastic pollution. We observed no evidence of plastic ingestion in Rhinoceros Auklet, Marbled Murrelet, Ancient Murrelet or Pigeon Guillemot, and low levels in Common Murre (2.7% incidence rate). Small sample sizes limit our ability to draw conclusions about population level trends for the remaining fifteen species, though evidence of plastic ingestion was found in Glaucous-Winged Gull and Sooty Shearwater. Documenting levels of plastic ingestion in a wide array of species is necessary to gain a comprehensive understanding about the impacts of plastic pollution. We propose that those working with bird carcasses follow standard protocols to assess the levels of plastic ingestion whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Laser diagnostics of combustion phenomena related to engines/gas turbines. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alden, Marcus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Combustion

    2000-05-01

    The following project has been a one year project bridging the time between the NUTEK program in 'Motorrelaterad foerbraenning' and the new STEM program in 'Energisystem i vaegfordon. The activities has included three Ph. D students and the project has been directed towards two main areas. The first area is the development and application of a new laser diagnostic technique based on laser-induced fluorescence from atomic species for measurements of two-dimensional temperatures in combustion systems. The technique has shown to have distinct advantages compared to more commonly used laser techniques and it has been applied both in engines (VOLVO PV) as well as in gas turbines (VOLVO Aero Corp.) A major advantage is the potential, recently investigated, to make measurements in sooty environments. The second area is in the area of development and application of a technique for measurements of two-dimensional soot volume fractions and particle sizes. The technique is called Laser-induced Incandescence, LII, and here a laser beam is heating the particle considerably above the flame temperature and by detecting the increased blackbody radiation, the parameters above can be inferred. During the year most work has been to develop the technique, but distinct applications in burners, engines and model fires are planned.

  16. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  17. Intercomparison of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Instruments for Assessing Forested Ecosystems: A Brisbane Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armston, J.; Newnham, G.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Danson, M.; Gaulton, R.; Zhang, Z.; Disney, M.; Sparrow, B.; Phinn, S. R.; Schaefer, M.; Burt, A.; Counter, S.; Erb, A.; Goodwin, N.; Hancock, S.; Howe, G.; Johansen, K.; Li, Z.; Lollback, G.; Martel, J.; Muir, J.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E.; Scarth, P.; Tindall, D.; Walker, L.; Witte, C.; Woodgate, W.; Wu, S.

    2013-12-01

    During 28th July - 3rd August, 2013, an international group of researchers brought five terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) to long-term monitoring plots in three eucalyptus-dominated woodland sites near Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, to acquire scans at common locations for calibration and intercomparison.They included: DWEL - a dual-wavelength full-waveform laser scanner (Boston U., U. Massachusetts Lowell, U. Massachusetts Boston, USA) SALCA - a dual-wavelength full-waveform laser scanner (U. Salford, UK) CBL - a canopy biomass lidar, a small ultraportable low-cost multiple discrete return scanner (U. Massachusetts Boston, USA) Riegl VZ400 - a survey-grade commercial waveform scanner (Queensland Government and TERN, U. Queensland, Australia) FARO Focus 3D - a lightweight commercial phase-shift ranging laser scanner (U. Southern Queensland) Two plots were scanned at Karawatha Forest Park, a Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) Supersite, and one plot at D'Aguilar National Park. At each 50 x 100 m plot, a center scan point was surrounded by four scan points located 25 m away in a cross pattern allowing for 3-D reconstructions of scan sites in the form of point clouds. At several center points, multiple instrument configurations (i.e. different beam divergence, angular resolution, pulse rate) were acquired to test the impact of instrument specifications on separation of woody and non-woody materials and estimation of vegetation structure parameters. Three-dimensional Photopoint photographic panoramas were also acquired, providing reconstructions of stems in the form of point clouds using photogrammetric correlation methods. Calibrated reflectance targets were also scanned to compare instrument geometric and radiometric performance. Ancillary data included hemispherical photos, TRAC LAI/clumping measurements, spectra of leaves, bark, litter, and other target components. Wet and dry leaf weights determined water content. Planned intercomparison topics and

  18. Waterbird nest monitoring program in San Francisco Bay (2005-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, Forster’s Terns (Sterna forsteri), American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana), and Black-necked Stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) were uncommon residents of San Francisco Bay, California (Grinnell and others, 1918; Grinnell and Wythe, 1927; Sibley, 1952). Presently, however, avocets and stilts are the two most abundant breeding shorebirds in San Francisco Bay (Stenzel and others, 2002; Rintoul and others, 2003). More than 4,000 avocets and 1,000 stilts, roughly 20 percent of their San Francisco Bay wintering populations, breed within the estuary, making San Francisco Bay the largest breeding area for these species on the Pacific Coast (Stenzel and others, 2002; Rintoul and others, 2003). Forster’s Terns were first observed breeding in the San Francisco Bay in 1948 (110 nests); they had increased to over 4000 individuals by the 1980s (Sibley, 1952; Gill, 1977; Harvey and others, 1992; Carter and others, 1990) and were estimated at 2000–3000 for 1998–2002; (Strong and others, 2004).It is hypothesized that the relatively large size of the current waterbird breeding populations is a result of the creation of artificial salt evaporation ponds from the 1930s through the 1950s (Gill, 1977; Goals Project, 1999). Until recently, these salt ponds and associated islands used by waterbirds for nesting have been managed relatively similarly and have supported large breeding waterbird populations. Recently, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project has implemented plans to convert 50–90 percent of the 15,000 acres of salt ponds in the South San Francisco Bay back to tidal marsh habitat. Therefore, there is concern that the Restoration Project, while benefiting other native species, could negatively influence local breeding populations of waterbirds that are reliant on salt pond habitats for both breeding and foraging. A primary goal of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is to maintain current breeding waterbird populations (South Bay Salt Pond Long

  19. Species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We injected doses of methylmercury into the air cells of eggs of 26 species of birds and examined the dose-response curves of embryo survival. For 23 species we had adequate data to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50). Based on the dose-response curves and LC50s, we ranked species according to their sensitivity to injected methylmercury. Although the previously published embryotoxic threshold of mercury in game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) has been used as a default value to protect wild species of birds, we found that, relative to other species, mallard embryos are not very sensitive to injected methylmercury; their LC50 was 1.79 ug/g mercury on a wet-weight basis. Other species we categorized as also exhibiting relatively low sensitivity to injected methylmercury (their LC50s were 1 ug/g mercury or higher) were the hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and laughing gull (Larus atricilla). Species we categorized as having medium sensitivity (their LC50s were greater than 0.25 ug/g mercury but less than 1 ug/g mercury) were the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), sandhill crane (Grus canadensis), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), chicken (Gallus gallus), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), herring gull (Larus argentatus), common tern (S terna hirundo), royal tern (Sterna maxima), Caspian tern (Sterna caspia), great egret (Ardea alba), brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), and anhinga (Anhinga anhinga). Species we categorized as exhibiting high sensitivity (their LC50s were less than 0.25 ug/g mercury) were the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), white ibis (Eudocimus albus), snowy egret (Egretta thula), and tri-colored heron (Egretta tricolor). For mallards, chickens, and ring-necked pheasants (all species for which we could compare the toxicity of our

  20. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the 30-y time series, including the island collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. The endangered Mariana crow (x̄  =  81 birds, 95% CI 30–202) declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals in 2012, down from 1,491 birds in 1982 (95% CI  =  815–3,115). Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca. Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from 1982 to the late 1990s but returned to 1980s levels by 2012, resulting in an overall stable trend. Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in 1982 and 2012 were similar. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections. Based on the 2012 survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: 1) range restriction, including Mariana crow, Rota white-eye, and Eurasian tree sparrow; 2) widespread distribution, low

  1. Experimental Study of Thermo-hydraulic Characteristics of Surfaces with In-line Dimple Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Burtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conducted experimental study of the heat exchange intensification on the surfaces covered with a regular vortex-generating relief that is an in-line array of the shallow hemispherical dimples. Using 12 configuration options with the Reynolds numbers in the range of (0.2-7.0 106 as an example, it analyses how a longitudinal and cross step of the in-line dimple array (density dimples effects on the processes of heat exchange intensification and resistance.The monocomponent strain-gauge balance allows us to define a value of the resistance coefficient by direct weighing of models (located in parallel in a flow of "relief" and smooth "reference" ones being under study. Distribution fields of heat – transfer factor are determined by recording a cooling process of the surface of studied models having high spatial and temporary resolution. All researches were conducted with one-shot data record of these thermal and hydraulic measurements for the smooth (reference surfaces and the studied surfaces covered with a regular vortex-generating relief (dimples. The error of determined parameters was no more than ±5%.The oil-sooty method allows us to visualize flow around a regular relief and obtain a flow pattern for 12 options of dimples configuration. The analysis has been carried out and a compliance of the flow patterns with the field of heat-transfer factors has been obtained.It has been found that for the in-line configuration a Reynolds analogy factor for most models is nonlinearly dependent on the Reynolds number. The friction intensification, at first, falls (to some Reynolds number and, further, starts increasing, tending to the friction intensification value with self-similarity flow around. Thus with increasing Reynolds number, the heattransfer factor intensification falls (more slowly than resistance intensification.

  2. Effects of pressure and fuel dilution on coflow laminar methane-air diffusion flames: A computational and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Su; Ma, Bin; Giassi, Davide; Bennett, Beth Anne V.; Long, Marshall B.; Smooke, Mitchell D.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the influence of pressure and fuel dilution on the structure and geometry of coflow laminar methane-air diffusion flames is examined. A series of methane-fuelled, nitrogen-diluted flames has been investigated both computationally and experimentally, with pressure ranging from 1.0 to 2.7 atm and CH4 mole fraction ranging from 0.50 to 0.65. Computationally, the MC-Smooth vorticity-velocity formulation was employed to describe the reactive gaseous mixture, and soot evolution was modelled by sectional aerosol equations. The governing equations and boundary conditions were discretised on a two-dimensional computational domain by finite differences, and the resulting set of fully coupled, strongly nonlinear equations was solved simultaneously at all points using a damped, modified Newton's method. Experimentally, chemiluminescence measurements of CH* were taken to determine its relative concentration profile and the structure of the flame front. A thin-filament ratio pyrometry method using a colour digital camera was employed to determine the temperature profiles of the non-sooty, atmospheric pressure flames, while soot volume fraction was quantified, after evaluation of soot temperature, through an absolute light calibration using a thermocouple. For a broad spectrum of flames in atmospheric and elevated pressures, the computed and measured flame quantities were examined to characterise the influence of pressure and fuel dilution, and the major conclusions were as follows: (1) maximum temperature increases with increasing pressure or CH4 concentration; (2) lift-off height decreases significantly with increasing pressure, modified flame length is roughly independent of pressure, and flame radius decreases with pressure approximately as P-1/2; and (3) pressure and fuel stream dilution significantly affect the spatial distribution and the peak value of the soot volume fraction.

  3. BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE APPLE MEALYBUG PHENACOCCUS ACERIS (SIGNORET) IN BELGIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangels, E; Peusens, G; Bylemans, D; Belien, T

    2014-01-01

    Although in general very rare, some outbreaks of the apple mealybug Phenococcus aceris (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were reported in the Belgian fruit growing area recently. This insect is known to be geographically widespread, to have a broad host range and to infest apple trees. Damage at harvest is considerable when sooty molds, a consequence of the pest's honeydew production, cover the fruits. Indirect damage of an infection is caused in cherry cultivation through transmission of the Little cherry virus (LChV2). Efficacy trials were executed in infested apple orchards in the Belgian fruit growing area and the life cycle of the pest on apple was studied more into detail. Apple mealybugs are univoltine, overwinter as 2nd instar nymphs inside a white cocoon on the tree (under the bark, in crevices) and leave their overwintering site in early spring (mid March). On sunny days the nymphs become active, move around and attach to start feeding (mid April). After a final moult into the adult form, females lay eggs in a cocoon-like white structure (from flowering on). Following hatching (end May), massive numbers of young nymphs spread out on the underside of the leaves (mid June) where they feed through suction. In order to manage this pest the efficacy of several plant protection products was tested in two infested apple orchards. Results indicated that mortality was high after an application of compounds belonging to the neonicotinoid insecticides. Different application timings and control strategies are possible, with active nymphs being the most vulnerable life stage. The observed degree of parasitation in our trial orchards also indicates a biological control contribution of parasitic wasps that should be taken into account. A decent IPM-strategy based on our results solved the problem in both apple orchards.

  4. Development of neurologic diseases in a patient with primate T lymphotropic virus type 1 (PTLV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Caruso, Breanna; Haner, Benjamin; Charlip, Emily; Nair, Govind; Massoud, Raya; Billioux, Bridgette J; Ohayon, Joan; Switzer, William M; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-08-12

    Virus transmission from various wild and domestic animals contributes to an increased risk of emerging infectious diseases in human populations. HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus associated with acute T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1 originated from ancient zoonotic transmission from nonhuman primates, although cases of zoonotic infections continue to occur. Similar to HTLV-1, the simian counterpart, STLV-1, causes chronic infection and leukemia and lymphoma in naturally infected monkeys, and combined are called primate T-lymphotropic viruses (PTLV-1). However, other clinical syndromes typically seen in humans such as a chronic progressive myelopathy have not been observed in nonhuman primates. Little is known about the development of neurologic and inflammatory diseases in human populations infected with STLV-1-like viruses following nonhuman primate exposure. We performed detailed laboratory analyses on an HTLV-1 seropositive patient with typical HAM/TSP who was born in Liberia and now resides in the United States. Using a novel droplet digital PCR for the detection of the HTLV-1 tax gene, the proviral load in PBMC and cerebrospinal fluid cells was 12.98 and 51.68 %, respectively; however, we observed a distinct difference in fluorescence amplitude of the positive droplet population suggesting possible mutations in proviral DNA. A complete PTLV-1 proviral genome was amplified from the patient's PBMC DNA using an overlapping PCR strategy. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope and LTR sequences showed the virus was highly related to PTLV-1 from sooty mangabey monkeys (smm) and humans exposed via nonhuman primates in West Africa. These results demonstrate the patient is infected with a simian variant of PTLV-1, suggesting for the first time that PTLV-1smm infection in humans may be associated with a chronic progressive neurologic disease.

  5. Status of tandetron II of Nagoya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Etsuko; Nakamura, Toshio; Oda, Hirotaka; Ikeda, Akiko; Ota, Tomoko; Minami, Masayo

    2001-01-01

    The General Center for Age Measurement, Nagoya University, introduced an accelerator mass spectrometer of Model 4130-AMS made by HVEM Co., the Nether lands on 1996. We had spent almost 9 months from February to October 1999 for trouble shootings, repairs and adjustments. The followings are major troubles. Diode array were damaged after an acceptance test due to sparks. The 366 diodes were broken among total 1422 (24%). The 14 resistors were broken among total 158 (9%). HVEM Co. said there was the initial defect in manufacturing diodes. We replaced all diodes and resistors, after waiting 1 month. The insulation resistance of transformer coils went down by sooty contamination by sparks and coils were burned out. The 3 weeks were needed for replacement of coils. Perfect cleaning inside the tank vessel was very complicated. The phase detector of the magnet power supply was broken and resulted in sparks of the circuit breaker. Malfunction of vacuum valve appeared after long time shut down of facilities. We had to replace the vacuum valve due to elastic o-ring damage. The aluminum dust caused by target holder carousel caused short circuits. The nails and springs were deteriorated. After all, the modified new target holder was installed. Malfunction appeared in the slit stabilizer. We replaced two operational amplifiers and made optimization of capacitors. Some other troubles happened in cooling water system, cryogenic vacuum pumping system, air compressor, detector of Faraday cup and so on. After fixing many troubles, we had done age measurements on 805 samples. This means about 115 samples per a month. As examples of measurement, we show the results obtained from IAEA calibration standard samples. We will make further measurements with higher accuracy. Appropriate maintenance and management is the key for steady servicing. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. Surface plasmon observed for carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A; Stadelmann, P A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Peng, J L; Prawer, S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents parallel electron energy loss spectra (PEELS) results, obtained for individual carbon nanotubes, using nanoprobe techniques (1-2 nm diameter electron beam), energy resolution 0.5 eV and collection times of 4-25 sec. The aim was to use a nanoprobe to compare PEELS spectra from different parts of a tube, in order to search for variations in sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} bonding ratios as well as to look for orientation dependent plasmon and core-loss phenomena. It also seemed interesting to compare results for nanotubes with those for other varieties of graphitized carbons. The most interesting result so far was the appearance of a 15 eV plasmon peak, which appeared only for tubes containing {<=} about 12 graphite-like layers. This peak did not shift significantly with tube size. A low-loss peaks at 6 eV of variable relative intensity was also observed this peak was relatively very weak for amorphous tubes; it appears to be characteristic of graphite-like layers, as found for nanotubes and, of course, graphite itself. This paper is restricted to discussion of the low-loss results. The experimental techniques are first described, including some details of the methods which may be used to disperse and support sooty carbons for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results are then presented, followed by an interpretation of all the low-loss PEELS results, including those of the other authors. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  7. TRIM5 suppresses cross-species transmission of a primate immunodeficiency virus and selects for emergence of resistant variants in the new species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kirmaier

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Simian immunodeficiency viruses of sooty mangabeys (SIVsm are the source of multiple, successful cross-species transmissions, having given rise to HIV-2 in humans, SIVmac in rhesus macaques, and SIVstm in stump-tailed macaques. Cellular assays and phylogenetic comparisons indirectly support a role for TRIM5alpha, the product of the TRIM5 gene, in suppressing interspecies transmission and emergence of retroviruses in nature. Here, we investigate the in vivo role of TRIM5 directly, focusing on transmission of primate immunodeficiency viruses between outbred primate hosts. Specifically, we retrospectively analyzed experimental cross-species transmission of SIVsm in two cohorts of rhesus macaques and found a significant effect of TRIM5 genotype on viral replication levels. The effect was especially pronounced in a cohort of animals infected with SIVsmE543-3, where TRIM5 genotype correlated with approximately 100-fold to 1,000-fold differences in viral replication levels. Surprisingly, transmission occurred even in individuals bearing restrictive TRIM5 genotypes, resulting in attenuation of replication rather than an outright block to infection. In cell-culture assays, the same TRIM5 alleles associated with viral suppression in vivo blocked infectivity of two SIVsm strains, but not the macaque-adapted strain SIVmac239. Adaptations appeared in the viral capsid in animals with restrictive TRIM5 genotypes, and similar adaptations coincide with emergence of SIVmac in captive macaques in the 1970s. Thus, host TRIM5 can suppress viral replication in vivo, exerting selective pressure during the initial stages of cross-species transmission.

  8. Analysis of the chemical elements behavior in leaves infected with fumagina employing X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonski, Maria Selia

    2002-02-01

    Fumagina is produced by the Capnodium fungi, a mushroom from Dothideales order, that lives associated with the yellow aphid (Monelliopsis pecanis), excreting a heavy load of a sugared substance that provides the sooty fungus development, covering, in some cases the totality, of leaves, fruits and branches surfaces. One of the big problems caused by this disease is the physic photosynthesis stuckness, reducing in 98% the active photosynthesis radiation and in 70% the net photosynthesis. This photosynthesis reduction affects the plants carbohydrate reservoirs, resulting in reduced and bad qualified crops. It was employed the Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF) to study the fumagina disease. The measurements were realized with infected and healthy leaves of citric plants (orange and lemon trees), collected at the Farm School of the State University of Londrina, and also leaves of icsora plant from Piracicaba-SP. Through this technique it was observed a metabolic disorder related to Fe and Ca elements. By comparing the EDXRF spectra of the healthy plant leaves with the infected ones, it was verified that the concentration of Ca is higher than the concentration Fe in leaves of healthy plants, while for the leaves of plants infected with fumagina, it was observed a higher concentration of Fe. Employing EDXRF and the emission/transmission method for the matrix effect correction, samples of the citric plants were also analysed in pellet. The elements K, Ca, Ti, Mn , Fe, Cu and Zn were quantified. It was verified a higher Fe concentration in fumagina samples compared to the samples without fumagina. For all the elements of interest the minimum level of detection found was at the order of μg g -1 . (author)

  9. The evolution of seabirds in the Humboldt Current: new clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Chávez Hoffmeister

    Full Text Available During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap.Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified.The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current.

  10. Effects of interactive transport and scavenging of smoke on the calculated temperature change resulting from large amounts of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.; Walton, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    Several theoretical studies with numerical models have shown that substantial land-surface cooling can occur if very large amounts (approx. 100 x 10 12 = 100 Tg) of highly absorbing sooty-particles are injected high into the troposphere and spread instantaneously around the hemisphere (Turco et al., 1983; Covey et al. 1984; MacCracken, 1983). A preliminary step beyond these initial calculations has been made by interactively coupling the two-layer, three-dimensional Oregon State University general circulation model (GCM) to the three-dimensional GRANTOUR trace species model developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GCM simulation includes treatment of tropospheric dynamics and thermodynamics and the effect of soot on solar radiation. The GRANTOUR simulation includes treatment of particle transport and scavenging by precipitation, although no satisfactory verification of the scavenging algorithm has yet been possible. We have considered the climatic effects of 150 Tg (i.e., the 100 Mt urban war scenario from Turco et al., 1983) and of 15 Tg of smoke from urban fires over North America and Eurasia. Starting with a perpetual July atmospheric situation, calculation of the climatic effects as 150 Tg of smoke are spread slowly by the winds, rather than instantaneously dispersed as in previous calculations, leads to some regions of greater cooling under the denser parts of the smoke plumes and some regions of less severe cooling where smoke arrival is delayed. As for the previous calculations, mid-latitude decreases of land surface air temperature for the 150 Tg injection are greater than 15 0 C after a few weeks. For a 15 Tg injection, however, cooling of more than several degrees centigrade only occurs in limited regions under the dense smoke plumes present in the first few weeks after the injection. 10 references, 9 figures

  11. Phylogeny and History of the Lost SIV from Crab-Eating Macaques: SIVmfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin R; Johnson, Welkin E; Kirmaier, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the 20th century, thirteen distinct human immunodeficiency viruses emerged following independent cross-species transmission events involving simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) from African primates. In the late 1900s, pathogenic SIV strains also emerged in the United Sates among captive Asian macaque species following their unintentional infection with SIV from African sooty mangabeys (SIVsmm). Since their discovery in the 1980s, SIVs from rhesus macaques (SIVmac) and pig-tailed macaques (SIVmne) have become invaluable models for studying HIV pathogenesis, vaccine design and the emergence of viruses. SIV isolates from captive crab-eating macaques (SIVmfa) were initially described but lost prior to any detailed molecular and genetic characterization. In order to infer the origins of the lost SIVmfa lineage, we located archived material and colony records, recovered its genomic sequence by PCR, and assessed its phylogenetic relationship to other SIV strains. We conclude that SIVmfa is the product of two cross-species transmission events. The first was the established transmission of SIVsmm to rhesus macaques, which occurred at the California National Primate Research Center in the late 1960s and the virus later emerged as SIVmac. In a second event, SIVmac was transmitted to crab-eating macaques, likely at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates in the early 1970s, and it was later spread to the New England Primate Research Center colony in 1973 and eventually isolated in 1986. Our analysis suggests that SIVmac had already emerged by the early 1970s and had begun to diverge into distinct lineages. Furthermore, our findings suggest that pathogenic SIV strains may have been more widely distributed than previously appreciated, raising the possibility that additional isolates may await discovery.

  12. Effect of burner geometry on swirl stabilized methane/air flames: A joint LES/OH-PLIF/PIV study

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, X.

    2017-07-04

    Large eddy simulation (LES) using a transported PDF model and OH-PLIF/PIV experiments were carried out to investigate the quarl effects on the structures of swirl stabilized methane/air flames. Two different quarls were investigated, one straight cylindrical quarl and one diverging conical quarl. The experiments show that the flames are significantly different with the two quarls. With the straight cylindrical quarl a compact blue flame is observed while with the diverging conical quarl the flame appears to be long and yellow indicating a sooty flame structure. The PIV results show the formation of a stronger flow recirculation inside the diverging conical quarl than that in the straight quarl. LES results reveal further details of the flow and mixing process inside the quarl. The results show that with the diverging quarl vortex breakdown occurs much earlier towards the upstream of the quarl. As a result the fuel is convected into the air flow tube and a diffusion flame is stabilized inside the air flow tube upstream the quarl. With the straight quarl, vortex breakdown occurs at a downstream location in the quarl. The scalar dissipation rate in the shear layer of the fuel jet is high, which prevents the stabilization of a diffusion flame in the proximity of the fuel nozzle; instead, a compact partially premixed flame with two distinct heat release layers is stablized in a downstream region in the quarl, which allows for the fuel and air to mix in the quarl before combustion and a lower formation rate of soot. The results showed that the Eulerian Stochastic Fields transported PDF method can well predict the details of the swirl flame dynamics.

  13. Phylogeny and History of the Lost SIV from Crab-Eating Macaques: SIVmfa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R McCarthy

    Full Text Available In the 20th century, thirteen distinct human immunodeficiency viruses emerged following independent cross-species transmission events involving simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV from African primates. In the late 1900s, pathogenic SIV strains also emerged in the United Sates among captive Asian macaque species following their unintentional infection with SIV from African sooty mangabeys (SIVsmm. Since their discovery in the 1980s, SIVs from rhesus macaques (SIVmac and pig-tailed macaques (SIVmne have become invaluable models for studying HIV pathogenesis, vaccine design and the emergence of viruses. SIV isolates from captive crab-eating macaques (SIVmfa were initially described but lost prior to any detailed molecular and genetic characterization. In order to infer the origins of the lost SIVmfa lineage, we located archived material and colony records, recovered its genomic sequence by PCR, and assessed its phylogenetic relationship to other SIV strains. We conclude that SIVmfa is the product of two cross-species transmission events. The first was the established transmission of SIVsmm to rhesus macaques, which occurred at the California National Primate Research Center in the late 1960s and the virus later emerged as SIVmac. In a second event, SIVmac was transmitted to crab-eating macaques, likely at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates in the early 1970s, and it was later spread to the New England Primate Research Center colony in 1973 and eventually isolated in 1986. Our analysis suggests that SIVmac had already emerged by the early 1970s and had begun to diverge into distinct lineages. Furthermore, our findings suggest that pathogenic SIV strains may have been more widely distributed than previously appreciated, raising the possibility that additional isolates may await discovery.

  14. Analysis of the chemical elements behavior in leaves infected with fumagina employing X-ray fluorescence technique; Analise do comportamento de elementos quimicos em folhas infectadas com fumagina atraves da tecnica de fluorescencia de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonski, Maria Selia

    2002-02-01

    Fumagina is produced by the Capnodium fungi, a mushroom from Dothideales order, that lives associated with the yellow aphid (Monelliopsis pecanis), excreting a heavy load of a sugared substance that provides the sooty fungus development, covering, in some cases the totality, of leaves, fruits and branches surfaces. One of the big problems caused by this disease is the physic photosynthesis stuckness, reducing in 98% the active photosynthesis radiation and in 70% the net photosynthesis. This photosynthesis reduction affects the plants carbohydrate reservoirs, resulting in reduced and bad qualified crops. It was employed the Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF) to study the fumagina disease. The measurements were realized with infected and healthy leaves of citric plants (orange and lemon trees), collected at the Farm School of the State University of Londrina, and also leaves of icsora plant from Piracicaba-SP. Through this technique it was observed a metabolic disorder related to Fe and Ca elements. By comparing the EDXRF spectra of the healthy plant leaves with the infected ones, it was verified that the concentration of Ca is higher than the concentration Fe in leaves of healthy plants, while for the leaves of plants infected with fumagina, it was observed a higher concentration of Fe. Employing EDXRF and the emission/transmission method for the matrix effect correction, samples of the citric plants were also analysed in pellet. The elements K, Ca, Ti, Mn , Fe, Cu and Zn were quantified. It was verified a higher Fe concentration in fumagina samples compared to the samples without fumagina. For all the elements of interest the minimum level of detection found was at the order of {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  15. Hydrothermal uranium vein deposits in Marysvale volcanic field, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.D.; Cunningham, C.G.; Steven, T.A.; Rye, R.O.; Romberger, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrothermal uranium veins are exposed over a 300 m (980 ft) vertical range in mines of the Central Mining area, near Marysvale, Utah. They cut 23 Ma quartz monzonite, 21 Ma granite, and 19 Ma rhyolite ash-flow tuff. The veins formed 18-19 Ma, in an area 1 km (0.6 mi) across, above the center of a composite magma chamber at least 12 x 6 km across that fed a sequence of 21-14 Ma hypabyssal granitic stocks, and rhyolitic lava flows, ash-flow tuffs, and volcanic domes. Intrusive pressure uplifted and fractured the roof; molybdenite-bearing, uranium-rich glassy dikes were intruded; and a breccia pipe and uranium-bearing veins were formed. The veins appear to have been deposited near the surface above a concealed rhyolite stock, where they filled high-angle fault zones and flat-lying to concave-downward pull-apart fractures. Low pH and fO 2 hydrothermal fluids at temperatures near 200 0 C (392 0 F) permeated the fractured rocks; these fluids were rich in fluorine and potassium, and contained uranium as uranous-fluoride complexes. Fluid-wall rock interaction increased fluid pH, causing precipitation of uranium minerals. At the deepest exposed levels, wall rocks were altered to kaolinite and sericite, and uraninite, coffinite, jordisite, fluorite, molybdenite, quartz, and pyrite (with delta 34 S near zero per mil) were deposited. The fluids were progressively oxidized higher in the system; iron in the wall rocks was oxidized to hematite, and sooty uraninite and umohoite were deposited

  16. Vpx overcomes a SAMHD1-independent block to HIV reverse transcription that is specific to resting CD4 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Hanna-Mari; Stegmann, Lena; Schwarz, Sarah-Marie; Ambiel, Ina; Trotard, Maud; Martin, Margarethe; Burggraf, Manja; Lenzi, Gina M; Lejk, Helena; Pan, Xiaoyu; Fregoso, Oliver I; Lim, Efrem S; Abraham, Libin; Nguyen, Laura A; Rutsch, Frank; König, Renate; Kim, Baek; Emerman, Michael; Fackler, Oliver T; Keppler, Oliver T

    2017-03-07

    Early after entry into monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and resting CD4 T cells, HIV encounters a block, limiting reverse transcription (RT) of the incoming viral RNA genome. In this context, dNTP triphosphohydrolase SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) has been identified as a restriction factor, lowering the concentration of dNTP substrates to limit RT. The accessory lentiviral protein X (Vpx) proteins from the major simian immunodeficiency virus of rhesus macaque, sooty mangabey, and HIV-2 (SIVsmm/SIVmac/HIV-2) lineage packaged into virions target SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation, increase intracellular dNTP pools, and facilitate HIV cDNA synthesis. We find that virion-packaged Vpx proteins from a second SIV lineage, SIV of red-capped mangabeys or mandrills (SIVrcm/mnd-2), increased HIV infection in resting CD4 T cells, but not in macrophages, and, unexpectedly, acted in the absence of SAMHD1 degradation, dNTP pool elevation, or changes in SAMHD1 phosphorylation. Vpx rcm/mnd-2 virion incorporation resulted in a dramatic increase of HIV-1 RT intermediates and viral cDNA in infected resting CD4 T cells. These analyses also revealed a barrier limiting HIV-1 infection of resting CD4 T cells at the level of nuclear import. Single amino acid changes in the SAMHD1-degrading Vpx mac239 allowed it to enhance early postentry steps in a Vpx rcm/mnd-2-like fashion. Moreover, Vpx enhanced HIV-1 infection of SAMHD1-deficient resting CD4 T cells of a patient with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. These results indicate that Vpx, in addition to SAMHD1, overcomes a previously unappreciated restriction for lentiviruses at the level of RT that acts independently of dNTP concentrations and is specific to resting CD4 T cells.

  17. Transition of carbon nanostructures in heptane diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei-Chieh [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China); Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng [Kun Shan University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China); Lin, Ta-Hui, E-mail: thlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    The flame synthesis has high potential in industrial production of carbon nanostructure (CNS). Unfortunately, the complexity of combustion chemistry leads to less controlling of synthesized products. In order to improve the understanding of the relation between flames and CNSs synthesized within, experiments were conducted through heptane flames in a stagnation-point liquid-pool system. The operating parameters for the synthesis include oxygen supply, sampling position, and sampling time. Two kinds of nanostructures were observed, carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon nano-onion (CNO). CNTs were synthesized in a weaker flame near extinction. CNOs were synthesized in a more sooty flame. The average diameter of CNTs formed at oxygen concentration of 15% was in the range of 20–30 nm. For oxygen concentration of 17%, the average diameter of CNTs ranged from 24 to 27 nm, while that of CNOs was around 28 nm. For oxygen concentration of 19%, the average diameter of CNOs produced at the sampling position 0.5 mm below the flame front was about 57 nm, while the average diameters of CNOs formed at the sampling positions 1–2.5 mm below the flame front were in the range of 20–25 nm. A transition from CNT to CNO was observed by variation of sampling position in a flame. We found that the morphology of CNS is directly affected by the presence of soot layer due to the carbonaceous environment and the growth mechanisms of CNT and CNO. The sampling time can alter the yield of CNSs depending on the temperature of sampling position, but the morphology of products is not affected.

  18. Can alternative sugar sources buffer pollinators from nectar shortages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Gee, Robin; Dhami, Manpreet K; Paulin, Katherine J; Beggs, Jacqueline R

    2014-12-01

    Honeydew is abundant in many ecosystems and may provide an alternative food source (a buffer) for pollinators during periods of food shortage, but the impact of honeydew on pollination systems has received little attention to date. In New Zealand, kānuka trees (Myrtaceae: Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich) Joy Thompson) are often heavily infested by the endemic honeydew-producing scale insect Coelostomidia wairoensis (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coelostomidiidae) and the period of high honeydew production can overlap with kānuka flowering. In this study, we quantified the sugar resources (honeydew and nectar) available on kānuka and recorded nocturnal insect activity on infested and uninfested kānuka during the flowering period. Insects were abundant on infested trees, but flowers on infested trees received fewer insect visitors than flowers on uninfested trees. There was little evidence that insects had switched directly from nectar-feeding to honeydew-feeding, but it is possible that some omnivores (e.g., cockroaches) were distracted by the other honeydew-associated resources on infested branches (e.g., sooty molds, prey). Additional sampling was carried out after kānuka flowering had finished to determine honeydew usage in the absence of adjacent nectar resources. Moths, which had fed almost exclusively on nectar earlier, were recorded feeding extensively on honeydew after flowering had ceased; hence, honeydew may provide an additional food source for potential pollinators. Our results show that honeydew resources can impact floral visitation patterns and suggest that future pollinator studies should consider the full range of sugar resources present in the study environment.

  19. Visibility in the Netherlands during New Year's fireworks: The role of soot and salty aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Harry; Henzing, Bas; Otjes, René; Weijers, Ernie

    2018-01-01

    The visibility on New Year's nights in the Netherlands is low during stagnant weather. This is due to the scattering and absorption of light by the aerosol-smoke from the fireworks. We made an assessment of the responsible aerosol-species. The investigation took place during the New Year's night of 2009. Measurements were made at a regional site in the centre of the country away from specific local sources. An Integrating Nephelometer measured the light-scattering by the inherent compounds after removal of water from the aerosol by drying the air. The actual light-scattering was determined in an open-air scatterometer; it was a factor of five higher than the ;dry; value. The difference in actual and ;dry; light-scattering can only be explained by water-uptake of the salty hygroscopic components of the aerosol. This hypothesis is substantiated by measurements of the composition of the aerosol. The size-dependent concentrations of the salty ionic species were determined on-line with a MARGA-;sizer;. These components were for a large part in particles in the size range that most effectively scatter light. The ;dry; light-scattering was exerted by the inorganic salt components and the sooty carbonaceous material alike. However, the salty products from the fireworks are hygroscopic and take up water at the high relative humidities occurring that night. This explains the fivefold larger light-scattering by the wet ambient aerosol as compared to that by the dry aerosol in the integrating nephelometer. The visibility, which is the inverse of the open-air scattering, is thus indirectly governed by the salty products of the fireworks due to their uptake of water. Under stagnant weather conditions during New Year's nights in the Netherlands both the aerosol concentrations and the relative humidity are high; this implies that the ionic species govern the low visibilities in general, be it via their uptake of water.

  20. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  1. Fibrous osteodystrophy in two Northern Royal albatross chicks (Diomedea sanfordi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Gartrell, B D; Thompson, K G; Perriman, L

    2011-09-01

    In February 2004, two Northern Royal albatross chicks aged 20 and 25 days old were presented for necropsy. Both chicks had been hand-fed in situ at a breeding colony, from 2-3 days post-hatch. The hand-rearing diet consisted of boneless hoki fillets (Macraronus novaezelandiae), electrolytes, and sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) proventricular oil obtained as a by-product of cultural harvest. Routine necropsies on the affected chicks revealed many bones were soft and easily bent. Radiography and histopathology revealed decreased bone density, pathological fractures, and extensive remodelling suggestive of fibrous osteodystrophy. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, resulting from an imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio. The imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio was a result of feeding deboned and eviscerated fish. This investigation also highlighted potential health risks associated with the practice of feeding stored rancid proventricular oil, including the destruction of fat-soluble vitamins. It is therefore possible that oxidative degradation of vitamin D may have contributed to the development of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Subsequently, dietary recommendations for supplementary feeding of orphaned Northern Royal albatross chicks include the feeding of whole human-grade fish with an appropriate Ca:P ratio, and the exclusion of proventricular oil. These cases highlight the need for scientific input into wildlife conservation projects, as lack of appropriate nutritional advice resulted in the feeding of a nutritionally inadequate diet. Following the recommended changes in diet, no further cases of osteodystrophy have been diagnosed in hand-raised chicks in the albatross colony.

  2. Effect of burner geometry on swirl stabilized methane/air flames: A joint LES/OH-PLIF/PIV study

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, X.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Gong, C.; Bai, X.S.; Zheng, H.T.; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) using a transported PDF model and OH-PLIF/PIV experiments were carried out to investigate the quarl effects on the structures of swirl stabilized methane/air flames. Two different quarls were investigated, one straight cylindrical quarl and one diverging conical quarl. The experiments show that the flames are significantly different with the two quarls. With the straight cylindrical quarl a compact blue flame is observed while with the diverging conical quarl the flame appears to be long and yellow indicating a sooty flame structure. The PIV results show the formation of a stronger flow recirculation inside the diverging conical quarl than that in the straight quarl. LES results reveal further details of the flow and mixing process inside the quarl. The results show that with the diverging quarl vortex breakdown occurs much earlier towards the upstream of the quarl. As a result the fuel is convected into the air flow tube and a diffusion flame is stabilized inside the air flow tube upstream the quarl. With the straight quarl, vortex breakdown occurs at a downstream location in the quarl. The scalar dissipation rate in the shear layer of the fuel jet is high, which prevents the stabilization of a diffusion flame in the proximity of the fuel nozzle; instead, a compact partially premixed flame with two distinct heat release layers is stablized in a downstream region in the quarl, which allows for the fuel and air to mix in the quarl before combustion and a lower formation rate of soot. The results showed that the Eulerian Stochastic Fields transported PDF method can well predict the details of the swirl flame dynamics.

  3. Status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Tinian and Aguiguan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Amidon, Fred; Marshall, Ann P.; Kremer, Shelly; Laut, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Avian surveys were conducted on the islands of Tinian and Aguiguan, Marianas Islands, in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current baseline densities and abundances and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. On Tinian, during the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 12 species. Half of the 10 native species—Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis), White-throated Ground-Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura), Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris), Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), and Micronesian Starling (Aplonis opaca)—and one alien bird—Island Collared-Dove (Streptopelia bitorquata)—have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two native birds—White Tern (Gygis alba) and Bridled White-eye (Zosterops saypani)—and one alien bird—Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)—were considered relatively stable. Only five birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Tinian Monarch, Rufous Fantail, and Bridled White-eye—showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Tinian Monarch was found in all habitat types, with the greatest monarch densities observed in limestone forest, secondary forest, and tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) thicket and the smallest densities found in open fields and urban/residential habitats. On Aguiguan, 19 species were detected on one or both of the surveys (1982 and 2008), and abundance estimates were produced for nine native and one alien species. Densities for seven of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Collared Kingfisher, Rufous Fantail, Bridled White-eye, Golden White-eye (Cleptornis marchei), and Micronesian Starling—and the alien bird— Island

  4. Watershed scale spatial variability in dissolved and total organic and inorganic carbon in contrasting UK catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, S.; Baker, A.; Hudson, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    Approximately 800 organic and inorganic carbon analyses have been undertaken from watershed scale and regional scale spatial surveys in various British catchments. These include (1) a small (urban catchment (Ouseburn, N England); (2) a headwater, lowland agricultural catchment (River Tern, C England) (3) a large UK catchment (River Tyne, ~3000 sq-km) and (4) a spatial survey of ~300 analyses from rivers from SW England (~1700 sq-km). Results demonstrate that: (1) the majority of organic and inorganic carbon is in the dissolved (DOC and DIC) fractions; (2) that with the exception of peat rich headwaters, DIC concentration is always greater than DOC; (3) In the rural River Tern, riverine DOC and DIC are shown to follow a simple end- member mixing between DIC (DOC) rich (poor) ground waters and DOC (DIC) rich (poor) riparian wetlands for all sample sites. (4) In the urbanized Ouseburn catchment, although many sample sites also show this same mixing trend, some tributaries follow a pollutant trend of simultaneous increases in both DOC and DIC. The Ouseburn is part of the larger Tyne catchment: this larger catchment follows the simple groundwater DIC- soil water DOC end member mixing model, with the exception of the urban catchments which exhibit an elevated DIC compared to rural sites. (5) Urbanization is demonstrated to increase DIC compared to equivalent rural catchments; this DIC has potential sources including diffuse source inputs from the dissolution of concrete, point sources such as trade effluents and landfill leachates, and bedrock derived carbonates relocated to the soil dissolution zone by urban development. (6) DIC in rural SW England demonstrates that spatial variability in DIC can be attributed to variations in geology; but that DIC concentrations in the SW England rivers dataset are typically lower than the urbanized Tyne catchments despite the presence of carbonate bedrock in many of the sample catchments in the SW England dataset. (7) Recent

  5. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev: results and conclusions 2000/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I. [NERI, Dept. of Coastal Zone Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the combined results of two years of base-line investigations of birds performed during August 1999 - April 2001 in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 13 aerial surveys, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers occurring on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although the common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affects less than 1% of the different species, except divers of which 1.65% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrate through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with less pronounced variation in

  6. A Conceptual Framework to Enhance the Interoperability of Observatories among Countries, Continents and the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loescher, H.; Fundamental Instrument Unit

    2013-05-01

    Ecological research addresses challenges relating to the dynamics of the planet, such as changes in climate, biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and services, carbon and energy cycles, natural and human-induced hazards, and adaptation and mitigation strategies that involve many science and engineering disciplines and cross national boundaries. Because of the global nature of these challenges, greater international collaboration is required for knowledge sharing and technology deployment to advance earth science investigations and enhance societal benefits. For example, the Working Group on Biodiversity Preservation and Ecosystem Services (PCAST 2011) noted the scale and complexity of the physical and human resources needed to address these challenges. Many of the most pressing ecological research questions require global-scale data and global scale solutions (Suresh 2012), e.g., interdisciplinary data access from data centers managing ecological resources and hazards, drought, heat islands, carbon cycle, or data used to forecast the rate of spread of invasive species or zoonotic diseases. Variability and change at one location or in one region may well result from the superposition of global processes coupled together with regional and local modes of variability. For example, we know the El Niño-Southern Oscillation large-scale modes of variability in the coupled terrestrial-aquatic-atmospheric systems' correlation with variability in regional rainfall and ecosystem functions. It is therefore a high priority of government and non-government organizations to develop the necessary large scale, world-class research infrastructures for environmental research—and the framework by which these data can be shared, discovered, and utilized by a broad user community of scientists and policymakers, alike. Given that there are many, albeit nascent, efforts to build new environmental observatories/networks globally (e.g., EU-ICOS, EU-Lifewatch, AU-TERN, China-CERN, GEOSS

  7. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, and results from the year of construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2003-01-01

    The present report presents the base-line investigations of birds conducted during August 1999-April 2001 in relation to construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, 14 km west-south-west of Blaevandshuk, in the Danish North Sea. The report also presents data collected during the period September 2001-April 2002, when construction of the wind farm was in progress. The wind farm will consist of 80 wind turbines, each of 2 MW, and cover an area of c. 20 km 2 . The eastern part of the North Sea constitutes major staging and wintering grounds for huge numbers of water- and seabirds. The area is also known to be an important site for migrating birds, which especially in autumn pass in large numbers. As Denmark has obligations to protect and maintain the bird populations it was laid down in the approval for erection of the wind farm that the impact on birds should be investigated. According to the 1% criteria defined in the Ramsar Convention, the eastern part of the North Sea including the wind farm area is of international importance to divers, Common Tern, and Sandwich Tern. A number of other species, e.g. Common Eider, Common Scoter, Guillemot and Razorbill, are present in the area in significant numbers as well, though these numbers do not make up 1% of the populations. Detailed distributions of birds in the area around and at Horns Rev were virtually unknown until initiation of this project. Previous bird counts in this area have been carried out almost exclusively from the coast and detailed knowledge exists concerning the numbers of roosting at and migrating birds from the westernmost point of Jutland, Blaevandshuk. To describe the numbers and distributions of birds staging and wintering in the Horns Rev area, bird investigations were initiated in 1999 by using standardised transect counts from aircraft. Up to April 2002, 18 aerial counts have been carried out over an area of c. 1,700 km 2 centred on the Horns Rev project area. (au)

  8. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev: results and conclusions 2000/2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the combined results of two years of base-line investigations of birds performed during August 1999 - April 2001 in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 13 aerial surveys, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers occurring on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although the common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affects less than 1% of the different species, except divers of which 1.65% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrate through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with less pronounced variation in

  9. Utilização do planejamento experimental em rede simplex no estudo de resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler para obtenção de máxima compacidade Use of simplex lattice experimental design in the study of ornamental rock waste as filler to obtain maximum compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Destefani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de agregados industrializados vem crescendo ao longo dos anos para atender a grande demanda da construção civil devido ao crescimento econômico do país. O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar o planejamento experimental em Rede Simplex para avaliar o efeito da adição do resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler na composição de misturas ternárias (brita 0, pó de pedra e resíduo, que levem a máxima compacidade (densidade seca aparente máxima. Foram tomados dezesseis pontos experimentais, cujos teores dos materiais utilizados variaram de 0 a 100%. O modelo em rede simplex cúbico completo apresentou melhor ajuste aos resultados experimentais, o qual resulta em respostas estatisticamente mais adequadas para as composições estudadas. A superfície de resposta gerada indicou que a densidade seca aparente máxima de 2,0 g/cm³ foi obtida para a composição ternária: 63% de brita 0/17% de pó de pedra/20% de resíduo de rocha ornamental. Portanto, o uso de resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler em agregados para a construção civil pode ser uma alternativa viável para deposição final deste abundante resíduo de forma ambientalmente correta.The use of industrial aggregates has grown over the years to meet the great demand of the civil construction due to the country's economical growth. The aim of this work was to use the experimental design in Simplex Lattice to evaluate the effect of the addition of ornamental rock waste as filler in the composition of ternary mixtures (crushed rock 0, stone powder, rock waste, leading to maximum compaction (maximum apparent dry density. Sixteen experimental points were taken, whose contents of the used materials ranged from 0 to 100%. The complete cubic simplex model showed to best fit to the experimental results, which results in more statistically appropriated responses to the studied compositions. The response surface generated indicated that the maximum apparent dry density (2

  10. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  11. Base-line investigations of birds in relation to an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, and results from the year of construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2003-04-15

    The present report presents the base-line investigations of birds conducted during August 1999-April 2001 in relation to construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, 14 km west-south-west of Blaevandshuk, in the Danish North Sea. The report also presents data collected during the period September 2001-April 2002, when construction of the wind farm was in progress. The wind farm will consist of 80 wind turbines, each of 2 MW, and cover an area of c. 20 km{sup 2}. The eastern part of the North Sea constitutes major staging and wintering grounds for huge numbers of water- and seabirds. The area is also known to be an important site for migrating birds, which especially in autumn pass in large numbers. As Denmark has obligations to protect and maintain the bird populations it was laid down in the approval for erection of the wind farm that the impact on birds should be investigated. According to the 1% criteria defined in the Ramsar Convention, the eastern part of the North Sea including the wind farm area is of international importance to divers, Common Tern, and Sandwich Tern. A number of other species, e.g. Common Eider, Common Scoter, Guillemot and Razorbill, are present in the area in significant numbers as well, though these numbers do not make up 1% of the populations. Detailed distributions of birds in the area around and at Horns Rev were virtually unknown until initiation of this project. Previous bird counts in this area have been carried out almost exclusively from the coast and detailed knowledge exists concerning the numbers of roosting at and migrating birds from the westernmost point of Jutland, Blaevandshuk. To describe the numbers and distributions of birds staging and wintering in the Horns Rev area, bird investigations were initiated in 1999 by using standardised transect counts from aircraft. Up to April 2002, 18 aerial counts have been carried out over an area of c. 1,700 km{sup 2} centred on the Horns Rev project area. (au)

  12. Intraspecific variation in egg size and egg composition in birds: effects on offspring fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T D

    1994-02-01

    1. There is little unequivocal evidence to date in support of a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness in birds. Although 40 studies (of 34 species) have considered the effect of variation in egg size on chick growth and/or survival up to fledgling only 12 studies have controlled for other characters potentially correlated both with egg size and offspring fitness. Of these only two have reported a significant residual effect of egg size on chick growth (in the roseate tern and European blackbird) and three a residual effect on chick survival (all in seabirds: common tern, lesser black-backed gull and kittiwake). 2. More consistent evidence exists, though from fewer studies, for a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness early in the chick-rearing period; chick growth and chick survival being dependent on egg size in 8 of 10 studies and 4 of 5 studies respectively. It is suggested that the most important effect of variation in egg size might be in determining the probability of offspring survival in the first few days after hatching. 3. Egg size explains on average 66% of the variation in chick mass at hatching (n = 35 studies) but only 30% of the variation in chick body size (n = 18). When effects of hatching body size are controlled for chick mass remains significantly correlated with egg size, though the reverse is not true. This supports the hypothesis that large eggs give rise to heavier chicks at hatching, i.e., chicks with more nutrient (yolk) reserves, rather than structurally larger chicks. 4. Egg composition increased isometrically with increasing egg size in about half the studies so far reported (n equals approximately 20). However, in seabirds, and some passerines, larger eggs contain disproportionately more albumen, whilst in some waterfowl percentage yolk content increases with increasing egg size. Changes in albumen content largely reflect variation in the water content of eggs, but changes in yolk content

  13. A Comprehensive Survey of Pelagic Megafauna: Their Distribution, Densities, and Taxonomic Richness in the Tropical Southwest Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Laran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and density of pelagic megafauna (marine mammals, seabirds, elasmobranches, and sea turtles are important indicators of marine biodiversity, reflecting the condition of the underlying ecosystems. A dedicated aerial survey was conducted in the tropical Southwest Indian Ocean to map their distribution, the taxonomic diversity, and to estimate their densities to serve as a baseline for the area. This large survey across three ecological sub-regions revealed contrasting spatial distributions: maps of taxonomic richness of marine mammals and seabirds revealed different “hotspots” in the area. Densities were estimated for eight cetacean taxa with small and large Delphininae, or small Globicephalinae dominating, and for seven seabird taxa, with terns and noddies dominating. At the community level, the Southwest Indian Ocean megafauna was structured by the marine environment with strong differences between the Mozambique Channel and the Mascarene Islands, or between shelf and slope/oceanic habitats. Our results illustrate how multi-taxa aerial surveys are relevant and cost-effective monitoring tools for marine megafauna, allowing a community-wide approach.

  14. Statistical Analysis of the Reflectivity of a Heliostats Field. Application to the CR S Heliostats Field of the Plataforma Solar de Almeria; Analisis Estadistico de la Reflectividad de un Campo de Heliostatos CRS de la Plataforma Solar de Almeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Reche, J.

    2003-07-01

    Reflectivity measuring in a heliostats field of a solar central tower is a task that should performed periodically. The reflectivity of the field is a value that should be known to evaluate the system, moreover it plays an important role in several simulation codes which are useful for the daily operation of the system. When the size of the heliostats field increases (terns of heliostats) it is necessary to find a method, due to operability reasons, that allows us to offer a reflectivity value measuring only in fe facets guaranteeing that the statistical error of this value is within a reasonable range. In this report a statistical analysis of the reflectivity in a heliostats field is presented. The analysis was particularized for the CRS heliostats field of the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. The results of the present study allow us to guarantee a reflectivity value of the heliostats field with a statistical error below 1% measuring only 12 facets (instead of the 1116 facets that compose the field). (Author) 6 refs.

  15. Monitoring of Space and Earth electromagnetic environment by MAGDAS project: Collaboration with IKIR - Introduction to ICSWSE/MAGDAS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikawa Akimasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For study of coupling processes in the Solar-Terrestrial System, International Center for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE, Kyushu University has developed a real time magnetic data acquisition system (the MAGDAS project around the world. The number of observational sites is increasing every year with the collaboration of host countries. Now at this time, the MAGDAS Project has installed 78 real time magnetometers – so it is the largest magnetometer array in the world. The history of global observation at Kyushu University is over 30 years and number of developed observational sites is over 140. Especially, Collaboration between IKIR is extended back to 1990's. Now a time, we are operating Flux-gate magnetometer and FM-CW Radar. It is one of most important collaboration for space weather monitoring. By using MAGDAS data, ICSWSE produces many types of space weather index, such as EE-index (for monitoring long tern and shot term variation of equatorial electrojet, Pc5 index (for monitoring solar-wind velocity and high energy electron flux, Sq-index (for monitoring global change of ionospheric low and middle latitudinal current system, and Pc3 index (for monitoring of plasma density variation at low latitudes. In this report, we will introduce recent development of MAGDAS/ICSWSE Indexes project and topics for new open policy for MAGDAS data will be also discussed.

  16. Measurement of infinite dilution activity coefficient and application of modified ASOG model for solvent-polymer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.; Choi, J. [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tochigi, K.; Kojima, K. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-20

    A gas chromatographic method was used in order to measure vapor-liquid equilibria for solvent (1)-polymer (2) systems in which the polymers were polystyrene, poly(a-methyl) styrene and the advents were benzene toluene cyclohexane methylisobutylketone, ethylacetate, and vinylacetate. The activity coefficients of solvents for solvent (1)-polymer (2) systems were measured at infinite dilution and the modified ASOG (Analytical Solution of Group) model was suggested to describe vapor-liquid equilibria of those systems within a range of temperatures 423.15K through 498.15K. The model consists of the original ASOG and the free volume term. An external degree of freedom in the free volume term empirically became to a C1={alpha}+{beta}/T as a function of temperature. Each tern in the modified ASOG model is based on the weight fraction. The external degree of freedom in the model was estimated by experimental data within a range of temperatures. As a result of doing it the infinite dilution activity coefficients calculated were agreed with the experimental data within an error of 0.1%. 27 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Spin-one top partner: phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack H.; Jain, Bithika; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le

    2014-08-01

    Cai, Cheng, and Terning (CCT) suggested a model in which the left-handed top quark is identified with a gaugino of an extended gauge group, and its superpartner is a spin-1 particle. We perform a phenomenological analysis of this model, with a focus on the spin-1 top partner, which we dub the "swan". We find that precision electroweak fits, together with direct searches for Z ' bosons at the LHC, place a lower bound of at least about 4.5 TeV on the swan mass. An even stronger bound, 10 TeV or above, applies in most of the parameter space, mainly due to the fact that the swan is typically predicted to be significantly heavier than the Z '. We find that the 125 GeV Higgs can be easily accommodated in this model with non-decoupling D-terms. In spite of the strong lower bound on the swan mass, we find that corrections to Higgs couplings to photons and gluons induced by swan loops are potentially observable at future Higgs factories. We also briefly discuss the prospects for discovering a swan at the proposed 100 TeV pp collider.

  18. Status and distribution of migrating and breeding marine birds in north Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarade, Gh.R.

    2017-01-01

    The study of marine birds in the northern part of Lebanon recorded 2681 individuals, distributed over 86 species. Among them 35 are foreshore species, 18 coastal, 6 maritime, 9 ducks, 6 herons, 9 various saltwater related species and 3 terrestrial. The highest density is shown by the yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis and common blackheaded gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus. The globally vulnerable yelkouan shearwater Puffinus yelkouan, an endemic species to the Mediterranean, appears on the 9th rank in the classification of seabird species from the more to the least abundant, highlighting as such, beside other 6 globally near threatened species, the role that Lebanon can play in improving the conservation status of these species. Regarding the phenological status of species, 48 are passage migrant/winter visitors, 31 passage migrants, 5 winter visitors and 2 vagrant species. The surveys revealed that three coastal seabird species (Armenian gull Larus armenicus, slender-billed gull Chroicocephalus genei and sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis) and one ubiquist species (Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria) are not rare as it was believed in previous papers but fairly common winter visitors. The study identified the yellow-legged gull breeding population to be 160 couples, and confirmed the second and third breeding records of the little ringed plover Charadrius dubius.(author)

  19. Sal de iodônio aumenta a resistência coesiva de uma resina adesiva experimental na presença de solvente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda B. Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o efeito da concentração de solvente na resistência coesiva de um adesivo experimental contendo um derivado do difeniliodônio. Uma blenda monomérica baseada em Bis-GMA, TEGDMA e HEMA foi utilizada como resina adesiva modelo. Foram avaliados dois sistemas de fotoiniciação: um sistema bináriocanforquinona (CQ e etil 4-dimetilamino benzoato (EDAB] e um sistema ternário [CQ, EDAB e hexafluorfosfato de difeniliodônio (DPI]. Nestas resinas foram adicionadas diferentes concentrações de etanol, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40% e teste de resistência coesiva foi utilizado para investigar o efeito deste solvente sobre as propriedades do material. A presença de solvente reduziu a resistência coesiva do polímero, independentemente do sistema de fotoiniciação utilizado. Além disso, o uso do sal de iodônio no sistema de fotoiniciação aumentou a resistência coesiva quando comparado com o sistema binário, e independentemente da concentração de solvente, a resistência coesiva dos polímeros contendo difeniliodônio foi superior à do sistema binário de fotoiniciação.

  20. Yolk formation in some Charadriiform birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudybush, T.E.; Grau, C.R.; Petersen, M.R.; Ainley, D.G.; Hirsch, K.V.; Gilman, A.P.; Patten, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    By counting and measuring the major ova of breeding birds at autopsy and combining these data with time intervals between ovipositions, rough estimates have been made of the time required to form yolk in some non-captive birds (King 1973). Direct studies have been made in domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus; Gilbert 1972), turkeys (Meleagris galloparvo; Bacon and Cherms 1968), and Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; Bacon and Koontz 1971), by feeding the birds a capsule containing dye each day, and counting dye rings in the yolks after the eggs have been hardcooked. Recently developed methods of fixing and staining eggs have revealed differences in yolk deposited during day and night, thus permitting another estimation of the number of days during which yolk was deposited, and without direct contact with the female (Grau 1976). In eggs from chickens and quail that have been fed dyes, yolk that stained darkly with dichromate was shown to be deposited during the active daytime feeding periods, while pale-staining yolk was deposited during the night. Thus, pairs of light and dark rings, which together take a day to be deposited, may be counted to estimate time of yolk formation.In the present study we have applied the yolk ring method of estimating the number of days during which the bulk of the yolk is deposited around the central white core (Grau 1976) to the eggs of some shorebirds, gulls, terns and alcids.

  1. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Compression-after-Impact Test of Nano-Particles-Coated CFRP Damaged by Simulated Lightning Strikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Je Ha; Kwon, Oh Yang; Seo, Seong Wook [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Nanoparticles-coated and impact-damaged carbon-fiber reinforced plastics(CFRP) laminates were tested under compression-after-impact(CAI) mode and the propagation of damage due to compressive loading has been monitored by acoustic emission(AE). The impact damage was induced not by mechanical loading but by a simulated lightning strike. CFRP laminates were made of carbon prepregs prepared by coating of conductive nano-particles directly on the fibers and the coupons were subjected to simulated lightning strikes with a high voltage/current impulse of 10{approx}40 kA within a few microseconds. The effects of nano-particles coating and the degree of damage induced by the simulated lightning strikes on the AE activities were examined, and the relationship between the compressive residual strength and AE behavior has been evaluated in terms of AE event counts and the onset of AE activity with the compressive loading. The degree of impact damage was also measured in terns of damage area by using ultrasonic C-scan images. From the results assessed during the CAI tests of damaged CFRP showed that AE monitoring appeared to be very useful to differentiate the degree of damage hence the mechanical integrity of composite structures damaged by lightning strikes

  2. Miljøundersøgelser ved Maarmorilik 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, P.; Riget, F.; Asmund, G.

    Produktionen i bly-zink minevirksomheden i Maarmorilik ophørte i 1990. Miljøtilstanden i området er siden blevet undersøgt årligt ved indsamling og analyse for bly og zink i havvand samt lav og dyr fra området. Denne rapport præsenterer resulta-terne af de undersøgelser, som blev udført i 1997. I...... forhold til tidligere år var undersøgelserne i 1997 af mindre omfang, idet nogle elementer i det undersøgelsesprogram, som er planlagt udført efter minens lukning, ikke udføres hvert år. Spredning af bly og zink med støv fra minevirksomheden er undersøgt ved at indsamle og analysere lavarten Cetraria...... fleste tilfælde tydeligt lavere end i det lav, der naturligt vokser på den pågældende station. Forklaringen herpå er sandsynligvis, at det bly og zink der måles i naturligt voksende lav er akkumuleret i lavet over flere år, mens det der måles i transplanteret lav fortrinsvis repræsenterer det metal, der...

  3. 18 month observational study on efficacy of intraarticular hyaluronic acid (Hylan G-F 20 injections under ultrasound guidance in hip osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Padalino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and the tolerability of viscosupplementation (VS with hyaluronic acid (Hylan GF 20 in a cohort of 36 patients affected by hip osteoarthritis through a 18 months follow-up. Methods: Viscosupplementation was performed with an anteriorsagittal approach, under ultrasound guidance. 36 patients were administered hyaluronic acid intraarticularly in the hip, with a unique injection of Hylan G-F20, which could be repeated after at least 3 months. Treatment efficacy was assessed by functional index WOMAC, pain evaluation on a visual analogue scale and NSAID consumption. All such parameters were recorded at the time of the first injection and then 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months later. Results: Statistically significant reduction of all parameters was observed three months after the injection, and was still maintained at the timepoints 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. No local side effects have been observed, nor systemic complications. Conclusions: Our data show that viscosupplementation is a promising approach for hip osteoarthritis, providing beneficial effects in a long-tern follow up. Yet, the topic deserves further and wider studies, so to define the number of injections to administer and suggest a fit interval between subsequent injections.

  4. Validation of quantitative analysis method for triamcinolone in ternary complexes by UV-Vis spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE DARLOS A. AQUINO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Triamcinolone (TRI, a drug widely used in the treatment of ocular inflammatory diseases, is practically insoluble in water, which limits its use in eye drops. Cyclodextrins (CDs have been used to increase the solubility or dissolution rate of drugs. The purpose of the present study was to validate a UV-Vis spectrophotometric method for quantitative analysis of TRI in inclusion complexes with beta-cyclodextrin (B-CD associated with triethanolamine (TEA (ternary complex. The proposed analytical method was validated with respect to the parameters established by the Brazilian regulatory National Agency of Sanitary Monitoring (ANVISA. The analytical measurements of absorbance were made at 242nm, at room temperature, in a 1-cm path-length cuvette. The precision and accuracy studies were performed at five concentration levels (4, 8, 12, 18 and 20μg.mL-1. The B-CD associated with TEA did not provoke any alteration in the photochemical behavior of TRI. The results for the measured analytical parameters showed the success of the method. The standard curve was linear (r2 > 0.999 in the concentration range from 2 to 24 μg.mL-1. The method achieved good precision levels in the inter-day (relative standard deviation-RSD <3.4% and reproducibility (RSD <3.8% tests. The accuracy was about 80% and the pH changes introduced in the robustness study did not reveal any relevant interference at any of the studied concentrations. The experimental results demonstrate a simple, rapid and affordable UV-Vis spectrophotometric method that could be applied to the quantitation of TRI in this ternary complex. Keywords: Validation. Triamcinolone. Beta-cyclodextrin. UV- Vis spectrophotometry. Ternary complexes. RESUMO Validação de método de análise quantitativa para a triancinolona a partir de complexo ternário por espectrofotometria de UV-Vis A triancinolona (TRI é um fármaco amplamente utilizado no tratamento de doenças inflamatórias do globo ocular e

  5. Book review: Implementing the Endangered Species Act on the Platte Basin water commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The Platte River is a unique midcontinent ecosystem that is world-renowned for its natural resources, particularly the spectacular spring concentrations of migratory birds, such as sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis), ducks, and geese. The Platte River basin also provides habitat for four federally listed endangered or threatened species—interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos), piping plover (Charadrius melodus), whooping crane (G. americana), and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)—that require specific hydrological conditions in order for habitat to be suitable. Flows on the Platte River are subject to regulation by a number of dams, and it is heavily relied upon for irrigation in Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. Accordingly, it also has become a political battleground for the simple reason that the demand for water exceeds supply. David Freeman’s book takes a detailed look at water-use issues on the Platte River, focusing on how implementation of the Endangered Species Act influences decision-making about water allocations. 

  6. The Risk of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Facilitating Tumors in Hawaiian Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muting Yan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hawaiian green turtle (Chelonia mydas is on the list of threatened species protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 1978 in large part due to a severe tumor-forming disease named fibropapillomatosis. Chemical pollution is a prime suspect threatening the survival of C. mydas. In this study, PCBs concentrations were determined in 43 C. mydas plasma samples archived on Tern Island. The total PCBs concentration in male C. mydas (mean 1.10 ng/mL was two times more than that of females (mean 0.43 ng/mL. The relationship between straight carapace length and PCBs concentration in females has also been studied, which was negatively related. To figure out the possible existence of correlations between PCBs and tumor status, we measured the PCBs concentration in turtles with no tumor, moderate or severe tumor affliction. PCBs concentration of two afflicted groups was much higher than the healthy group, suggesting that PCBs may play a role in fibropapillomatosis in Hawaiian green turtle.

  7. Mercury and selenium contamination in waterbird eggs and risk to avian reproduction at Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Isanhart, John P.; Herring, Garth; Vaughn, Sharon; Cavitt, John F.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Browers, Howard; Cline, Chris; Vest, Josh

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem are recognized regionally, nationally, and hemispherically for their importance as breeding, wintering, and migratory habitat for diverse groups of waterbirds. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge is the largest freshwater component of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem and provides critical breeding habitat for more than 60 bird species. However, the Great Salt Lake ecosystem also has a history of both mercury and selenium contamination, and this pollution could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of mercury and selenium contamination to birds breeding within Great Salt Lake, especially at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, and to identify the waterbird species and areas at greatest risk to contamination. We sampled eggs from 33 species of birds breeding within wetlands of Great Salt Lake during 2010 ̶ 2012 and focused on American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) for additional studies of the effects of contaminants on reproduction.

  8. Mediegenre, identifikation og reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Frandsen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available I artiklen sætter forfatterne fokus på forholdet mellem personer, der ser på personer i tv. Udgangspunktet er receptionsanalysen og den motiva- tion for tv-sening, der er forbundet med, at tv-seere relaterer sig til og identificerer sig med personer, der optræder på tv (tv-værter, medvir- kende osv.. Med afsæt i en funktionsorienteret definition af genrebe- grebet (forskellige genrer etablerer forskellige forventninger, indlevel- ser osv. hos modtageren gennemgår forfatterne forskellige teoretiske positioner, der hver især byder på forskellige forestillinger om forholdet (medie-tekst og modtageren. Det drejer sig om psykosemiotik,kogniti- onsteori, parasocial interaktionsteori, mikrosociologisk medieteori og spilteori, som alle har et mere eller mindre eksplicit bud på, hvordan medie og modtagere etablerer relationer som en central del af medie- brugerens motivationer og oplevelser. De forskellige teorier om identi- fikation danner ifølge forfatterne et kontinuum, spændende fra teorier om den stærke indlevelse til den mere overfladiske indlevelse. Forfat- terne advokerer for en mere nuanceret brug af begrebet identifikation, til forskel fra en generel brug af begrebet, som ikke medreflekterer de forskellige teoridannelsers forskellige syn på f.eks. magtforholdet mel- lem medie og modtager, og som derfor kan have store konsekvenser for analysens resultater.

  9. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Juáres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seabird abundances and breeding distribution have the potential to serve as ecological indicators. The western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the three sites in the world with the greatest increases in local temperature during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to monitor the distribution and abundance of breeding populations of seabirds in the northern sector of the Danco Coast, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, during the breeding season 2010/11. The birds were the Wilson′s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus, South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki, kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern (Sterna vittata, snowy sheathbill (Chionis alba, chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica, southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus, gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Cape petrel (Daption capense and Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis. Annual breeding population growth increased in pygoscelids, southern giant petrel and sheathbill, and for the remaining species, breeding population trends were stable. Given that seabird populations can provide valuable information on the conditions of their feeding and nesting environments, this study highlights the need to maintain basics monitoring studies.

  10. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  11. Vývoj kompozitních maltových a cementových směsí

    OpenAIRE

    Hlavinková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Předkládaná diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem složení a studiem vlastností ternárního pojivého systému na bázi účelového vzniku ettringitu, následně užitého k přípravě samonivelačních podlahových hmot typu potěr a stěrka. U navržených skladeb daných směsí je posléze zaměřena pozornost na optimalizaci dávkování dvou druhů plastifikační přísady s následným posouzením jejich vlivu na technologické vlastnosti těchto hmot. This diploma thesis deals with the design of composition and the study o...

  12. Burst-suppression pattern in the electroencephalogram of newborns and infants. Its clinical expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Blanco Jorge Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Burst-suppression pattern in the electroencephalogram (EEG is associated with severe brain damage and has a bad prognosis in 85% of the cases. Objectives. To identify the prevalence of the EEG burst-suppression pattern (BSP in fullterm newborns and infants, determine its etiol- ogy, clinical features and course. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 4,891 EEGs were reviewed. The EEGs of newborns and infants (< 3 months of age with BSP were selected. Results. 11 cases identified with burst suppression pattern. The overall prevalence of which was 3.5%; 8.1% among the newborns and 1.2% among infants. Seizures were the main reason for doing an EEG in the newborn period in 7 patients and after day 28 in three. The clinical manifestations were abnormal level of consciousness (n=8, hypotonia (n=2, and spasticity (n=6. The main causes were hypoxic ischemic injury, stroke and kernicterus. There were two cases of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Two patients died before the third month of age; 8 survived an average of 13 months. All had epilepsy, neurologic retardation and disability. Two patients had persistent EEG burst-suppression pattern; 1 and 3 months after the neonatal period respectively; 7 had focal spikes and an asymmetric pattern. Conclusions. Electroencephalographic burst-suppression pat- tern predicts a severe neurologic injury in fullterm newborns and infants.

  13. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  14. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    2012-01-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investi......The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work...... is to investigate the blood flow pat- terns within a group of healthy volunteers (4 females, 7 males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry...... to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender is observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development....

  15. Estimation of best parents parents and superior cross combinations for yield and fiber quality related traits in upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, S.; Khan, T.M.; Ijaz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Combining ability was studied for identification of potential cultivars and hybrids in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in a 6x6 set of diallel crosses among six genotypes of cotton, i.e., VH-232, CRS-2007, SB-149, GR-156, FH-207, and MARVI carried out on fiber length, fiber fineness, fiber elongation, fiber strength, ginning out tern (GOT) and seed cotton yield. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p < 0.01) differences among the genotypes for all traits. Combining ability studies showed that the mean squares, due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal effects were highly significant in F1 generation. Genetic components, due to GCA and SCA, revealed that traits, such as, fiber length, strength and fineness, showed high proportion of additive type of gene action in F1 generation because of greater GCA variances were greater than SCA variance. GR-156 was the best combiner for lint percentage and fiber length. FH-207 was the best combiner for fiber fineness. FH-207, MARVI and SB-149 were the best general combiners for fiber character and were suggested to be used in future breeding programme to improve fiber quality traits. CRS-2007 x GR-156, CRS-2007 x MARVI, SB-149 x MARVI and VH-232 x SB-149 had higher specific combining ability and reciprocal effects and they can be used for future breeding programme to improve fiber quality. (author)

  16. Factors Affecting Element Concentrations in Eggshells of Three Sympatrically Nesting Waterbirds in Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitowski, Ignacy; Jakubas, Dariusz; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Wiącek, Dariusz

    2018-02-01

    Avian eggshells are convenient samples in biomonitoring studies, because they are easily accessible, especially from colonially or semicolonially breeding birds. In the present study, concentrations of 17 elements, including heavy metals and essential elements in post-hatch eggshells, were compared among three species of waterbirds of differing strategies for gaining reserves for egg production and diet: mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (ML, a capital breeder, mainly herbivorous), common tern, Sterna hirundo (CT, an income breeder, piscivorous) and black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus (BHG, mixed strategy, omnivorous) and breeding sympatrically in three sites in North Poland. Analyses revealed that Fe, Zn, and Cu levels differed the most in the studied species, which may be explained by various contributions of fish, aquatic plants, and soil invertebrates in their diets. Generally, the studied species' eggshells accumulated amounts of elements comparable to those reported for other waterbirds without putting the growth and development of the embryo at risk. The only exception was very high levels of Cr in ML and CT, which may be explained by their foraging on aquatic organisms in waterbodies polluted by this element. Intersite differences in eggshell concentrations of Ni, Sr, Hg and Cr in CT (an income breeder) may be explained by the influence of local pollution sources (small factories, polluted river).

  17. Social stereotypes in realities of modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. K. Kolisnyk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the social stereotypes as a stable emotional image of the nowadays social reality. It is a kind of the common and effective ways to use the manipulation technology to impact on society. This kind of interaction could made a transformation of social identities, spreading different forms of intolerance, creating phantom world. Making the analysis of this phenomenon of social reality is a real way to reduce social risks and unforeseen conflicts in society. It is noted that stereotypical thinking making perception of reality in some special way, offering of tern an illusion of reality, instead of an objective information. Subjects of social interactions should recognize and consciously abandon them in favor of perception of reality in its undistorted not limited form of social stereotypes that goes beyond the usual concepts or contradict them. However, this phenomenon is ambivalent  and not only has a negative side. The positive expression of stereotypical thinking is that it simplifies the processes of learning and creativity, allowing extensive use of existing knowledge, which is actually a complex set of stereotypes.

  18. On the Frontier: Analytical Chemistry and the Occurrence of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    While environmental scientists focused on industrial and agricultural pollutants (e.g. PCBs, volatile organics, dioxins, benzene, DDT) in the 1970’s and 1980’s, overlooked was the subtle connection between personal human activities, such as drug consumption, and the subsequent release of anthropogenic drugs and drug metabolites into the natural environment. There was evidence of this possible connection nearly 30 years ago when Garrison et al. (1976) reported the detection of clofibric acid (the bioactive metabolite from a series of serum triglyceride-lowering drugs) in a groundwater reservoir that had been recharged with treated wastewater.(Garrison et al. 1976) A year later Hignite and Azarnoff (1977) reported finding aspirin, caffeine, and nicotine in wastewater effluent, and then Watts et al. (1983) reported the presence of three pharmaceuticals (erythromycin, tetracycline, and theophylline), bisphenol A and other suspected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in a river water sample.(Hignite and Azarnoff, 1977; Watts et al. 1983) Following those three journal articles there, nothing was published for nearly a decade regarding the drug-human-environmental connection. Renewed interest in the subject was reported by Daughton and Ternes’s seminal and authoritative work published in 1999.(Daughton and Ternes, 1999) Since the 1999 publication of Daughton and Ternes’s, the number of publications from the scientific community regarding the human drug c

  19. Avian predation on juvenile salmonids in the Lower Columbia River; 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results

  20. Coastal vertebrate exposure to predicted habitat changes due to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel; Moore, Clinton; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species’ fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species’ foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  1. Multispecies benefits of wetland conservation for marsh birds, frogs, and species at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Douglas C; Steele, Owen; Gloutney, Mark

    2018-04-15

    Wetlands conserved using water level manipulation, cattle exclusion, naturalization of uplands, and other techniques under the North American Waterfowl Management Plan ("conservation project wetlands") are important for ducks, geese, and swans ("waterfowl"). However, the assumption that conservation actions for waterfowl also benefit other wildlife is rarely quantified. We modeled detection and occupancy of species at sites within 42 conservation project wetlands compared to sites within 52 similar nearby unmanaged wetlands throughout southern Ontario, Canada, and small portions of the adjacent U.S., using citizen science data collected by Bird Studies Canada's Great Lakes Marsh Monitoring Program, including 2 waterfowl and 13 non-waterfowl marsh-breeding bird species (n = 413 sites) and 7 marsh-breeding frog species (n = 191 sites). Occupancy was significantly greater at conservation project sites compared to unmanaged sites in 7 of 15 (47%) bird species and 3 of 7 (43%) frog species, with occupancy being higher by a difference of 0.12-0.38 across species. Notably, occupancy of priority conservation concern or at-risk Black Tern (Chlidonias niger), Common Gallinule (Gallinula galeata), Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), Sora (Porzana carolina), and Western Chorus Frog (Pseudacris triseriata) was significantly higher at conservation project sites compared to unmanaged sites. The results demonstrate the utility of citizen science to inform wetland conservation, and suggest that actions under the North American Waterfowl Management Plan are effective for conserving non-waterfowl species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring of Space and Earth electromagnetic environment by MAGDAS project: Collaboration with IKIR - Introduction to ICSWSE/MAGDAS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akimasa; Fujimoto, Akiko; Ikeda, Akihiro; Uozumi, Teiji; Abe, Shuji

    2017-10-01

    For study of coupling processes in the Solar-Terrestrial System, International Center for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE), Kyushu University has developed a real time magnetic data acquisition system (the MAGDAS project) around the world. The number of observational sites is increasing every year with the collaboration of host countries. Now at this time, the MAGDAS Project has installed 78 real time magnetometers - so it is the largest magnetometer array in the world. The history of global observation at Kyushu University is over 30 years and number of developed observational sites is over 140. Especially, Collaboration between IKIR is extended back to 1990's. Now a time, we are operating Flux-gate magnetometer and FM-CW Radar. It is one of most important collaboration for space weather monitoring. By using MAGDAS data, ICSWSE produces many types of space weather index, such as EE-index (for monitoring long tern and shot term variation of equatorial electrojet), Pc5 index (for monitoring solar-wind velocity and high energy electron flux), Sq-index (for monitoring global change of ionospheric low and middle latitudinal current system), and Pc3 index (for monitoring of plasma density variation at low latitudes). In this report, we will introduce recent development of MAGDAS/ICSWSE Indexes project and topics for new open policy for MAGDAS data will be also discussed.

  3. Paired comparison of iopamidol and iopromide in hepatic arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Ho; Chung, Jin Wook; Choi, Guk Myung; Yoon, Chang Jin; Kim, Keon Ha; Moon, Seung Gyu; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung

    2003-01-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy of iopamidol 370 and iopromide 370, as used in hepatic arteriography, in terms of their safety, patient tolerance, and image quality. Between February and April 2001, 30 patients (M:F=27:3; mean age, 57 years) with hepatocellular carcinoma underwent hepatic angiography in which iopamidol 370 was used for transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TAE). Sensations of heat or pain following contrast injection, a patient's distress or discomfort levels, and any side effects of the contrast media were monitored, and afterwards patients were asked whether they were aware of any differences between iopamidol 370 and iopromide 370, which had been used in hepatic angiography for previous TAE prior to February 2001. Three experienced independent radiologists assessed the diagnostic efficacy of the contrast media in terms of overall image quality, which was statistically analysed using Wilcoxon's signed ranks test. No patient experienced sensations of heat or pain during angiography, or showed any objective distress or discomfort, though two suffered mild nausea during angiography with iopamidol 370. None was aware of any difference between iopromide 370 and iopamidol 370. In terms of overall image quality, the diagnostic efficacy of contrast media in all patients was 'good' to 'excellent', with no significant difference between iopromide 370 and iopamidol 370 (p>0.05). In hepatic arteriography, the clinical efficacy of iopamidol 370 is comparable with that of another nonionic contrast medium, iopromide 370, in terns of safety, tolerance, and image quality. Iopamidol 370 is thus a useful alternative medium

  4. Rare birds in Slovenia in 2016 – Slovenian Rarities Committee Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanžel Jurij

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This report by the Slovenian Rarities Committee presents records of rare bird species in Slovenia in 2016, with some addenda for previous years. The numbers in brackets refer to the number of records (first number and individuals (second number recorded between 1 Jan 1950 and 31 Dec 2015. Since 1 Jan 2013, submission to the Committee has been required for 37 additional species, 17 of which are regional rarities. Records of these species are not numbered, since records from previous years were not collected by the Committee. Two new species, Scopoli’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea and Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea, were added to Category A. Other notable observations were the second record of Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes, third and fourth records of Pallid Swift Apus pallidus, fifth to seventh records of Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus and the sixth and seventh records of Gannet Morus bassanus. Twelve records of Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus are an all-time annual high. Among Category E species, the Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus was recorded for the second time. The list of birds recorded in Slovenia (as of 31 Dec 2016 contains 388 species (373 in Category A, 6 in Category B, 9 exclusively in Category C; 4 species are both in Categories A and C. Category D contains 6 species, while Category E contains 38, two of which are classified into Subcategory E*. These two categories are not part of the list.

  5. Differences in center of pressure trajectory between normal and steppage gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Jamshidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This pilot study aimed to assess the differences in center of pressure trajectory in neuropathic patients with steppage gait. Steppage gait has previously been evaluated by several biomechanical methods, but plantar pressure distribution has been much less studied. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in center of pressure tra-jectory using a force plate. Methods: The steppage gait group was selected from the patients using drop foot brace (25 male and the control group was selected from Isfahan university students (20 male. They walked at self- selected speed at a mean of ten tri-als (+2 to collect the center of pressure using a force plate. Center of pressure patterns were categorized into four pat-terns based on the center of pressure displacement magnitude (spatial features through time (temporal features when the longitudinal axis of the insole was plotted as the Y- axis and the transverse axis of the insole as X- axis during stance phase. Results: The horizontal angle measured from center of pressure linear regression was positive in the control group (4.6 ± 2.4 (p < 0.005, but negative in the patient group (- 2.3 ± 1.6 (p < 0.005. Conclusions: The finding of this research measured center of pressure trajectory in steppage gait over time, which is useful for designing better shoe sole and also orthopaedic device and better understanding of stability in patients with drop foot.

  6. Threatened and Endangered Species Survey for Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddy, Donna M.; Stolen, Eric D.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Larson, Vickie L.; Hall, Patrice; Hensley, Melissa A.

    1997-01-01

    characteristic of species that occur in the Indian River Lagoon system. Twenty-five species of waterbirds were observed during quarterly surveys on PAFB, including five species listed as species of special concern by the state of Florida: Snowy Egret (Egretta thula), Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea), Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolo4, White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), and Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis). The Golf Course was used extensively by almost all species of waterbirds on PAFB. Twenty-two species of shorebirds were observed on PAFB. Although no listed species were observed, the potential exists for several protected species of shorebirds to use the beach at PAFB during some parts of the year. The Airfield runways and associated grass areas were important sites at PAFB for loafing and feeding for some shorebirds. Surveys of rooftop nesting by Least Terns (Stema antillarum) on PAFB found a large colony on a rooftop in the PAFB Industrial Area. This colony produced some independent young. Two rooftop Least Tern colonies reported from previous years were inactive during 1996. A small number of Black Skimmers (Rhynchops nigee attempted to nest at the Least Ten colony but were unsuccessful. Surveys for the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) revealed burrows and tortoises only at the Waste Study Site; five burrows and three tortoises were observed. No Florida scrub lizards (Sceloporus woodi), eastern indigo snakes (Drymarchon corais couperl), or diamondback terrapins (Malademys terrapin terrapin) were observed. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) were observed on the Golf Course and using ditches, ponds, and areas along the Banana River. The amount of dune habitat could be expanded by not mowing areas adjacent to the dunes to allow dune species to colonize and expand. Planting dune species as part of the beach renourishment project will also increase this habitat. Exotic plants dominate several areas on the base and are used by threatened, endangered, and

  7. The Migration Matrix: Marine Vertebrate Movements in Magnetic Coordinate Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Clapham, P. J.; Zerbini, A. N.; Andriolo, A.; Hays, G. C.; Egevang, C.; Domeier, M. L.; Lucas, N.

    2011-12-01

    Determining how vertebrates navigate during their long-distance migrations remains one of the most enduring and fundamental challenges of behavioral ecology. It is widely accepted that spatial orientation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and a variety of viable positional and directional orientation cues, including the sun, stars, and magnetic field, have been documented experimentally. However, a fundamental question remains unanswered: Are empirically observed migratory movements compatible with modern theoretical frameworks of spatial orientation? To address this question, we analysed leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), and great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) track maps, frequency distribution diagrams and time-series plots of animal locations in spherical magnetic coordinate space. Our analyses indicates that, although individual migration tracks are spatially and temporally distinct, vertebrate movements are non-randomly distributed in all three spherical magnetic coordinates (i.e. intensity, inclination, and declination). Stop-over locations, migratory destinations, and re-orientation points occur at similar magnetic coordinate locations, relative to tagging areas, in all four species, suggesting that a common system of magnetic orientation likely informs the navigational behaviors of these phylogenetically diverse taxa. Although our analyses demonstrate that the experiment-derived 'magnetic map' goal orientation theoretical framework of animal navigation is compatible with remotely-sensed migration track data, they also indicate that magnetic information is complemented by spatially and temporally contingent celestial stimuli during navigation.

  8. Atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast : pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kim, Myung Sook; Pae, Won Kil [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To correlate the atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast with the pathologic findings. Among 203 surgically proven 43 which were sonographically atypical fibroadenomas, were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for atypical variety, as seen on sonography, were an ill-defined margin, microlobulated or irregular shape, heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, microcalcification, and clefts. The atypical sonographic patterns of these 43 fibroadenomas were analysed and compared with the pathologic findings. Among 43 lesions, ill-defined margins or irregular shapes were seen in 15 cases, heterogeneous internal echo-patterns in 27, posterior attenuation in nine, and clefts in seven. Thirty-seven (86%) of the 43 were predominantly ductal or had a mixed ductal and stromal component. Eleven (73.3%) of fifteen ill-defined margin or irregular shaped lesions were caused by interdigitation of surrounding normal breast parenchyma and mass. Twenty two (81.5%) of 27 heterogeneous internal echo-pat-terns were related to dilated ducts, phyllodes features, collagen bundles, adenosis, microcalcification, or fat vacuoles. Eight (88.9%) of nine posterior attenuations were caused by collagen bundles, microcalcification, ductal proliferation or dilatation. All seven cases showing clefts revealed phyllodes features and dilated ducts. Most atypical fibroadenomas had a predominantly ductal or mixed component. Ill-defined margin or irregular shape was mainly due to interdigitation of normal surrounding parenchyma. Variable histologic features were related to the heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, and the clefts revealed by atypical sonographic findings.

  9. Atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast : pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Kim, Myung Sook; Pae, Won Kil

    1999-01-01

    To correlate the atypical sonographic patterns of fibroadenoma of the breast with the pathologic findings. Among 203 surgically proven 43 which were sonographically atypical fibroadenomas, were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for atypical variety, as seen on sonography, were an ill-defined margin, microlobulated or irregular shape, heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, microcalcification, and clefts. The atypical sonographic patterns of these 43 fibroadenomas were analysed and compared with the pathologic findings. Among 43 lesions, ill-defined margins or irregular shapes were seen in 15 cases, heterogeneous internal echo-patterns in 27, posterior attenuation in nine, and clefts in seven. Thirty-seven (86%) of the 43 were predominantly ductal or had a mixed ductal and stromal component. Eleven (73.3%) of fifteen ill-defined margin or irregular shaped lesions were caused by interdigitation of surrounding normal breast parenchyma and mass. Twenty two (81.5%) of 27 heterogeneous internal echo-pat-terns were related to dilated ducts, phyllodes features, collagen bundles, adenosis, microcalcification, or fat vacuoles. Eight (88.9%) of nine posterior attenuations were caused by collagen bundles, microcalcification, ductal proliferation or dilatation. All seven cases showing clefts revealed phyllodes features and dilated ducts. Most atypical fibroadenomas had a predominantly ductal or mixed component. Ill-defined margin or irregular shape was mainly due to interdigitation of normal surrounding parenchyma. Variable histologic features were related to the heterogeneous internal echo-pattern, posterior shadowing, and the clefts revealed by atypical sonographic findings

  10. Size fractionation and characterization of natural aquatic colloids and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalousha, M.; Lead, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image and quantify natural nanoparticles (prefiltered < 25 nm) from three different freshwater sites (Vale Lake, Bailey Brook and Tern Rivers). Four fractions were analysed by AFM; the prefiltered fraction (< 25 nm) and three fractions collected after separation of this prefiltered sample by flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) which corresponds to material which has size ranges of < 4.2 nm, 4.2-15.8 nm and 15.8-32.4 nm, as determined by FlFFF theory. The large majority of materials in all samples appeared as < 3 nm nanoparticles, nearly spherical and rich in chromophores active at 254 nm UV, which thus correspond to natural organic matter. However, nanoparticles were also imaged up to slightly more than 25 nm in size, indicating a slight disagreement in sizing between filtration and FlFFF. In addition, some particles in certain fractions were found to be covered with a thin film of less than 0.5-1.0 nm. Substantial differences between sites were observed

  11. Contribution of radiotherapy to the treatment of malignant tumors, 3. Combined drugs and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niibe, Hideo; Takahashi, Iku; Tamaki, Yoshio (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-09-01

    Effects of cytotoxic agent, hormone, hypoxic cell sensitizer, and radiation protector combined with radiation therapy in cancer management were analysed. The results were as follows: 1) An increase in response was seen in 25% or more of tumor nodules given radiotherapy combined with misonidazole, anoxic cell sensitizer, compared with radiotherpy alone. But the drug was also found to be neurotoxic and peripheral neuropathy. 2) Evidence has been given that Amifostine may protect the mucosal damage from radiation when Amifostine prior to irradiation was administrated to patients with tumor in the head and neck or in the pelvis. 3) There were no difference between five year survival of radiotherapy alone and with chemotherapy for patients with stage I Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Chemotherapy following radiotherapy for patients with stage II was more effective treatment method than radiotherapy alone. 4) Radiotherapy for patients with prostate cancer was performed to control only primary site. The success rates of local control were over 80%. The near future holds extensive promise for a combination of radiation therapy, cytotoxic chemotherapy, hormone therapy, hypoxic cell sensitizer, and radiation protectors. All of these when used in the appropriate circumstances may yield significant improvements in the therapeutic ratio and in the long-tern control of tumors.

  12. Combined Palmer Type 1A and 1B Traumatic Lesions of the Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex A New Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Erin; Ayalon, Omri; Yang, Steven

    2016-06-01

    We present a series of eight patients who underwent wrist arthroscopy for presumed solitary tears of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) and were, instead, found to have combined 1A (central tear) and 1B (ulnar avulsion) tears. The Palmer Classification does not currently categorize this combined pattern. All but one patient had a traumatic injury. Each subject had preoperative radiographs and MRI scans. TFC tears were evident on all MRI scans, though only one was suggestive of a combined tear pat - tern. Surgical management included arthroscopic central tear debridement and ulnar peripheral repair. Average follow-up was 22 months. Grip strength in the affected hand improved from 16% deficit as compared to the unaffected side, to 3.5% deficit postoperatively (p = 0.003), and visual analog scores (VAS) decreased from an average of 7.1/10 preoperatively to 2.3/10 postoperatively (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant change in wrist range of motion (ROM), however. Arthroscopic debridement of the central perforation (1A lesion) with concomitant repair of the ulnar detachment (1B lesion) resulted in functional and symptomatic improvement. This combined 1A/1B TFC injury is not reliably diagnosed preoperatively and should be considered a new subset in the Palmer classification, as this will raise awareness of its presence and assist in preoperative planning of such lesions.

  13. Timing of initial arrival at the breeding site predicts age at first reproduction in a long-lived migratory bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Peter H.; Dittmann, Tobias; Ludwigs, Jan-Dieter; Limmer, Bente; Ludwig, Sonja C.; Bauch, Christina; Braasch, Alexander; Wendeln, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    In long-lived vertebrates, individuals generally visit potential breeding areas or populations during one or more seasons before reproducing for the first time. During these years of prospecting, they select a future breeding site, colony, or mate and improve various skills and their physical condition to meet the requirements of reproduction. One precondition of successful reproduction is arrival in time on the breeding grounds. Here, we study the intricate links among the date of initial spring arrival, body mass, sex, and the age of first breeding in the common tern Sterna hirundo, a long-lived migratory colonial seabird. The study is based on a unique, individual-based, long-term dataset of sexed birds, marked with transponders, which allow recording their individual arrival, overall attendance, and clutch initiation remotely and automatically year by year over the entire lifetime at the natal colony site. We show that the seasonal date of initial arrival at the breeding grounds predicts the individual age at first reproduction, which mostly occurs years later. Late first-time arrivals remain delayed birds throughout subsequent years. Our findings reveal that timing of arrival at the site of reproduction and timing of reproduction itself are coherent parameters of individual quality, which are linked with the prospects of the breeding career and may have consequences for fitness. PMID:18711134

  14. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Compression-after-Impact Test of Nano-Particles-Coated CFRP Damaged by Simulated Lightning Strikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Je Ha; Kwon, Oh Yang; Seo, Seong Wook

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles-coated and impact-damaged carbon-fiber reinforced plastics(CFRP) laminates were tested under compression-after-impact(CAI) mode and the propagation of damage due to compressive loading has been monitored by acoustic emission(AE). The impact damage was induced not by mechanical loading but by a simulated lightning strike. CFRP laminates were made of carbon prepregs prepared by coating of conductive nano-particles directly on the fibers and the coupons were subjected to simulated lightning strikes with a high voltage/current impulse of 10∼40 kA within a few microseconds. The effects of nano-particles coating and the degree of damage induced by the simulated lightning strikes on the AE activities were examined, and the relationship between the compressive residual strength and AE behavior has been evaluated in terms of AE event counts and the onset of AE activity with the compressive loading. The degree of impact damage was also measured in terns of damage area by using ultrasonic C-scan images. From the results assessed during the CAI tests of damaged CFRP showed that AE monitoring appeared to be very useful to differentiate the degree of damage hence the mechanical integrity of composite structures damaged by lightning strikes

  15. The occurrence of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia) on oil and gas platforms in the North Sea: Colony growth recruitment and environmental controls on distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, S.E.; Roberts, J.M. [Scottish Association for Marine Science, Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    This study reports a newly established sub-population of Lophelia pertusa, the dominant reef-framework forming coral species in the north-east Atlantic, on oil and gas platforms in the northern North Sea. L. pertusa was positively identified on 13 of 14 platforms examined using existing oil and gas industry visual inspections. Two platforms were inspected in more detail to examine depth and colony size distributions. We recorded 947 colonies occurring between 59 and 132 m depth that coincides with cold Atlantic water at depths below the summer thermocline in the northern North Sea. We suggest that these colonies provide evidence for a planktonic larval stage of L. pertusa with recruits initially originating from populations in the north-east Atlantic and now self recruiting to the platforms. Size class distribution showed a continuous range of size classes, but with few outlying large colonies. The break between the largest colonies and the rest of the population is considered as the point when colonies began self recruiting to the platforms, resulting in greater colonization success. We present the first documented in situ colony growth rate estimate (26 {+-} 5 mm yr{sup -1}) for L. pertusa based on 15 colonies from the Tern Alpha platform with evidence for yearly recruitment events starting the year the platform was installed. Evidence of contamination from drill muds and cuttings was observed on the Heather platform but appeared limited to regions close to drilling discharge points, where colonies experience partial as well as whole colony mortality. (author)

  16. Poročilo o obročkanju ptic v Sloveniji v letu 2016 in pojavljanje mušje listnice Phylloscopus inornatus v 25 letih v Sloveniji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrezec Al

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, data on 176 bird species were gathered during bird ringing activities in Slovenia. A total of 65,711 birds of 165 different species were ringed. Furthermore, 148 recoveries of birds ringed in Slovenia and found abroad, 245 foreign recoveries in Slovenia and 1840 local recoveries were made. The most frequently ringed species was the Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla. Among the ringed nestlings, Great Tits Parus major, Tree Sparrows Passer montanus and White Storks Ciconia ciconia predominated. Considering recoveries of birds ringed or found abroad, the most frequent were finds based on colour rings, especially of Black-headed Gulls Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Mute Swans Cygnus olor and Common Terns Sterna hirundo. As far as local recoveries are concerned, most data were collected for Great Tit and Siskin Spinus spinus. Among rare species, two Yellow-browed Warblers Phylloscopus inornatus were ringed, one Paddyfield Warbler Acrocephalus agricola, one Little Emberiza pusilla and one Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala, the latter as a singing male, which probably also bred in 2016. The catch frequency of the Yellow-browed Warblers has indeed been increasing in Slovenia in the last 25 years, but this is still a rare and irregular vagrant on autumn migration.

  17. Nuclear energy in France. Energy in the 80's: shouldn't we bid ''No trump shouldn't we bid ''No trump''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekeh, M.

    1981-01-01

    The state and prospects of nuclear engineering development in France are considered. The problem of NPP site selection and the PWR type reactor safety as well as the problems of spent fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste storage are discussed. It is noted that in late 60-ies France has changed its former plants and passed from gas cooled graphite moderated reactors to light water cooled ones. By 2000 the energy requirements of France in recount for oil will constitute 355 mill. tonns. The requirements will be satisfied for 32-35% by oil, for 30-33% by nuclear power, for 14-16% by gas, for 10-12% by coal, for 4-6% by hydroelectric power, for 3-5% by new power sources, for 2% by nuclear power plants for district heating. The iPP instaited power will amount to about 90 GW. It is concluded that development of nuclear engineering will make it possible to strengthen the balance of payments and keep the princes for electric power at a resonably low level. All this in its tern, will permit to maintain such kinds of industry as cement, aluminium and glass production in the country

  18. Fully populated VCM or the hidden parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermarrec G.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Least-squares estimates are trustworthy with minimal variance if the correct stochastic model is used. Due to computational burden, diagonal models that neglect correlations are preferred to describe the elevation dependency of the variance of GPS observations. In this contribution, an improved stochastic model based on a parametric function to take correlations between GPS phase observations into account is presented. Built on an adapted and flexible Mátern function accounting for spatiotemporal variabilities, its parameters can be fixed thanks to Maximum Likelihood Estimation or chosen apriori to model turbulent tropospheric refractivity fluctuations. In this contribution, we will show in which cases and under which conditions corresponding fully populated variance covariance matrices (VCM replace the estimation of a tropospheric parameter. For this equivalence “augmented functional versus augmented stochastic model” to hold, the VCM should be made sufficiently largewhich corresponds to computing small batches of observations. A case study with observations from a medium baseline of 80 km divided into batches of 600 s shows improvement of up to 100 mm for the 3Drms when fully populated VCM are used compared with an elevation dependent diagonal model. It confirms the strong potential of such matrices to improve the least-squares solution, particularly when ambiguities are let float.

  19. Molecular modeling in the development of metal radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    We began this project with a compilation of a structural library to serve as a data base containing descriptions of the molecular features of metal-labeled radiopharmaceuticals known to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier. Such a data base is needed in order to identify structural features (size, shape, molecular surface areas and volumes) that are critical in allowing blood-brain barrier penetration. Nine metal complexes have been added to this structural library. We have completed a detailed comparison of four molecular mechanics computer programs QUANTA, SYBYL, BOYD, and MM2DREW to assess their applicability to modeling the structures of low molecular weight metal complexes. We tested the ability of each program to reproduce the crystallographic structures of 38 complexes between nickel(II) and saturated N-donor ligands. The programs were evaluated in terns of their ability to reproduce structural features such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsion angles. Recently, we investigated the synthesis and characterization of lipophilic cationic gallium complexes with hexadentate bis(salicylaldimine) ligands. This work identified the first gallium-68 radiopharrnaceuticals that can be injected intravenously and that subsequently exhibit significant myocardial uptake followed by prolonged myocardial retention of 68 Ga radioactivity. Tracers of this type remain under investigation as agents for evaluation of myocardial perfusion with positron emission tomography

  20. Statistical Techniques For Real-time Anomaly Detection Using Spark Over Multi-source VMware Performance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solaimani, Mohiuddin [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Iftekhar, Mohammed [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Khan, Latifur [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Thuraisingham, Bhavani [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Anomaly detection refers to the identi cation of an irregular or unusual pat- tern which deviates from what is standard, normal, or expected. Such deviated patterns typically correspond to samples of interest and are assigned different labels in different domains, such as outliers, anomalies, exceptions, or malware. Detecting anomalies in fast, voluminous streams of data is a formidable chal- lenge. This paper presents a novel, generic, real-time distributed anomaly detection framework for heterogeneous streaming data where anomalies appear as a group. We have developed a distributed statistical approach to build a model and later use it to detect anomaly. As a case study, we investigate group anomaly de- tection for a VMware-based cloud data center, which maintains a large number of virtual machines (VMs). We have built our framework using Apache Spark to get higher throughput and lower data processing time on streaming data. We have developed a window-based statistical anomaly detection technique to detect anomalies that appear sporadically. We then relaxed this constraint with higher accuracy by implementing a cluster-based technique to detect sporadic and continuous anomalies. We conclude that our cluster-based technique out- performs other statistical techniques with higher accuracy and lower processing time.

  1. Social Media Use and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms: A Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E; Dew, Mary Amanda; Escobar-Viera, César G; Primack, Brian A

    2018-03-01

    Individuals use social media with varying quantity, emotional, and behavioral at- tachment that may have differential associations with mental health outcomes. In this study, we sought to identify distinct patterns of social media use (SMU) and to assess associations between those patterns and depression and anxiety symptoms. In October 2014, a nationally-representative sample of 1730 US adults ages 19 to 32 completed an online survey. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of SMU. Depression and anxiety were measured using respective 4-item Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) scales. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between clus- ter membership and depression and anxiety. Cluster analysis yielded a 5-cluster solu- tion. Participants were characterized as "Wired," "Connected," "Diffuse Dabblers," "Concentrated Dabblers," and "Unplugged." Membership in 2 clusters - "Wired" and "Connected" - increased the odds of elevated depression and anxiety symptoms (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.7; AOR = 3.7, 95% CI = 2.1-6.5, respectively, and AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-3.2; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-3.1, respectively). SMU pattern characterization of a large population suggests 2 pat- terns are associated with risk for depression and anxiety. Developing educational interventions that address use patterns rather than single aspects of SMU (eg, quantity) would likely be useful.

  2. CT findings of transfusional hemosiderosis in patients with chronic renal failure : clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Joon; Lee, Hae Kyung; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kim, Gun Woo; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Choi, Gyo Chang; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether there is any correlation between the CT features of hemosiderosis and clinical findings in patients with chronic renal failure who have received multiple blood transfusion. Among chronic renal failure patients who had undergone long-tern dialysis and received multiple blood transfusions, CT findings in 16 cases in which increased liver attenuation was seen on images obtained for other purpose, were analyzed by three radiologic specialists. The attenuation values of liver, spleen and pancreas compared with that of back muscle were correlated with the amount and duration of transfusion, and blood ferritin level. There is no correlation between the CT features of hemosiderosis and clinical findings. In patients with chronic renal failure and no clinical symptoms, the status of iron overload was relatively easily detected on CT. Close observation of CT findings is thus thought to prevent significant permanent functional deformity of organs in patients with chronic renal failure who have received multiple blood transfusions. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  3. Sådan får du frigjort energi til alt det sjove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    altid energi tilbage til at lave det, man synes er sjovt. Gå i teatret eller i biografen. At gå til foredrag eller måske bare gå på café med veninderne – eller ud og få en øl med gut- terne. Men meget kan ændres med planlæg- ning og ved at tænke anderledes om hvor- dan hverdagen med fibromyalgi......Du kender det fra din egen hverdag. Det kan være svært at finde energien til alle de praktiske gøremål. Vaske tøj, lave mad, gøre rent osv. Når du har fibromyalgi bliver tingene bare mere besværlige, giver smerter og gør dig træt. Og når man bruger alle kræfterne på pligterne, så er der ikke...

  4. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  5. Arbejdsrapport fra KLEO-projektets første runde 2018 Hvad skal bevares og hvad skal ændres? Rapport til KLEO-konsulenter og KLEO-ledere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    2018-01-01

    således et arbejdsredskab til konsulen-terne og lederne, hvorfor alle data er medtaget og desuden med plads til noter ind imellem og til slut, samt til slut en opsummering af de gentagne pointer udtrykt af både leder, lærere og konsulenter. Denne rapport viser således ikke, hvordan lærerne har arbejdet...... med deres ak-tioner og hvad de har erfaret herved. Denne indsigt foreligger i ’Tegn på lærer-udvikling – Rapport 1. En evaluering af KLEO-projektets første runde 2018’ (Lund, 2018), hvor man også kan læse mere om det teoretiske afsæt bag projektet.......: Grenaa gymnasium: HF, Randers HF & VUC: AVU, SOSU Herning: SO-SU og Silkeborg Business College: HHX. Denne afrapporterings formål er lavet med henblik på at sikre at tilrettelæggelsen af det videre forløb på de nye skoler og på Skive College, bliver justeret ud fra lærernes oplevelser. Rapporten er...

  6. Bio-Physical Coupling of Seabirds and Prey with a Dynamic River Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E. M.; Horne, J. K.; Zamon, J. E.; Adams, J.

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater plumes and plume density fronts are important regions of bio-physical coupling. On the west coast of North America, discharge from the Columbia River into the northern California Current creates a large, dynamic plume and multiple plume fronts. These nutrient-rich, productive waters fuel primary and secondary production, supporting a wide variety of small pelagic prey fish, large populations of Pacific salmon, seabirds, and marine mammals. To determine the influence of the Columbia River plume on marine predators, we analyzed at-sea seabird counts, in situ environmental data, surface trawl densities of prey fish, and acoustic backscatter measurements collected from research vessels in May and June 2010-2012. Concurrent distribution patterns of satellite-tagged sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) and common murres (Uria aalge) were compared with seabird counts from ship surveys. To evaluate plume use by satellite-tagged birds, daily surface salinity values from SELFE hindcast models were extracted at each tag location. Both seabird species occurred in plume waters disproportionate to the total surveyed area, concentrating in the river plume when river flow and plume volume decreased. Murres were consistently within 20 km of the geographic mean center of the river plume. In contrast, shearwaters consistently occurred 100 km to the north of the plume center, where high densities of prey fish occur. Although acoustically detected prey also occurred in greater densities within the plume when volume decreased, surface catches of prey in the plume did not vary with changing plume conditions. Geographic indices of colocation (GIC) were low between murres and prey species caught in surface trawls, whereas GICs were >0.5 between shearwaters and prey species including squid (Loligo opalescens), juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho (O. kisutch) salmon. We conclude that the river plume and associated fronts are identifiable, predictable, and

  7. Optimization of the spray application technology in bay laurel (Laurus nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyttens, D; Braekman, P; Foque, D

    2009-01-01

    Bay laurel is an evergreen, commercially grown and expensive ornamental pot plant, which is susceptible to different pests like aphids, scale and lerp insects, thrips, caterpillars of codling moth and sooty moulds. Recently, caterpillars of the Mediterranean carnation leafroller (Cacoecimorpha pronubana) cause more and more problems. These pests can lead to important financial losses for the growers. During summer the individual pot plants are placed on a field-container in a fairly dense configuration. Crop protection is traditionally done by moving with a spray lance between the rows of pot plants and treating each individual plant from bottom to top. Good penetration is clearly an important advantages of this spray technique but it is very time-consuming, unhealthy and laborious. Some other growers use a 'spray platform' on a high-clearance tractor. Plants sprayed from this platform are exclusively approached from above resulting in an inferior spray deposition on the lower parts of the plants. To overcome the disadvantages of both available techniques, the potential of an automated tunnel sprayer was investigated. Five different nozzle types were evaluated under laboratory conditions i.e. hollow cone, standard flat fan, air inclusion flat fan, deflector flat fan and twin air inclusion flat fan at spray pressures varying from 3.0 to 7.0 bar depending on the type of nozzle. For each nozzle type, three nozzle sizes were included in the experiments which resulted in 15 different spray application techniques. All experiments were done at a speed of 2.5 km x h(-1). This resulted in three different application volumes: 2450, 4900 and 7300 l x ha(-1). After optimizing the nozzle configuration (distance and orientation) using water-sensitive paper, deposition tests with five different mineral chelates as tracer elements were performed. Filter papers were used as collectors at 20 different positions to measure spray deposition, distribution and penetration in the canopy

  8. Male Circumcision and the Epidemic Emergence of HIV-2 in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, Barry Stephen; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemic HIV-2 (groups A and B) emerged in humans circa 1930–40. Its closest ancestors are SIVsmm infecting sooty mangabeys from southwestern Côte d'Ivoire. The earliest large-scale serological surveys of HIV-2 in West Africa (1985–91) show a patchy spread. Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea-Bissau had the highest prevalence rates by then, and phylogeographical analysis suggests they were the earliest epicenters. Wars and parenteral transmission have been hypothesized to have promoted HIV-2 spread. Male circumcision (MC) is known to correlate negatively with HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but studies examining this issue for HIV-2 are lacking. Methods We reviewed published HIV-2 serosurveys for 30 cities of all West African countries and obtained credible estimates of real prevalence through Bayesian estimation. We estimated past MC rates of 218 West African ethnic groups, based on ethnographic literature and fieldwork. We collected demographic tables specifying the ethnic partition in cities. Uncertainty was incorporated by defining plausible ranges of parameters (e.g. timing of introduction, proportion circumcised). We generated 1,000 sets of past MC rates per city using Latin Hypercube Sampling with different parameter combinations, and explored the correlation between HIV-2 prevalence and estimated MC rate (both logit-transformed) in the 1,000 replicates. Results and Conclusions Our survey reveals that, in the early 20th century, MC was far less common and geographically more variable than nowadays. HIV-2 prevalence in 1985–91 and MC rates in 1950 were negatively correlated (Spearman rho = -0.546, IQR: -0.553–-0.546, p≤0.0021). Guinea-Bissau and Côte d'Ivoire cities had markedly lower MC rates. In addition, MC was uncommon in rural southwestern Côte d'Ivoire in 1930.The differential HIV-2 spread in West Africa correlates with different historical MC rates. We suggest HIV-2 only formed early substantial foci in cities with substantial uncircumcised

  9. Quantitative Measurements of Electronically Excited CH Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A. V.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the electronically excited CH spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of electronically excited CH chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on electronically excited CH concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the electronically excited CH emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the electronically excited CH concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame electronically excited CH concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend

  10. Quantitative Measurements of CH* Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the CH* spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of CH* chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on CH* concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the CH* emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the CH* concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame CH* concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend, albeit with different peak concentrations. Comparisons with numerical simulations display reasonably good agreement between measured and

  11. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming. The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars. The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake. Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky! Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope to determine if the stars

  12. The origin of the Avram Iancu U-Ni-Co-Bi-As mineralization, Băiţa (Bihor) metallogenic district, Bihor Mts., Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajzon, Norbert; Szentpéteri, Krisztián; Szakáll, Sándor; Kristály, Ferenc

    2015-10-01

    The Băiţa metallogenic district in the Bihor Mountains is a historically important mining area in Romania. Uranium mining took place between 1952 and 1998 from various deposits, but very little is known about the geology and mineralogy of these deposits. In this paper, we describe geology and mineralogy of uranium mineralization of the Avram Iancu uranium mine from waste dump samples collected before complete remediation of the site. Texturally and mineralogically complex assemblages of nickeline, cobaltite-gersdorffite solid solution, native Bi, Bi-sulfosalts, molybdenite, and pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite occur with uraninite, "pitchblende," and brannerite in most of the ore samples. The association of nickel, cobalt, and arsenic with uranium is reminiscent of five-element association of vein type U-Ni-Co-Bi-As deposits; however, the Avram Iancu ores appear to be more replacement-type stratiform/stratabound. Avram Iancu ore samples contain multistage complex, skarn, uranium sulfide, arsenide assemblages that can be interpreted to have been formed in the retrograde cooling stages of the skarn hydrothermal system. This mineralizing system may have built-up along Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene "Banatite" intrusions of diorite-to-granite composition. The intrusions crosscut the underlying uraniferous Permian formations in the stacked NW-verging Biharia Nappe System. The mineralization forms stacked, multilayer replacement horizons, along carbonate-rich lithologies within the metavolcanic (tuffaceous) Muncel Series. Mineral paragenesis and some mineral chemistry suggest moderate-to-high <450, i.e., 350-310 °C, formation temperatures for the uranium sulfide stage along stratigraphically controlled replacement zones and minor veins. Uranium minerals formed abundantly in this early stage and include botryoidal, sooty and euhedral uraninite, brannerite, and coffinite. Later and/or lower-temperature mineral assemblages include heterogeneous, complexly zoned arsenide

  13. Inefficient Nef-mediated downmodulation of CD3 and MHC-I correlates with loss of CD4+T cells in natural SIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schindler

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent data suggest that Nef-mediated downmodulation of TCR-CD3 may protect SIVsmm-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs against the loss of CD4+ T cells. However, the mechanisms underlying this protective effect remain unclear. To further assess the role of Nef in nonpathogenic SIV infection, we cloned nef alleles from 11 SIVsmm-infected SMs with high (>500 and 15 animals with low (<500 CD4+ T-cells/microl in bulk into proviral HIV-1 IRES/eGFP constructs and analyzed their effects on the phenotype, activation, and apoptosis of primary T cells. We found that not only efficient Nef-mediated downmodulation of TCR-CD3 but also of MHC-I correlated with preserved CD4+ T cell counts, as well as with high numbers of Ki67+CD4+ and CD8+CD28+ T cells and reduced CD95 expression by CD4+ T cells. Moreover, effective MHC-I downregulation correlated with low proportions of effector and high percentages of naïve and memory CD8+ T cells. We found that T cells infected with viruses expressing Nef alleles from the CD4low SM group expressed significantly higher levels of the CD69, interleukin (IL-2 and programmed death (PD-1 receptors than those expressing Nefs from the CD4high group. SIVsmm Nef alleles that were less active in downmodulating TCR-CD3 were also less potent in suppressing the activation of virally infected T cells and subsequent cell death. However, only nef alleles from a single animal with very low CD4+ T cell counts rendered T cells hyper-responsive to activation, similar to those of HIV-1. Our data suggest that Nef may protect the natural hosts of SIV against the loss of CD4+ T cells by at least two mechanisms: (i downmodulation of TCR-CD3 to prevent activation-induced cell death and to suppress the induction of PD-1 that may impair T cell function and survival, and (ii downmodulation of MHC-I to reduce CTL lysis of virally infected CD4+ T cells and/or bystander CD8+ T cell activation.

  14. Cinética de secagem da polpa cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum pré desidratada por imersão-impregnação Kinetic drying of cupuaçu pulp (Theobroma grandiflorum pre-dehydrated by immersion-impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luty Gomezcaceres Perez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A desidratação osmótica é uma operação unitária importante para transformar os frutos perecíveis em novos produtos com valor agregado e com maior vida de prateleira. A aplicação dos modelos matemáticos confiáveis permite prever o comportamento dos diversos fenômenos que ocorrem durante o processo de secagem, o que implica na redução do custo operacional. A polpa do cupuaçu é comumente usada para preparar sucos e sorvetes, mas durante a safra é produzida em grande quantidade, que muitas vezes, é descartada devido ao custo de produção ser mais alto do que o da comercialização. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar o efeito da solução binária e da ternária na taxa da secagem por convecção e avaliar a adequação dos modelos matemáticos na descrição das curvas da secagem do cupuaçu. No experimento, a pré-desidratação foi feita com solução binária (sacarose a 40 ºBrix e ternária (80% de sacarose/20% de cloreto de sódio, durante três horas em temperatura ambiente, seguida pela secagem convencional na estufa (ar circulante a 65 ºC, até peso constante. Os dados experimentais foram ajustados utilizando os modelos de Page e Midilli, Kucuk e Yapar. A solução binária usada na pré-secagem reduziu o tempo da subseqüente secagem convencional. Com variação de 99,64 a 99,77% no coeficiente de determinação (R², o modelo de Page apresentou o melhor ajuste aos dados experimentais.The osmotic dehydration is an important unitary operation to transform the perishable fruits in new products with added value and longer shelf life. The application of reliable mathematical models allows prediction the behavior of various phenomena that occur during the drying process, which implies in reduction of operating cost. The cupuaçu pulp is commonly used to prepare juices and ice creams, but during the crop it is produced in large quantity, which is often discarded because of the cost of production is higher than the

  15. Hartley and Itokawa: small comet and asteroid with similar morphologies and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2011-10-01

    at the convex bulge, from the antipodean side (Fig. 5). The smaller rocky asteroid Itokawa (0.5 km long, Fig. 2) is surprisingly similar in shape and structure to the icy core of Hart ley. It is also bent and rich in cross-cutting lineations o 4 direct ions marked by small holes-craters. But here they are ext inct and lack of gas -dust jets. One sees a transition from a volat ile rich comet core to an ext inct mostly rocky mass - asteroid. In both cases (comet core and as teroid) in the middle develops a smooth "wais t". The bulged convex and antipodal concave segments -hemispheres in rotating bodies require somewhat different densities of composing them masses to equilibrate angular momentum of two halves (compare with the Ea rth's hemis pheres : the eas tern continental "granitic" and wes tern Pacific "bas altic"). The near-IR images of two asteroids (Fig.6-7) confirm this. The concave and convex s ides are co mpos itionally d ifferent. In the Eros ' cas e the concave s ide is rich er in pyroxene, thus denser.

  16. Status report of seabird surveys at Horns Rev, 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I.

    2002-01-01

    The present report presents the results of three bird surveys conducted in the Horns Rev area during the second half of 2001. Due to poor weather conditions in December 2001, the last survey was, however, performed on 7 January 2002. The surveys are part of the base-line investigations of birds performed in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. The results of the surveys during August 2001 - January 2002 are presented together with the results obtained during the period August 2000 - April 2001, and are also compared to results obtained during the period August 1999 - April 2000. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 16 aerial surveys performed during August 1999 - January 2002, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, mainly occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common Scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of the Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Common scoters occurred in very high numbers in January 2002. This was probably related to increased immigration of birds from the inner Danish waters during a cold period in late December 2001. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affect less than 1% of the various species, except divers where 1.58% will be

  17. Fine Scale ANUClimate Data for Ecosystem Modeling and Assessment of Plant Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. F.; Kesteven, J. L.; Xu, T.; Evans, B. J.; Togashi, H. F.; Stein, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    from the TERN OzFlux network. Redundancy analysis (RDA) has also been used to explain plant trait variance in tropical forest dynamics. Aggregates of ANUClimate data, including annual mean solar radiation, temperature and moisture index, performed well predicting biophysical trait observations (35% of variance).

  18. Sabine Beckmann: Geteilte Arbeit? Münster: Verlag Westfälisches Dampfboot 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegard Theobald

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Im Zentrum des Buches steht die Frage der Relevanz wohlfahrtsstaatlicher Regulierungen für die geschlechtliche Verteilung familiärer Sorgearbeit. Konzeptionell verbindet die Autorin Ansätze aus der geschlechtssensiblen international vergleichenden Wohlfahrtsstaatsforschung mit Ansätzen zu Genderregimen. Empirisch untersucht sie fundiert in einer Quer- und Längsschnittstudie die Entwicklungen in Schweden, Frankreich und Deutschland in den letzten 50 Jahren in den Feldern der Politikentwicklung, der geschlechtlichen Verteilung privater Sorgearbeit und der geschlechterkulturellen Entwicklungen, insbesondere der Rolle von Vätern. Neben dem innovativen Ansatz liefert das Buch einen fundierten empirischen Überblick über die Veränderungsprozesse in den drei Vergleichsländern und liefert damit einen wertvollen Beitrag zur politischen Diskussion und zur wissenschaftlichen Weiterentwicklung.This book centers on the question as to the relevance of social welfare state regulation for the gendered distribution of family care work. The author conceptually binds the results of gender sensitive, international, and comparative research on social welfare states that find a way of approaching gender regimes. In her cross-sectional and longitudinal study she empirically examines the developments in Sweden, France, and Germany in the last 50 years. She focuses specifically on political developments, the gendered distribution of private care work, and gender-cultural developments, especially in terms of the role of fathers. The book takes an innovative approach and provides an empirically founded overview of the processes of change in the three comparative countries. It therefore provides a valuable contribution to the political discussion and to continuing scholarly development.

  19. Mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small Arctic polynya ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayden, Meredith G., E-mail: meredith.clayden@gmail.com [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Arsenault, Lilianne M. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); O' Driscoll, Nelson J. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Recurring polynyas are important areas of biological productivity and feeding grounds for seabirds and mammals in the Arctic marine environment. In this study, we examined food web structure (using carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation and biomagnification in a small recurring polynya ecosystem near Nasaruvaalik Island (Nunavut, Canada). Methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations increased by more than 50-fold from copepods (Calanus hyperboreus) to Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), the abundant predators at this site. The biomagnification of MeHg through members of the food web – using the slope of log MeHg versus δ{sup 15}N – was 0.157 from copepods (C. hyperboreus) to fish. This slope was higher (0.267) when seabird chicks were included in the analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that MeHg biomagnification is occurring in this small polynya and that its trophic transfer is at the lower end of the range of estimates from other Arctic marine ecosystems. In addition, we measured Hg concentrations in some poorly studied members of Arctic marine food webs [e.g. Arctic alligatorfish (Ulcina olrikii) and jellyfish, Medusozoa], and found that MeHg concentrations in jellyfish were lower than expected given their trophic position. Overall, these findings provide fundamental information about food web structure and mercury contamination in a small Arctic polynya, which will inform future research in such ecosystems and provide a baseline against which to assess changes over time resulting from environmental disturbance. - Highlights: • Polynyas are recurring sites of open water in polar marine areas • Mercury (Hg) biomagnification was studied in a small polynya near Nasaruvaalik Island, NU, Canada • Hg biomagnification estimates for invertebrates to fish were low compared to other Arctic systems • Factors underlying this result are unknown but may relate to primary productivity in small polynyas.

  20. [Application of the elliptic fourier functions to the description of avian egg shape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Dennis Denis

    2014-12-01

    Egg shape is difficult to quantify due to the lack of an exact formula to describe its geometry. Here I described a simple algorithm to characterize and compare egg shapes using Fourier functions. These functions can delineate any closed contour and had been previously applied to describe several biological objects. I described, step by step, the process of data acquisition, processing and the use of the SHAPE software to extract function coefficients in a study case. I compared egg shapes in three birds' species representing different reproductive strategies: Cuban Parakeet (Aratinga euops), Royal Tern (Thalasseus maximus) and Cuban Blackbird (Dives atroviolaceus). Using 73 digital pictures of eggs kept in Cuban scientific collections, I calculated Fourier descriptors with 4, 6, 8, 16 and 20 harmonics. Descriptors were reduced by a Principal Component Analysis and the scores of the eigen-values that account for 90% of variance were used in a Lineal Discriminant Function to analyze the possibility to differentiate eggs according to its shapes. Using four harmonics, the first five component accounted for 97% of shape variances; more harmonics diluted the variance increasing to eight the number of components needed to explain most of the variation. Convex polygons in the discriminant space showed a clear separation between species, allowing trustful discrimination (classification errors between 7-15%). Misclassifications were related to specific egg shape variability between species. In the study case, A. euops eggs were perfectly classified, but for the other species, errors ranged from 5 to 29% of misclassifications, in relation to the numbers or harmonics and components used. The proposed algorithm, despite its apparent mathematical complexity, showed many advantages to describe eggs shape allowing a deeper understanding of factors related to this variable.

  1. Rechtliche Aspekte der Provenienzforschung in Bibliotheken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Juraschko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Verfügungsbefugnis über die in einer Bibliothek befindlichen Medien gehört zu den grundlegenden Voraussetzungen, damit bibliothekarische Dienstleistungen angeboten werden können. Gleichzeitig stehen Bibliotheken im Lichte der Öffentlichkeit, was einen klaren und sicheren Umgang mit der Herkunft der Medien erfordert. Ist die Herkunft oder die Zuordnung der Medien nicht sicher oder erfolgte ein vorhergehender Erwerb durch eine Unrechtshandlung, so sollte über das Instrument der Provenienzforschung und nachgelagerter Handlungen ein sachgerechter Umgang erfolgen. Ein zentraler Wegbereiter für die Entwicklung der Provenienzforschung war und ist die Diskussion um die NS-Raubkunst. Ein weiterer Anlass ist die Entziehung von Kulturgütern in der SBZ bzw. DDR. Auch weniger spektakuläre Umstände – wie fehlende Unterlagen – lassen einen Nachforschungsbedarf entstehen. Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich aus juristischer Sicht mit der Provenienzforschung. The power of disposal over the library media is a basic requirement for libraries to offer their services. At the same time, libraries are in the public eye and need to treat the provenience of their media openly and reliably. If the history of a media item is unknown or the former acquisition was illegal, the issue should be properly handled by provenience research and subsequent actions. Provenience research has been pioneered by the discussion of the Nazi-looted art. Another catalyst for provenience research was the looted art in the Soviet Zone and German Democratic Republic. But also less spectacular circumstances like missing documentaries can make provenience research necessary. The present article covers provenience research from the legal point of view

  2. Development of the AuScope Australian Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawling, T.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in monitoring technology and significant investment in new national research initiatives, will provide significant new opportunities for delivery of novel geoscience data streams from across the Australian continent over the next decade. The AuScope Australian Earth Observing System (AEOS) is linking field and laboratory infrastructure across Australia to form a national sensor array focusing on the Solid Earth. As such AuScope is working with these programs to deploy observational infrastructure, including MT, passive seismic, and GNSS networks across the entire Australian Continent. Where possible the observational grid will be co-located with strategic basement drilling in areas of shallow cover and tied with national reflection seismic and sampling transects. This integrated suite of distributed earth observation and imaging sensors will provide unprecedented imaging fidelity of our crust, across all length and time scales, to fundamental and applied researchers in the earth, environmental and geospatial sciences. The AEOS will the Earth Science community's Square Kilometer Array (SKA) - a distributed telescope that looks INTO the earth rather than away from it - a 10 million SKA. The AEOS is strongly aligned with other community strategic initiatives including the UNCOVER research program as well as other National Collaborative Research Infrastructure programs such as the Terrestrial Environmental Research Network (TERN) and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) providing an interdisciplinary collaboration platform across the earth and environmental sciences. There is also very close alignment between AuScope and similar international programs such as EPOS, the USArray and EarthCube - potential collaborative linkages we are currently in the process of pursuing more fomally. The AuScope AEOS Infrastructure System is ultimately designed to enable the progressive construction, refinement and ongoing enrichment of a live, "FAIR" four

  3. Análise quantitativa das zeólitas ferrierita, ZSM-5 e mordenita presentes em amostras sintetizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. B. Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos estudos de obtenção de materiais zeolíticos é comum a formação de misturas de fases cristalinas devido à estabilidade relativa destes materiais no meio reacional empregado na síntese. Desta forma, é extremamente importante quantificar as diversas fases presentes no sistema para otimizar os métodos de sínteses de uma determinada zeólita sem a presença de contaminantes. Especificamente, foi verificado que durante a síntese das zeólitas ZSM-5(MFI, mordenita (MOR e ferrierita (FER, em diversas condições experimentais, ocorreram a formação de misturas de fases binárias (FER+MOR e (FER+MFI, às vezes ternárias (FER+MOR+MFI. O propósito do trabalho foi a realização de várias misturas binárias em diversos percentuais destes materiais, a fim de se obter uma metodologia para quantificar a presença de cada uma das fases (FER, MOR e MFI em amostras sintetizadas sob diferentes condições experimentais. Com este objetivo, foram preparadas misturas físicas com diversos teores das fases MFI, MOR e FER, a partir de amostras altamente cristalinas de cada fase. Estas fases de composições conhecidas foram analisadas por difração de raios X para quantificar as áreas dos picos característicos de cada material, podendo-se assim obter uma relação de percentual de fase/área de cada componente da mistura.

  4. Environmental Predictors of Seabird Wrecks in a Tropical Coastal Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Castro Tavares

    Full Text Available Beached bird surveys have been widely used to monitor the impact of oil pollution in the oceans. However, separating the combined effects of oil pollution, environmental variables and methodological aspects of beach monitoring on seabird stranding patterns is a challenging task. The effects of a comprehensive set of oceanographic and climatic variables and oil pollution on seabird strandings in a tropical area of Brazil were investigated herein, using two robust and innovative methods: Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Structural Equation Modeling. We assessed strandings of four resident seabird species along 480 km of beaches divided into 11 sampling areas, between November 2010 and September 2013. We found that increasing the distance from the nearest breeding island reduce the seabird stranding events. Storm activity and biological productivity were the most important factors affecting the stranding events of brown boobies Sula leucogaster, Cabot's terns Thalasseus acuflavidus and kelp gulls Larus dominicanus. These species are also indirectly affected by warm tropical waters, which reduce chlorophyll-a concentrations. Beach surveys are, thus, useful to investigate the mortality rates of resident species near breeding sites, where individuals are more abundant and exposed to local factors associated with at-sea mortality. In contrast, conservation actions and monitoring programs for far-ranging seabird species are needed in more distant foraging areas. Furthermore, beach monitoring programs investigating the impact of oil pollution on seabirds need to account for the effects of environmental factors on stranding patterns. The present study also demonstrated that seabirds inhabiting tropical coastal waters are sensitive to climate conditions such as adverse weather, which are expected to increase in frequency and intensity in next decades.

  5. Genesis, goals and achievements of Long-Term Ecological Research at the global scale: A critical review of ILTER and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtl, M; T Borer, E; Djukic, I; Forsius, M; Haubold, H; Hugo, W; Jourdan, J; Lindenmayer, D; McDowell, W H; Muraoka, H; Orenstein, D E; Pauw, J C; Peterseil, J; Shibata, H; Wohner, C; Yu, X; Haase, P

    2018-06-01

    Since its founding in 1993 the International Long-term Ecological Research Network (ILTER) has gone through pronounced development phases. The current network comprises 44 active member LTER networks representing 700 LTER Sites and ~80 LTSER Platforms across all continents, active in the fields of ecosystem, critical zone and socio-ecological research. The critical challenges and most important achievements of the initial phase have now become state-of-the-art in networking for excellent science. At the same time increasing integration, accelerating technology, networking of resources and a strong pull for more socially relevant scientific information have been modifying the mission and goals of ILTER. This article provides a critical review of ILTER's mission, goals, development and impacts. Major characteristics, tools, services, partnerships and selected examples of relative strengths relevant for advancing ILTER are presented. We elaborate on the tradeoffs between the needs of the scientific community and stakeholder expectations. The embedding of ILTER in an increasingly collaborative landscape of global environmental observation and ecological research networks and infrastructures is also reflected by developments of pioneering regional and national LTER networks such as SAEON in South Africa, CERN/CEOBEX in China, TERN in Australia or eLTER RI in Europe. The primary role of ILTER is currently seen as a mechanism to investigate ecosystem structure, function, and services in response to a wide range of environmental forcings using long-term, place-based research. We suggest four main fields of activities and advancements for the next decade through development/delivery of a: (1) Global multi-disciplinary community of researchers and research institutes; (2) Strategic global framework and strong partnerships in ecosystem observation and research; (3) Global Research Infrastructure (GRI); and (4) a scientific knowledge factory for societally relevant information

  6. Environmental conditions and biological community of the Penzhina and Talovka hypertidal estuary (northwest Kamchatka) in the ice-free season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, M. V.; Gorin, S. L.; Romanenko, F. A.; Lepskaya, E. V.; Polyakova, A. A.; Galyamov, R. A.; Esin, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    New data on the abiotic conditions; species composition; abundance, distribution, and migrations of fauna; and feeding interactions in an estuary ecosystem were obtained during expeditions in the mouths of Penzhina and Talovka rivers (northwest Kamchatka). It is revealed that in the ice-free season, the hydrological regime of the estuary is determined by seasonal fluctuations of river runoff, as well as fortnightly and daily variation of tides. The estuary is characterized by hypertidal fluctuations (up to 10-12 m); strong reverse flows (up to 1.0-1.5 m/s), considerable tidal variations in salinity (from 0 to 6-9‰ at the river boundary and from 6-8 to 14-16‰ at the offshore boundary), and high water turbidity (up to 1 000 NTU or more). Based on the spatial structure of the community, three ecological zones with mobile boundaries are distinguished: freshwater (salinity 0-0.1‰), estuarine (0-12.3‰), and neritic (11.2-18.9‰). High turbidity prevents the development of phytoplankton in the estuarine zone (EZ), and the local benthic community is significantly depleted due to the desalination and wide spread of aleuritic silts. Neritic copepods and nektobenthic brackish- water crustaceans generate the maximum abundance and biomass here. The species that have adapted to the local extreme hydrologic conditions dominate and form the basis of the estuarine food chain. Dominant among the EZ vertebrates are such groups as anadromous fishes (smelts, pacific salmons, charrs, and sticklebacks); waterfowl (terns, kittiwakes, cormorants, fulmars, puffins, guillemots, auklets, and wadepipers); and predatory marine mammals (larga, ringed seal, bearded seal, and white whale). The total abundance and biomass of these animals are much higher in the pelagic EZ in comparison to neighboring zones.

  7. ERROR HANDLING IN INTEGRATION WORKFLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey M. Nazarenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation experiments performed while solving multidisciplinary engineering and scientific problems require joint usage of multiple software tools. Further, when following a preset plan of experiment or searching for optimum solu- tions, the same sequence of calculations is run multiple times with various simulation parameters, input data, or conditions while overall workflow does not change. Automation of simulations like these requires implementing of a workflow where tool execution and data exchange is usually controlled by a special type of software, an integration environment or plat- form. The result is an integration workflow (a platform-dependent implementation of some computing workflow which, in the context of automation, is a composition of weakly coupled (in terms of communication intensity typical subtasks. These compositions can then be decomposed back into a few workflow patterns (types of subtasks interaction. The pat- terns, in their turn, can be interpreted as higher level subtasks.This paper considers execution control and data exchange rules that should be imposed by the integration envi- ronment in the case of an error encountered by some integrated software tool. An error is defined as any abnormal behavior of a tool that invalidates its result data thus disrupting the data flow within the integration workflow. The main requirementto the error handling mechanism implemented by the integration environment is to prevent abnormal termination of theentire workflow in case of missing intermediate results data. Error handling rules are formulated on the basic pattern level and on the level of a composite task that can combine several basic patterns as next level subtasks. The cases where workflow behavior may be different, depending on user's purposes, when an error takes place, and possible error handling op- tions that can be specified by the user are also noted in the work.

  8. Sclerodermie : Rapport de Quatre Cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mohagheghi

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of sclerodermia have been reported durintwo months. Sclerodermia which seems to he hardness of the skin is actually a general affection that first appears on the skin and has various types: edematous, sclerema for children, and then the forms of patches or drops or bands Or annulars. It is sor t of connective tissue affection and is chiefly observed in women and as the reason for it, is thought to be due to the acute infections and chronic toxics in theory dysendocryno- sympathic that eventually is caused by nervous- mental disturbances and shocks."nThree of the pa t ients were adults and one of them was a 60 years old man. Clinical symptoms were common in all three persons and as a usual it began from the fingers and then it appeared in the face, but in the man it was different and the disease began first from the chest and abdomen and buttucks parts, and although the duration of the illness was more than few months it had not yet affected the limbs. After sometime it affects the muscles and bones and in a few years it expands so that causes a general weakness and eventually results in death."nThe treatment is tern porary and differs comparatively in different cases. Vitamin E given with large dosage, Vitamin D2 to keep calcium from running. Bismuth, Penicilline with large dosage and tetracycline given continuously, and at last cortisone and A.C. which have temporary and rapid results

  9. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in waterbird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ± 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ± 1.6 days and 1.9 ± 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ± 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ± 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates.

  10. Visualization of Flow Alternatives, Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Heuser, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    Background The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) 'Missouri River Master Water Control Manual' (Master Manual) review has resulted in consideration of many flow alternatives for managing the water in the river (COE, 2001; 1998a). The purpose of this report is to present flow-management alternative model results in a way that can be easily visualized and understood. This report was updated in October 2001 to focus on the specific flow-management alternatives presented by the COE in the 'Master Manual Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement' (RDEIS; COE, 2001). The original version (February 2000) is available by clicking here. The COE, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Missouri River states, and Missouri River basin tribes have been participating in discussions concerning water management of the Missouri River mainstem reservoir system (MRMRS), the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project, and the Kansas River reservoir system since 1986. These discussions include general input to the revision of the Master Manual as well as formal consultation under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act. In 2000, the FWS issued a Biological Opinion that prescribed changes to reservoir management on the Missouri River that were believed to be necessary to preclude jeopardy to three endangered species, the pallid sturgeon, piping plover, and interior least tern (USFWS, 2000). The combined Missouri River system is large and complex, including many reservoirs, control structures, and free-flowing reaches extending over a broad region. The ability to assess future impacts of altered management scenarios necessarily involves complex, computational models that attempt to integrate physical, chemical, biological, and economic effects. Graphical visualization of the model output is intended to improve understanding of the differences among flow-management alternatives.

  11. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake River Chinook salmon: a biological-economic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, David L; Moore, Michael R

    2008-04-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  12. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  13. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, Brian K.; Irons, David B.; Kendall, Steven J.; McDonald, Lyman L.

    2001-01-01

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilise shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  14. Quantitative analysis of secretome from adipocytes regulated by insulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhou; Yuanyuan Xiao; Rongxia Li; Shangyu Hong; Sujun Li; Lianshui Wang; Rong Zeng; Kan Liao

    2009-01-01

    Adipocyte is not only a central player involved in storage and release of energy, but also in regulation of energy metabolism in other organs via secretion of pep-tides and proteins. During the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, adipocytes are subjected to the increased levels of insulin, which may have a major impact on the secretion of adipokines. We have undertaken cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag (clCAT) and label-free quantitation approaches to identify and quantify secretory factors that are differen-tially secreted by 3T3-LI adipocytes with or without insulin treatment. Combination of clCAT and label-free results, there are 317 proteins predicted or annotated as secretory proteins. Among these secretory proteins, 179 proteins and 53 proteins were significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. A total of 77 reported adipokines were quantified in our study, such as adiponectin, cathepsin D, cystatin C, resistin, and transferrin. Western blot analysis of these adipo-kines confirmed the quantitative results from mass spectrometry, and revealed individualized secreting pat-terns of these proteins by increasing insulin dose. In addition, 240 proteins were newly identified and quanti-fied as secreted proteins from 3T3-L1 adipocytes in our study, most of which were up-regulated upon insulin treatment. Further comprehensive bioinformatics analysis revealed that the secretory proteins in extra-cellular matrix-receptor interaction pathway and glycan structure degradation pathway were significantly up-regulated by insulin stimulation.

  15. Seabird tissue archival and monitoring project: Protocol for collecting and banking seabird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-York, Geoff; Porter, Barbara J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Roseneau, David G.; Simac, Kristin S.; Becker, Paul R.; Thorsteinson, Lyman K.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Archiving biological and environmental samples for retrospective analysis is a major component of systematic environmental monitoring. The long-term storage of carefully selected, representative samples in an environmental specimen bank is an important complement to the real-time monitoring of the environment. These archived samples permit:The use of subsequently developed innovative analytical technology that was not available at the time the samples were archived, for clear state-of-art identification an~ quantification of analytes of interest,The identification and quantification of analytes that are of subsequent interest but that were not of interest at the time the samples were archived, andThe comparison of present and past analytical techniques and values, providing continued credibility of past analytical values, and allowing flexibility in environmental monitoring programs.Seabirds, including albatrosses, pelicans, cormorants, terns, kittiwakes, murres, guillemots, and puffins spend most of their lives at sea and have special adaptations for feeding in the marine environment, including the ability to excrete the excess salt obtained from ingesting seawater. Many species nest in dense groups (colonies) on steep, precipitous sea-cliffs and headlands.Seabirds are long-lived and slow to mature. They occupy high positions in the marine food web and are considered sensitive indicators for the marine environment (prey includes krill, small fish, and squid). Breeding success, timing of nesting, diets, and survival rates may provide early indications of changing environmental conditions (e.g., see Hatch et aI., 1993). Chemical analysis of seabird tissues, including egg contents, can be particularly useful in determining whether contaminants (and potential biological effects) associated with human industrial activities, such as offshore petroleum and mineral exploration and development, are accumulating in marine environments. The collection and archival of seabird

  16. Circulating fat-soluble vitamin concentrations and nutrient composition of aquatic prey eaten by American oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Norton, Terry M.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Winn, Brad; Spinks, Mark D.; Glatt, Batsheva A.; Mazzaro, Lisa; Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Chen, Tai C.; Dierenfeld, Ellen S.

    2014-01-01

    The American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus palliatus) is currently listed as a species of high concern by the United States Shorebird Conservation Plan. Because nutritional status directly impacts overall health and reproduction of individuals and populations, adequate management of a wildlife population requires intimate knowledge of a species' diet and nutrient requirements. Fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in blood plasma obtained from American oystercatchers and proximate, vitamin, and mineral composition of various oystercatcher prey species were determined as baseline data to assess nutritional status and nutrient supply. Bird and prey species samples were collected from the Cape Romain region, South Carolina, USA, and the Altamaha River delta islands, Georgia, USA, where breeding populations appear relatively stable in recent years. Vitamin A levels in blood samples were higher than ranges reported as normal for domestic avian species, and vitamin D concentrations were lower than anticipated based on values observed in poultry. Vitamin E levels were within ranges previously reported for avian groups with broadly similar feeding niches such as herons, gulls, and terns (eg, aquatic/estuarine/marine). Prey species (oysters, mussels, clams, blood arks [Anadara ovalis], whelks [Busycon carica], false angel wings [Petricola pholadiformis]) were similar in water content to vertebrate prey, moderate to high in protein, and moderate to low in crude fat. Ash and macronutrient concentrations in prey species were high compared with requirements of carnivores or avian species. Prey items analyzed appear to meet nutritional requirements for oystercatchers, as estimated by extrapolation from domestic carnivores and poultry species; excesses, imbalances, and toxicities—particularly of minerals and fat-soluble vitamins—may warrant further investigation.

  17. Summary of Bed-Sediment Measurements Along the Platte River, Nebraska, 1931-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, P.J.; Runge, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    Rivers are conduits for water and sediment supplied from upstream sources. The sizes of the sediments that a river bed consists of typically decrease in a downstream direction because of natural sorting. However, other factors can affect the caliber of bed sediment including changes in upstream water-resource development, land use, and climate that alter the watershed yield of water or sediment. Bed sediments provide both a geologic and stratigraphic record of past fluvial processes and quantification of current sediment transport relations. The objective of this fact sheet is to describe and compare longitudinal measurements of bed-sediment sizes made along the Platte River, Nebraska from 1931 to 2009. The Platte River begins at the junction of the North Platte and South Platte Rivers near North Platte, Nebr. and flows east for approximately 500 kilometers before joining the Missouri River at Plattsmouth, Nebr. The confluence of the Loup River with the Platte River serves to divide the middle (or central) Platte River (the Platte River upstream from the confluence with the Loup River) and lower Platte River (the Platte River downstream from the confluence with Loup River). The Platte River provides water for a variety of needs including: irrigation, infiltration to public water-supply wells, power generation, recreation, and wildlife habitat. The Platte River Basin includes habitat for four federally listed species including the whooping crane (Grus americana), interior least tern (Sterna antillarum), piping plover (Charadrius melodus), and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). A habitat recovery program for the federally listed species in the Platte River was initiated in 2007. One strategy identified by the recovery program to manage and enhance habitat is the manipulation of streamflow. Understanding the longitudinal and temporal changes in the size gradation of the bed sediment will help to explain the effects of past flow regimes and anticipated

  18. 消化道重复畸形的急性并发症%Acute Abdomen Associated with Duplications of Alimentary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义; 张金哲

    1988-01-01

    Eighty-six cases of duplication of alimentary tract were operated on between 1955 and 1986. They were 53 boys and 33 girls,ages ranging from10 days to 13 yrs.There were 93 duplications in 86 patients located in ileum(57),ileocecum(16),colon and rectum (9),jejenum(2),stomach(2),retroperitoni-um (2) and duodenum (1). Pathological pat.tern comprised extraluminal cyst (47),intraluminal cyst (15),diverticulum(19),and double lumen (12). sixty-two cases came to emergency surgery with rectal bleeding (22),intestinal obstruction(19),intussusception(8),intestinal perforation(7),votvulus (4),and constipation with urinary obstruction(1).The other 24 cases presented with abdominal mass(22)and anorectal anomaly(2).This paper disciusses the relation between the clinical manifestations and the underlying pathology. Extraluminal cyst often causing intestinal obstruction,volvulus,or constipation and urinary reteasion,intraluminal cysts are likely to serve as the leading point of intussusception.Usually,patients with diverticulum or double-lumen containing gastric mucosa came with hemor rhage or perforation of intestine.Described in detail in the paper are the clinical manifestations and X-ray findings in acute abdomen associated with duplication of alimentary tract.%本文报告1955年至1986年收治的消化道重复畸形86例,多于婴幼儿期出现临床症状,其中72.1%表现为便血、肠梗阻、肠套叠、肠扭转、肠穿孔等急腹症.作者对该病的临床表现与病理解剖间的关系做了重点探讨.

  19. Unified Communications for Space Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kevin K.; Fink, Patrick W.; Barton, Richard; Ngo, Phong H.

    2009-01-01

    To help assure mission success for long-duration exploration activities, NASA is actively pursuing wireless technologies that promote situational awareness and autonomy. Wireless technologies are typically extensible, offer freedom from wire tethers, readily support redundancy, offer potential for decreased wire weight, and can represent dissimilar implementation for increased reliability. In addition, wireless technologies can enable additional situational awareness that otherwise would be infeasible. For example, addition of wired sensors, the need for which might not have been apparent at the outset of a program, night be extremely costly due in part to the necessary routing of cables through the vehicle. RFID, or radio frequency identification, is a wireless technology with the potential for significant savings and increased reliability and safety in space operations. Perhaps the most obvious savings relate to the application of inventory management. A fully automated inventory management system is highly desirable for long-term sustaining operations in space environments. This assertion is evidenced by inventory activities on the International Space Station, which represents the most extensive inventory tracking experience base in the history of space operations. In the short tern, handheld RFID readers offer substantial savings owing to reduced crew time for inventory audits. Over the long term, a combination of improved RFID technology and operational concepts modified to fully utilize the technology should result in space based inventory management that is highly reliable and requires very little crew time. In addition to inventory management, RFID is likely to find space applications in real-time location and tracking systems. These could vary from coarse-resolution RFID portals to the high resolution afforded by ultra-wideband (UWB) RFID. Longer range RFID technologies that leverage passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are being investigated to

  20. Mapping canopy gap fraction and leaf area index at continent-scale from satellite lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, C.; Hopkinson, C.; Held, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Information on canopy cover is essential for understanding spatial and temporal variability in vegetation biomass, local meteorological processes and hydrological transfers within vegetated environments. Gap fraction (GF), an index of canopy cover, is often derived over large areas (100's km2) via airborne laser scanning (ALS), estimates of which are reasonably well understood. However, obtaining country-wide estimates is challenging due to the lack of spatially distributed point cloud data. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) removes spatial limitations, however, its large footprint nature and continuous waveform data measurements make derivations of GF challenging. ALS data from 3 Australian sites are used as a basis to scale-up GF estimates to GLAS footprint data by the use of a physically-based Weibull function. Spaceborne estimates of GF are employed in conjunction with supplementary predictor variables in the predictive Random Forest algorithm to yield country-wide estimates at a 250 m spatial resolution; country-wide estimates are accompanied with uncertainties at the pixel level. Preliminary estimates of effective Leaf Area Index (eLAI) are also presented by converting GF via the Beer-Lambert law, where an extinction coefficient of 0.5 is employed; deemed acceptable at such spatial scales. The need for such wide-scale quantification of GF and eLAI are key in the assessment and modification of current forest management strategies across Australia. Such work also assists Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN), a key asset to policy makers with regards to the management of the national ecosystem, in fulfilling their government issued mandates.