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Sample records for sooty shearwaters short-tailed

  1. Fatal attraction of short-tailed shearwaters to artificial lights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airam Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Light pollution is increasing around the world and altering natural nightscapes with potential ecological and evolutionary consequences. A severe ecological perturbation caused by artificial lights is mass mortalities of organisms, including seabird fledglings that are attracted to lights at night on their first flights to the sea. Here, we report on the number of fledging short-tailed shearwaters Ardenna tenuirostris found grounded in evening and morning rescue patrols conducted at Phillip Island, Australia, during a 15-year period (1999-2013. We assessed factors affecting numbers of grounded birds and mortality including date, moon phase, wind direction and speed, number of visitors and holiday periods. We also tested experimentally if birds were attracted to lights by turning the lights off on a section of the road. Of 8871 fledglings found, 39% were dead or dying. This mortality rate was 4-8 times higher than reported elsewhere for other shearwater species, probably because searching for fledglings was part of our systematic rescue effort rather than the opportunistic rescue used elsewhere. Thus, it suggests that light-induced mortality of seabirds is usually underestimated. We rescued more birds (dead and alive in peak fledging, moonless and windy nights. Mortality increased through the fledging period, in the mornings and with increased traffic on holiday periods. Turning the road lights off decreased the number of grounded birds (dead and alive. While moon, wind and time are uncontrolled natural constraints, we demonstrated that reduction of light pollution and better traffic management can mitigate artificial light-induced mortality.

  2. Physical and chemical effects of ingested plastic debris on short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris, in the North Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the plastics ingested by short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris, that were accidentally caught during experimental fishing in the North Pacific Ocean in 2003 and 2005. The mean mass of plastics found in the stomach was 0.23 g per bird (n = 99). Plastic mass did not correlate with body weight. Total PCB (sum of 24 congeners) concentrations in the abdominal adipose tissue of 12 birds ranged from 45 to 529 ng/g-lipid. Although total PCBs or higher-chlorinated congeners, ...

  3. Breeding short-tailed shearwaters buffer local environmental variability in south-eastern Australia by foraging in Antarctic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlincourt, Maud; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Establishing patterns of movements of free-ranging animals in marine ecosystems is crucial for a better understanding of their feeding ecology, life history traits and conservation. As central place foragers, the habitat use of nesting seabirds is heavily influenced by the resources available within their foraging range. We tested the prediction that during years with lower resource availability, short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) provisioning chicks should increase their foraging effort, by extending their foraging range and/or duration, both when foraging in neritic (short trips) and distant oceanic waters (long trips). Using both GPS and geolocation data-loggers, at-sea movements and habitat use were investigated over three breeding seasons (2012-14) at two colonies in southeastern Australia. Most individuals performed daily short foraging trips over the study period and inter-annual variations observed in foraging parameters where mainly due to few individuals from Griffith Island, performing 2-day trips in 2014. When performing long foraging trips, this study showed that individuals from both colonies exploited similar zones in the Southern Ocean. The results of this study suggest that individuals could increase their foraging range while exploiting distant feeding zones, which could indicate that short-tailed shearwaters forage in Antarctic waters not only to maintain their body condition but may also do so to buffer against local environmental stochasticity. Lower breeding performances were associated with longer foraging trips to distant oceanic waters in 2013 and 2014 indicating they could mediate reductions in food availability around the breeding colonies by extending their foraging range in the Southern Ocean. This study highlights the importance of foraging flexibility as a fundamental aspect of life history in coastal/pelagic marine central place foragers living in highly variable environments and how these foraging strategies are use to

  4. Shearwater foraging in the Southern Ocean: the roles of prey availability and winds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Raymond

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sooty (Puffinus griseus and short-tailed (P. tenuirostris shearwaters are abundant seabirds that range widely across global oceans. Understanding the foraging ecology of these species in the Southern Ocean is important for monitoring and ecosystem conservation and management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tracking data from sooty and short-tailed shearwaters from three regions of New Zealand and Australia were combined with at-sea observations of shearwaters in the Southern Ocean, physical oceanography, near-surface copepod distributions, pelagic trawl data, and synoptic near-surface winds. Shearwaters from all three regions foraged in the Polar Front zone, and showed particular overlap in the region around 140 degrees E. Short-tailed shearwaters from South Australia also foraged in Antarctic waters south of the Polar Front. The spatial distribution of shearwater foraging effort in the Polar Front zone was matched by patterns in large-scale upwelling, primary production, and abundances of copepods and myctophid fish. Oceanic winds were found to be broad determinants of foraging distribution, and of the flight paths taken by the birds on long foraging trips to Antarctic waters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The shearwaters displayed foraging site fidelity and overlap of foraging habitat between species and populations that may enhance their utility as indicators of Southern Ocean ecosystems. The results highlight the importance of upwellings due to interactions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current with large-scale bottom topography, and the corresponding localised increases in the productivity of the Polar Front ecosystem.

  5. Plastic ingestion by fulmars and shearwaters at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Provencher, Jennifer F; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Lucas, Zoe N

    2014-10-15

    Plastic pollution is widespread in the marine environment, and plastic ingestion by seabirds is now widely reported for dozens of species. Beached Northern Fulmars, Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters and Cory's Shearwaters are found on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada regularly, and they can be used to assess plastic pollution. All species except Cory's Shearwaters contained plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts. Northern Fulmars, Sooty Shearwaters and Great Shearwaters all showed high prevalence of plastic ingestion (>72%), with Northern Fulmars having the highest number and mass of plastics among the species examined. There was no difference in plastic ingestion between sexes or age classes. In all species user plastics made up the majority of the pieces found, with industrial pellets representing only a small proportion in the samples. Sable Island could be an important monitoring site for plastic pollution in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.

    2011-01-01

    Short-tailed pythons, Python curtus species group, occur predominantly in the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The discovery of an adult female in Mon State, Myanmar, led to a review of the distribution of all group members (spot-mapping of all localities of confirmed occurrence) and an examination of morphological variation in P. brongersmai. The resulting maps demonstrate a limited occurrence of these pythons within peninsular Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo with broad absences in these regions. Our small samples limit the recognition of regional differentiation in the morphology of P. brongersmai populations; however, the presence of unique traits in the Myanmar python and its strong allopatry indicate that it is a unique genetic lineage, and it is described as Python kyaiktiyo new species.

  7. Cloning of the short-tailed Gyeongju Donggyeong dog via SCNT: conserving phenotypic inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoo Bin; Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Setyawan, Erif Maha Nugraha; Lee, Seok Hee; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is a useful tool to maintain genetic information of animals. The Gyeongju Donggyeong dog is a breed registered as natural monument in Korea. The unique feature of the Donggyeong dog is its tail, as the Donggyeong dog can be classified as either short tailed or tailless. The aim of this study was to preserve the Donggyeong dog's unique feature by cloning. Fibroblasts were obtained from a short-tailed Donggyeong dog. In vivo matured oocytes were enucleated, microinjected with a donor cell and fused electrically. Reconstructed embryos were transferred to six recipient dogs. One surrogate became pregnant, and one short-tailed Donggyeong dog was delivered. This study demonstrated that the phenotype of the Donggyeong dog could be conserved by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  8. The short-tailed Albatross, Diomedea albatrus, its status, distribution and natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, H.; DeGange, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Short-tailed Albatross (Diomedea albatrus) is presently an Endangered Species that was formerly abundant in the North Pacific. Owing to the activities of feather hunters operating on the albatross's nesting grounds for a 50-year period in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the species was almost reduced to extinction. The Short-tailed Albatross is the largest of the three species of Diomedea that breed in the North Pacific (Table 1) and when mature is the only albatross in the North Pacific with a white back.

  9. Experimental study of fuel sootiness effects on flashover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Kuang-Chung, E-mail: tsaikc@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw [Dept. of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, 2 Juoyue Road, Nantzu, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hung-Hsiang [Dept. of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, 2 Juoyue Road, Nantzu, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    Previous fire safety studies have demonstrated that flashover can result in severe injure and death and heat radiating back to a fuel is an important mechanism. Fuel sootiness dominates in radiative heat transfer. However, empirical correlations from previous investigations did not consider the fuel sootiness but nevertheless generated reasonably good predictions of flashover. In this study, a series of experiments was employed to examine fuel sootiness effects on flashover. The fuels used, in the order of their sootiness, were gasoline, n-hexane, iso-propanol and methanol. These fuels were filled in circular pans 100-320 mm in diameter to generate fires with different heat release rates and levels of sootiness. The pans were in 1/3 the size of the ISO 9705 test chamber. After ignition, the heat release rate (HRR), temperature inside the chamber, as well as heat flux on the floor and time to flashover (t{sub fo}) were determined. Experimental data show that HRR at flashover and t{sub fo} were strongly corrected and their relationship was independent of the fuel burned. Although heat feedback to the floor increased as fuel sootiness increased, consequently enhancing the burning of sooty fuels, flashover occurs only when the HRR at flashover criterion is reached.

  10. Recent population trends of sooty and light-mantled albatrosses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the greater conservation concern for the sooty albatross, we recommend that dedicated annual counts be conducted during the early incubation period, and be repeated shortly after the chicks hatch (late December), mid-way through the nestling period (late February) and prior to fledging (late April), to give a better ...

  11. Short-tailed shrews: Toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments involving dietary toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin were conducted with short-tailed shrews. Dietary concentrations of DDT dissolved in vegetable oils were usually more toxic than diets containing comparable amounts of powdered DDT. Younger shrews, particularly females, were more tolerant of powdered DDT than older animals; yet, there were no conspicuous age differences in toxicity of DDT dissolved in oils. In comparison to other mammals, short-tailed shrews are not unusually sensitive to DDT, dieldrin, or endrin on the basis of two-week feeding tests. The influence of age and sex on toxicity of DDT, endrin, and dieldrin was sometimes more important than body weight. Of those shrews of the same age and sex that were fed the same dietary dosage, heavier shrews were more tolerant than lighter individuals; and, heavier shrews tended to lose a greater percentage of body weight before death. There was a range of 15 to 105 DDT equivalents in brains of shrews dying on dietary dosages of DDT. Six shrews fed a high level of DDT seemed to have unusual metabolite capabilities and died with apparent lethal levels of DDD in their brains. Levels of dieldrin in brains of shrews that died on a dietary dosage of dieldrin ranged from 3.7 to 12.6 ppm. In the rates of gain and loss experiments where shrews were given diets containing 400 ppm DDT or 50 ppm dieldrin up to 17 days, high residues were noted in tissues of shrews after two weeks on a contaminated diet and a few died at that time. After shrews were placed on clean food, it was determined that >50% of the dieldrin residues in carcass and brain were lost in 50% of residues of DDT and metabolites in brains after 2 weeks on clean food; males lost nearly 50% of residues in carcasses after two weeks on clean food compared with a loss of only 11% in females.

  12. Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies a Missense Mutation in HES7 Associated with Short Tails in Asian Domestic Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Hu, Xue-Song; Zhuang, Yan; Liu, Yue-Chen; Meng, Hao; Miao, Lin; Yu, He; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2016-08-25

    Domestic cats exhibit abundant variations in tail morphology and serve as an excellent model to study the development and evolution of vertebrate tails. Cats with shortened and kinked tails were first recorded in the Malayan archipelago by Charles Darwin in 1868 and remain quite common today in Southeast and East Asia. To elucidate the genetic basis of short tails in Asian cats, we built a pedigree of 13 cats segregating at the trait with a founder from southern China and performed linkage mapping based on whole genome sequencing data from the pedigree. The short-tailed trait was mapped to a 5.6 Mb region of Chr E1, within which the substitution c. 5T > C in the somite segmentation-related gene HES7 was identified as the causal mutation resulting in a missense change (p.V2A). Validation in 245 unrelated cats confirmed the correlation between HES7-c. 5T > C and Chinese short-tailed feral cats as well as the Japanese Bobtail breed, indicating a common genetic basis of the two. In addition, some of our sampled kinked-tailed cats could not be explained by either HES7 or the Manx-related T-box, suggesting at least three independent events in the evolution of domestic cats giving rise to short-tailed traits.

  13. The anatomy of a (potential) disaster: Volcanoes, behavior, and population viability of the short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus)

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    Finkelstein, M.E.; Wolf, S.; Goldman, M.; Doak, D.F.; Sievert, P.R.; Balogh, G.; Hasegawa, H.

    2010-01-01

    Catastrophic events, either from natural (e.g., hurricane) or human-induced (e.g., forest clear-cut) processes, are a well-known threat to wild populations. However, our lack of knowledge about population-level effects of catastrophic events has inhibited the careful examination of how catastrophes affect population growth and persistence. For the critically endangered short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus), episodic volcanic eruptions are considered a serious catastrophic threat since approximately 80% of the global population of ???2500 birds (in 2006) currently breeds on an active volcano, Torishima Island. We evaluated how short-tailed albatross population persistence is affected by the catastrophic threat of a volcanic eruption relative to chronic threats. We also provide an example for overcoming the seemingly overwhelming problems created by modelling the population dynamics of a species with limited demographic data by incorporating uncertainty in our analysis. As such, we constructed a stochastic age-based matrix model that incorporated both catastrophic mortality due to volcanic eruptions and chronic mortality from several potential sources (e.g., contaminant exposure, fisheries bycatch) to determine the relative effects of these two types of threats on short-tailed albatross population growth and persistence. Modest increases (1%) in chronic (annual) mortality had a 2.5-fold greater effect on predicted short-tailed albatross stochastic population growth rate (lambda) than did the occurrence of periodic volcanic eruptions that follow historic eruption frequencies (annual probability of eruption 2.2%). Our work demonstrates that periodic catastrophic volcanic eruptions, despite their dramatic nature, are less likely to affect the population viability and recovery of short-tailed albatross than low-level chronic mortality. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A three-dimensional stereotaxic atlas of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Piotr; Chlodzinska, Natalia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Banasik, Tomasz; Djavadian, Ruzanna L; Węglarz, Władysław P; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2018-05-01

    The gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is a small marsupial gaining recognition as a laboratory animal in biomedical research. Despite numerous studies on opossum neuroanatomy, a consistent and comprehensive neuroanatomical reference for this species is still missing. Here we present the first three-dimensional, multimodal atlas of the Monodelphis opossum brain. It is based on four complementary imaging modalities: high resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance images, micro-computed tomography scans of the cranium, images of the face of the cutting block, and series of sections stained with the Nissl method and for myelinated fibers. Individual imaging modalities were reconstructed into a three-dimensional form and then registered to the MR image by means of affine and deformable registration routines. Based on a superimposition of the 3D images, 113 anatomical structures were demarcated and the volumes of individual regions were measured. The stereotaxic coordinate system was defined using a set of cranial landmarks: interaural line, bregma, and lambda, which allows for easy expression of any location within the brain with respect to the skull. The atlas is released under the Creative Commons license and available through various digital atlasing web services.

  15. Conservation of Sooty Terns on Wake Atoll Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Ascension Island. Atlantic Seabirds 1:159-168. Robertson, W. B. 1964. The terns of the Dry Tortugas . Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 8:1-94 Saliva...Science 60(2):299–303. Sprunt, A. Jr. 1948. The tern colonies of the Dry Tortugas Keys. Auk 65: 1-19. Surman, C. A. and L. W. Nicholson. 2009...5:518-531. Watson, J. B. 1908. The behavior of Noddy and Sooty Terns. Papers from the Tortugas Lab 2:187-255. Wilcove, D. S., D. Rothstein, J

  16. Migratory routes and at-sea threats to Pink-footed Shearwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Hodum, Peter; Colodro, Valentina; Carle, Ryan; López, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    The Pink-footed Shearwater (Ardenna creatopus) is a seabird with a breeding range restricted to three islands in Chile and an estimated world population of approximately 56,000 breeding individuals (Muñoz 2011, Oikonos unpublished data). Due to multiple threats on breeding colonies and at-sea, Pink-footed Shearwaters are listed as Endangered by the government of Chile (Reglamento de Clasificación de Especies, 2011), Threatened by the government of Canada (Environment Canada 2008), and are listed under Appendix 1 of the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP 2013). A principal conservation concern for the species is mortality from fisheries bycatch during the breeding and non-breeding seasons; thus, identification of areas of overlap between at-sea use by Pink-footed Shearwaters and fisheries is a high priority conservation objective (Hinojosa Sáez and Hodum 1997, Mangel et al. 2013, ACAP 2013). During the non-breeding period, Pink-footed Shearwaters range as far north as Canada, although little was known until recently about migration routes and important wintering areas where fisheries bycatch could be a risk. Additionally, Pink-footed Shearwaters face at-sea threats during the non-breeding season off the west coast of North America. Recently, areas used by wintering Pink-footed Shearwaters have been identified as areas of interest for developing alternative energy offshore in North America (e.g., floating wind generators; Trident Winds 2016). The goal of our study was to track Pink-footed Shearwater post-breeding movements with satellite tags to identify timing and routes of migration, locate important non-breeding foraging habitats, and determine population distribution among different wintering regions.

  17. Evidence for exploitative competition: Comparative foraging behavior and roosting ecology of short-tailed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, F.J.; Winkelmann, J.R.; Shin, D.; Agrawal, C.I.; Aslami, N.; Bonney, C.; Hsu, A.; Jekielek, P.E.; Knox, A.K.; Kopach, S.J.; Jennings, T.D.; Lasky, J.R.; Menesale, S.A.; Richards, J.H.; Rutland, J.A.; Sessa, A.K.; Zhaurova, L.; Kunz, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chestnut short-tailed bats, Carollia castanea, and Seba's short-tailed bats, C. perspicillata (Phyllostomidae), were radio-tracked (N = 1593 positions) in lowland rain forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Orellana Province, Ecuador. For 11 C. castanea, mean home range was 6.8 ?? 2.2 ha, mean core-use area was 1.7 ?? 0.8 ha, and mean long axis across home range was 438 ?? 106 m. For three C. perspicillata, mean home range was 5.5 ?? 1.7 ha, mean core-use area was 1.3 ?? 0.6 ha, and mean long axis was 493 ?? 172 m. Groups of less than five C. castanea occupied day-roosts in earthen cavities that undercut banks the Tiputini River. Carollia perspicillata used tree hollows and buildings as day-roosts. Interspecific and intraspecific overlap among short-tailed bats occurred in core-use areas associated with clumps of fruiting Piper hispidum (peppers) and Cecropia sciadophylla. Piper hispidum seeds were present in 80 percent of the fecal samples from C. castanea and 56 percent of samples from C. perspicillata. Carollia perspicillata handled pepper fruits significantly faster than C. castanea; however, C. castanea commenced foraging before C. perspicillata emerged from day-roosts. Evidence for exploitative competition between C. castanea and C. perspicillata is suggested by our observations that 95 percent of ripe P. hispidum fruits available at sunset disappear before sunrise (N = 74 marked fruits). Piper hispidum plants produced zero to 12 ripe infructescences per plant each night during peak production. Few ripe infructescences of P. hispidum were available during the dry season; however, ripe infructescences of C. sciadophylla, remained abundant. ?? 2007 The Author(s) Journal compilation ?? 2007 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

  18. Adult-onset demodicosis in two dogs due to Demodex canis and a short-tailed demodectic mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridomichelakis, M; Koutinas, A; Papadogiannakis, E; Papazachariadou, M; Liapi, M; Trakas, D

    1999-11-01

    Infestation with a short-tailed demodectic mite and Demodex canis was diagnosed in both a six-and-a-half-year-old and a four-year-old dog. The clinical picture was compatible with generalised demodicosis complicated by staphylococcal pyoderma (case 1), or localised demodicosis (case 2). In both cases, the short-tailed demodectic mite outnumbered D canis in superficial skin scrapings. The laboratory findings (lymphopenia, eosinopenia, increased serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities, diluted urine and proteinuria) and the results of a low dose dexamethasone suppression test were suggestive of underlying hyperadrenocorticism in the first case. Hypothyroidism was considered a possibility in the second case, owing to the sustained bradycardia and the extremely low basal total thyroxine value. Systemic treatment with ivermectin and cephalexin (case 1), or topical application of an amitraz solution in mineral oil, along with sodium levothyroxine replacement therapy (case 2), resulted in a complete resolution of the skin lesions and the disappearance of both types of demodectic mite after two and one and a half months, respectively.

  19. Predictable hotspots and foraging habitat of the endangered short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus) in the North Pacific: Implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Wetzel, J.; Bell, K.; DeGange, A.R.; Balogh, G.R.; Drew, G.S.; Geernaert, T.; Ladd, C.; Byrd, G.V.

    2006-01-01

    The short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus) is a rare and endangered seabird that ranges widely over the northern North Pacific. Populations are slowly recovering but birds face several threats at sea, in particular the incidental capture of birds in long-line fisheries. Conservation efforts are hampered by a lack of information about the at-sea distribution of this species, especially knowledge of where it may predictably co-occur with long-line fishing effort. During 18 years of transiting the Aleutian Islands Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge on a research vessel, we observed short-tailed albatross on 65 occasions. They were consistently observed near Ingenstrem Rocks (Buldir Pass) in the western Aleutians and near Seguam Pass in the central Aleutians. Based on the oceanographic characteristics of the locations where we saw most of the birds, we hypothesized that short-tailed albatross “hotspots” were located where tidal currents and steep bottom topography generate strong vertical mixing along the Aleutian Archipelago. As a test of this hypothesis, we analyzed a database containing 1432 opportunistic observations of 2463 short-tailed albatross at sea in the North Pacific. These data showed that short-tailed albatross were closely associated with shelf-edge habitats throughout the northern Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea. In addition to Ingenstrem Rocks and Seguam Pass, important hotspots for short-tailed albatross in the Aleutians included Near Strait, Samalga Pass, and the shelf-edge south of Umnak/Unalaska islands. In the Bering Sea, hotspots were located along margins of Zhemchug, St. Matthews and Pervenets canyons. Because these short-tailed albatross hotspots are predictable, they are also protectable by regulation of threatening activities at local spatial scales.

  20. Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tailed shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D.M.; Fefer, S.I.; Sileo, L.

    1987-01-01

    Surveys of Laysan Albatross and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Midway and Oahu Island, Hawaii, identified a high proportion of birds with plastic in the upper gastrointestinal tract, representing hazards to the health of adult birds and their chicks. Fifty Laysan Albatross chicks were examined for plastic items lodged within the upper digestive tract. Forty-five (90%) contained plastic, including 3 chicks having proventricular impactions or ulcerative lesions. Plastic items in 21 live albatross chicks weighed a mean of 35.7 g chicka??1 (range 1a??175 g). Four dead birds contained 14a??175 g (mean 76.7 g). Two of four adult albatross examined contained plastic in the gut. Laysan albatross chicks have the highest reported incidence and amount of ingested plastic of any seabird species. Twelve of 20 adult Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (60%) contained plastic particles 2a??4 mm in diameter. Impaction did not appear to be a significant hazard for adult shearwaters. Shearwater chicks were not examined. Chemical toxicity of plastic polymers, plasticizers and antioxidant additives is low, although many pigments are toxic and plastics may serve as vehicles for the adsorption of organochlorine pollutants from sea water, and the toxicity of plastics is unlikely to pose significant hazard compared to obstruction and impaction of the gut.

  1. An inventory of Sooty Terns (Sterna fuscata) in the western Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The western Indian Ocean supports over 6 200 000 pairs of Sooty Terns, some in very large colonies. During the past two centuries colonies have exhibited increase, stability, decline and extinction. The main drivers of these trends have been habitat change and unregulated human exploitation, especially of adults; ...

  2. Dissoconiaceae associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck on fruits in China and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.Y.; Sun, G.Y.; Zhai, X.R.; Batzer, J.C.; Mayfield, D.A.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Gleason, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Zasmidium angulare, a novel species of Mycosphaerellaceae, and several novel taxa that reside in Dissoconiaceae, were identified from a collection of apples and Cucurbita maxima (cv. Blue Hubbard) from China and the USA that exhibited sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) signs on their host substrata.

  3. Influence of application strategy of coconut soap on the development of sooty blotch on apple

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, J. G.; Haseli, A.; Tamm, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sooty blotch causes heavy losses in Swiss organic apple production. In 2000 and 2001 a late season application strategy with coconut soap (Biofa Cocana RF) was evaluated. Coconut soap reduced disease occurrence in ali experiments. However, the efficacy was much higher in 2000 than in 2001, probably due to a much higher disease pressure in 2001.

  4. Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, Siti Izera; Batzer, Jean Carlson; Harrington, Thomas C.; Crous, Pedro W.; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Li, Huanyu; Gleason, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so we

  5. Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, Siti Izera; Batzer, Jean Carlson; Harrington, Thomas C.; Crous, Pedro W.; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Li, Huanyu; Gleason, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so

  6. Ectopic expression of Ptf1a induces spinal defects, urogenital defects, and anorectal malformations in Danforth's short tail mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Semba

    Full Text Available Danforth's short tail (Sd is a semidominant mutation on mouse chromosome 2, characterized by spinal defects, urogenital defects, and anorectal malformations. However, the gene responsible for the Sd phenotype was unknown. In this study, we identified the molecular basis of the Sd mutation. By positional cloning, we identified the insertion of an early transposon in the Sd candidate locus approximately 12-kb upstream of Ptf1a. We found that insertion of the transposon caused overexpression of three neighboring genes, Gm13344, Gm13336, and Ptf1a, in Sd mutant embryos and that the Sd phenotype was not caused by disruption of an as-yet-unknown gene in the candidate locus. Using multiple knockout and knock-in mouse models, we demonstrated that misexpression of Ptf1a, but not of Gm13344 or Gm13336, in the notochord, hindgut, cloaca, and mesonephros was sufficient to replicate the Sd phenotype. The ectopic expression of Ptf1a in the caudal embryo resulted in attenuated expression of Cdx2 and its downstream target genes T, Wnt3a, and Cyp26a1; we conclude that this is the molecular basis of the Sd phenotype. Analysis of Sd mutant mice will provide insight into the development of the spinal column, anus, and kidney.

  7. Terrestrial locomotion of the New Zealand short-tailed bat Mystacina tuberculata and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Daniel K; Parsons, Stuart; Schutt, William A; Carter, Gerald G; Hermanson, John W

    2006-05-01

    Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move terrestrially the way other quadrupeds do, or whether they possess altogether different patterns of movement on the ground than are observed in quadrupeds that do not fly. Using high-speed video analyses of bats moving on a treadmill, we observed that both species possess symmetrical lateral-sequence gaits similar to the kinematically defined walks of a broad range of tetrapods. At high speeds, D. rotundus use an asymmetrical bounding gait that appears to converge on the bounding gaits of small terrestrial mammals, but with the roles of the forelimbs and hindlimbs reversed. This gait was not performed by M. tuberculata. Many animals that possess a single kinematic gait shift with increasing speed from a kinetic walk (where kinetic and potential energy of the centre of mass oscillate out of phase from each other) to a kinetic run (where they oscillate in phase). To determine whether the single kinematic gait of M. tuberculata meets the kinetic definition of a walk, a run, or a gait that functions as a walk at low speed and a run at high speed, we used force plates and high-speed video recordings to characterize the energetics of the centre of mass in that species. Although oscillations in kinetic and potential energy were of similar magnitudes, M. tuberculata did not use pendulum-like exchanges of energy between them to the extent that many other quadrupedal animals do, and did not transition from a kinetic walk to kinetic run with increasing speed. The gait of M. tuberculata is kinematically a walk, but kinetically run-like at all speeds.

  8. First description of autumn migration of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor from the United Arab Emirates to Madagascar using satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Sàlim; Douglas, David C.; Khan, Shahid Noor; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Ali Al Hammadi, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The movement and migration pattern of the 'Near Threatened' Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is poorly known. Sooty Falcons breed on the islands of the Arabian Gulf after arriving from their non-breeding areas that are mainly in Madagascar. In the first satellite tracking of the species we fitted a 9.5 g Argos solar powered transmitter on an adult breeding Sooty Falcon off the western coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The bird successfully undertook autumn migration to Madagascar, a known wintering area for the species. We document the Sooty Falcon's autumn migration route and stop-over sites. The adult Sooty Falcon initiated its migration at night and with tailwinds, and travelled mainly during daytime hours for 13 days over an inland route of more than 5,656 km. The three stop-over sites in East Africa were characterised by moderate to sparse shrub cover associated with potential sources of water. We discuss the migration pattern of the tracked bird in relation to importance of non-breeding areas for Sooty Falcons and recent declines in numbers in their breeding range.

  9. Development and characterization of fourteen novel microsatellite markers for the chestnut short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia castanea), and cross-amplification to related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Katherine A; Waits, Lisette P; Hohenlohe, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Rapid anthropogenic land use change threatens the primary habitat of the Chestnut short-tailed bat (Carollia castanea) throughout much of its range. Information on population genetic structure can inform management strategies for this widespread frugivorous bat, and effective protection of C. castanea will also benefit the more than 20 mutualistic plant species of which this bat is the primary seed disperser. To facilitate understanding of population genetic structure in this species, fourteen novel microsatellite markers were developed using restriction-site-associated DNA libraries and Illumina sequencing and tested on 28 individuals from 13 locations in Costa Rica. These are the first microsatellite markers developed for C. castanea. All loci were polymorphic, with number of alleles ranging from 2-11 and average observed heterozygosity of 0.631. Markers were also cross-amplified in three additional frugivorous bat species threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation: Sowell's short-tailed bat (Carollia sowelli), Seba's short-tailed bat (Carollia perspicillata), and the Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis), and 10, 11, and 8 were polymorphic, respectively.

  10. Effect of lead exposure on spatial learning and running speed in the short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica (Didelphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, F; Farmer, C

    2004-01-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the spatial learning ability in adult males of the short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica using a T-maze, complex maze and elevated radial 8-arm maze. This is the first study of maze learning in opossums. In the T-maze, the performance of these animals improved over an 8-day training period. Eighty percent of the subjects initially trained to turn to the right for food reinforcement reached criterion (80% correct responses) by day 3 and all reached criterion by day 4. Reversal training (subjects then trained to turn to the left) was more difficult and required 8 days for all subjects to reach criterion. In the complex maze, 89% of the animals achieved the criterion level of performance (3 consecutive trials with 5 or fewer errors) on the eighth day of training and all reached criterion by day 10. The relative importance of intramaze vs. extramaze cues in directing choice behavior was investigated in the radial arm maze. A discrimination procedure was used which selectively rewarded subjects for following only one set of cues. Animals in the intramaze group obtained a food pellet from a cup at the end of each arm. In the extramaze group, the food cups were placed on a small platform just beyond the end of each arm. All subjects were initially trained to visit each arm with the maze in a fixed position (controls) and did so within 15 test sessions. Following these initial trials, the maze was rotated to a different position after each choice. For subjects in the intramaze group, the food moved in conjunction with the rotation of the arms thereby increasing the relevance of intramaze cues. In the extramaze group, extramaze cues became more important because the food remained on the platforms in the same position in the room. Animals in the extramaze group performed significantly better than chance whereas the intramaze subjects did not. This indicates that intramaze cues are not as important as extramaze cues for accurate choice

  11. Relationship between Fe2+ Ca2+ ions and cyclodextrin in olive trees infected with sooty mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragão, P H A; Andrade, C G T J; Ota, A T; Costa, M F

    2012-01-01

    In this work, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to observe the peak areas of chemical elements present in healthy and infected samples and a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to study the damage caused by sooty mold on olive tree leaves from the Mediterranean. Leaves infected with sooty mold presented a high concentration of Fe 2+ and a low concentration of Ca 2+ . Our results show that the infected leaves cause a metabolic imbalance in the plants due to an anomalous behavior of macronutrients and micronutrients. Infected leaves start to develop a thin layer of glucose (Cyclodextrin) on their surface. Cyclodextrin (CD) molecules are oligosaccharides consisting of α-D-glucopyranose units linked to glucosides. The most common is β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), which has seven units of α-D-glucopyranose. There are different CDs which are widely used as molecular reactors. In this work, some connections between CD molecules conformations that were obtained in order to observe the relationship of Fe 2+ and Ca 2+ in the olive tree infected with sooty mold were studied. The results are discussed in terms of number of ions found inside and outside the cavity formed by the CD molecules.

  12. Diving of great shearwaters (Puffinus gravis in cold and warm water regions of the South Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Ronconi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the most widespread seabirds in the world, shearwaters of the genus Puffinus are also some of the deepest diving members of the Procellariiformes. Maximum diving depths are known for several Puffinus species, but dive depths or diving behaviour have never been recorded for great shearwaters (P. gravis, the largest member of this genus. This study reports the first high sampling rate (2 s of depth and diving behaviour for Puffinus shearwaters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Time-depth recorders (TDRs were deployed on two female great shearwaters nesting on Inaccessible Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, recording 10 consecutive days of diving activity. Remote sensing imagery and movement patterns of 8 males tracked by satellite telemetry over the same period were used to identify probable foraging areas used by TDR-equipped females. The deepest and longest dive was to 18.9 m and lasted 40 s, but most (>50% dives were <2 m deep. Diving was most frequent near dawn and dusk, with <0.5% of dives occurring at night. The two individuals foraged in contrasting oceanographic conditions, one in cold (8 to 10°C water of the Sub-Antarctic Front, likely 1000 km south of the breeding colony, and the other in warmer (10 to 16°C water of the Sub-tropical Frontal Zone, at the same latitude as the colony, possibly on the Patagonian Shelf, 4000 km away. The cold water bird spent fewer days commuting, conducted four times as many dives as the warm water bird, dived deeper on average, and had a greater proportion of bottom time during dives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: General patterns of diving activity were consistent with those of other shearwaters foraging in cold and warm water habitats. Great shearwaters are likely adapted to forage in a wide range of oceanographic conditions, foraging mostly with shallow dives but capable of deep diving.

  13. High prevalence of parental delivery of plastic debris in Cory’s shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Carrasco, María Nazaret

    2012-01-01

    Plastic ingestion by adult Procellariiformes has been widely recorded, but few studies have evaluated intergenerational transfer. We assessed the prevalence of plastic particles, as well as their basic character- istics, in the gut content of dead Cory’s shearwater fledglings stranded by light pollution on Canary Islands. Eighty-three percent of birds were affected, containing on average 8.0 plastic pieces per bird. The average plastic weight per bird was low (2.97 ± 3.97 mg) compared with ...

  14. Breaking the routine: individual Cory's shearwaters shift winter destinations between hemispheres and across ocean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria P.; Granadeiro, José P.; Phillips, Richard A.; Alonso, Hany; Catry, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that migratory species are particularly vulnerable to rapid environmental changes arising from human activity. Species are expected to vary in their capacity to respond to these changes: long-distance migrants and those lacking variability in migratory traits are probably at considerable disadvantage. The few studies that have assessed the degree of plasticity in behaviour of marine animals suggest that fidelity to non-breeding destinations is usually high. In the present study, we evaluated individual flexibility in migration strategy of a highly pelagic seabird, the Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea. Geolocation data from 72 different migrations, including 14 birds that were tracked for more than one non-breeding season, showed a remarkable capacity to change winter destinations between years. Although some birds exhibited high site fidelity, others shifted from the South to North Atlantic, from the western to eastern South Atlantic, and from the Atlantic to Indian Ocean. Individuals also showed flexibility in stopover behaviour and migratory schedule. Although their K-selected life-history strategy has the disadvantage that the chances of microevolution are slight if circumstances alter rapidly, these results suggest that Cory's shearwaters may be in a better position than many other long-distance migrants to face the consequences of a changing environment. PMID:21106591

  15. A study of stomach contents of Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) (Aves: Procellariidae), from the Macaronesian Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Clarke, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Data are presented on the diet of Cory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis (Cory, 1881) resulting from stomach investigations based on 18 birds from Hierro (Canary Islands), 5 from Selvagem Grande (Selvagens or Salvage Islands), 2 from São Miguel and 1 from São Jorge (Azores), collected

  16. A simulation program for the timing of fungicides to control Sooty Blotch in organic apple growing. First results in 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Marc

    2004-01-01

    A simulation program for infections by Sooty Blotch was developed based on literature data and expert judgements. The value of the model as tool for timing fungicide sprays to control Sooty Blotch was tested in 2003 in two randomized plot trials, and four “on farm” trials where the treatments where made by the growers. Disease pressure was relative low due to the warm and dry summer of 2003. Two to five post infection treatments with lime sulfur or coconut soap aimed at severe ...

  17. Sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus survival, oil spills, shrimp fisheries, and hurricanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Migratory seabirds face threats from climate change and a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Although most seabird research has focused on the ecology of individuals at the colony, technological advances now allow researchers to track seabird movements at sea and during migration. We combined telemetry data on Onychoprion fuscatus (sooty terns with a long-term capture-mark-recapture dataset from the Dry Tortugas National Park to map the movements at sea for this species, calculate estimates of mortality, and investigate the impact of hurricanes on a migratory seabird. Included in the latter analysis is information on the locations of recovered bands from deceased individuals wrecked by tropical storms. We present the first known map of sooty tern migration in the Atlantic Ocean. Our results indicate that the birds had minor overlaps with areas affected by the major 2010 oil spill and a major shrimp fishery. Indices of hurricane strength and occurrence are positively correlated with annual mortality and indices of numbers of wrecked birds. As climate change may lead to an increase in severity and frequency of major hurricanes, this may pose a long-term problem for this colony.

  18. Recent changes in the summer distribution of the Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus off western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Yésou

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Surveys carried out in the 1980s showed that 8,000-10,000 Balearic shearwaters regularly gathered in inshore waters of central and northern Biscay, particularly off the coast of Vendée and in the Mor-Braz area, western France. This distribution, apparently linked to particular oceanographical conditions (thermal front, was strikingly overlapping with that of clupeid fish, particularly anchovies. Recent surveys (1999-2000 have shown that the species has become far less numerous in these "traditional" haunts. Conversely, its abundance has increased in the western Channel, some hundreds of kilometres to the North, during the 1990s. Reasons for this northward shift (e.g. changes in prey distribution due to fishing activities or water warming in Biscay remain hypothetical and further study is needed.

  19. High prevalence of parental delivery of plastic debris in Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Nazaret Carrasco, María

    2012-10-01

    Plastic ingestion by adult Procellariiformes has been widely recorded, but few studies have evaluated intergenerational transfer. We assessed the prevalence of plastic particles, as well as their basic characteristics, in the gut content of dead Cory's shearwater fledglings stranded by light pollution on Canary Islands. Eighty-three percent of birds were affected, containing on average 8.0 plastic pieces per bird. The average plastic weight per bird was low (2.97±3.97mg) compared with other petrel species. We found no relationships between plastic loads and body condition or body size, but negative effects may be hidden or delayed. We propose to use the fledglings stranded by light pollution to carry out more precise studies to understand the potential hidden costs of plastic ingestion; and to monitor in a long-term the marine debris to develop management actions for the control of pollution at the marine environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictive ethoinformatics reveals the complex migratory behaviour of a pelagic seabird, the Manx Shearwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robin; Dean, Ben; Kirk, Holly; Leonard, Kerry; Phillips, Richard A.; Perrins, Chris M.; Guilford, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of animals in the wild is fundamental to conservation efforts. Advances in bio-logging technologies have offered insights into the behaviour of animals during foraging, migration and social interaction. However, broader application of these systems has been limited by device mass, cost and longevity. Here, we use information from multiple logger types to predict individual behaviour in a highly pelagic, migratory seabird, the Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). Using behavioural states resolved from GPS tracking of foraging during the breeding season, we demonstrate that individual behaviours can be accurately predicted during multi-year migrations from low cost, lightweight, salt-water immersion devices. This reveals a complex pattern of migratory stopovers: some involving high proportions of foraging, and others of rest behaviour. We use this technique to examine three consecutive years of global migrations, revealing the prominence of foraging behaviour during migration and the importance of highly productive waters during migratory stopover. PMID:23635496

  1. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, Jennifer L.; Bond, Alexander L.; Hutton, Ian

    2014-01-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p < 0.05). More than 60% of fledglings exceed international targets for plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13–3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. - Highlights: • Proportion of the shearwater population ingesting plastic increased over four years. • Shearwater body condition is negatively influenced by the amount of ingested plastic. • Shearwater contaminant load is positively related to the amount of ingested plastic. • Many chicks exceed international targets for ingested plastic after a single feeding. • Plastic ingestion in this study is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate. - Flesh-footed Shearwaters ingest large quantities of marine plastic, which is correlated with poor body condition and increased concentrations of trace metals such as chromium

  2. Potential geographic distribution and conservation of Audubon's Shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecília P.A. Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri Lesson 1839 is a tropical seabird occurring mainly between southern Canada and the southeast coast of Brazil. Puffinus lherminieri is considered Critically Endangered on the Brazilian Red List because it only occurs in two known localities, both of which contain very small populations. However, many offshore islands along the Brazilian coast are poorly known and the discovery of new colonies would be of considerable significance for the conservation of this species. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential geographic distribution of Audubon's Shearwater in Brazil, based on ecological niche model (ENM using Maxent algorithm with layers obtained from AquaMaps environmental dataset. The ENM was based on 37 records for reproduction areas in North and South America. The model yielded a very broad potential distribution, covering most of the Atlantic coast ranging from Brazil to the US. When filtered for islands along the Brazilian coast, the model indicates higher levels of environmental suitability near the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia. However, P. lherminieri prefers islands in environments with warm saline water. Thus, based on the influence of currents that act on the Brazilian coast we can infer undiscovered colonies are most likely to occur on islands on coast of Bahia, Espírito Santo and extreme north of the Rio de Janeiro. These should be intensively surveyed while the islands south of Cabo Frio should be discarded. The existence of new populations would have profound effects on the conservation status of this enigmatic and rarely seen seabird.

  3. A retrotransposon insertion in the 5' regulatory domain of Ptf1a results in ectopic gene expression and multiple congenital defects in Danforth's short tail mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Lugani

    Full Text Available Danforth's short tail mutant (Sd mouse, first described in 1930, is a classic spontaneous mutant exhibiting defects of the axial skeleton, hindgut, and urogenital system. We used meiotic mapping in 1,497 segregants to localize the mutation to a 42.8-kb intergenic segment on chromosome 2. Resequencing of this region identified an 8.5-kb early retrotransposon (ETn insertion within the highly conserved regulatory sequences upstream of Pancreas Specific Transcription Factor, 1a (Ptf1a. This mutation resulted in up to tenfold increased expression of Ptf1a as compared to wild-type embryos at E9.5 but no detectable changes in the expression levels of other neighboring genes. At E9.5, Sd mutants exhibit ectopic Ptf1a expression in embryonic progenitors of every organ that will manifest a developmental defect: the notochord, the hindgut, and the mesonephric ducts. Moreover, at E 8.5, Sd mutant mice exhibit ectopic Ptf1a expression in the lateral plate mesoderm, tail bud mesenchyme, and in the notochord, preceding the onset of visible defects such as notochord degeneration. The Sd heterozygote phenotype was not ameliorated by Ptf1a haploinsufficiency, further suggesting that the developmental defects result from ectopic expression of Ptf1a. These data identify disruption of the spatio-temporal pattern of Ptf1a expression as the unifying mechanism underlying the multiple congenital defects in Danforth's short tail mouse. This striking example of an enhancer mutation resulting in profound developmental defects suggests that disruption of conserved regulatory elements may also contribute to human malformation syndromes.

  4. Breeding biology of a winter-breeding procellariiform in the North Atlantic, the Macaronesian shearwater Puffinus lherminieri baroli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Ana Isabel; Ramos, Jaime A; Ramos, Urtelinda; Medeiros, Renata; Paiva, Vitor H

    2016-10-01

    The breeding success of burrow-nesting seabirds may be influenced by both nest site characteristics and oceanographic conditions influencing food availability at sea. In this study we describe the breeding biology of the winter-breeding Macaronesian shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri baroli), including nest site characteristics and interspecific competition. We also evaluate the possible effects of changing oceanographic conditions on breeding phenology and breeding success. The study was carried out over two breeding seasons on two islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, Cima Islet and Selvagem Grande. Oceanographic characteristics differed between years. On a regional scale, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was low and negative in 2011, and on a local scale, birds used areas with significantly lower values of chlorophyll a concentration and significantly higher values of sea surface temperature anomalies. Hatching success was higher in 2012 than in 2011. At both colonies, egg cracking was the main cause of hatching failure, but in 2011 several eggs on Selvagem Grande were deserted. In 2012 birds laid earlier and chicks had longer wings and were heavier. At both colonies, nests that were deeper, were sheltered from prevailing winds and had small chambers and a soil substrate had a higher probability of being used successfully by the birds. Nests occupied solely by Macaronesian shearwaters were much deeper and had less volume than nests shared with other species. Our study suggests that the breeding success of Macaronesian shearwaters is strongly related to nest site characteristics and that at-sea environmental conditions exert a strong influence on reproductive parameters, with birds breeding in a poor year (evaluated in terms of lower marine productivity) laying much later and their chicks growing at a slower rate than in a good year. The influence of nest site characteristics and environmental conditions may be very important for understanding the breeding

  5. Geographical PCB and DDT patterns in shearwaters (Calonectris sp.) breeding across the NE Atlantic and the Mediterranean archipelagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscales, Jose L; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; González-Solís, Jacob; Jiménez, Begoña

    2010-04-01

    Although seabirds have been proposed as useful biomonitors for organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in marine environments, their suitability is still unclear. To understand the geographic variability and the influence of seabird trophic ecology in OC levels, we analyzed PCBs, DDTs, delta(13)C, and delta(15)N in the blood of adult Calonectris shearwaters throughout a vast geographic range within the northeast Atlantic Ocean (from Cape Verde to Azores) and the Mediterranean Sea (from the Alboran Sea to Crete). OC concentrations were greater in birds from the Mediterranean than in those from the Atlantic colonies, showing higher and lower chlorinated PCB profiles, respectively. This large-scale pattern may reflect the influence of historical European runoffs in the Mediterranean basin and diffused sources for OCs in remote Atlantic islands. Spatial patterns also emerged within the Atlantic basin, probably associated with pollutant long-range transport and recent inputs of DDT in the food webs of shearwaters from Cape Verde and the Canary islands. Moreover, a positive association of OC concentrations with delta(15)N within each locality points out diet specialization as a major factor explaining differences in OCs at the intraspecific level. Overall, this study highlights wide range breeding seabirds, such as Calonectris shearwaters, as suitable organisms for biomonitoring large geographic trends of organochlorine contamination in the marine environment.

  6. Selectivity of flesh-footed shearwaters for plastic colour: Evidence for differential provisioning in adults and fledglings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-02-01

    The ingestion of plastic by seabirds has been used as an indicator of population and ocean health. However, few studies have examined adults and juveniles of the same species concurrent with the availability of plastic in the local marine environment. In King George Sound (KGS), Western Australia, 13% of adult flesh-footed shearwaters (Ardenna carneipes) and 90% of fledglings contained plastic items in their digestive tract. On Lord Howe Island (LHI), New South Wales, 75% of adult shearwaters and 100% of fledglings contained plastic. Ingested items were assessed using Jaccard's Index (where J = 0 indicates complete dissimilarity and J = 1 complete similarity). The colour of items ingested by self- and chick-provisioning shearwaters from KGS exhibited broad overlap with plastic available in the local environment (J = 0.78-0.80), and plastic in adults and fledglings from LHI were less similar to those available (J = 0.31-0.58). Additional data on seabird colour selection would improve our understanding of the factors influencing the behaviour of ingesting plastic, and its contribution to the decline of some species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocean control of the breeding regime of the sooty tern in the southwest Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquemet, S.; Le Corre, M.; Quartly, G. D.

    2007-01-01

    Food availability, which is often seasonal, is regarded as a key factor in the breeding success of seabirds. In oceanic tropical areas, the resources are mostly patchy and ephemeral at the surface, and the seasonality is less marked than at higher latitudes. Such a situation influences greatly the breeding strategies of the oceanic seabird species. We conducted a comparative study of the breeding phenology of the sooty tern ( Sterna fuscata) in relation to the local and regional oceanographic conditions around the four major colonies (Europa, Juan de Nova, Lys and Bird Islands) of the southwest Indian Ocean. Over the 1997-2003 period, around all the studied locations, the sea-surface temperature (SST) and the chlorophyll concentration in the Mozambique Channel and the Seychelles area showed clear seasonal differences related to the southern climate and the monsoon phenomena. The breeding activity is synchronized at each studied colony, but the timings are very different. Seasonal reproduction occurs in austral winter at Europa and Bird Island and in austral summer at Juan de Nova; at Lys Island the reproduction is non-seasonal. For the seasonal colonies, there is a large monthly change in SST just before the beginning of reproduction, which is a proxy indicating the annual phytoplankton bloom. This variation is accompanied by the development of oceanic features such as fronts that favour aggregation of prey, and may also play an important role in the presence of schools of surface tuna, which are very important for the foraging success of sooty terns. Conversely, around Lys Island the seasonal variations of the marine environment do not lead to pronounced development of oceanic structures, and consequently, the longer-lasting phytoplankton bloom could explain the non-seasonal breeding regime there. Further studies will help discern the advantages and disadvantages of seasonal and non-seasonal reproduction regime in response to unpredictable fluctuations of the

  8. The Foraging Ecology of the Endangered Cape Verde Shearwater, a Sentinel Species for Marine Conservation off West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vitor H; Geraldes, Pedro; Rodrigues, Isabel; Melo, Tommy; Melo, José; Ramos, Jaime A

    2015-01-01

    Large Marine Ecosystems such as the Canary Current system off West Africa sustains high abundance of small pelagic prey, which attracts marine predators. Seabirds are top predators often used as biodiversity surrogates and sentinel species of the marine ecosystem health, thus frequently informing marine conservation planning. This study presents the first data on the spatial (GPS-loggers) and trophic (stable isotope analysis) ecology of a tropical seabird-the endangered Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii-during both the incubation and the chick-rearing periods of two consecutive years. This information was related with marine environmental predictors (species distribution models), existent areas of conservation concern for seabirds (i.e. marine Important Bird Areas; marine IBAs) and threats to the marine environment in the West African areas heavily used by the shearwaters. There was an apparent inter-annual consistency on the spatial, foraging and trophic ecology of Cape Verde shearwater, but a strong alteration on the foraging strategies of adult breeders among breeding phases (i.e. from incubation to chick-rearing). During incubation, birds mostly targeted a discrete region off West Africa, known by its enhanced productivity profile and thus also highly exploited by international industrial fishery fleets. When chick-rearing, adults exploited the comparatively less productive tropical environment within the islands of Cape Verde, at relatively close distance from their breeding colony. The species enlarged its trophic niche and increased the trophic level of their prey from incubation to chick-rearing, likely to provision their chicks with a more diversified and better quality diet. There was a high overlap between the Cape Verde shearwaters foraging areas with those of European shearwater species that overwinter in this area and known areas of megafauna bycatch off West Africa, but very little overlap with existing Marine Important Bird Areas. Further

  9. The Foraging Ecology of the Endangered Cape Verde Shearwater, a Sentinel Species for Marine Conservation off West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H Paiva

    Full Text Available Large Marine Ecosystems such as the Canary Current system off West Africa sustains high abundance of small pelagic prey, which attracts marine predators. Seabirds are top predators often used as biodiversity surrogates and sentinel species of the marine ecosystem health, thus frequently informing marine conservation planning. This study presents the first data on the spatial (GPS-loggers and trophic (stable isotope analysis ecology of a tropical seabird-the endangered Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii-during both the incubation and the chick-rearing periods of two consecutive years. This information was related with marine environmental predictors (species distribution models, existent areas of conservation concern for seabirds (i.e. marine Important Bird Areas; marine IBAs and threats to the marine environment in the West African areas heavily used by the shearwaters. There was an apparent inter-annual consistency on the spatial, foraging and trophic ecology of Cape Verde shearwater, but a strong alteration on the foraging strategies of adult breeders among breeding phases (i.e. from incubation to chick-rearing. During incubation, birds mostly targeted a discrete region off West Africa, known by its enhanced productivity profile and thus also highly exploited by international industrial fishery fleets. When chick-rearing, adults exploited the comparatively less productive tropical environment within the islands of Cape Verde, at relatively close distance from their breeding colony. The species enlarged its trophic niche and increased the trophic level of their prey from incubation to chick-rearing, likely to provision their chicks with a more diversified and better quality diet. There was a high overlap between the Cape Verde shearwaters foraging areas with those of European shearwater species that overwinter in this area and known areas of megafauna bycatch off West Africa, but very little overlap with existing Marine Important Bird

  10. Identifying Important Atlantic Areas for the conservation of Balearic shearwaters: Spatial overlap with conservation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Roda, Amparo; Delord, Karine; Boué, Amélie; Arcos, José Manuel; García, David; Micol, Thierry; Weimerskirch, Henri; Pinaud, David; Louzao, Maite

    2017-07-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered one of the main tools in both fisheries and conservation management to protect threatened species and their habitats around the globe. However, MPAs are underrepresented in marine environments compared to terrestrial environments. Within this context, we studied the Atlantic non-breeding distribution of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus) breeding in Eivissa during the 2011-2012 period based on global location sensing (GLS) devices. Our objectives were (1) to identify overall Important Atlantic Areas (IAAs) from a southern population, (2) to describe spatio-temporal patterns of oceanographic habitat use, and (3) to assess whether existing conservation areas (Natura 2000 sites and marine Important Bird Areas (IBAs)) cover the main IAAs of Balearic shearwaters. Our results highlighted that the Atlantic staging (from June to October in 2011) dynamic of the southern population was driven by individual segregation at both spatial and temporal scales. Individuals ranged in the North-East Atlantic over four main IAAs (Bay of Biscay: BoB, Western Iberian shelf: WIS, Gulf of Cadiz: GoC, West of Morocco: WoM). While most individuals spent more time on the WIS or in the GoC, a small number of birds visited IAAs at the extremes of their Atlantic distribution range (i.e., BoB and WoM). The chronology of the arrivals to the IAAs showed a latitudinal gradient with northern areas reached earlier during the Atlantic staging. The IAAs coincided with the most productive areas (higher chlorophyll a values) in the NE Atlantic between July and October. The spatial overlap between IAAs and conservation areas was higher for Natura 2000 sites than marine IBAs (areas with and without legal protection, respectively). Concerning the use of these areas, a slightly higher proportion of estimated positions fell within marine IBAs compared to designated Natura 2000 sites, with Spanish and Portuguese conservation

  11. Incidence of plastic debris in Sooty Tern nests: A preliminary study on Trindade Island, a remote area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Petersen, Elisa; Krüger, Lucas; Dezevieski, Alexandre; Petry, MariaVirginia; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2016-04-15

    Plastic is abundant in the oceans, reaching pelagic zones away from continents. Here we present the first recordings of plastic used as nest material in Sooty Tern nests, on a remote oceanic island. We describe our findings in terms of quantity, size and color of plastic debris. A total of 78 plastics were noted in 54 nests. Four color categories were found: Blue, White, Green and Red. Blue fragments were the most frequent color, present three times as much as white debris. This pattern was present despite blue fragments being smaller and lighter. The plastic debris of lowest frequency were the larger and heavier pieces (red). To our knowledge this is the first record of plastic in Sooty Tern nests. Trindade Island is on an oceanic zone expected to accumulate garbage due to the dynamic ocean currents. Such findings call for a closer inspection of pollution in the Atlantic Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synaptology of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-immunoreactive cells in the nervus terminalis of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L M; Pfaff, D W; Schwanzel-Fukuda, M

    1990-05-08

    Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry were used to examine the structure of LHRH neurons and fibers in the nervus terminalis of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). LHRH-immunoreactive neurons and fibers form a loose plexus within the fascicular network of the ganglion terminale on the median surface of the olfactory bulb. There are at least two populations of LHRH-immunoreactive neurons within the network of the ganglion terminale: fusiform and round neurons similar to those described in the forebrain. At the ultrastructural level, axosomatic and axodendritic contacts were seen between LHRH-immunoreactive and nonimmunoreactive elements in the ganglion terminale. These contacts were classified as 1) synaptic input, with asymmetric synapses seen between a nonimmunoreactive axon terminal and a LHRH-immunoreactive cell body or a nonimmunoreactive axon terminal and a LHRH-immunoreactive dendritic process. 2) synaptic output, with symmetric synapses seen between LHRH-immunoreactive and nonimmunoreactive processes. This study is the first systematic examination of the ultrastructure of the LHRH-immunoreactive neurons and their synaptic contacts in the nervus terminalis. The possible integrative roles for this LHRH-immunoreactive system are discussed.

  13. Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Izera; Batzer, Jean Carlson; Harrington, Thomas C; Crous, Pedro W; Lavrov, Dennis V; Li, Huanyu; Gleason, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so we attempted to infer their origins by means of ancestral state reconstruction on a phylogenetic tree built utilizing genes for the nuc 28S rDNA (approx. 830 bp from near the 59 end) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). The analyzed taxa included the well-known genera of SBFS as well as non-SBFS fungi from seven families within the Capnodiales. The non-SBFS taxa were selected based on their distinct ecological niches, including plant-parasitic and saprophytic species. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that most SBFS species in the Capnodiales are closely related to plant-parasitic fungi. Ancestral state reconstruction provided strong evidence that plant-parasitic fungi were the ancestors of the major SBFS lineages. Knowledge gained from this study may help to better understand the ecology and evolution of epiphytic fungi. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  14. Bystanders intervene to impede grooming in Western chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuni, Liran; Preis, Anna; Wittig, Roman M.

    2017-01-01

    Grooming interactions benefit groomers, but may have negative consequences for bystanders. Grooming limits bystanders' grooming access and ensuing alliances could threaten the bystander's hierarchy rank or their previous investment in the groomers. To gain a competitive advantage, bystanders could intervene into a grooming bout to increase their own grooming access or to prevent the negative impact of others' grooming. We tested the impact of dominance rank and social relationships on grooming intervention likelihood and outcome in two sympatric primate species, Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys). In both species, rather than increasing their own access to preferred partners, bystanders intervened mainly when an alliance between groomers could have a negative impact on them: when the lower-ranking groomer was close to the bystander in rank, when either groomer was an affiliation partner whose services they could lose, or the groomers were not yet strongly affiliated with each other. Thus, bystanders in both species appear to monitor grooming interactions and intervene based on their own dominance rank and social relationships, as well as triadic awareness of the relationship between groomers. While the motivation to intervene did not differ between species, mangabeys appeared to be more constrained by dominance rank than chimpanzees. PMID:29291114

  15. Proteomic and biochemical analyses of short-tailed pit viper (Gloydius brevicaudus) venom: age-related variation and composition-activity correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian-Fang; Wang, Jin; He, Ying; Qu, Yan-Fu; Lin, Long-Hui; Ma, Xiao-Mei; Ji, Xiang

    2014-06-13

    We conducted an in-depth analysis of the proteomic and biochemical profiles of the venom of neonate and adult short-tailed pit vipers (Gloydius brevicaudus). Identified proteins were assigned to a few main toxin families. Disintegrin, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), serine proteinase, cysteine-rich secretory protein, C-type lectin-like protein, l-amino acid oxidase and snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) were detected in both venoms, while 5'-nucleotidase was detected only in the adult venom. SVMP was the predominant protein family in both venoms (neonate: 65.7%; adult: 64.4%), followed by PLA2 (neonate: 13.4%; adult: 25.0%). Antivenomic analysis revealed that commercial G. brevicaudus antivenom almost neutralized the chromatographic peaks with medium and high molecular masses in both venoms, but did not completely recognize peaks with low molecular mass. Toxicological and enzymatic activities show remarkable age-related variation in G. brevicaudus venom, probably resulting from variation in venom composition. Our data demonstrate age-related variation across venomics, antivenomics and biochemical profiles of G. brevicaudus venom, and have implications for the management of G. brevicaudus bites, including improving antivenom preparation by combining both venoms. This study investigates the composition and biochemical activity of neonate and adult Gloydius brevicaudus venoms. We found remarkable age-related variation in venom biological activity, likely the result of variation in venom composition. Antivenomics analysis was used to explore difference in neonate and adult G. brevicaudus venoms. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and clinical management of G. brevicaudus bites, and the design of venom mixtures that will increase the efficacy of commercial antivenom. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Geolocators Reveal Migration and Pre-Breeding Behaviour of the Critically Endangered Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilford, Tim; Wynn, Russell; McMinn, Miguel; Rodríguez, Ana; Fayet, Annette; Maurice, Lou; Jones, Alice; Meier, Rhiannon

    2012-01-01

    Using combined miniature archival light and salt-water immersion loggers, we characterise the year-round individual at-sea movements of Europe's only critically endangered seabird, the Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, for the first time. Focusing on the non-breeding period, we show that all of the 26 breeding birds tracked from their breeding site on Mallorca in the Mediterranean Sea successfully made a 2–4 month migration into the Atlantic Ocean, where they utilised well-defined core areas off Portuguese and French coasts. As well as identifying high-risk areas in the Atlantic, our results confirm that breeding birds spend most of the year concentrated around productive waters of the Iberian shelf in the western Mediterranean. Migration phenology appeared largely unrelated to the subsequent (distinctly synchronous) breeding attempt, suggesting that any carry-over effects were compensated for during a long pre-laying period spent over winter in the Mediterranean. Using the light and salt-water immersion data alone we were also able to characterise the pattern of pre-laying visits to the colony in considerable detail, demonstrating that breeding pairs appear to coordinate their over-day visits using a high frequency of night-time visits throughout the winter. Our study shows that geolocation technology is a valuable tool for assessing the spatial distribution of risks to this critically endangered species, and also provides a low-impact method for remotely observing the detailed behaviour of seabird species that may be sensitive to disturbance from traditional study methods. PMID:22470471

  17. Lack of clinical AIDS in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys with significant CD4+ T cell loss is associated with double-negative T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milush, Jeffrey M.; Mir, Kiran D.; Sundaravaradan, Vasudha; Gordon, Shari N.; Engram, Jessica; Cano, Christopher A.; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Anton, Elizabeth; O’Neill, Eduardo; Butler, Eboneé; Hancock, Kathy; Cole, Kelly S.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Else, James G.; Silvestri, Guido; Sodora, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    SIV infection of natural host species such as sooty mangabeys results in high viral replication without clinical signs of simian AIDS. Studying such infections is useful for identifying immunologic parameters that lead to AIDS in HIV-infected patients. Here we have demonstrated that acute, SIV-induced CD4+ T cell depletion in sooty mangabeys does not result in immune dysfunction and progression to simian AIDS and that a population of CD3+CD4–CD8– T cells (double-negative T cells) partially compensates for CD4+ T cell function in these animals. Passaging plasma from an SIV-infected sooty mangabey with very few CD4+ T cells to SIV-negative animals resulted in rapid loss of CD4+ T cells. Nonetheless, all sooty mangabeys generated SIV-specific antibody and T cell responses and maintained normal levels of plasma lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, all CD4-low sooty mangabeys elicited a de novo immune response following influenza vaccination. Such preserved immune responses as well as the low levels of immune activation observed in these animals were associated with the presence of double-negative T cells capable of producing Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines. These studies indicate that SIV-infected sooty mangabeys do not appear to rely entirely on CD4+ T cells to maintain immunity and identify double-negative T cells as a potential subset of cells capable of performing CD4+ T cell–like helper functions upon SIV-induced CD4+ T cell depletion in this species. PMID:21317533

  18. A brief history of the discovery of natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections in captive sooty mangabey monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormus, Bobby J; Martin, Louis N; Baskin, Gary B

    2004-01-01

    Experimental leprosy studies using Mycobacterium leprae inoculum isolated from a sooty mangabey monkey (SMM) resulted in the accidental discovery that SMM's asymptomatically carry simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is pathogenic in macaques. We showed that the SMM virus, SIVDelta, was antigenically related to SIVmac, which had been identified in macaques, and to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Similar asymptomatic natural SIV infections had been reported in African green monkeys (AGM). Our results together with observations of others led us to propose that both SIVmac and SIVDelta originated in SMM and that SIV emerged in humans as a result of early African nonhuman primate SIV trans-species infections in humans.

  19. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L; Hutton, Ian

    2014-04-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13-3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal bacteria isolated from Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis) and masked booby (Sula dactylatra) at remote Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles-Villegas, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Hernández, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.

  1. Geolocation Reveals Year-Round at-Sea Distribution and Activity of a Superabundant Tropical Seabird, the Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Jaeger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a fundamental aspect of the ecology and evolutionary history of many animals, driven by seasonal changes in resource availability and habitat structure. Seabird migration has been investigated extensively in highly seasonal temperate and polar environments. By contrast, the relationships between migration and seasonal environmental changes have rarely been studied in tropical marine habitats. The sooty tern Onychoprion fuscatus is the most abundant tropical seabirds, and has been ranked as the most important tropical species in terms of its annual estimated consumption of marine resources. We used global location sensing (GLS loggers to describe for the first time the year-round at-sea distribution and activity patterns of sooty terns from a large breeding colony in the western Indian Ocean (Bird Island, Seychelles. While breeding, they foraged within 1,074 ± 274 km of the colony. After breeding, birds undertook an extensive post-breeding migration throughout the Indian Ocean; average distances traveled exceeded 50,000 km per individual. Sooty terns used mainly four distinct core oceanic areas during the non-breeding period; in the Bay of Bengal (A, northeast to an area straddling the Chagos-Laccadive plateau (B, southeast to an area on each side of the 90 East Ridge (C and southwest to an area around Comoros (D. Individuals exhibited a high degree of fidelity to these core areas in successive years. We also established that they performed an unusual behavior for a non-Procellariiformes seabird; most individuals undertook a 1-month pre-laying exodus, during which they foraged in a specific area c. 2,000 km to the south-east of the colony. Year-round at-sea activity of sooty terns revealed that they spent only 3.72% of their time in contact with seawater, so indicating that they must sleep in flight. Activity parameters exhibited seasonal (breeding vs. non-breeding periods and daily variations; they notably never land on the water

  2. A switch in the Atlantic Oscillation correlates with inter-annual changes in foraging location and food habits of Macaronesian shearwaters (Puffinus baroli) nesting on two islands of the sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jaime A.; Isabel Fagundes, Ana; Xavier, José C.; Fidalgo, Vera; Ceia, Filipe R.; Medeiros, Renata; Paiva, Vitor H.

    2015-10-01

    Changes in oceanographic conditions, shaped by changes in large-scale atmospheric phenomena such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), alters the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. Such signals are readily captured by marine top predators, given that their use of foraging habitats and diets change when the NAO changes. In this study we assessed sexual, seasonal and annual (2010/11-2012/13) differences in diet, trophic and isotopic niche (using δ15N and δ13C values of whole blood, 1st primary, 8th secondary and breast feathers), foraging locations and oceanographic variation within foraging areas for Macaronesian shearwaters' (Puffinus baroli) during two years of contrasting NAO values, and between two sub-tropical islands 330 km apart in the North Atlantic Ocean, Cima Islet and Selvagem Grande. These two locations provide contrasting oceanographic foraging regimes for the birds, because the second colony is much closer to the African coast (375 vs 650 km), and, therefore, to the upwelling area of the Canary Current. There was a marked environmental perturbation in 2010/2011, related with a negative NAO Index and lower marine productivity (lower concentration of Chlorophyll a). This event corresponded to the Macaronesian shearwaters feeding farther north and west, which was readily seen in change of both δ15N and δ13C values, and in a higher intake of cephalopods. Diet and stable isotopes did not differ between sexes. Regurgitation analysis indicate a dominance of cephalopods in both islands, but prey fish were important for Selvagem Grande in 2012 and cephalopods for Cima Islet in 2011. Both δ15N and δ13C values were significantly higher for Cima Islet than for Selvagem Grande, irrespective of year, season and tissue sampled. SIBER analysis showed smaller isotopic niches for the breeding period. Our study suggests that during years of poor environmental conditions Macaronesian shearwaters shift their foraging location to more pelagic waters

  3. Habitat suitability modeling for the endangered Hawaiian petrel on Kauai and analysis of predicted habitat overlap with the Newell’s shearwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff R. Troy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The endangered Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis is endemic to the main Hawaiian Islands and has undergone a breeding range contraction since the arrival of humans. Using abiotic and biotic environmental variables, we developed a terrestrial habitat suitability model for the species on the island of Kauai based on contemporary sites where the species is known (or strongly suspected to nest, as well as a habitat/threat-isolation index that combined predictions from this suitability model with spatial information on two anthropogenic threats to the species. After accounting for large-scale relative spatial positioning of sites in modeling procedures, the habitat suitability model suggests that the probability that a location on Kauai could be suitable for Hawaiian petrel nesting activity increases with increasing mean annual wind speed, and may also increase somewhat with increasing slope and native vegetation cover. The habitat suitability model (which does not incorporate spatial information on anthropogenic threats to the species predicts approximately 74 km2 of Kauai, mostly in the interior of the island, as being potentially suitable with predicted probability > 0.7 for Hawaiian petrel terrestrial activity, and about 35 km2 with predicted probability > 0.9. Encouragingly, almost 50 km2 of land with predicted probability > 0.7 and almost 24 km2 with predicted probability > 0.9 is currently protected, being located on either government or private reserve land. Based on the habitat/threat-isolation index, most land predicted to be both suitable (based on environmental variables and as isolated from threats as a large number of the known contemporary Hawaiian petrel sites, is found in government and private reserves. Some degree of predicted habitat overlap between the Hawaiian petrel and Newell’s shearwater (Puffinus newelli, another Hawaiian seabird of conservation concern, suggests that some of the same larger tracts of land

  4. Modification of sperm quality after sexual abstinence in Seba's short-tailed bat, Carollia perspicillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Charlotte; Fasel, Nicolas; Richner, Heinz; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2016-05-01

    In polygynous mating systems, few males have stable access to sexual mates. With an expected higher copulation rate, harem males may deplete seminal fluids or increase epididymal sperm maturation, generating poor sperm quality. In a first study, we reported a higher sperm quality in sneaker males of Carollia perspicillata To test whether the lower sperm quality observed in harem males was generated by an elevated copulation rate, we temporarily removed males of both social statuses from the colony. We thus assessed status-related changes of sperm quality resulting from sexual abstinence. Moreover, released from territory and female guarding, harem males were expected to show a reduction in somatic costs. On the basis of sperm competition models, we predicted a higher resource investment in the ejaculate with the reduction of pre-copulatory efforts. In line with our predictions, sperm quality of harem males improved significantly in contrast to sneaker males, whose sperm quality did not change. Without an increase in ejaculate lipid peroxidation, our results also provide evidence that the duration of sexual abstinence was not sufficient to generate sperm oxidative damage through senescence. Harem males did not show a reduction in blood lipid peroxidation or in the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. In line with the maintenance of these somatic costs, harem males did not invest more superoxide dismutase to the ejaculate to maintain sperm quality. Our results suggest that a difference in copulation rate rather than an adaptation to sperm competition provides sneaker males with higher sperm quality in C. perspicillata. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Echolocation call intensity and directionality in flying short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata (Phyllostomidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkløv, Signe; Jakobsen, Lasse; Ratcliffe, John M

    2011-01-01

    The directionality of bat echolocation calls defines the width of bats' sonar "view," while call intensity directly influences detection range since adequate sound energy must impinge upon objects to return audible echoes. Both are thus crucial parameters for understanding biosonar signal design....... a longer and narrower sonar range than previously thought. C. perspicillata orient and forage in the forest interior and the narrow beam might be adaptive in clutter, by reducing the number and intensity of off-axis echoes....

  6. The electrocardiogram signal of Seba's short-tailed bat, Carollia perspicillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihova, Diana; Hechavarría, Julio C

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies have successfully used electrocardiogram (ECG) signals to characterize complex physiological phenomena such as associative learning in bats. However, at present, no thorough characterization of the structure of ECG signals is available for these animals. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively characterize features of the ECG signals in the bat species Carollia perspicillata, a species that is commonly used in neuroethology studies. Our results show that the ECG signals of C. perspicillata follow the typical mammalian pattern, in that they are composed by a P wave, QRS complex and a T wave. Peak-to-peak amplitudes in the bats' ECG signals were larger in measuring configurations in which one of the electrodes was attached to the right thumb. In addition, large differences in the instantaneous heart rate (HR) distributions were observed between ketamine/xylazine anesthetized and awake bats. Ketamine/xylazine might target the neural circuits that control HR, therefore, instantaneous HR measurements should only be used as physiological marker in awake animals.

  7. Attendance of scavenging seabirds at trawler discards off Galicia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Valeiras

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of scavenger seabirds at fishing trawlers was studied off Galicia, Spain. A total of 9,368 seabirds of 23 species were recorded during 92 fishing operations in 1998 and 1999. The most common species were the yellow-legged and lesser black-backed gull (Larus cachinnans and L. fuscus, Sabine´s gull (L. sabini, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus, the great shearwater (Puffinus gravis, sooty shearwater (P. griseus, the Manx and Balearic shearwater (P. puffinus and P. mauretanicus, the great skua (Catharacta skua and terns (mainly Sterna hirundo and S. paradisaea. Other species occurred in small numbers: Leach´s petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, the storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus, the little shearwater (Puffinus assimilis, Cory´s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea, the parasitic skua (Stercorarius parasiticus, the pomarine skua (S. pomarinus, the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus, the glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus, the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, the sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis, the black tern (Chlidonias niger, the guillemot (Uria aalge and the little auk (Alle alle. The maximum number of seabirds recorded at a haul was 320. The maximum number of a particular species ranged from 120 great shearwaters to 250 yellow-legged/lesser black-backed gulls during a single haul. The differences in ship-follower species abundance are related to migratory movements but fisheries could also have a strong influence at a smaller scale on the distribution of seabirds off Galicia. The degree to which seabirds rely on fishery discards as food was not quantified, but may be important for several species.

  8. Estimating Regions of Oceanographic Importance for Seabirds Using A-Spatial Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Richard Woodrow Humphries

    Full Text Available Advances in GPS tracking technologies have allowed for rapid assessment of important oceanographic regions for seabirds. This allows us to understand seabird distributions, and the characteristics which determine the success of populations. In many cases, quality GPS tracking data may not be available; however, long term population monitoring data may exist. In this study, a method to infer important oceanographic regions for seabirds will be presented using breeding sooty shearwaters as a case study. This method combines a popular machine learning algorithm (generalized boosted regression modeling, geographic information systems, long-term ecological data and open access oceanographic datasets. Time series of chick size and harvest index data derived from a long term dataset of Maori 'muttonbirder' diaries were obtained and used as response variables in a gridded spatial model. It was found that areas of the sub-Antarctic water region best capture the variation in the chick size data. Oceanographic features including wind speed and charnock (a derived variable representing ocean surface roughness came out as top predictor variables in these models. Previously collected GPS data demonstrates that these regions are used as "flyways" by sooty shearwaters during the breeding season. It is therefore likely that wind speeds in these flyways affect the ability of sooty shearwaters to provision for their chicks due to changes in flight dynamics. This approach was designed to utilize machine learning methodology but can also be implemented with other statistical algorithms. Furthermore, these methods can be applied to any long term time series of population data to identify important regions for a species of interest.

  9. The aerodynamic cost of flight in the short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata): comparing theory with measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Busse, Rhea; Waldman, Rye M; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2014-06-06

    Aerodynamic theory has long been used to predict the power required for animal flight, but widely used models contain many simplifications. It has been difficult to ascertain how closely biological reality matches model predictions, largely because of the technical challenges of accurately measuring the power expended when an animal flies. We designed a study to measure flight speed-dependent aerodynamic power directly from the kinetic energy contained in the wake of bats flying in a wind tunnel. We compared these measurements with two theoretical predictions that have been used for several decades in diverse fields of vertebrate biology and to metabolic measurements from a previous study using the same individuals. A high-accuracy displaced laser sheet stereo particle image velocimetry experimental design measured the wake velocities in the Trefftz plane behind four bats flying over a range of speeds (3-7 m s(-1)). We computed the aerodynamic power contained in the wake using a novel interpolation method and compared these results with the power predicted by Pennycuick's and Rayner's models. The measured aerodynamic power falls between the two theoretical predictions, demonstrating that the models effectively predict the appropriate range of flight power, but the models do not accurately predict minimum power or maximum range speeds. Mechanical efficiency--the ratio of aerodynamic power output to metabolic power input--varied from 5.9% to 9.8% for the same individuals, changing with flight speed.

  10. Accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals in tissues of seabirds ingesting marine plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige; Yamashita, Rei; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Watanuki, Yutaka

    2013-04-15

    We analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in abdominal adipose of oceanic seabirds (short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris) collected in northern North Pacific Ocean. In 3 of 12 birds, we detected higher-brominated congeners (viz., BDE209 and BDE183), which are not present in the natural prey (pelagic fish) of the birds. The same compounds were present in plastic found in the stomachs of the 3 birds. These data suggested the transfer of plastic-derived chemicals from ingested plastics to the tissues of marine-based organisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Distribution of marine birds on the mid- and North-Atlantic US outer continental shelf. Technical progress report, January 1978-July 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, K.D.; Pittman, G.L.; Fitch, S.J.

    1980-09-01

    The species composition, distribution, and abundance of marine birds on continental shelf waters from Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy were examined using ships-of-opportunity. Northern Fulmar, Cory's Shearwater, Greater Shearwater, Sooty Shearwater, Wilson's Storm-Petrel, Gannet, Red Phalarope, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, and Black-legged Kittiwake were the most abundant and common species. These species were ecologically dominant within the bird community in numbers and biomass. Georges Bank and Gulf of Marine regions generally had greatest estimates of standing stock and biomass; whereas, in the Middle Atlantic region these estimates were consistently lowest. Species diversity throughout the study area was greatest in spring and least in fall. Oceanic fronts at the continental shelf break and at Nantucket Shoals influenced the distribution of Wilson's Storm-Petrels and Red Phalaropes. Fishing activities were particularly important to Larus gull distribution. Fishes, squids, and crustaceans were the most important groups of prey items in diets of nine bird species. An oiled bird or pollution index was developed. According to the index, frequency of oiled birds was greatest in winter and spring, and gulls made up the majority of species with oiled plumages.

  12. Seabirds indicate changes in the composition of plastic litter in the Atlantic and south-western Indian Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G

    2008-08-01

    I compare plastic ingested by five species of seabirds sampled in the 1980s and again in 1999-2006. The numbers of ingested plastic particles have not changed significantly, but the proportion of virgin pellets has decreased 44-79% in all five species: great shearwater Puffinus gravis, white-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis, broad-billed prion Pachyptila vittata, white-faced storm petrel Pelagodroma marina and white-bellied storm petrel Fregetta grallaria. The populations sampled range widely in the South Atlantic and western Indian Oceans. The most marked reduction occurred in great shearwaters, where the average number of pellets per bird decreased from 10.5 to 1.6. This species migrates between the South and North Atlantic each year. Similar decreases in virgin pellets have been recorded in short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris in the Pacific Ocean and northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea. More data are needed on the relationship between plastic loads in seabirds and the density of plastic at sea in their foraging areas, but the consistent decrease in pellets in birds suggests there has been a global change in the composition of small plastic debris at sea over the last two decades.

  13. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of seven species of free-ranging tropical pelagic seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.

    1996-01-01

    I established reference values for weight, hematology, and serum chemistry for seven species of free-ranging Hawaiian tropical pelagic seabirds comprising three orders (Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes, Charadriiformes) and six families (Procellariidae, Phaethontidae, Diomedeidae, Sulidae, Fregatidae, and Laridae). Species examined included 84 Hawaiian dark-rumped petrels (Pterodoma phaeopygia), 90 wedge-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus), 151 Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis), 69 red-footed boobies (Sula sula), 154 red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaeton rubricauda), 90 great frigatebirds (Fregata minor), and 72 sooty terns (Sterna fuscata). Hematocrit, total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Among and within species, hematology and chemistry values varied with age, sex, season, and island of collection. Despite this variation, order-wide trends were observed.

  14. A Review of Plastic-Associated Pressures: Cetaceans of the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Australian Shearwaters as Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Fossi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of debris on marine fauna occur throughout the marine ecosystems, with adverse impacts documented on over 1,400 species; impacts can be divided into those arising from entanglement, and those from ingestion. Ingestion of, and entanglement in, debris has been documented in over 60% of all cetacean species. Seabirds are also impacted by debris predominately through entanglement and ingestion, with the number of species negatively impacted increasing from 138 to 174 over the past two decades. In the marine environment, cetaceans and seabirds are widely regarded as reliable sentinels due to their position near the top of the marine food web, conspicuous nature, and reliance on marine resources; for this reason, this paper is focused on seabirds and cetaceans as sentinels of ocean change. In particular, two case studies are considered in relation to different levels of environmental anthropogenic impact: the cetaceans of the Mediterranean Sea and seabirds of eastern Australia. Here we describe two recent studies used to diagnose the toxicological stress related to debris-associated pressures in cetaceans and seabirds. These studies highlight the diversity and scale of impacts being felt by marine species and the role these organisms can play in our society as charismatic sentinels of ocean health. Seabirds and marine mammals are exposed, in these key areas, to a variety of adversities that potentially decrease their survival or reproductive success. These include weather, food shortages, predators, competitors, parasites, disease, and human-induced effects and plastic pollution. Each factor affects seabirds and marine mammals in a different way, but more importantly, factors can also interact and create impacts far greater than any one factor alone. The Australian and Mediterranean case studies presented here emphasize the need to consider multiple sources of mortality when developing management plans for the conservation of vulnerable species.

  15. Bio-Physical Coupling of Seabirds and Prey with a Dynamic River Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E. M.; Horne, J. K.; Zamon, J. E.; Adams, J.

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater plumes and plume density fronts are important regions of bio-physical coupling. On the west coast of North America, discharge from the Columbia River into the northern California Current creates a large, dynamic plume and multiple plume fronts. These nutrient-rich, productive waters fuel primary and secondary production, supporting a wide variety of small pelagic prey fish, large populations of Pacific salmon, seabirds, and marine mammals. To determine the influence of the Columbia River plume on marine predators, we analyzed at-sea seabird counts, in situ environmental data, surface trawl densities of prey fish, and acoustic backscatter measurements collected from research vessels in May and June 2010-2012. Concurrent distribution patterns of satellite-tagged sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) and common murres (Uria aalge) were compared with seabird counts from ship surveys. To evaluate plume use by satellite-tagged birds, daily surface salinity values from SELFE hindcast models were extracted at each tag location. Both seabird species occurred in plume waters disproportionate to the total surveyed area, concentrating in the river plume when river flow and plume volume decreased. Murres were consistently within 20 km of the geographic mean center of the river plume. In contrast, shearwaters consistently occurred 100 km to the north of the plume center, where high densities of prey fish occur. Although acoustically detected prey also occurred in greater densities within the plume when volume decreased, surface catches of prey in the plume did not vary with changing plume conditions. Geographic indices of colocation (GIC) were low between murres and prey species caught in surface trawls, whereas GICs were >0.5 between shearwaters and prey species including squid (Loligo opalescens), juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho (O. kisutch) salmon. We conclude that the river plume and associated fronts are identifiable, predictable, and

  16. Human exploitation assisting a threatened species? The case of muttonbirders and Buller's albatross.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Waugh

    Full Text Available Albatrosses are flexible and adaptable predators, relying on live prey as well as carrion. Use of predictable food sources and reliance on human-produced resources are well-known trait in long-range feeders like albatrosses and petrels. Breeding Buller's albatrosses studied at Solander I. (Hautere, New Zealand fed their chicks the remains of sooty shearwater juveniles (tītī in Māori, which are harvested from nearby muttonbirding sites. Evidence of this food type was found at over 10% of nests examined, and 17-40% birds that were fitted with GPS loggers visited muttonbirding sites in this and previous studies. Muttonbirding is a traditional practice that has continued for centuries, with up to 120 tonnes of offal discharged to the sea annually during the present day harvest. It coincides with the energetically-demanding early chick period for the albatrosses. Our finding suggests that the offal may be an important, but overlooked element in the albatross diet. As an important supplementary food for the albatrosses it is likely to have contributed to the 3% per annum growth of their populations since the first comprehensive population surveys in 1969.

  17. Carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 enrichment in coastal forest foliage from nutrient-poor and seabird-enriched sites in southern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, D.J.; Newman, J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of nutrient inputs from breeding seabirds on forest foliage δ 13 C and δ 15 N, we collected foliage samples from two contrasting locations. Olearia lyallii forest on North East Island at The Snares hosts large numbers of (in particular) breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus). At Mason Bay (Rakiura/Stewart Island), samples of Brachyglottis rotundifolia, Griselinia littoralis, and Dracophyllum longifolium were collected from two strata within diverse dune forest and one stratum from the open dunes. The δ 13 C results were typical of C 3 plants and did not differ significantly between Mason Bay and North East Island. In contrast, the δ 15 N results from Mason Bay (mean ± standard deviation, -6.1 ± 1.7 permille) were significantly lower than expected for temperate forest (95% confidence interval of difference, 2.7-3.9 permille), and dramatically lower (19.1-21.5 permille) than North East Island where enrichments (+14.2 ± 3.1 permille) were among the highest ever reported for vegetation. (author). 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. A possible early muttonbirder's fire on Poutama, a Rakiura titi island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, D.; Newman, J.; Moller, H.; Wixon, J.

    2003-01-01

    Muttonbirding for sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) on islands around Rakiura is an ongoing traditional activity of local Maori. There is little archaeological evidence to pinpoint the onset of large-scale birding, so some researchers have suggested that widespread systematic muttonbirding only began in protohistoric times. We present AMS radiocarbon data from an archaeological fire found 65 cm subsurface on Poutama, an island off Rakiura. Duplicate analyses of charcoal and a single analysis of underlying peat were used to date the fire, constrained by C accumulation calculations and chemical and isotopic analysis. By comparing C:N ratios and C accumulation calculations with literature values, the peat result (176 ± 55 BP) was shown to be invalid because of contamination via bioturbation. The combined charcoal radiocarbon data were consistent with being estimates of a single value (326 ± 42 BP). After calibration, the fire was dated at AD 1470-1660 (95% confidence interval). Carbon-13 analysis was consistent with charcoal from different individual plants. The C accumulation rate (61-96 g C m -2 yr -1 ) was at the upper end of literature values, consistent with a high nutrient and well-oxygenated soil environment. Our results highlight the need for more systematic data collection and experimentation to better assess the time of onset of systematic muttonbirding. (author). 46 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Plastic ingestion in marine-associated bird species from the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, S; Provencher, J F; Morgan, K H; Bertram, D F

    2013-07-15

    In addition to monitoring trends in plastic pollution, multi-species surveys are needed to fully understand the pervasiveness of plastic ingestion. We examined the stomach contents of 20 bird species collected from the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific, a region known to have high levels of plastic pollution. We observed no evidence of plastic ingestion in Rhinoceros Auklet, Marbled Murrelet, Ancient Murrelet or Pigeon Guillemot, and low levels in Common Murre (2.7% incidence rate). Small sample sizes limit our ability to draw conclusions about population level trends for the remaining fifteen species, though evidence of plastic ingestion was found in Glaucous-Winged Gull and Sooty Shearwater. Documenting levels of plastic ingestion in a wide array of species is necessary to gain a comprehensive understanding about the impacts of plastic pollution. We propose that those working with bird carcasses follow standard protocols to assess the levels of plastic ingestion whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The distribution of seabirds and fish in relation to ocean currents in the southeastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Wells, John L.; MacCharles, Andrea; Fadely, Brian S.; Montevecchi, W.A.; Gaston, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late August 1988, we studied the distribution of seabirds in the southeastern Chukchi Sea, particularly in waters near a major seabird colony at Cape Thompson. Foraging areas were characterized using hydrographic data obtained from hydroacoustic surveys for fish. Murres (Uria spp.) and Black-legged Kitttiwakes Rissa tridactyla breeding at Cape Thompson fed mostly on Arctic cod, which are known from previous studies to be the most abundant pelagic fish in the region. Our hydroacoustic surveys revealed that pelagic fish were distributed widely, but densities were estimated to be low (e.g., 0.1-10 g∙m-3) throughout the study area and a few schools were recorded. Large feeding flocks of murres and kittiwakes were observed over fish schools with densities estimated to exceed 15 g∙m-3. Fish densities were higher in shallow Alaska Coastal Current waters than offshore in Bering Sea waters, and most piscivorous seabirds foraged in coastal waters. Poor kittiwake breeding success and a low frequency of fish in murre and kittiwake stomachs in late August suggested that fish densities were marginal for sustaining breeding seabirds at that time. Planktivorous Least Auklets Aethia pusilla and Parakeet Auklets Cyclorrhynchus psittacula foraged almost exclusively in Bering Sea waters. Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris and Tufted Puffins Fratercula cirrhata foraged in transitional waters at the front between Coastal and Bering Sea currents.

  1. The evolution of seabirds in the Humboldt Current: new clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Chávez Hoffmeister

    Full Text Available During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap.Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified.The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current.

  2. Fibrous osteodystrophy in two Northern Royal albatross chicks (Diomedea sanfordi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K J; Alley, M R; Gartrell, B D; Thompson, K G; Perriman, L

    2011-09-01

    In February 2004, two Northern Royal albatross chicks aged 20 and 25 days old were presented for necropsy. Both chicks had been hand-fed in situ at a breeding colony, from 2-3 days post-hatch. The hand-rearing diet consisted of boneless hoki fillets (Macraronus novaezelandiae), electrolytes, and sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus) proventricular oil obtained as a by-product of cultural harvest. Routine necropsies on the affected chicks revealed many bones were soft and easily bent. Radiography and histopathology revealed decreased bone density, pathological fractures, and extensive remodelling suggestive of fibrous osteodystrophy. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, resulting from an imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio. The imbalance in the dietary Ca:P ratio was a result of feeding deboned and eviscerated fish. This investigation also highlighted potential health risks associated with the practice of feeding stored rancid proventricular oil, including the destruction of fat-soluble vitamins. It is therefore possible that oxidative degradation of vitamin D may have contributed to the development of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Subsequently, dietary recommendations for supplementary feeding of orphaned Northern Royal albatross chicks include the feeding of whole human-grade fish with an appropriate Ca:P ratio, and the exclusion of proventricular oil. These cases highlight the need for scientific input into wildlife conservation projects, as lack of appropriate nutritional advice resulted in the feeding of a nutritionally inadequate diet. Following the recommended changes in diet, no further cases of osteodystrophy have been diagnosed in hand-raised chicks in the albatross colony.

  3. Marine bird abundance around the Pribilof Islands: A multi-year comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahncke, Jaime; Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Decker, Mary Beth; Hunt, George L., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We examined trends in the abundance and distribution of 12 species of marine birds around the Pribilof Islands, southeastern Bering Sea, over the period from 1977 to 2004. We contrasted patterns among piscivores and planktivores and related these to known and hypothesized changes in the abundance and distribution of prey in the vicinity of the islands. Planktivorous and piscivorous species of marine birds showed different patterns of abundance over time. Planktivorous seabirds that breed away from the Pribilof Islands (e.g., short-tailed shearwaters [ Puffinus tenuirostris], fork-tailed storm-petrels [ Oceanodroma furcata] and red phalaropes [ Phalaropus fulicarius]) were scarce in the 1970s, were abundant in the 1980s, and declined in abundance in the 1990s and from 1999 to 2004. Planktivorous alcids combined (parakeet [ Aethia psittacula], crested [ A. cristatella] and least [ A. pusilla]) that breed on the Pribilof Islands showed a similar remarkable four-fold increase from the 1970s to the 1980s, but then a small increase into the 1990s followed by a rapid decline in the 2000s to numbers similar to those present during the 1970s. The abundance of piscivores kittiwakes ( Rissa spp.) and murres ( Una spp.) was high in the 1970s and declined through the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. In 1999 and 2004, the total number of all seabirds at sea around the Pribilof Islands was well below the numbers seen at any other survey period. We hypothesize that changes in the abundances and types of seabirds present through time reflect changes in the structure of the marine ecosystem of the eastern Bering Sea shelf. We suggest that changes in pathways of energy flow may be responsible for these shifts, though the possibility that there has been a reduction in productivity cannot be ruled out given the scarcity of available data.

  4. Ships on the sea are responsible for enormous emissions. A sea journey which is sooty...; Schiffe auf dem Meer sind fuer gewaltige Emissionen verantwortlich. Eine Seefahrt, die ist russig...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehleisen, Martin

    2012-03-15

    Since the conversion from sailing ships to steamships at the end of the 18th century, ships emit large amounts of sulfur, nitrogen oxides and soot into the air. Environment, passengers and residents of port cities constantly are exposed to health hazards. The conversion to environmentally friendly propulsion technology at the maritime shipping as well as the inland waterway transport is a tough process.

  5. 3 CFR 8336 - Proclamation 8336 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Napoleon wrasse (Chelinus), sharks of several species, and large schools of the Bumphead parrotfish.... All three islands afford unique opportunities to conduct climate change research at the equator, far... international significance: Wedge-tailed Shearwaters, Christmas Shearwaters, Red-tailed Tropicbirds, Brown...

  6. Environment Assessment for Grand Bay Range, Bemiss Field, and Moody Explosive Ordnance Disposal Range Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    were potentially linked to a mass hatch failure of Sooty Terns on the Dry Tortugas (Austin et al. 1970). The cause of the failure was not certain, but...W.B. Robertson, Jr., and G.B. Wolfenden. 1970. Mass Hatching Failure in Dry Tortugas Sooty Terns (Sterna fuscata). Proceedings of the XVth

  7. Roland Weber first part

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The Sooty bloch complex - species identity, infection biology and control options. Rubbery rot and Black summer rot - two new diseases of apple......The Sooty bloch complex - species identity, infection biology and control options. Rubbery rot and Black summer rot - two new diseases of apple...

  8. RE-SONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Island Press/Shearwater Books. Washington ... the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard ... energy depletion, economic collapse, limited ... Books like this one should be made compulsory read- ing, instead of, not in addition to, one of the.

  9. Modeled prevalance of seabirds and relative abundance of cetaceans in NW Atlantic (limit-40 W) from 1980-04-01 to 1988-10-01 (NCEI Accession 0130025)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a compilation of modeled seabird prevalence predictions for a selection of species including Razorbill (Alca torda), Greater Shearwater (Puffinus...

  10. Pacific Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment (PaCSEA): aerial seabird and marine mammal surveys off northern California, Oregon, and Washington, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Mason, John W.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    counted (19,033) with Common Murres (Uria aalge) representing the majority of individuals counted (70.4% of total). The remaining six most abundant taxa included: Surf/White-winged Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata/M. fusca; 4.8% of total), Herring/Thayer’s Gulls (Larus argentatus/L. thayeri; 3.8% of total), Cassin’s Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus; 3.8% of total), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens; 3.7% of total), Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla; 2.0% of total), and Western Gulls (Larus occidentalis; 1.9% of total). During summer, five species comprised >95% of the total number of birds counted (17,063) with the majority comprised of Common Murres (54.1% of total) and Sooty Shearwaters (Puffinus griseus; 34.4% of total). The remaining most abundant three taxa included: Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 3.3% of total), Western Gulls (2.1% of total), and Leach’s Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa; 1.1% of total). During fall, nine species comprised >85% of the total number of birds counted (23,376) with the majority comprised of Common Murres (50.0% of total) and Sooty Shearwaters (10.5% of total). The remaining seven taxa included Cassin’s Auklets (5.2% of total), Surf/White-winged Scoters (5.1% of total), Fork-tailed Storm-Petrels (3.8% of total), Red/Red-necked Phalaropes (Phalaropus fulicarius/P. lobatus; 3.2% of total), California Gulls (Larus californicus; 3.1% of total), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis; 2.7% of total), and Sabine’s Gulls (Xema sabini; 2.2% of total). Throughout the entire PaCSEA survey area, average densities (± SE) at sea for all marine birds combined were similar between fall (23.7 ± 1.9 birds km-2) and winter (24.0 ± 1.9 birds km-2) and least during summer (16.3 ± 2.2 birds km-2). Marine bird densities at sea varied according to bathymetric domain and season. Throughout the entire PaCSEA study area average densities (± SE) for all marine birds combined were greatest over the inner-shelf domain

  11. OBIS - ARGOS Satellite Tracking of Animals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various species have been tracked using ARGOS PTT trackers since the early 1990's. These include Emperor, King and Adelie pengiuns, Light-mantled Sooty, Grey-headed...

  12. Impact of phenolic compounds and related enzymes in Sorghum varieties for resistance and susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Barro, C.; Traore, A.S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Contents of phenolic compounds and related enzymes before and after sorghum grain germination were compared between varieties either resistant or susceptible to biotic (sooty stripe, sorghum midge, leaf anthracnose, striga, and grain molds) and abiotic (lodging, drought resistance, and photoperiod

  13. Whitefly Pest Species (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Citrus Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Žanić; Sonja Kačić; Miro Katalinić

    2000-01-01

    Today, the Citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead), is a very important pest on all Citrus species throughout the citrus growing areas in Croatia. It causes direct damage by sucking the plant juice from the leaves. Furthermore, immatures excrete honeydew that stimulates sooy mold. The presence of sooty mold on contaminated leaves interferes with the photosynthesis of plants. Citrus fruits coated by sooty mold lose its market value. Because Dialeurodes citri is poorly known in Croatia, th...

  14. Rutes migratòries i àrees d'hivernada del virot gros Calonectris Diomedea des Pantaleu (Mallorca)

    OpenAIRE

    Oro, Daniel; Genovart, Meritxell; Igual, José Manuel; Ruiz, Xavier; González-Solís, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Migratory routes and wintering areas of Cory’s shearwaters Calonectris diomedea from es Pantaleu (Mallorca). Here we show the migratory trips through the Atlantic Ocean of 8 Cory’s shearwaters breeding at es Pantaleu islet (P.N. de sa Dragonera, Majorca) during the winter of 2002-2003. The majority of the birds preferred the coasts of the Sahara and of Mauritania and to a lesser extent those of Namibia, corresponding to two zones of oceanic upwelling of cold and very productive waters (Canary...

  15. 77 FR 75601 - Boundary Expansion of Cordell Bank and Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuaries; Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... shearwaters that travel tens of thousands of miles. Food that results from the Point Arena upwelling center... 13, 2013 at the Point Arena High School. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments on this document... area encompasses the Point Arena upwelling center that consistently produces the most intense upwelling...

  16. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Half Moon Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Watt, Janet T.; Endris, Charles A.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Chin, John L.; Bretz, Carrie K.

    2014-01-01

    area), although its associated phylogeographic group of marine fauna may extend beyond to the area offshore of Los Angeles in southern California. The ocean off central California has experienced a warming over the last 50 years that is driving an ecosystem shift away from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment. Seafloor habitats in the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, which lies within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, range from significant rocky outcrops that support kelp-forest communities nearshore to rocky-reef communities in deep water. Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports populations of sea birds such as Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin’s Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. In addition, an observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of “bull kelp,” which is well adapted for high wave-energy environments. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.

  17. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    over the last 50 years that is driving an ecosystem shift away from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment. Seafloor habitats in the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, which lies within the Shelf (continental shelf) megahabitat, range from significant rocky outcrops that support kelp-forest communities nearshore to rocky-reef communities in deep water. Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports diverse populations of sea birds such as Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin's Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. In addition, an observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of "bull kelp," which is well adapted for high wave-energy environments. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.

  18. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    phylogeographic group of marine fauna may extend beyond to the area offshore of Los Angeles in southern California. The ocean off of central California has experienced a warming over the last 50 years that is driving an ecosystem shift away from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment.Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports populations of Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin’s Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. In addition, an observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of “bull kelp,” which is well adapted for high-wave-energy environments. The kelp beds are the northernmost known habitat for the population of southern sea otters. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.

  19. The macrophage scavenger receptor CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Madsen, Mette; Møller, Holger J

    2006-01-01

    CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants are subs......CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants...

  20. When females trade grooming for grooming : Testing partner control and partner choice models of cooperation in two primate species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fruteau, C.; Lemoine, S.; Hellard, E.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Noe, R.

    2011-01-01

    We tested predictions following from the biological market paradigm using reciprocated grooming sessions among the adult females in a sooty mangabey, Cercocebus atys, group with 35 females (Ivory Coast) and in two groups of vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus aethiops (South Africa) with four and seven

  1. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Dark-mantled sooty albatross. 564. 1 000. 1 564 .... albatrosses (dark-mantled P. fusca and light-mantled .... Affairs and Tourism 2001, www.environment.gov.za); the decision to .... is of a nature that may negatively impact on the sur- vival of a ...

  2. 75 FR 54822 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Jemez...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... fine gold to brassy coloring with stippling dorsally (on the back and sides) and is sooty gray..., generally May through September, when summer monsoon rains occur. Unfortunately, methods for determining... log (rounds) to provide immediate cover for salamanders before summer rains (Interagency BAER Team...

  3. 78 FR 55599 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... occasional fine gold to brassy coloring with stippling dorsally (on the back and sides) and is sooty gray... likely influenced by melting snow and summer monsoon rains. When active above ground, the species is... summer monsoon rains occur. Unfortunately, methods for determining locations to survey salamanders over...

  4. Nonprogressing HIV-infected children share fundamental immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Adland, Emily; Karimanzira, Owen

    2016-01-01

    nonprogressors. These children therefore express two cardinal immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys-low immune activation despite high viremia and low CCR5 expression on long-lived central memory CD4 T cells-suggesting closer similarities with nonpathogenetic mechanisms evolved...

  5. Hysteresis and transition in swirling nonpremixed flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, M.J.; Hübner, A.W.; van Veen, E.H.; Hanjalic, K.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly swirling nonpremixed flames are known to exhibit a hysteresis when transiting from an attached long, sooty, yellow flame to a short lifted blue flame, and vice versa. The upward transition (by increasing the air and fuel flow rates) corresponds to a vortex breakdown, i.e. an abrupt change

  6. Invited article summarizing the Science To Achieve Results research portfolio on Black Carbon for the journal EM of the Air and Waste Management Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where there’s smoke, there’s fire – and black carbon. Black carbon is the sooty material emitted from combustion processes, including diesel engines and other sources that burn fossil fuels, biofuels, or biomass. This soot contributes to fine particulate matter,...

  7. Black bark as an indicator of bird peck defect in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Ohman; K.J., Jr. Kessler

    1964-01-01

    Portions of the lower bole of occasional sugar maples (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in Lake States northern hardwood stands are sooty black in sharp contrast to the normal gray. The blackened areas may encircle the entire stem or be confined to a narrow band; they have been observed as high as 25 feet but generally extend about 15 feet above the ground....

  8. Diverse honeydew-consuming fungal communities associated with scale insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet K Dhami

    Full Text Available Sooty mould fungi are ubiquitous, abundant consumers of insect-honeydew that have been little-studied. They form a complex of unrelated fungi that coexist and compete for honeydew, which is a chemically complex resource. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy in combination with T-RFLP community profiling and ITS-based tag-pyrosequencing to extensively describe the sooty mould community associated with the honeydews of two ecologically important New Zealand coelostomidiid scale insects, Coelostomidia wairoensis and Ultracoelostoma brittini. We tested the influence of host plant on the community composition of associated sooty moulds, and undertook limited analyses to examine the influence of scale insect species and geographic location. We report here a previously unknown degree of fungal diversity present in this complex, with pyrosequencing detecting on average 243 operational taxonomic units across the different sooty mould samples. In contrast, T-RFLP detected only a total of 24 different "species" (unique peaks. Nevertheless, both techniques identified similar patterns of diversity suggesting that either method is appropriate for community profiling. The composition of the microbial community associated with individual scale insect species varied although the differences may in part reflect variation in host preference and site. Scanning electron microscopy visualised an intertwined mass of fungal hyphae and fruiting bodies in near-intact physical condition, but was unable to distinguish between the different fungal communities on a morphological level, highlighting the need for molecular research. The substantial diversity revealed for the first time by pyrosequencing and our inability to identify two-thirds of the diversity to further than the fungal division highlights the significant gap in our knowledge of these fungal groups. This study provides a first extensive look at the community diversity of the fungal community

  9. An Analysis of the Effects of Wing Aspect Ratio and Tail Location on Static Longitudinal Stability Below the Mach Number of Lift Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, John A.; Crown, J. Conrad

    1948-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the influence of wing aspect ratio and tail location on the effects of compressibility upon static longitudinal stability. The investigation showed that the use of reduced wing aspect ratios or short tail lengths leads to serious reductions in high-speed stability and the possibility of high-speed instability.

  10. Muscle Aging and Oxidative Stress in Wild-Caught Shrews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Lawler, John M.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Horning, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18 month) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2× higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

  11. Look What the Cat Brought In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erslev, Carole

    1984-01-01

    The small, uneaten, slate-gray, pointed-nose animal that is distasteful to the cat because of foul-tasting scent glands is the shrew. Describes the short-tailed shrew's physical characteristics, lifespan, habitat, eating habits, and senses. (ERB)

  12. Inhibition of phage infection in capsule-producing Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... prove the physical properties of low fat yogurt and some reduced fat cheeses .... tion of the procedure described by Terzaghi and Sandine (1975). Sugars were ... polysaccharides share structural saccharide constituents. (glucose ..... 11, the interface between the baseplate anf short tail fibers. J. Mol. Biol.

  13. Prevalence of marine debris in marine birds from the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Jennifer F; Bond, Alexander L; Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Courchesne, Sarah J; Gilchrist, H Grant; Jamieson, Sarah E; Merkel, Flemming R; Falk, Knud; Durinck, Jan; Mallory, Mark L

    2014-07-15

    Marine birds have been found to ingest plastic debris in many of the world's oceans. Plastic accumulation data from necropsies findings and regurgitation studies are presented on 13 species of marine birds in the North Atlantic, from Georgia, USA to Nunavut, Canada and east to southwest Greenland and the Norwegian Sea. Of the species examined, the two surface plungers (great shearwaters Puffinus gravis; northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis) had the highest prevalence of ingested plastic (71% and 51%, respectively). Great shearwaters also had the most pieces of plastics in their stomachs, with some individuals containing as many of 36 items. Seven species contained no evidence of plastic debris. Reporting of baseline data as done here is needed to ensure that data are available for marine birds over time and space scales in which we see changes in historical debris patterns in marine environments (i.e. decades) and among oceanographic regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness of light streamer tori-lines and characteristics of bait attacks by seabirds in the western North Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyosi Sato

    Full Text Available To improve the effectiveness of tori-lines it is necessary to evaluate the ability of tori-lines to mitigate seabird bycatch and determine what kind of seabird species gather during line settings, attack the bait and are incidentally caught. We conducted two experiments in the western North Pacific and examined the effectiveness for seabird mitigation of light streamer tori-lines which have no long streamers but many light (short streamers and are mainly used in the North Pacific area. Firstly, the effectiveness of two different types of tori-line (light streamer (1 m and long streamer (up to 7 m tori-line and of two different colors (yellow and red of light streamers for seabird bycatch avoidance was evaluated using 567 sets based on data from 20 offshore surface commercial longliners. No significant difference in the bycatch number between the different tori-line types and streamer colors was found. Secondly, we investigated the characteristics of the seabird bycatch in the North Pacific and the effectiveness of three different types of streamers (light, hybrid and modified light types by detailed observations of seabird attacks using a chartered longline vessel. Although the appearance rate of albatrosses and shearwaters were 40.9% and 27.7%, Laysan albatross was the main seabird species that followed the vessel but shearwaters seldom followed the vessel and did not aggregate during line setting. In all attacks on bait observed during line settings, 81% and 7% were by albatrosses and shearwaters, respectively. In the number of primary attacks by Laysan albatrosses which attacked most aggressively of all seabirds, there were no significant differences among the tori-line types. No individuals of shearwater were caught. The results of both experiments indicated that light streamer tori-lines were as effective as tori-lines with long streamers for mitigating seabird bycatch in the North Pacific.

  15. Estimating population size of a nocturnal burrow-nesting seabird using acoustic monitoring and habitat mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Population size assessments for nocturnal burrow-nesting seabirds are logistically challenging because these species are active in colonies only during darkness and often nest on remote islands where manual inspections of breeding burrows are not feasible. Many seabird species are highly vocal, and recent technological innovations now make it possible to record and quantify vocal activity in seabird colonies. Here we test the hypothesis that remotely recorded vocal activity in Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris borealis breeding colonies in the North Atlantic increases with nest density, and combined this relationship with cliff habitat mapping to estimate the population size of Cory’s shearwaters on the island of Corvo (Azores. We deployed acoustic recording devices in 9 Cory’s shearwater colonies of known size to establish a relationship between vocal activity and local nest density (slope = 1.07, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001. We used this relationship to predict the nest density in various cliff habitat types and produced a habitat map of breeding cliffs to extrapolate nest density around the island of Corvo. The mean predicted nest density on Corvo ranged from 6.6 (2.1–16.2 to 27.8 (19.5–36.4 nests/ha. Extrapolation of habitat-specific nest densities across the cliff area of Corvo resulted in an estimate of 6326 Cory’s shearwater nests (95% confidence interval: 3735–10,524. This population size estimate is similar to previous assessments, but is too imprecise to detect moderate changes in population size over time. While estimating absolute population size from acoustic recordings may not be sufficiently precise, the strong positive relationship that we found between local nest density and recorded calling rate indicates that passive acoustic monitoring may be useful to document relative changes in seabird populations over time.

  16. Buying years to extinction: is compensatory mitigation for marine bycatch a sufficient conservation measure for long-lived seabirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Igual

    Full Text Available Along the lines of the 'polluter pays principle', it has recently been proposed that the local long-line fishing industry should fund eradication of terrestrial predators at seabird breeding colonies, as a compensatory measure for the bycatch caused by the fishing activity. The measure is economically sound, but a quantitative and reliable test of its biological efficacy has never been conducted. Here, we investigated the demographic consequences of predator eradication for Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea, breeding in the Mediterranean, using a population model that integrates demographic rates estimated from individual life-history information with experimental measures of predation and habitat structure. We found that similar values of population growth rate can be obtained by different combinations of habitat characteristics, predator abundance and adult mortality, which explains the persistence of shearwater colonies in islands with introduced predators. Even so, given the empirically obtained values of survival, all combinations of predator abundance and habitat characteristics projected a decline in shearwater numbers. Perturbation analyses indicated that the value and the sensitivity of shearwater population growth rates were affected by all covariates considered and their interactions. A decrease in rat abundance delivered only a small increase in the population growth rate, whereas a change in adult survival (a parameter independent of rat abundance had the strongest impact on population dynamics. When adult survival is low, rat eradication would allow us to "buy" years before extinction but does not reverse the process. Rat eradication can therefore be seen as an emergency measure if threats on adult survival are eliminated in the medium-term period. For species with low fecundity and long life expectancy, our results suggest that rat control campaigns are not a sufficient, self-standing measure to compensate the biological toll

  17. Experimental infection of two South American reservoirs with four distinct strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M.; McMillan, Katherine; Ellis, Angela E.; Vandeberg, John L.; Champagne, Donald E.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a diverse species with 2 primary genotypes, TcI and TcII, with TcII further subdivided into 5 subtypes (IIa–e). This study evaluated infection dynamics of 4 genetically and geographically diverse T. cruzi strains in 2 South American reservoirs, degus (Octodon degus) and grey short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Based on prior suggestions of a genotype-host association, we hypothesized that degus (placental) would more readily become infected with TcII strains while short-tailed opossums (marsupial) would be a more competent reservoir for a TcI strain. Individuals (n = 3) of each species were intraperitoneally inoculated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa [North America (NA)-raccoon (Procyon lotor) origin], TcI [NA-Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)], TcIIb [South America (SA)-human], TcIIe (SA-Triatoma infestans), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitaemias in experimentally infected degus peaked earlier (7–14 days post-inoculation (p.i.)) compared with short-tailed opossums (21–84 days p.i.). Additionally, peak parasitaemias were higher in degus; however, the duration of detectable parasitaemias for all strains, except TcIIa, was greater in short-tailed opossums. Infections established in both host species with all genotypes, except for TcIIa, which did not establish a detectable infection in short-tailed opossums. These results indicate that both South American reservoirs support infections with these isolates from North and South America; however, infection dynamics differed with host and parasite strain. PMID:20128943

  18. Seabird mortality from longline fishing in the Mediterranean Sea and Macaronesian waters: a review and a way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cooper

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A country-by-country review of seabird mortality from longline fishing in the Mediterranean Sea and in Macaronesian waters shows a paucity of data. Of 12 Mediterranean countries known to undertake longlining, seabird mortality is only reported for six: France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Spain and Tunisia. Seabird mortality from longlining has been reported from the Azores (Portugal but not from the other Macaronesian Islands. Only for one country, Spain, is information on the levels of mortality available, suggesting that 4-6% of the local breeding population of Cory´s shearwater Calonectris diomedea may be killed annually, a level considered unsustainable for the long-term persistence of colonies. Cory´s shearwater is the most commonly affected species, although a number of Larus gull species are also being caught. There is insufficient knowledge to conclude whether any seabird species is at conservation risk within the region, but concern is expressed for Cory´s shearwater. It is recommended that Mediterranean and Macaronesian countries conduct assessments of their longline fisheries and seabird mortality in terms of the Food and Agriculture Organization´s International Plan of Action - Seabirds. Regional fishery organisations, such as ICCAT and GFCM, should commence the collection of seabird mortality data. A longline action plan for the affected seabird species should be produced.

  19. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    swells from the northwest throughout the year. Wave heights range from 2 to 10 m, the larger swells occurring from October to May. During El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, winter storms track farther south than they do in normal (non-ENSO) years, thereby impacting the map area more frequently and with waves of larger heights.Benthic species observed in the map area are natives of the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the “Oregonian province” or the “northern California ecoregion.” This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, the eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from southern British Columbia to Baja California.Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports populations of Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin’s Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. An observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of “bull kelp,” which is well adapted for high-wave-energy environments. The kelp beds are well-known habitat for the population of southern sea otters. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.

  20. Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Duno, Gloria; Duno, Freddy; Utrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans. PMID:22172205

  1. Intracellular Assembly of Cyanophage Syn5 Proceeds through a Scaffold-Containing Procapsid▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Raytcheva, Desislava A.; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Piret, Jacqueline M.; King, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Syn5 is a marine cyanophage that is propagated on the marine photosynthetic cyanobacterial strain Synechococcus sp. WH8109 under laboratory conditions. Cryoelectron images of this double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phage reveal an icosahedral capsid with short tail appendages and a single novel hornlike structure at the vertex opposite the tail. Despite the major impact of cyanophages on life in the oceans, there is limited information on cyanophage intracellular assembly processes within their phot...

  2. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Mustela frenata) Least Weasel ( Mustela rixosa) Mink ( Mustela vison ) Otter (Lutra canadensis) Spotted Skunk (Spilogale interrupta) Striped Skunk...Raccoon (Procyon lotor) Short-tailed Weasel ( Mustela erminea) i . . . . . . . . . . . ... 79 Table 15. Mammals of Pool 3 (Continued). Long-tailed Weasel... respiratory surfaces of both the fish in a fishecy, and the larger invertebrate prey of the fish. In spite of thi s, it might. be ]MS: detriMnt al to both types

  3. Final Environmental Assessment: Implementation of the Natural Resources Management Program Clear Air Force Station, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    vison ), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), short-tail weasels ( Mustela erminea), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), spruce grouse (Dendragapus...Intense or long-lasting smoke caused by large uncontrolled fire can impact air quality and seriously affect respiratory health • Destruction of valuable...canadensis), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), and least weasels ( Mustela nivalis). In addition to the large mammals and fur-bearers

  4. Tonawanda Creek, Genesee County, New York, Regional Flood Control. Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Long-tail Weasel : Mustela frenata Least Weasel : Mustela rixosa Mink : Mustela vison Eastern Skunk : Mephitis mephitis Red Fox : Vulpes fulva Gray Fo...environments and listed: (a) thickening of gill lamellae, (b) excessive mucous secretion, (c) abrasion of branchial epithelium, and (d) respiratory distress...Ranges Uhich May Include the Batavia Reservoir Compound Site Opossum : Didelphis marsupialis Raccoon : Procyon lotor Short-tail Weasel : Mustela erminea

  5. Red River of the North, Reconnaissance Report: Bois de Sioux-Mustinka Rivers Subbasin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    grazing 10. Little bluestem-stonyhills muhly-sideoats grama community: in the more xeric areas of steep slopes and hills 11. Tame grassland community...subbasin, with typical animals consisting of the short-tailed shrew , striped skunk, meadow vole, and northern grasshopper mouse (Henderson, 1979a and b...Nlon-game mamals indicated as priority species include the Arctic shrew (Ottertail County), northern grasshopper mouse (Ottertail, Grant, Traverse

  6. Does cortical bone thickness in the last sacral vertebra differ among tail types in primates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Abigail C; Russo, Gabrielle A

    2017-04-01

    The external morphology of the sacrum is demonstrably informative regarding tail type (i.e., tail presence/absence, length, and prehensility) in living and extinct primates. However, little research has focused on the relationship between tail type and internal sacral morphology, a potentially important source of functional information when fossil sacra are incomplete. Here, we determine if cortical bone cross-sectional thickness of the last sacral vertebral body differs among tail types in extant primates and can be used to reconstruct tail types in extinct primates. Cortical bone cross-sectional thickness in the last sacral vertebral body was measured from high-resolution CT scans belonging to 20 extant primate species (N = 72) assigned to tail type categories ("tailless," "nonprehensile short-tailed," "nonprehensile long-tailed," and "prehensile-tailed"). The extant dataset was then used to reconstruct the tail types for four extinct primate species. Tailless primates had significantly thinner cortical bone than tail-bearing primates. Nonprehensile short-tailed primates had significantly thinner cortical bone than nonprehensile long-tailed primates. Cortical bone cross-sectional thickness did not distinguish between prehensile-tailed and nonprehensile long-tailed taxa. Results are strongly influenced by phylogeny. Corroborating previous studies, Epipliopithecus vindobonensis was reconstructed as tailless, Archaeolemur edwardsi as long-tailed, Megaladapis grandidieri as nonprehensile short-tailed, and Palaeopropithecus kelyus as nonprehensile short-tailed or tailless. Results indicate that, in the context of phylogenetic clade, measures of cortical bone cross-sectional thickness can be used to allocate extinct primate species to tail type categories. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Common tree shrews and primates share leukocyte membrane antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, L S; Schlossman, S F; Letvin, N L

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with human peripheral blood lymphocyte and myeloid cell surface antigens were utilized to study the phylogeny of the common tree shrew. Blood cells from the common tree shrew, but not the bat or short-tailed shrew, react with certain of these antibodies. These data strengthen the argument that the Tupaiidae are primitive primates rather than insectivores. They also indicate that this approach should be useful for further work in taxonomic systemization.

  8. Fine-scale tracking and diet information of a marine predator reveals the origin and contrasting spatial distribution of prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Hany; Granadeiro, José P.; Dias, Maria P.; Catry, Teresa; Catry, Paulo

    2018-03-01

    The distribution of many marine organisms is still poorly understood, particularly in oceanic regions. Seabirds, as aerial predators which cover extensive areas across the oceans, can potentially be used to enhance our knowledge on the distribution and abundance of their prey. In this study, we combined tracking data and dietary data from individual Cory's shearwaters Calonectris borealis (n = 68) breeding in Selvagens archipelago, Madeira, Portugal, during the chick-rearing periods of 2011 and 2016, in order to infer prey origin within shearwaters' main foraging areas. The digestion state of each prey item in the diet was assessed and classified; and compared to digestion states from known prey items fed to captive birds. In a novel approach, we combined tracking data with information on the prey digestion duration and data on the transit times from foraging grounds to the colony to estimate the location of prey capture. We found a consistent heterogeneity in prey distribution across four different marine domains: Selvagens, deep-sea, seamounts, and continental shelf. In oceanic areas, the chub mackerel Scomber colias, the main prey of Cory's shearwaters, was strongly associated with seamounts and insular shelves, whereas oceanic species like pilot-fish, flying-squid, flying-fish were clearly associated with deep-sea waters. Sardines Sardina pilchardus, anchovies Engraulis encrasicolus and other coastal species were associated with the African shelf. Prey origin assignment was robust across three different sets of assumptions, and was also supported by information on the digestion state of prey collected over a large independent sampling period (671 samples, collected in 2008-2010). The integration of fine-scale dietary and foraging trip data from marine predators provides a new framework to gain insights into the distribution and abundance of prey species in poorly known oceanic areas.

  9. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J

    2013-09-15

    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vif Proteins from Diverse Primate Lentiviral Lineages Use the Same Binding Site in APOBEC3G

    OpenAIRE

    Letko, Michael; Silvestri, Guido; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederick; Gokcumen, Omer; Simon, Viviana; Ooms, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) is a cytidine deaminase that restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other lentiviruses. Most of these viruses encode a Vif protein that directly binds A3G and leads to its proteasomal degradation. Both Vif proteins of HIV-1 and African green monkey simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVagm) bind residue 128 of A3G. However, this position does not control the A3G degradation by Vif variants derived from HIV-2 and SIVmac, which both originated from SIV of sooty man...

  11. Radioactive fallout collected in Tokyo on November 26, 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Y; Kanazawa, T

    1956-01-01

    A large nuclear weapon test by Russia was reported November 23, 1955 as having occurred the previous day. Rain water and fallout samples taken in Tokyo before and after the 22nd indicated the test had produced a secondary fallout from some previous explosion. Rain water of the 21st and fallout of the 29th had radioactive content of 13 days half-life; fallout of the 26th, rain of the 27th 3 days half-life. Sample of the 26th consisted of 15 mg of sooty material giving nearly 2000 counts/min at that time.

  12. Birds and Aircraft on Midway Islands, 1956-57 Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, K.W.; Rice, D.W.; Robbins, C.S.; Aldrich, J.W.

    1958-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which certain species of birds contribute to the hazard to aircraft at Midway; to learn more about the population dynamics and habits of these species to determine what type of control measures might be possible without endangering the species; and to test methods of control which are suggested. Most of the study has been devoted to the two species of albatrosses and the sooty terns nesting at Midway because of the current belief that these species offered the greatest danger to aircraft safety.

  13. Extreme Temperature Exceedances Change more Rapidly Under Future Warming in Regions of non-Gaussian Short Temperature Distribution Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loikith, P. C.; Neelin, J. D.; Meyerson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Regions of shorter-than-Gaussian warm and cold side temperature distribution tails are shown to occur in spatially coherent patterns in the current climate. Under such conditions, warming may be manifested in more complex ways than if the underlying distribution were close to Gaussian. For example, under a uniform warm shift, the simplest prototype for future warming, a location with a short warm side tail would experience a greater increase in extreme warm exceedances compared to if the distribution were Gaussian. Similarly, for a location with a short cold side tail, a uniform warm shift would result in a rapid decrease in extreme cold exceedances. Both scenarios carry major societal and environmental implications including but not limited to negative impacts on human and ecosystem health, agriculture, and the economy. It is therefore important for climate models to be able to realistically reproduce short tails in simulations of historical climate in order to boost confidence in projections of future temperature extremes. Overall, climate models contributing to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project capture many of the principal observed regions of short tails. This suggests the underlying dynamics and physics occur on scales resolved by the models, and helps build confidence in model projections of extremes. Furthermore, most GCMs show more rapid changes in exceedances of extreme temperature thresholds in regions of short tails. Results therefore suggest that the shape of the tails of the underlying temperature distribution is an indicator of how rapidly a location will experience changes to extreme temperature occurrence under future warming.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Tb, a New Approach for an Ancient Brucellaphage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yan Zhao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tb (Tbilisi, the reference Brucellaphage strain, was classified as a member of the Podoviridae family with icosahedral capsids (57 ± 2 nm diameter and short tails (32 ± 3 nm long. Brucellaphage DNA was double stranded and unmethylated; its molecular size was 34.5 kilobase pairs. Some sequences were found through RAPD analysis, TA cloning technology, and structural proteins were observed by using SDS-PAGE. Thus, the results have laid the foundation for the wider use of Brucellaphage’s basic mechanisms and practical applications.

  15. Lead concentrations: bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.R.

    1979-03-01

    Lead concentrations in two species of bats and three species of terrestrial small mammals (meadow voles, short-tailed shrews, and white-footed mice) collected near a heavily travelled highway are compared. Roosting bats away from the parkway contained as much or more lead as the terrestrial mammals that were collected within 18 m of the road. Estimated doses of lead ingested by little brown bats, shrews, and voles equal or exceed doses that have caused mortality or reproductive impairment in domestic mammals. (24 references, 3 tables)

  16. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix A. Background Information & Problem Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    fritlenreptorit oient ()n Tame sectdy of tfuue ar is emhourizneds of entlr Wingto lo meirpltearn rea ntswt the p io alec for hei ofeatent of ater fromthetn...squirrel, eastern chipmonk, white-footed mouse, pine vole, and short-tailed shrew . Since colonial days, the timber wolf, panther, elk, and American bison...tion; demand reduction; Cooperative Operations on the Potomac; flowby; SI4 ATITRACTY dvree oft fW d md tEwtiIfp by blck nmmbr) In response to the Water

  17. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al–Saraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  18. Selective bird predation on the peppered moth: the last experiment of Michael Majerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L M; Grant, B S; Saccheri, I J; Mallet, J

    2012-08-23

    Colour variation in the peppered moth Biston betularia was long accepted to be under strong natural selection. Melanics were believed to be fitter than pale morphs because of lower predation at daytime resting sites on dark, sooty bark. Melanics became common during the industrial revolution, but since 1970 there has been a rapid reversal, assumed to have been caused by predators selecting against melanics resting on today's less sooty bark. Recently, these classical explanations of melanism were attacked, and there has been general scepticism about birds as selective agents. Experiments and observations were accordingly carried out by Michael Majerus to address perceived weaknesses of earlier work. Unfortunately, he did not live to publish the results, which are analysed and presented here by the authors. Majerus released 4864 moths in his six-year experiment, the largest ever attempted for any similar study. There was strong differential bird predation against melanic peppered moths. Daily selection against melanics (s ≈ 0.1) was sufficient in magnitude and direction to explain the recent rapid decline of melanism in post-industrial Britain. These data provide the most direct evidence yet to implicate camouflage and bird predation as the overriding explanation for the rise and fall of melanism in moths.

  19. Mineralogical-geochemical specificity of the uranium mineralization superposed on the oxidized rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulatov, S.G.; Shchetochkin, V.N.

    1975-01-01

    Taking as an example a uranium deposit connected with oxidation zones developing along the strata, the author examines the mineralogical and geochemical features of a pitchblende-sooty uraninite mineralization superimposed on limonitized sandstones. The typical relations between ore mineralization with new formations of the infiltration oxidation process and the changes caused by the action of rising thermal solutions on the rocks are given. Based on these relations, two generations of different ages of rich pitchblende-sooty uraninite ores are distinguished, separated by the time of development of the oxidation processes. The typical change around the ore is a reduction of limonitized rocks, accompanied by their pyritization, clarification and hematitization. The ore concentrations were formed as a result of the action of rising thermal solutions that had interacted with oxidized rocks. The development of late oxidation processes caused the redistribution of these ore concentrations and their downward shift along the stratum slope following the limonitization boundary. On the basis of the data presented, comments of a forecasting and prospecting nature are made. (author)

  20. Asymptotic weight and maturing rate in mice selected for body conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Masso Ricardo J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth patterns of four lines of mice selected for body conformation were analyzed with the logistic function, in order to provide baseline information about the relationship between asymptotic weight and maturing rate of body weight. Two lines were divergently selected favoring the phenotypic correlation between body weight and tail length (agonistic selection: CBi+, high body weight and long tail; CBi-, low body weight and short tail, whereas the other two lines were generated by a disruptive selection performed against the correlation between the aforementioned traits (antagonistic selection: CBi/C, high body weight and short tail; CBi/L, low body weight and long tail. The logistic parameters A (asymptotic weight and k (maturing rate behaved in CBi/C and CBi- mice and in CBi+ females as expected in terms of the negative genetic relationship between mature size and earliness of maturing. An altered growth pattern was found in CBi/L mice and in CBi+ males, because in the former genotype, selected for low body weight, the time taken to mature increased, whereas in the latter, selected for high body weight, there was a non-significant increase in the same trait. In accordance with the selective criterion, different sources of genetic variation for body weight could be exploited: one inversely associated with earliness of maturing (agonistic selection, and the other independent of maturing rate (antagonistic selection, showing that genetic variation of A is partly independent of k.

  1. The impact of regulations on the development of oil spill recovery vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Past, present, and future regulations have imposed and may continue to impose serious and unnecessary restraints on the design, construction, and operation of oil spill recovery vessels (OSRVs). OSRVs have been regulated as tankers under 46 CFR Subchapter D regulations. The application of these regulations to the design and construction of the Clean Sound Cooperative's Shearwater and the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company's Valdez Star and other vessels through the design approval and inspection processes of the American Bureau of Shipping and United States Coast Guard illustrate some of the problems. Present regulations do not encourage the development of new OSRVS. The regulations regarding OSRVs should be reevaluated. Committees of OSRV designers and users as well as regulators should evaluate comments and recommendations before incorporating them in the design of new OSRVS

  2. Combined spatio-temporal impacts of climate and longline fisheries on the survival of a trans-equatorial marine migrant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raül Ramos

    Full Text Available Predicting the impact of human activities and their derivable consequences, such as global warming or direct wildlife mortality, is increasingly relevant in our changing world. Due to their particular life history traits, long-lived migrants are amongst the most endangered and sensitive group of animals to these harming effects. Our ability to identify and quantify such anthropogenic threats in both breeding and wintering grounds is, therefore, of key importance in the field of conservation biology. Using long-term capture-recapture data (34 years, 4557 individuals and year-round tracking data (4 years, 100 individuals of a trans-equatorial migrant, the Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea, we investigated the impact of longline fisheries and climatic variables in both breeding and wintering areas on the most important demographic trait of this seabird, i.e. adult survival. Annual adult survival probability was estimated at 0.914±0.022 on average, declining throughout 1978-1999 but recovering during the last decade (2005-2011. Our results suggest that both the incidental bycatch associated with longline fisheries and high sea surface temperatures (indirectly linked to food availability; SST increased mortality rates during the long breeding season (March-October. Shearwater survival was also negatively affected during the short non-breeding season (December-February by positive episodes of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI. Indirect negative effects of climate at both breeding (SST and wintering grounds (SOI had a greater impact on survival than longliner activity, and indeed these climatic factors are those which are expected to present more unfavourable trends in the future. Our work underlines the importance of considering both breeding and wintering habitats as well as precise schedules/phenology when assessing the global role of the local impacts on the dynamics of migratory species.

  3. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g{sup -1} wet weight). The highest {sigma}DDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g{sup -1}). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g{sup -1}), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines ({sigma}OHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile.

  4. Isotopic characterization of flight feathers in two pelagic seabirds: Sampling strategies for ecological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Anne E.; Ostrom, Peggy H.; Stricker, Craig A.; James, Helen F.; Gandhi, Hasand

    2010-01-01

    We wish to use stable-isotope analysis of flight feathers to understand the feeding behavior of pelagic seabirds, such as the Hawaiian Petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) and Newell’s Shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli). Analysis of remiges is particularly informative because the sequence and timing of remex molt are often known. The initial step, reported here, is to obtain accurate isotope values from whole remiges by means of a minimally invasive protocol appropriate for live birds or museum specimens. The high variability observed in D13C and D15N values within a feather precludes the use of a small section of vane. We found the average range within 42 Hawaiian Petrel remiges to be 1.3‰ for both D13C and D15N and that within 10 Newell’s Shearwater remiges to be 1.3‰ and 0.7‰ for D13C and D15N, respectively. The D13C of all 52 feathers increased from tip to base, and the majority of Hawaiian Petrel feathers showed an analogous trend in D15N. Although the average range of DD in 21 Hawaiian Petrel remiges was 11‰, we found no longitudinal trend. We discuss influences of trophic level, foraging location, metabolism, and pigmentation on isotope values and compare three methods of obtaining isotope averages of whole feathers. Our novel barb-sampling protocol requires only 1.0 mg of feather and minimal preparation time. Because it leaves the feather nearly intact, this protocol will likely facilitate obtaining isotope values from remiges of live birds and museum specimens. As a consequence, it will help expand the understanding of historical trends in foraging behavior

  5. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g -1 wet weight). The highest ΣDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g -1 ). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g -1 ), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (ΣOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile

  6. Mosca-Branca, Bemisia tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em feijoeiro: Características gerais, bioecologia e métodos de controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Silva

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. Common bean plants are infested by insects, which can ultimately affect the crop production before and after harvest, with estimated losses ranging from 33 to 86%. Among the insect pests infesting the common beans the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn. stands out. This species cause direct injury by feeding on the plants and indirect injury by excreting sugary honeydew that is after colonized by the sooty mold. In addition, the most serious damage caused by B. tabaci is the transmission of virus diseases, especially the common bean golden mosaic, responsible for economic losses varying from 30 to 100%. This review aims at providing information on important aspects of B. tabaci including its geographical distribution, bioecology, population dynamics, host plants, and methods of pest control. We expect that this review can provide valuable subsidies for future studies on the whitefly in common beans.

  7. Production of a carbon reducing agent and hydrogen by the thermocatalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons on the surface of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borok, B A; Kel' tsev, V V

    1973-01-01

    In a series of laboratory experiments, natural gas containing 98.7% methane and 1.3% nitrogen was passed through a tube packed with particles of a reduced material containing 62% iron. At 900/sup 0/C and 25 vol/vol/hr space velocity, conversion was 99%, and the exit gas contained 98.4% hydrogen. The solid product, called sooty iron, obtained in the experiments contained 20 to 60% carbon; the volume of sponge iron treated with methane at 900/sup 0/C increased when the carbon content reached 30%. Runs with natural gas at a range of temperatures and constant space velocity or at 900/sup 0/C and increasing space velocity, runs with propane feed instead of methane, and the activity of the iron-carbon complex are discussed.

  8. A Metabarcoding Survey on the Fungal Microbiota Associated to the Olive Fruit Fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacrinò, Antonino; Schena, Leonardo; Campolo, Orlando; Laudani, Francesca; Mosca, Saveria; Giunti, Giulia; Strano, Cinzia Patricia; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of interaction between insects and fungi is interesting from an ecological point of view, particularly when these interactions involve insect pests and plant pathogens within an agroecosystem. In this study, we aimed to perform an accurate analysis on the fungal microbiota associated to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) through a metabarcoding approach based on 454 pyrosequencing. From this analysis, we retrieved 43,549 reads that clustered into 128 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which 29 resulted in the "core" associate fungi of B. oleae. This fungal community was mainly represented by sooty mould fungi, such as Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp. and Aureobasidium spp., by plant pathogens like Colletotrichum spp. and Pseudocercospora spp., along with several other less abundant taxa whose ecology is unclear in most of the cases. Our findings lead to new insights into the microbial ecology of this specific ecological niche, enabling the understanding of a complex network of interactions within the olive agroecosystem.

  9. Cascading effects of a highly specialized beech-aphid–fungus interaction on forest regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Cook-Patton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Specialist herbivores are thought to often enhance or maintain plant diversity within ecosystems, because they prevent their host species from becoming competitively dominant. In contrast, specialist herbivores are not generally expected to have negative impacts on non-hosts. However, we describe a cascade of indirect interactions whereby a specialist sooty mold (Scorias spongiosa colonizes the honeydew from a specialist beech aphid (Grylloprociphilus imbricator, ultimately decreasing the survival of seedlings beneath American beech trees (Fagus grandifolia. A common garden experiment indicated that this mortality resulted from moldy honeydew impairing leaf function rather than from chemical or microbial changes to the soil. In addition, aphids consistently and repeatedly colonized the same large beech trees, suggesting that seedling-depauperate islands may form beneath these trees. Thus this highly specialized three-way beech-aphid–fungus interaction has the potential to negatively impact local forest regeneration via a cascade of indirect effects.

  10. First report on the whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm.

  11. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Greaves, G.N. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gng@aber.ac.uk; Hargrave, G.K. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Jarvis, S. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Wildman, P. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Meneau, F. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE CRG/ESRF, P.O. Box 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Bras, W. [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), DUBBLE CRG/ESRF, P.O. Box 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Thomas, G. [Institute of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s{sup -1} we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene.

  12. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, C.; Greaves, G.N.; Hargrave, G.K.; Jarvis, S.; Wildman, P.; Meneau, F.; Bras, W.; Thomas, G.

    2005-01-01

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s -1 we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene

  13. In situ measurements of soot formation in simple flames using small angle X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C.; Greaves, G. N.; Hargrave, G. K.; Jarvis, S.; Wildman, P.; Meneau, F.; Bras, W.; Thomas, G.

    2005-08-01

    Direct SAXS measurements of soot formation from ethylene have been made using laminar pre-mixed flames for the first time. The slot burner was configured to maximise the signal from particulates. The geometry also enabled the thermal background from the surrounding hot gasses to be accurately removed. With cold flame speeds of 40 cm s-1 we have been able to identify particle sizes and densities from moderately sooty to rich flame conditions. By adjusting the height of the burner in the beam, the development of particles as a function of position above the flame tip and therefore as a function of time from ignition have been obtained. These reveal evidence for bimodal particle nucleation and growth at different stages in the continuous combustion of ethylene.

  14. Species-specific activity of SIV Nef and HIV-1 Vpu in overcoming restriction by tetherin/BST2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin, also known as BST2, CD317 or HM1.24, was recently identified as an interferon-inducible host-cell factor that interferes with the detachment of virus particles from infected cells. HIV-1 overcomes this restriction by expressing an accessory protein, Vpu, which counteracts tetherin. Since lentiviruses of the SIV(smm/mac/HIV-2 lineage do not have a vpu gene, this activity has likely been assumed by other viral gene products. We found that deletion of the SIV(mac239 nef gene significantly impaired virus release in cells expressing rhesus macaque tetherin. Virus release could be restored by expressing Nef in trans. However, Nef was unable to facilitate virus release in the presence of human tetherin. Conversely, Vpu enhanced virus release in the presence of human tetherin, but not in the presence of rhesus tetherin. In accordance with the species-specificity of Nef in mediating virus release, SIV Nef downregulated cell-surface expression of rhesus tetherin, but did not downregulate human tetherin. The specificity of SIV Nef for rhesus tetherin mapped to four amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of the molecule that are missing from human tetherin, whereas the specificity of Vpu for human tetherin mapped to amino acid differences in the transmembrane domain. Nef alleles of SIV(smm, HIV-2 and HIV-1 were also able to rescue virus release in the presence of both rhesus macaque and sooty mangabey tetherin, but were generally ineffective against human tetherin. Thus, the ability of Nef to antagonize tetherin from these Old World primates appears to be conserved among the primate lentiviruses. These results identify Nef as the viral gene product of SIV that opposes restriction by tetherin in rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys, and reveal species-specificity in the activities of both Nef and Vpu in overcoming tetherin in their respective hosts.

  15. Pelagic cephalopods in the western Indian Ocean: New information from diets of top predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Frédéric; Potier, Michel; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Romanov, Evgeny; Sabatié, Richard; Cherel, Yves

    2013-10-01

    Using a combination of diverse large predatory fishes and one seabird, we collected information on the cephalopod fauna of the western Indian Ocean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 35 fishes representing ten families (Xiphiidae, Istiophoridae, Scombridae, Carangidae, Coryphaenidae, Alepisauridae, Dasyatidae, Carcharhinidae, Alopiidae and Sphyrnidae) and of the sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata of the Mozambique Channel from 2000 to 2010. Both fresh and accumulated beaks were used for identifying cephalopod prey. Cephalopods were important prey for twelve predators; swordfish Xiphias gladius had the highest cephalopod proportion; sooty tern (O. fuscata) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) had high proportions too. We recovered 23 cephalopod families and identified 38 species. Ten species from four Teuthida families (Ommastrephidae, Onychoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae and Ancistrocheiridae) and two Octopoda families (Argonautidae and Bolitaenidae) occurred very frequently in the stomach contents, while Sepiida were rare. Ommastrephidae were the most cephalopod food sources: the purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis was the most prevalent prey by far, Ornithoteuthis volatilis was important for eleven predators and few but large specimens of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii were recovered in the stomachs of swordfish in the Indian South Subtropical Gyre province only. Predators' groups were identified based on cephalopod prey composition, on depth in which they forage, and on prey size. Surface predators' diets were characterized by lower cephalopod diversity but greater average numbers of cephalopod prey, whereas the deep-dwelling predators (swordfish and bigeye tuna) preyed on larger specimens than surface predators (O. fuscata or yellowfin tunas Thunnus albacares). Our findings emphasized the usefulness of a community of marine predators to gain valuable information on the biology and the distribution of the cephalopod forage fauna that are

  16. Mycobacterium leprae genomes from naturally infected nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honap, Tanvi P; Pfister, Luz-Andrea; Housman, Genevieve; Mills, Sarah; Tarara, Ross P; Suzuki, Koichi; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Rosenberg, Michael S; Stone, Anne C

    2018-01-01

    Leprosy is caused by the bacterial pathogens Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Apart from humans, animals such as nine-banded armadillos in the Americas and red squirrels in the British Isles are naturally infected with M. leprae. Natural leprosy has also been reported in certain nonhuman primates, but it is not known whether these occurrences are due to incidental infections by human M. leprae strains or by M. leprae strains specific to nonhuman primates. In this study, complete M. leprae genomes from three naturally infected nonhuman primates (a chimpanzee from Sierra Leone, a sooty mangabey from West Africa, and a cynomolgus macaque from The Philippines) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the cynomolgus macaque M. leprae strain is most closely related to a human M. leprae strain from New Caledonia, whereas the chimpanzee and sooty mangabey M. leprae strains belong to a human M. leprae lineage commonly found in West Africa. Additionally, samples from ring-tailed lemurs from the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, and chimpanzees from Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, were screened using quantitative PCR assays, to assess the prevalence of M. leprae in wild nonhuman primates. However, these samples did not show evidence of M. leprae infection. Overall, this study adds genomic data for nonhuman primate M. leprae strains to the existing M. leprae literature and finds that this pathogen can be transmitted from humans to nonhuman primates as well as between nonhuman primate species. While the prevalence of natural leprosy in nonhuman primates is likely low, nevertheless, future studies should continue to explore the prevalence of leprosy-causing pathogens in the wild.

  17. Parotid Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma in a Big-eared Opossum (Didelphis aurita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Delgado, J; Coimbra, A A C; Dos Santos-Cirqueira, C; Sanches, T C; Guerra, J M; de Oliveira, A S; Di Loretto, C; Zwarg, T; Ressio, R; Rivas, L; Sansone, M; Nagamori, F O; Kanamura, C; Gonçalves, P S; Fernandes, N C C A; Groch, K R; Catão-Dias, J L

    2018-02-01

    The opossum (family Didelphidae) is a marsupial endemic to the Americas. Apart from the South American short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), there is considerable lack of knowledge about the health and diseases of most opossum species. Among these, the big-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita) is found in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Natural and experimental studies have shown this species to be susceptible to infectious agents with zoonotic potential and the animals may play a role in transmission of such agents. However, neoplasia appears to be uncommon in this species. We describe the gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features of a parotid salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinoma in a free-living big-eared opossum. This case represents the first report of salivary gland neoplasia in opossums. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New progress in snake mitochondrial gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nian; Zhao, Shujin

    2009-08-01

    To further understand the evolution of snake mitochondrial genomes, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were determined for representative species from two snake families: the Many-banded krait, the Banded krait, the Chinese cobra, the King cobra, the Hundred-pace viper, the Short-tailed mamushi, and the Chain viper. Thirteen protein-coding genes, 22-23 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 control regions were identified in these mtDNAs. Duplication of the control region and translocation of the tRNAPro gene were two notable features of the snake mtDNAs. These results from the gene rearrangement comparisons confirm the correctness of traditional classification schemes and validate the utility of comparing complete mtDNA sequences for snake phylogeny reconstruction.

  19. REVEALING THE HISTORY OF SHEEP DOMESTICATION USING RETROVIRUS INTEGRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; Amorim, A.; Goyache, F.; Mainland, I.; Kao, R.R.; Pemberton, J. M.; Beraldi, D.; Stear, M.; Alberti, A.; Pittau, M.; Iannuzzi, L.; Banabazi, M.H.; Kazwala, R.; Zhang, Y.-P.; Arranz, J.J.; Ali, B.A.; Wang, Z.; Uzun, M.; Dione, M.; Olsaker, I.; Holm, L.-E.; Saarma, U.; Ahmad, S.; Marzanov, N.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Holland, M.J.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Bruford, M.W.; Kantanen, J.; Spencer, T.E.; Palmarini, M.

    2011-01-01

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their “retrotype” and morphological traits, dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as “primitive” on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of NW Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the vast majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication. PMID:19390051

  20. Discovery of a Giant Chameleon-Like Lizard (Anolis) on Hispaniola and Its Significance to Understanding Replicated Adaptive Radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, D Luke; Lambert, Shea M; Geneva, Anthony J; Ng, Julienne; Hedges, S Blair; Losos, Jonathan B; Glor, Richard E

    2016-09-01

    We report a new chameleon-like Anolis species from Hispaniola that is ecomorphologically similar to congeners found only on Cuba. Lizards from both clades possess short limbs and a short tail and utilize relatively narrow perches, leading us to recognize a novel example of ecomorphological matching among islands in the well-known Greater Antillean anole radiation. This discovery supports the hypothesis that the assembly of island faunas can be substantially deterministic and highlights the continued potential for basic discovery to reveal new insights in well-studied groups. Restricted to a threatened band of midelevation transitional forest near the border of the Dominican Republic and Haiti, this new species appears to be highly endangered.

  1. Premoderator optimization of decoupled hydrogen moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Masahide; Teshigawara, Makoto; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Watanabe, Noboru; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-03-01

    An optimization study on the premoderator, the reflector material choice and a length of the linear is carried out for the design of high performance decoupled hydrogen moderator. NMTC/JAM and MCNP-4C are used for the neutronics calculation. The result indicates that, assuming premoderator dimensions and decoupling energy is controlled, the decoupled hydrogen moderator with a premoderator can provide better pulse characteristics than that without the premoderator for a Be reflector. On the selection of the reflector material, it is clearly shown that Pb and Hg reflectors give merits in using the premoderator for higher intensity and reduction of energy deposition in moderator. It is also shown that a H 2 O premoderator provides a short tail while a D 2 O premoderator provides the high peak intensity. Minimum liner length is evaluated to be 20 cm from the viewpoint of neutronics. (author)

  2. Prediction in Partial Duration Series With Generalized Pareto-Distributed Exceedances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan; Madsen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Peter Funder

    1992-01-01

    As a generalization of the common assumption of exponential distribution of the exceedances in Partial duration series the generalized Pareto distribution has been adopted. Estimators for the parameters are presented using estimation by both method of moments and probability-weighted moments......-weighted moments. Maintaining the generalized Pareto distribution as the parent exceedance distribution the T-year event is estimated assuming the exceedances to be exponentially distributed. For moderately long-tailed exceedance distributions and small to moderate sample sizes it is found, by comparing mean...... square errors of the T-year event estimators, that the exponential distribution is preferable to the correct generalized Pareto distribution despite the introduced model error and despite a possible rejection of the exponential hypothesis by a test of significance. For moderately short-tailed exceedance...

  3. Revealing the history of sheep domestication using retrovirus integrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Bernardo; Pereira, Filipe; Arnaud, Frederick; Amorim, Antonio; Goyache, Félix; Mainland, Ingrid; Kao, Rowland R; Pemberton, Josephine M; Beraldi, Dario; Stear, Michael J; Alberti, Alberto; Pittau, Marco; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo; Banabazi, Mohammad H; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Arranz, Juan J; Ali, Bahy A; Wang, Zhiliang; Uzun, Metehan; Dione, Michel M; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik; Saarma, Urmas; Ahmad, Sohail; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Holland, Martin J; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bruford, Michael W; Kantanen, Juha; Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo

    2009-04-24

    The domestication of livestock represented a crucial step in human history. By using endogenous retroviruses as genetic markers, we found that sheep differentiated on the basis of their "retrotype" and morphological traits dispersed across Eurasia and Africa via separate migratory episodes. Relicts of the first migrations include the Mouflon, as well as breeds previously recognized as "primitive" on the basis of their morphology, such as the Orkney, Soay, and the Nordic short-tailed sheep now confined to the periphery of northwest Europe. A later migratory episode, involving sheep with improved production traits, shaped the great majority of present-day breeds. The ability to differentiate genetically primitive sheep from more modern breeds provides valuable insights into the history of sheep domestication.

  4. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase III. Effects of Lifetime Exposure. Part I. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    49.6 a .749.0 t. 1.2 ]a.&1 a.2.1 04MOOlea*s14.4 R .1i.9 IS.*, 15.’ .4 12.6 L . 71, M1ETI4EOOLOPIN, 1 *0t.0 ago0. 0.0 a.0.0 0.0 1. 0.0 2.0 1.0 " NCV ...s 13.73. .3 1?.1 & .7 13.6 1 .3 12.5± .5 (31 METHENOOLONIN, S 0.0 2. 0.0 0.0 3 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 " NCV . CUBIC MICRONS 94.5 7 ,1 87.7 , 6.5 4.3...rudimentary limbs oligodactyly - fewer than five digits polydactyly - more than five digits 9yndactyly - fused or webbed digits tail, short - tail is less

  5. Effect of coarse woody debris manipulation on soricid and herpetofaunal communities in upland pine stands of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, Charles

    2009-04-01

    Abstract -The majority of studies investigating the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to forest- floor vertebrates have taken place in the Pacific Northwest and southern Appalachian Mountains, while comparative studies in the southeastern Coastal Plain are lacking. My study was a continuation of a long-term project investigating the importance of CWD as a habitat component for shrew and herpetofaunal communities within managed pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Results suggest that addition of CWD can increase abundance of southeastern and southern short-tailed shrews. However, downed wood does not appear to be a critical habitat component for amphibians and reptiles. Rising petroleum costs and advances in wood utilization technology have resulted in an emerging biofuels market with potential to decrease CWD volumes left in forests following timber harvests. Therefore, forest managers must understand the value of CWD as an ecosystem component to maintain economically productive forests while conserving biological diversity.

  6. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 55 chemicals on six representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, white-footed mouse, cottontail ink, red fox, and whitetail deer) and eight avian wildlife species (American robin, woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, Cooper`s hawk, and redtailed hawk) (scientific names are presented in Appendix C). These species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. The benchmarks presented in this report are values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species.

  7. Photoreactivation of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers and erythema in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Post-UV treatment of the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica with photoreactivating light (320-400 nm) suppressed the appearance of UV-induced erythema as evidenced by an increase in the dose of UV required to elicit an erythemal response. Pre-UV exposure to photoreactivating light had no effect on the UV induction of erythema. The dose-response for the photoreversal of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of M. domestica was similar to that for the photoreactivation of erythema induction. These data not only support the notion that DNA is the primary chromophore involved in the induction of erythema but also identify pyrimidine dimers as the major DNA change responsible for its induction. These results also identify M. domestica as a useful whole-animal system with which to determine the role of pyrimidine dimers in other photobiological responses of mammalian skin

  8. DNA comet assay for rice seeds treated with low energy electrons ('soft-electrons')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    As rice seeds are sometimes contaminated with phytopathogenic organisms such as blast disease fungi and nematodes, a novel non-chemical disinfection method for rice seeds is highly required. In order to develop a disinfection method, the effect of low energy electron ('soft-electrons') on seed DNA was examined by using the neutral comet assay. Rice seeds (whole grain) were treated with electrons of different acceleration voltages (180 kV to 1 MV) at a dose of 5 kGy. Nucleus suspensions were prepared from whole brown rice and subjected to electrophoresis. DNA from un-irradiated (control) seeds relaxed and produced comets with a short tail, most of the comets distributed within the range of comet length between 30 μm to 70 μm. In the case of seeds treated with electrons at acceleration voltages up to 190 kV, cells without seed coats were not damaged and the frequency histograms of comet length showed almost the same pattern as that for control. At acceleration voltages higher than 200 kV, the cells were distributed into two categories; DNA comets with a short tail (with little DNA damages, less than 70 μm in the comet length) and DNA comets with long tails (with sever strand breaks, more than 130 μm in the comet length). The ratios of damaged cells increased with increasing acceleration voltage. The growths of rice seedlings were not affected by the treatment with electrons at up to 200 kV. On the contrary, the cells of gamma-irradiated seed showed small variations in the comet length, and which were depending on radiation dose. The individual cells of gamma-irradiated seeds at 1 kGy showed shorter comet than the damaged cells with soft electron, seed treated with gamma rays (1-5 kGy) did not shoot nor root. (author)

  9. Treatment of CoQ(10 deficient fibroblasts with ubiquinone, CoQ analogs, and vitamin C: time- and compound-dependent effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C López

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q(10 (CoQ(10 and its analogs are used therapeutically by virtue of their functions as electron carriers, antioxidant compounds, or both. However, published studies suggest that different ubiquinone analogs may produce divergent effects on oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative stress.To test these concepts, we have evaluated the effects of CoQ(10, coenzyme Q(2 (CoQ(2, idebenone, and vitamin C on bioenergetics and oxidative stress in human skin fibroblasts with primary CoQ(10 deficiency. A final concentration of 5 microM of each compound was chosen to approximate the plasma concentration of CoQ(10 of patients treated with oral ubiquinone. CoQ(10 supplementation for one week but not for 24 hours doubled ATP levels and ATP/ADP ratio in CoQ(10 deficient fibroblasts therein normalizing the bioenergetics status of the cells. Other compounds did not affect cellular bioenergetics. In COQ2 mutant fibroblasts, increased superoxide anion production and oxidative stress-induced cell death were normalized by all supplements.THESE RESULTS INDICATE THAT: 1 pharmacokinetics of CoQ(10 in reaching the mitochondrial respiratory chain is delayed; 2 short-tail ubiquinone analogs cannot replace CoQ(10 in the mitochondrial respiratory chain under conditions of CoQ(10 deficiency; and 3 oxidative stress and cell death can be counteracted by administration of lipophilic or hydrophilic antioxidants. The results of our in vitro experiments suggest that primary CoQ(10 deficiencies should be treated with CoQ(10 supplementation but not with short-tail ubiquinone analogs, such as idebenone or CoQ(2. Complementary administration of antioxidants with high bioavailability should be considered if oxidative stress is present.

  10. Postsacral vertebral morphology in relation to tail length among primates and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2015-02-01

    Tail reduction/loss independently evolved in a number of mammalian lineages, including hominoid primates. One prerequisite to appropriately contextualizing its occurrence and understanding its significance is the ability to track evolutionary changes in tail length throughout the fossil record. However, to date, the bony correlates of tail length variation among living taxa have not been comprehensively examined. This study quantifies postsacral vertebral morphology among living primates and other mammals known to differ in relative tail length (RTL). Linear and angular measurements with known biomechanical significance were collected on the first, mid-, and transition proximal postsacral vertebrae, and their relationship with RTL was assessed using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression methods. Compared to shorter-tailed primates, longer-tailed primates possess a greater number of postsacral vertebral features associated with increased proximal tail flexibility (e.g., craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies), increased intervertebral body joint range of motion (e.g., more circularly shaped cranial articular surfaces), and increased leverage of tail musculature (e.g., longer spinous processes). These observations are corroborated by the comparative mammalian sample, which shows that distantly related short-tailed (e.g., Phascolarctos, Lynx) and long-tailed (e.g., Dendrolagus, Acinonyx) nonprimate mammals morphologically converge with short-tailed (e.g., Macaca tonkeana) and long-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. Multivariate models demonstrate that the variables examined account for 70% (all mammals) to 94% (only primates) of the variance in RTL. Results of this study may be used to infer the tail lengths of extinct primates and other mammals, thereby improving our understanding about the evolution of tail reduction/loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Does by-catch pose a threat for the conservation of seabird populations in the southern Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean? A questionnaire based survey of local fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. KARRIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies worldwide have shown that incidental catches (by-catch of seabirds in fishing gear might pose a considerable risk for the conservation of their populations. Nevertheless reliable data on by-catch rates of seabirds in European marine ecosystems are patchy and need to be improved. This study constitutes a first attempt at the evaluation of by-catch rates in the southern Ionian Sea. Data were obtained by distributing a specific questionnaire to the fishers of Zakynthos Island. 150 professional fishers (representing 90% of the local fishing fleet participated in the research, and were interviewed during July-December 2010. The information collected showed that commercial longline and (to a lesser extent gillnet fishery gears caused incidental catches mostly of Scopoli’s Shearwater and Mediterranean Shag. The temporal analysis of the incidental bird mortality showed that seabirds were more susceptible to be trapped in fishery gears set around sunrise during spring and summer whereas spatial analysis of by-catch data indicated variations in the number of seabirds caught in different fishery areas.

  12. Status and distribution of migrating and breeding marine birds in north Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarade, Gh.R.

    2017-01-01

    The study of marine birds in the northern part of Lebanon recorded 2681 individuals, distributed over 86 species. Among them 35 are foreshore species, 18 coastal, 6 maritime, 9 ducks, 6 herons, 9 various saltwater related species and 3 terrestrial. The highest density is shown by the yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis and common blackheaded gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus. The globally vulnerable yelkouan shearwater Puffinus yelkouan, an endemic species to the Mediterranean, appears on the 9th rank in the classification of seabird species from the more to the least abundant, highlighting as such, beside other 6 globally near threatened species, the role that Lebanon can play in improving the conservation status of these species. Regarding the phenological status of species, 48 are passage migrant/winter visitors, 31 passage migrants, 5 winter visitors and 2 vagrant species. The surveys revealed that three coastal seabird species (Armenian gull Larus armenicus, slender-billed gull Chroicocephalus genei and sandwich tern Thalasseus sandvicensis) and one ubiquist species (Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria) are not rare as it was believed in previous papers but fairly common winter visitors. The study identified the yellow-legged gull breeding population to be 160 couples, and confirmed the second and third breeding records of the little ringed plover Charadrius dubius.(author)

  13. Development of oilfield facilities on a nature reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.J.; Long, V.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Airlie Island which is a small (26 hectare) sand cay, located 35km north of Onslow in Western Australia. In common with other islands in the region, Airlie is a nesting site for seabirds and turtles, but its two primary conservation resources are the large Wedge-tailed Shearwater rookery which covers 64% of the island and an endemic skink species. Its conservation values have prompted the Western Australian State Government to declare the entire island a nature reserve set apart for the preservation of flora and fauna. In 1987 Western Mining Corporation Pty Ltd. developed the South Pepper and North herald oilfields and part of this development included the siting of an oil terminal on Airlie Island. It may be expected that the conservation resources of the island and the Company's requirements for land would be incompatible. However, a careful study of the local environment and the creation of a detailed plan to manage this environment resulted in an acceptable compromise

  14. Interspecies and spatial trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscales, Jose L.; Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob; Calabuig, Pascual; Jimenez, Begona

    2011-01-01

    PAHs were analyzed in the liver of 5 species of pelagic seabirds (Procellariiformes) from the northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The main objective was to assess the trophic and geographic trends of PAHs in seabirds to evaluate their suitability as bioindicators of chronic marine pollution by these compounds. Although higher levels of PAHs have been described in the Mediterranean compared to other oceanic regions, we did not find significant spatial patterns and observed only minor effects of the geographic origin on seabird PAHs. However, we found significant higher PAH levels in petrel compared to shearwater species, which could be related to differences in their exploitation of mesopelagic and epipelagic resources, respectively, and the vertical dynamic of PAHs in the water column. Overall, although this study enhances the need of multi-species approaches to show a more comprehensive evaluation of marine pollution, seabirds emerged as poor indicators of pelagic chronic PAH levels. - Highlights: → PAHs in pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology. → Geographic origin shows a minor effect over PAH levels in pelagic seabirds. → Pelagic seabirds seem to be poor indicators of chronic PAH levels. - PAH levels in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology but a minor influence of their geographic origin.

  15. Population Structure and Dispersal Patterns within and between Atlantic and Mediterranean Populations of a Large-Range Pelagic Seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovart, Meritxell; Thibault, Jean-Claude; Igual, José Manuel; Bauzà-Ribot, Maria del Mar; Rabouam, Corinne; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal is critically linked to the demographic and evolutionary trajectories of populations, but in most seabird species it may be difficult to estimate. Using molecular tools, we explored population structure and the spatial dispersal pattern of a highly pelagic but philopatric seabird, the Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea. Microsatellite fragments were analysed from samples collected across almost the entire breeding range of the species. To help disentangle the taxonomic status of the two subspecies described, the Atlantic form C. d. borealis and the Mediterranean form C. d. diomedea, we analysed genetic divergence between subspecies and quantified both historical and recent migration rates between the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins. We also searched for evidence of isolation by distance (IBD) and addressed spatial patterns of gene flow. We found a low genetic structure in the Mediterranean basin. Conversely, strong genetic differentiation appeared in the Atlantic basin. Even if the species was mostly philopatric (97%), results suggest recent dispersal between basins, especially from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean (aprox. 10% of migrants/generation across the last two generations). Long-term gene flow analyses also suggested an historical exchange between basins (about 70 breeders/generation). Spatial analysis of genetic variation indicates that distance is not the main factor in shaping genetic structure in this species. Given our results we recommend gathering more data before concluded whether these taxa should be treated as two species or subspecies. PMID:23950986

  16. Positive Interactions among Foraging Seabirds, Marine Mammals and Fishes and Implications for Their Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Veit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of the importance of “positive interactions” among species in structuring communities. For seabirds, an important kind of positive interaction is the use of birds of the same species, birds of other species, and other marine predators such as cetaceans, seals and fishes as cues to the presence of prey. The process by which a single bird uses, say, a feeding flock of birds as a cue to the presence of prey is called “local enhancement” or “facilitation.” There are subtly different uses of each of these terms, but the issue we address here is the ubiquity of positive interactions between seabirds and other marine predators when foraging at sea, and whether as a result of their associations the feeding success, and therefore presumably the fitness, of individual seabirds is increased. If this contention is true, then it implies that conservation of any one species of seabird must take into consideration the status and possible conservation of those species that the focal species uses as a cue while foraging. For example, conservation of great shearwaters (Ardenna gravis, which often feed over tuna (e.g., Thunnus schools, should take in to consideration conservation of tuna. Ecosystem management depends on understanding the importance of such processes; the loss of biodiversity, and the consequent threat to foraging success, may be a substantial threat to the stability of marine ecosystems.

  17. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuten, Emma L.; Saquing, Jovita M.; Knappe, Detlef R. U.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Jonsson, Susanne; Björn, Annika; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Yamashita, Rei; Ochi, Daisuke; Watanuki, Yutaka; Moore, Charles; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Zakaria, Mohamad P.; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Ogata, Yuko; Hirai, Hisashi; Iwasa, Satoru; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hagino, Yuki; Imamura, Ayako; Saha, Mahua; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-01-01

    Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to µg g–1. Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub µg l–1 to mg l–1 and were correlated with the level of economic development. PMID:19528054

  18. Increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Wohl, Kenton D.

    1995-01-01

    We examined gut contents of 1799 seabirds comprising 24 species collected in 1988-1990 to assess the types and quantities of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic waters of Alaska. Of the 15 species found to ingest plastic, most were surface-feeders (shearwaters, petrels, gulls) or plankton-feeding divers (auklets, puffins). Of 4417 plastic particles examined, 76% were industrial pellets and 21% were fragments of ‘user’ plastic. Ingestion rates varied geographically, but no trends were evident and rates of plastic ingestion varied far more among species within areas than within species among areas. Comparison with similar data from 1968 seabirds comprising 37 species collected in 1969-1977 revealed that plastic ingestion by seabirds has increased significantly during the 10–15-year interval between studies. This was demonstrated by: (i) an increase in the total number of species ingesting plastic; (ii) an increase in the frequency of occurrence of plastic particles within species that ingested plastic; and, (iii) an increase in the mean number of plastic particles ingested by individuals of those species.

  19. Breeding phenology and winter activity predict subsequent breeding success in a trans-global migratory seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, A; Aris-Brosou, S; Culina, A; Fayet, A; Kirk, H; Padget, O; Juarez-Martinez, I; Boyle, D; Nakata, T; Perrins, C M; Guilford, T

    2015-10-01

    Inter-seasonal events are believed to connect and affect reproductive performance (RP) in animals. However, much remains unknown about such carry-over effects (COEs), in particular how behaviour patterns during highly mobile life-history stages, such as migration, affect RP. To address this question, we measured at-sea behaviour in a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) and obtained data for individual migration cycles over 5 years, by tracking with geolocator/immersion loggers, along with 6 years of RP data. We found that individual breeding and non-breeding phenology correlated with subsequent RP, with birds hyperactive during winter more likely to fail to reproduce. Furthermore, parental investment during one year influenced breeding success during the next, a COE reflecting the trade-off between current and future RP. Our results suggest that different life-history stages interact to influence RP in the next breeding season, so that behaviour patterns during winter may be important determinants of variation in subsequent fitness among individuals. © 2015 The Authors.

  20. Rare birds in Slovenia in 2016 – Slovenian Rarities Committee Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanžel Jurij

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This report by the Slovenian Rarities Committee presents records of rare bird species in Slovenia in 2016, with some addenda for previous years. The numbers in brackets refer to the number of records (first number and individuals (second number recorded between 1 Jan 1950 and 31 Dec 2015. Since 1 Jan 2013, submission to the Committee has been required for 37 additional species, 17 of which are regional rarities. Records of these species are not numbered, since records from previous years were not collected by the Committee. Two new species, Scopoli’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea and Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea, were added to Category A. Other notable observations were the second record of Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes, third and fourth records of Pallid Swift Apus pallidus, fifth to seventh records of Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus and the sixth and seventh records of Gannet Morus bassanus. Twelve records of Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus are an all-time annual high. Among Category E species, the Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus was recorded for the second time. The list of birds recorded in Slovenia (as of 31 Dec 2016 contains 388 species (373 in Category A, 6 in Category B, 9 exclusively in Category C; 4 species are both in Categories A and C. Category D contains 6 species, while Category E contains 38, two of which are classified into Subcategory E*. These two categories are not part of the list.

  1. Distribution of marine birds on Georges Bank and Adjacent waters. Progress report No. 2, April--June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, K.D.

    1978-07-01

    From 27 March to 20 June 1978, 7 cruises aboard U.S. Coast Guard cutters DECISIVE, VIGILANT, and VIGOROUS and the National Marine Fisheries Service research vessel ALBATROSS IV were made on outer continental shelf waters in regions from the mid-Atlantic to the Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf. A total of 13916 marine birds of at least 27 species were counted in 711.16 km/sup 2/ sampled from 730 fixed-area transects (300m wide by 10 minutes cruising time). An equal number of 10-minute total bird counts (no fixed area) were conducted at the same time. All of MBO cruises conducted in 1978 have been transcribed onto computer data sheets and were proofed and verified. Seven of 24 MBO cruises made in 1977 have been transcribed. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird and Habitat Research Laboratory will keypunch the data. From a review of over 100 scientific papers and books, food habits of fulmars, shearwaters, storm-petrels, gannets, gulls, and alcids were referenced by bird species and author.

  2. Behavioural mapping of a pelagic seabird: combining multiple sensors and a hidden Markov model reveals the distribution of at-sea behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Ben; Freeman, Robin; Kirk, Holly; Leonard, Kerry; Phillips, Richard A.; Perrins, Chris M.; Guilford, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The use of miniature data loggers is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movements and habitat preferences of pelagic seabirds. However, objectively interpreting behavioural information from the large volumes of highly detailed data collected by such devices can be challenging. We combined three biologging technologies—global positioning system (GPS), saltwater immersion and time–depth recorders—to build a detailed picture of the at-sea behaviour of the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) during the breeding season. We used a hidden Markov model to explore discrete states within the combined GPS and immersion data, and found that behaviour could be organized into three principal activities representing (i) sustained direct flight, (ii) sitting on the sea surface, and (iii) foraging, comprising tortuous flight interspersed with periods of immersion. The additional logger data verified that the foraging activity corresponded well to the occurrence of diving. Applying this approach to a large tracking dataset revealed that birds from two different colonies foraged in local waters that were exclusive, but overlapped in one key area: the Irish Sea Front (ISF). We show that the allocation of time to each activity differed between colonies, with birds breeding furthest from the ISF spending the greatest proportion of time engaged in direct flight and the smallest proportion of time engaged in foraging activity. This type of analysis has considerable potential for application in future biologging studies and in other taxa. PMID:23034356

  3. Remotely sensed wind speed predicts soaring behaviour in a wide-ranging pelagic seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Rory; Shoji, Akiko; Fayet, Annette L; Perrins, Chris M; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

    2017-07-01

    Global wind patterns affect flight strategies in many birds, including pelagic seabirds, many of which use wind-powered soaring to reduce energy costs during at-sea foraging trips and migration. Such long-distance movement patterns are underpinned by local interactions between wind conditions and flight behaviour, but these fine-scale relationships are far less well understood. Here we show that remotely sensed ocean wind speed and direction are highly significant predictors of soaring behaviour in a migratory pelagic seabird, the Manx shearwater ( Puffinus puffinus ). We used high-frequency GPS tracking data (10 Hz) and statistical behaviour state classification to identify two energetic modes in at-sea flight, corresponding to flap-like and soar-like flight. We show that soaring is significantly more likely to occur in tailwinds and crosswinds above a wind speed threshold of around 8 m s -1 , suggesting that these conditions enable birds to reduce metabolic costs by preferentially soaring over flapping. Our results suggest a behavioural mechanism by which wind conditions may shape foraging and migration ecology in pelagic seabirds, and thus indicate that shifts in wind patterns driven by climate change could impact this and other species. They also emphasize the emerging potential of high-frequency GPS biologgers to provide detailed quantitative insights into fine-scale flight behaviour in free-living animals. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. GPS tracking for mapping seabird mortality induced by light pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Negro, Juan J

    2015-06-02

    Light pollution and its consequences on ecosystems are increasing worldwide. Knowledge on the threshold levels of light pollution at which significant ecological impacts emerge and the size of dark refuges to maintain natural nocturnal processes is crucial to mitigate its negative consequences. Seabird fledglings are attracted by artificial lights when they leave their nest at night, causing high mortality. We used GPS data-loggers to track the flights of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea fledglings from nest-burrows to ground, and to evaluate the light pollution levels of overflown areas on Tenerife, Canary Islands, using nocturnal, high-resolution satellite imagery. Birds were grounded at locations closer than 16 km from colonies in their maiden flights, and 50% were rescued within a 3 km radius from the nest-site. Most birds left the nests in the first three hours after sunset. Rescue locations showed radiance values greater than colonies, and flight distance was positively related to light pollution levels. Breeding habitat alteration by light pollution was more severe for inland colonies. We provide scientific-based information to manage dark refuges facilitating that fledglings from inland colonies reach the sea successfully. We also offer methodological approaches useful for other critically threatened petrel species grounded by light pollution.

  5. Contrasted structuring effects of mesoscale features on the seabird community in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquemet, S.; Ternon, J. F.; Kaehler, S.; Thiebot, J. B.; Dyer, B.; Bemanaja, E.; Marteau, C.; Le Corre, M.

    2014-02-01

    The Mozambique Channel (western Indian Ocean) is a dynamic environment characterised by strong mesoscale features, which influence all biological components of the pelagic ecosystem. We investigated the distribution, abundance and feeding behaviour of seabirds in the Mozambique Channel in relation to physical and biological environmental variables, with a specific interest in mesoscale features. Seabird censuses were conducted in summer and winter during 7 cruises in the southern and northern Mozambique Channel. Tropical species accounted for 49% of the 37 species identified and 97% of the individuals, and species from the sub-Antarctic region constituted 30% of the identifications. The typically tropical sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscata) was the dominant species during all cruises, and overall accounted for 74% of the species observations and 85% of counted birds. Outputs of Generalised Linear Models at the scale of the Mozambique Channel suggested that higher densities of flying and feeding birds occurred in areas with lower sea surface temperatures and lower surface chlorophyll a concentrations. Most of the flocks of feeding birds did not associate with surface schools of fish or marine mammals, but when they did, these flocks were larger, especially when associated with tuna. While tropical species seemed to favour cyclonic eddies, frontal and divergence zones, non-tropical species were more frequently recorded over shelf waters. Sooty terns foraged preferentially in cyclonic eddies where zooplankton, micronekton and tuna schools were abundant. Among other major tropical species, frigatebirds (Fregata spp.) predominated in frontal zones between eddies, where tuna schools also frequently occurred and where geostrophic currents were the strongest. Red-footed boobies (Sula sula) concentrated in divergence zones characterised by low sea level anomalies, low geostrophic currents, and high zooplankton biomass close to the surface. Our results highlight the importance

  6. Prenatal deaths and external malformations caused by x-irradiation during the preimplantation period of ddy mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Hee Jeong; Choi, Ihl Bhong; Gu, Yeun Wha

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of x-irradiation on prenatal deaths, i.e., preimplantation deaths. embryonic deaths, and fetal deaths, and on external malformations in precompacted preimplantation ddy mice. Pregnant mice (n=85), obtained by limiting the mating time to from 6 to 9 A.M., were segregated into 11 groups, The first five groups (n=26) were irradiated with X-ray doses of 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1.5, and 3 Gy, respectively, at 24 h post conception (p.c.) of the preimplantation period. The second five (n=27) groups were irradiated at the same X-ray doses, respectively, but at 48 h p.c. of the preimplantation period. The last group (n=32) was the control group. The uterine contents were examined on the 18th day of gestation for prenatal deaths and external malformations. 1) A statistically significant increase in preimplantation deaths with increasing dose was observed in the experimental groups irradiated at 24 h p.c. and in the groups irradiated at 48 h p.c., as compared to the control group. The threshold dose was close to 0.05 Gy and 0.075 Gy for the irradiations at 24 h p.c. and 48 h p.c. respectively. 2) A statistically significant increase in embryonic deaths with increasing dose was observed in all irradiation groups, except the group irradiated with a dose of 0,1 Gy at 48 h p.c.. 3) No fetal deaths were found in any experimental group. 4) In the experimental groups irradiated at 24 h p.c., anomalies increased with statistical significance, as compared with the control group: 2 exencephalies, 2 open eyelids,' 3 anophthalmias, 2 cleft palates. 2 gastroschisis, 1 abdominal wall defect. 1 leg defect, and 2 short tail anomalies; the threshold dose for external malformations was close to 0.2 Gy at 24 h p.c.. In the groups irradiated at 48 h p.c., 1 open eyelid and 2 short tail anomalies were observed, but there was no statistical significance in those malformations. The results of this study reveal that x-irradiation of precompacted preimplantation ddy mice causes not

  7. Forelimb preferences in quadrupedal marsupials and their implications for laterality evolution in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Acquisition of upright posture in evolution has been argued to facilitate manual laterality in primates. Owing to the high variety of postural habits marsupials can serve as a suitable model to test whether the species-typical body posture shapes forelimb preferences in non-primates or this phenomenon emerged only in the course of primate evolution. In the present study we aimed to explore manual laterality in marsupial quadrupeds and compare them with the results in the previously studied bipedal species. Forelimb preferences were assessed in captive grey short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in four different types of unimanual behaviour per species, which was not artificially evoked. We examined the possible effects of sex, age and task, because these factors have been reported to affect motor laterality in placental mammals. Results In both species the direction of forelimb preferences was strongly sex-related. Male grey short-tailed opossums showed right-forelimb preference in most of the observed unimanual behaviours, while male sugar gliders displayed only a slight, not significant rightward tendency. In contrast, females in both species exhibited consistent group-level preference of the left forelimb. We failed to reveal significant differences in manual preferences between tasks of potentially differing complexity: reaching a stable food item and catching live insects, as well as between the body support and food manipulation. No influence of subjects’ age on limb preferences was found. Conclusions The direction of sex-related differences in the manual preferences found in quadrupedal marsupials seems to be not typical for placental mammals. We suggest that the alternative way of interhemispheric connection in absence of corpus callosum may result in a fundamentally distinct mechanism of sex effect on limb preferences in marsupials compared to placentals. Our data confirm the idea that non

  8. Permeability of a Fluid Lipid Bilayer to Short-Chain Alcohols from First Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jeffrey; Schulten, Klaus; Chipot, Christophe

    2017-06-13

    Computational prediction of membrane permeability to small molecules requires accurate description of both the thermodynamics and kinetics underlying translocation across the lipid bilayer. In this contribution, well-converged, microsecond-long free-energy calculations are combined with a recently developed subdiffusive kinetics framework to describe the membrane permeation of a homologous series of short-tail alcohols, from methanol to 1-butanol, with unprecedented fidelity to the underlying molecular models. While the free-energy profiles exhibit barriers for passage through the center of the bilayer in all cases, the height of these barriers decreases with the length of the aliphatic chain of the alcohol, in quantitative agreement with experimentally determined differential solvation free energies in water and oil. A unique aspect of the subdiffusive model employed herein, which was developed in a previous article, is the determination of a position-dependent fractional order which quantifies the degree to which the motion of the alcohol deviates from classical diffusion along the thickness of the membrane. In the aqueous medium far from the bilayer, this quantity approaches 1.0, the asymptotic limit for purely classical diffusion, whereas it dips below 0.75 near the center of the membrane irrespective of the permeant. Remarkably, the fractional diffusivity near the center of membrane, where its influence on the permeability is the greatest, is similar among the four permeants despite the large difference in molecular weight and lipophilicity between methanol and 1-butanol. The relative permeabilities, which are estimated from the free-energy and fractional diffusivity profiles, are therefore determined predominantly by differences in the former rather than the latter. The predicted relative permeabilities are highly correlated with existing experimental results, albeit they do not agree quantitatively with them. On the other hand, quite unexpectedly, the

  9. Comparative sacral morphology and the reconstructed tail lengths of five extinct primates: Proconsul heseloni, Epipliopithecus vindobonensis, Archaeolemur edwardsi, Megaladapis grandidieri, and Palaeopropithecus kelyus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the morphology of the sacrum-the sole bony link between the tail or coccyx and the rest of the body-and tail length (including presence/absence) and function using a comparative sample of extant mammals spanning six orders (Primates, Carnivora, Rodentia, Diprotodontia, Pilosa, Scandentia; N = 472). Phylogenetically-informed regression methods were used to assess how tail length varied with respect to 11 external and internal (i.e., trabecular) bony sacral variables with known or suspected biomechanical significance across all mammals, only primates, and only non-primates. Sacral variables were also evaluated for primates assigned to tail categories ('tailless,' 'nonprehensile short-tailed,' 'nonprehensile long-tailed,' and 'prehensile-tailed'). Compared to primates with reduced tail lengths, primates with longer tails generally exhibited sacra having larger caudal neural openings than cranial neural openings, and last sacral vertebrae with more mediolaterally-expanded caudal articular surfaces than cranial articular surfaces, more laterally-expanded transverse processes, more dorsally-projecting spinous processes, and larger caudal articular surface areas. Observations were corroborated by the comparative sample, which showed that shorter-tailed (e.g., Lynx rufus [bobcat]) and longer-tailed (e.g., Acinonyx jubatus [cheetah]) non-primate mammals morphologically converge with shorter-tailed (e.g., Macaca nemestrina) and longer-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. 'Prehensile-tailed' primates exhibited last sacral vertebrae with more laterally-expanded transverse processes and greater caudal articular surface areas than 'nonprehensile long-tailed' primates. Internal sacral variables performed poorly compared to external sacral variables in analyses of extant primates, and were thus deemed less useful for making inferences concerning tail length and function in extinct primates. The tails lengths of

  10. REGISTRO DA COCHONILHA-ROSADA-DO-HIBISCO INFESTANDO FRUTÍFERAS EM MACEIÓ, ALAGOAS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÔNIA MARIA FORTI BROGLIO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported for the first time the occurrence of the pink hibiscus mealybug Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil attacking the following fruit species: soursop (Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae, guava (Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, mango (Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae, carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae, acerola (Malpighia glaba L. (Malpighiaceae, cajazeiro (Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae and cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma gran-diflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. (Malvaceae. The percentages of injured plants were recorded for each plant species in the field. Damaged plants showed short internodes, wrinkled leaves, fruit deformation, and sooty mold developed on the honeydew excreted by the mealybugs. Infested plant structures were taken to the Laboratory of Entomology of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Alagoas, where the mealybug species was identified through morphological characteristics. The following injury percentages were recorded on the plants: soursop (100%, guava (10%, mango (10%, carambola (100%, acerola (100%, cajá (50% and cupuaçu (100%. The mealybug collected in Maceió, AL; Brazil was identified as Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. It was the first record of this species in the state of Alagoas and infestation by pink hibiscus mealybug on the host plants mango, acerola and cajazeiro in Brazil.

  11. The Structure of the Blue Whirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Sriram Bharath; Hu, Yu; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael; Oran, Elaine

    2017-11-01

    Recent experiments have led to the discovery of the blue whirl, a small, stable regime of the fire whirl that burns typically sooty liquid hydrocarbons without producing soot. The physical structure consists of three regions - the blue cone, the vortex rim and the purple haze. The physical nature of the flame was further investigated through digital imaging techniques, which suggest that the transition (from the fire whirl to the blue whirl) and shape of the flame may be influenced by vortex breakdown. The flame was found to develop over a variety of surfaces, which indicates that the formation of the blue whirl is strongly influenced by the flow structure over the incoming boundary layer. The thermal structure was investigated using micro-thermocouples, thin-filament pyrometry and OH* spectroscopy. These revealed a peak temperature around 2000 K, and that most of the combustion occurs in the relatively small, visibly bright vortex rim. The results of these investigations provide a platform to develop a theory on the structure of the blue whirl, a deeper understanding of which may affirm potential for applications in the energy industry. This work was supported by an NSF EAGER award and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  12. The Use of Various Vegetation Level by Bird Community on Mbarek Spring, Gedangan, Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparno Suparno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of correlation between vegetation and birds could show how great the impact of Figs (Ficus spp. towards wildlife. Mbarek spring has a unique microhabitat by Figs. These trees expected to provide a high potential role and benefit related to supporting bird life. This study aims to analyze the use of vegetation by birds in the sphere of Mbarek’s spring microhabitat. Study was held in Mulyosari sub-village, Sumberejo village, Gedangan subdistrict, Malang regency. The study was conducted from 26-29 October 2017. Bird observation point was chosen on Ficus racemosa, known locally as ‘Lo’, which suspected to have a major influence on the presence of birds. Each of observation results were identified, counted, and recorded. Documentation were done incidentally. The results are visualized by descriptive representations of the use of vegetation composition on 4 vegetation classifications : seedling (high = 0-1.5 m, sapling (high≥1.5 m, pole (diameter = 10-20 cm, tree (diameter> 20 cm. Sooty-headed Bulbul (Pycnonotus aurigaster is the dominant bird during observation. Most of birds observed at the canopy  with the activity of sunbathing. Figs became a favorite location for birds to rest and parenting during the day. Sedges (Cyperus sp. is the greatest importance on study site. Keywords: Birds, Figs, Mbarek, Sedges

  13. Dense Fe cluster-assembled films by energetic cluster deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, D.L.; Yamada, H.; Hihara, T.; Uchida, T.; Sumiyama, K.

    2004-01-01

    High-density Fe cluster-assembled films were produced at room temperature by an energetic cluster deposition. Though cluster-assemblies are usually sooty and porous, the present Fe cluster-assembled films are lustrous and dense, revealing a soft magnetic behavior. Size-monodispersed Fe clusters with the mean cluster size d=9 nm were synthesized using a plasma-gas-condensation technique. Ionized clusters are accelerated electrically and deposited onto the substrate together with neutral clusters from the same cluster source. Packing fraction and saturation magnetic flux density increase rapidly and magnetic coercivity decreases remarkably with increasing acceleration voltage. The Fe cluster-assembled film obtained at the acceleration voltage of -20 kV has a packing fraction of 0.86±0.03, saturation magnetic flux density of 1.78±0.05 Wb/m 2 , and coercivity value smaller than 80 A/m. The resistivity at room temperature is ten times larger than that of bulk Fe metal

  14. Immunovirological analyses of chronically simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmnd-1- and SIVmnd-2-infected mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Cristian; Sumpter, Beth; Souquiere, Sandrine; Chahroudi, Ann; Makuwa, Maria; Reed, Patricia; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Pandrea, Ivona; Roques, Pierre; Silvestri, Guido

    2011-12-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in African nonhuman primate (NHP) natural hosts is usually nonpathogenic, despite high levels of virus replication. We have previously shown that chronic SIV infection in sooty mangabeys (SMs) and African green monkeys (AGMs) is associated with low levels of immune activation and bystander T cell apoptosis. To compare these features with those observed in another natural host, the mandrill (MND), we conducted a cross-sectional survey of the 23 SIV-infected and 25 uninfected MNDs from the only semifree colony of mandrills available worldwide. Viral loads (VLs) were determined and phenotypic and functional analysis of peripheral blood- and lymph node-derived lymphocytes was performed. We found that mandrills chronically infected with SIVmnd-1 or SIVmnd-2 have similar levels of viral replication, and we observed a trend toward lower CD4+ T cell counts in chronically SIVmnd-2-infected MNDs than SIVmnd-1-infected MNDs. No correlation between CD4+ T cell counts and VLs in SIV-infected MNDs could be established. Of note, the levels of T cell activation, proliferation, and apoptosis were comparable between SIVmnd-1- and SIVmnd-2-infected MNDs and to those observed in uninfected animals, with the only exception being an increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing CD8+ T cells in SIVmnd-2-infected MNDs. Overall, these findings recapitulate previous observations in SIV-infected SMs and AGMs and lend further evidence to the hypothesis that low levels of immune activation protect natural SIV hosts from disease progression.

  15. An experimental study on the effects of swirling oxidizer flow and diameter of fuel nozzle on behaviour and light emittance of propane-oxygen non-premixed flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javareshkian Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the stability and the light emittance of non-premixed propane-oxygen flames have been experimentally evaluated with respect to swirling oxidizer flow and variations in fuel nozzle diameter. Hence, three types of the vanes with the swirl angles of 30°, 45°, and 60° have been chosen for producing the desired swirling flows. The main aims of this study are to determine the flame behaviour, light emittance, and also considering the effect of variation in fuel nozzle diameter on combustion phenomena such as flame length, flame shape, and soot free length parameter. The investigation into the flame phenomenology was comprised of variations of the oxidizer and fuel flow velocities (respective Reynolds numbers and the fuel nozzle diameter. The results showed that the swirl effect could change the flame luminosity and this way could reduce or increase the maximum value of the flame light emittance in the combustion zone. Therefore, investigation into the flame light emittance can give a good clue for studying the mixing quality of reactants, the flame phenomenology (blue flame or sooty flame, localized extinction, and the combustion intensity in non-premixed flames.

  16. Fungi associated with black mould on baobab trees in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruywagen, Elsie M; Crous, Pedro W; Roux, Jolanda; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    There have been numerous reports in the scientific and popular literature suggesting that African baobab (Adansonia digitata) trees are dying, with symptoms including a black mould on their bark. The aim of this study was to determine the identity of the fungi causing this black mould and to consider whether they might be affecting the health of trees. The fungi were identified by sequencing directly from mycelium on the infected tissue as well as from cultures on agar. Sequence data for the ITS region of the rDNA resulted in the identification of four fungi including Aureobasidium pullulans, Toxicocladosporium irritans and a new species of Rachicladosporium described here as Rachicladosporium africanum. A single isolate of an unknown Cladosporium sp. was also found. These fungi, referred to here as black mould, are not true sooty mould fungi and they were shown to penetrate below the bark of infected tissue, causing a distinct host reaction. Although infections can lead to dieback of small twigs on severely infected branches, the mould was not found to kill trees.

  17. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae), a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanan; Dietrich, Christopher H.; Dai, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae) is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments) and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera. PMID:27253390

  18. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  19. General Biology and Current Management Approaches of Soft Scale Pests (Hemiptera: Coccidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Ernesto Robayo; Chong, Juang-Horng

    We summarize the economic importance, biology, and management of soft scales, focusing on pests of agricultural, horticultural, and silvicultural crops in outdoor production systems and urban landscapes. We also provide summaries on voltinism, crawler emergence timing, and predictive models for crawler emergence to assist in developing soft scale management programs. Phloem-feeding soft scale pests cause direct (e.g., injuries to plant tissues and removal of nutrients) and indirect damage (e.g., reduction in photosynthesis and aesthetic value by honeydew and sooty mold). Variations in life cycle, reproduction, fecundity, and behavior exist among congenerics due to host, environmental, climatic, and geographical variations. Sampling of soft scale pests involves sighting the insects or their damage, and assessing their abundance. Crawlers of most univoltine species emerge in the spring and the summer. Degree-day models and plant phenological indicators help determine the initiation of sampling and treatment against crawlers (the life stage most vulnerable to contact insecticides). The efficacy of cultural management tactics, such as fertilization, pruning, and irrigation, in reducing soft scale abundance is poorly documented. A large number of parasitoids and predators attack soft scale populations in the field; therefore, natural enemy conservation by using selective insecticides is important. Systemic insecticides provide greater flexibility in application method and timing, and have longer residual longevity than contact insecticides. Application timing of contact insecticides that coincides with crawler emergence is most effective in reducing soft scale abundance.

  20. Molecular and morphological analysis reveals five new species of Zygophiala associated with flyspeck signs on plant hosts from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Gao

    Full Text Available Species in the genus Zygophiala are associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck disease on a wide range of hosts. In this study, 63 Zygophiala isolates collected from flyspeck colonies on a range of plants from several regions of China were used for phylogeny, host range and geographic distribution analysis. Phylogenetic trees were constructed on four genes--internal transcribed spacer (ITS, partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF, β-tubulin (TUB2, and actin (ACT--both individually and in combination. Isolates were grouped into 11 clades among which five new species, Z. emperorae, Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora, were described. Species of Zygophiala differed in observed host range and geographic distribution. Z. wisconsinensis and Z. emperorae were the most prevalent throughout the sampled regions of China, whereas Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora were collected only in southern China. The hosts of Z. wisconsinensis and Z. emperorae were mainly in the family Rosaceae whereas Z. trispora, Z. musae, Z. inaequalis and Z. longispora were found mainly on banana (Musa spp.. Cross inoculation tests provided evidence of host specificity among SBFS species.

  1. Comparative Programs for Arthropod, Disease and Weed Management in New York Organic Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Agnello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success.

  2. Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) of LaPO4 monazite and beta-alumina on alumina fibers for ceramic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, T.J.; Hendrick, M.R.; Shao, H.; Hornis, H.G.; Hunt, A.T.

    1998-01-01

    This research used the low cost, open atmosphere combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD SM ) method to efficiently deposit protective coatings onto alumina fibers (3M Nextel TM 610) for use in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). La-monazite (LaPO 4 ) and beta-alumina were the primary candidate debonding coating materials investigated. The coated fibers provide thermochemical stability, as well as desired debonding/sliding interface characteristics to the CMC. Dense and uniform La-phosphate coatings were obtained at deposition temperatures as low as 900-1000 C with minimal degradation of fibers. However, all of the β-alumina phases required high deposition temperatures and, thus, could not be applied onto the Nextel TM 610 alumina fibers. The fibers appeared to have complete and relatively uniform coatings around individual filaments when 420 and 1260 filament tows were coated via the CCVD process. Fibers up to 3 feet long were fed through the deposition flame in the laboratory of MicroCoating Technologies (MCT). TEM analyses performed at Wright-Patterson AFB on the CCVD coated fibers showed a 10-30 nm thick La-rich layer at the fiber/coating interface, and a layer of columnar monazite 0.1-1 μm thick covered with sooty carbon of <50 nm thick on the outside. A single strength test on CCVD coated fibers performed by 3M showed that the strength value fell in the higher end of data from other CVD coated samples. (orig.)

  3. Critical role of CD4 T cells in maintaining lymphoid tissue structure for immune cell homeostasis and reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Paiardini, Mirko; Engram, Jessica C; Beilman, Greg J; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Schacker, Timothy W; Silvestri, Guido; Haase, Ashley T

    2012-08-30

    Loss of the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network in lymphoid tissues during HIV-1 infection has been shown to impair the survival of naive T cells and limit immune reconstitution after antiretroviral therapy. What causes this FRC loss is unknown. Because FRC loss correlates with loss of both naive CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets and decreased lymphotoxin-β, a key factor for maintenance of FRC network, we hypothesized that loss of naive T cells is responsible for loss of the FRC network. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the consequences of antibody-mediated depletion of CD4 and CD8 T cells in rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys. We found that only CD4 T-cell depletion resulted in FRC loss in both species and that this loss was caused by decreased lymphotoxin-β mainly produced by the CD4 T cells. We further found the same dependence of the FRC network on CD4 T cells in HIV-1-infected patients before and after antiretroviral therapy and in other immunodeficiency conditions, such as CD4 depletion in cancer patients induced by chemotherapy and irradiation. CD4 T cells thus play a central role in the maintenance of lymphoid tissue structure necessary for their own homeostasis and reconstitution.

  4. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  5. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper and boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D

    1966-06-04

    Spectrochemical analyses of garden soils sampled in the Edinburgh and Dundee areas indicate that there is substantial contamination of urban soils with copper and boron. These soils were analyzed spectrochemically with respect to total copper and water-extractable boron content with the view of comparing the levels obtained in urban areas with levels in arable soils in rural areas. The results indicate that urban garden soils contain about four times as much copper and two to three times as much water-soluble boron as rural arable soils. The existence of such a marked disparity between the levels of two potentially toxic elements in urban and rural areas is evidence of slow poisoning of the soil environment in built-up areas and is cause for concern. While the major source of contamination of soils with copper and boron is still a matter for speculation, it is probable that the addition of soot to garden soils and the fall-out of sooty material in built-up areas where atmospheric pollution is a problem make a substantial contribution to the water-extractable boron content of urban soils. Three samples of soot from domestic chimneys, obtained from independent sources, were found on analysis to contain 640, 650 and 555 p.p.m. water-extractable boron, and it is evident that the addition to soil of even small amounts of soot with a boron content of this order would have a marked effect on its water-extractable boron content.

  6. Conformational adaptation of Asian macaque TRIMCyp directs lineage specific antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M J Ylinen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available TRIMCyps are anti-retroviral proteins that have arisen independently in New World and Old World primates. All TRIMCyps comprise a CypA domain fused to the tripartite domains of TRIM5alpha but they have distinct lentiviral specificities, conferring HIV-1 restriction in New World owl monkeys and HIV-2 restriction in Old World rhesus macaques. Here we provide evidence that Asian macaque TRIMCyps have acquired changes that switch restriction specificity between different lentiviral lineages, resulting in species-specific alleles that target different viruses. Structural, thermodynamic and viral restriction analysis suggests that a single mutation in the Cyp domain, R69H, occurred early in macaque TRIMCyp evolution, expanding restriction specificity to the lentiviral lineages found in African green monkeys, sooty mangabeys and chimpanzees. Subsequent mutations have enhanced restriction to particular viruses but at the cost of broad specificity. We reveal how specificity is altered by a scaffold mutation, E143K, that modifies surface electrostatics and propagates conformational changes into the active site. Our results suggest that lentiviruses may have been important pathogens in Asian macaques despite the fact that there are no reported lentiviral infections in current macaque populations.

  7. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae, a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Hao

    Full Text Available Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera.

  8. Model-based prediction of potential distribution of the invasive insect pest, spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae, by using CLIMEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Min Jung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lycorma delicatula is one of the major invasive pests of Korea. Careful monitoring is required to protect domestic agriculture as this pest causes severe damage to agricultural crops, such as wilting and sooty mold. This study was designed to confirm the potential distribution of L. delicatula using the modeling software CLIMEX and to suggest fundamental data for preventing agricultural damage by L. delicatula. Our results show that Korean weather seems to be adequate for L. delicatula habitation, indicating that approximately 60% of areas examined have a very high possibility of potential distribution. Particularly, we showed that Gyeongsang-do and Jeonla-do, which have not yet been invaded by L. delicatula, were very suitable locations for its growth. Therefore, although it is necessary to set up feasible strategies for preventing further L. delicatula invasions, subsequent studies are needed for assessing other invasive species considering the impact of future climate change. Keywords: CLIMEX software, invasive pest, Lycorma delicatula, potential distribution

  9. Laser diagnostics of combustion phenomena related to engines/gas turbines. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alden, Marcus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Combustion

    2000-05-01

    The following project has been a one year project bridging the time between the NUTEK program in 'Motorrelaterad foerbraenning' and the new STEM program in 'Energisystem i vaegfordon. The activities has included three Ph. D students and the project has been directed towards two main areas. The first area is the development and application of a new laser diagnostic technique based on laser-induced fluorescence from atomic species for measurements of two-dimensional temperatures in combustion systems. The technique has shown to have distinct advantages compared to more commonly used laser techniques and it has been applied both in engines (VOLVO PV) as well as in gas turbines (VOLVO Aero Corp.) A major advantage is the potential, recently investigated, to make measurements in sooty environments. The second area is in the area of development and application of a technique for measurements of two-dimensional soot volume fractions and particle sizes. The technique is called Laser-induced Incandescence, LII, and here a laser beam is heating the particle considerably above the flame temperature and by detecting the increased blackbody radiation, the parameters above can be inferred. During the year most work has been to develop the technique, but distinct applications in burners, engines and model fires are planned.

  10. Introduction: Minds, Bodies, Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Coleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of 19 brings together a selection of essays from an interdisciplinary conference on 'Minds, Bodies, Machines' convened last year by Birkbeck's Centre for Nineteenth-Century Studies, University of London, in partnership with the English programme, University of Melbourne and software developers Constraint Technologies International (CTI. The conference explored the relationship between minds, bodies and machines in the long nineteenth century, with a view to understanding the history of our technology-driven, post-human visions. It is in the nineteenth century that the relationship between the human and the machine under post-industrial capitalism becomes a pervasive theme. From Blake on the mills of the mind by which we are enslaved, to Carlyle's and Arnold's denunciation of the machinery of modern life, from Dickens's sooty fictional locomotive Mr Pancks, who 'snorted and sniffed and puffed and blew, like a little labouring steam-engine', and 'shot out […]cinders of principles, as if it were done by mechanical revolvency', to the alienated historical body of the late-nineteenth-century factory worker under Taylorization, whose movements and gestures were timed, regulated and rationalised to maximize efficiency; we find a cultural preoccupation with the mechanisation of the nineteenth-century human body that uncannily resonates with modern dreams and anxieties around technologies of the human.

  11. The Stephen H. Long Expedition (1819?1820), Titian R. Peale?s field illustrations, and the lost holotypes of the North American shrews Sorex brevicaudus Say and Sorex parvus Say (Mammalia: Soricidae) from the Philadelphia Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.

    2009-01-01

    While encamped for the winter of 1819?1820 at Engineer Cantonment along the Missouri River in present-day eastern Nebraska, members of Major Stephen Harriman Long?s Expedition to the Rocky Mountains collected a number of animals that were previously unknown. Among the mammals were two soricids that were subsequently described by Thomas Say as Sorex brevicaudus (Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda) and Sorex parvus (Least Shrew, Cryptotis parvus). The holotypes of these species were deposited and placed on public exhibit in the Philadelphia Museum, the predominant North American systematic collection of the early nineteenth century. Like most private museums of that era, the Philadelphia Museum eventually went out of business, and its collections were dispersed and, for the most part, lost. Fortunately, Titian R. Peale made a detailed field sketch of the two specimens soon after their capture and subsequently executed a watercolor based on that sketch. In addition, an engraving of the holotypes was published in the decade following the discovery of the two species. Illustrations of holotypes are taxonomically useful when they depict diagnostic characters of species. They take on added taxonomic significance in the absence of the holotypes. In the cases of Sorex brevicaudus and Sorex parvus, pictures provide strong confirmation of the taxonomic identities of these two species, as well as recording the early history of the specimens.

  12. Evaluation of the Chagas Stat-Paktm Assay for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi Antibodies in Wildlife Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J.; Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    An immunochromatographic assay (Chagas Stat-Pak™) was evaluated for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 4 species of wildlife reservoirs. Antibodies to T. cruzi were detected in raccoons (Procyon lotor) (naturally and experimentally infected) and degus (Octodon degu) (experimentally-infected) using the Chagas Stat-Pak. In naturally exposed wild raccoons, the Chagas Stat-Pak had a sensitivity and specificity of 66.7–80.0% and 96.3%, respectively. Compared with indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay results, serocon-version as determined by Chagas Stat-Pak was delayed for experimentally infected raccoons, but occurred sooner in experimentally infected degus. The Chagas Stat-Pak did not detect antibodies in naturally or experimentally infected Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) or in experimentally infected short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). These data suggest that the Chagas Stat-Pak might be useful in field studies of raccoons and degus when samples would not be available for more-conventional serologic assays. Because this assay did not work on either species of marsupial, the applicability of the assay should be examined before it is used in other wild species. PMID:19016578

  13. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the bacteriophage CUS-3 virion reveal a conserved coat protein I-domain but a distinct tailspike receptor-binding domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, Kristin N.; Tang, Jinghua; Cardone, Giovanni; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Janssen, Mandy E.; Olson, Norman H.; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Baker, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    CUS-3 is a short-tailed, dsDNA bacteriophage that infects serotype K1 Escherichia coli. We report icosahedrally averaged and asymmetric, three-dimensional, cryo-electron microscopic reconstructions of the CUS-3 virion. Its coat protein structure adopts the “HK97-fold” shared by other tailed phages and is quite similar to that in phages P22 and Sf6 despite only weak amino acid sequence similarity. In addition, these coat proteins share a unique extra external domain (“I-domain”), suggesting that the group of P22-like phages has evolved over a very long time period without acquiring a new coat protein gene from another phage group. On the other hand, the morphology of the CUS-3 tailspike differs significantly from that of P22 or Sf6, but is similar to the tailspike of phage K1F, a member of the extremely distantly related T7 group of phages. We conclude that CUS-3 obtained its tailspike gene from a distantly related phage quite recently. - Highlights: • Asymmetric and symmetric three-dimensional reconstructions of phage CUS-3 are presented. • CUS-3 major capsid protein has a conserved I-domain, which is found in all three categories of “P22-like phage”. • CUS-3 has very different tailspike receptor binding domain from those of P22 and Sf6. • The CUS-3 tailspike likely was acquired by horizontal gene transfer

  14. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C

    2015-12-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears examination large number of adult short-tail Demodex mites were found. D. cornei was identified by based on the morphological characters including short opisthosoma with blind and round terminal end. Mean length of total body, opisthosoma of both types of the mites were differed statistically significant (P  0.05). Dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin @ 500 μg/kg/day, external application of amitraz along with supportive therapy. After completion of 45 days of therapy dogs were recovered completely without any side effects.

  15. The behavioral energetics of New Zealand's bats: Daily torpor and hibernation, a continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Brian K; O'Donnell, Colin

    2018-05-07

    We examine the impact of behavior on the short-term energy expenditures of the only terrestrial mammals endemic to New Zealand, two bats, the long-tailed (Chalinolobus tuberculatus, family Vespertilionidae), and the lesser short-tailed (Mystacina tuberculata, family Mystacinidae). Vespertilionidae has a world-wide distribution. Mystacinidae is restricted to New Zealand, although related to five neotropical families and one in Madagascar reflecting a shared Gondwanan origin of their Noctilionoidea superfamily. Both species have highly variable body temperatures and rates of metabolism. They feed on flying insects, which requires them to be torpid in shelters during cold, wet periods. In dry weather Mystacina is active in winter at ambient temperatures as low as -1.0 °C, foraging for terrestrial invertebrates in leaf litter, even in the presence of snow, and consuming fruit, nectar, and pollen from endemic plants that bloom in winter. The behavior of Mystacina expands its presence in a cool, wet, temperate forest in a manner unlike any other bat, another example of the distinctive characteristics of the endemic New Zealand fauna. The use of torpor generally depends on a series of factors, including body mass, ambient temperature, latitude, reproductive cycle, sociality, and fat deposits. These factors result in a diversity of responses that range along a continuum from short-term torpor to hibernation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Breeding Biology of Critically Endangered Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus at a Unique Site in Telangana State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikanth Manchiryala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Out of nine species of vultures, the population of three Gyps species, White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis, Slender-billed Vulture (Gyps tenuirostris and Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus has declined drastically by 99% over the past decade (Prakash, 1999. The Gyps vultures' population declined in India by 97% and by 92% in Pakistan (Virani, 2006, Prakash et al., 2012. Possibly the widespread usage of Diclofenac drug in the animal led to the rapid population decline for these Vultures (Green et al., 2004. The Long-billed Vulture G. indicus is a bald headed vulture with very broad wings and short tail feathers, having no sexual dimorphism. In Malabar hills region of India the breeding season of Long-billed Vultures was noted to be November to May where it breed mainly on cliffs (Edward, 1915. Presently, it is in the most critical category of endangerment, listed in Schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act-1972 followed by IUCN, 2015 (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22729731/0. The Andhra Pradesh State Biodiversity Board, Hyderabad announced that vultures are already 'Extinct' in the state (Medicheti, 2013.

  17. Thoracic epidural anesthesia attenuates hemorrhagic-induced splanchnic hypo-perfusion in post-resuscitation experimental hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir S Madjid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to assess the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on splanchnic perfusion, bacterial translocation and histopathologic changes in experimental hemorrhagic shock in short-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina. Sixteen Macaca nemestrinas were randomly assigned to one of two groups i.e. the lidocaine group (n = 8, receiving general anesthesia plus lidocaine thoracic epidural anesthesia; and the saline group (n = 8, receiving general anesthesia alone as control. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood gradually to a mean arterial pressure (MAP of 40 mm Hg, and maintained for 60 minutes. Animals were then resuscitated with their own blood and ringer lactate solution (RL. After resuscitation, epidural lidocaine 2% was given in the lidocaine group and saline in the control group. Resuscitation that was performed after one hour hemorrhagic shock, with hemodynamic variables and urine output returned to normal, revealed there was no improvement of splanchnic perfusion. PgCO2, P(g-aCO2, and pHi remained in critical value and tended to deteriorate in the saline group. Contrast to saline group, splanchnic perfusion in lidocaine group tended to improve. This condition was supported by the finding of less bacterial translocation and better histopathologic changes in lidocaine thoracic epidural anesthesia group than in saline group. This study concludes that lidocaine thoracic epidural anesthesia attenuates splachnic hypoperfusion in post-resuscitation hemorrhagic shock in Macaca nemestrina. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 73-81Keywords: thoracic epidural anesthesia, lidocaine, hemorrhagic shock, splanchnic hypoperfusion, bacterial translocation

  18. Novel parvoviruses in reptiles and genome sequence of a lizard parvovirus shed light on Dependoparvovirus genus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Judit J; Pham, Hanh T; Benkö, Mária; Tijssen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Here, we report the detection and partial genome characterization of two novel reptilian parvoviruses derived from a short-tailed pygmy chameleon (Rampholeon brevicaudatus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) along with the complete genome analysis of the first lizard parvovirus, obtained from four bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Both homology searches and phylogenetic tree reconstructions demonstrated that all are members of the genus Dependoparvovirus. Even though most dependoparvoviruses replicate efficiently only in co-infections with large DNA viruses, no such agents could be detected in one of the bearded dragon samples, hence the possibility of autonomous replication was explored. The alternative ORF encoding the full assembly activating protein (AAP), typical for the genus, could be obtained from reptilian parvoviruses for the first time, with a structure that appears to be more ancient than that of avian and mammalian parvoviruses. All three viruses were found to harbour short introns as previously observed for snake adeno-associated virus, shorter than that of any non-reptilian dependoparvovirus. According to the phylogenetic calculations based on full non-structural protein (Rep) and AAP sequences, the monophyletic cluster of reptilian parvoviruses seems to be the most basal out of all lineages of genus Dependoparvovirus. The suspected ability for autonomous replication, results of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, intron lengths and the structure of the AAP suggested that a single Squamata origin instead of the earlier assumed diapsid (common avian-reptilian) origin is more likely for the genus Dependoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae.

  19. A Jurassic pterosaur from Patagonia and the origin of the pterodactyloid neurocranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Codorniú

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pterosaurs are an extinct group of highly modified flying reptiles that thrived during the Mesozoic. This group has unique and remarkable skeletal adaptations to powered flight, including pneumatic bones and an elongate digit IV supporting a wing-membrane. Two major body plans have traditionally been recognized: the primitive, primarily long-tailed paraphyletic “rhamphorhynchoids” (preferably currently recognized as non-pterodactyloids and the derived short-tailed pterodactyloids. These two groups differ considerably in their general anatomy and also exhibit a remarkably different neuroanatomy and inferred head posture, which has been linked to different lifestyles and behaviours and improved flying capabilities in these reptiles. Pterosaur neuroanatomy, is known from just a few three-dimensionally preserved braincases of non-pterodactyloids (as Rhamphorhynchidae and pterodactyloids, between which there is a large morphological gap. Here we report on a new Jurassic pterosaur from Argentina, Allkaruen koi gen. et sp. nov., remains of which include a superbly preserved, uncrushed braincase that sheds light on the origins of the highly derived neuroanatomy of pterodactyloids and their close relatives. A µCT ray-generated virtual endocast shows that the new pterosaur exhibits a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived traits of the inner ear and neuroanatomy that fills an important gap between those of non-monofenestratan breviquartossans (Rhamphorhynchidae and derived pterodactyloids. These results suggest that, while modularity may play an important role at one anatomical level, at a finer level the evolution of structures within a module may follow a mosaic pattern.

  20. A Jurassic pterosaur from Patagonia and the origin of the pterodactyloid neurocranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codorniú, Laura; Paulina Carabajal, Ariana; Pol, Diego; Unwin, David; Rauhut, Oliver W M

    2016-01-01

    Pterosaurs are an extinct group of highly modified flying reptiles that thrived during the Mesozoic. This group has unique and remarkable skeletal adaptations to powered flight, including pneumatic bones and an elongate digit IV supporting a wing-membrane. Two major body plans have traditionally been recognized: the primitive, primarily long-tailed paraphyletic "rhamphorhynchoids" (preferably currently recognized as non-pterodactyloids) and the derived short-tailed pterodactyloids. These two groups differ considerably in their general anatomy and also exhibit a remarkably different neuroanatomy and inferred head posture, which has been linked to different lifestyles and behaviours and improved flying capabilities in these reptiles. Pterosaur neuroanatomy, is known from just a few three-dimensionally preserved braincases of non-pterodactyloids (as Rhamphorhynchidae) and pterodactyloids, between which there is a large morphological gap. Here we report on a new Jurassic pterosaur from Argentina, Allkaruen koi gen. et sp. nov., remains of which include a superbly preserved, uncrushed braincase that sheds light on the origins of the highly derived neuroanatomy of pterodactyloids and their close relatives. A µCT ray-generated virtual endocast shows that the new pterosaur exhibits a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived traits of the inner ear and neuroanatomy that fills an important gap between those of non-monofenestratan breviquartossans (Rhamphorhynchidae) and derived pterodactyloids. These results suggest that, while modularity may play an important role at one anatomical level, at a finer level the evolution of structures within a module may follow a mosaic pattern.

  1. EVOLUTION. A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martill, David M; Tischlinger, Helmut; Longrich, Nicholas R

    2015-07-24

    Snakes are a remarkably diverse and successful group today, but their evolutionary origins are obscure. The discovery of snakes with two legs has shed light on the transition from lizards to snakes, but no snake has been described with four limbs, and the ecology of early snakes is poorly known. We describe a four-limbed snake from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Crato Formation of Brazil. The snake has a serpentiform body plan with an elongate trunk, short tail, and large ventral scales suggesting characteristic serpentine locomotion, yet retains small prehensile limbs. Skull and body proportions as well as reduced neural spines indicate fossorial adaptation, suggesting that snakes evolved from burrowing rather than marine ancestors. Hooked teeth, an intramandibular joint, a flexible spine capable of constricting prey, and the presence of vertebrate remains in the guts indicate that this species preyed on vertebrates and that snakes made the transition to carnivory early in their history. The structure of the limbs suggests that they were adapted for grasping, either to seize prey or as claspers during mating. Together with a diverse fauna of basal snakes from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, and India, this snake suggests that crown Serpentes originated in Gondwana. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Comparison of DNA comet assay and germination test (half-embryo-test) in gamma-irradiated cherry seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    2002-01-01

    Cherry fruits were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses up to 200Gy (effective dose for disinfestation of codling moth), and DNA strand break in seed embryos was investigated by using alkaline comet assay. Immediately after irradiation (≥100Gy), DNA from embryos produced comets with a long and wide tail due to fragmentation. In control cells, DNA relaxed and produced comet with very short tail (with few strand break). After 72h storage, DNA from fruits irradiated at 200 Gy showed comets with little tail and tail moment of comets was same as un-irradiated control. These results indicate that the strand breaks of DNA caused by irradiation in fresh seed embryo are repaired during storage. On the contrary, the ability of germination lost by irradiation did not restored, a dose of 100Gy and more retarded shoot elongation. In cherries irradiated at 100Gy, the shooting percentage was less than 50% at 4th day after incubation. Germination test (Half embryo test) can be discriminate between irradiated and un-irradiated cherries. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the ecological risks to terrestrial wildlife associated with a coal ash disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1955 and 1989, coal ash was deposited within an impounded watershed on the Oak Ridge Reservation, creating the 3.6 ha-Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP). The site has subsequently become vegetated, providing habitat for wildlife. To evaluate the risks that metals in the ash may pose to wildlife, ash, surface water, small mammal, and vegetation samples were collected and metal residues were determined. Metal concentrations, As and Se in particular, were elevated in ash, surface water, plant foliage, and small mammals relative to reference materials. Estimates of metal exposures received from food, water, and ash consumption were calculated for short-tailed shrews, white-footed mice, white-tailed deer, red fox, and red-tailed hawks. While shrews and mice were assumed to reside exclusively at and receive 100% exposure from the site, exposure experienced by deer, fox, and hawks was assumed to be proportional to the size of the site relative to their home range. Because deer had been observed to consume ash presumably for it's high sodium content, exposure experienced by deer consuming ash to meet sodium requirements was also estimated. To assess the risk of coal ash to wildlife, exposure estimates were compared to body-size adjusted toxicity data for each metal. These comparisons suggest that metals at the site may be detrimental to reproduction and survivorship of mice, shrews, deer and fox; hawks do not appear to be at risk

  4. Reconstructing an ancestral mammalian immune supercomplex from a marsupial major histocompatibility complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Belov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The first sequenced marsupial genome promises to reveal unparalleled insights into mammalian evolution. We have used the Monodelphis domestica (gray short-tailed opossum sequence to construct the first map of a marsupial major histocompatibility complex (MHC. The MHC is the most gene-dense region of the mammalian genome and is critical to immunity and reproductive success. The marsupial MHC bridges the phylogenetic gap between the complex MHC of eutherian mammals and the minimal essential MHC of birds. Here we show that the opossum MHC is gene dense and complex, as in humans, but shares more organizational features with non-mammals. The Class I genes have amplified within the Class II region, resulting in a unique Class I/II region. We present a model of the organization of the MHC in ancestral mammals and its elaboration during mammalian evolution. The opossum genome, together with other extant genomes, reveals the existence of an ancestral "immune supercomplex" that contained genes of both types of natural killer receptors together with antigen processing genes and MHC genes.

  5. THE subfossil occurrence and paleoecological significance of small mammals at ankilitelo cave, southwestern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, K.M.; De Blieux, D. D.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    Small mammals are rarely reported from subfossil sites in Madagascar despite their importance for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, especially as it relates to recent ecological changes on the island. We describe the uniquely rich subfossil small mammal fauna from Ankilitelo Cave, southwestern Madagascar. The Ankilitelo fauna is dated to the late Holocene (???500 years ago), documenting the youngest appearances of the extinct giant lemur taxa Palaeopropithecus, Megaladapis, and Archaeolemur, in association with abundant remains of small vertebrates, including bats, tenrecs, carnivorans, rodents, and primates. The Ankilitelo fauna is composed of 34 mammalian species, making it one of the most diverse Holocene assemblages in Madagascar. The fauna comprises the 1 st report of the short-tailed shrew tenrec (Microgale brevicaudata) and the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) in southwestern Madagascar. Further, Ankilitelo documents the presence of southwestern species that are rare or that have greatly restricted ranges today, such as Nasolo's shrew tenrec (M. nasoloi), Grandidier's mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri), the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), and the giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena). A simple cause for the unusual small mammal occurrences at Ankilitelo is not obvious. Synergistic interactions between climate change, recent fragmentation and human-initiated degradation of forested habitats, and community-level processes, such as predation, most likely explain the disjunct distributions of the small mammals documented at Ankilitelo. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  6. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Frazer, Neil; Erikson, Li; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.

  7. Bat airway epithelial cells: a novel tool for the study of zoonotic viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    Full Text Available Bats have been increasingly recognized as reservoir of important zoonotic viruses. However, until now many attempts to isolate bat-borne viruses in cell culture have been unsuccessful. Further, experimental studies on reservoir host species have been limited by the difficulty of rearing these species. The epithelium of the respiratory tract plays a central role during airborne transmission, as it is the first tissue encountered by viral particles. Although several cell lines from bats were established recently, no well-characterized, selectively cultured airway epithelial cells were available so far. Here, primary cells and immortalized cell lines from bats of the two important suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera, Carollia perspicillata (Seba's short-tailed bat and Eidolon helvum (Straw-colored fruit bat, were successfully cultured under standardized conditions from both fresh and frozen organ specimens by cell outgrowth of organ explants and by the use of serum-free primary cell culture medium. Cells were immortalized to generate permanent cell lines. Cells were characterized for their epithelial properties such as expression of cytokeratin and tight junctions proteins and permissiveness for viral infection with Rift-Valley fever virus and vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana. These cells can serve as suitable models for the study of bat-borne viruses and complement cell culture models for virus infection in human airway epithelial cells.

  8. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  9. Synchrotron scanning reveals amphibious ecomorphology in a new clade of bird-like dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Andrea; Beyrand, Vincent; Voeten, Dennis F. A. E.; Fernandez, Vincent; Tafforeau, Paul; Stein, Koen; Barsbold, Rinchen; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav; Currie, Philip J.; Godefroit, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    Maniraptora includes birds and their closest relatives among theropod dinosaurs. During the Cretaceous period, several maniraptoran lineages diverged from the ancestral coelurosaurian bauplan and evolved novel ecomorphologies, including active flight, gigantism, cursoriality and herbivory. Propagation X-ray phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography of a well-preserved maniraptoran from Mongolia, still partially embedded in the rock matrix, revealed a mosaic of features, most of them absent among non-avian maniraptorans but shared by reptilian and avian groups with aquatic or semiaquatic ecologies. This new theropod, Halszkaraptor escuilliei gen. et sp. nov., is related to other enigmatic Late Cretaceous maniraptorans from Mongolia in a novel clade at the root of Dromaeosauridae. This lineage adds an amphibious ecomorphology to those evolved by maniraptorans: it acquired a predatory mode that relied mainly on neck hyperelongation for food procurement, it coupled the obligatory bipedalism of theropods with forelimb proportions that may support a swimming function, and it developed postural adaptations convergent with short-tailed birds.

  10. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the bacteriophage CUS-3 virion reveal a conserved coat protein I-domain but a distinct tailspike receptor-binding domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parent, Kristin N., E-mail: kparent@msu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); Tang, Jinghua; Cardone, Giovanni [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); Gilcrease, Eddie B. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Janssen, Mandy E.; Olson, Norman H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); Casjens, Sherwood R., E-mail: sherwood.casjens@path.utah.edu [University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Baker, Timothy S., E-mail: tsb@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); University of California, San Diego, Division of Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA, 92093 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    CUS-3 is a short-tailed, dsDNA bacteriophage that infects serotype K1 Escherichia coli. We report icosahedrally averaged and asymmetric, three-dimensional, cryo-electron microscopic reconstructions of the CUS-3 virion. Its coat protein structure adopts the “HK97-fold” shared by other tailed phages and is quite similar to that in phages P22 and Sf6 despite only weak amino acid sequence similarity. In addition, these coat proteins share a unique extra external domain (“I-domain”), suggesting that the group of P22-like phages has evolved over a very long time period without acquiring a new coat protein gene from another phage group. On the other hand, the morphology of the CUS-3 tailspike differs significantly from that of P22 or Sf6, but is similar to the tailspike of phage K1F, a member of the extremely distantly related T7 group of phages. We conclude that CUS-3 obtained its tailspike gene from a distantly related phage quite recently. - Highlights: • Asymmetric and symmetric three-dimensional reconstructions of phage CUS-3 are presented. • CUS-3 major capsid protein has a conserved I-domain, which is found in all three categories of “P22-like phage”. • CUS-3 has very different tailspike receptor binding domain from those of P22 and Sf6. • The CUS-3 tailspike likely was acquired by horizontal gene transfer.

  11. Molecular genetic variation in sheep of the central Volga area inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. TAPIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on morphology, native northern European sheep breeds belong to the short tailed type, of which the Romanov is the only native example still distributed in northwest Russia. Besides this, there exist local sheep populations kept by Finno-Ugric peoples in the central Volga region, which represent additional genetic resources in the area. Four sheep populations from the central Volga region were genotyped for 20 microsatellites and compared with geographically proximate breeds (Estonian Whitehead and Blackhead, the Finnsheep and an exported and a native population of Russian Romanov and with local populations in Estonia, Finland and Russian Karelia. Between-breed analyses including admixture analysis using molecular genetic markers and the phenotypic characteristics indicated that the Volgaic populations have not remained pure. The Viena population from Russian Karelia, the Romanov breed and, to some extent, the Komi population, have escaped extensive mixing, making them most attractive for conservation programmes. The study compared imported and native Romanov breed populations and the results suggest that the diversity parameters are markedly similar in these two populations.;

  12. Similarity of Symbol Frequency Distributions with Heavy Tails

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    Martin Gerlach

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the similarity between symbolic sequences is a traditional problem in information theory which requires comparing the frequencies of symbols in different sequences. In numerous modern applications, ranging from DNA over music to texts, the distribution of symbol frequencies is characterized by heavy-tailed distributions (e.g., Zipf’s law. The large number of low-frequency symbols in these distributions poses major difficulties to the estimation of the similarity between sequences; e.g., they hinder an accurate finite-size estimation of entropies. Here, we show analytically how the systematic (bias and statistical (fluctuations errors in these estimations depend on the sample size N and on the exponent γ of the heavy-tailed distribution. Our results are valid for the Shannon entropy (α=1, its corresponding similarity measures (e.g., the Jensen-Shanon divergence, and also for measures based on the generalized entropy of order α. For small α’s, including α=1, the errors decay slower than the 1/N decay observed in short-tailed distributions. For α larger than a critical value α^{*}=1+1/γ≤2, the 1/N decay is recovered. We show the practical significance of our results by quantifying the evolution of the English language over the last two centuries using a complete α spectrum of measures. We find that frequent words change more slowly than less frequent words and that α=2 provides the most robust measure to quantify language change.

  13. Local stem cell depletion model for radiation myelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaes, R.J.; Kalend, A.

    1988-01-01

    We propose a model for normal tissue damage based on the assumption that adult mammalian stem cells have limited mobility and, consequently, for each organ, there is a maximum volume (the critical volume, Vc), that can be repopulated and repaired by a single surviving stem cell. This concept is applied to a simple, 1-dimensional model of the spinal cord, where the critical volume is a slice of thickness, t, assumed to be small compared to lengths of spinal cord usually irradiated clinically. The probability of myelitis is explicitly obtained as a function of the dose, dose per fraction, length of cord irradiated, slice thickness, number of stem cells per slice and parameters alpha and beta of the stem cell survival curve. The complication probability is expressed as a triple negative exponential function of dose analogous to the double negative exponential function for tumor control, resulting in a steep dose-response curve with short tails in both the high dose and low dose regions. We show that the model predictions are compatible with the experimental data for radiation myelitis in the rat. We discuss how this concept can be applied to other organs such as skin and to organs composed of structurally and functionally distinct subunits, such as the kidney

  14. Watch out where you sleep: nocturnal sleeping behaviour of Bay Island lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitya Prakash Mohanty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping exposes lizards to predation. Therefore, sleeping strategies must be directed towards avoiding predation and might vary among syntopic species. We studied sleeping site characteristics of two syntopic, congeneric lizards—the Bay Island forest lizard, Coryphophylax subcristatus and the short-tailed Bay Island lizard, C. brevicaudus and evaluated inter-specific differences. We measured structural, microclimatic and potential predator avoidance at the sleeping perches of 386 C. subcristatus and 185 C. brevicaudus. Contrary to our expectation, we found similar perch use in both species. The lizards appeared to use narrow girth perch plants and accessed perches by moving both vertically and horizontally. Most lizards slept on leaves, with their heads directed towards the potential path of a predator approaching from the plant base. There was no inter-specific competition in the choices of sleeping perches. These choices indicate an anti-predator strategy involving both tactile and visual cues. This study provides insight into a rarely studied behaviour in reptiles and its adaptive significance.

  15. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L; Fletcher, Charles H; Frazer, Neil; Erikson, Li; Storlazzi, Curt D

    2017-05-18

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.

  16. Paternal HLA-C and Maternal Killer-Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genotypes in the Development of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Moriya; Anderson, Karen L; Ebstein, Richard P; Yirmiya, Nurit; Mankuta, David

    2016-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of cell surface proteins found on natural killer cells, which are components of the innate immune system. KIRs recognize MHC class I proteins, mainly HLA-C and are further divided into two groups: short-tailed 2/3DS activating receptors and long-tailed 2/3DL inhibitory receptors. Based on the Barker Hypothesis, the origins of illness can be traced back to embryonic development in the uterus, and since KIR:HLA interaction figures prominently in the maternal-fetal interface, we investigated whether specific KIR:HLA combinations may be found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) children compared with their healthy parents. This study enrolled 49 ASD children from different Israeli families, and their healthy parents. Among the parents, a higher frequency of HLA-C2 allotypes was found in the fathers, while its corresponding ligand 2DS1 was found in higher percentage in the maternal group. However, such skewing in KIR:HLA frequencies did not appear in the ASD children. Additionally, analysis of "overall activation" indicated higher activation in maternal than in paternal cohorts.

  17. Prototype sector magnets for the GeV electron microtron (GEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrle, R.B.; Norem, J.H.; Praeg, W.F.; Swanstrom, R.H.; Thompson, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    Three prototypes of the sector magnets for GeV Electon Microtron accelerators have been designed. One has been built and two are being constructed. The first is a full scale, 168 ton prototype for one-half of a 2 GeV Double Sided Microtron (DSM) sector magnet. The successful fabrication and testing of the pole pieces for this prototype has demonstrated that their required close tolerances for flatness and parallelism can be met. The second magnet is an approximate two-thirds scale model of one step at the low energy end of the hexatron sector magnet designed for the 4 GeV Electron Microtron (GEM). The measured fields demonstrate that the field falls off faster than an Enge-short-tail and error fields are at low levels and are controllable. A third prototype magnet exactly duplicates the full scale geometry of the first three full orbits of the GEM sector magnet from entrance to exit points. It will permit high precision measurements and corrections of field errors and verify the 3-D computer program, TOSCA

  18. A molecular phylogeny of Amazona: implications for Neotropical parrot biogeography, taxonomy, and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russello, Michael A; Amato, George

    2004-02-01

    Amazon parrots (Genus Amazona) are among the most recognizable and imperiled of all birds. Several hypotheses regarding the evolutionary history of Amazona are investigated using a combined phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from six partitions including mitochondrial (COI, 12S, and 16S) and nuclear (beta-fibint7, RP40, and TROP) regions. The results demonstrate that Amazona is not monophyletic with respect to the placement of the Yellow-faced parrot (Amazona xanthops), as first implied by. In addition, the analysis corroborates previous studies suggesting a Neotropical short-tailed parrot genus as sister to Amazona. At a finer level, the phylogeny resolves the Greater Antillean endemic species as constituting a monophyletic group, including the Central American Amazona albifrons, while further revealing a paraphyletic history for the extant Amazon species of the Lesser Antilles. The reconstructed phylogeny provides further insights into the mainland sources of the Antillean Amazona, reveals areas of taxonomic uncertainty within the genus, and presents historical information that may be included in conservation priority-setting for Amazon parrots.

  19. Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles James

    2008-10-01

    Synthetic polymers, commonly known as plastics, have been entering the marine environment in quantities paralleling their level of production over the last half century. However, in the last two decades of the 20th Century, the deposition rate accelerated past the rate of production, and plastics are now one of the most common and persistent pollutants in ocean waters and beaches worldwide. Thirty years ago the prevailing attitude of the plastic industry was that "plastic litter is a very small proportion of all litter and causes no harm to the environment except as an eyesore" [Derraik, J.G.B., 2002. The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44(9), 842-852]. Between 1960 and 2000, the world production of plastic resins increased 25-fold, while recovery of the material remained below 5%. Between 1970 and 2003, plastics became the fastest growing segment of the US municipal waste stream, increasing nine-fold, and marine litter is now 60-80% plastic, reaching 90-95% in some areas. While undoubtedly still an eyesore, plastic debris today is having significant harmful effects on marine biota. Albatross, fulmars, shearwaters and petrels mistake floating plastics for food, and many individuals of these species are affected; in fact, 44% of all seabird species are known to ingest plastic. Sea turtles ingest plastic bags, fishing line and other plastics, as do 26 species of cetaceans. In all, 267 species of marine organisms worldwide are known to have been affected by plastic debris, a number that will increase as smaller organisms are assessed. The number of fish, birds, and mammals that succumb each year to derelict fishing nets and lines in which they become entangled cannot be reliably known; but estimates are in the millions. We divide marine plastic debris into two categories: macro, >5 mm and micro, plastic micro-debris by filter feeders at the base of the food web is known to occur, but has not been quantified

  20. Spatial variation in egg size of a top predator: Interplay of body size and environmental factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, Maite; Igual, José M.; Genovart, Meritxell; Forero, Manuela G.; Hobson, Keith A.; Oro, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    It is expected that nearby populations are constrained by the same ecological features shaping in turn similarity in their ecological traits. Here, we studied the spatio-temporal variability in egg size among local populations of the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus, a top marine predator endemic to the western Mediterranean region. Specifically we assessed whether this trait was influenced by maternal body size, as an indicator of a genetic component, and feeding ecology (through stable-carbon and nitrogen-isotope measurements), as an indicator of environmental factors. We found that egg size varied among local populations, an unexpected result at such a small spatial scale. Body size differences at the local population level only partially explained such differences. Blood isotope measurements also differed among local populations. Values of δ 15N suggested inter-population differences in trophic level, showing a similar general pattern with egg size, and suggesting a nutritional link between them whereby egg size was affected by differences in feeding resources and/or behaviour. Values of δ 13C suggested that local populations did not differ in foraging habits with respect to benthic- vs. pelagic-based food-webs. Egg size did not vary among years as did breeding performance, suggesting that a differential temporal window could affect both breeding parameters in relation to food availability. The absence of a relationship between breeding performance and egg size suggested that larger eggs might only confer an advantage during harsh conditions. Alternatively parental quality could greatly affect breeding performance. We showed that inter-population differences in egg size could be influenced by both body size and environmental factors.

  1. Novel insights into early neuroanatomical evolution in penguins from the oldest described penguin brain endocast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, J V; Clarke, J A; Scofield, R P

    2016-08-01

    Digital methodologies for rendering the gross morphology of the brain from X-ray computed tomography data have expanded our current understanding of the origin and evolution of avian neuroanatomy and provided new perspectives on the cognition and behavior of birds in deep time. However, fossil skulls germane to extracting digital endocasts from early stem members of extant avian lineages remain exceptionally rare. Data from early-diverging species of major avian subclades provide key information on ancestral morphologies in Aves and shifts in gross neuroanatomical structure that have occurred within those groups. Here we describe data on the gross morphology of the brain from a mid-to-late Paleocene penguin fossil from New Zealand. This most basal and geochronologically earliest-described endocast from the penguin clade indicates that described neuroanatomical features of early stem penguins, such as lower telencephalic lateral expansion, a relatively wider cerebellum, and lack of cerebellar folding, were present far earlier in penguin history than previously inferred. Limited dorsal expansion of the wulst in the new fossil is a feature seen in outgroup waterbird taxa such as Gaviidae (Loons) and diving Procellariiformes (Shearwaters, Diving Petrels, and allies), indicating that loss of flight may not drastically affect neuroanatomy in diving taxa. Wulst enlargement in the penguin lineage is first seen in the late Eocene, at least 25 million years after loss of flight and cooption of the flight stroke for aquatic diving. Similar to the origin of avian flight, major shifts in gross brain morphology follow, but do not appear to evolve quickly after, acquisition of a novel locomotor mode. Enlargement of the wulst shows a complex pattern across waterbirds, and may be linked to sensory modifications related to prey choice and foraging strategy. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  2. A long-term retrospective study on rehabilitation of seabirds in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (2003-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Montesdeoca

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of morbidity and mortality in a large population of seabirds admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center (TWRC in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 2003 to 2013, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process.We included 1,956 seabirds (133 dead on admission and 1,823 admitted alive in this study. Causes of morbidity were classified into nine categories: light pollution (fallout, fishing gear interaction, crude oil, poisoning/intoxication, other traumas, metabolic/nutritional disorder, orphaned young birds, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. The crude and stratified (by causes of admission rates of the three final disposition categories (euthanasia Er, unassisted mortality Mr, and release Rr, the time until death, and the length of stay were also studied for the seabirds admitted alive.Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis was the species most frequently admitted (46.52%, followed by Cory's Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis (20.09%. The most frequent causes of morbidity were light pollution (fallout (25.81%, poisoning/intoxication (24.69%, and other traumas (18.14%. The final disposition rates were: Er = 15.35%, Mr = 16.29%, and Rr = 68.34%. The highest Er was observed in the 'other traumas' category (58.08%. Seabirds admitted due to metabolic/nutritional disorder had the highest Mr (50%. The highest Rr was observed in the light pollution (fallout category (99.20%.This survey provides useful information for the conservation of several seabird species. We suggest that at least the stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters time until death and length of stay at the center should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation of seabirds. The high release rate for seabirds (68.34% achieved at the TWRC emphasizes the importance of wildlife rehabilitation centers for the conservation of seabirds.

  3. Heart rate variability reveals that a decrease in parasympathetic ('rest-and-digest') activity dominates autonomic stress responses in a free-living seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Martina S; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Yamamoto, Maki; Yoda, Ken

    2017-10-01

    The autonomic stress response, often referred to as the 'fight-or-flight' response, is a highly conserved physiological reaction to stress in vertebrates that occurs via a decrease in parasympathetic (PNS) activity, which promotes self-maintenance 'rest and digest' processes, and an increase in sympathetic (SNS) activity, which prepares an animal for danger ('fight-or-flight'). Though the PNS and SNS both innervate most organs, they often control different tissues and functions within those organs (though the pacemaker of the heart is controlled by both). Moreover the PNS and SNS are regulated independently. Yet until now, most studies of autonomic stress responses in non-model species focused only on the SNS response. We used external electrocardiogram loggers to measure heart rate and heart rate variability indexes that reflect PNS and SNS activity in a seabird, the Streaked Shearwater (Calonectris leucomelas), during the stress of handling, and during recovery in the nest burrow or during restraint in a cloth bag. We show for the first time in a free-living animal that the autonomic stress response is mediated primarily by a rapid decrease in PNS activity: handling stress induced a large and long-lasting depression of PNS 'rest-and-digest' activity that required two hours to recover. We also found evidence for a substantially smaller and shorter-lasting SNS 'fight-or-flight' response. Confinement in a cloth bag was less stressful for birds than handling, but more stressful than recovering in nest burrows. We show that quantifying autonomic activity from heart rate variability is effective for non-invasively studying stress physiology in free-living animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex and migratory strategy influence corticosterone levels in winter-grown feathers, with positive breeding effects in a migratory pelagic seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Dias, Maria P; Catry, Paulo

    2016-08-01

    To overcome unpredictable stressful transitory events, animals trigger an allostatic response involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex. This hormonal response, which involves the release of glucocorticoids which in turn mediate between the main physiological mechanisms that regulate the energetic demands and resource allocation trade-off with behavioural responses to environmental perturbations and may ultimately lead to variation in fitness. We have used the Cory's shearwater Calonectris borealis, a sexually dimorphic pelagic seabird with a partial migratory strategy, as a model bird species to analyse a number of traits related to the stress response. We investigated whether the activation of a stressful response, mediated by corticosterone, during the wintering period (1) correlated with the previous breeding success, (2) was affected by the migratory behaviour of male birds and (3) had consequences in the fitness of the birds. Corticosterone levels in feathers grown overwinter were analysed in 61 adult birds during three consecutive migratory periods (2009-2012) and in 14 immature birds in the wintering period 2010-2011. Moreover, the levels of corticosterone were analysed in experimental birds which were freed from their reproductive duties and compared with control birds which raised fledglings to the end of the breeding period. The results show that the levels of corticosterone were sex dependent, differed between years and were affected by the migratory strategy performed by the birds. The activation of the stressful response over the wintering period generated residual carry-over effects that positively affected the reproductive output in the subsequent breeding stage, a phenomenon previously undescribed in a long-lived pelagic seabird. Our study provides evidence that the analysis of corticosterone from feathers is a useful tool to evaluate carry-over effects in birds far away from breeding sites, opening new possibilities for future studies in

  5. Experimental Study of Thermo-hydraulic Characteristics of Surfaces with In-line Dimple Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Burtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conducted experimental study of the heat exchange intensification on the surfaces covered with a regular vortex-generating relief that is an in-line array of the shallow hemispherical dimples. Using 12 configuration options with the Reynolds numbers in the range of (0.2-7.0 106 as an example, it analyses how a longitudinal and cross step of the in-line dimple array (density dimples effects on the processes of heat exchange intensification and resistance.The monocomponent strain-gauge balance allows us to define a value of the resistance coefficient by direct weighing of models (located in parallel in a flow of "relief" and smooth "reference" ones being under study. Distribution fields of heat – transfer factor are determined by recording a cooling process of the surface of studied models having high spatial and temporary resolution. All researches were conducted with one-shot data record of these thermal and hydraulic measurements for the smooth (reference surfaces and the studied surfaces covered with a regular vortex-generating relief (dimples. The error of determined parameters was no more than ±5%.The oil-sooty method allows us to visualize flow around a regular relief and obtain a flow pattern for 12 options of dimples configuration. The analysis has been carried out and a compliance of the flow patterns with the field of heat-transfer factors has been obtained.It has been found that for the in-line configuration a Reynolds analogy factor for most models is nonlinearly dependent on the Reynolds number. The friction intensification, at first, falls (to some Reynolds number and, further, starts increasing, tending to the friction intensification value with self-similarity flow around. Thus with increasing Reynolds number, the heattransfer factor intensification falls (more slowly than resistance intensification.

  6. Effects of pressure and fuel dilution on coflow laminar methane-air diffusion flames: A computational and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Su; Ma, Bin; Giassi, Davide; Bennett, Beth Anne V.; Long, Marshall B.; Smooke, Mitchell D.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the influence of pressure and fuel dilution on the structure and geometry of coflow laminar methane-air diffusion flames is examined. A series of methane-fuelled, nitrogen-diluted flames has been investigated both computationally and experimentally, with pressure ranging from 1.0 to 2.7 atm and CH4 mole fraction ranging from 0.50 to 0.65. Computationally, the MC-Smooth vorticity-velocity formulation was employed to describe the reactive gaseous mixture, and soot evolution was modelled by sectional aerosol equations. The governing equations and boundary conditions were discretised on a two-dimensional computational domain by finite differences, and the resulting set of fully coupled, strongly nonlinear equations was solved simultaneously at all points using a damped, modified Newton's method. Experimentally, chemiluminescence measurements of CH* were taken to determine its relative concentration profile and the structure of the flame front. A thin-filament ratio pyrometry method using a colour digital camera was employed to determine the temperature profiles of the non-sooty, atmospheric pressure flames, while soot volume fraction was quantified, after evaluation of soot temperature, through an absolute light calibration using a thermocouple. For a broad spectrum of flames in atmospheric and elevated pressures, the computed and measured flame quantities were examined to characterise the influence of pressure and fuel dilution, and the major conclusions were as follows: (1) maximum temperature increases with increasing pressure or CH4 concentration; (2) lift-off height decreases significantly with increasing pressure, modified flame length is roughly independent of pressure, and flame radius decreases with pressure approximately as P-1/2; and (3) pressure and fuel stream dilution significantly affect the spatial distribution and the peak value of the soot volume fraction.

  7. BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE APPLE MEALYBUG PHENACOCCUS ACERIS (SIGNORET) IN BELGIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangels, E; Peusens, G; Bylemans, D; Belien, T

    2014-01-01

    Although in general very rare, some outbreaks of the apple mealybug Phenococcus aceris (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were reported in the Belgian fruit growing area recently. This insect is known to be geographically widespread, to have a broad host range and to infest apple trees. Damage at harvest is considerable when sooty molds, a consequence of the pest's honeydew production, cover the fruits. Indirect damage of an infection is caused in cherry cultivation through transmission of the Little cherry virus (LChV2). Efficacy trials were executed in infested apple orchards in the Belgian fruit growing area and the life cycle of the pest on apple was studied more into detail. Apple mealybugs are univoltine, overwinter as 2nd instar nymphs inside a white cocoon on the tree (under the bark, in crevices) and leave their overwintering site in early spring (mid March). On sunny days the nymphs become active, move around and attach to start feeding (mid April). After a final moult into the adult form, females lay eggs in a cocoon-like white structure (from flowering on). Following hatching (end May), massive numbers of young nymphs spread out on the underside of the leaves (mid June) where they feed through suction. In order to manage this pest the efficacy of several plant protection products was tested in two infested apple orchards. Results indicated that mortality was high after an application of compounds belonging to the neonicotinoid insecticides. Different application timings and control strategies are possible, with active nymphs being the most vulnerable life stage. The observed degree of parasitation in our trial orchards also indicates a biological control contribution of parasitic wasps that should be taken into account. A decent IPM-strategy based on our results solved the problem in both apple orchards.

  8. Development of neurologic diseases in a patient with primate T lymphotropic virus type 1 (PTLV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Caruso, Breanna; Haner, Benjamin; Charlip, Emily; Nair, Govind; Massoud, Raya; Billioux, Bridgette J; Ohayon, Joan; Switzer, William M; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-08-12

    Virus transmission from various wild and domestic animals contributes to an increased risk of emerging infectious diseases in human populations. HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus associated with acute T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1 originated from ancient zoonotic transmission from nonhuman primates, although cases of zoonotic infections continue to occur. Similar to HTLV-1, the simian counterpart, STLV-1, causes chronic infection and leukemia and lymphoma in naturally infected monkeys, and combined are called primate T-lymphotropic viruses (PTLV-1). However, other clinical syndromes typically seen in humans such as a chronic progressive myelopathy have not been observed in nonhuman primates. Little is known about the development of neurologic and inflammatory diseases in human populations infected with STLV-1-like viruses following nonhuman primate exposure. We performed detailed laboratory analyses on an HTLV-1 seropositive patient with typical HAM/TSP who was born in Liberia and now resides in the United States. Using a novel droplet digital PCR for the detection of the HTLV-1 tax gene, the proviral load in PBMC and cerebrospinal fluid cells was 12.98 and 51.68 %, respectively; however, we observed a distinct difference in fluorescence amplitude of the positive droplet population suggesting possible mutations in proviral DNA. A complete PTLV-1 proviral genome was amplified from the patient's PBMC DNA using an overlapping PCR strategy. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope and LTR sequences showed the virus was highly related to PTLV-1 from sooty mangabey monkeys (smm) and humans exposed via nonhuman primates in West Africa. These results demonstrate the patient is infected with a simian variant of PTLV-1, suggesting for the first time that PTLV-1smm infection in humans may be associated with a chronic progressive neurologic disease.

  9. Status of tandetron II of Nagoya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Etsuko; Nakamura, Toshio; Oda, Hirotaka; Ikeda, Akiko; Ota, Tomoko; Minami, Masayo

    2001-01-01

    The General Center for Age Measurement, Nagoya University, introduced an accelerator mass spectrometer of Model 4130-AMS made by HVEM Co., the Nether lands on 1996. We had spent almost 9 months from February to October 1999 for trouble shootings, repairs and adjustments. The followings are major troubles. Diode array were damaged after an acceptance test due to sparks. The 366 diodes were broken among total 1422 (24%). The 14 resistors were broken among total 158 (9%). HVEM Co. said there was the initial defect in manufacturing diodes. We replaced all diodes and resistors, after waiting 1 month. The insulation resistance of transformer coils went down by sooty contamination by sparks and coils were burned out. The 3 weeks were needed for replacement of coils. Perfect cleaning inside the tank vessel was very complicated. The phase detector of the magnet power supply was broken and resulted in sparks of the circuit breaker. Malfunction of vacuum valve appeared after long time shut down of facilities. We had to replace the vacuum valve due to elastic o-ring damage. The aluminum dust caused by target holder carousel caused short circuits. The nails and springs were deteriorated. After all, the modified new target holder was installed. Malfunction appeared in the slit stabilizer. We replaced two operational amplifiers and made optimization of capacitors. Some other troubles happened in cooling water system, cryogenic vacuum pumping system, air compressor, detector of Faraday cup and so on. After fixing many troubles, we had done age measurements on 805 samples. This means about 115 samples per a month. As examples of measurement, we show the results obtained from IAEA calibration standard samples. We will make further measurements with higher accuracy. Appropriate maintenance and management is the key for steady servicing. (Y. Tanaka)

  10. Surface plasmon observed for carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A; Stadelmann, P A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Peng, J L; Prawer, S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents parallel electron energy loss spectra (PEELS) results, obtained for individual carbon nanotubes, using nanoprobe techniques (1-2 nm diameter electron beam), energy resolution 0.5 eV and collection times of 4-25 sec. The aim was to use a nanoprobe to compare PEELS spectra from different parts of a tube, in order to search for variations in sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} bonding ratios as well as to look for orientation dependent plasmon and core-loss phenomena. It also seemed interesting to compare results for nanotubes with those for other varieties of graphitized carbons. The most interesting result so far was the appearance of a 15 eV plasmon peak, which appeared only for tubes containing {<=} about 12 graphite-like layers. This peak did not shift significantly with tube size. A low-loss peaks at 6 eV of variable relative intensity was also observed this peak was relatively very weak for amorphous tubes; it appears to be characteristic of graphite-like layers, as found for nanotubes and, of course, graphite itself. This paper is restricted to discussion of the low-loss results. The experimental techniques are first described, including some details of the methods which may be used to disperse and support sooty carbons for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results are then presented, followed by an interpretation of all the low-loss PEELS results, including those of the other authors. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  11. TRIM5 suppresses cross-species transmission of a primate immunodeficiency virus and selects for emergence of resistant variants in the new species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kirmaier

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Simian immunodeficiency viruses of sooty mangabeys (SIVsm are the source of multiple, successful cross-species transmissions, having given rise to HIV-2 in humans, SIVmac in rhesus macaques, and SIVstm in stump-tailed macaques. Cellular assays and phylogenetic comparisons indirectly support a role for TRIM5alpha, the product of the TRIM5 gene, in suppressing interspecies transmission and emergence of retroviruses in nature. Here, we investigate the in vivo role of TRIM5 directly, focusing on transmission of primate immunodeficiency viruses between outbred primate hosts. Specifically, we retrospectively analyzed experimental cross-species transmission of SIVsm in two cohorts of rhesus macaques and found a significant effect of TRIM5 genotype on viral replication levels. The effect was especially pronounced in a cohort of animals infected with SIVsmE543-3, where TRIM5 genotype correlated with approximately 100-fold to 1,000-fold differences in viral replication levels. Surprisingly, transmission occurred even in individuals bearing restrictive TRIM5 genotypes, resulting in attenuation of replication rather than an outright block to infection. In cell-culture assays, the same TRIM5 alleles associated with viral suppression in vivo blocked infectivity of two SIVsm strains, but not the macaque-adapted strain SIVmac239. Adaptations appeared in the viral capsid in animals with restrictive TRIM5 genotypes, and similar adaptations coincide with emergence of SIVmac in captive macaques in the 1970s. Thus, host TRIM5 can suppress viral replication in vivo, exerting selective pressure during the initial stages of cross-species transmission.

  12. Analysis of the chemical elements behavior in leaves infected with fumagina employing X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonski, Maria Selia

    2002-02-01

    Fumagina is produced by the Capnodium fungi, a mushroom from Dothideales order, that lives associated with the yellow aphid (Monelliopsis pecanis), excreting a heavy load of a sugared substance that provides the sooty fungus development, covering, in some cases the totality, of leaves, fruits and branches surfaces. One of the big problems caused by this disease is the physic photosynthesis stuckness, reducing in 98% the active photosynthesis radiation and in 70% the net photosynthesis. This photosynthesis reduction affects the plants carbohydrate reservoirs, resulting in reduced and bad qualified crops. It was employed the Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF) to study the fumagina disease. The measurements were realized with infected and healthy leaves of citric plants (orange and lemon trees), collected at the Farm School of the State University of Londrina, and also leaves of icsora plant from Piracicaba-SP. Through this technique it was observed a metabolic disorder related to Fe and Ca elements. By comparing the EDXRF spectra of the healthy plant leaves with the infected ones, it was verified that the concentration of Ca is higher than the concentration Fe in leaves of healthy plants, while for the leaves of plants infected with fumagina, it was observed a higher concentration of Fe. Employing EDXRF and the emission/transmission method for the matrix effect correction, samples of the citric plants were also analysed in pellet. The elements K, Ca, Ti, Mn , Fe, Cu and Zn were quantified. It was verified a higher Fe concentration in fumagina samples compared to the samples without fumagina. For all the elements of interest the minimum level of detection found was at the order of μg g -1 . (author)

  13. Effects of interactive transport and scavenging of smoke on the calculated temperature change resulting from large amounts of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.; Walton, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    Several theoretical studies with numerical models have shown that substantial land-surface cooling can occur if very large amounts (approx. 100 x 10 12 = 100 Tg) of highly absorbing sooty-particles are injected high into the troposphere and spread instantaneously around the hemisphere (Turco et al., 1983; Covey et al. 1984; MacCracken, 1983). A preliminary step beyond these initial calculations has been made by interactively coupling the two-layer, three-dimensional Oregon State University general circulation model (GCM) to the three-dimensional GRANTOUR trace species model developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GCM simulation includes treatment of tropospheric dynamics and thermodynamics and the effect of soot on solar radiation. The GRANTOUR simulation includes treatment of particle transport and scavenging by precipitation, although no satisfactory verification of the scavenging algorithm has yet been possible. We have considered the climatic effects of 150 Tg (i.e., the 100 Mt urban war scenario from Turco et al., 1983) and of 15 Tg of smoke from urban fires over North America and Eurasia. Starting with a perpetual July atmospheric situation, calculation of the climatic effects as 150 Tg of smoke are spread slowly by the winds, rather than instantaneously dispersed as in previous calculations, leads to some regions of greater cooling under the denser parts of the smoke plumes and some regions of less severe cooling where smoke arrival is delayed. As for the previous calculations, mid-latitude decreases of land surface air temperature for the 150 Tg injection are greater than 15 0 C after a few weeks. For a 15 Tg injection, however, cooling of more than several degrees centigrade only occurs in limited regions under the dense smoke plumes present in the first few weeks after the injection. 10 references, 9 figures

  14. Phylogeny and History of the Lost SIV from Crab-Eating Macaques: SIVmfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin R; Johnson, Welkin E; Kirmaier, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In the 20th century, thirteen distinct human immunodeficiency viruses emerged following independent cross-species transmission events involving simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) from African primates. In the late 1900s, pathogenic SIV strains also emerged in the United Sates among captive Asian macaque species following their unintentional infection with SIV from African sooty mangabeys (SIVsmm). Since their discovery in the 1980s, SIVs from rhesus macaques (SIVmac) and pig-tailed macaques (SIVmne) have become invaluable models for studying HIV pathogenesis, vaccine design and the emergence of viruses. SIV isolates from captive crab-eating macaques (SIVmfa) were initially described but lost prior to any detailed molecular and genetic characterization. In order to infer the origins of the lost SIVmfa lineage, we located archived material and colony records, recovered its genomic sequence by PCR, and assessed its phylogenetic relationship to other SIV strains. We conclude that SIVmfa is the product of two cross-species transmission events. The first was the established transmission of SIVsmm to rhesus macaques, which occurred at the California National Primate Research Center in the late 1960s and the virus later emerged as SIVmac. In a second event, SIVmac was transmitted to crab-eating macaques, likely at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates in the early 1970s, and it was later spread to the New England Primate Research Center colony in 1973 and eventually isolated in 1986. Our analysis suggests that SIVmac had already emerged by the early 1970s and had begun to diverge into distinct lineages. Furthermore, our findings suggest that pathogenic SIV strains may have been more widely distributed than previously appreciated, raising the possibility that additional isolates may await discovery.

  15. Effect of burner geometry on swirl stabilized methane/air flames: A joint LES/OH-PLIF/PIV study

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, X.

    2017-07-04

    Large eddy simulation (LES) using a transported PDF model and OH-PLIF/PIV experiments were carried out to investigate the quarl effects on the structures of swirl stabilized methane/air flames. Two different quarls were investigated, one straight cylindrical quarl and one diverging conical quarl. The experiments show that the flames are significantly different with the two quarls. With the straight cylindrical quarl a compact blue flame is observed while with the diverging conical quarl the flame appears to be long and yellow indicating a sooty flame structure. The PIV results show the formation of a stronger flow recirculation inside the diverging conical quarl than that in the straight quarl. LES results reveal further details of the flow and mixing process inside the quarl. The results show that with the diverging quarl vortex breakdown occurs much earlier towards the upstream of the quarl. As a result the fuel is convected into the air flow tube and a diffusion flame is stabilized inside the air flow tube upstream the quarl. With the straight quarl, vortex breakdown occurs at a downstream location in the quarl. The scalar dissipation rate in the shear layer of the fuel jet is high, which prevents the stabilization of a diffusion flame in the proximity of the fuel nozzle; instead, a compact partially premixed flame with two distinct heat release layers is stablized in a downstream region in the quarl, which allows for the fuel and air to mix in the quarl before combustion and a lower formation rate of soot. The results showed that the Eulerian Stochastic Fields transported PDF method can well predict the details of the swirl flame dynamics.

  16. Phylogeny and History of the Lost SIV from Crab-Eating Macaques: SIVmfa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R McCarthy

    Full Text Available In the 20th century, thirteen distinct human immunodeficiency viruses emerged following independent cross-species transmission events involving simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV from African primates. In the late 1900s, pathogenic SIV strains also emerged in the United Sates among captive Asian macaque species following their unintentional infection with SIV from African sooty mangabeys (SIVsmm. Since their discovery in the 1980s, SIVs from rhesus macaques (SIVmac and pig-tailed macaques (SIVmne have become invaluable models for studying HIV pathogenesis, vaccine design and the emergence of viruses. SIV isolates from captive crab-eating macaques (SIVmfa were initially described but lost prior to any detailed molecular and genetic characterization. In order to infer the origins of the lost SIVmfa lineage, we located archived material and colony records, recovered its genomic sequence by PCR, and assessed its phylogenetic relationship to other SIV strains. We conclude that SIVmfa is the product of two cross-species transmission events. The first was the established transmission of SIVsmm to rhesus macaques, which occurred at the California National Primate Research Center in the late 1960s and the virus later emerged as SIVmac. In a second event, SIVmac was transmitted to crab-eating macaques, likely at the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates in the early 1970s, and it was later spread to the New England Primate Research Center colony in 1973 and eventually isolated in 1986. Our analysis suggests that SIVmac had already emerged by the early 1970s and had begun to diverge into distinct lineages. Furthermore, our findings suggest that pathogenic SIV strains may have been more widely distributed than previously appreciated, raising the possibility that additional isolates may await discovery.

  17. Analysis of the chemical elements behavior in leaves infected with fumagina employing X-ray fluorescence technique; Analise do comportamento de elementos quimicos em folhas infectadas com fumagina atraves da tecnica de fluorescencia de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonski, Maria Selia

    2002-02-01

    Fumagina is produced by the Capnodium fungi, a mushroom from Dothideales order, that lives associated with the yellow aphid (Monelliopsis pecanis), excreting a heavy load of a sugared substance that provides the sooty fungus development, covering, in some cases the totality, of leaves, fruits and branches surfaces. One of the big problems caused by this disease is the physic photosynthesis stuckness, reducing in 98% the active photosynthesis radiation and in 70% the net photosynthesis. This photosynthesis reduction affects the plants carbohydrate reservoirs, resulting in reduced and bad qualified crops. It was employed the Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF) to study the fumagina disease. The measurements were realized with infected and healthy leaves of citric plants (orange and lemon trees), collected at the Farm School of the State University of Londrina, and also leaves of icsora plant from Piracicaba-SP. Through this technique it was observed a metabolic disorder related to Fe and Ca elements. By comparing the EDXRF spectra of the healthy plant leaves with the infected ones, it was verified that the concentration of Ca is higher than the concentration Fe in leaves of healthy plants, while for the leaves of plants infected with fumagina, it was observed a higher concentration of Fe. Employing EDXRF and the emission/transmission method for the matrix effect correction, samples of the citric plants were also analysed in pellet. The elements K, Ca, Ti, Mn , Fe, Cu and Zn were quantified. It was verified a higher Fe concentration in fumagina samples compared to the samples without fumagina. For all the elements of interest the minimum level of detection found was at the order of {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  18. Hydrothermal uranium vein deposits in Marysvale volcanic field, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.D.; Cunningham, C.G.; Steven, T.A.; Rye, R.O.; Romberger, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrothermal uranium veins are exposed over a 300 m (980 ft) vertical range in mines of the Central Mining area, near Marysvale, Utah. They cut 23 Ma quartz monzonite, 21 Ma granite, and 19 Ma rhyolite ash-flow tuff. The veins formed 18-19 Ma, in an area 1 km (0.6 mi) across, above the center of a composite magma chamber at least 12 x 6 km across that fed a sequence of 21-14 Ma hypabyssal granitic stocks, and rhyolitic lava flows, ash-flow tuffs, and volcanic domes. Intrusive pressure uplifted and fractured the roof; molybdenite-bearing, uranium-rich glassy dikes were intruded; and a breccia pipe and uranium-bearing veins were formed. The veins appear to have been deposited near the surface above a concealed rhyolite stock, where they filled high-angle fault zones and flat-lying to concave-downward pull-apart fractures. Low pH and fO 2 hydrothermal fluids at temperatures near 200 0 C (392 0 F) permeated the fractured rocks; these fluids were rich in fluorine and potassium, and contained uranium as uranous-fluoride complexes. Fluid-wall rock interaction increased fluid pH, causing precipitation of uranium minerals. At the deepest exposed levels, wall rocks were altered to kaolinite and sericite, and uraninite, coffinite, jordisite, fluorite, molybdenite, quartz, and pyrite (with delta 34 S near zero per mil) were deposited. The fluids were progressively oxidized higher in the system; iron in the wall rocks was oxidized to hematite, and sooty uraninite and umohoite were deposited

  19. Vpx overcomes a SAMHD1-independent block to HIV reverse transcription that is specific to resting CD4 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Hanna-Mari; Stegmann, Lena; Schwarz, Sarah-Marie; Ambiel, Ina; Trotard, Maud; Martin, Margarethe; Burggraf, Manja; Lenzi, Gina M; Lejk, Helena; Pan, Xiaoyu; Fregoso, Oliver I; Lim, Efrem S; Abraham, Libin; Nguyen, Laura A; Rutsch, Frank; König, Renate; Kim, Baek; Emerman, Michael; Fackler, Oliver T; Keppler, Oliver T

    2017-03-07

    Early after entry into monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and resting CD4 T cells, HIV encounters a block, limiting reverse transcription (RT) of the incoming viral RNA genome. In this context, dNTP triphosphohydrolase SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) has been identified as a restriction factor, lowering the concentration of dNTP substrates to limit RT. The accessory lentiviral protein X (Vpx) proteins from the major simian immunodeficiency virus of rhesus macaque, sooty mangabey, and HIV-2 (SIVsmm/SIVmac/HIV-2) lineage packaged into virions target SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation, increase intracellular dNTP pools, and facilitate HIV cDNA synthesis. We find that virion-packaged Vpx proteins from a second SIV lineage, SIV of red-capped mangabeys or mandrills (SIVrcm/mnd-2), increased HIV infection in resting CD4 T cells, but not in macrophages, and, unexpectedly, acted in the absence of SAMHD1 degradation, dNTP pool elevation, or changes in SAMHD1 phosphorylation. Vpx rcm/mnd-2 virion incorporation resulted in a dramatic increase of HIV-1 RT intermediates and viral cDNA in infected resting CD4 T cells. These analyses also revealed a barrier limiting HIV-1 infection of resting CD4 T cells at the level of nuclear import. Single amino acid changes in the SAMHD1-degrading Vpx mac239 allowed it to enhance early postentry steps in a Vpx rcm/mnd-2-like fashion. Moreover, Vpx enhanced HIV-1 infection of SAMHD1-deficient resting CD4 T cells of a patient with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. These results indicate that Vpx, in addition to SAMHD1, overcomes a previously unappreciated restriction for lentiviruses at the level of RT that acts independently of dNTP concentrations and is specific to resting CD4 T cells.

  20. Transition of carbon nanostructures in heptane diffusion flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei-Chieh [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China); Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng [Kun Shan University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China); Lin, Ta-Hui, E-mail: thlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    The flame synthesis has high potential in industrial production of carbon nanostructure (CNS). Unfortunately, the complexity of combustion chemistry leads to less controlling of synthesized products. In order to improve the understanding of the relation between flames and CNSs synthesized within, experiments were conducted through heptane flames in a stagnation-point liquid-pool system. The operating parameters for the synthesis include oxygen supply, sampling position, and sampling time. Two kinds of nanostructures were observed, carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon nano-onion (CNO). CNTs were synthesized in a weaker flame near extinction. CNOs were synthesized in a more sooty flame. The average diameter of CNTs formed at oxygen concentration of 15% was in the range of 20–30 nm. For oxygen concentration of 17%, the average diameter of CNTs ranged from 24 to 27 nm, while that of CNOs was around 28 nm. For oxygen concentration of 19%, the average diameter of CNOs produced at the sampling position 0.5 mm below the flame front was about 57 nm, while the average diameters of CNOs formed at the sampling positions 1–2.5 mm below the flame front were in the range of 20–25 nm. A transition from CNT to CNO was observed by variation of sampling position in a flame. We found that the morphology of CNS is directly affected by the presence of soot layer due to the carbonaceous environment and the growth mechanisms of CNT and CNO. The sampling time can alter the yield of CNSs depending on the temperature of sampling position, but the morphology of products is not affected.

  1. Can alternative sugar sources buffer pollinators from nectar shortages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Gee, Robin; Dhami, Manpreet K; Paulin, Katherine J; Beggs, Jacqueline R

    2014-12-01

    Honeydew is abundant in many ecosystems and may provide an alternative food source (a buffer) for pollinators during periods of food shortage, but the impact of honeydew on pollination systems has received little attention to date. In New Zealand, kānuka trees (Myrtaceae: Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich) Joy Thompson) are often heavily infested by the endemic honeydew-producing scale insect Coelostomidia wairoensis (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coelostomidiidae) and the period of high honeydew production can overlap with kānuka flowering. In this study, we quantified the sugar resources (honeydew and nectar) available on kānuka and recorded nocturnal insect activity on infested and uninfested kānuka during the flowering period. Insects were abundant on infested trees, but flowers on infested trees received fewer insect visitors than flowers on uninfested trees. There was little evidence that insects had switched directly from nectar-feeding to honeydew-feeding, but it is possible that some omnivores (e.g., cockroaches) were distracted by the other honeydew-associated resources on infested branches (e.g., sooty molds, prey). Additional sampling was carried out after kānuka flowering had finished to determine honeydew usage in the absence of adjacent nectar resources. Moths, which had fed almost exclusively on nectar earlier, were recorded feeding extensively on honeydew after flowering had ceased; hence, honeydew may provide an additional food source for potential pollinators. Our results show that honeydew resources can impact floral visitation patterns and suggest that future pollinator studies should consider the full range of sugar resources present in the study environment.

  2. Visibility in the Netherlands during New Year's fireworks: The role of soot and salty aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Harry; Henzing, Bas; Otjes, René; Weijers, Ernie

    2018-01-01

    The visibility on New Year's nights in the Netherlands is low during stagnant weather. This is due to the scattering and absorption of light by the aerosol-smoke from the fireworks. We made an assessment of the responsible aerosol-species. The investigation took place during the New Year's night of 2009. Measurements were made at a regional site in the centre of the country away from specific local sources. An Integrating Nephelometer measured the light-scattering by the inherent compounds after removal of water from the aerosol by drying the air. The actual light-scattering was determined in an open-air scatterometer; it was a factor of five higher than the ;dry; value. The difference in actual and ;dry; light-scattering can only be explained by water-uptake of the salty hygroscopic components of the aerosol. This hypothesis is substantiated by measurements of the composition of the aerosol. The size-dependent concentrations of the salty ionic species were determined on-line with a MARGA-;sizer;. These components were for a large part in particles in the size range that most effectively scatter light. The ;dry; light-scattering was exerted by the inorganic salt components and the sooty carbonaceous material alike. However, the salty products from the fireworks are hygroscopic and take up water at the high relative humidities occurring that night. This explains the fivefold larger light-scattering by the wet ambient aerosol as compared to that by the dry aerosol in the integrating nephelometer. The visibility, which is the inverse of the open-air scattering, is thus indirectly governed by the salty products of the fireworks due to their uptake of water. Under stagnant weather conditions during New Year's nights in the Netherlands both the aerosol concentrations and the relative humidity are high; this implies that the ionic species govern the low visibilities in general, be it via their uptake of water.

  3. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  4. Effect of burner geometry on swirl stabilized methane/air flames: A joint LES/OH-PLIF/PIV study

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, X.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Gong, C.; Bai, X.S.; Zheng, H.T.; Roberts, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) using a transported PDF model and OH-PLIF/PIV experiments were carried out to investigate the quarl effects on the structures of swirl stabilized methane/air flames. Two different quarls were investigated, one straight cylindrical quarl and one diverging conical quarl. The experiments show that the flames are significantly different with the two quarls. With the straight cylindrical quarl a compact blue flame is observed while with the diverging conical quarl the flame appears to be long and yellow indicating a sooty flame structure. The PIV results show the formation of a stronger flow recirculation inside the diverging conical quarl than that in the straight quarl. LES results reveal further details of the flow and mixing process inside the quarl. The results show that with the diverging quarl vortex breakdown occurs much earlier towards the upstream of the quarl. As a result the fuel is convected into the air flow tube and a diffusion flame is stabilized inside the air flow tube upstream the quarl. With the straight quarl, vortex breakdown occurs at a downstream location in the quarl. The scalar dissipation rate in the shear layer of the fuel jet is high, which prevents the stabilization of a diffusion flame in the proximity of the fuel nozzle; instead, a compact partially premixed flame with two distinct heat release layers is stablized in a downstream region in the quarl, which allows for the fuel and air to mix in the quarl before combustion and a lower formation rate of soot. The results showed that the Eulerian Stochastic Fields transported PDF method can well predict the details of the swirl flame dynamics.

  5. Insect Consumption to Address Undernutrition, a National Survey on the Prevalence of Insect Consumption among Adults and Vendors in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, Hubert; Phimmasane, Maniphet; Rajaonarivo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Insect consumption (entomophagy) is a potentially high nutritious and healthy source of food with high fat, protein, vitamin, fiber and micronutrient content. At least 2 billion people globally eat insects (over 1900 edible species) though this habit is regarded negatively by others. There is a limited amount of data on the perception and consumption of insects. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) to assess the prevalence and characteristics of insect consumption among adult lay people and insect vendors. We conducted a multi stage randomized national survey in 1303 households in 96 villages in 16 Lao provinces. Three insect vendors or collectors per village were also included. A standardized pretested questionnaire addressed the following issues: socioeconomic characteristics, type of insects consumed and frequency of consumption, reasons and trends in consumption as well as reports on side effects, over the last 10 years. A total of 1059 adults (Sex ratio F/M: 1.2, 30 ethnic groups), and 256 vendors were enrolled. A total of 1025 (96.8%) lay people were currently insect consumers, 135 (13.0%) daily or weekly consumers, and 322 (31.1%) consumed several times per month. For the majority (575, 55.6%) the consumption was infrequent (less than a few times per year) and only 22 (2%) had never eaten insects. Consumption started in childhood. Insect availability was seasonal (670, 63.2%) and respondents would have eaten more insects, if they had been more available (919, 86.7%). Hmong and Leu ethnic groups had significantly lower consumption levels than the general population. Eggs of weaver ants, short-tailed crickets, crickets, grasshoppers, and cicadas were the top 5 insects consumed. Consumption had decreased in the last decade, mostly due to less availability (869; 84.0%) and change of life (29; 5.5%). Of 1059, 80 (7.5%) reported allergy problems and 106 (10.0%) reported some use in traditional medicine. A

  6. Insect Consumption to Address Undernutrition, a National Survey on the Prevalence of Insect Consumption among Adults and Vendors in Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available Insect consumption (entomophagy is a potentially high nutritious and healthy source of food with high fat, protein, vitamin, fiber and micronutrient content. At least 2 billion people globally eat insects (over 1900 edible species though this habit is regarded negatively by others. There is a limited amount of data on the perception and consumption of insects. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos to assess the prevalence and characteristics of insect consumption among adult lay people and insect vendors.We conducted a multi stage randomized national survey in 1303 households in 96 villages in 16 Lao provinces. Three insect vendors or collectors per village were also included. A standardized pretested questionnaire addressed the following issues: socioeconomic characteristics, type of insects consumed and frequency of consumption, reasons and trends in consumption as well as reports on side effects, over the last 10 years.A total of 1059 adults (Sex ratio F/M: 1.2, 30 ethnic groups, and 256 vendors were enrolled. A total of 1025 (96.8% lay people were currently insect consumers, 135 (13.0% daily or weekly consumers, and 322 (31.1% consumed several times per month. For the majority (575, 55.6% the consumption was infrequent (less than a few times per year and only 22 (2% had never eaten insects. Consumption started in childhood. Insect availability was seasonal (670, 63.2% and respondents would have eaten more insects, if they had been more available (919, 86.7%. Hmong and Leu ethnic groups had significantly lower consumption levels than the general population. Eggs of weaver ants, short-tailed crickets, crickets, grasshoppers, and cicadas were the top 5 insects consumed. Consumption had decreased in the last decade, mostly due to less availability (869; 84.0% and change of life (29; 5.5%. Of 1059, 80 (7.5% reported allergy problems and 106 (10.0% reported some use in traditional medicine. A

  7. Effects of Land Cover on the Movement of Frugivorous Birds in a Heterogeneous Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, Natalia Stefanini; Niebuhr, Bernardo Brandão S; Muylaert, Renata de Lara; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    Movement is a key spatiotemporal process that enables interactions between animals and other elements of nature. The understanding of animal trajectories and the mechanisms that influence them at the landscape level can yield insight into ecological processes and potential solutions to specific ecological problems. Based upon optimal foraging models and empirical evidence, we hypothesized that movement by thrushes is highly tortuous (low average movement speeds and homogeneous distribution of turning angles) inside forests, moderately tortuous in urban areas, which present intermediary levels of resources, and minimally tortuous (high movement speeds and turning angles next to 0 radians) in open matrix types (e.g., crops and pasture). We used data on the trajectories of two common thrush species (Turdus rufiventris and Turdus leucomelas) collected by radio telemetry in a fragmented region in Brazil. Using a maximum likelihood model selection approach we fit four probability distribution models to average speed data, considering short-tailed, long-tailed, and scale-free distributions (to represent different regimes of movement variation), and one distribution to relative angle data. Models included land cover type and distance from forest-matrix edges as explanatory variables. Speed was greater farther away from forest edges and increased faster inside forest habitat compared to urban and open matrices. However, turning angle was not influenced by land cover. Thrushes presented a very tortuous trajectory, with many displacements followed by turns near 180 degrees. Thrush trajectories resembled habitat and edge dependent, tortuous random walks, with a well-defined movement scale inside each land cover type. Although thrushes are habitat generalists, they showed a greater preference for forest edges, and thus may be considered edge specialists. Our results reinforce the importance of studying animal movement patterns in order to understand ecological processes such as

  8. Blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: evaluation of hepatic cytochrome P450 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Julie S; Halbrook, Richard S; Woolf, Alan; French, John B; Melancon, Mark J

    2004-08-01

    We assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 and associated enzyme activities. First, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [BROD], ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [EROD], methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [MROD], and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [PROD]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from shrews injected with beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF) or phenobarbital (PB), typical inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2B enzyme families, respectively. Enzyme activity was induced in shrews that received betaNF but not in shrews that received PB; PROD was not induced by either exposure. Later, shrews were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242:1254, in 1:2 ratio) at 0.6, 9.6, and 150 ppm in food, for 31 d. Induction in these shrews was measured by specific enzyme activity (BROD, EROD, and MROD) in hepatic microsomes, by western blotting of solubilized microsomes against antibodies to CYP1A or CYP2B, and by duration of sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. These three CYP enzymes were induced in shrews by PCBs at similar levels of exposure as in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Neither sleep time nor the amount of CYP2B family protein were affected by PCB exposure. Blarina brevicauda can be a useful biomonitor of PCBs that induce CYP1A, especially in habitats where they are the abundant small mammal.

  9. An inventory of terrestrial mammals at national parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Annand, Elizabeth M.; Talancy, Neil W.; Sauer, John R.; Nichols, James D.

    2008-01-01

    An inventory of mammals was conducted during 2004 at nine national park sites in the Northeast Temperate Network (NETN): Acadia National Park (NP), Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (NHP), Minute Man NHP, Morristown NHP, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site (NHS), Saint-Gaudens NHS, Saugus Iron Works NHS, Saratoga NHP, and Weir Farm NHS. Sagamore Hill NHS, part of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN), was also surveyed. Each park except Acadia NP was sampled twice, once in the winter/spring and again in the summer/fall. During the winter/spring visit, indirect measure (IM) sampling arrays were employed at 2 to 16 stations and included sampling by remote cameras, cubby boxes (covered trackplates), and hair traps. IM stations were established and re-used during the summer/fall sampling period. Trapping was conducted at 2 to 12 stations at all parks except Acadia NP during the summer/fall period and consisted of arrays of small-mammal traps, squirrel-sized live traps, and some fox-sized live traps. We used estimation-based procedures and probabilistic sampling techniques to design this inventory. A total of 38 species was detected by IM sampling, trapping, and field observations. Species diversity (number of species) varied among parks, ranging from 8 to 24, with Minute Man NHP having the most species detected. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Fisher (Martes pennanti), and Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris) were the most common medium-sized mammals detected in this study and White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda), Deer Mouse (P. maniculatus), and Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) the most common small mammals detected. All species detected are considered fairly common throughout their range including the Fisher, which has been reintroduced in several New England states. We did not detect any state or federal endangered or threatened species.

  10. Characterization and Complete Genome Sequences of Three N4-Like Roseobacter Phages Isolated from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baolian; Zhang, Si; Long, Lijuan; Huang, Sijun

    2016-09-01

    Three bacteriophages (RD-1410W1-01, RD-1410Ws-07, and DS-1410Ws-06) were isolated from the surface water of Sanya Bay, northern South China Sea, on two marine bacteria type strains of the Roseobacter lineage. These phages have an isometric head and a short tail, morphologically belonging to the Podoviridae family. Two of these phages can infect four of seven marine roseobacter strains tested and the other one can infect three of them, showing relatively broader host ranges compared to known N4-like roseophages. One-step growth curves showed that these phages have similar short latent periods (1-2 h) but highly variable burst sizes (27-341 pfu cell(-1)). Their complete genomes show high level of similarities to known N4-like roseophages in terms of genome size, G + C content, gene content, and arrangement. The morphological and genomic features of these phages indicate that they belong to the N4likevirus genus. Moreover, comparative genomic analysis based on 43 N4-like phages (10 roseobacter phages and 33 phages infecting other lineages of bacteria) revealed a core genome of 18 genes shared by all the 43 phages and 38 genes shared by all the ten roseophages. The 38 core genes of N4-like roseophages nearly make up 70 % of each genome in length. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated core gene products showed that our phage isolates represent two new phyletic branches, suggesting the broad genetic diversity of marine N4-like roseophages remains.

  11. RAB-like 2 has an essential role in male fertility, sperm intra-flagellar transport, and tail assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Y Lo

    Full Text Available A significant percentage of young men are infertile and, for the majority, the underlying cause remains unknown. Male infertility is, however, frequently associated with defective sperm motility, wherein the sperm tail is a modified flagella/cilia. Conversely, a greater understanding of essential mechanisms involved in tail formation may offer contraceptive opportunities, or more broadly, therapeutic strategies for global cilia defects. Here we have identified Rab-like 2 (RABL2 as an essential requirement for sperm tail assembly and function. RABL2 is a member of a poorly characterized clade of the RAS GTPase superfamily. RABL2 is highly enriched within developing male germ cells, where it localizes to the mid-piece of the sperm tail. Lesser amounts of Rabl2 mRNA were observed in other tissues containing motile cilia. Using a co-immunoprecipitation approach and RABL2 affinity columns followed by immunochemistry, we demonstrated that within developing haploid germ cells RABL2 interacts with intra-flagella transport (IFT proteins and delivers a specific set of effector (cargo proteins, including key members of the glycolytic pathway, to the sperm tail. RABL2 binding to effector proteins is regulated by GTP. Perturbed RABL2 function, as exemplified by the Mot mouse line that contains a mutation in a critical protein-protein interaction domain, results in male sterility characterized by reduced sperm output, and sperm with aberrant motility and short tails. Our data demonstrate a novel function for the RABL protein family, an essential role for RABL2 in male fertility and a previously uncharacterised mechanism for protein delivery to the flagellum.

  12. Dynamic excitatory and inhibitory gain modulation can produce flexible, robust and optimal decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritwik K Niyogi

    Full Text Available Behavioural and neurophysiological studies in primates have increasingly shown the involvement of urgency signals during the temporal integration of sensory evidence in perceptual decision-making. Neuronal correlates of such signals have been found in the parietal cortex, and in separate studies, demonstrated attention-induced gain modulation of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Although previous computational models of decision-making have incorporated gain modulation, their abstract forms do not permit an understanding of the contribution of inhibitory gain modulation. Thus, the effects of co-modulating both excitatory and inhibitory neuronal gains on decision-making dynamics and behavioural performance remain unclear. In this work, we incorporate time-dependent co-modulation of the gains of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons into our previous biologically based decision circuit model. We base our computational study in the context of two classic motion-discrimination tasks performed in animals. Our model shows that by simultaneously increasing the gains of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons, a variety of the observed dynamic neuronal firing activities can be replicated. In particular, the model can exhibit winner-take-all decision-making behaviour with higher firing rates and within a significantly more robust model parameter range. It also exhibits short-tailed reaction time distributions even when operating near a dynamical bifurcation point. The model further shows that neuronal gain modulation can compensate for weaker recurrent excitation in a decision neural circuit, and support decision formation and storage. Higher neuronal gain is also suggested in the more cognitively demanding reaction time than in the fixed delay version of the task. Using the exact temporal delays from the animal experiments, fast recruitment of gain co-modulation is shown to maximize reward rate, with a timescale that is surprisingly near the

  13. Engagement in the electoral processes: scaling laws and the role of political positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, M C; Ribeiro, H V; Lenzi, E K; Picoli, S; Mendes, R S

    2013-08-01

    We report on a statistical analysis of the engagement in the electoral processes of all Brazilian cities by considering the number of party memberships and the number of candidates for mayor and councillor. By investigating the relationships between the number of party members and the population of voters, we have found that the functional forms of these relationships are well described by sublinear power laws (allometric scaling) surrounded by a multiplicative log-normal noise. We have observed that this pattern is quite similar to those we previously reported for the relationships between the number of candidates (mayor and councillor) and population of voters [Europhys. Lett. 96, 48001 (2011)], suggesting that similar universal laws may be ruling the engagement in the electoral processes. We also note that the power-law exponents display a clear hierarchy, where the more influential is the political position the smaller is the value of the exponent. We have also investigated the probability distributions of the number of candidates (mayor and councillor), party memberships, and voters. The results indicate that the most influential positions are characterized by distributions with very short tails, while less influential positions display an intermediate power-law decay before showing an exponential-like cutoff. We discuss the possibility that, in addition to the political power of the position, limitations in the number of available seats can also be connected with this changing of behavior. We further believe that our empirical findings point out to an under-representation effect, where the larger the city is, the larger are the obstacles for more individuals to become directly engaged in the electoral process.

  14. The Boomerang Lift: A Three-Step Compartment-Based Approach to the Youthful Cheek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jillian E; Terner, Jordan; Stern, Carrie S; Beut, Javier; Jelks, Elizabeth B; Jelks, Glenn W; Tepper, Oren M

    2018-04-01

    Autologous fat grafting is an important tool for plastic surgeons treating the aging face. Malar augmentation with fat is often targeted to restore the youthful facial contour and provides support to the lower eyelid. The existence of distinct facial fat compartments suggests that a stepwise approach may be appropriate in this regard. The authors describe a three-step approach to malar augmentation using targeted deep malar fat compartmental augmentation, termed the "boomerang lift." Clinical patients undergoing autologous fat grafting for malar augmentation were injected in three distinct deep malar fat compartments: the lateral sub-orbicularis oculi fat, the medial sub-orbicularis oculi fat, and the deep medial cheek (n = 9). Intraoperative three-dimensional images were taken at baseline and following compartmental injections (Canfield VECTRA H1). Images were overlaid between the augmented and baseline captures, and the three-dimensional surface changes were analyzed, which represented the resulting "augmentation zone." Three-dimensional analysis demonstrated a unique pattern for the augmentation zone consistent across patients. The augmentation zone resembled a boomerang, with the short tail supporting the medial lower lid and the long tail extending laterally along the zygomatic arch. The upper border was restricted by the level of the nasojugal interface, and the lower border was defined medially by the nasolabial fold and laterally by the level of the zygomaticocutaneous ligament. Lateral and medial sub-orbicularis oculi fat injections defined the boundaries of the boomerang shape, and injection to the deep medial cheek provided maximum projection. This is the first description of deep malar augmentation zones in clinical patients. Three-dimensional surface imaging was ideal for analyzing the surface change in response to targeted facial fat grafting. The authors' technique resulted in a reproducible surface shape, which they term the boomerang lift.

  15. Characterization of a ViI-like Phage Specific to Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropinski Andrew M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phage vB_EcoM_CBA120 (CBA120, isolated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 from a cattle feedlot, is morphologically very similar to the classic phage ViI of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Until recently, little was known genetically or physiologically about the ViI-like phages, and none targeting E. coli have been described in the literature. The genome of CBA120 has been fully sequenced and is highly similar to those of both ViI and the Shigella phage AG3. The core set of structural and replication-related proteins of CBA120 are homologous to those from T-even phages, but generally are more closely related to those from T4-like phages of Vibrio, Aeromonas and cyanobacteria than those of the Enterobacteriaceae. The baseplate and method of adhesion to the host are, however, very different from those of either T4 or the cyanophages. None of the outer baseplate proteins are conserved. Instead of T4's long and short tail fibers, CBA120, like ViI, encodes tail spikes related to those normally seen on podoviruses. The 158 kb genome, like that of T4, is circularly permuted and terminally redundant, but unlike T4 CBA120 does not substitute hmdCyt for cytosine in its DNA. However, in contrast to other coliphages, CBA120 and related coliphages we have isolated cannot incorporate 3H-thymidine (3H-dThd into their DNA. Protein sequence comparisons cluster the putative "thymidylate synthase" of CBA120, ViI and AG3 much more closely with those of Delftia phage φW-14, Bacillus subtilis phage SPO1, and Pseudomonas phage YuA, all known to produce and incorporate hydroxymethyluracil (hmdUra.

  16. Natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitraki, Anna; Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; Van Raaij, Mark J

    2006-01-01

    A distinctive family of beta-structured folds has recently been described for fibrous proteins from viruses. Virus fibers are usually involved in specific host-cell recognition. They are asymmetric homotrimeric proteins consisting of an N-terminal virus-binding tail, a central shaft or stalk domain, and a C-terminal globular receptor-binding domain. Often they are entirely or nearly entirely composed of beta-structure. Apart from their biological relevance and possible gene therapy applications, their shape, stability, and rigidity suggest they may be useful as blueprints for biomechanical design. Folding and unfolding studies suggest their globular C-terminal domain may fold first, followed by a "zipping-up" of the shaft domains. The C-terminal domains appear to be important for registration because peptides corresponding to shaft domains alone aggregate into nonnative fibers and/or amyloid structures. C-terminal domains can be exchanged between different fibers and the resulting chimeric proteins are useful as a way to solve structures of unknown parts of the shaft domains. The following natural triple beta-stranded fibrous folds have been discovered by X-ray crystallography: the triple beta-spiral, triple beta-helix, and T4 short tail fiber fold. All have a central longitudinal hydrophobic core and extensive intermonomer polar and nonpolar interactions. Now that a reasonable body of structural and folding knowledge has been assembled about these fibrous proteins, the next challenge and opportunity is to start using this information in medical and industrial applications such as gene therapy and nanotechnology.

  17. Eggs and hatchlings of the Mexican salamander Pseudoeurycea cephalica (Caudata: Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bille

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Eggs and hatchlings of Pseudoeurycea c. cephalica from Parque Nacional Lagunas de Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico are described for the first time. The eggs are similar to eggs of P. cephalica manni and P. belli in being unstranded. Egg capsules resemble P. nigromaculata and P. juarezi in having two gelatinous envelopes. The embryos have extensively webbed hands and feet with a continuous reduction in webbing during embryogenesis, supporting the hypothesis that webbing of the feet is a paedomorphic character. The hatchlings are uniform grayish-black dorsally and slightly paler ventrally. They are robust with broad heads and short tails and lack both vomerine and maxillary teeth. Lack of dentition has previously been found in juveniles of P. belli.Se describe por primera vez huevos y recién nacidos de Pseudoeurycea cephalica cephalica procedentes del Parque Nacional Lagunas de Zempoala, Morelos, México. Los huevos se paracen a los de P. cephalica manni y P. belli en que no están unidos entre sí por ningún cordón. Se parecen en cuanto a constitución a los de P. nigromaculata y P. juarezi en tener dos capas gelatinosas. Los embriones tienen los pies y manos palmeados, produciéndose una reducción de la superficie palmeada a lo largo de la embriogénesis, lo cual confirma que el palmeado de pies y manos es un carácter pedomórfico. Los recién nacidos son de color gris negruzco, uniforme dorsalmente y de color más claro ventralmente. Son robustos, con cabeza ancha, cola corta y carecen de dientes tanto vomerinos como maxilares. Esta falta de dentición ya fue encontrada anteriormente en juveniles de P. belli.

  18. Occurrence of /sup 22/Na in some species of Canadian biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, J E

    1965-09-01

    Cosmic-ray spallation of argon and fallout from testing of high-yield nuclear weapons have increased the amount of /sup 22/Na present in the environment. Consequently, it has been possible to measure /sup 22/Na in Alaskan natives, caribou, elk, and some foods. Samples of flora and fauna were routinely collected in the vicinity of Pinawa, Manitoba, as a part of the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment's radiation survey program. Gamma spectrometric analysis methods revealed the presence of /sup 22/Na in samples taken during 1964, in addition to other long-lived fission products such as /sup 144/Ce, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 54/Mn. Sodium-22 was measured in samples of muscle tissue taken from the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus sp.) and hare (Lepus americanus), but was not detected in the flesh of the short-tailed weasel (Mustela erminea). Sodium-22 was detected neither in the sweet (white) clover which grew profusely in the area where the mammals were trapped nor in composite samples of Winnipeg River water in any of the species of fish taken from the river during this period: rock bass (Amblopletes rupestris), sucker (Castostomus sp.), pike (Esox lucius), pickerel (Stizostedion vitreum), and sauger (Stizostedion canadense). However, /sup 22/Na has been reported in bass caught in the Columbia River, Washington. Potassium-40 and /sup 137/Cs means in the samples examined indicate an apparent increase in the amounts of /sup 137/Cs. The amount of /sup 22/Na measured in rabbits is much less than the maximum permissible body burden for the nuclide (10 ..mu..C).

  19. Chromosomal Diversity and Karyotype Evolution in South American Macaws (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae.

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    Ivanete de Oliveira Furo

    Full Text Available Most species of macaws, which represent the largest species of Neotropical Psittacidae, characterized by their long tails and exuberant colours, are endangered, mainly because of hunting, illegal trade and habitat destruction. Long tailed species seem to represent a monophyletic group within Psittacidae, supported by cytogenetic data. Hence, these species show karyotypes with predominance of biarmed macrochromosomes, in contrast to short tailed species, with a predominance of acro/telocentric macrochromosomes. Because of their similar karyotypes, it has been proposed that inversions and translocations may be the main types of rearrangements occurring during the evolution of this group. However, only one species of macaw, Ara macao, that has had its genome sequenced was analyzed by means of molecular cytogenetics. Hence, in order to verify the rearrangements, we analyzed the karyotype of two species of macaws, Ara chloropterus and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, using cross-species chromosome painting with two different sets of probes from chicken and white hawk. Both intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements were observed. Chicken probes revealed the occurrence of fusions, fissions and inversions in both species, while the probes from white hawk determined the correct breakpoints or chromosome segments involved in the rearrangements. Some of these rearrangements were common for both species of macaws (fission of GGA1 and fusions of GGA1p/GGA4q, GGA6/GGA7 and GGA8/GGA9, while the fissions of GGA 2 and 4p were found only in A. chloropterus. These results confirm that despite apparent chromosomal similarity, macaws have very diverse karyotypes, which differ from each other not only by inversions and translocations as postulated before, but also by fissions and fusions.

  20. Integrative omics analysis reveals differentially distributed proteins in dimorphic euspermatozoa of the squid, Loligo bleekeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masa-aki; Yamada, Lixy; Ochi, Hiroe; Iwata, Yoko; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Sawada, Hitoshi; Sauer, Warwick H H; Ogura, Atsushi; Hirohashi, Noritaka

    2014-08-01

    In the coastal squid Loligo bleekeri, each male produces one of two types of fertilization-competent spermatozoa (eusperm) that exhibit morphological and behavioral differences. Large "consort" males produce short-tailed spermatozoa that display free-swimming behavior when ejaculated into seawater. Small "sneaker" males, on the other hand, produce long-tailed spermatozoa that exhibit a self-swarming trait after ejaculation. To understand the molecular basis for adaptive traits employed by alternative male mating tactics, we performed the transcriptome deep sequencing (RNA-seq) and proteome analyses to search for differences in testicular mRNAs and sperm proteins, respectively. From mature male testes we identified a total of 236,455 contigs (FPKM ≧1) where 3789 and 2789 were preferentially (≧10-fold) expressed in consort and sneaker testes, respectively. A proteomic analysis detected 4302 proteins in the mature sperm as post-translational products. A strongly biased (≧10-fold) distribution occurred in 55 consort proteins and 61 sneaker proteins. There was no clear mRNA-protein correlation, making a ballpark estimate impossible for not only overall protein abundance but also the degree of biased sperm type expressed in the spermatozoa. A family encoding dynein heavy chain gene, however, was found to be biased towards sneakers, whereas many enzymes involving energy metabolism were heavily biased towards consort spermatozoa. The difference in flagellar length matched exactly the different amount of tubulins. From these results we hypothesize that discrete differential traits in dimorphic eusperm arose from a series of innovative alterations in the intracellular components of spermatozoa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung; Kim, Kyong Su

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks

  2. Design, construction and evaluation of a row singulator for saffron flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed bakhshi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of stigma from petals is one of the required tasks in saffron production. The mechanical separation of saffron flowers may be performed through the following steps: I singulation of the flowers ii aligning the flowers iii cutting the style (Konje and iv separating the stigma from the petals. Because of the importance of saffron flower separation, a prototype device was constructed in this project for singulating and aligning of saffron flowers, prior to the cutting operation. This device can also be installed to work with other cutting and separating equipment and produce on an industrial scale. A pickup vacuum cylinder was used for singulating the flowers and an inclined V-shaped surface was employed for aligning of saffron flowers. The constructed apparatus was evaluated from the standpoint of singling efficiency and losses. For this purpose, three types of saffron flowers (buds, open short tail and long tail, three rotational speeds of pickup cylinder (6, 12 and 21.5 rpm, three levels of suction (30, 70 and 100 mm Hg, and four different inner diameters of finger’s nozzle (2, 3, 4 and 5 mm were used with three replications. The results of analysis on the constructed device showed that the highest efficiency (75% is observed for short tailopen saffron flowers with 5 mm inner diameter of sucking nozzles, suction of 100 mm Hg and the rotational speed of 6 rpm. To evaluate the performance of flower aligning, 100 saffron flowers with an average length of 5 cm were selected and tested with 5 replications. The average aligning with the correct direction obtained was equal to 84%.

  3. Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2009-06-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Muscle Senescence in Short-Lived Wild Mammals, the Soricine Shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris

    Science.gov (United States)

    HINDLE, ALLYSON G.; LAWLER, JOHN M.; CAMPBELL, KEVIN L.; HORNING, MARKUS

    2015-01-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H0: shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n = 17) and second-year (n = 17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: ~50%; B. brevicauda: ~60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris (~50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  5. Mutanlallemand (mtl and Belly Spot and Deafness (bsd are two new mutations of Lmx1a causing severe cochlear and vestibular defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Steffes

    Full Text Available Mutanlallemand (mtl and Belly Spot and Deafness (bsd are two new spontaneous alleles of the Lmx1a gene in mice. Homozygous mutants show head tossing and circling behaviour, indicative of vestibular defects, and they have short tails and white belly patches of variable size. The analysis of auditory brainstem responses (ABR showed that mtl and bsd homozygotes are deaf, whereas heterozygous and wildtype littermates have normal hearing. Paint-filled inner ears at E16.5 revealed that mtl and bsd homozygotes lack endolymphatic ducts and semicircular canals and have short cochlear ducts. These new alleles show similarities with dreher (Lmx1a mutants. Complementation tests between mtl and dreher and between mtl and bsd suggest that mtl and bsd are new mutant alleles of the Lmx1a gene. To determine the Lmx1a mutation in mtl and bsd mutant mice we performed PCR followed by sequencing of genomic DNA and cDNA. The mtl mutation is a single point mutation in the 3' splice site of exon 4 leading to an exon extension and the activation of a cryptic splice site 44 base pairs downstream, whereas the bsd mutation is a genomic deletion that includes exon 3. Both mutations lead to a truncated LMX1A protein affecting the homeodomain (mtl or LIM2-domain (bsd, which is critical for LMX1A protein function. Moreover, the levels of Lmx1a transcript in mtl and bsd mutants are significantly down-regulated. Hmx2/3 and Pax2 expression are also down-regulated in mtl and bsd mutants, suggesting a role of Lmx1a upstream of these transcription factors in early inner ear morphogenesis. We have found that these mutants develop sensory patches although they are misshapen. The characterization of these two new Lmx1a alleles highlights the critical role of this gene in the development of the cochlea and vestibular system.

  6. Catchment Storage and Transport on Timescales from Minutes to Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Landscapes are characterized by preferential flow and pervasive heterogeneity on all scales. They therefore store and transmit water and solutes over a wide spectrum of time scales, with important implications for contaminant transport, weathering rates, and runoff chemistry. Theoretical analyses predict, and syntheses of age tracer data confirm, that waters in aquifers are older - often by orders of magnitude - than in the rivers that flow from them, and that this disconnect between water ages arises from aquifer heterogeneity. Recent theoretical studies also suggest that catchment transit time distributions are nonstationary, reflecting temporal variability in precipitation forcing, structural heterogeneity in catchments themselves, and the nonlinearity of the mechanisms controlling storage and transport in the subsurface. The challenge of empirically estimating these nonstationary transit time distributions in real-world catchments, however, has only begun to be explored. In recent years, long-term isotope time series have been collected in many research catchments, and new technologies have emerged that allow quasi-continuous measurements of isotopes in precipitation and streamflow. These new data streams create new opportunities to study how rainfall becomes streamflow following the onset of precipitation. Here I present novel methods for quantifying the fraction of current rainfall in streamflow across ensembles of precipitation events. Benchmark tests with nonstationary catchment models demonstrate that this approach quantitatively measures the short tail of the transit time distribution for a wide range of catchment response characteristics. In combination with reactive tracer time series, this approach can potentially be extended to measure short-term chemical reaction rates at the catchment scale. Applications using high-frequency tracer time series from several experimental catchments demonstrate the utility of the new approach outlined here.

  7. DNA Comet Assay and Changes in Microflora Load as Screening Methods to Detect Irradiated Food in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A.; Abo El Nour, S.A.; Ibrahim, H.M.; Osman, M.E.; Abo El- Nasr, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study the microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay), and changes in microflora load were applied to detect irradiation treatment of strawberries and fresh-deboned chicken produced in Egypt. Strawberry samples were irradiated at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 kGy, stored at 4 degree C±1 and analyzed at 0 and 7 days post.-irradiation. Fresh- deboned chicken meat samples were exposed to 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kGy, stored at 4 degree C±1 and analyzed at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days post-irradiation. After electrophoresis performance, the accridine orange stain slides were seen under fluorescent microscope and the DNA comets were evaluated by photographic and image analysis. Changes in microflora load of irradiated samples were also evaluated. In all irradiated samples, the DNA fragments stretched or migrated out of the cells towards the anode of the agrose gel and appeared as a “comets” with tail. Whereas, DNA comets of all non-irradiated samples were almost intact, round without tail or had very short tail. Values of DNA % in tails and the tail length increased with increasing irradiation dose and storage times. The DNA comet assay could successfully be used to detect radiation treatment of strawberry and deboned-chicken meat samples up to 7 and 21 days post-irradiation, respectively. The absence of gram-negative bacteria and enterobacteriaceae group as well as the very low count of fungi (mostly yeasts) might be considered another evidence of radiation treatment of strawberries and fresh-deboned chicken.

  8. Large-scale, high-resolution multielectrode-array recording depicts functional network differences of cortical and hippocampal cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Ito

    Full Text Available Understanding the detailed circuitry of functioning neuronal networks is one of the major goals of neuroscience. Recent improvements in neuronal recording techniques have made it possible to record the spiking activity from hundreds of neurons simultaneously with sub-millisecond temporal resolution. Here we used a 512-channel multielectrode array system to record the activity from hundreds of neurons in organotypic cultures of cortico-hippocampal brain slices from mice. To probe the network structure, we employed a wavelet transform of the cross-correlogram to categorize the functional connectivity in different frequency ranges. With this method we directly compare, for the first time, in any preparation, the neuronal network structures of cortex and hippocampus, on the scale of hundreds of neurons, with sub-millisecond time resolution. Among the three frequency ranges that we investigated, the lower two frequency ranges (gamma (30-80 Hz and beta (12-30 Hz range showed similar network structure between cortex and hippocampus, but there were many significant differences between these structures in the high frequency range (100-1000 Hz. The high frequency networks in cortex showed short tailed degree-distributions, shorter decay length of connectivity density, smaller clustering coefficients, and positive assortativity. Our results suggest that our method can characterize frequency dependent differences of network architecture from different brain regions. Crucially, because these differences between brain regions require millisecond temporal scales to be observed and characterized, these results underscore the importance of high temporal resolution recordings for the understanding of functional networks in neuronal systems.

  9. Convergent and divergent evolution of genomic imprinting in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Radhika

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon resulting in parent-of-origin specific monoallelic gene expression. It is postulated to have evolved in placental mammals to modulate intrauterine resource allocation to the offspring. In this study, we determined the imprint status of metatherian orthologues of eutherian imprinted genes. Results L3MBTL and HTR2A were shown to be imprinted in Monodelphis domestica (the gray short-tailed opossum. MEST expressed a monoallelic and a biallelic transcript, as in eutherians. In contrast, IMPACT, COPG2, and PLAGL1 were not imprinted in the opossum. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs involved in regulating imprinting in eutherians were not found at any of the new imprinted loci in the opossum. Interestingly, a novel DMR was identified in intron 11 of the imprinted IGF2R gene, but this was not conserved in eutherians. The promoter regions of the imprinted genes in the opossum were enriched for the activating histone modification H3 Lysine 4 dimethylation. Conclusions The phenomenon of genomic imprinting is conserved in Therians, but the marked difference in the number and location of imprinted genes and DMRs between metatherians and eutherians indicates that imprinting is not fully conserved between the two Therian infra-classes. The identification of a novel DMR at a non-conserved location as well as the first demonstration of histone modifications at imprinted loci in the opossum suggest that genomic imprinting may have evolved in a common ancestor of these two Therian infra-classes with subsequent divergence of regulatory mechanisms in the two lineages.

  10. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn E Mills

    Full Text Available Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1 assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2 determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3 owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810 were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task', found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392 provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410 is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  11. The significance of sperm heads and tails within the vasal fluid during vasectomy reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The finding of only sperm heads and/or short tails (SHST during vasectomy reversal (VR creates a difficult decision for the best method of vasal reconstruction, i.e. vasovasostomy (VV or epididymovasostomy (EV. Using outcome analyses, we report the impact of SHST alone and combined with qualitative analysis of gross fluid quality in predicting successful VR. Materials and Methods: The records of 356 men who underwent VR by a single surgeon from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Intravasal fluid was assessed for gross quality (i.e., clear, opaque, pasty or creamy as well as microscopic composition (i.e., motile or non-motile whole sperm, SHST or no sperm. The post-operative patency rates and semen analysis parameters were assessed. Results: Fourteen men (3.9% demonstrated SHST bilaterally in the vasal fluid. The median duration from vasectomy was 6.0 years (interquartile range 4.0-9.8. Bilateral VVs were performed on 12 men (86%, while two men (14% had a unilateral VV and a contralateral EV. Of the 26 vasa undergoing VR, the majority of the fluid quality was classified as creamy (n = 20 vasa, 76.9%. The remaining fluid was classified as pasty (n = 3 vasa, 11.5%, opaque (n = 2 vasa, 7.7% and clear (n = 1 vasa, 3.8%. In cases undergoing bilateral VV with only SHST, patency rates were 90.9%, and both cases of unilateral EV were patent (100%. Conclusions: VV was successful in 90.9% of patients undergoing VR in the setting of SHST alone. Even when creamy or pasty fluid was present, the results surpassed the expected patency rate for an EV. Therefore, the presence of only SHST, regardless of fluid quality, should not dissuade the surgeon from performing a VV.

  12. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  13. Cladistic analysis of olfactory and vomeronasal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Gutierrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2011-01-01

    Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies' view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical "cortex." We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials, and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), and rats (Rattus norvegicus) by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines). In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphaericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses.

  14. Development of detection methods for irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Chong Ki; Lee, Hae Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitiute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    To identify irradiated foods, studies have been carried out with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy on bone containing foods, such as chicken, pork, and beef. The intensity of the signal induced in bones increased linearly with irradiation doses in the range of 1.0 kGy to 5.0 kGy, and it was possible to distinguish between samples given low and high doses of irradiation. The signal stability for 6 weeks made them ideal for the quick and easy identification of irradiated meats. The analysis of DNA damage made on single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis (DNA 'comet assay') can be used to detect irradiated food. All the samples irradiated with over 0.3 kGy were identified to detect post-irradiation by the tail length of their comets. Irradiated samples showed comets with long tails, and the tail length of the comets increased with the dose, while unirradiated samples showed no or very short tails. As a result of the above experiment, the DNA 'comet assay' might be applied to the detection of irradiated grains as a simple, low-cost and rapid screening test. When fats are irradiated, hydrocarbons contained one or two fewer carbon atoms are formed from the parent fatty acids. The major hydrocarbons in irradiated beef, pork and chicken were 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecene originating from leic acid. 1,7 hexadecadiene was the highest amount in irradiated beef, pork and chicken. Eight kinds of hydrocarbons were identified from irradiated chicken, among which 1,7-hexadecadiene and 8-heptadecen were detected as major compounds. The concentration of radiation-induced hydrocarbons was relatively constant during 16 weeks.

  15. Radiocobalt cycling in a small mammal food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    Cobalt-60 seeping from a nearby radioactive liquid waste trench on the Oak Ridge reservation into a temperate deciduous forest ecosystem provided a source of environmental contamination where its dispersion through a small mammal food web could be studied. Maximum radiocobalt concentrations in the soil were found in the upper 5 cm of 15 cm cores. Transient mammals such as the opossum and the raccoon had small amounts of 60 Co in their tissues (0.5 and 1.0 pCi/gm, respectively), while the permanent mammal residents including the short-tailed shrew (80 pCi/g), white-footed mouse (50 pCi/g), golden mouse (50 pCi/g) and the eastern chipmunk (20 pCi/g) had from 27 to more than 100 times that of the transient mammals. The persistent occurrence of 60 Co in the small mammals tissues indicated its importance in the food web. Of the potential mammalian food items present in the area, only earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) contained high levels of 60 Co activity (greater than 56 nCi/gm dry wt.). Earthworms collected from the seepage channel eliminated 70 percent of their body burden (gut contents) of 60 Co during the first 24-hour period, but retained the remaining 30 percent (tissue accumulation) for more than 11 weeks. Tissue retention by earthworms and the utilization of numerous burrows by mammals along the seepage channel during the summer months suggested that earthworms constituted a major link in the small mammal food chain. (U.S.)

  16. Effects of Land Cover on the Movement of Frugivorous Birds in a Heterogeneous Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stefanini Da Silveira

    Full Text Available Movement is a key spatiotemporal process that enables interactions between animals and other elements of nature. The understanding of animal trajectories and the mechanisms that influence them at the landscape level can yield insight into ecological processes and potential solutions to specific ecological problems. Based upon optimal foraging models and empirical evidence, we hypothesized that movement by thrushes is highly tortuous (low average movement speeds and homogeneous distribution of turning angles inside forests, moderately tortuous in urban areas, which present intermediary levels of resources, and minimally tortuous (high movement speeds and turning angles next to 0 radians in open matrix types (e.g., crops and pasture. We used data on the trajectories of two common thrush species (Turdus rufiventris and Turdus leucomelas collected by radio telemetry in a fragmented region in Brazil. Using a maximum likelihood model selection approach we fit four probability distribution models to average speed data, considering short-tailed, long-tailed, and scale-free distributions (to represent different regimes of movement variation, and one distribution to relative angle data. Models included land cover type and distance from forest-matrix edges as explanatory variables. Speed was greater farther away from forest edges and increased faster inside forest habitat compared to urban and open matrices. However, turning angle was not influenced by land cover. Thrushes presented a very tortuous trajectory, with many displacements followed by turns near 180 degrees. Thrush trajectories resembled habitat and edge dependent, tortuous random walks, with a well-defined movement scale inside each land cover type. Although thrushes are habitat generalists, they showed a greater preference for forest edges, and thus may be considered edge specialists. Our results reinforce the importance of studying animal movement patterns in order to understand ecological

  17. The uptake and effects of lead on small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansley, W.; Roscoe, D.E. [New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 {micro}g/g dry weight. Mean tissue lead concentrations ({micro}g/g dry wt.) in while footed mice at the range (liver = 4.98, kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5 to 64-fold relative to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations in the only short tail shrew captured at the range (liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35 to 1,038-fold. Femur lead concentrations in green frogs at the range (1,728 {micro}g/g) were elevated nearly 1,000-fold, and the lead concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 {micro}g/g) was elevated 67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P = 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P<0.001). Hemoglobin concentrations were reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly affected in mice or frogs. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range and control mice. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also evident in one of the mice, Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate undigestible material.

  18. A long-term retrospective study on rehabilitation of seabirds in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (2003-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesdeoca, Natalia; Calabuig, Pascual; Corbera, Juan A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of morbidity and mortality in a large population of seabirds admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center (TWRC) in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 2003 to 2013, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process. Methods We included 1,956 seabirds (133 dead on admission and 1,823 admitted alive) in this study. Causes of morbidity were classified into nine categories: light pollution (fallout), fishing gear interaction, crude oil, poisoning/intoxication, other traumas, metabolic/nutritional disorder, orphaned young birds, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. The crude and stratified (by causes of admission) rates of the three final disposition categories (euthanasia Er, unassisted mortality Mr, and release Rr), the time until death, and the length of stay were also studied for the seabirds admitted alive. Results Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis) was the species most frequently admitted (46.52%), followed by Cory’s Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis) (20.09%). The most frequent causes of morbidity were light pollution (fallout) (25.81%), poisoning/intoxication (24.69%), and other traumas (18.14%). The final disposition rates were: Er = 15.35%, Mr = 16.29%, and Rr = 68.34%. The highest Er was observed in the ‘other traumas’ category (58.08%). Seabirds admitted due to metabolic/nutritional disorder had the highest Mr (50%). The highest Rr was observed in the light pollution (fallout) category (99.20%). Conclusions This survey provides useful information for the conservation of several seabird species. We suggest that at least the stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters time until death and length of stay at the center should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation of seabirds. The high release rate for seabirds (68.34%) achieved at the TWRC emphasizes the importance of wildlife rehabilitation

  19. Costs and benefits of trap-neuter-release and euthanasia for removal of urban cats in Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Cox, Linda J; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to determine whether it is more cost-effective to control feral cat abundance with trap-neuter-release programs or trap and euthanize programs. Using STELLA 7, systems modeling software, we modeled changes over 30 years in abundance of cats in a feral colony in response to each management method and the costs and benefits associated with each method . We included costs associated with providing food, veterinary care, and microchips to the colony cats and the cost of euthanasia, wages, and trapping equipment in the model. Due to a lack of data on predation rates and disease transmission by feral cats the only benefits incorporated into the analyses were reduced predation on Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (Puffinus pacificus). When no additional domestic cats were abandoned by owners and the trap and euthanize program removed 30,000 cats in the first year, the colony was extirpated in at least 75% of model simulations within the second year. It took 30 years for trap-neuter-release to extirpate the colony. When the cat population was supplemented with 10% of the initial population size per year, the colony returned to carrying capacity within 6 years and the trap and euthanize program had to be repeated, whereas trap-neuter-release never reduced the number of cats to near zero within the 30-year time frame of the model. The abandonment of domestic cats reduced the cost effectiveness of both trap-neuter-release and trap and euthanize. Trap-neuter-release was approximately twice as expensive to implement as a trap and euthanize program. Results of sensitivity analyses suggested trap-neuter-release programs that employ volunteers are still less cost-effective than trap and euthanize programs that employ paid professionals and that trap-neuter-release was only effective when the total number of colony cats in an area was below 1000. Reducing the rate of abandonment of domestic cats appears to be a more effective solution for reducing the abundance of feral cats.

  20. Carry-over effects on the annual cycle of a migratory seabird: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet, Annette L; Freeman, Robin; Shoji, Akiko; Kirk, Holly L; Padget, Oliver; Perrins, Chris M; Guilford, Tim

    2016-11-01

    Long-lived migratory animals must balance the cost of current reproduction with their own condition ahead of a challenging migration and future reproduction. In these species, carry-over effects, which occur when events in one season affect the outcome of the subsequent season, may be particularly exacerbated. However, how carry-over effects influence future breeding outcomes and whether (and how) they also affect behaviour during migration and wintering is unclear. Here we investigate carry-over effects induced by a controlled, bidirectional manipulation of the duration of reproductive effort on the migratory, wintering and subsequent breeding behaviour of a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus. By cross-fostering chicks of different age between nests, we successfully prolonged or shortened by ∼25% the chick-rearing period of 42 breeding pairs. We tracked the adults with geolocators over the subsequent year and combined migration route data with at-sea activity budgets obtained from high-resolution saltwater-immersion data. Migratory behaviour was also recorded during non-experimental years (the year before and/or two years after manipulation) for a subset of birds, allowing comparison between experimental and non-experimental years within treatment groups. All birds cared for chicks until normal fledging age, resulting in birds with a longer breeding period delaying their departure on migration; however, birds that finished breeding earlier did not start migrating earlier. Increased reproductive effort resulted in less time spent at the wintering grounds, a reduction in time spent resting daily and a delayed start of breeding with lighter eggs and chicks and lower breeding success the following breeding season. Conversely, reduced reproductive effort resulted in more time resting and less time foraging during the winter, but a similar breeding phenology and success compared with control birds the following year, suggesting that

  1. Inadequate environmental monitoring around offshore oil and gas platforms on the Grand Bank of Eastern Canada: are risks to marine birds known?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, C M; Montevecchi, W A; Wiese, F K

    2012-08-15

    Petroleum exploration and production on the Grand Bank of eastern Canada overlaps with productive marine habitat that supports over 40 million marine birds annually. Environmental assessments for oil and gas projects in the region predict insignificant adverse effects on marine birds from oil spills, incineration in platform flares and collisions. Limited baseline data on seasonal occupancies and a failure to quantify the nature and extent of marine bird attraction to platforms and related mortality undermines these assessments. We conducted 22 surveys to offshore platforms on the Grand Bank during 1999-2003 to measure avian associations with platforms and to determine the level of monitoring needed to assess the risks to marine birds. We document seasonal shifts in marine bird occurrences and higher densities of auks (fall) and shearwaters (summer) around platforms relative to surrounding areas. The limited temporal and spatial coverage of our surveys is more robust than existing industry monitoring efforts, yet it is still inadequate to quantify the scale of marine bird associations with platforms or their associated mortality risks. Systematic observations by independent biologists on vessels and platforms are needed to generate reliable assessments of risks to marine birds. Instead, the regulatory body for offshore oil and gas in eastern Canada (Canada - Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board; C-NLOPB) supports industry self-reporting as the accepted form of environmental monitoring. Conflicting responsibilities of oil and gas regulatory agencies for both energy development and environmental monitoring are major barriers to transparency, unbiased scientific inquiry and adequate environmental protection. Similar conflicts with the oil and gas regulatory body in the United States, the former Minerals and Management Service (MMS) were identified by the U.S. President as a major contributor to the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. The

  2. Optimization of the spray application technology in bay laurel (Laurus nobilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyttens, D; Braekman, P; Foque, D

    2009-01-01

    Bay laurel is an evergreen, commercially grown and expensive ornamental pot plant, which is susceptible to different pests like aphids, scale and lerp insects, thrips, caterpillars of codling moth and sooty moulds. Recently, caterpillars of the Mediterranean carnation leafroller (Cacoecimorpha pronubana) cause more and more problems. These pests can lead to important financial losses for the growers. During summer the individual pot plants are placed on a field-container in a fairly dense configuration. Crop protection is traditionally done by moving with a spray lance between the rows of pot plants and treating each individual plant from bottom to top. Good penetration is clearly an important advantages of this spray technique but it is very time-consuming, unhealthy and laborious. Some other growers use a 'spray platform' on a high-clearance tractor. Plants sprayed from this platform are exclusively approached from above resulting in an inferior spray deposition on the lower parts of the plants. To overcome the disadvantages of both available techniques, the potential of an automated tunnel sprayer was investigated. Five different nozzle types were evaluated under laboratory conditions i.e. hollow cone, standard flat fan, air inclusion flat fan, deflector flat fan and twin air inclusion flat fan at spray pressures varying from 3.0 to 7.0 bar depending on the type of nozzle. For each nozzle type, three nozzle sizes were included in the experiments which resulted in 15 different spray application techniques. All experiments were done at a speed of 2.5 km x h(-1). This resulted in three different application volumes: 2450, 4900 and 7300 l x ha(-1). After optimizing the nozzle configuration (distance and orientation) using water-sensitive paper, deposition tests with five different mineral chelates as tracer elements were performed. Filter papers were used as collectors at 20 different positions to measure spray deposition, distribution and penetration in the canopy

  3. Male Circumcision and the Epidemic Emergence of HIV-2 in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, Barry Stephen; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemic HIV-2 (groups A and B) emerged in humans circa 1930–40. Its closest ancestors are SIVsmm infecting sooty mangabeys from southwestern Côte d'Ivoire. The earliest large-scale serological surveys of HIV-2 in West Africa (1985–91) show a patchy spread. Côte d'Ivoire and Guinea-Bissau had the highest prevalence rates by then, and phylogeographical analysis suggests they were the earliest epicenters. Wars and parenteral transmission have been hypothesized to have promoted HIV-2 spread. Male circumcision (MC) is known to correlate negatively with HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but studies examining this issue for HIV-2 are lacking. Methods We reviewed published HIV-2 serosurveys for 30 cities of all West African countries and obtained credible estimates of real prevalence through Bayesian estimation. We estimated past MC rates of 218 West African ethnic groups, based on ethnographic literature and fieldwork. We collected demographic tables specifying the ethnic partition in cities. Uncertainty was incorporated by defining plausible ranges of parameters (e.g. timing of introduction, proportion circumcised). We generated 1,000 sets of past MC rates per city using Latin Hypercube Sampling with different parameter combinations, and explored the correlation between HIV-2 prevalence and estimated MC rate (both logit-transformed) in the 1,000 replicates. Results and Conclusions Our survey reveals that, in the early 20th century, MC was far less common and geographically more variable than nowadays. HIV-2 prevalence in 1985–91 and MC rates in 1950 were negatively correlated (Spearman rho = -0.546, IQR: -0.553–-0.546, p≤0.0021). Guinea-Bissau and Côte d'Ivoire cities had markedly lower MC rates. In addition, MC was uncommon in rural southwestern Côte d'Ivoire in 1930.The differential HIV-2 spread in West Africa correlates with different historical MC rates. We suggest HIV-2 only formed early substantial foci in cities with substantial uncircumcised

  4. Quantitative Measurements of Electronically Excited CH Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A. V.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the electronically excited CH spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of electronically excited CH chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on electronically excited CH concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the electronically excited CH emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the electronically excited CH concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame electronically excited CH concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend

  5. Quantitative Measurements of CH* Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the CH* spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of CH* chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on CH* concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the CH* emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the CH* concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame CH* concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend, albeit with different peak concentrations. Comparisons with numerical simulations display reasonably good agreement between measured and

  6. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming. The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars. The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake. Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky! Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope to determine if the stars

  7. Trophic ecology drives contaminant concentrations within a tropical seabird community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiano, Manrico; Bustamante, Paco; Eulaers, Igor; Malarvannan, Govindan; Mendez-Fernandez, Paula; Churlaud, Carine; Blévin, Pierre; Hauselmann, Antoine; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel; Costantini, David; Chastel, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    To support environmental management programs, there is an urgent need to know about the presence and understand the dynamics of major contaminants in seabird communities of key marine ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the concentrations and trophodynamics of trace elements in six seabird species and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in three seabird species breeding on Grand Connétable Island (French Guiana), an area where the increase in human population and mining activities has raised concerns in recent years. Red blood cell Hg concentrations in adults were the highest in Magnificent frigatebirds Fregata magnificens (median: 5.6 μg g -1 dw; range: 3.8-7.8 μg g -1 dw) and lowest in Sooty terns Onychoprion fuscatus (median: 0.9 μg g -1 dw; range: 0.6-1.1 μg g -1 dw). Among POPs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was the most abundant compound in plasma of Cayenne terns Thalasseus sandvicensis (median: 1100 pg g -1 ww; range: 160 ± 5100 pg g -1 ww), while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most abundant compound class in plasma of Magnificent frigatebirds (median: 640 pg g -1 ww; range 330 ± 2700 pg g -1 ww). While low intensity of POP exposure does not appear to pose a health threat to this seabird community, Hg concentration in several adults Laughing gulls Leucophaeus atricilla and Royal terns Thalasseus maximus, and in all Magnificent frigatebirds was similar or higher than that of high contaminated seabird populations. Furthermore, nestling red blood cells also contained Hg concentrations of concern, and further studies should investigate its potential health impact in this seabird community. Differences in adult trophic ecology of the six species explained interspecific variation in exposure to trace element and POPs, while nestling trophic ecology provides indications about the diverse feeding strategies adopted by the six species, with the consequent variation in exposure to contaminants. Copyright

  8. The origin of the Avram Iancu U-Ni-Co-Bi-As mineralization, Băiţa (Bihor) metallogenic district, Bihor Mts., Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajzon, Norbert; Szentpéteri, Krisztián; Szakáll, Sándor; Kristály, Ferenc

    2015-10-01

    The Băiţa metallogenic district in the Bihor Mountains is a historically important mining area in Romania. Uranium mining took place between 1952 and 1998 from various deposits, but very little is known about the geology and mineralogy of these deposits. In this paper, we describe geology and mineralogy of uranium mineralization of the Avram Iancu uranium mine from waste dump samples collected before complete remediation of the site. Texturally and mineralogically complex assemblages of nickeline, cobaltite-gersdorffite solid solution, native Bi, Bi-sulfosalts, molybdenite, and pyrite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite occur with uraninite, "pitchblende," and brannerite in most of the ore samples. The association of nickel, cobalt, and arsenic with uranium is reminiscent of five-element association of vein type U-Ni-Co-Bi-As deposits; however, the Avram Iancu ores appear to be more replacement-type stratiform/stratabound. Avram Iancu ore samples contain multistage complex, skarn, uranium sulfide, arsenide assemblages that can be interpreted to have been formed in the retrograde cooling stages of the skarn hydrothermal system. This mineralizing system may have built-up along Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene "Banatite" intrusions of diorite-to-granite composition. The intrusions crosscut the underlying uraniferous Permian formations in the stacked NW-verging Biharia Nappe System. The mineralization forms stacked, multilayer replacement horizons, along carbonate-rich lithologies within the metavolcanic (tuffaceous) Muncel Series. Mineral paragenesis and some mineral chemistry suggest moderate-to-high <450, i.e., 350-310 °C, formation temperatures for the uranium sulfide stage along stratigraphically controlled replacement zones and minor veins. Uranium minerals formed abundantly in this early stage and include botryoidal, sooty and euhedral uraninite, brannerite, and coffinite. Later and/or lower-temperature mineral assemblages include heterogeneous, complexly zoned arsenide

  9. Inefficient Nef-mediated downmodulation of CD3 and MHC-I correlates with loss of CD4+T cells in natural SIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schindler

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent data suggest that Nef-mediated downmodulation of TCR-CD3 may protect SIVsmm-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs against the loss of CD4+ T cells. However, the mechanisms underlying this protective effect remain unclear. To further assess the role of Nef in nonpathogenic SIV infection, we cloned nef alleles from 11 SIVsmm-infected SMs with high (>500 and 15 animals with low (<500 CD4+ T-cells/microl in bulk into proviral HIV-1 IRES/eGFP constructs and analyzed their effects on the phenotype, activation, and apoptosis of primary T cells. We found that not only efficient Nef-mediated downmodulation of TCR-CD3 but also of MHC-I correlated with preserved CD4+ T cell counts, as well as with high numbers of Ki67+CD4+ and CD8+CD28+ T cells and reduced CD95 expression by CD4+ T cells. Moreover, effective MHC-I downregulation correlated with low proportions of effector and high percentages of naïve and memory CD8+ T cells. We found that T cells infected with viruses expressing Nef alleles from the CD4low SM group expressed significantly higher levels of the CD69, interleukin (IL-2 and programmed death (PD-1 receptors than those expressing Nefs from the CD4high group. SIVsmm Nef alleles that were less active in downmodulating TCR-CD3 were also less potent in suppressing the activation of virally infected T cells and subsequent cell death. However, only nef alleles from a single animal with very low CD4+ T cell counts rendered T cells hyper-responsive to activation, similar to those of HIV-1. Our data suggest that Nef may protect the natural hosts of SIV against the loss of CD4+ T cells by at least two mechanisms: (i downmodulation of TCR-CD3 to prevent activation-induced cell death and to suppress the induction of PD-1 that may impair T cell function and survival, and (ii downmodulation of MHC-I to reduce CTL lysis of virally infected CD4+ T cells and/or bystander CD8+ T cell activation.

  10. Structure and expression of two nuclear receptor genes in marsupials: insights into the evolution of the antisense overlap between the α-thyroid hormone receptor and Rev-erbα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown M Scott

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative processing of α-thyroid hormone receptor (TRα, NR1A1 mRNAs gives rise to two functionally antagonistic nuclear receptors: TRα1, the α-type receptor, and TRα2, a non-hormone binding variant that is found only in mammals. TRα2 shares an unusual antisense coding overlap with mRNA for Rev-erbα (NR1D1, another nuclear receptor protein. In this study we examine the structure and expression of these genes in the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, in comparison with that of eutherian mammals and three other marsupial species, Didelphis virginiana, Potorous tridactylus and Macropus eugenii, in order to understand the evolution and regulatory role of this antisense overlap. Results The sequence, expression and genomic organization of mRNAs encoding TRα1 and Rev-erbα are very similar in the opossum and eutherian mammals. However, the sequence corresponding to the TRα2 coding region appears truncated by almost 100 amino acids. While expression of TRα1 and Rev-erbα was readily detected in all tissues of M. domestica ages 0 days to 18 weeks, TRα2 mRNA was not detected in any tissue or stage examined. These results contrast with the widespread and abundant expression of TRα2 in rodents and other eutherian mammals. To examine requirements for alternative splicing of TRα mRNAs, a series of chimeric minigenes was constructed. Results show that the opossum TRα2-specific 5' splice site sequence is fully competent for splicing but the sequence homologous to the TRα2 3' splice site is not, even though the marsupial sequences are remarkably similar to core splice site elements in rat. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that the variant nuclear receptor isoform, TRα2, is not expressed in marsupials and that the antisense overlap between TRα and Rev-erbα thus is unique to eutherian mammals. Further investigation of the TRα and Rev-erbα genes in marsupial and eutherian species promises to yield

  11. Structure and expression of two nuclear receptor genes in marsupials: insights into the evolution of the antisense overlap between the α-thyroid hormone receptor and Rev-erbα

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Alternative processing of α-thyroid hormone receptor (TRα, NR1A1) mRNAs gives rise to two functionally antagonistic nuclear receptors: TRα1, the α-type receptor, and TRα2, a non-hormone binding variant that is found only in mammals. TRα2 shares an unusual antisense coding overlap with mRNA for Rev-erbα (NR1D1), another nuclear receptor protein. In this study we examine the structure and expression of these genes in the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, in comparison with that of eutherian mammals and three other marsupial species, Didelphis virginiana, Potorous tridactylus and Macropus eugenii, in order to understand the evolution and regulatory role of this antisense overlap. Results The sequence, expression and genomic organization of mRNAs encoding TRα1 and Rev-erbα are very similar in the opossum and eutherian mammals. However, the sequence corresponding to the TRα2 coding region appears truncated by almost 100 amino acids. While expression of TRα1 and Rev-erbα was readily detected in all tissues of M. domestica ages 0 days to 18 weeks, TRα2 mRNA was not detected in any tissue or stage examined. These results contrast with the widespread and abundant expression of TRα2 in rodents and other eutherian mammals. To examine requirements for alternative splicing of TRα mRNAs, a series of chimeric minigenes was constructed. Results show that the opossum TRα2-specific 5' splice site sequence is fully competent for splicing but the sequence homologous to the TRα2 3' splice site is not, even though the marsupial sequences are remarkably similar to core splice site elements in rat. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that the variant nuclear receptor isoform, TRα2, is not expressed in marsupials and that the antisense overlap between TRα and Rev-erbα thus is unique to eutherian mammals. Further investigation of the TRα and Rev-erbα genes in marsupial and eutherian species promises to yield additional insight into the

  12. Ontogeny of cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity in the Brazilian opossum brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C A; Jeyapalan, M; Ross, L R; Jacobson, C D

    1991-12-17

    We have studied the anatomical distribution of cholecystokinin-like immunoreactive (CCK-IR) somata and fibers in the brain of the adult and developing Brazilian short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica. Animals ranged in age from the day of birth (1PN) to young adulthood (180PN). A nickel enhanced, avidin-biotin, indirect immunohistochemical technique was used to identify CCK-IR structures. Somata containing CCK immunoreactivity were observed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, and brainstem in the adult. Cholecystokinin immunoreactive fibers had a wide distribution in the adult Monodelphis brain. The only major region of the brain that did not contain CCK-IR fibers was the cerebellum. The earliest expression of CCK immunoreactivity was found in fibers in the dorsal brainstem of 5-day-old opossum pups. It is possible that the CCK-IR fibers in the brainstem at 5PN are of vagal origin. Cholecystokinin immunoreactive somata were observed in the brainstem on 10PN. The CCK-IR cell bodies observed in the brainstem at 10PN may mark the first expression of CCK-IR elements intrinsic to the brain. A broad spectrum of patterns of onset of CCK expression was observed in the opossum brain. The early occurrence and varied ontogenesis of CCK-IR structures indicates CCK may be involved in the function of a variety of circuits from the brainstem to the cerebral cortex. The early expression of CCK-IR structures in the dorsal brainstem suggests that CCK may modulate feeding behavior in the Monodelphis neonate. Cholecystokinin immunoreactivity in forebrain structures such as the suprachiasmatic nucleus, medial preoptic area, thalamus and cortical structures indicates that CCK may also be involved in circadian rhythmicity, reproductive functions, as well as the state of arousal of the Brazilian opossum. The ontogenic timing of CCK immunoreactivity in specific circuitry also indicates that CCK expression does not occur simultaneously throughout the

  13. Colopexia em ovinos da raça Dorper com prolapso retal Colopexy in Dorper lambs with rectal prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Kopinits de Oliveira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Prolapso de reto é afecção comum em ovinos de cauda curta. Neste trabalho relata-se a técnica de colopexia para redução de prolapso retal em trinta ovinos da raça Dorper, dos quais, três vieram a óbito no período pós-operatório e três tiveram que ser sacrificados, pois além de apresentarem recidiva, um deles era idoso, e os outros três por se encontrarem bastante debilitados. Aos 15 dias após a cirurgia, cinco animais apresentaram recidiva do prolapso, sendo a colopexia refeita em três deles tendo bom resultado em apenas um, e os outros dois foram sacrificados. Aos 30 dias de pós-operatório um animal apresentou prolapso retal, os outros dezenove (63,3% estavam em adequado estado físico. A realização de colopexia é uma alternativa para o tratamento de prolapso retal em ovelhas da raça Dorper, porém recidivas e complicações são comuns.Rectal prolapse is a common affection in lambs of short tail. This study aimed at reporting the colopexy to reduce the rectal prolapse in Dorper lambs. Thirty animals were submitted to surgery and three of them died in the postoperative period. Three animals had to be sacrificed, because they have shown prolapse recurrence (one of them was old, and the other three were in a strong debilitated state. At 15 days after the surgery, five animals showed prolapse recurrence and the colopexy was performed again in three having good results in only one, the other two were sacrificed. At the 30 postoperative days, an animal showed rectal prolapse signals, the other nineteen animals (63,3% were healthy. The colopexy use is an option to rectal prolapse treatment in Dorper lambs, although, recurrences and complications are expected.

  14. Genetic characterization of ØVC8 lytic phage for Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Sánchez, Alejandro; Hernández-Chiñas, Ulises; Navarro-Ocaña, Armando; De la Mora, Javier; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Eslava-Campos, Carlos

    2016-03-22

    Epidemics and pandemics of cholera, a diarrheal disease, are attributed to Vibrio cholera serogroups O1 and O139. In recent years, specific lytic phages of V. cholera have been proposed to be important factors in the cyclic occurrence of cholera in endemic areas. However, the role and potential participation of lytic phages during long interepidemic periods of cholera in non-endemic regions have not yet been described. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize specific lytic phages of V. cholera O1 strains. Sixteen phages were isolated from wastewater samples collected at the Endhó Dam in Hidalgo State, Mexico, concentrated with PEG/NaCl, and purified by density gradient. The lytic activity of the purified phages was tested using different V. cholerae O1 and O139 strains. Phage morphology was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and phage genome sequencing was performed using the Genome Analyzer IIx System. Genome assembly and bioinformatics analysis were performed using a set of high-throughput programs. Phage structural proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Sixteen phages with lytic and lysogenic activity were isolated; only phage ØVC8 showed specific lytic activity against V. cholerae O1 strains. TEM images of ØVC8 revealed a phage with a short tail and an isometric head. The ØVC8 genome comprises linear double-stranded DNA of 39,422 bp with 50.8 % G + C. Of the 48 annotated ORFs, 16 exhibit homology with sequences of known function and several conserved domains. Bioinformatics analysis showed multiple conserved domains, including an Ig domain, suggesting that ØVC8 might adhere to different mucus substrates such as the human intestinal epithelium. The results suggest that ØVC8 genome utilize the "single-stranded cohesive ends" packaging strategy of the lambda-like group. The two structural proteins sequenced and analyzed are proteins of known function. ØVC8 is a lytic phage with specific activity against V. cholerae

  15. Fluorine follows water: Effect on electrical conductivity of silicate minerals by experimental constraints from phlogopite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Jiang, Haotian; Yang, Xiaozhi

    2017-11-01

    Fluorine and hydroxyl groups are minor constituents of silicate minerals, and share a lot of similarities concerning their physical and chemical properties. Hydroxyl groups significantly enhance the electrical conductivity of many silicate minerals, and it is expected that fluorine would have a comparable effect. This, however, has never been documented quantitatively. Here we present experimental approaches on this issue, by investigating the electrical conductivity of phlogopite with a wide range of fluorine content (but with broadly similar contents for other major elements). Electrical conductivities of gem-quality single crystal phlogopites, with samples prepared along the same orientation (normal to the (0 0 1) plane), were determined at 1 GPa and 200-650 °C using an end-loaded piston cylinder apparatus and a Solartron-1260 Impedance/Gain Phase Analyzer over the frequency range of 106 to 0.1 Hz. The complex spectra usually show an arc in the high frequency range and a short tail in the low frequency range, which are caused by lattice conduction and electrode effects, respectively. The electrical conductivity increases with increasing fluorine content, and the main charge carriers are fluorine. The activation enthalpies are ∼180 to 200 kJ/mol, nearly independent of fluorine content. The conductivity is linearly proportional to the content of fluorine, with an exponent factor of ∼1. The results demonstrate that conduction by fluorine leads to very high electrical conductivity at high temperatures. The influence of fluorine on electrical conductivity may be compared to that of hydrogen in nominally anhydrous minerals. This, along with the close association of fluorine and hydroxyl groups in silicate minerals and their similar crystal-chemical behaviors, suggests a more general role of fluorine in enhancing the electrical conductivity of many silicate minerals. Fluorine-rich assemblages, e.g., phlogopite and amphibole, could be locally enriched in the upper

  16. Thioredoxin A Is Essential for Motility and Contributes to Host Infection of Listeria monocytogenes via Redox Interactions

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    Changyong Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbes employ the thioredoxin system to defend against oxidative stress and ensure correct disulfide bonding to maintain protein function. Listeria monocytogenes has been shown to encode a putative thioredoxin, TrxA, but its biological roles and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we showed that expression of L. monocytogenes TrxA is significantly induced in bacteria treated with the thiol-specific oxidizing agent, diamide. Deletion of trxA markedly compromised tolerance of the pathogen to diamide, and mainly impaired early stages of infection in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. In addition, most trxA mutant bacteria were not associated with polymerized actin, and the rare bacteria that were associated with polymerized actin displayed very short tails or clouds during infection. Deletion or constitutive overexpression of TrxA, which was regulated by SigH, severely attenuated the virulence of the pathogen. Transcriptome analysis of L. monocytogenes revealed over 270 genes that were differentially transcribed in the ΔtrxA mutant compared to the wild-type, especially for the virulence-associated genes plcA, mpl, hly, actA, and plcB. Particularly, deletion of TrxA completely reduced LLO expression, and thereby led to a thoroughly impaired hemolytic activity. Expression of these virulence factors are positively regulated by the master regulator PrfA that was found here to use TrxA to maintain its reduced forms for activation. Interestingly, the trxA deletion mutant completely lacked flagella and was non-motile. We further confirmed that this deficiency is attributable to TrxA in maintaining the reduced intracellular monomer status of MogR, the key regulator for flagellar formation, to ensure correct dimerization. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that L. monocytogenes thioredoxin A as a vital cellular reductase is essential for maintaining a highly reducing environment in the bacterial cytosol, which provides a

  17. Thioredoxin A Is Essential for Motility and Contributes to Host Infection of Listeria monocytogenes via Redox Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Changyong; Dong, Zhimei; Han, Xiao; Wang, Hang; Jiang, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Yongchun; Ma, Tiantian; Shao, Chunyan; Wang, Xiaodu; Chen, Zhongwei; Fang, Weihuan; Freitag, Nancy E; Huang, Huarong; Song, Houhui

    2017-01-01

    Microbes employ the thioredoxin system to defend against oxidative stress and ensure correct disulfide bonding to maintain protein function. Listeria monocytogenes has been shown to encode a putative thioredoxin, TrxA, but its biological roles and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we showed that expression of L. monocytogenes TrxA is significantly induced in bacteria treated with the thiol-specific oxidizing agent, diamide. Deletion of trxA markedly compromised tolerance of the pathogen to diamide, and mainly impaired early stages of infection in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. In addition, most trxA mutant bacteria were not associated with polymerized actin, and the rare bacteria that were associated with polymerized actin displayed very short tails or clouds during infection. Deletion or constitutive overexpression of TrxA, which was regulated by SigH, severely attenuated the virulence of the pathogen. Transcriptome analysis of L. monocytogenes revealed over 270 genes that were differentially transcribed in the Δ trxA mutant compared to the wild-type, especially for the virulence-associated genes plcA, mpl, hly, actA , and plcB . Particularly, deletion of TrxA completely reduced LLO expression, and thereby led to a thoroughly impaired hemolytic activity. Expression of these virulence factors are positively regulated by the master regulator PrfA that was found here to use TrxA to maintain its reduced forms for activation. Interestingly, the trxA deletion mutant completely lacked flagella and was non-motile. We further confirmed that this deficiency is attributable to TrxA in maintaining the reduced intracellular monomer status of MogR, the key regulator for flagellar formation, to ensure correct dimerization. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that L. monocytogenes thioredoxin A as a vital cellular reductase is essential for maintaining a highly reducing environment in the bacterial cytosol, which provides a favorable condition for

  18. Environmental Survey Report for ORNL: Small Mammal Abundance and Distribution Survey Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 2009 - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Reasor, R. Scott [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Campbell, Claire L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2009-12-01

    Sherman and pitfall traps. In total 227 small mammals representing nine species were captured during the course of the study. The most common species found in the study was the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). The least common species found were the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius), woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda).

  19. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red

  20. A transcriptome resource for the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): insights into koala retrovirus transcription and sequence diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Matthew; Pavasovic, Ana; King, Andrew G; Prentis, Peter J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Chen, Zhiliang; Colgan, Donald J; Polkinghorne, Adam; Wilkins, Marc R; Flanagan, Cheyne; Gillett, Amber; Hanger, Jon; Johnson, Rebecca N; Timms, Peter

    2014-09-11

    The koala, Phascolarctos cinereus, is a biologically unique and evolutionarily distinct Australian arboreal marsupial. The goal of this study was to sequence the transcriptome from several tissues of two geographically separate koalas, and to create the first comprehensive catalog of annotated transcripts for this species, enabling detailed analysis of the unique attributes of this threatened native marsupial, including infection by the koala retrovirus. RNA-Seq data was generated from a range of tissues from one male and one female koala and assembled de novo into transcripts using Velvet-Oases. Transcript abundance in each tissue was estimated. Transcripts were searched for likely protein-coding regions and a non-redundant set of 117,563 putative protein sequences was produced. In similarity searches there were 84,907 (72%) sequences that aligned to at least one sequence in the NCBI nr protein database. The best alignments were to sequences from other marsupials. After applying a reciprocal best hit requirement of koala sequences to those from tammar wallaby, Tasmanian devil and the gray short-tailed opossum, we estimate that our transcriptome dataset represents approximately 15,000 koala genes. The marsupial alignment information was used to look for potential gene duplications and we report evidence for copy number expansion of the alpha amylase gene, and of an aldehyde reductase gene.Koala retrovirus (KoRV) transcripts were detected in the transcriptomes. These were analysed in detail and the structure of the spliced envelope gene transcript was determined. There was appreciable sequence diversity within KoRV, with 233 sites in the KoRV genome showing small insertions/deletions or single nucleotide polymorphisms. Both koalas had sequences from the KoRV-A subtype, but the male koala transcriptome has, in addition, sequences more closely related to the KoRV-B subtype. This is the first report of a KoRV-B-like sequence in a wild population. This transcriptomic

  1. Expression profiles of the immune genes CD4, CD8β, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in mitogen-stimulated koala lymphocytes (Phascolarctos cinereus by qRT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iona E. Maher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the immune response of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus is needed urgently, but has been limited by scarcity of species-specific reagents and methods for this unique and divergent marsupial. Infectious disease is an important threat to wild populations of koalas; the most widespread and important of these is Chlamydial disease, caused by Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae. In addition, koala retrovirus (KoRV, which is of 100% prevalence in northern Australia, has been proposed as an important agent of immune suppression that could explain the koala’s susceptibility to disease. The correct balance of T regulatory, T helper 1 (Th1 and Th2 lymphocyte responses are important to an individual’s susceptibility or resistance to chlamydial infection. The ability to study chlamydial or KoRV pathogenesis, effects of environmental stressors on immunity, and the response of koalas to vaccines under development, by examining the koala’s adaptive response to natural infection or in-vitro stimulation, has been limited to date by a paucity of species- specific reagents. In this study we have used cytokine sequences from four marsupial genomes to identify mRNA sequences for key T regulatory, Th1 and Th2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 10 (IL-10 and interferon gamma (IFNγ along with CD4 and CD8β. The koala sequences used for primer design showed >58% homology with grey short-tailed opossum, >71% with tammar wallaby and 78% with Tasmanian devil amino acid sequences. We report the development of real-time RT-PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes in unstimulated cells and after three common mitogen stimulation protocols (phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate/phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. Phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin was found to be the most effective mitogen to up-regulate the production of IL-4, IL-10 and IFNγ. IL-6 production was not

  2. Expression profiles of the immune genes CD4, CD8β, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in mitogen-stimulated koala lymphocytes (Phascolarctos cinereus) by qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Iona E; Griffith, Joanna E; Lau, Quintin; Reeves, Thomas; Higgins, Damien P

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of the immune response of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is needed urgently, but has been limited by scarcity of species-specific reagents and methods for this unique and divergent marsupial. Infectious disease is an important threat to wild populations of koalas; the most widespread and important of these is Chlamydial disease, caused by Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae. In addition, koala retrovirus (KoRV), which is of 100% prevalence in northern Australia, has been proposed as an important agent of immune suppression that could explain the koala's susceptibility to disease. The correct balance of T regulatory, T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 lymphocyte responses are important to an individual's susceptibility or resistance to chlamydial infection. The ability to study chlamydial or KoRV pathogenesis, effects of environmental stressors on immunity, and the response of koalas to vaccines under development, by examining the koala's adaptive response to natural infection or in-vitro stimulation, has been limited to date by a paucity of species- specific reagents. In this study we have used cytokine sequences from four marsupial genomes to identify mRNA sequences for key T regulatory, Th1 and Th2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) along with CD4 and CD8β. The koala sequences used for primer design showed >58% homology with grey short-tailed opossum, >71% with tammar wallaby and 78% with Tasmanian devil amino acid sequences. We report the development of real-time RT-PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes in unstimulated cells and after three common mitogen stimulation protocols (phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate/phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A). Phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin was found to be the most effective mitogen to up-regulate the production of IL-4, IL-10 and IFNγ. IL-6 production was not consistently up-regulated by

  3. Population Dynamics of Macrosiphum rosae (L. on Different Cultivars of Rose (Rosahybrida, Rosaceae and Biodiversity of its Predators in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keykhosravi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rose (Rosa hybrida (L., Rosaceae has been grown on earth for millions of years and has been used for beauty and decoration of gardens, extraction of perfume and in medicine. But main use of roses is in cut flower industry and landscaping. Roses are attractive for insects, especially aphids (2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 11, 17, 27, 28, 35, 38. Among them, the predominant aphid that feeds on the cultivated roses in outdoors is the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (13, 27, 28, 29. The rose aphid has a wide distribution throughout Iran and the world (27, 28, 29. Rose aphids generally initiate feeding on roses in early spring as the new flush of growth emerges. Like other aphid species, rose aphids tend to congregate or cluster in large numbers feeding on the terminal growth including leaves and stems, and developing flower buds, and on leaf undersides. Their feeding causes deformity flower buds and leaves which may result in flower buds aborting or falling off prematurely before opening. In addition, aphids secrete honeydew, which attracts ants, wasps, hornets and serves as a growing medium for certain black sooty mold fungi. Rose aphids are attacked by anvarray of natural enemies including parasitoids and predators such as ladybird beetles, green lacewings, syrphids and several other groups of arthropods. These may provide natural regulation depending on the number of rose aphids present and other biotic and abiotic factors. Although many herbivorous arthropods may attack roses but many roses cultivar can resist against these pests (23, 26, 28, 40. An important factor influencing this success is careful selection of varieties, which vary significantly in susceptibility to pests and disease problems (9, 13, 19, 21, 23, 30, 40. Of course, other factors such as agricultural practices and the presence and activities of natural enemies of pests are also important. This study aimed to determine any resistance against rose aphid in different rose cultivars

  4. Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    emphasize the need for early climate change adaptation and mitigation planning, especially for species with limited breeding distributions and/or ranges restricted primarily to the low-lying NWHI: Cyperus pennatiformis var. bryanii, Black-footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), Bonin Petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca), Gray-backed Tern (Onychoprion lunatus), Laysan Teal (Anas laysanensis), Laysan Finch (Telespiza cantans), and Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi). Furthermore, SLR scenarios that include the effects of wave dynamics and groundwater rise may indicate amplified vulnerability to climate change driven habitat loss on low-lying islands. In chapter 2, we incorporated the combined effects of SLR, dynamic wave-driven inundation, and rising groundwater in a quantitative study specifically for the Laysan Island ecosystem. This is the first hydrodynamic model to simulate the combined impacts of SLR and wave-driven inundation in the NWHI. We developed a high-resolution digital elevation model (mean vertical accuracy of 0.32 m) for the island. Then using recent satellite imagery, geospatial models, and historical oceanographic, storm, and biological data we estimated potential inundation extent, habitat loss, and wildlife population impacts for a range of potential SLR scenarios (0.00, +0.50, +1.00, +1.50, and +2.00 m) that may occur over the next century. Additionally, we estimated the carrying capacity of Laysan Island for five species based on the available population monitoring data and described how potential losses in nesting habitat could influence population dynamics for Black-footed Albatross, Laysan Albatross, Red-footed Booby (Sula sula), Laysan Teal, and Laysan Finch. For some other seabird populations (Masked Booby, S. dactylatra; Brown Booby, S. leucogaster; Great Frigatebird, Fregata minor; and Sooty Tern, Onychoprion fuscata), we used recent colony distribution data, land cover maps, and nesting behavior to estimate

  5. Ground-based hyperspectral remote sensing to discriminate biotic stress in cotton crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Rahul; Kot, Rajsi; Sandhu, Sandeep S.; Bhattacharya, Bimal K.; Chandi, Ravinder S.; Singh, Manjeet; Singh, Jagdish; Manjunath, K. R.

    2016-05-01

    natural enemies are ineffective and when weather and host plants favor outbreaks. Large colonies often develop on the undersides of leaves. The most common pest species such as greenhouse white fly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and sweet potato white fly (Bemisia tabaci) have a wide host range that includes many weeds and crops. White flies normally lay their tiny oblong eggs on the undersides of leaves. The eggs hatch, and the young white flies gradually increase in size through four nymphal stages called instars. The first nymphal stage (crawler) is barely visible even with a hand lens. The crawlers move around for several hours before settling to begin feeding. Later nymphal stages are immobile, oval, and flattened, with greatly reduced legs and antennae, like small scale insects. The winged adult emerges from the last nymphal stage (sometimes called a pupa, although whiteflies don't have a true complete metamorphosis). All stages feed by sucking plant juices from leaves and excreting excess liquid as drops of honeydew as they feed. White flies use their piercing, needle like mouthparts to suck sap from phloem, the food-conducting tissues in plant stems and leaves. Large populations can cause leaves to turn yellow, appear dry, or fall off plants. Like aphids, white flies excrete sugary liquid called honeydew, so leaves may be sticky or covered with black sooty mold that grows on honeydew. The honeydew attracts ants, which interfere with the activities of natural enemies that may control white flies and other pests. High white fly infestation was reported at several locations in Punjab during year 2015. The application of non-destructive methods to detect vegetation stress at an early stage of its development is very important for pest management in commercially important crops. Earlier few studies have been done to characterize reflectance spectra of nutrient stress nitrogen deficiency and irrigation management for cotton but no literature is available regarding

  6. Biology of Pink Hibiscus MealybugMaconellicoccushirsutus (Green on Chinese Hibiscus Shrubs in Khuzestan Province

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    M. Sadat Alizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccushirsutus (Green (Hem.:Pseudococcidae is one of the serious economic pests of agricultural crops in tropical and subtropical regions.This pesthas spread through Asia, Africa, America and Australia, and infests more than 330 host plants which some of them have the important role in theeconomy. This sap-feeding insect secrets honeydew which provides suitablemedium for black sooty moldgrowth. It also releases a toxin during feeding, which results in severe stunting, decline, and deformation of twigs. It has recorded as a pest on different host plants in southern Iranian provinces since the 1990s.In Khuzestan province, it was first observed on Chinese hibiscus shrubs in urban landscapes of Ahvaz in February 2009. The evergreen hibiscus shrub is very common in the urban landscape of warmcities of Khuzestan province. The severity of mealybug damage to hibiscus shrubs causedto becut off in some regions. As there is no data on the biology of M. hirsutus in Iran,in the present study, the biologyof this pestwas investigatedat different temperatures in laboratory conditions as well as its population fluctuations on Chinese hibiscus shrubs in urban landscapes of Ahvaz. Materials and methods: Biology of the pest species was evaluated at five laboratory constant temperatures 15, 20, 25, 30and 35±2°C (65±5% RH and a photoperiod of L: D 14:10 h on Chinese hibiscus leaves in plastic boxes (8×6×2 cm. Number ofM. hirsutusgenerations was also studied in clip cages on hibiscus shrubs in Ahvaz urban landscapes within a year. Population fluctuations of the insect were also investigated on those shrubs in two different regions of Ahvaz for 16 months. For this purpose, random sampling was done on five shrubs in each region bi-weekly. Eight twigs, 5 cm in length, were cut from the upper and lower halves of each shrub quadrant and a number of all mealybug developmental stages per twig were counted and recorded

  7. Comparision of the Efficiency of the Current Oils and Insecticide Compounds in Control of Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, (Hem.: Aleyrodidae on Rose and their Interaction

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    Asghar Hosseininia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rose plant (R osa hybrid is cultivated in nearly all regions of Iran and they are more common in the western areas of Iran. The intensive cultivation of rose often leads to injuries by pathogens or noxious animals and may require the implementation of pest control measures. Among the insect pests of roses, the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hem.: Aleyrodidae, is fairly common pest that it is considered as major pests on roses in Iran. This pest infests the undersides of rose leaves, where the feeding adults and nymphs produce honeydew on which sooty mould grows. Considering the importance of oils in the integrated management program of this pest, in the present survey the possibility of whitefly control on rose plant were carried out to assess mortality rate (MR, synergistic rate (SR and Lc50 of the oils and common insecticide. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse located at the experimental site of National Ornamental Plant Institute, Mahallt, Iran. The plants (Rosa hybrid Apollo were cut to stimulate rooting and then grown in plot containing a mixture of sand and sheep manure. Nine rose plant cuttings were planted in each plot with 1m2 space and 0.5 m distance each plot. So, each treatment had 9 shrubs of rose. The greenhouse whitefly T. vaporariorum were collected from infested rose plants and reared on rose. Each rose plant with one-year old was infested via 200 different stages of the whitefly. Fourteen days after infesting, compounds were sprayed on the infested plants with electrostatic atomizer backpack sprayer. Before spraying, plots were separated by plastic. Whitefly different stages from behind of three leaflets that separated from 15, 20 and 25 cm tip of plant were counted under a stereomicroscope (10 X one day before and seven days after treatment. The effect of oils and common insecticide on whitefly mortality rate (MR was performed in completely randomized

  8. Cranial osteology and taxonomy of albatrosses of genus Dimedea linneaus, 1758 and Thalassarche reichenbach, 1853 (procellariformes: Diomeidae

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    Francisco V. Dénes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The currently accepted albatross taxonomy, based on characters of external morphology, plumage patterns, tail shape, bill size and coloration, organization of the plates of the bill, and, more recently, molecular data such as cytochrome-b gene sequences, resulted in a division of the family Diomedeidae into four genera: Diomedea, comprising the great albatrosses; Phoebastria, the North Pacific albatrosses; Thalassarche, the mollymawks; and Phoebetria, the sooty mollymawks. However, there are only a few, old studies on albatross osteology, which focused mostly on supra-generic relationships. Research on the group's taxonomy and anatomy is important in order to establish a secure basis for the identification of each species, including the differences between males, females and specimens of different ages, and also to verify anatomic characters which might be found useful for phylogenetic analysis based on morphological markers. In the present study, 63 skulls of Diomedea and Thalassarche albatrosses were analyzed and compared, thus establishing topographic correspondences and determining primary homologies, these resulting in: (a the finding of no pattern of anatomical variation related to sex and age for both T. melanophris and for T. chlororhynchos; (b the assessment of eight cranial landmarks separating the genera Diomedea and Thalassarche; (c the recognition of 13 cranial landmarks differing among T. melanophris, T. chlororhynchos and T. cauta; (d the re-identification of several specimens based on skull characters. The characters here presented for the genera and species, along with further anatomical research on the skull of the Diomedeidae, including the genera Phoebetria and Phoebastria, may help to enlighten relationships within the family.A atual taxonomia dos albatrozes consiste na divisão da família Diomedeidae em quatro gêneros: Diomedea, que inclui os grandes albatrozes; Phoebastria, formado pelos albatrozes do norte do Pac