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Sample records for soothers comforters non-nutritive

  1. Sweeten, soother and swaddle for retinopathy of prematurity screening: a randomised placebo controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of oral sucrose combined with swaddling and non-nutritive suck (NNS) as a method for reducing pain associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled study. SETTING: Tertiary level neonatal intensive care unit. SAMPLE: 40 infants undergoing primary eye examination for ROP screening. INTERVENTION: The control group were swaddled, and received 0.2 ml of sterile water given by mouth using a syringe and a soother. The intervention group were swaddled, and received 0.2 ml of sucrose 24% given by mouth using a syringe and a soother. RESULTS: 40 infants were included in the study. There was no difference in mean gestational age at birth, mean birth weight or corrected gestational age at first examination between both groups. The sucrose group had a significantly lower median Neonatal Pain, Agitation and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) score during ROP screening, initially following insertion of the speculum (6.5 vs 5, p=0.02) and subsequently during scleral indentation (9.5 vs 7.5, p=0.03). Fewer infants experienced episodes of desaturations or bradycardia in the intervention group (1 vs 4, p=0.18). CONCLUSION: ROP screening is a necessary but recognised painful procedure. Sucrose combined with NNS and swaddling reduced the behavioural and physiological pain responses. However, pain scores remained consistently high and appropriate pain relief for ROP screening remains a challenge.

  2. Safety of food contact silicone rubber: Liberation of volatile compounds from soothers and teats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kirsten H.; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    2002-01-01

    The release of volatile compounds from soothers and teats made from silicone rubber has been investigated. Firstly, measurements of the total release of volatiles were performed according to the method in the draft European standard (CEN). Weight losses of 0.17-0.80% after four hours at 200 degrees......C were observed using gravimetric measurements. One product had a weight loss above the proposed CEN limit of 0.5%. Secondly, the volatile compounds were identified using a thermal desorption/cold trap injector on a gas chromatograph equipped with infrared spectroscopic (IR) and mass spectrometric (MS...

  3. Interventions for the cessation of non-nutritive sucking habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrie, Felicity R P; Bearn, David R; Innes, Nicola P T; Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah

    2015-03-31

    Comforting behaviours, such as the use of pacifiers (dummies, soothers), blankets and finger or thumb sucking, are common in babies and young children. These comforting habits, which can be referred to collectively as 'non-nutritive sucking habits' (NNSHs), tend to stop as children get older, under their own impetus or with support from parents and carers. However, if the habit continues whilst the permanent dentition is becoming established, it can contribute to, or cause, development of a malocclusion (abnormal bite). A diverse variety of approaches has been used to help children with stopping a NNSH. These include advice, removal of the comforting object, fitting an orthodontic appliance to interfere with the habit, application of an aversive taste to the digit or behaviour modification techniques. Some of these interventions are easier to apply than others and less disturbing for the child and their parent; some are more applicable to a particular type of habit.  The primary objective of the review was to evaluate the effects of different interventions for cessation of NNSHs in children. The secondary objectives were to determine which interventions work most quickly and are the most effective in terms of child and parent- or carer-centred outcomes of least discomfort and psychological distress from the intervention, as well as the dental measures of malocclusion (reduction in anterior open bite, overjet and correction of posterior crossbite) and cost-effectiveness. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 8 October 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 9), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 8 October 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 8 October 2014), PsycINFO via OVID (1980 to 8 October 2014) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 8 October 2014), the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (Clinical Trials.gov) (to 8 October 2014) and the WHO

  4. Non Nutritive Sweeteners - Current Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Deepak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High sugar diet plays a major contributing role in the increased prevalence of obesity and vital health concerns such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, ischemic heart disease (IHD, hypertension, and cerebrovascular stroke. Therefore increased obesity related mortality has resulted in a surge of weight loss diets and products including non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS. NNS are food supplements that imitate the effect of sugar in taste with lesser calories. This has led to the increased global use of NNS. Diabetic subjects can enjoy the taste of meals by including NNS without increasing calorie intake. Various NNS are available in the market, giving a wide range of choice available to the diabetics. Their use has both pro and cons, therefore its use must be decided by the physician depending upon clinical profile of the patient. Judicious use of artificial sweeteners can thus help patients to lead a healthy and prosperous life without compromising with taste.

  5. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is influenced by environmental parameters as well as other influences including asymmetric heating and cooling conditions. Additionally, some aspects of thermal comfort may be exploited so as to enable a building to operate within a...

  6. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  7. Non-nutritive sucking recorded in utero via fetal magnetography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, E A; Popescu, M; Gustafson, K M; Wang, J; Barlow, S M

    2008-01-01

    Several studies in term and pre-term infants have investigated the rhythmic pattern of non-nutritive sucking (NNS) indicating correlations between the quantitative measures derived from sucking pressure variation and/or electromyographic (EMG) recordings and a range of factors that include age, perinatal stress and sequelae. In the human fetus, NNS has been reported from 13 weeks of gestation and has been studied using real-time Doppler ultrasonography exclusively. The present study indicates that NNS in fetus can be reliably recorded and quantified using non-invasive biomagnetic measurements that have been recently introduced as an investigational tool for the assessment of fetal neurophysiologic development. We show that source separation techniques, such as independent component analysis, applied to the high-resolution multichannel recordings allow the segregation of an explicit waveform that represents the biomagnetic equivalent of the ororhythmic sucking pressure variation or EMG signal recorded in infants. This enables the morphological study of NNS patterning over different temporal scales, from the global quantitative measures to the within burst fine structure characterization, in correlation with the fetal cardiac rhythm

  8. Association between maternal breastfeeding and the development of non-nutritive sucking habits

    OpenAIRE

    FREIRE, Gabriela Lopes Mesquita; FERRARI, Junia Carolina Linhares; PERCINOTO, Célio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of maternal breastfeeding time with the introduction of non-nutritive sucking habits in children attending the Baby Clinic at the Araçatuba College of Dentistry, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita.METHODS: Interviews were conducted with the parents/legal guardians of 228 children, with the aim of obtaining information about the period of natural breastfeeding, the presence of non-nutritive sucking habits and the duration of the habit. A desc...

  9. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Robotic Comfort Zones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Likhachev, Maxim; Arkin, Ronald C

    2006-01-01

    .... A review of the existing study of human comfort, especially regarding its presence in infants, is conducted with the goal being to determine the relevant characteristics for mapping it onto the robotics domain...

  11. [Association between non-nutritive sweeteners and obesity risk among university students in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agúero, Samuel; Blanco Batten, Estela; Rodríguez Noel, María del Pilar; Cordón Arrivillaga, Karla; Salazar de Ariza, Julieta; Record Cornwall, Jiniva; Cereceda Bujaico, María Del Pilar; Antezana Almorza, Sonia; Espinoza Bernardo, Sissy; Encina Vega, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    The association between non-nutritive sweeteners and obesity is controversial. To determine whether the consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners is related to higher risk for overweight or obesity among university students in Chile, Panama, Guatemala and Peru. A total of 1,224 (472 from Chile, 300 from Panama, 248 from Guatemala and 204 from Peru) male and female university students aged between 18 and 26 years participated in the study. Each student reported their food intake (frequency of weekly consumption) in a survey that contained photos of foods containing non-nutritive sweeteners adapted for each country. Anthropometry was also measured. More than 80% of students consumed at least one product containing non-nutritive sweeteners. Females who ate acesulfame potassium and sucralose had a lower risk of overweight or obesity with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.5 (confidence intervals (CI) = 0.3-0.9; p = 0.003) and OR = 0.4 (IC = 0.2-0.8; p = 0.01), respectively. In this sample of Latinamerican university students, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners was associated with lower risk of overweight only in females.

  12. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  13. Non-nutritive sucking habits after three years of age: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Barbosa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits can result in negative consequences on the development of orofacial structures and occlusion. Aim: Assess factors associated with non-nutritive sucking habits in children after 3 years old. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 638 children aged 3-6 years. In the second stage, a case-control study (1:2 was conducted. The case group included all children who presented some non-nutritive sucking habits in the first stage of the study (n = 110. The control group (n = 220 was made up of children who had never presented non-nutritive sucking habits, matched to the case group for gender and age. The data were collected during the national poliomyelitis vaccination campaign, through a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians with questions related to the presence of sucking habits, sociodemographic aspects, birth aspects, and early life of the child. Statistical analysis involved descriptive analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test, and conditional logistic regression. Results: Reduction in maternal education was a protective factor for the development of non-nutritive sucking habits (education ≤8 years OR = 0.38, CI 95%: 0.16, 0.89, P = 0.025. Prematurity (OR = 3.30, CI 95%: 1.13, 9.69, P = 0.030 and a longer period using a baby bottle (OR = 1.03, CI 95%: 1.01, 1.05, P = 0.006 remained associated with a greater possibility of the occurrence of sucking habits, regardless of monthly family income. Conclusion: Non-nutritive sucking habits were associated with maternal education, premature birth, and greater time of bottle feeding in children after 3 years old.

  14. Effect of non-nutritive sugars to decrease the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially toxic to the fly. In a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly ...

  15. Effect of non-nutritional factors on nisin production | Tafreshi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    order to assess some of non-nutritional factors and how they influence the nisin production in batch cultivation, a laboratory scale study was performed. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 produced nisin and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 was used in bioassay measurement as the nisinsensitive strain. The age ...

  16. Smart grid voor comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N.; Kling, W.L.; Velden, van der J.A.J.; Larsen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er

  17. Can children discriminate sugar-sweetened from non-nutritively sweetened beverages and how do they like them?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, J.C.; Katan, M.B.; Kas, R.; Olthof, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Replacement of sugar-sweetened by non-nutritively sweetened beverages or water may reduce excess weight gain in children. However, it is unclear whether children like non-nutritively sweetened beverages as much as sugar-sweetened beverages. We examined whether children could taste a

  18. The relative reinforcing value of snack foods in response to consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive-sweetened beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of sugar and non-nutritive sweetener on regulation of appetite and energy intake remain controversial. Using a behavioral economic choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a sugar-sweetened (S) or a non-nutritive sweetened (NNS) beverage on appetite and the relati...

  19. Comfort measures: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Reference to the concept of comfort measures is growing in the nursing and medical literature; however, the concept of comfort measures is rarely defined. For the comfort work of nurses to be recognized, nurses must be able to identify and delineate the key attributes of comfort measures. A concept analysis using Rodgers' evolutionary method (2000) was undertaken with the goal of identifying the core attributes of comfort measures and thereby clarifying this concept. Health care literature was accessed from the CINAHL and PubMed databases. No restrictions were placed on publication dates. Four main themes of attributes for comfort measures were identified during the analysis. Comfort measures involve an active, strategic process including elements of "stepping in" and "stepping back," are both simple and complex, move from a physical to a holistic perspective and are a part of supportive care. The antecedents to comfort measures are comfort needs and the most common consequence of comfort measures is enhanced comfort. Although the concept of comfort measures is often associated with end-of-life care, this analysis suggests that comfort measures are appropriate for nursing care in all settings and should be increasingly considered in the clinical management of patients who are living with multiple, chronic comorbidities.

  20. Everyday Comfort Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffari, Svenja

    engineering praxis only, in order to address these issues. The empirical work is based on a user-driven innovation project (Indoor Climate & Quality of Life), where engineers, designers, sociologists and anthropologists met in order to exchange their different perspectives and collaboratively form new ideas...... the outdoor. This can be seen, for instance, in 'tight' low-energy buildings that host indoor climate products, which are often controlled by automated systems, to deliver optimal comfort conditions (i.e. temperature, humidity, air quality, noise, and light) to occupants. Buildings' indoor climate is designed......, engineering scientists and practitioners still seem to struggle with the kinds of alternative processes and products that are needed to achieve sustainable comfort. This dissertation applies everyday practice-oriented design ethnography to a field that has traditionally been investigated by scientific...

  1. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  2. Can children discriminate sugar-sweetened from non-nutritively sweetened beverages and how do they like them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne C de Ruyter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Replacement of sugar-sweetened by non-nutritively sweetened beverages or water may reduce excess weight gain in children. However, it is unclear whether children like non-nutritively sweetened beverages as much as sugar-sweetened beverages. We examined whether children could taste a difference between non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, and which of the two types of beverage they liked best. METHODS: 89 children aged 5 to 12 tasted seven non-nutritively sweetened beverages and matching sugar-sweetened beverages, for a total of 14 beverages. We used Triangle tests to check their ability to discriminate between the matched versions, and a 5-point scale to measure how much the children liked each individual beverage. RESULTS: Overall, 24% of children appeared to be genuinely capable of distinguishing between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages. The mean ± SD score for how much the children liked the non-nutritively sweetened beverages was 3.39 ± 0.7 and that for the sugar-sweetened beverages 3.39 ± 0.6 (P = 0.9 on a scale running from 1 (disgusting to 5 (delicious. The children preferred some beverages to others irrespective of whether they were sugar-sweetened or non-nutritively sweetened (P = 0.000. Children who correctly identified which of three drinks contained the same sweetener and which one was different also showed no preference for either type. CONCLUSION: We found that about one in four children were able to discriminate between non-nutritively sweetened and sugar-sweetened beverages but children liked both varieties equally. Non-nutritively sweetened beverages may therefore be an acceptable alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages although water remains the healthiest beverage for children.

  3. The myth of comfort food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heather Scherschel; Ahlstrom, Britt; Redden, Joseph P; Vickers, Zata; Mann, Traci

    2014-12-01

    People seek out their own idiosyncratic comfort foods when in negative moods, and they believe that these foods rapidly improve their mood. The purpose of these studies is to investigate whether comfort foods actually provide psychological benefits, and if so, whether they improve mood better than comparison foods or no food. Participants first completed an online questionnaire to indicate their comfort foods and a variety of comparison foods. During two lab sessions a week apart from each other (and at least a week after the online questionnaire, counterbalanced in order), participants watched films that induced negative affect. In one session, participants were then served their comfort food. In the other, participants were served an equally liked noncomfort food (Study 1), a neutral food (Study 2), or no food (Studies 3 and 4). Short-term mood changes were measured so that we could seek out psychological effects of these foods, rather than biochemical effects on mood from particular food components (e.g., sugars or vitamins). Comfort foods led to significant improvements in mood, but no more than other foods or no food. Although people believe that comfort foods provide them with mood benefits, comfort foods do not provide comfort beyond that of other foods (or no food). These results are likely not due to a floor effect because participants' moods did not return to baseline levels. Individuals may be giving comfort food "credit" for mood effects that would have occurred even in the absence of the comfort food.

  4. Honeywell: Comfort and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszewski, J.

    1995-12-31

    The presentation of the Company starts with having it ranked among the ones operating on the customers` market or those acting on the professional market. But it is not so. Honeywell is beyond such simple criteria. We are a company supplying products, systems and services related with generally conceived automatic control engineering, yet the operational range does comprise so many apparently diversified fields, for instance automatic control in aeronautics, heavy power engineering, building of apartment buildings, detached houses, heat engineering and some others. Nevertheless, our targets are always the same: maximum increase in efficiency and reliability of the process lines controlled by our systems as well as securing the best comfort of work and rest for people who stay in the buildings controlled by our devices. Simultaneously, the utilization of energy sources and the natural environment resources must be as sensible as possible.

  5. Improving thermal comfort in office practice: biomimetic comfort profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Houten, van M.A.; Boxem, G.; Noom, P.; Velden, van der J.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the office building of Kropman in Utrecht a number of measurements were done, by means of NEN-EN-ISO 7726, to determine thermal comfort in the office building. Also two enquiries were held to determine the thermal comfort perception of the employees. The evaluation of the measurements and

  6. Thermal comfort and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the increasing number of older adults wishes to age-in-place. Appropriate and comfortable housing is of great importance to facilitate this desire. One of the aspects of concern is thermal comfort. This is normally assessed using the model of Fanger, however, one might ask if this

  7. Thermal comfort: research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.; Mazej, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal comfort -the state of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment- is an important aspect of the building design process as modern man spends most of the day indoors. This paper reviews the developments in indoor thermal comfort research and practice since the second half

  8. Improving the comfort of garments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available refers to the human body’s ability to maintain life. Psychological comfort refers to the mind’s ability to keep functioning satisfactorily without external help. Physical comfort refers to the effects of the external environment on the body’s...

  9. The major types of added sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners in a sample of Australian packaged foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Yasmine C; Dengate, Alexis; Jacobs, Jenny; Louie, Jimmy Cy; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2017-12-01

    Limiting the intake of added sugars in the diet remains a key focus of global dietary recommendations. To date there has been no systematic monitoring of the major types of added sugars used in the Australian food supply. The present study aimed to identify the most common added sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners in the Australian packaged food supply. Secondary analysis of data from the Australian FoodSwitch database was undertaken. Forty-six added sugars and eight non-nutritive sweetener types were extracted from the ingredient lists of 5744 foods across seventeen food categories. Australia. Not applicable. Added sugar ingredients were found in 61 % of the sample of foods examined and non-nutritive sweetener ingredients were found in 69 %. Only 31 % of foods contained no added sugar or non-nutritive sweetener. Sugar (as an ingredient), glucose syrup, maple syrup, maltodextrin and glucose/dextrose were the most common sugar ingredient types identified. Most Australian packaged food products had at least one added sugar ingredient, the most common being 'sugar'. The study provides insight into the most common types of added sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners used in the Australian food supply and is a useful baseline to monitor changes in how added sugars are used in Australian packaged foods over time.

  10. Mechanisms of Sucrose and Non-Nutritive Sucking in Procedural Pain Management in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn Gibbins

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The administration of sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking (NNS has been examined for relieving procedural pain in newborn infants. The calming and pain-relieving effects of sucrose are thought to be mediated by endogenous opioid pathways activated by sweet taste. The orogustatory effects of sucrose have been demonstrated in animal newborns, and in preterm and full term human infants during painful procedures. In contrast to sucrose, the analgesic effects of NNS are hypothesized to be activated through nonopioid pathways by stimulation of orotactile and mechanoreceptor mechanisms. Although there is uncertainty as to whether the effects of sucrose and NNS are synergistic or additive, there is sufficient evidence to support the efficacy of combining the two interventions for procedural pain relief in infants. In this review article, the underlying mechanisms of sucrose and NNS, separately and in combination for relieving procedural pain in preterm and full term infants, are examined. Clinical and research implications are addressed.

  11. Intake of non-nutritive sweeteners is associated with an unhealthy lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Robert; Aasbrenn, Martin; Farup, Per G.

    2017-01-01

    .003), fat (p = 0.013), carbohydrates (p = 0.002), sugar (p = 0.003) and salt (p = 0.001); and with reduced intake of the vitamins A (p = 0.001), C (p = 0.002) and D (p = 0.016). Conclusions: The use of NNS-containing beverages was associated with an unhealthy lifestyle, reduced physical and mental health......Background: Subjects with morbid obesity commonly use Non-Nutritive Sweeteners (NNS), but the health-related effects of NNS have been questioned. The objectives of this study were to explore the associations between theuse of NNS and the health and lifestyle in subjects with morbid obesity. Methods...

  12. Non-nutritional factors affecting lactation persistency in dairy ewes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is largely related to the shape of the lactation curve. Key elements of the lactation pattern are peak yield, which is the maximum daily yield reached during lactation, and lactation persistency, which is the medium rate of milk yield decrease after the lactation peak. The ideal lactation curve should have a reasonably high peak and a flat trend afterwards. A more persistent lactation is desirable because it is related to better animal health and reduction of feeding costs. Effective strategies to improve lactation persistency require a deep understanding of the main factors that affect this trait, including genetics, hormonal status and administration, udder morphology, seasonal changes, management, animal health (e.g. mastitis, stress and nutrition. This review covers the effects of non-nutritional factors on lactation persistency in dairy sheep.

  13. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    : alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting.

  14. Comparing the Effect of Non-nutritive Sucking and Abdominal Massage on Feeding Tolerance in Preterm Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh Marzieh Fazli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Enteral feeding intolerance is a major problem in the preterm neonates. Non-nutritive sucking and abdominal massage are among the most important nutritional interventions in this regard. Aim: This study aimed to compare the effect of non-nutritive sucking and abdominal massage on feeding tolerance in the preterm newborns. Method: This clinical trial was conducted on 52 preterm neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, namely abdominal massage (17 newborns, non-nutritive sucking (18 newborns, and control groups (17 newborns. In the abdominal massage group, the intervention was fulfilled for 15 min twice a day, and in the non-nutritive sucking group, the intervention was performed for 10 min three times a day within 7 days. The control group only received tube feeding every two h without any intervention. Feeding tolerance was examined in terms of gastric residuals, vomiting, and abdominal distention. The data were collected through the recording daily information form. The data were analyzed through SPSS version 23, using ANOVA test and marginal models. Results: The mean gestational age of the abdominal massage group was 32.8±1.0 weeks. This value was 32.5±1.3 weeks in both sucking and control groups. Generalized estimating equation revealed that non-nutritive sucking was effective in the absence of distention (P=0.01 and vomiting (P=0.01. However, abdominal massage was effective only in the absence of vomiting (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: The use of non-nutritive sucking can increase the feeding tolerance in the preterm newborns.

  15. Thermal comfort: research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Joost; Mazej, Mitja; Hensen, Jan L M

    2010-01-01

    Thermal comfort--the state of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment--is an important aspect of the building design process as modern man spends most of the day indoors. This paper reviews the developments in indoor thermal comfort research and practice since the second half of the 1990s, and groups these developments around two main themes; (i) thermal comfort models and standards, and (ii) advances in computerization. Within the first theme, the PMV-model (Predicted Mean Vote), created by Fanger in the late 1960s is discussed in the light of the emergence of models of adaptive thermal comfort. The adaptive models are based on adaptive opportunities of occupants and are related to options of personal control of the indoor climate and psychology and performance. Both models have been considered in the latest round of thermal comfort standard revisions. The second theme focuses on the ever increasing role played by computerization in thermal comfort research and practice, including sophisticated multi-segmental modeling and building performance simulation, transient thermal conditions and interactions, thermal manikins.

  16. The relative reinforcing value of sweet versus savory snack foods after consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive-sweetened beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of sugar-sweetened (SSB) and non-nutritive sweetened (NSB) beverages on the regulation of appetite, energy intake and body weight regulation remain controversial. Using a behavioral choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a SSB or NSB on appetite and the reinforc...

  17. Smart grid for comfort; Smart grid voor comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W.; Van der Velden, J.A.J. [Kropman, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N. [Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kling, W.L. [Faculteit Electrical Engineering, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Larsen, J.P. [Sense Observation Systems, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    A new control strategy was developed based on the application of wireless sensor network with the connection to a smart grid to investigate if it is possible to save energy on the level of the user under the condition of maintaining the same or even improved level of individual comfort. By using different scenarios, for individual comfort and energy consumption, agents provide the steering of the process control This forms the basis of a new approach to optimize the energy consumption, after which the effect of it can be used on the level of residential building to optimize the interaction with the electrical infrastructure, the smart grid. [Dutch] Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er zijn verschillende scenario's voor individueel comfort en energiegebruik van apparatuur met behulp van agents die voor de aansturing kunnen zorgen. Zo wordt de kern van de energievraag geoptimaliseerd. De doorwerking hiervan tot op het niveau van woninggebouw en de koppeling met het externe elektriciteitsnet kan vervolgens worden geoptimaliseerd.

  18. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  19. Special Report - USNS Comfort Underway

    Science.gov (United States)

    region. The Navy hospital ship will provide medical, dental, veterinary and engineering assistance in medical clinic set up during Continuing Promise 2009. Story» Air Force Band Member Enjoys Audience Alexis arrived at a medical clinic set up by the crew of USNS Comfort wearing her Sunday best in

  20. FACT : forgiving agent comfort technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Wortel, W.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Akkermans, Hans; Jelsma, J.; Bakker, L.

    2005-01-01

    To further reduce energy consumption of office buildings, a new control technology is needed in which the end-user behaviour is integrated. Improvement of the energy consumption is offered by agent-based systems for energy management in buildings, as well as possibilities for enhancing the comfort

  1. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served

  2. Non-Nutritive Sweeteners in the Packaged Food Supply—An Assessment across 4 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Dunford

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest among consumers in the reduction of dietary sugar intake has led to the wider availability of food products containing non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS. However, the extent to which NNS are currently being used by manufacturers to sweeten processed food and beverage products, and how NNS may be displacing added sugars as a sweetener is unknown. The current study utilized branded food composition databases from Australia, Mexico, New Zealand and the US to determine the percentage of processed food and beverage products for which there are nutrition data containing NNS and to compare total sugar density (g per 100 mL for beverages and g per 100 g for foods between products with and without NNS. Ordinary least squares regression at the country-product level was performed to examine associations between presence of NNS and total sugar. Across all countries, 5% of products contained at least one NNS, with the highest prevalence among beverages (22%. Mexico had the highest percentage of products with NNS (11%, as compared to the United States (US (4%, New Zealand (1%, and Australia (<1%. The presence of NNS was associated with lower mean total sugar density among beverages (range across countries: 7.5 to 8.7 g per 100 mL and among foods (23.2 to 25.5 g per 100 g. Products with both added sugar ingredients and NNS had a lower overall mean total sugar density when compared to products containing only added sugar ingredients. Due to paucity of data on sales and market shares across these countries, our results do not reflect the extent to which consumers purchase NNS containing products. Continued monitoring of NNS in the food supply, extension of work from these data, and inclusion of market shares of products will be important as more countries introduce policies to reduce sugar.

  3. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education vs. Non-Nutrition Education Intervention in Improving Awareness Pertaining Iron Deficiency among Anemic Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hafzan Yusoff; Wan Nudri Wan Daud; Zulkifli Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to compare the effect between nutrition education intervention and non-nutrition education intervention on awareness regarding iron deficiency among schooling adolescents in Tanah Merah, one of rural district in Kelantan, Malaysia. Methods: This study which was started in year 2010 involved 280 respondents (223 girls, 57 boys, age: 16 yr) from schools in Tanah Merah. The selection criteria were based on hemoglobin level (Hb = 7 ? 11.9 g/dL for girls; Hb =...

  4. Effectiveness of Nutrition Education vs. Non-Nutrition Education Intervention in Improving Awareness Pertaining Iron Deficiency among Anemic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Hafzan; Wan Daud, Wan Nudri; Ahmad, Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the effect between nutrition education intervention and non-nutrition education intervention on awareness regarding iron deficiency among schooling adolescents in Tanah Merah, one of rural district in Kelantan, Malaysia. This study which was started in year 2010 involved 280 respondents (223 girls, 57 boys, age: 16 yr) from schools in Tanah Merah. The selection criteria were based on hemoglobin level (Hb = 7 - 11.9 g/dL for girls; Hb = 7 - 12.9 g/dL for boys). They were divided into 2 groups. The first group received nutrition education package (Nutrition education, NE), whereas another group was entitled to receive non-nutrition education intervention (Non-Nutrition Education, NNE) (supplement only). Both interventions were implemented for 3 months. The changes in awareness among respondents of both groups were evaluated using multi-choices questionnaire. Nutrition education receiver group (NE) demonstrated improvement in awareness at post-intervention. No substantial improvement was demonstrated by the counterpart group (NNE). Multimedia nutrition education program conducted at school setting was in fact practical and effective in improving awareness on iron deficiency among anemic adolescents.

  5. Effects of Abdominal Massage and Non-Nutritive Sucking on Physiological Parameters of Preterm Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alehe Seyyedrasooli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the reduction of infant mortality in the world, complication of preterm birth is a major cause of infant mortality. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of abdominal massage and non-nutritive sucking on physiological parameters of preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units in Emam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 42 infants who had the inclusion criteria, were selected and randomly assigned to three groups of abdominal massage and non-nutritive sucking and control (14 infant for each group. Abdominal massage in the first intervention group with the "I Love You: method and non-nutritive sucking in the second intervention through sucking a pacifier were performed twice in day for 15 minutes. The control group also received typical unit care. In order to analyze the data, the SPSS 22.0 software for analytical as well as descriptive statistical methods was used. Results: The results of this study showed that the studied groups, at 9 AM and 9 PM of 5 consecutive days, had a significant difference with each other in terms of physiological parameters of the mean scores of respiratory rate, heart rate, and oxygen saturation level (p

  6. The Reproducibility and Comparative Validity of a Non-Nutritive Sweetener Food Frequency Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Myers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to better assess non-nutritive sweetener (NNS consumption, measurement tools with greater utility are needed. The objective of this investigation is to determine the reproducibility and validity of a newly developed NNS food frequency questionnaire (NNS-FFQ that measures five types of NNS (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame potassium, sucralose and erythritol. Adult participants (n = 123, 56% female, 75% Caucasian, mean age = 36.8 ± 16.6 completed the NNS-FFQ twice and had 24-h dietary recalls three times over a two-week study period. Reproducibility between two administrations of the NNS-FFQ was assessed via Bland–Altman plots, Spearman’s correlations (rs and paired samples t-tests. Bland–Altman plots, Cohen’s κ, Spearman’s correlations (rs, and paired samples t-tests compared NNS intake between the two methods for validity. For reproducibility analyses, Bland–Altman analyses revealed agreement levels above the 95% acceptance level for total NNS (99.2%, erythritol (99.2%, and aspartame (96.7%. Agreement levels for acesulfame potassium (94.3%, saccharin (94.3%, and sucralose (94.3% were slightly below the acceptable level. For validity analyses, Bland–Altman analyses revealed agreement levels above the 95% acceptance level for total NNS (95.1%, sucralose (95.9%, saccharin (95.9%, and erythritol (95.1%. Agreement levels for aspartame (94.3% and acesulfame potassium (92.7% were slightly below the acceptable level. Although less than desirable agreement was found between the methods for aspartame and acesulfame potassium, some variance was expected due to the habitual nature of the NNS-FFQ as compared to the recent intake reported by recalls. Within the context of this constraint, the NNS-FFQ demonstrates acceptable reproducibility and validity. The NNS-FFQ is a brief questionnaire that could be administered among diverse participants at the individual and population levels to measure habitual NNS intake.

  7. The Comfortable Home and Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates relations between notions of comfort and notions of home, aiming at a better understanding of residential comfort and the related energy consumption. Residential comfort is examined through a practice-theoretical lens and as something that appears in between the social...... and material structures of a home. The approach considers different elements of comfort in homemaking practices, such as the body, materials and social meanings. The paper examines how conceptions of comfort and homeliness interrelate through homemaking practices and thereby redefine comfort within a framework...... of the home and social practices. This implies focus on “the comfortable home” as made up of homemaking practices that include knowhow, sensations and social norms. The empirical basis comprises interviews and visual data from a field study on detached housing on the outskirts of a Danish city. The paper...

  8. Thermal comfort assessment of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Carlucci, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    A number of metrics for assessing human thermal response to climatic conditions have been proposed in scientific literature over the last decades. They aim at describing human thermal perception of the thermal environment to which an individual or a group of people is exposed. More recently, a new type of “discomfort index” has been proposed for describing, in a synthetic way, long-term phenomena. Starting from a systematic review of a number of long-term global discomfort indices, they are then contrasted and compared on a reference case study in order to identify their similarities and differences and strengths and weaknesses. Based on this analysis, a new short-term local discomfort index is proposed for the American Adaptive comfort model. Finally, a new and reliable long-term general discomfort index is presented. It is delivered in three versions and each of them is suitable to be respectively coupled with the Fanger, the European Adaptive and the American Adaptive comfort models.

  9. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    OpenAIRE

    Pang Liping; Qin Yue; Liu Dong; Liu Meng

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS) that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV) model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft ...

  10. Thermal comfort in urban transitional spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chungyoon Chun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea). College of Human Ecology, Department of Housing and Interior Design; Tamura, A. [Yokohama National University (Japan). Department of Architecture and Building Science

    2005-05-15

    This paper deals with thermal comfort in urban transitional spaces. This topic investigates thermal comfort during walking activities through transitional spaces-urban corridors, shopping streets, and open-ended passageways. The study involves a field study and a laboratory study with a sequenced walk through an environmental control chamber. Subjects in both studies wore the same clothing ensembles, walked the same speed, and evaluated their thermal comfort at 20 designated point in the field and in specific rooms in the control chamber. Air temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity were measured concurrently as the thermal comfort votes completed. Findings revealed that the previously experienced temperatures determined thermal comfort at the following point in the sequence. Because thermal comfort at a point can be influenced widely by relative placement of temperatures in sequence, thermal comfort in transitional spaces can be adapted very widely compared to comfort inside of buildings. Thermal comfort along the experimental courses was evaluated by averaging the temperature of a course. (author)

  11. The relationship between international trade and non-nutritional health outcomes: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Darren K; Jones, Andrew P; Suhrcke, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Markets throughout the world have been reducing barriers to international trade and investment in recent years. The resulting increases in levels of international trade and investment have subsequently generated research interest into the potential population health impact. We present a systematic review of quantitative studies investigating the relationship between international trade, foreign direct investment and non-nutritional health outcomes. Articles were systematically collected from the SCOPUS, PubMed, EconLit and Web of Science databases. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the evidence considered, the 16 included articles were subdivided into individual level data analyses, selected country analyses and international panel analyses. Articles were then quality assessed using a tool developed as part of the project. Nine of the studies were assessed to be high quality, six as medium quality, and one as low quality. The evidence from the quantitative literature suggests that overall, there appears to be a beneficial association between international trade and population health. There was also evidence of the importance of foreign direct investment, yet a lack of research considering the direction of causality. Taken together, quantitative research into the relationship between trade and non-nutritional health indicates trade to be beneficial, yet this body of research is still in its infancy. Future quantitative studies based on this foundation will provide a stronger basis on which to inform relevant national and international institutions about the health consequences of trade policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptive principles for thermal comfort in dwellings: From comfort temperatures to avoiding discomfort

    OpenAIRE

    Alders, E.E.; Kurvers, S.R.; Van den Ham, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Many theories on thermal comfort exist and there are many ways to deliver this in an energy efficient way. Both aspects are often studied in a static way and most of these studies only regard one of the aspects, seldom investigating what influence the way of delivering thermal comfort has on the actual perceived thermal comfort. This paper analyses the knowledge of the different disciplines and integrates it to get a holistic image of comfort and its delivery systems as well as opportunities ...

  13. Thermal comfort in residential buildings: Comfort values and scales for building energy simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, L.F.R.; Dear, de R.; Hensen, J.L.M.; D'Haeseleer, W.

    2009-01-01

    Building Energy Simulation (BES) programmes often use conventional thermal comfort theories to make decisions, whilst recent research in the field of thermal comfort clearly shows that important effects are not incorporated. The conventional theories of thermal comfort were set up based on steady

  14. Affect asymmetry and comfort food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; LeBel, Jordan L; Lu, Ji

    2005-11-15

    It is proposed that the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption can reliably be predicted by factors tied to affect asymmetry whereby negative affects dominate one's experience, decision making and behaviors in some instances while positive emotions prevail in others. Specifically, we relate three of these factors (age, gender, and culture) to differences in the emotional triggers of comfort food consumption and we further explore the possibility that the type of food eaten during comfort-seeking episodes can also be tied to affect asymmetry. Two hundred and seventy-seven participants completed a web-based survey conducted to assess the emotional antecedents and consequences of comfort food consumption. Consistent with expectations, results indicate that men's comfort food consumption was motivated by positive emotions whereas women's consumption was triggered by negative affects. Consumption of comfort foods alleviated women's negative emotions but also produced guilt. Positive affect was a particularly powerful trigger of comfort food consumption for older participants and for participants with French cultural background. Younger participants and participants with English background reported more intense negative emotions prior to consuming comfort foods. Foods high in sugar and fat content were more efficient in alleviating negative affects whereas low-calorie foods were more efficient in increasing positive emotions.

  15. Thermal Comfort and Strategies for Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohles, Frederick H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses studies in thermal comfort which served as the basis for the comfort standard. Examines seven variables in the human response to the thermal environment in terms of the ways in which they can be modified to conserve energy. (Author/MK)

  16. HUMAN COMFORT AND THE MICROCLIMATIC DRIVERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    mean heat stress (poor human comfort), followed by high density residential areas. A major attribute ... Key words: Heat stress, human comfort, microclimate, land use, urban, vegetation. Introduction ... defined by the meteorological Glossary as the physical state of .... which is the focus of the study is characterized by. Human ...

  17. Understanding the adaptive approach to thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, M.A. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for the Study of Christianity and Culture; Nicol, J.F. [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Architecture

    1998-10-01

    This paper explains the adaptive approach to thermal comfort, and an adaptive model for thermal comfort is presented. The model is an example of a complex adaptive system (Casti 1996) whose equilibria are determined by the restrictions acting upon it. People`s adaptive actions are generally effective in securing comfort, which occurs at a wide variety of indoor temperatures. These comfort temperatures depend upon the circumstances in which people live, such as the climate and the heating or cooling regime. The temperatures may be estimated from the mean outdoor temperature and the availability of a heating or cooling plant. The evaluation of the parameters of the adaptive model requires cross-sectional surveys to establish current norms and sequential surveys (with and without intervention) to evaluate the rapidity of people`s adaptive actions. Standards for thermal comfort will need revision in the light of the adaptive approach. Implications of the adaptive model for the HVAC industry are noted.

  18. Visual comfort evaluated by opponent colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Ken

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate psychological impression of visual comfort when we see an image of ordinary colored scene presented in a color display. Effects of opponent colors, i.e. red, green, yellow and blue component, on the subjective judgement on visual comfort to the image were investigated. Three kinds of psychological experiment were designed to see the effects and the results indicated that the red/green opponent color component was more affecting than the yellow-blue one, and red color in particular was the most affecting factor on visual comfort.

  19. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  20. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Individual thermal comfort. Measurements versus perceived level; Thermisch individueel comfort. Metingen versus beleving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noom, P.; Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G. [Unit Building Physics and Systems, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Haan, J.F.B.C.; Van der Velden, J. [Kropman Installatietechniek, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    In a normal office building measurements according to NEN-EN-ISO 7726 (Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Instruments for measuring physical quantities) have been carried out and a survey was held to determine the perceived thermal comfort of individuals. A comparison between the objective determined thermal comfort and the perceived thermal comfort shows quite a difference. This result was also reached in earlier research by others in laboratories. Therefore it is necessary to take care of the differences when designing a specific comfort level and try to determine the perceived comfort level of the individual occupants. [Dutch] Nieuwe optimalisatiemogelijkheden voor energiegebruik voor het comfort zijn mogelijk door vanuit de actuele en toekomstige individuele behoefte aan comfort van de gebruiker de installatie optimaal aan te sturen. Dit artikel geeft inzicht in de efficiente afstemming van vraag en aanbod van energie voor thermisch comfort. In een kantoorgebouw zijn metingen gedaan, conform NEN-EN-ISO 7726 (Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Instruments for measuring physical quantities), en er is een enquete gehouden om het thermisch comfort individueel te kunnen bepalen gedurende de werkdag. Het doel van de metingen was de verschillen tussen de individuele beleving en de werkelijke klimaat omstandigheden te kunnen bepalen.

  2. The Effect of Non-nutritive Sucking on Transcutaneous Oxygen Saturation in Neonates under the Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral beneficial effects of non-nutritive sucking in infants, including the physiological stability, relaxation, better transition from tube feeding to oral feeding have been reported. But its effect on oxygen saturation in neonates under the Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (NCPAPو (is not so clear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of non-nutritive sucking on transcutaneous oxygen saturation levels of neonates treated with NCPAP.Materials and MethodsThis quasi-experimental study was done on 25 preterm neonates, hospitalized with a diagnosis of respiratory distress, required NCPAP, in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at the Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital and Babol Clinic, North of Iran. Non-nutritive sucking was elicited by a standard pacifier appropriate to their age one hour a day, and the mean oxygen saturation was measured before and after intervention by cardiopulmonary monitoring (Saadat Co., Iran. Data analyzed using SPSS-18.0 software.ResultsIn the 25 cases studied, the mean oxygen saturation values ​​before performing non-nutritive sucking was 96.31±2.88%, which was changed to 98.35±1.6% after intervention, and this increase was statistically significant (P = 0.004.Results showed that the gender, birth weight and gestational age of neonates had no effect on mean Blood oxygen saturation (SpO2level.ConclusionAccording to the results, using the non-nutritive sucking in premature neonates under the NCPAP, can improve oxygenation.

  3. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  4. Non-nutritive anticarcinogens in foods : state of the art and future developments : a report of the international workshop held on March 26 - 27 1990 in Wageningen, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, M.G.L.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    1990-01-01

    On March 26-27 1990 an international workshop on non-nutritive anticarcinogens in foods was organised in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Aim of the workshop was to review progress in the research on natural occurring non-nutritive anticarcinogens and to set priorities for future analytica! and

  5. Entropy generation method to quantify thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper presents a thermodynamic approach to assess the quality of human-thermal environment interaction and quantify thermal comfort. The approach involves development of entropy generation term by applying second law of thermodynamics to the combined human-environment system. The entropy generation term combines both human thermal physiological responses and thermal environmental variables to provide an objective measure of thermal comfort. The original concepts and definitions form the basis for establishing the mathematical relationship between thermal comfort and entropy generation term. As a result of logic and deterministic approach, an Objective Thermal Comfort Index (OTCI) is defined and established as a function of entropy generation. In order to verify the entropy-based thermal comfort model, human thermal physiological responses due to changes in ambient conditions are simulated using a well established and validated human thermal model developed at the Institute of Environmental Research of Kansas State University (KSU). The finite element based KSU human thermal computer model is being utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal responses to different environmental conditions. The output from the simulation, which include human thermal responses and input data consisting of environmental conditions are fed into the thermal comfort model. Continuous monitoring of thermal comfort in comfortable and extreme environmental conditions is demonstrated. The Objective Thermal Comfort values obtained from the entropy-based model are validated against regression based Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) values. Using the corresponding air temperatures and vapor pressures that were used in the computer simulation in the regression equation generates the PMV values. The preliminary results indicate that the OTCI and PMV values correlate well under ideal conditions. However, an experimental study

  6. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  7. Adaptive principles for thermal comfort in dwellings : From comfort temperatures to avoiding discomfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alders, E.E.; Kurvers, S.R.; Van den Ham, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Many theories on thermal comfort exist and there are many ways to deliver this in an energy efficient way. Both aspects are often studied in a static way and most of these studies only regard one of the aspects, seldom investigating what influence the way of delivering thermal comfort has on the

  8. Forty years of Fanger's model of thermal comfort: Comfort for all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.

    2008-01-01

    The predicted mean vote (PMV) model of thermal comfort, created by Fanger in the late 1960s, is used worldwide to assess thermal comfort. Fanger based his model on college-aged students for use in invariant environmental conditions in air-conditioned buildings in moderate thermal climate zones.

  9. Thermal comfort. Individual and time-dependent?; Thermisch comfort. Individueel en tijdafhankelijk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noom, P.; Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G. [Unit Building Physics and Systems, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Haan, J.F.B.C.; Van der Velden, J. [Kropman Installatietechniek, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    With respect to the perceived thermal comfort there are large individual differences, which also change during daytime. Therefore is worthwhile to determine the individual thermal comfort profiles during the day. The perceived thermal comfort level follows an individual day profile. By using these profiles as a leading principal to control the indoor temperatures an improvement of the perceived comfort is possible while at the same time it can reduce energy consumption. [Dutch] Nieuwe optimalisatiemogelijkheden voor energiegebruik voor het comfort zijn mogelijk door vanuit de actuele en toekomstige individuele behoefte aan comfort van de gebruiker de installatie optimaal aan te sturen. Dit artikel geeft inzicht in de efficiente afstemming van vraag en aanbod van energie voor thermisch comfort. In een kantoorgebouw zijn metingen gedaan, conform NEN-EN-ISO 7726 (Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Instruments for measuring physical quantities), en er is een enquete gehouden om het thermisch comfort individueel te kunnen bepalen gedurende de werkdag. Het doel van de metingen was de verschillen tussen de individuele beleving en de werkelijke klimaat omstandigheden te kunnen bepalen.

  10. Thermal comfort in residential buildings: Comfort values and scales for building energy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, Leen; D' haeseleer, William [Division of Applied Mechanics and Energy Conversion, University of Leuven (K.U.Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 300 A, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dear, Richard de [Division of Environmental and Life Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Hensen, Jan [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Vertigo 6.18, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Building Energy Simulation (BES) programmes often use conventional thermal comfort theories to make decisions, whilst recent research in the field of thermal comfort clearly shows that important effects are not incorporated. The conventional theories of thermal comfort were set up based on steady state laboratory experiments. This, however, is not representing the real situation in buildings, especially not when focusing on residential buildings. Therefore, in present analysis, recent reviews and adaptations are considered to extract acceptable temperature ranges and comfort scales. They will be defined in an algorithm, easily implementable in any BES code. The focus is on comfortable temperature levels in the room, more than on the detailed temperature distribution within that room. (author)

  11. Air humidity requirements for human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    level near 100% rh. For respiratory comfort are the requirements much more stringent and results in lower permissible indoor air humidities. Compared with the upper humidity limit specified in existing thermal comfort standards, e.g. ASHRAE Addendum 55a, the humidity limit based on skin humidity......Upper humidity limits for the comfort zone determined from two recently presented models for predicting discomfort due to skin humidity and insufficient respiratory cooling are proposed. The proposed limits are compared with the maximum permissible humidity level prescribed in existing standards...... for the thermal indoor environment. The skin humidity model predicts discomfort as a function of the relative humidity of the skin, which is determined by existing models for human heat and moisture transfer based on environmental parameters, clothing characteristics and activity level. The respiratory model...

  12. Thermal comfort in commercial kitchens (RP-1469)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Stoops, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory, and working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type of establishment (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, the size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., further complicate an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in commercial kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are stipulated in international standards (e.g., ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN 7730), but are these standardized methods applicable...... dissatisfied (PMV/PPD) index is not directly appropriate for all thermal conditions in commercial kitchens....

  13. Improving comfort and health with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality in buildings affects occupants¿ health, comfort and performance. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform room environment. However, large individual differences exist between occupants in regard...... existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analysed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  14. Non-nutritive sucking for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in preterm and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaila, Kim; Foster, Jann P; Richards, Robyn; Jeffery, Heather E

    2014-10-15

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is commonly diagnosed in the neonatal population (DiPietro 1994), and generally causes few or no symptoms (Vandenplas 2009). Conversely, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) refers to GOR that causes troublesome symptoms with or without complications such as damage to the oesophagus (Vandenplas 2009). Currently there is no evidence to support the range of measures recommended to help alleviate acid reflux experienced by infants. Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) has been used as an intervention to modulate neonatal state behaviours through its pacifying effects such as decrease infant fussiness and crying during feeds (Boiron 2007; Pickler 2004). To determine if NNS reduces GORD in preterm infants (less than 37 weeks' gestation) and low birth weight (less than 2500 g) infants, three months of age and less, with signs or symptoms suggestive of GORD, or infants with a diagnosis of GORD. We performed computerised searches of the electronic databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 9, 2013), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2013), CINAHL (1982 to September 2013), and EMBASE (1988 to September 2013). We applied no language restrictions. Controlled trials using random or quasi-random allocation of preterm infants (less than 37 weeks' gestation) and low birth weight (less than 2500 g) infants three months of age and less with signs or symptoms suggestive of GORD, or infants with a diagnosis of GORD. We included studies reported only by abstracts, and cluster and cross-over randomised trials. Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data. We identified two studies from the initial search. After further review, we excluded both studies. We identified no studies examining the effects of NNS for GORD in preterm and low birth weight infants There was insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of NNS for GORD

  15. The relative reinforcing value of sweet versus savory snack foods after consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Shanon L; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sugar-sweetened (SSB) and non-nutritive sweetened (NSB) beverages on the regulation of appetite, energy intake and body weight regulation remain controversial. Using a behavioral choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a SSB or NSB on appetite and the reinforcing value of sweet relative to salty/savory snack foods. In a randomized crossover study, 21 healthy weight adults consumed 360 ml of SSB (sucrose; 31 g) or NSB (sucralose; 4 g) with a standardized meal. Hedonic ratings for the sweet and salty/savory snack foods used for the reinforcement task were assessed prior to the start of the study. Satiety and the desire to eat foods with a specific taste profile were assessed before and every 30 min post-meal for 4 h. The relative reinforcing value of the snack foods was assessed using a computer-based choice task (operant responding with concurrent schedules of reinforcement) 4 h post-meal. Hedonic ratings did not differ between the most highly liked sweet and salty/savory snack foods. Beverage type did not influence measures of satiety or the desire to eat foods with a specific taste. However, sweet snacks were more (p snack foods after consuming a NSB than after a SSB. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that NSB can increase the motivation to gain access to sweet snacks relative to salty/savory snack foods later in the day. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. IMPLICATIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON HUMAN COMFORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    industrial activities, electricity generation and transportation release more CO2 ... The relation of the four factors that determine the comfort zone is illustrated on the Bioclimatic chart, ... Architectural Consulting firms, Technical Experts of the Architectural and Engineering Services Limited ... touch to the walls by painting them.

  17. Braking Control for Improving Ride Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jonghyup

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While many vehicle control systems focus on vehicle safety and vehicle performance at high speeds, most driving conditions are very low risk situations. In such a driving situation, the ride comfort of the vehicle is the most important performance index of the vehicle. Electro mechanical brake (EMB and other brake-by-wire (BBW systems have been actively researched. As a result, braking actuators in vehicles are more freely controllable, and research on improving ride comfort is also possible. In this study, we develop a control algorithm that dramatically improves ride comfort in low risk braking situations. A method for minimizing the inconvenience of a passenger due to a suddenly changing acceleration at the moment when the vehicle is stopped is presented. For this purpose, an acceleration trajectory is generated that minimizes the discomfort index defined by the change in acceleration, jerk. A controller is also designed to track this trajectory. The algorithm that updates the trajectory is designed considering the error due to the phase lag occurring in the controller and the plant. In order to verify the performance of this controller, simulation verification is completed using a car simulator, Carsim. As a result, it is confirmed that the ride comfort is dramatically improved.

  18. The First "Comfort Houses" in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    The "Comfort Houses" is the most ambitious building project in passive houses in Denmark until today. Eight single family houses are built and designed by seven different consortiums. Besides fulfilling the German passive house standard the goal was to build the houses according to Danish tradition...

  19. Human thermal comfort in urban outdoor spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee P. Herrington; J. S. Vittum

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the physical environment of urban open spaces in Syracuse, New York, were used to compute the physiological responses of human users of the spaces. These calculations were then used to determine what environmental variables were both important to human comfort and susceptible to control by site design. Although air temperature and humidity are important...

  20. Recent upgrading of the modelling program COMFORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, C.; Lee, M.

    1986-01-01

    The computer code COMFORT, developed for the online control of machine functions at the SLC, has recently undergone several modifications to overcome some of its limitations. This note describes the reasons for these changes, the methods employed, some test results and the applications of the new version of the program

  1. Association between breastfeeding duration, non-nutritive sucking habits and dental arch dimensions in deciduous dentition: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Shiv Shankar; Nehra, Karan; Sharma, Mohit; Jayan, Balakrishna; Poonia, Anish; Bhattal, Hiteshwar

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted to determine association between breastfeeding duration, non-nutritive sucking habits, dental arch transverse diameters, posterior crossbite and anterior open bite in deciduous dentition. Methods 415 children (228 males and 187 females), 4 to 6 years old, from a mixed Indian population were clinically examined. Based on written questionnaire answered by parents, children were divided into two groups: group 1 (breastfed for

  2. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants....... This paper discusses and presents a number of comfort indicators that includes both the temporal variation and the degree of discomfort in the calculations. A test case comprising a ventilated office building is used to show the application of the various comfort indices. It is found that the new comfort...

  3. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  4. Design and comfort in office space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele M. Lepore

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of office space is of particular interest because it is a sector strongly involved by technological development. The high concentration of plant engineering systems makes it essential to the attention to environmental parameters and to research on the quality of the relationship which binds man to artificial dimension of built space. In the design of office spaces, the general objective must be to be able to achieve a new working environment relationship. A ratio in which optimal balance is always sought in terms of igrothermal, acoustic and luminous comfort conditions, without noting that the psychological and sociological component plays an important role among the environmental factors, and this significantly interferes with the conditions of physiological comfort. The following work is an essay on the subject.

  5. THERMAL COMFORT IN VERNACULAR COURTYARD HOUSES: CASE STUDY -CHHATTISGARH

    OpenAIRE

    Swasti Sthapak*1, Dr. Abir Bandyopadhyay2

    2017-01-01

    The paper firstly introduces vernacular architecture and defines thermal comfort. The second section of this paper gives an account of the way vernacular houses respond to climate and achieve thermal comfort. Vernacular houses of Chhattisgarh, a central state of India are selected for this study to find the evidence that vernacular architecture is likely to be passively comfortable. Courtyards play a vital role in creating thermal comfort along with other social and cultural roles. Vernacular...

  6. The electric comfort; Le confort electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the public information on the electric power utilization in the household, Electricite De France presented on april-may at Paris Meeting, the possibilities and the advantages of the electric comfort. The concerned domains are: the electric cheating, the air-conditioning, the hot water, the lighting and the electric household appliances. Information on prices and statistical data on electric heating are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  8. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  9. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Liping

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft cabins, especially in some short-haul continental flights. It is necessary to develop an easy way to predict the thermal sensation of passengers and to direct the crew to control ECS. Due to the assessment consistency of the corrected PMV model and the adaptive model, the adaptive model of thermal neutrality temperature can be used as a method to predict the cabin optimal operative temperature. Because only the mean outdoor effective temperature ET∗ of a departure city is an input variable for the adaptive model, this method can be easily understood and implemented by the crew and can satisfy 80–90% of the thermal acceptability levels of passengers.

  10. Viewing Race in the Comfort Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Hughes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carter suggests the concept of a “comfort zone” to explain the inability of dramatic African American programs to be successful on television. He argues that a workable formula has been developed for successful African American series, “portray black people in a way that would be acceptable to the millions of potential purchasers (whites of advertised products. That is, non-threatening and willing to ‘stay in their place.’”. Using a data set constructed from television ratings and shares, this study examines “black-centeredness” within the context of program success and failure. The comfort zone concept argues Black-centered television series are only successful in a comedic genre because White audiences, who have the majority of the ratings power, will only watch Black-centered series with which they are comfortable. The findings suggest that, in general, race, that is Black-centeredness, did not negatively influence program ratings or shares.

  11. Design of outdoor urban spaces for thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet J. Plumley

    1977-01-01

    Microclimates in outdoor urban spaces may be modified by controlling the wind and radiant environments in these spaces. Design guidelines were developed to specify how radiant environments may be selected or modified to provide conditions for thermal comfort. Fanger's human-thermal-comfort model was used to determine comfortable levels of radiant-heat exchange for...

  12. Comparison of thermal comfort and sensation scales : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesely, Michal; Zeiler, Wim; Li, Rongling; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; te Kulve, M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal sensation is a conscious feeling that grades the thermal environment, while thermal comfort expresses satisfaction with this feeling. Multiple scales to quantify thermal sensation and comfort have been developed throughout the history of research on thermal comfort. In this paper, the most

  13. Domotics. Comfortable and energy efficient?; Domotica. Comfortabel en energiezuinig?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wolferen, H.; Hendriksen, L.; Traversari, R. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    Insight is given into the added value of domotics (home automation) in the handling and control of comfort installations, focusing on comfort and energy consumption. Costs are indicated. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de toegevoegde waarde van domotica bij de bediening en regeling van comfortinstallaties. Hierbij wordt de meeste aandacht gegeven aan comfort en energiegebruik. De kosten worden alleen indicatief besproken.

  14. MONITORING OF LOWER LIMB COMFORT AND INJURY IN ELITE FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relation between lower limb comfort scores and injury and to measure the responsiveness of a lower limb comfort index (LLCI to changes over time, in a cohort of professional footballers. Lower limb comfort was recorded for each individual using a comfort index which assessed the comfort status of five anatomical segments and footwear. Specifically we tested the extent to which comfort zones as measured by the LLCI were related to injury measured as time loss events. The hypothesis for the study was that poor lower limb comfort is related to time loss events (training or match day. A total of 3524 player weeks of data was collected from 182 professional athletes encompassing three codes of football (Australian Rules, Rugby league, Rugby Union. The study was conducted during football competition periods for the respective football leagues and included a period of pre- season training. The results of regression indicated that poor lower limb comfort was highly correlated to injury (R2 =0.77 and accounted for 43.5 time loss events/ 1000hrs football exposure. While poor comfort was predictive of injury 47% of all time loss events it was not statistically relevant (R2 =0.18. The results indicate lower limb comfort can be used to assess the well-being of the lower limb; poor comfort is associated with injury, and the LLCI has good face validity and high criterion-related validity for the relationship between comfort and injury

  15. the comfort, measured by means of a sweating manikin (waltertm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    With the growing importance of clothing comfort in South African and overseas markets for locally produced clothing, the Council for. Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR) acquired an advanced sweating fabric manikin for measuring clothing comfort. This preliminary investigation covers the comfort related properties, as ...

  16. Forty years of Fanger's model of thermal comfort: comfort for all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, J

    2008-06-01

    The predicted mean vote (PMV) model of thermal comfort, created by Fanger in the late 1960s, is used worldwide to assess thermal comfort. Fanger based his model on college-aged students for use in invariant environmental conditions in air-conditioned buildings in moderate thermal climate zones. Environmental engineering practice calls for a predictive method that is applicable to all types of people in any kind of building in every climate zone. In this publication, existing support and criticism, as well as modifications to the PMV model are discussed in light of the requirements by environmental engineering practice in the 21st century in order to move from a predicted mean vote to comfort for all. Improved prediction of thermal comfort can be achieved through improving the validity of the PMV model, better specification of the model's input parameters, and accounting for outdoor thermal conditions and special groups. The application range of the PMV model can be enlarged, for instance, by using the model to assess the effects of the thermal environment on productivity and behavior, and interactions with other indoor environmental parameters, and the use of information and communication technologies. Even with such modifications to thermal comfort evaluation, thermal comfort for all can only be achieved when occupants have effective control over their own thermal environment. The paper treats the assessment of thermal comfort using the PMV model of Fanger, and deals with the strengths and limitations of this model. Readers are made familiar to some opportunities for use in the 21st-century information society.

  17. The human thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones: Thermal comfort in your own skin blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlader, Zachary J

    2015-01-01

    Human thermoregulation is achieved via autonomic and behavioral responses. Autonomic responses involve 2 synchronous 'components'. One counteracts large thermal perturbations, eliciting robust heat loss or gain (i.e., sweating or shivering). The other fends off smaller insults, relying solely on changes in sensible heat exchange (i.e., skin blood flow). This sensible component occurs within the thermoneutral zone [i.e., the ambient temperature range in which temperature regulation is achieved only by sensible heat transfer, without regulatory increases in metabolic heat production (e.g., shivering) or evaporative heat loss (e.g., sweating)].(1) The combination of behavior and sensible heat exchange permits a range of conditions that are deemed thermally comfortable, which is defined as the thermal comfort zone.(1) Notably, we spend the majority of our lives within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones. It is only when we are unable to stay within these zones that deleterious health and safety outcomes can occur (i.e., hypo- or hyperthermia). Oddly, although the thermoneutral zone and thermal preference (a concept similar to the thermal comfort zone) has been extensively studied in non-human animals, our understanding of human thermoregulation within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones remains rather crude.

  18. In-situ real time measurements of thermal comfort and comparison with the adaptive comfort theory in Dutch residential dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannou, A.; Itard, L.C.M.; Agarwal, Tushar

    2018-01-01

    Indoor thermal comfort is generally assessed using the PMV or the adaptive model. This research presents the results obtained by in-situ real time measurements of thermal comfort and thermal comfort perception in 17 residential dwellings in the Netherlands. The study demonstrates the new

  19. How "Does" the Comforting Process Work? An Empirical Test of an Appraisal-Based Model of Comforting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susanne M.; Wirtz, John G.

    2006-01-01

    Burleson and Goldsmith's (1998) comforting model suggests an appraisal-based mechanism through which comforting messages can bring about a positive change in emotional states. This study is a first empirical test of three causal linkages implied by the appraisal-based comforting model. Participants (N=258) talked about an upsetting event with a…

  20. Comfort-box controls individual level of comfort. Domotica home network for indoor climate management; Comfort-box regelt individueel comfort-niveau. Domotica-huisnetwerk voor beheer binnenklimaat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, I.G; Warmer, C.J.; Bakker, E.J. [ECN Duurzame Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-03-01

    The Comfort-Box (or C-Box) project is an automatic and continuous control system for energy efficient and cost-effective thermal comfort in houses. In this article detailed information is given of the design and performance of the C-Box. [Dutch] De huidige regelsystemen voor het binnenklimaat in woningen zijn voor verbetering vatbaar. Met het Comfort-boxconcept is een regeling ontwikkeld die automatisch en continu het individuele comfortniveau regelt in woningen, waarbij afwegingen worden gemaakt tussen kosten en comfort. De Comfort-box blijkt in staat te zijn het binnencomfort op energie- en kostenefficiente wijze te beheren.

  1. Developing Pokemon AI For Finding Comfortable Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Panumate, Chetprayoon; Iida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores an innovative way to find a comfortable setting of video games. Pokemon is chosen as benchmark and game refinement measure is employed for the assessment. The number of Pokemon that one trainer can carry (i.e., setting with n=6) has never been changed after the first episode of Pokemon was released in 1996. Pokemon battle is simulated and various AIs are developed for the experiments. The results show that the original setting is the best for many players of various levels.

  2. Radiating comfort in prestigious condo units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, R.

    2001-08-01

    Advantages of the type of electric floor heating installed in an exclusive condominium development in Whistler, a winter sports resort community in British Columbia, are discussed. Quality, comfort, strict limits on the amount of available electricity, and reduced maintenance, were the principal reasons for installing this type of heating system, according to the designer of the complex. Floor heating, being a radiant heating system, eliminates wasteful stratification of heat in a given heated space, thus helping to achieve comfortable ambient temperature at a lower level than would be required with conventional heating systems, reducing the power requirements by as much as 25 per cent. The system maintains a uniform temperature without any movement of air, dust and germs, providing occupants with a clean and pleasant atmosphere. The Flexterm system can be used under a variety of floor coverings -- natural stone, ceramic, marble, carpets, vinyl tiles, or wood flooring. It can be used selectively in different rooms of a housing unit, while other parts (in this instance the bedrooms), are heated by small electric baseboard heaters.

  3. Passenger safety, health, and comfort: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, R B

    1997-05-01

    Since the birth of aviation medicine approximately 80 yrs ago, practitioners and scientists have given their attention primarily to flight deck crew, cabin crew, and ground support personnel. However, in more recent years we have broadened our horizons to include the safety, health, and comfort of passengers flying commercial aircraft. This will be even more compelling as more passengers take to the air in larger aircraft and flying longer hours to more distant destinations. Further, we can expect to see more older passengers because people in many countries are living longer, healthier lives. The author first discusses the stresses imposed by ordinary commercial flight upon travelers such as airport tumult, barometric pressure changes, immobility, jet lag, noise/ vibration, and radiation. Medical considerations are next addressed describing inflight illness and medical care capability aboard U.S. air carriers. Passenger safety, cabin air quality, and the preventive medicine aspects of air travel are next reviewed in the context of passenger safety, health, and comfort. Recommendations are addressed to regulator agencies, airlines aircraft manufacturers, and the aerospace medicine community.

  4. Thermodynamical analysis of human thermal comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prek, Matjaz

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods of human thermal comfort analysis are based on the first law of thermodynamics. These methods use an energy balance of the human body to determine heat transfer between the body and its environment. By contrast, the second law of thermodynamics introduces the useful concept of exergy. It enables the determination of the exergy consumption within the human body dependent on human and environmental factors. Human body exergy consumption varies with the combination of environmental (room) conditions. This process is related to human thermal comfort in connection with temperature, heat, and mass transfer. In this paper a thermodynamic analysis of human heat and mass transfer based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics in presented. It is shown that the human body's exergy consumption in relation to selected human parameters exhibits a minimal value at certain combinations of environmental parameters. The expected thermal sensation also shows that there is a correlation between exergy consumption and thermal sensation. Thus, our analysis represents an improvement in human thermal modelling and gives more information about the environmental impact on expected human thermal sensation

  5. Comfort in times if climatic change; Comfort in tijden van klimaatverandering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imsirovic, F.; Molenaar, R. [Techniplan Adviseurs, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    A study with calculation software Vabi 114 shows that choosing a different climate year and comfort level requirements according to the Dutch standard NEN 5060 can lead to an increased cooling capacity of over 60%. When determining the climate year and comfort level in the program of requirements, it will have to be weighed if the increasing cost at the expense of the additional cooling capacity outweighs the increased level in comfort. [Dutch] Het is de laatste jaren een trend om andere klimaatjaren of andere comforteisen te hanteren. Het oude klimaatjaar1964-1965 wordt steeds vaker vervangen door jaren zoals 1995,1998 of nieuwe klimaatreferentiejaren conform de NEN 5060:2008. Ook de comforteisen veranderen. De eis van 150 gewogen overschrijdingsuren die de Rijksgebouwendienst jarenlang hanteerde, wordt steeds vaker vervangen door een eis met een maximale binnentemperatuur van 25C of adaptieve temperatuurgrenswaarden (ATG), zoals omschreven in ISSO-publicatie 74. Wat is de invloed van gewijzigde klimaatjaren en comforteisen op het comfort en het op te stellen koelvermogen?.

  6. Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, P; Bazley, C; Kamp, I; Blok, M

    2012-03-01

    Comfort plays an increasingly important role in the interior design of airplanes. Although ample research has been conducted on airplane design technology, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger's opinion. In this study, more than 10,000 internet trip reports and 153 passenger interviews were used to gather opinions about aspects which need to be improved in order to design a more comfortable aircraft interior. The results show clear relationships between comfort and legroom, hygiene, crew attention and seat/personal space. Passengers rate the newer planes significantly better than older ones, indicating that attention to design for comfort has proven effective. The study also shows that rude flight attendants and bad hygiene reduce the comfort experience drastically and that a high comfort rating is related to higher "fly again" values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal Comfort in a Naturally-Ventilated Educational Building

    OpenAIRE

    David Mwale Ogoli

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive study of thermal comfort in a naturally ventilated education building (88,000 ft2) in a Chicago suburb will be conducted with 120 student subjects in 2007. This paper discusses some recent trends in worldwide thermal comfort studies and presents a proposal of research for this building through a series of questionnaire tables. Two research methods used inthermal comfort studies are field studies and laboratory experiments in climate-chambers. The various elements that constitu...

  8. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    de Dear, R; Akimoto, T; Arens, E; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K.W.; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S.C.; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has ta...

  9. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Regional differences in temperature sensation and thermal comfort in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mayumi; Yoda, Tamae; Crawshaw, Larry I; Yasuhara, Saki; Saito, Yasuyo; Kasuga, Momoko; Nagashima, Kei; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    Sensations evoked by thermal stimulation (temperature-related sensations) can be divided into two categories, "temperature sensation" and "thermal comfort." Although several studies have investigated regional differences in temperature sensation, less is known about the sensitivity differences in thermal comfort for the various body regions. In the present study, we examined regional differences in temperature-related sensations with special attention to thermal comfort. Healthy male subjects sitting in an environment of mild heat or cold were locally cooled or warmed with water-perfused stimulators. Areas stimulated were the face, chest, abdomen, and thigh. Temperature sensation and thermal comfort of the stimulated areas were reported by the subjects, as was whole body thermal comfort. During mild heat exposure, facial cooling was most comfortable and facial warming was most uncomfortable. On the other hand, during mild cold exposure, neither warming nor cooling of the face had a major effect. The chest and abdomen had characteristics opposite to those of the face. Local warming of the chest and abdomen did produce a strong comfort sensation during whole body cold exposure. The thermal comfort seen in this study suggests that if given the chance, humans would preferentially cool the head in the heat, and they would maintain the warmth of the trunk areas in the cold. The qualitative differences seen in thermal comfort for the various areas cannot be explained solely by the density or properties of the peripheral thermal receptors and thus must reflect processing mechanisms in the central nervous system.

  11. Strategies for Sustainable Comfort in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    these goals include phasing out all use of electricity for space heating and for hot water supply. Furthermore building codes should require new buildings to be very well insulated, 30-40 cm mineral wool, for instance, and low energy windows. Similar codes, although not always as strict, should be applied......It is possible within some decades to achieve environmental sustainability in the building sector and at the same time provide a comfortable and healthy life for all Europeans as well as leaving that option open for other people in the world.Buildings are charcterized by having the longest lifetime...... of all capital in our societies, often more than a hundred years. For that reason they should never be designed on the bases of just present cheap energy supply and energy system, but with the long term outlook and risks in mind. New buildings can be designed to require essentially no space heating...

  12. Pedal force determination respect to ride comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mačužić, Slavica; Lukić, Jovanka; Glišović, Jasna; Miloradović, Danijela

    2017-10-01

    Automotive ergonomics is a set of knowledge which has a task to design a vehicle to make the passengers feel comfortable. Interior packaging represents an important stage in the vehicle design process, in order to enable the driver to every important aspect of movement. During the process of driving, the driver performs various movements of arms and legs, leading to a certain fatigue. Each seating position in the vehicle, contain certain boundary conditions, and for that reason it was necessary to examine how the seating position affects the driver possibilities. In this paper, the pedal forces were determined by application of Ramsis human model. Different human populations were taken into account. Correlation between subjects’ anthropometrics measures and the foot pedal force pedal was observed. Obtained results were significant input data for vehicle packaging.

  13. Comfort parameters - Ventilation of a subway wagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr, Pavlíček; Ladislav, Tříska

    2017-09-01

    Research and development of a ventilation system is being carried out as a part of project TA04030774 of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic. Name of the project is "Research and Development of Mass-optimized Components for Rail Vehicles". Problems being solved are development and testing of a new concept for ventilation systems for public transport vehicles. The main improvements should be a reduction of the mass of the whole system, easy installation and reduction of the noise of the ventilation system. This article is focused on the comfort parameters in a subway wagon (measurement and evaluation carried out on a function sample in accordance with the regulations). The input to the project is a ventilator hybrid casing for a subway wagon, which was manufactured and tested during the Ministry of Industry and Trade project TIP FR-TI3/449.

  14. Investigation of Comfort Properties of Knitted Denim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Abdul R.; Su, Siwei; Khalid, Junaid; Cai, Yingjie; Lin, Lina

    2017-12-01

    Knitted denim was designed by using cross terry structure on circular knitting machine. Knitted denim looks like a denim fabric which has visual appearance like woven denim. Two type of cross terry structure 2/1 and 3/1 were used which gives twill effect with 2 and 3 floats respectively. Four types of materials, cotton, polyester, flax and polypropylene were used. With four materials and two structural combinations 8 samples were produced. Comfort properties of knitted denim including moisture management, air permeability, thermal, and bursting strength were tested. For checking the inherent anti-microbial property of materials anti-microbial test was also applied. Samples containing flax and polyester were found with best results and not even a single sample was found anti-microbial.

  15. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  16. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  17. Climate installations, comfort, health and productivity; Klimaatinstallaties, comfort, gezondheid en productiviteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerstra, A.C.; Haans, L. [BBA Boerstra Binnenmilieu Advies, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-08-01

    Sometimes engineers lose sight of why both the private and business sectors are willing to spend so much money on heating and ventilation systems. The main drive for the average Dutch person's day-to-day investment in his or her indoor environment resides in the trinity of comfort, health and productivity. This article present an update on current ideas about the three unique selling points of HVAC systems. [Dutch] Soms wordt uit het oog verloren waarom zowel de particuliere als de zakelijke markt zoveel geld over heeft voor installaties. De grootste drijfveer die de gemiddelde Nederlander heeft voor zijn of haar dagelijkse binnenmilieu-investering, is te vinden in de drie-eenheid: comfort, gezondheid en productiviteit. In dit artikel wordt een overzicht gegeven van de laatste inzichten waar het deze drie aspecten van klimaatinstallaties betreft.

  18. Are you sitting comfortably? Perspectives of the researchers and the researched on "being comfortable".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Norma; Balmer, Brian

    2006-01-01

    In a study of volunteers in medical research, we found contrasting readings of "being comfortable" by the volunteer research subjects and the researchers. Although the experimental process (testing a new kind of diagnostic technology) involved some physical discomfort--and the researchers focused on this--the volunteers' concerns centred on feeling socially comfortable and managing feelings of embarrassment or isolation, and they generally made light of the physical aspects. The bias of volunteer concerns, which is understandable in terms of the different situations of researchers and volunteers and the different tensions they create, has potential implications for the engagement of researchers with their research subjects and prevailing standards for the ethical and accountable conduct of research.

  19. Environmental Comfort Indicators for School Buildings in Sustainability Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Santos Saraiva

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Decades ago, the only requirement to construct a building was to give men the right conditions for the execution of their work or leisure activities. With the development of knowledge about the internal and external environments of buildings, other requirements have been added such as the issue of user comfort. New construction techniques have been incorporated and new products have been created to improve internal environment comfort. This research addressed the importance of using indicators related to environmental comfort in sustainability assessment tools applied to school buildings. It also considered the importance of environmental issues for the good performance of human beings, and the harmonious coexistence of the comfort indicators indoor air quality, thermal comfort, visual comfort, acoustic comfort and ergonomic comfort based on data gathered in research carried out with users of high schools (only students. This research was carried out in two different cities of different countries, Guimarães (Portugal and Juiz de Fora (Brazil, that have similar characteristics of teaching standards and climate conditions (temperature and air humidity. In this study, interviews were made through questionnaires and, later, the information collected was analyzed. This study demonstrates the need to include an ergonomic indicator for school buildings in sustainability assessment tools.

  20. Quality and satisfaction of thermal comfort in Dutch offices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Henk Willem; Mobach, Mark P.; Balslev Nielsen, S.; Jensen, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This field study analyses the quality of the actual thermal comfort and indoor air quality in Dutch office buildings. A linear regression analysis was used to determine how much these variables and demographic variables influenced the perceived thermal comfort of office workers. Approach:

  1. The aircraft interior comfort experience of 10,032 passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Mastrigt, S. van

    2011-01-01

    One airline strategy aimed at selling more tickets is to provide a superior comfort experience. However, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger’s opinion on comfort. In this study, 10,032 internet trip reports were used to gather opinions about

  2. Energy and indoor temperature consequences of adative thermal comfort standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centnerova, L.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The intent of the presented study was to quantify the implications for energy demand of indoor temperature requirements based on a proposed adaptive thermal comfort standard (7) relative to a more traditional thermal comfort approach. The study focuses on a typical office situation in a moderate

  3. Thermal comfort in hospital and healthcare facilities : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadrizadeh, S.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Hospital and healthcare facilities need to provide a variety of indoor environments due to the diverse comfort and health needs of their patients and staff. Thermal comfort is an essential part of indoor environmental quality in the hospital work environment that affects both the patient’s own

  4. Comfort of workers in office buildings: The European HOPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Aries, M.; Dommelen, P. van

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that building, social and personal factors can influence one's perceived health and comfort. The aim of the underlying study was to get a better understanding of the relationships between these factors and perceived comfort. Self-administered questionnaires from 5732

  5. Improving comfort while hiking in a sailing boat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.J.; Van Abbema, A.; Howe, C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the changes in perceived comfort while hiking in a sailing boat (in this case the Laser, a single-handed Olympic dinghy) due to a new design of hiking pads. The project used a ‘research by design method’. The aim was to improve sailing comfort which leads to lower fatigue and

  6. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dear, R. J. de; Akimoto, T.; Arens, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature...... review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based...... developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we...

  7. Tabriz Bazaar: sustainability and human comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassehzadeh Tabriz, Shahram [Master of Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sh_nassehzadeh@m-iau.ac.ir; Fard, Fariborz Mahdavi Tabatabaei [SABAT TARH CO. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sabat_arc@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Sustainable developments in energy and the environment have become a main focus of many groups. The built environment has a great influence on environmental sustainability generally. Solutions that respond to the impact of human activities on the environment in urban areas are required. On one hand, averting resource depletion and environmental degradation caused by facilities and infrastructures over their life cycle is a principal goal. On the other hand, it is also a principal goal to create livable, comfortable, safe and productive built environments. Tabriz bazaar, in Iran, is an example of sustainable architecture. It is designed to be suited to the local climate and urban texture with spaces that are varied and have a strong connection to open space. The bazaar plays a significant role in creation of safe urban space as a cultural, social, commercial, educational and sanitarian area. It connects different activities and different people in a safe place. The purpose of this paper is to determine the sustainability of the Tabriz bazaar and the effect that the character of this commercial area has on the quality of human life.

  8. THE "COMFORT WOMEN" OF THE PACIFIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA YURI OKAMOTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of them, as young as age 12, were daily forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers, 10, 30, 50 times a day. The few women who survived and were able to return home at the end of the war continued to suffer for their past, through psychological trauma and social ostracism. They remained silent about their experience because of fear and shame. These women would have like to live in peace, being wives, mothers, sisters, grandmothers ... but this choice was denied to all. None received any compensation from the Japanese government official, who continues to evade its legal and moral responsibilities regarding war crime. Sixty-eight years later, they are still waiting for justice.

  9. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng [University of Chicago Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-15

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  10. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  11. [Comfort and noise level in infants with helmet interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments, part III: Whole-body sensation and comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Huizenga, Charlie [Center for the Built Environment, UC Berkeley (United States); Han, Taeyoung [General Motors Company (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and non-uniform, stable and transient. They are based on diverse findings from the literature and from body-part-specific human subject tests in a climate chamber. They were validated against a test of automobile passengers. The series is intended to present the models' rationale, structure, and coefficients, so that others can test them and develop them further as additional empirical data becomes available. A) The whole-body (overall) sensation model has two forms, depending on whether all of the body's segments have sensations effectively in the same direction (e.g warm or cool), or whether some segments have sensations opposite to those of the rest of the body. For each, individual body parts have different weights for warm versus cool sensations, and strong local sensations dominate the overall sensation. If all sensations are near neutral, the overall sensation is close to the average of all body sensations. B) The overall comfort model also has two forms. Under stable conditions, people evaluate their overall comfort by a complaint-driven process, meaning that when two body parts are strongly uncomfortable, no matter how comfortable the other body parts might be, the overall comfort will be near the discomfort level of the two most uncomfortable parts. When the environmental conditions are transient, or people have control over their environments, overall comfort is better than that of the two most uncomfortable body parts. This can be accounted for by adding the most comfortable vote to the two most uncomfortable ones. (author)

  13. Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments: Part III: whole-body sensation and comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Huizenga, Charlie; Han, Taeyoung

    2009-01-01

    A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and non-uniform, stable and transient. They are based on diverse findings from the literature and from body-part-specifi...

  14. Importance of thermal comfort for library building in Kuching, Sarawak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, S.H.; Baharun, A.; Abdul Mannan, M.D.; Abang Adenan, D.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    Malaysian Government takes an initiative to provide library in housing areas to improve the quality of human capital. However, the government has to evaluate every aspect of their provision to ensure the services provided meet the demands of the users, including the aspect of thermal comfort in the building. For this study, a library constructed using Industrialised Building System (IBS) are selected for thermal comfort evaluation. The data were analyzed using Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) index. From the data analysis, it shows that thermal comfort in the library could not be achieved most of the time unless when the mechanical cooling is used. A series of technical design improvements are then recommended to improve the thermal comfort inside the library by incorporating construction details without increasing the cost.

  15. Thermal Comfort in a Naturally-Ventilated Educational Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mwale Ogoli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of thermal comfort in a naturally ventilated education building (88,000 ft2 in a Chicago suburb will be conducted with 120 student subjects in 2007. This paper discusses some recent trends in worldwide thermal comfort studies and presents a proposal of research for this building through a series of questionnaire tables. Two research methods used inthermal comfort studies are field studies and laboratory experiments in climate-chambers. The various elements that constitute a “comfortable” thermal environment include physical factors (ambient air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air movement and humidity, personal factors(activity and clothing, classifications (gender, age, education, etc. and psychological expectations (knowledge, experience, psychological effect of visual warmth by, say, a fireplace. Comparisons are made using data gathered from Nairobi, Kenya.Keywords: Comfort, temperature, humidity and ventilation

  16. A correct enthalpy relationship as thermal comfort index for livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Valéria Cristina; da Silva, Iran José Oliveira; Vieira, Frederico Márcio Corrêa; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares

    2011-05-01

    Researchers working with thermal comfort have been using enthalpy to measure thermal energy inside rural facilities, establishing indicator values for many situations of thermal comfort and heat stress. This variable turned out to be helpful in analyzing thermal exchange in livestock systems. The animals are exposed to an environment which is decisive for the thermoregulatory process, and, consequently, the reactions reflect states of thermal comfort or heat stress, the last being responsable for problems of sanity, behavior and productivity. There are researchers using enthalpy as a qualitative indicator of thermal environment of livestock such as poultry, cattle and hogs in tropical regions. This preliminary work intends to check different enthalpy equations using information from classical thermodynamics, and proposes a direct equation as thermal comfort index for livestock systems.

  17. Materialities shape practices and notions of comfort in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff

    2018-01-01

    The development of residential energy technologies aims to ensure thermal comfort in an increasingly energy-efficient manner. This development influences everyday practices related to comfort in everyday life in dwellings. Therefore, an empirical analysis of interviews with residents in three types...... in heating systems between the housing types and shows how changes in technologies and material structures shape the practices of heating and airing. A shift in technology from radiators to underfloor heating was found to make a clear difference in both how houses are heated and thermal comfort is perceived...... of Danish detached houses, related to the building age, is used to understand how changes in technologies influence residents’ practices and notions of comfort. Detached houses are the most widespread type of housing in Denmark, constituting 44% of the housing stock. The analysis focuses on differences...

  18. Determination of thermal and acoustic comfort inside a vehicle's cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Alexandra; Catalina, Tiberiu; Vartires, Andreea

    2018-02-01

    Thermal and acoustic comfort, inside a vehicle's cabin, are highly interconnected and can greatly influence the health of the passengers. On one hand, the H.V.A.C. system brings the interior air parameters to a comfortable value while on the other hand, it is the main source of noise. It is an intriguing task to find a balance between the two. In this paper, several types of air diffusers were used in order to optimize the ratio between thermal and acoustic interior comfort. Using complex measurements of noise and thermal comfort parameters we have determined for each type of air diffuser the sound pressure level and its impact on air temperature and air velocity.

  19. From occupying to inhabiting - a change in conceptualising comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffari, Svenja D; Matthews, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The concept of 'comfort' has been influential in shaping aspects of our built environment. For the construction industry, comfort is predominantly understood in terms of the balance between an ideal human physiological state and a finite number of measurable environmental parameters that can be controlled (temperature, humidity, air quality, daylighting, noise). It is such a notion of comfort that has informed the establishment of universally applied comfort standards and guidelines for the built environment. When buildings rigidly conform to these standards, they consume vast quantities of energy and are responsible for higher levels of GHG emissions. Recent researchers have challenged such instrumental definitions of comfort on moral and environmental grounds. In this paper, we address this issue from two different standpoints: one empirical, one related to the design of technology. Empirically, we present an analysis of ethnographic field material that has examined how, in what circumstances, and at what times ordinary users employ energy-intensive indoor climate technologies in their daily lives. We argue that when comfort is viewed as an achievement, rather than as a reified and static ideal homeostasis between humans and their environmental conditions, it becomes easier to appreciate the extent to which comfort is, for ordinary people, personally idiosyncratic, culturally relative, socially influenced and highly dependent on temporality, sequence and activity. With respect to design, we introduce a set of provocative designed prototypes that embody alternative conceptions of 'comfort' than those to which the building industry typically subscribes. Our discussion has critical implications for the types of technologies that result from a 'comfort standards' conception. Firstly, we show that comfort is not simply a homeostatic equilibrium-such a view is overly narrow, inflexible and ultimately an inaccurate conception of what comfort is for ordinary people

  20. From occupying to inhabiting - a change in conceptualising comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffari, Svenja D; Matthews, Ben, E-mail: svenja@mci.sdu.d, E-mail: matthews@mci.sdu.d [SPIRE Center for Participatory Innovation Research, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Soenderborg, DK (Denmark)

    2009-11-01

    The concept of 'comfort' has been influential in shaping aspects of our built environment. For the construction industry, comfort is predominantly understood in terms of the balance between an ideal human physiological state and a finite number of measurable environmental parameters that can be controlled (temperature, humidity, air quality, daylighting, noise). It is such a notion of comfort that has informed the establishment of universally applied comfort standards and guidelines for the built environment. When buildings rigidly conform to these standards, they consume vast quantities of energy and are responsible for higher levels of GHG emissions. Recent researchers have challenged such instrumental definitions of comfort on moral and environmental grounds. In this paper, we address this issue from two different standpoints: one empirical, one related to the design of technology. Empirically, we present an analysis of ethnographic field material that has examined how, in what circumstances, and at what times ordinary users employ energy-intensive indoor climate technologies in their daily lives. We argue that when comfort is viewed as an achievement, rather than as a reified and static ideal homeostasis between humans and their environmental conditions, it becomes easier to appreciate the extent to which comfort is, for ordinary people, personally idiosyncratic, culturally relative, socially influenced and highly dependent on temporality, sequence and activity. With respect to design, we introduce a set of provocative designed prototypes that embody alternative conceptions of 'comfort' than those to which the building industry typically subscribes. Our discussion has critical implications for the types of technologies that result from a 'comfort standards' conception. Firstly, we show that comfort is not simply a homeostatic equilibrium-such a view is overly narrow, inflexible and ultimately an inaccurate conception of what

  1. From occupying to inhabiting - a change in conceptualising comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffari, Svenja D.; Matthews, Ben

    2009-11-01

    The concept of 'comfort' has been influential in shaping aspects of our built environment. For the construction industry, comfort is predominantly understood in terms of the balance between an ideal human physiological state and a finite number of measurable environmental parameters that can be controlled (temperature, humidity, air quality, daylighting, noise). It is such a notion of comfort that has informed the establishment of universally applied comfort standards and guidelines for the built environment. When buildings rigidly conform to these standards, they consume vast quantities of energy and are responsible for higher levels of GHG emissions. Recent researchers have challenged such instrumental definitions of comfort on moral and environmental grounds. In this paper, we address this issue from two different standpoints: one empirical, one related to the design of technology. Empirically, we present an analysis of ethnographic field material that has examined how, in what circumstances, and at what times ordinary users employ energy-intensive indoor climate technologies in their daily lives. We argue that when comfort is viewed as an achievement, rather than as a reified and static ideal homeostasis between humans and their environmental conditions, it becomes easier to appreciate the extent to which comfort is, for ordinary people, personally idiosyncratic, culturally relative, socially influenced and highly dependent on temporality, sequence and activity. With respect to design, we introduce a set of provocative designed prototypes that embody alternative conceptions of 'comfort' than those to which the building industry typically subscribes. Our discussion has critical implications for the types of technologies that result from a 'comfort standards' conception. Firstly, we show that comfort is not simply a homeostatic equilibrium-such a view is overly narrow, inflexible and ultimately an inaccurate conception of what comfort is for ordinary people

  2. Creating high performance buildings: Lower energy, better comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brager, Gail; Arens, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Buildings play a critical role in the challenge of mitigating and adapting to climate change. It is estimated that buildings contribute 39% of the total U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions [1] primarily due to their operational energy use, and about 80% of this building energy use is for heating, cooling, ventilating, and lighting. An important premise of this paper is about the connection between energy and comfort. They are inseparable when one talks about high performance buildings. Worldwide data suggests that we are significantly overcooling buildings in the summer, resulting in increased energy use and problems with thermal comfort. In contrast, in naturally ventilated buildings without mechanical cooling, people are comfortable in much warmer temperatures due to shifting expectations and preferences as a result of occupants having a greater degree of personal control over their thermal environment; they have also become more accustomed to variable conditions that closely reflect the natural rhythms of outdoor climate patterns. This has resulted in an adaptive comfort zone that offers significant potential for encouraging naturally ventilated buildings to improve both energy use and comfort. Research on other forms for providing individualized control through low-energy personal comfort systems (desktop fans, foot warmed, and heated and cooled chairs) have also demonstrated enormous potential for improving both energy and comfort performance. Studies have demonstrated high levels of comfort with these systems while ambient temperatures ranged from 64–84°F. Energy and indoor environmental quality are inextricably linked, and must both be important goals of a high performance building

  3. Comfort in using hand tools : theory, design and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Everyone uses hand tools in their daily life, like knife and fork. Moreover, many people use hand tools in their profession as well as during leisure time. It is important that they can work with hand tools that provide comfort. Until now, the avoidance of discomfort was emphasized during the design process of hand tools, like screwdrivers, hand saws and paint brushes. In the near future, the focus will shift towards providing comfort. However, some questions need to be answered to make this ...

  4. Indoor temperatures for optimum thermal comfort and human performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dear, R.; Arens, E. A.; Candido, C.

    2014-01-01

    A response by R. J. de Dear et al to a letter to the editor in response to their article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last 20 years," published in a 2013 issue.......A response by R. J. de Dear et al to a letter to the editor in response to their article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last 20 years," published in a 2013 issue....

  5. Improvement of Thermal Comfort in a Naturally Ventilated Office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Jensen, J.; Larsen, J.

    The paper describes the results of laboratory investigations in a mock-up of an office space with the purpose of investigating the impact of different opening strategies on thermal comfort conditions in the occupied zone. The results show that different window opening strategies result in quite...... different airflow and thermal comfort conditions. The conditions are a result of a multivariable impact, and detailed descriptions of the flows involved are complex....

  6. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Pokorný, Jan; Fišer, Jan; Toma, Róbert; Tuhovčák, Ján

    Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning) systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  7. Thermal comfort in office buildings: Two case studies commented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hens, Hugo S.L.C. [Laboratory of Building Physics, Department of Civil Engineering, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 40, B-3001 Leuven (Heverlee) (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    Air conditioning in offices has become a current practice in North Western Europe. The main reasons for that are high internal loads, solar gains and increased comfort expectations. Hence, the move away from the naturally ventilated cellular office increased thermal comfort complaints. The paper presents two cases. In both the results of a comfort enquiry are compared with measurements. The enquiries gave numbers of dissatisfied at a PMV zero that were much higher than the standard PMV/PPD curve does. Measurements instead showed that in one of the two offices only comfort complaints could be expected in summer. But even then, the enquired severity of complaints could not be related to the measured data. Several hypotheses are forwarded to explain the results. Individuals interpret the -3 to +3 scale for thermal sensation differently, which has a direct impact on the number of dissatisfied. The standard curve further-on is a most significant mean of thousands of steady state comfort votes under well-controlled conditions while an on site enquiry involves much smaller numbers of people. These have a clear expectation: an improvement of comfort condition, thanks to the study. For that reason they may exaggerate their complaints when enquired. And finally, an alternative PMV versus PPD curve, published in literature, shows more people complaining at a given PMV than the standard curve forwards. (author)

  8. Health and thermal comfort: From WHO guidance to housing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormandy, David; Ezratty, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    There are many references to the WHO guidance on thermal comfort in housing, but not to the original source material. Based on archive material, this paper gives the evidential basis for the WHO guidance. It then reports on evidence that some groups may be more susceptible to high or low indoor temperatures than others. It examines different methods for measuring thermal comfort, such as air temperature measurement, assessing residents' perception, and predicting satisfaction. Resident's perception was used effectively in the WHO LARES project, showing that self-reported poor health was significantly associated with poor thermal comfort. Tools to inform strategies directed at dealing with cold homes and fuel poverty are considered, including Energy Performance Certificates, Fuel Poverty Indicators, and the English Housing Health and Safety Rating System. Conclusions from a WHO Workshop on Housing, Energy and Thermal Comfort are also summarised. The WHO view of thermal comfort, which is driven by protecting health from both high and low indoor temperatures, should be recognised in energy efficiency, fuel poverty and climate change strategies. While this is a major challenge, it could provide both health gains for individuals, and economic benefits for society. - Highlights: ► WHO guidance on thermal comfort is directed to protecting health in the home environment. ► In particular, the WHO guidance aims to protect the health of the most susceptible and fragile. ► Housing energy efficiency strategies protect health, and attack inequities. ► Housing energy efficiency strategies also have economic benefits for society.

  9. Regional thermal comfort zone in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuha, Ursa; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2016-07-01

    Skin regions differ in their sensitivity to temperature stimuli. The present study examined whether such regional differences were also evident in the perception of thermal comfort. Regional thermal comfort was assessed in males (N=8) and females (N=8), by having them regulate the temperature of the water delivered to a water-perfused suit (WPS), within a temperature range considered thermally comfortable. In separate trials, subjects regulated the temperature of the WPS, or specific regions of the suit covering different skin areas (arms, legs, front torso and back torso). In the absence of subjective temperature regulation (TR), the temperature changed in a sinusoidal manner from 10°C to 50°C; by depressing a switch and reversing the direction of the temperature at the limits of the thermal comfort zone (TCZ), each subject defined TCZ for each body region investigated. The range of regulated temperatures did not differ between genders and skin regions. Local Tsk at the lower and upper limits of the TCZ was similar for both genders. Higher (pthermally comfortable conditions, the well-established regional differences in thermosensitivity are not reflected in the TCZ, with similar temperature preferences by both genders. Thermal comfort of different skin regions and overall body is not achieved at a single skin temperature, but at range of temperatures, defined as the TCZ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural computing thermal comfort index for HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atthajariyakul, S.; Leephakpreeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of a heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system within a building is to make occupants comfortable. Without real time determination of human thermal comfort, it is not feasible for the HVAC system to yield controlled conditions of the air for human comfort all the time. This paper presents a practical approach to determine human thermal comfort quantitatively via neural computing. The neural network model allows real time determination of the thermal comfort index, where it is not practical to compute the conventional predicted mean vote (PMV) index itself in real time. The feed forward neural network model is proposed as an explicit function of the relation of the PMV index to accessible variables, i.e. the air temperature, wet bulb temperature, globe temperature, air velocity, clothing insulation and human activity. An experiment in an air conditioned office room was done to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The results show good agreement between the thermal comfort index calculated from the neural network model in real time and those calculated from the conventional PMV model

  11. Elevator ride comfort monitoring and evaluation using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowei; Zhao, Xuefeng; Su, Wensheng

    2018-05-01

    With rapid urbanization, the demand for elevators is increasing, and their level of safety and ride comfort under vibrating conditions has also aroused interest. It is therefore essential to monitor the ride comfort level of elevators. The traditional method for such monitoring depends significantly on regular professional inspections, and requires expensive equipment and professional skill. With this regard, a new method for elevator ride comfort monitoring using a smartphone is demonstrated herein in detail. A variety of high-precision sensors are installed in a smartphone with strong data processing and telecommunication capabilities. A series of validation tests were designed and completed, and the international organization for standardization ISO2631-1997 was applied to evaluate the level of elevator ride comfort. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is stable and reliable, its precision meets the engineering requirements, and the elevator ride comfort level can be accurately monitored under various situations. The method is very economical and convenient, and provides the possibility for the public to participate in elevator ride comfort monitoring. In addition, the method can both provide a wide range of data support and eliminate data errors to a certain extent.

  12. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  13. Physical Environment Comfort Impacts on Office Employee’s Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shirley Jin Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Office workplaces today is now no longer only consisting of passive and fixed activity but also towards a more flexible environment activity. The number of office workplaces is hiking from day to day which leads to the increase of the office workers. The productivity will be improved by providing optimum physical environment. The physical environment comfort in a workplace is claimed to be vital as it will encourages healthier, more productive and lower absenteeism rate among employees. The physical environment comfort encompassed optimum room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. This research intend to investigate the importance of physical environment comfort by evaluating the comfort based on the existing workplace and determine its effect on employee’s performance. Evaluation between the selected case studies are made in the aspects of employee’s comfort perceive health and absenteeism rate by wielding the elements of physical comfort consisting room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. Field study was carried out for 3 institutional building particularly management department. High correlations are found between room temperature, lighting and relative humidity with health related issue such as stuffy, easily tired and difficulty in concentration which affect employees’ productivity and work performances.

  14. Lubricant effects on low Dk and silicone hydrogel lens comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Jerome; Papas, Eric

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the influence of three lubricants of varying viscosity, on postinsertion and 6 h comfort with contact lens wear. Comfort and associated symptoms of dryness were assessed in 15 experienced contact lens wearers. Subjects wore a low Dk lens in one eye and a silicone hydrogel in the other and participated in four separate trials involving no lubricant (baseline), saline, and two commercially available lubricants of differing viscosity. The in-eye lubricants were used immediately following lens insertion and every 2 h postinsertion for a 6 h wear period. Postlens insertion comfort was significantly better for both lens types when lubricants or saline were used compared with no lubricant use. After 6 h lens wear, comfort was influenced by lens type and not by in-eye lubricant or saline use. Also after 6 h lens wear, less dryness sensation was reported for silicone hydrogel lenses when using lubricants but not saline. Although lubricant use does help reduce dryness symptoms with silicone hydrogel lens wear, there appears to be minimal longer-term benefit to comfort. Furthermore, increased lubricant viscosity did not lead to improved longer-term comfort.

  15. Erythritol, a non-nutritive sugar alcohol sweetener and the main component of truvia®, is a palatable ingested insecticide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin M Baudier

    Full Text Available Insecticides have a variety of commercial applications including urban pest control, agricultural use to increase crop yields, and prevention of proliferation of insect-borne diseases. Many pesticides in current use are synthetic molecules such as organochlorine and organophosphate compounds. Some synthetic insecticides suffer drawbacks including high production costs, concern over environmental sustainability, harmful effects on human health, targeting non-intended insect species, and the evolution of resistance among insect populations. Thus, there is a large worldwide need and demand for environmentally safe and effective insecticides. Here we show that Erythritol, a non-nutritive sugar alcohol, was toxic to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Ingested erythritol decreased fruit fly longevity in a dose-dependent manner, and erythritol was ingested by flies that had free access to control (sucrose foods in choice and CAFE studies. Erythritol was US FDA approved in 2001 and is used as a food additive in the United States. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that erythritol may be used as a novel, environmentally sustainable and human safe approach for insect pest control.

  16. Intake of non-nutritive sweeteners is associated with an unhealthy lifestyle: a cross-sectional study in subjects with morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Robert; Aasbrenn, Martin; Farup, Per G

    2017-01-01

    Subjects with morbid obesity commonly use Non-Nutritive Sweeteners (NNS), but the health-related effects of NNS have been questioned. The objectives of this study were to explore the associations between theuse of NNS and the health and lifestyle in subjects with morbid obesity. This cross-sectional study included subjects with morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m 2 or ≥35 kg/m 2 with obesity-related comorbidity). Information about demographics, physical and mental health, and dietary habits was collected, and a blood screen was taken. One unit of NNS was defined as 100 ml beverages with NNS or 2 tablets/units of NNS for coffee or tea. The associations between the intake of NNS and the health-related variables were analyzed with ordinal regression analyses adjusted for age, gender and BMI. One hundred subjects (women/men 83/17; mean age 44.3 years (SD 8.5)) were included. Median intake of NNS was 3.3 units (range 0 - 43). Intake of NNS was not associated with BMI ( p  = 0.64). The intake of NNS was associated with reduced heavy physical activity ( p  = 0.011), fatigue ( p  unhealthy lifestyle, reduced physical and mental health and unfavourable dietary habits with increased energy intake including sugar, and reduced intake of some vitamins.

  17. Activated carbons as potentially useful non-nutritive additives to prevent the effect of fumonisin B1 on sodium bentonite activity against chronic aflatoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, María Del Pilar; Magnoli, Alejandra Paola; Bergesio, Maria Virginia; Tancredi, Nestor; Magnoli, Carina E; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are mycotoxins that often co-occur in feedstuffs. The ingestion of AFB1 causes aflatoxicosis in humans and animals. Sodium bentonite (NaB), a cheap non-nutritive unselective sequestering agent incorporated in animal diets, can effectively prevent aflatoxicosis. Fumonisins are responsible for equine leukoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary oedema, and often have subclinical toxic effects in poultries. Fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1 are both strongly adsorbed in vitro on sodium bentonite. Co-adsorption studies, carried out with a weight ratio of FB1 to AFB1 that mimics the natural occurrence (200:1), showed that FB1 greatly decreases the in vitro ability of NaB to adsorb AFB1. The ability of two activated carbons to adsorb FB1 was also investigated. Both carbons showed high affinity for FB1. A complex behaviour of the FB1 adsorption isotherms with pH was observed. In vitro results suggest that under natural contamination levels of AFB1 and FB1, a mixture of activated carbon and sodium bentonite might be potentially useful for prevention of sub-acute aflatoxicosis.

  18. Association between breastfeeding duration, non-nutritive sucking habits and dental arch dimensions in deciduous dentition: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shiv Shankar; Nehra, Karan; Sharma, Mohit; Jayan, Balakrishna; Poonia, Anish; Bhattal, Hiteshwar

    2014-10-31

    This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted to determine association between breastfeeding duration, non-nutritive sucking habits, dental arch transverse diameters, posterior crossbite and anterior open bite in deciduous dentition. 415 children (228 males and 187 females), 4 to 6 years old, from a mixed Indian population were clinically examined. Based on written questionnaire answered by parents, children were divided into two groups: group 1 (breastfed for anterior open bite did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.865). The distribution of posterior crossbite was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.001). OR assessment (OR = 1.852) revealed that group 1 had almost twofold higher prevalence of NNS habits than group 2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the first group had independently fourfold increased risk of developing crossbite compared to the second group (OR = 4.3). Multivariate linear regression analysis also revealed that age and breastfeeding duration were the most significant determinants of ICD and IMD. An increased prevalence of NNS in the first group suggests that NNS is a dominant variable in the association between breastfeeding duration and reduced intra-arch transverse diameters which leads to increased prevalence of posterior crossbites as seen in our study. Mandibular inter-canine width is however unaffected due to a lowered tongue posture seen in these children.

  19. To evaluate and compare the efficacy of combined sucrose and non-nutritive sucking for analgesia in newborns undergoing minor painful procedure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, P; Arora, K; Goyal, K; Das, R R; Javadekar, B; Aiyer, S; Panigrahi, S K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of combined sucrose and non-nutritive sucking (NNS) for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing heel-stick procedures. This randomized control trial was conducted in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital over a period of 1 year. One hundred and eighty full-term neonates with birth weight >2200 g and age >24 h were randomized to one of four interventions administered 2 min before the procedure: 2 ml of 30% sucrose (group I, n=45) or NNS (group II, n=45) or both (group III, n=45) or none (group IV, n=45). Primary outcome was composite score based on Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score. Baseline variables were comparable among the groups. Median (interquartile range) PIPP score was 3 (2 to 4) in group III as compared with 7 (6.5 to 8) in group I, 9 (7 to 11) in group II and 13 (10.5 to 15) in group IV. Group III had significant decrease in the median PIPP score compared with other groups (P=0.000). Median PIPP score also decreased significantly with any intervention as compared with no intervention (P=0.000). Sucrose and/or NNS are effective in providing analgesia in full-term neonates undergoing heel-stick procedures, with the combined intervention being more effective compared with any single intervention.

  20. Passivhaus: indoor comfort and energy dynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Antonella; Pagliuca, Antonello; Cardinale, Nicola; Rospi, Gianluca

    2013-04-01

    The research aims to verify the energy performance as well as the indoor comfort of an energy class A+ building, built so that the sum of the heat passive contributions of solar radiation, transmitted through the windows, and the heat generated inside the building, are adeguate to compensate for the envelope loss during the cold season. The building, located in Emilia Romagna (Italy), was built using a wooden structure, an envelope realized using a pinewood sandwich panels (transmittance U = 0.250 W/m2K) and, inside, a wool flax insulation layer and thermal window frame with low-emissivity glass (U = 0524 W/m2K). The building design and construction process has followed the guidelines set by "CasaClima". The building has been modeled in the code of dynamic calculation "Energy Plus" by the Design Builder application and divided it into homogenous thermal zones, characterized by winter indoor temperature set at 20 ° (+ / - 1 °) and summer indoor temperature set at 26 ° (+ / - 1 °). It has modeled: the envelope, as described above, the "free" heat contributions, the air conditioning system, the Mechanical Ventilation system as well as home automation solutions. The air conditioning system is an heat pump, able to guarantee an optimization of energy consumption (in fact, it uses the "free" heat offered by the external environment for conditioning indoor environment). As regards the air recirculation system, it has been used a mechanical ventilation system with internal heat cross-flow exchanger, with an efficiency equal to 50%. The domotic solutions, instead, regard a system for the control of windows external screening using reeds, adjustable as a function of incident solar radiation and a lighting management system adjusted automatically using a dimmer. A so realized building meets the requirement imposed from Italian standard UNI/TS 11300 1, UNI/TS 11300 2 and UNI/TS 11300 3. The analysis was performed according to two different configurations: in "spontaneous

  1. The evaluation of the overall thermal comfort inside a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, Catalin; Tabacu, Ion; Ivanescu, Mariana; Vieru, Ionel

    2017-10-01

    The thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the modern vehicles that can influence the safety, the fuel consumption and the pollutions regulation. The objective of this paper is to compare the global and absolute thermal comfort indexes for two vehicles with different distribution air systems inside the car cockpit, one using only front air vents, and the other using both front and rear air vents. The methodology of calculus consists in using the 3D model of the interior vehicle, generally in a CAD format. Then, using a meshing software to create the finite element model of the interior surfaces inside the cockpit and the volume of internal air. Using the obtained finite element geometry, there will be conducted a Theseus FE calculus using the given boundary conditions. The results of the numerical simulation are presented in terms of graphs and figures and also PMV, PPD and DTS thermal comfort indexes. With the obtained results, we will then create the graphs that allows us to evaluate the global and absolute thermal comfort indexes. The results of the evaluation show us that the use of the method allow us to evaluate with a greater accuracy the thermal comfort for the whole vehicle, not only for each passenger, like the standard methods. This shows us that in terms of general and absolute thermal comfort, the vehicle that use front and rear systems is better than the version that use only a front system. The thermal comfort is an important aspect to be taken into account from the beginning of the design stage of a vehicle, by choosing the right air conditioning system. In addition, by using the numerical simulation, we are able to reduce the time needed for preliminary tests and be able to provide the vehicle to the market earlier, at a lower development cost.

  2. Thermal comfort study of hospital workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Y H; Chew, B T

    2009-12-01

    This article presents findings of the thermal comfort study in hospitals. A field survey was conducted to investigate the temperature range for thermal comfort in hospitals in the tropics. Thermal acceptability assessment was conducted to examine whether the hospitals in the tropics met the ASHRAE Standard-55 80% acceptability criteria. A total of 114 occupants in four hospitals were involved in the study. The results of the field study revealed that only 44% of the examined locations met the comfort criteria specified in ASHRAE Standard 55. The survey also examined the predicted percentage of dissatisfied in the hospitals. The results showed that 49% of the occupants were satisfied with the thermal environments in the hospitals. The field survey analysis revealed that the neutral temperature for Malaysian hospitals was 26.4 degrees C. The comfort temperature range that satisfied 90% of the occupants in the space was in the range of 25.3-28.2 degrees C. The results from the field study suggested that a higher comfort temperature was required for Malaysians in hospital environments compared with the temperature criteria specified in ASHRAE Standard (2003). In addition, the significant deviation between actual mean vote and predicted mean vote (PMV) strongly implied that PMV could not be applied without errors in hospitals in the tropics. The new findings on thermal comfort temperature range in hospitals in the tropics could be used as an important guide for building services engineers and researchers who are intending to minimize energy usage in heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems in hospitals operating in the tropics with acceptable thermal comfort level and to improve the performance and well-being of its workers.

  3. Thermal comfort and building energy consumption implications – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Yan, Haiyan; Lam, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We review studies of thermal comfort and discuss building energy use implications. • Adaptive comfort models tend to have a wider comfort temperature range. • Higher indoor temperatures would lead to fewer cooling systems and less energy use. • Socio-economic study and post-occupancy evaluation of built environment is desirable. • Important to consider future climate scenarios in heating, cooling and power schemes. - Abstract: Buildings account for about 40% of the global energy consumption and contribute over 30% of the CO 2 emissions. A large proportion of this energy is used for thermal comfort in buildings. This paper reviews thermal comfort research work and discusses the implications for building energy efficiency. Predicted mean vote works well in air-conditioned spaces but not naturally ventilated buildings, whereas adaptive models tend to have a broader comfort temperature ranges. Higher indoor temperatures in summertime conditions would lead to less prevalence of cooling systems as well as less cooling requirements. Raising summer set point temperature has good energy saving potential, in that it can be applied to both new and existing buildings. Further research and development work conducive to a better understanding of thermal comfort and energy conservation in buildings have been identified and discussed. These include (i) social-economic and cultural studies in general and post-occupancy evaluation of the built environment and the corresponding energy use in particular, and (ii) consideration of future climate scenarios in the analysis of co- and tri-generation schemes for HVAC applications, fuel mix and the associated energy planning/distribution systems in response to the expected changes in heating and cooling requirements due to climate change

  4. Design for thermal sensation and comfort states in vehicles cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Omar, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript investigates the analysis and modeling of vehicular thermal comfort parameters using a set of designed experiments aided by thermography measurements. The experiments are conducted using a full size climatic chamber to host the test vehicle, to accurately assess the transient and steady state temperature distributions of the test vehicle cabin. Further investigate the thermal sensation (overall and local) and the human comfort states under artificially created relative humidity scenarios. The thermal images are calibrated through a thermocouples network, while the outside temperature and relative humidity are manipulated through the climatic environmental chamber with controlled soaking periods to guarantee the steady state conditions for each test scenario. The relative humidity inside the passenger cabin is controlled using a Total Humidity Controller (THC). The simulation uses the experimentally extracted boundary conditions via a 3-D Berkeley model that is set to be fully transient to account for the interactions in the velocity and temperature fields in the passenger compartment, which included interactions from turbulent flow, thermal buoyancy and the three modes of heat transfer conduction, convection and radiation. The model investigates the human comfort by analyzing the effect of the in-cabin relative humidity from two specific perspectives; firstly its effect on the body temporal variation of temperature within the cabin. Secondly, the Local Sensation (LS) and Comfort (LC) are analyzed for the different body segments in addition to the Overall Sensation (OS) and the Overall Comfort (OC). Furthermore, the human sensation is computed using the Fanger model in terms of the Predicted Mean Value (PMV) and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) indices. The experimental and simulation results show that controlling the RH levels during the heating and the cooling processes (winter and summer conditions respectively) aid the A/C system to

  5. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  6. Evolution of perceived footwear comfort over a prolonged running session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzy, F; Cavagna, J; Horvais, N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the subjective perception of overall footwear comfort over a prolonged running session. Ten runners performed two similar sessions consisting of a 13-km trail run (5 laps of 2.6 km) as fast as possible. The overall footwear comfort was evaluated before running and at the end of each lap with a 150-mm visual analogic scale, as well as speed, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion. The results showed that both overall footwear comfort and speed decreased consistently during the run session, and significantly after 44 min of running (i.e. the 3rd lap). It could be hypothesized that the deterioration of overall footwear comfort was explained by mechanical and energetical parameter changes with time and/or fatigue occurring at the whole body, foot and footwear levels. These results justify the use of a prolonged running test for running footwear comfort evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coupling of the Models of Human Physiology and Thermal Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, J.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    A coupled model of human physiology and thermal comfort was developed in Dymola/Modelica. A coupling combines a modified Tanabe model of human physiology and thermal comfort model developed by Zhang. The Coupled model allows predicting the thermal sensation and comfort of both local and overall from local boundary conditions representing ambient and personal factors. The aim of this study was to compare prediction of the Coupled model with the Fiala model prediction and experimental data. Validation data were taken from the literature, mainly from the validation manual of software Theseus-FE [1]. In the paper validation of the model for very light physical activities (1 met) indoor environment with temperatures from 12 °C up to 48 °C is presented. The Coupled model predicts mean skin temperature for cold, neutral and warm environment well. However prediction of core temperature in cold environment is inaccurate and very affected by ambient temperature. Evaluation of thermal comfort in warm environment is supplemented by skin wettedness prediction. The Coupled model is designed for non-uniform and transient environmental conditions; it is also suitable simulation of thermal comfort in vehicles cabins. The usage of the model is limited for very light physical activities up to 1.2 met only.

  8. Coupling of the Models of Human Physiology and Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A coupled model of human physiology and thermal comfort was developed in Dymola/Modelica. A coupling combines a modified Tanabe model of human physiology and thermal comfort model developed by Zhang. The Coupled model allows predicting the thermal sensation and comfort of both local and overall from local boundary conditions representing ambient and personal factors. The aim of this study was to compare prediction of the Coupled model with the Fiala model prediction and experimental data. Validation data were taken from the literature, mainly from the validation manual of software Theseus–FE [1]. In the paper validation of the model for very light physical activities (1 met indoor environment with temperatures from 12 °C up to 48 °C is presented. The Coupled model predicts mean skin temperature for cold, neutral and warm environment well. However prediction of core temperature in cold environment is inaccurate and very affected by ambient temperature. Evaluation of thermal comfort in warm environment is supplemented by skin wettedness prediction. The Coupled model is designed for non-uniform and transient environmental conditions; it is also suitable simulation of thermal comfort in vehicles cabins. The usage of the model is limited for very light physical activities up to 1.2 met only.

  9. Enthalpy estimation for thermal comfort and energy saving in air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.-M.; Jong, T.-L.

    2008-01-01

    The thermal comfort control of a room must consider not only the thermal comfort level but also energy saving. This paper proposes an enthalpy estimation that is conducive for thermal comfort control and energy saving. The least enthalpy estimator (LEE) combines the concept of human thermal comfort with the theory of enthalpy to predict the load for a suitable setting pair in order to maintain more precisely the thermal comfort level and save energy in the air conditioning system

  10. Nurses' comfort with touch and workplace well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazza, Monica; Minuzzo, Stefania; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Touch is an essential part of caregiving and has been proved to be useful to reduce pain. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to nurses' perceptions of touch. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between nurses' feelings of comfort with touch and their well-being at work. A sample of 241 nurses attending a pain management training course completed a questionnaire, including the following measures: Comfort with Touch (CT) scale (task-oriented contact, touch promoting physical comfort, touch providing emotional containment), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; emotional exhaustion, cynicism), and Job Satisfaction. Results of structural equation models showed that touch providing emotional containment was the main predictor of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, was positively related to cynicism and negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direct path from touch providing emotional containment to cynicism was significant. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Preliminary research on virtual thermal comfort of automobile occupants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobet, Tiberiu; Danca, Paul; Nastase, Ilinca; Bode, Florin

    2018-02-01

    Numerical simulation of climate conditions in automotive industry for the study of thermal comfort had become more and more prominent in the last years compared with the classical approach which consists in wind tunnel measurements and field testing, the main advantages being the reduction of vehicle development time and costs. The study presented in this paper is a part of a project intended to evaluate different strategies of cabin ventilation for improving the thermal comfort inside vehicles. A virtual thermal manikin consisting of 24 parts was introduced on the driver seat in a vehicle. A heat load calculated for summer condition in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania was imposed as boundary condition. The purpose of this study was to elaborate a virtual thermal manikin suitable for our research, introduction of the manikin inside the vehicle and to examine his influence inside the automobile. The thermal comfort of the virtual manikin was evaluated in terms of temperature and air velocity.

  12. Evaluating comfort with varying temperatures: a graphic design tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.M. [Research Centre Habitat and Energy, Faculty of Architecture, Design and Urbanism, University of Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    This paper considers the need to define comfort of indoor and outdoor spaces in relation to the daily variations of temperature. A graphical tool is presented, which indicates the daily swings of temperature, shown as a single point on a graph representing the average temperature and the maximum temperature swing. This point can be compared with the comfort zones for different activity levels, such as sedentary activity, sleeping, indoor and outdoor circulation according to the design proposals for different spaces. The graph allows the representation of climatic variables, the definition of comfort zones, the selection of bio climatic design resources and the evaluation of indoor temperatures, measured in actual buildings or obtained from computer simulations. The development of the graph is explained and examples given with special emphasis on the use of thermal mass. (author)

  13. Guidelines on Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioned Indoor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyohiko

    The thermal comfort of air conditioned indoor environment for workers depended, of course, on metabolic rate of work, race, sex, age, clothing, climate of the district and state of acclimatization. The attention of the author was directed to the seasonal variation and the sexual difference of comfortable temperature and a survey through a year was conducted on the thermal comfort, and health conditions of workers engaged in light work in a precision machine factory, in some office workers. Besides, a series of experiments were conducted for purpose of determinning the optimum temperature of cooling in summer time in relation to the outdoor temperature. It seemed that many of workers at present would prefer somewhat higher temperature than those before the World War II. Forty years ago the average homes and offices were not so well heated as today, and clothing worn on the average was considerably heavier.

  14. Impact of Manually Controlled Solar Shades on Indoor Visual Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Daylight plays a significant role in sustainable building design. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the impact of manual solar shades on indoor visual comfort. A developed stochastic model for manual solar shades was modeled in Building Controls Virtual Test Bed, which was coupled with EnergyPlus for co-simulation. Movable solar shades were compared with two unshaded windows. Results show that movable solar shades have more than half of the working hours with a comfortable illuminance level, which is about twice higher than low-e windows, with a less significant daylight illuminance fluctuation. For glare protection, movable solar shades increase comfortable visual conditions by about 20% compared to low-e windows. Moreover, the intolerable glare perception could be reduced by more than 20% for movable solar shades.

  15. Simulation of global warming effect on outdoor thermal comfort conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshan, G.R.; Ranjbar, F. [Univ. of Tehran (IR). Dept. of Physical Geography; Orosa, J.A. [Univ. of A Coruna (Spain). Dept. of Energy

    2010-07-01

    In the coming decades, global warming and increase in temperature, in different regions of the world, may change indoor and outdoor thermal comfort conditions and human health. The aim of this research was to study the effects of global warming on thermal comfort conditions in indoor ambiences in Iran. To study the increase in temperature, model for assessment of greenhouse-gas induced climate change scenario generator compound model has been used together with four scenarios and to estimate thermal comfort conditions, adaptive model of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers has been used. In this study, Iran was divided into 30 zones, outdoor conditions were obtained using meteorological data of 80 climatological stations and changes in neutral comfort conditions in 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 were predicted. In accordance with each scenario, findings from this study showed that temperature in the 30 zones will increase by 2100 to between 3.4 C and 5.6 C. In the coming decades and in the 30 studied zones, neutral comfort temperature will increase and be higher and more intense in the central and desert zones of Iran. The low increase in this temperature will be connected to the coastal areas of the Caspian and Oman Sea in southeast Iran. This increase in temperature will be followed by a change in thermal comfort and indoor energy consumption from 8.6 % to 13.1 % in air conditioning systems. As a result, passive methods as thermal inertia are proposed as a possible solution.

  16. Assessing Thermal Comfort Due to a Ventilated Double Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Jorge S.; Corvacho, Helena

    2017-10-01

    Building design and its components are the result of a complex process, which should provide pleasant conditions to its inhabitants. Therefore, indoor acceptable comfort is influenced by the architectural design. ISO and ASHRAE standards define thermal comfort as the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. The energy demand for heating, beside the building’s physical properties, also depend on human behaviour, like opening or closing windows. Generally, windows are the weakest façade element concerning to thermal performance. A lower thermal resistance allows higher thermal conduction through it. When a window is very hot or cold, and the occupant is very close to it, it may result in thermal discomfort. The functionality of a ventilated double window introduces new physical considerations to a traditional window. In consequence, it is necessary to study the local effect on human comfort in function of the boundary conditions. Wind, solar availability, air temperature and therefore heating and indoor air quality conditions will affect the relationship between this passive system and the indoor environment. In the present paper, the influence of thermal performance and ventilation on human comfort resulting from the construction and geometry solutions is shown, helping to choose the best solution. The presented approach shows that in order to save energy it is possible to reduce the air changes of a room to the minimum, without compromising air quality, enhancing simultaneously local thermal performance and comfort. The results of the study on the effect of two parallel windows with a ventilated channel in the same fenestration on comfort conditions for several different room dimensions, are also presented. As the room dimensions’ rate changes so does the window to floor rate; therefore, under the same climatic conditions and same construction solution, different results are obtained.

  17. Health and comfort in office buildings; Gezondheid en comfort in kantoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; De Kluizenaar, Y. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    Relationships between indoor building conditions and well-being of occupants are complex; many indoor stressors can exert their effects additively or through complex interactions. It has been shown that exposure to these stressors can cause both short-term and long-term effects. Relevant relations between measurements of chemical and physical indoor environmental parameters and effects have been difficult to make. To increase the chance on successful assessment of cause-effect relationships in future indoor environmental quality investigations, there seems to be a need to improve procedures applied to gather the relevant information. [Dutch] Relaties tussen binnenmilieucondities enerzijds en gezondheid en comfort van kantoormedewerkers anderzijds zijn complex. Veel prikkels of stressoren kunnen zowel kortdurende als langdurende effecten veroorzaken. Maar het is ingewikkeld om relevante relaties te leggen tussen deze effecten en metingen van de chemische en fysische binnenmilieuparameters. Het lijkt noodzakelijk om de procedures voor binnenmilieuonderzoek te verbeteren. Dit kan de kans op een succesvolle bepaling van oorzaak/effect-relaties in toekomstige binnenmilieustudies vergroten.

  18. Where is the comfort in comfort foods? Mechanisms linking fat signaling, reward, and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltens, N; Zhao, D; Van Oudenhove, L

    2014-03-01

    Food in general, and fatty foods in particular, have obtained intrinsic reward value throughout evolution. This reward value results from an interaction between exteroceptive signals from different sensory modalities, interoceptive hunger/satiety signals from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain, as well as ongoing affective and cognitive processes. Further evidence linking food to emotions stems from folk psychology ('comfort foods') and epidemiological studies demonstrating high comorbidity rates between disorders of food intake, including obesity, and mood disorders such as depression. This review paper aims to give an overview of current knowledge on the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the link between (fatty) foods, their reward value, and emotional responses to (anticipation of) their intake in humans. Firstly, the influence of exteroceptive sensory signals, including visual, olfactory ('anticipatory food reward'), and gustatory ('consummatory food reward'), on the encoding of reward value in the (ventral) striatum and of subjective pleasantness in the cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex will be discussed. Differences in these pathways and mechanisms between lean and obese subjects will be highlighted. Secondly, recent studies elucidating the mechanisms of purely interoceptive fatty acid-induced signaling from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain, including the role of gut peptides, will be presented. These studies have demonstrated that such subliminal interoceptive stimuli may impact on hedonic circuits in the brain, and thereby influence the subjective and neural responses to negative emotion induction. This suggests that the effect of foods on mood may even occur independently from their exteroceptive sensory properties. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Analysis of Thermal Comfort in an Intelligent Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Grzegorz; Telejko, Marek; Orman, Łukasz J.

    2017-06-01

    Analysis of thermal comfort in the ENERGIS Building, an intelligent building in the campus of the Kielce University of Technology, Poland is the focus of this paper. For this purpose, air temperature, air relative humidity, air flow rate and carbon dioxide concentration were measured and the mean radiant temperature was determined. Thermal sensations of the students occupying the rooms of the building were evaluated with the use of a questionnaire. The students used a seven-point scale of thermal comfort. The microclimate measurement results were used to determine the Predicted Mean Vote and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied indices.

  20. Objective and subjective evaluation of the acoustic comfort in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Marcon, Carolina Reich

    2007-09-01

    The acoustic comfort of classrooms in a Brazilian public school has been evaluated through interviews with 62 teachers and 464 pupils, measurements of background noise, reverberation time, and sound insulation. Acoustic measurements have revealed the poor acoustic quality of the classrooms. Results have shown that teachers and pupils consider the noise generated and the voice of the teacher in neighboring classrooms as the main sources of annoyance inside the classroom. Acoustic simulations resulted in the suggestion of placement of perforated plywood on the ceiling, for reduction in reverberation time and increase in the acoustic comfort of the classrooms.

  1. The effects of vegetation on indoor thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastore, Luisa; Corrao, Rossella; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •A multi-scale simulation methodology to assess the effects of vegetation on thermal comfort is used. •It application is shown on a case of urban and building retrofit intervention. •The effect of plants on the microclimate and indoor environment is assessed. •A decrease of up to 4.8 °C...... in indoor temperature is registered. •The final impact on the indoor thermal comfort based on the adaptive model is determined....

  2. In search of the comfortable indoor environment: A comparison of the utility of objective and subjective indicators of indoor comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Niklas; Skoog, Jennie [Building Services Engineering, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Vaestfjaell, Daniel [Department of Psychology, Goeteborg University (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Today, many procedures for assessing the indoor environment rely on both subjective and objective indicators (e.g. ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004; ISO 10551). It is however unclear how these two types of measurements are related to perceived comfort. This article aims at assessing the relative utility of subjective (rating scale measures) and objective indicators of perceived comfort of indoor environments. In a hospital setting, physical environmental variables (e.g. temperature, relative humidity and noise level) were simultaneously measured as respondents (both patients and staff) rated their perception of the indoor environment. Regression analyses indicated that the subjective sensory ratings were significantly better than objective indicators at predicting overall rated indoor comfort. These results are discussed in relation to existing measurement procedures and standards. (author)

  3. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velt, K.B.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to investigate thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) in changing environments. Therefore, 10 subjects stayed in a 30 °C, 50% relative humidity for 30 min in summer clothes and then moved to a 20 °C room where they remained seated for 30 min (Hot to Reference

  4. Improving comfort levels in a traditional high altitude Nepali house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, R.J. [School of Architecture and Building, Deakin University, Geelong, Vic. 3217 (Australia); Zahnd, A.; Thakuri, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu University and RIDS-Nepal (Nepal)

    2009-03-15

    Humla Province is a remote mountainous region of northwest Nepal. The climate is harsh and the local people are extremely poor. Most people endure a subsistence culture, living in traditional housing. Energy for cooking and heating comes from fuelwood, supplies of which are diminishing. In order to improve the indoor environment and reduce fuelwood use, smokeless stoves are being introduced to replace the open fire in Humli homes. There is some concern, however, that comfort levels may not be as acceptable with these stoves. The aim of this research was therefore to investigate ways in which the comfort levels in traditional Humli housing might be improved using simple and low cost strategies. Temperature data was recorded in four rooms of a traditional Humli home over a 12-day period and used with fuelwood data to validate a TRNSYS simulation model of the house. This model was then used to evaluate the impact on comfort levels in the house of various energy conservation strategies using PMV and PPD indicators. As a single strategy, it was found that reducing infiltration of outside air was likely to be more effective than increasing the insulation level in the ceilings. The most successful strategy, however, was the creation of sunspaces at the entrances to the living rooms. This strategy increased average internal temperatures by 1.7 and 2.3 C. In combination with increased insulation levels, the sunspaces reduced comfort dissatisfaction levels by over 50%. (author)

  5. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings in Maceio, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamila, Harimi

    2017-11-01

    This article presents the results from thermal comfort survey carried out in classrooms over two different seasons in Maceio, Brazil. The secondary data were collected from thermal comfort field study conducted in naturally ventilated classrooms. Objective and subjective parameters were explored to evaluate thermal comfort conditions. The potential effect of air movement on subjects' vote under neutrality was evaluated. Overall, the indoor climate of the surveyed location was classified warm and humid. Conflicting results were depicted when analyzing the effect of air movements on subjects' vote. The mean air temperature for subjects feeling hot was found to be lower than those feeling warm. A reasonable approach to tackle these two unpredictable results was suggested. Correlation matrix between selected thermal comfort variables was developed. Globe temperature recorded the highest correlation with subjects' response on ASHRAE seven-point scale. The correlation was significant at the 0.01 level. On the other hand, the correlation between air movement and subjects' response on ASHRAE seven-point scale was weak but significant. Further field studies on the current topic were recommended.

  6. Thermal comfort study of plastics manufacturing industry in converting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiono Sugiono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is one of ergonomics factors that can create a significant impact to workers performance. For a better thermal comfort, several environment factors (air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity should be considered in this research. The object of the study is a building for converting process of plastics manufacturing industry located in Malang, Indonesia. The maximum air temperature inside the building can reach as high as 36°C. The result of this study shows that heat stress is dominantly caused by heat source from machine and wall building. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation is used to show the air characteristic through inside the building. By using the CFD simulation, some scenarios of solution are successfully presented. Employees thermal comfort was investigated based on predicted mean vote model (PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied model (PPD. Existing condition gives PMV in range from 1.83 to 2.82 and PPD in range from 68.9 to 98%. Meanwhile, modification of ventilation and replacing ceiling material from clear glass into reflective clear glass gave significant impact to reduce PMV into range from 1.63 to 2.18 and PPD into range from 58.2 to 84.2%. In sort, new design converting building process has more comfortable for workers.

  7. 24 CFR 3280.511 - Comfort cooling certificate and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following shall be supplied in the Comfort Cooling Certificate: Air Conditioner Manufacturer Air Conditioner... Conditioner Manufacturer Certified Capacity ___ BTU/Hr. in accordance with the appropriate Air Conditioning... such air conditioners are rated at 0.3 inch water column static pressure or greater for the cooling air...

  8. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling: Report and Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Herrmann, L.; Kozubal, E.; Geiger, J.; Eastment, M.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The project objective was to demonstrate the capabilities of the high-performance multi-staged IEC technology and its ability to enhance energy efficiency and interior comfort in dry climates, while substantially reducing electric-peak demand. The project was designed to test 24 cooling units in five commercial building types at Fort Carson Army Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

  9. Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Bazley, C.; Kamp, I.; Blok, M.

    2012-01-01

    Comfort plays an increasingly important role in the interior design of airplanes. Although ample research has been conducted on airplane design technology, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger's opinion. In this study, more than 10,000 internet

  10. Get a Little Closer: Further Examination of Nonverbal Comforting Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Connie; Horn, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    Tests whether a set of nonverbal comforting strategies and their relationships with affective orientation and gender in previous research are generalizable to a broader sample. Concludes gender differences in affective orientation, diversity and number of strategies, and use of specific strategies were supported. Finds that females were more…

  11. A Novel Exercise Thermophysiology Comfort Prediction Model with Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in a regular exercise program can improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. However, exercise accidents like dehydration, exertional heatstroke, syncope, and even sudden death exist. If these accidents can be analyzed or predicted before they happen, it will be beneficial to alleviate or avoid uncomfortable or unacceptable human disease. Therefore, an exercise thermophysiology comfort prediction model is needed. In this paper, coupling the thermal interactions among human body, clothing, and environment (HCE as well as the human body physiological properties, a human thermophysiology regulatory model is designed to enhance the human thermophysiology simulation in the HCE system. Some important thermal and physiological performances can be simulated. According to the simulation results, a human exercise thermophysiology comfort prediction method based on fuzzy inference system is proposed. The experiment results show that there is the same prediction trend between the experiment result and simulation result about thermophysiology comfort. At last, a mobile application platform for human exercise comfort prediction is designed and implemented.

  12. Thermal comfort of heterogeneous and dynamic indoor conditions - An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, A.K.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    The buildings sector, being a leading energy consumer, would need to lead in conservation efforts as well. There is a growing consensus that variability in indoor conditions can be acceptable to occupants, improve comfort perception, and lower building energy consumption. This work endeavours to

  13. Outdoor thermal comfort and behaviour in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inavonna, I.; Hardiman, G.; Purnomo, A. B.

    2018-01-01

    Outdoor comfort is important due to the public spaces functions. Open spaces provide thermal comfort and a pleasant experience to improve the city life quality effectively. The influence of thermal comfort in outdoor activities is a complex problem. This paper presents a literature review and discussion of aspects of physical, psychology, and social behaviour toward outdoor thermal comfort. The valuation is determined not only by the “physical state” but also by the “state of mind”. The assessment is static and objective (i.e., physical and physiological characteristics) that it should be measured. Furthermore, an effective model to provide the knowledge of climatic conditions, as well as the dynamic and subjective aspects (i.e., psychological and social characteristics and behaviour), requires a comprehensive interview and observation. The model will be examined to describe the behaviour that is a reflection of perception and behaviour toward the environment. The adaptation process will constantly evolve so that it becomes a continuous cause between human behaviour and the spatial setting of the formation, which is eventually known as places and not just spaces. This evolutionary process is a civic art form.

  14. Thermal comfort in residential buildings by the millions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Maagaard, Steffen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2016-01-01

    In Danish building code and many design briefings, criteria regarding thermal comfort are defined for “critical” rooms in residential buildings. Identifying the critical room is both difficult and time-consuming for large, multistory buildings. To reduce costs and time, such requirement often...

  15. Effect of neck warming and cooling on thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B. A.; Chambers, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    The potential use of local neck cooling in an area superficial to the cerebral arteries was evaluated by circulating cold or hot water through two copper disks held firmly against the neck. Subjective responses indicated that neck cooling improves the thermal comfort in a hot environment.

  16. Double face : Adjustable translucent system to improve thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrin, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; De Ruiter, P.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Chang Lara, C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Teuffel, P.; Van Bommel, W.

    2015-01-01

    The DoubleFace project aims at developing a new product that passively improves thermal comfort of indoor and semi-indoor spaces by means of lightweight materials for latent heat storage, while simultaneously allowing daylight to pass through as much as possible. Specifically, the project aims at

  17. Visual comfort of 3-D TV : models and measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, M.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The embracing of 3-D movies by Hollywood and fast LCD panels finally enable the home consumer market to start successful campaigns to get 3-D movies and games in the comfort of the living room. By introducing three-dimensional television (3-D TV) and its desktop-counterpart for gaming and internet

  18. The correlation between thermal comfort in buildings and fashion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesel, Aline; de Mello Souza, Patrícia

    2012-01-01

    This article is about thermal comfort in the wearable product. The research correlates fashion and architecture, in so far as it elects the brise soleil - an architectural element capable of regulating temperature and ventilation inside buildings - as a study referential, in trying to transpose and adapt its mechanisms to the wearable apparel.

  19. Impact of management attitudes on perceived thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, T.; Franchimon, F.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the influence of some organizational and management characteristics on the perception of indoor environment qualities such as thermal comfort and related stress. Methods One open office in each of three organizations in Eindhoven was studied. An office environment

  20. Numerical human model for impact and seating comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de; Verver, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed numerical model of the human body that can be used to evaluate both safety and comfort aspects of vehicle interiors. The model is based on a combination of rigid body and finite element techniques to provide an optimal combination of computational efficiency and

  1. The spatial comfort study of shophouse at Kampung Madras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Y. U. U.; Ginting, N.; Zahrah, W.

    2018-03-01

    This Research comes from the increasing quantity of shophouse in downtown Medan and the suburban area. The condition of shophouse tend to have narrowly spaced rooms, the middle area of the house are poorly lighted, and lots of space left unused. This research is supported by many spatial issues from previous studies. This study is conducted to determine the level of comfort of shophouse as a function of living space and focused on the spatial aspect namely anthropometry, indoor space circulation, space requirement and function, spatial design and indoor visual. This study uses the descriptive method with the qualitative and quantitative approach. Data collection technique is done by field observation, questionnaire method is also used to get the respondent perception of the spatial comfort of a shophouse. The result indicates that the level of spatial comfort of the shophouse is an uncomfort. So the improvements in the circulation of access to the building, spatial design, lighting, and aeration are needed to improve the spatial comfort of a shophouse.

  2. 24 CFR 3280.507 - Comfort heat gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Comfort heat gain. 3280.507 Section... gain. Information necessary to calculate the home cooling load shall be provided as specified in this part. (a) Transmission heat gains. Homes complying with this section shall meet the minimum heat loss...

  3. A Series of Computational Neuroscience Labs Increases Comfort with MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David F

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations allow for a low-cost, reliable means to demonstrate complex and often times inaccessible concepts to undergraduates. However, students without prior computer programming training may find working with code-based simulations to be intimidating and distracting. A series of computational neuroscience labs involving the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, an Integrate-and-Fire model, and a Hopfield Memory network were used in an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory component of an introductory level course. Using short focused surveys before and after each lab, student comfort levels were shown to increase drastically from a majority of students being uncomfortable or with neutral feelings about working in the MATLAB environment to a vast majority of students being comfortable working in the environment. Though change was reported within each lab, a series of labs was necessary in order to establish a lasting high level of comfort. Comfort working with code is important as a first step in acquiring computational skills that are required to address many questions within neuroscience.

  4. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  5. End-state comfort trumps handedness in object manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Chase J; Studenka, Breanna E; Rosenbaum, David A

    2014-04-01

    A goal of research on human perception and performance is to explore the relative importance of constraints shaping action selection. The present study concerned the relative importance of two constraints that have not been directly contrasted: (1) the tendency to grasp objects in ways that afford comfortable or easy-to-control final postures; and (2) the tendency to grasp objects with the dominant rather than the nondominant hand. We asked participants to reach out and grasp a horizontal rod whose left or right end was to be placed into a target after a 90° rotation. In one condition, we told participants which hand to use and let them choose an overhand or underhand initial grasp. In another condition, we told participants which grasp to use and let them choose either hand. Participants sacrificed hand preference to perform the task in a way that ensured a comfortable or easy to control thumb-up posture at the time of object placement, indicating that comfort trumped handedness. A second experiment confirmed that comfort was indeed higher for thumb-down postures than thumb-up postures. A third experiment confirmed that the choice data could be linked to objective performance differences. The results point to the importance of identifying constraint weightings for action selection and support an account of hand selection that ascribes hand preference to sensitivity to performance differences. The results do not support the hypothesis that hand preference simply reflects a bias to use the dominant hand.

  6. Economize while improving comfort. It's possible... with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, G.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing the amount of exterior air coming into a building, combined with a natural gas heating source has proven to be profitable. A study in a residence for handicapped people showed that doubling the amount of exterior air coming into the building actually improved the comfort level for the occupants while reducing the total electric energy bill by 21 per cent

  7. Negotiating comfort in low energy housing: The politics of intermediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandclément, Catherine; Karvonen, Andrew; Guy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Optimising the energy performance of buildings is technically and economically challenging but it also has significant social implications. Maintaining comfortable indoor conditions while reducing energy consumption involves careful design, construction, and management of the built environment and its inhabitants. In this paper, we present findings from the study of a new low energy building for older people in Grenoble, France where conflicts emerged over the simultaneous pursuit of energy efficiency and comfort. The findings contribute to the contemporary literature on the sociotechnical study of buildings and energy use by focusing on intermediation, those activities that associate a technology to end users. Intermediation activities take many forms, and in some cases, can result in the harmonisation or alignment of energy efficiency goals and comfort goals. In other cases, intermediation is unsuccessful, leading to the conventional dichotomy between optimising technical performance and meeting occupant preferences. By highlighting the multiple ways that comfort and energy efficiency is negotiated, we conclude that buildings are provisional achievements that are constantly being intermediated. This suggests that building energy efficiency policies and programmes need to provide opportunities for intermediaries to negotiate the desires and preferences of the multiple stakeholders that are implicated in low energy buildings. -- Highlights: •Energy efficiency and comfort are two possibly contradictory aims of buildings. •We study the pursuit of these aims at the occupation stage of a new building. •Aligning these aims involve negotiating them with occupants. •Intermediation processes are key to such negotiations. •Intermediation processes involve both actors and technical devices

  8. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants. An Adaptive Thermal Comfort System is defined as the whole of passive and active comfort components of the dwelling that dynamically adapts its settings to varying user comfort demands and weather conditions (seasonal, diurnal and hourly depending on the aspects adapted, thus providing comfort only where, when and at the level needed by the user, to improve possibilities of harvesting the environmental energy (e.g. solar gain and outdoor air when available and storing it when abundant. In order to be able to create an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System to save energy knowledge is needed as to where, when, what kind and how much energy is needed to provide the thermal comfort. Therefore, this research aimed to gain insight in the dynamic behaviour of the weather and the occupant and the opportunities to design the characteristics of an Adaptive Thermal Comfort System for Dwellings to achieve a significantly better energy performance whilst not compromising the thermal comfort perception of the occupants answering the main research question;  What are the most efficient strategies for delivering thermal comfort in the residential sector with respect to better energy performances and an increasing demand for flexibility in use and comfort conditions? To answer the main research question three steps were taken, which also represent the three parts of the research: 1. The dynamic information of the factors influencing the thermal heat balance of the dwelling was gathered in order to determine their opportunities for adaptivity. A multidisciplinary approach to Thermal Comfort Systems is followed taking into account the dynamic of occupancy profiles, weather, building physics, HVAC and controls. A

  9. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  10. Geriatric care: ways and means of providing comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patricia Cruz Pontifice Sousa Valente; Marques, Rita Margarida Dourado; Ribeiro, Marta Pontifice

    2017-01-01

    To know the ways and means of comfort perceived by the older adults hospitalized in a medical service. Ethnographic study with a qualitative approach. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 older adults and participant observation of care situations. The ways and means of providing comfort are centered on strategies for promoting care mobilized by nurses and recognized by patients(clarifying/informing, positive interaction/communication, music therapy, touch, smile, unconditional presence, empathy/proximity relationship, integrating the older adult or the family as partner in the care, relief of discomfort through massage/mobilization/therapy) and on particular moments of comfort (the first contact, the moment of personal hygiene, and the visit of the family), which constitute the foundation of care/comfort. Geriatric care is built on the relationship that is established and complete with meaning, and is based on the meeting/interaction between the actors under the influence of the context in which they are inserted. The different ways and means of providing comfort aim to facilitate/increase care, relieve discomfort and/or invest in potential comfort. Conhecer os modos e formas de confortar percecionadas pelos idosos hospitalizados num serviço de medicina. Estudo etnográfico com abordagem qualitativa. Realizamos entrevistas semiestruturadas com 22 doentes idosos e observação participante nas situações de cuidados. Os modos e formas de confortar centram-se em estratégias promotoras de conforto mobilizadas pelo enfermeiro e reconhecidas pelos doentes (informação/esclarecimento, interação/comunicação positiva, toque, sorriso, presença incondicional, integração do idoso/família nos cuidados e o alívio de desconfortos através da massagem/mobilização/terapêutica) e em momentos particulares de conforto (contato inaugural, visita da família., cuidados de higiene e arranjo pessoal), que se constituem como alicerces do cuidar

  11. Children undergoing cancer treatment describe their experiences of comfort in interviews and drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte; Norberg, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Children with cancer often undergo a long course of treatment, described as painful, and associated with feelings of discomfort and need of comfort. The aim of this descriptive interview study was to investigate how children, aged 3 to 9 years, undergoing cancer treatment describe their experience of comfort. The children were interviewed and asked to make drawings. Data were content analyzed and four themes were constructed--enduring discomfort, expressing discomfort, finding comfort, and comforting others. The findings show that the children endured discomfort during treatment, and were sometimes able to express it. They found comfort especially from their family and from hospital staff. The children also described that they comforted family members. The findings are in accordance with previous research about children's and adults' accounts of comfort. An incidental finding is that parents were surprised when they listened to the children's accounts of their experience of discomfort and comfort and achieved a better understanding of their children.

  12. Features of determining the nonmanufacturing premises comfort level by the integrated microclimate quality criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmirov, V. V.; Prorokova, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The method of determining a microclimate comfort level have been developed, taking into account the main parameters influencing the microclimate in residential, public and administration buildings, their mutual influence on the comfort level, and air quality.

  13. Features of determining the nonmanufacturing premises comfort level by the integrated microclimate quality criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhmirov V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of determining a microclimate comfort level have been developed, taking into account the main parameters influencing the microclimate in residential, public and administration buildings, their mutual influence on the comfort level, and air quality.

  14. Understanding comfort and senses in social practices: Insights from a Danish field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Thermal comfort is central to energy consumption in housing and one of the main drivers behind worldwide GHG emissions. Research on residential energy consumption has therefore addressed comfort in relation to indoor temperatures. This paper argues that by widening the focus of comfort to include...... other aspects such as air, light and materials, more sustainable ideas of residential comfort might be developed. The paper takes a practice theoretical perspective but argues that the senses should be better incorporated into the approach to understand different aspects of comfort. The paper...... investigates how comfort can be understood as sensorial within theories of practice. This implies understanding how the senses are incorporated in embodied and routinised social practices, through which comfort is sensed and interpreted. Comfort is related to a range of everyday practices in the home...

  15. Heart rate variation and electroencephalograph--the potential physiological factors for thermal comfort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y; Lian, Z; Liu, W; Jiang, C; Liu, Y; Lu, H

    2009-04-01

    Human thermal comfort researches mainly focus on the relation between the environmental factors (e.g. ambient temperature, air humidity, and air velocity, etc.) and the thermal comfort sensation based on a large amount of subjective field investigations. Although some physiological factors, such as skin temperature and metabolism were used in many thermal comfort models,they are not enough to establish a perfect thermal comfort model. In this paper,another two physiological factors, i.e. heart rate variation (HRV) and electroencephalograph (EEG), are explored for the thermal comfort study. Experiments were performed to investigate how these physiological factors respond to the environmental temperatures, and what is the relationship between HRV and EEG and thermal comfort. The experimental results indicate that HRV and EEG may be related to thermal comfort, and they may be useful to understand the mechanism of thermal comfort.

  16. MIT-Skywalker: Evaluating comfort of bicycle/saddle seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Rogerio S; Hamilton, Taya; Daher, Ali R; Hirai, Hiroaki; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures. Here we will summarize the results obtained from a study of fifteen healthy subjects and one stroke patient that led to the selection of a saddle seat design for the MIT-Skywalker.

  17. Comfort and patient-centred care without excessive sedation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Shehabi, Yahya; Walsh, Timothy S

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated and adaptable approach to improve patient care and clinical outcomes through analgesia and light sedation, initiated early during an episode of critical illness and as a priority of care. This strategy, which may be regarded as an evolution of the Pain, Agitation...... and Delirium guidelines, is conveyed in the mnemonic eCASH-early Comfort using Analgesia, minimal Sedatives and maximal Humane care. eCASH aims to establish optimal patient comfort with minimal sedation as the default presumption for intensive care unit (ICU) patients in the absence of recognised medical...... requirements for deeper sedation. Effective pain relief is the first priority for implementation of eCASH: we advocate flexible multimodal analgesia designed to minimise use of opioids. Sedation is secondary to pain relief and where possible should be based on agents that can be titrated to a prespecified...

  18. Thermal Comfort-CFD maps for Architectural Interior Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Fabbri, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    opportunities of movable interior partitions (operated by the users) could be estimated, providing a new layer of information to the designer. The applicability of the thermal maps within an architectural design process is discussed adopting standard energy simulation comfort outputs as a reference......Within the context of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings, it is debated that the energy-centred notion of design, proposed by regulatory frames, needs to be combined with a further focus toward users’ comfort and delight. Accordingly, the underlying theory of the research is that designers should take...... responsibility for understanding the heat flows through the building parts and its spaces. A design, which is sensible to the micro-thermal conditions coexisting in a space, allows the inhabitants to control the building to their needs and desires: for instance, maximising the benefits of heat gain from the sun...

  19. Climate and colored walls: in search of visual comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrarte-Grau, Malvina

    2002-06-01

    The quality of natural light, the landscape surrounds and the techniques of construction are important factors in the selection of architectural colors. Observation of exterior walls in differentiated climates allows the recognition of particularities in the use of color which satisfy the need for visual comfort. At a distance of 2000 kilometers along the coast of Peru, Lima and Mancora at 12° and 4° respectively, are well defined for their climatic characteristics: in Mancora sunlight causes high reflection, in Lima overcast sky and high humidity cause glare. The study of building color effects at these locations serves to illustrate that color values may be controlled in order to achieve visual comfort and contribute to color identity.

  20. The impact of glazing on energy consumption and comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegou-Sagia, A.; Antonopoulos, K.; Angelopoulou, C.; Kotsiovelos, G.

    2007-01-01

    Given the importance of buildings on the energy balance in Greece, an attempt has been made to study their energy behaviour and thermal comfort. Our primary purpose is to provide an estimation of the building's energy consumption and examine how this affects the comfort conditions. This includes the definition of thermal conditions acceptable for various activities at different times of day during each month of the year. We cannot underestimate the value of real measurements and observations of the building's energy systems, but such data are not always available. The best opportunities for improving energy performance occur early in the design process. Our simulation results can give an indication on which end uses are the most energy consuming, the 'weaknesses' of a building and thus urge the owner or engineer to take effective conservation energy measures

  1. Balancing Machine Work, Comfort Work, and Sentimental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria Ie; Hansen, Magnus; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    and attention. We investigate ambulance care in three of Denmark’s five healthcare regions, which staff ambulances with emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and physicians. Using the concept of illness trajectory we analyse how the ambulance crews balance machine work, which involves continuously...... monitoring the equipment, comfort work, which is actions taken to relieve the pain or discomfort of the patient, and sentimental work, which is care for the patient’s physical and mental well-being, often verbal in nature. The analysis shows that comfort and sentimental work often takes priority over machine...... work, but also that this has negative consequences. Equipment for use in ambulances should aim at supporting the ambulance crews in competently and dynamically balancing the different types of work and should, consequently, avoid binding the crew’s attention for unbroken periods of time....

  2. Effect of warm air supplied facially on occupants' comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sliva,, D.

    2010-01-01

    was supplied with a constant velocity of 0.4 m/s by means of personalized ventilation towards the face of the subjects. The airflow at 21 °C decreased the subjects' thermal sensation and increased draught discomfort, but improved slightly the perceived air quality. Heating of the supplied air by 6 K...... (temperature increase by 4 K at the target area) above the room air temperature decreased the draught discomfort, improved subjects' thermal comfort and only slightly decreased the perceived air quality. Elevated velocity and temperature of the localized airflow caused an increase of nose dryness intensity...... and number of eye irritation reports. Results suggest that increasing the temperature of the air locally supplied to the breathing zone by only a few degrees above the room air temperature will improve occupants' thermal comfort and will diminish draught discomfort. This strategy will extend...

  3. A comfort-based, energy-aware HVAC agent and its applications in the smart grid

    OpenAIRE

    Auffenberg, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we introduce a novel heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) agent that maintains a comfortable thermal environmant for its users while minimising energy consumption of the HVAC system and incorporating demand side management (DSM) signals to shift HVAC loads towards achieving more desirable overall load profiles. To do so, the agent needs to be able to accurately predict user comfort, for example by using a thermal comfort model. Existing thermal comfort models are u...

  4. Ecosystem Biomimicry: A way to achieve thermal comfort in architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abaeian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The strategies to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energies in buildings are becoming increasingly important. In the meantime, nature-inspired approaches have emerged as a new strategy to achieve thermal comfort in the interiors. However, the use of these approaches in architecture and buildings requires a proper understanding regarding the features of ecosystems. Although acquiring this knowledge requires a high degree of familiarity with the fields such as biology and environmental science, review of achievements made by the use of these features could facilitate the understanding of ecomimicry processes and thereby contribute to environmental sustainability in buildings. In other words, this paper concerns the relationship between these features and the thermal comfort inside the building. Biomimicry is an approach to innovation that seeks sustainable solutions to human challenges by emulating nature’s time-tested patterns and strategies. The objective of this paper is to use such review to provide an approach to the use of natural features for achieving thermal comfort in the buildings of hot and dry climates. In this review, the successful examples are analyzed to identify and examine the principles that influence the thermal comfort in both building and urban levels. The results show that the three elements of water, wind, sun are the effective natural resources that must be utilized in the design in a way proportional and consistent with the natural features. In addition, functional features of ecosystem can be of value only in the presence of a processual  relationship between them.

  5. Comfortably engaging: which approach to alcohol screening should we use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Daniel C; Galliher, James M; Reidinger, Carol; Kappus, Jennifer A

    2004-01-01

    We wanted to compare 2 screening instruments for problem drinking, the CAGE and a single question, assessing frequency of use, patient and clinician comfort, and patient engagement in change. The study was a crossover, cluster-randomized clinical trial with 31 clinicians in Missouri and 13 in the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) National Network for Family Practice and Primary Care Research; 2,800 patients provided data. The clinician was the unit of randomization. Clinicians decided whether to screen each patient; if they chose to screen, they used the screening approach assigned for that block of patients. The clinician and patient separately completed questionnaires immediately after the office visit to assess each one's comfort with screening (and any ensuing discussion) and the patient's engagement in change. Missouri clinicians screened more patients when assigned the single question (81%) than the CAGE (69%, P = .001 in weighted analysis). There was no difference among AAFP network clinicians (96% of patients screened with the CAGE, 97% with the single question). Eighty percent to 90% of clinicians and 70% of patients reported being comfortable with screening and the ensuing discussion, with no difference between approaches in either network. About one third of patients who were identified as problem drinkers reported thinking about or planning to change their drinking behavior, with no difference in engagement between screening approaches. Clinicians and patients reported similar comfort with the CAGE questions and the single-question screening tools for problem drinking, and the 2 instruments were equal in their ability to engage the patient. In Missouri, the single question was more likely to be used.

  6. Development of Light Powered Sensor Networks for Thermal Comfort Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. In this study, a novel sensor network, powered by the artificial light, was constructed to achieve wireless power transfer and wireless data communications for thermal comfort measurements. The sensing node integrates an IC-based temperature sensor, a radiation thermometer, a relative humidity sensor, a micro machined flow sensor and a microprocessor for predicting mean vote (PMV calculation. The 935 MHz band RF module was employed for the wireless data communication with a specific protocol based on a special energy beacon enabled mode capable of achieving zero power consumption during the inactive periods of the nodes. A 5W spotlight, with a dual axis tilt platform, can power the distributed nodes over a distance of up to 5 meters. A special algorithm, the maximum entropy method, was developed to estimate the sensing quantity of climate parameters if the communication module did not receive any response from the distributed nodes within a certain time limit. The light-powered sensor networks were able to gather indoor comfort-sensing index levels in good agreement with the comfort-sensing vote (CSV preferred by a human being and the experimental results within the environment suggested that the sensing system could be used in air conditioning systems to implement a comfort-optimal control strategy.

  7. A Comparison of the Comfort of Seats for Sonarmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-07

    Barkla , 1964; Mandal, 1982; Life and Pheasant, 1984; Grandjean, et al, 1984; Branton, 1984; Corlett and Eklund, 1984). The interest in chair design has...the chair at the end of the day. Such ratings are often obtained after a much shorter exposure. Barkla (1964) claimed that subjects reported...chair developed in Denmark. Appl. Ergon. 7, 185-186. Barkla , D. M. (1964). Chair angles, duration of sitting, and comfort ratings. Ergonomics 7, 297

  8. Room air conditioner load control under summer comfort constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva , David; Brancaccio , M; Duplessis , Bruno; Adnot , J

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Load control options interest is growing because it can represent a response to future network investments and to congestion problems. In this frame, the present paper gives a methodology to quantify the value of load control for heat pumps (room air conditioners), in small tertiary and residential buildings, considering the occupant's comfort and the electrical grid needs for load shift. This methodology was applied to a small office building where simulations were ma...

  9. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone: Including thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Boris Rm; Frijns, Arjan Jh; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached.

  10. Development of a method for rating climate seat comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffelmeier, M.; Classen, E.

    2017-10-01

    The comfort aspect in the vehicle interior is becoming increasingly important. A high comfort level offers the driver a good and secure feeling and has a strong influence on passive traffic safety. One important part of comfort is the climate aspect, especially the microclimate that emerges between passenger and seat. In this research, different combinations of typical seat materials are used. Fourteen woven and knitted fabrics and eight leathers and its substitutes for the face fabric layer, one foam, one non-woven and one 3D spacer for the plus pad layer and for the support layer three foam types with variations in structure and raw material as well as one rubber hair structure were investigated. To characterise this sample set by thermo-physiological aspects (e.g. water vapour resistance Ret, thermal resistance Rct, buffering capacity of water vapour Fd) regular and modified sweating guarded hotplates were used according to DIN EN ISO 11092. The results of the material characterisation confirm the common knowledge that seat covers out of textiles have better water vapour resistance values than leathers and its substitutes. Subject trials in a driving simulator were executed to rate the subjective sensation while driving in a vehicle seat. With a thermal, sweating Manikin (Newton Type, Thermetrics) objective product measurements were carried out on the same seat. Indeed the subject trials show that every test subject has his or her own subjective perception concerning the climate comfort. The results of the subject trials offered the parameters for the Newton measuring method. Respectively the sweating rate, sit-in procedure, ambient conditions and sensor positions on and between the seat layers must be comparable with the subject trials. By taking care of all these parameters it is possible to get repeatable and reliable results with the Newton Manikin. The subjective feelings of the test subjects, concerning the microclimate between seat and passenger, provide

  11. Electric heating provides a high level of home comfort - economically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapakoski, M.

    1997-11-01

    Research and development at IVO in the area of electric heating boasts a tradition going back almost thirty years. Research aimed at further progress is continuing. IVO and power companies launched the `Electrically heated houses of the century` project four years ago. The first results show that electric heating continues to be very competitive with other heating systems. It is an economical way of heating the home and it also increases the comfort of those living there

  12. An analysis of thermal comfort in primary schools in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thi Ho Vi; Gillott, Mark C.; Rodrigues, Lucélia Taranto

    2017-01-01

    There is a trend of installing air conditioning systems in public primary schools that are currently naturally ventilated in Vietnam. A previous study conducted by the authors provided evidence that there is limited need for air conditioning in Vietnamese mid-season and the hottest season.\\ud \\ud In this study, the authors investigated thermal comfort and users’ perceptions in three primary schools in Ho Chi Minh City during the hottest season (April 2016) and the coldest season (December 201...

  13. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.

    2009-08-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (athletic park), named "Serafeio Athletic and Cultural Centre," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  14. Numerical Analysis of Thermal Comfort at Open Air Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.; Pantos-Kikkos, S.; Assana, A.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical simulation of air velocity at open air spaces and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an open environment area in Athens (urban park), named "Attiko Alsos," trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's visitors. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This modelling procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing open areas, such as parks, squares or outdoor building environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  15. The zone of comfort: Predicting visual discomfort with stereo displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takashi; Kim, Joohwan; Hoffman, David M.; Banks, Martin S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent increased usage of stereo displays has been accompanied by public concern about potential adverse effects associated with prolonged viewing of stereo imagery. There are numerous potential sources of adverse effects, but we focused on how vergence–accommodation conflicts in stereo displays affect visual discomfort and fatigue. In one experiment, we examined the effect of viewing distance on discomfort and fatigue. We found that conflicts of a given dioptric value were slightly less comfortable at far than at near distance. In a second experiment, we examined the effect of the sign of the vergence–accommodation conflict on discomfort and fatigue. We found that negative conflicts (stereo content behind the screen) are less comfortable at far distances and that positive conflicts (content in front of screen) are less comfortable at near distances. In a third experiment, we measured phoria and the zone of clear single binocular vision, which are clinical measurements commonly associated with correcting refractive error. Those measurements predicted susceptibility to discomfort in the first two experiments. We discuss the relevance of these findings for a wide variety of situations including the viewing of mobile devices, desktop displays, television, and cinema. PMID:21778252

  16. Hygrothermal response of a dwelling house. Thermal comfort criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian IACOB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of local natural materials in order to reduce the environmental negative impact of buildings has become common practice in recent years; such buildings are to be found in all regions of the planet. The high level of thermal protection provided by the envelope elements made from natural materials such as straw bale insulation, hemp insulation or sheep wool, and their lack of thermal massiveness require a more complex analysis on their ability to keep interior comfort without accentuated variations. This paper proposes a comparative analysis between different solutions for a residential building located near a Romanian city, Cluj-Napoca. The elements of the building envelope are designed in three alternative solutions, using as substitute to classical solutions (concrete and polystyrene, masonry and polystyrene, straw bales and rammed earth for enclosing elements. For this purpose there are conducted numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer, using a mathematical model that allows the analysis of indoor comfort, by comparing both objective factors (air temperature, operative temperature and relative humidity and subjective factors, which are needed to define interior thermal comfort indices PPD and PMV. Finally, a set of conclusions are presented and future research directions are drawn.

  17. Comfortable synchronization of cyclic drawing movements with a metronome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Bruno H

    2011-02-01

    Continuous circle drawing is considered a paragon of emergent timing, whereas the timing of finger tapping is said to be event-based. Synchronization with a metronome, however, must to some extent be event-based for both types of movement. Because the target events in the movement trajectory are more poorly defined in circle drawing than in tapping, circle drawing shows more variable asynchronies with a metronome than does tapping. One factor that may have contributed to high variability in past studies is that circle size, drawing direction, and target point were prescribed and perhaps outside the comfort range. In the present study, participants were free to choose most comfortable settings of these parameters for two continuously drawn shapes, circles and infinity signs, while synchronizing with a regular or intermittently perturbed metronome at four different tempi. Results showed that preferred circle sizes were generally smaller than in previous studies but tended to increase as tempo decreased. Synchronization results were similar for circles and infinity signs, and similar to earlier results for circles drawn within a fixed template (Repp & Steinman, 2010). Comparison with tapping data still showed drawing to exhibit much greater variability and persistence of asynchronies as well as slower phase correction in response to phase shifts in the metronome. With comfort level ruled out as a factor, these differences can now be attributed more confidently to differences in event definition and/or movement dynamics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The end-state comfort effect in bimanual grip selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Mark G; Stodden, David F; Lehman, Davana M

    2003-03-01

    During a unimanual grip selection task in which people pick up a lightweight dowel and place one end against targets at variable heights, the choice of hand grip (overhand vs. underhand) typically depends on the perception of how comfortable the arm will be at the end of the movement: an end-state comfort effect. The two experiments reported here extend this work to bimanual tasks. In each experiment, 26 right-handed participants used their left and right hands to simultaneously pick up two wooden dowels and place either the right or left end against a series of 14 targets ranging from 14 to 210 cm above the floor. These tasks were performed in systematic ascending and descending orders in Experiment 1 and in random order in Expiment 2. Results were generally consistent with predictions of end-state comfort in that, for the extreme highest and lowest targets, participants tended to select opposite grips with each hand. Taken together, our findings are consistent with the concept of constraint hierarchies within a posture-based motion-planning model.

  19. Evaluation of the thermal comfort of ceramic floor tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmeane Effting

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In places where people are bare feet, the thermal sensation of cold or hot depends on the environmental conditions and material properties including its microstructure and crustiness surface. The uncomforting can be characterized by heated floor surfaces in external environments which are exposed to sun radiation (swimming polls areas or by cold floor surfaces in internal environments (bed rooms, path rooms. The property named thermal effusivity which defines the interface temperature when two semi-infinite solids are putted in perfect contact. The introduction of the crustiness surface on the ceramic tiles interferes in the contact temperature and also it can be a strategy to obtain ceramic tiles more comfortable. Materials with low conductivities and densities can be obtained by porous inclusion are due particularly to the processing conditions usually employed. However, the presence of pores generally involves low mechanical strength. This work has the objective to evaluate the thermal comfort of ceramics floor obtained by incorporation of refractory raw materials (residue of the polishing of the porcelanato in industrial atomized ceramic powder, through the thermal and mechanical properties. The theoretical and experimental results show that the porosity and crustiness surface increases; there is sensitive improvement in the comfort by contact.

  20. Indoor Air Quality and Thermal Comfort in School Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents results to thermal comfort and environment quality questions in 21 school building rooms. Results show that about 80% of the occupants expressed satisfaction with their thermal comfort in only 11% of the buildings surveyed. Air quality scores were somewhat higher, with 26% of buildings having 80% or occupant satisfaction. With respect to thermal comfort and air quality performance goals set out by standards, most buildings appear to be falling far short. Occupant surveys offer a means to systematically measure this performance, and also to provide diagnostic information for building designers and operators. The odours from building materials as well as human odours were studied by field measurement. The odour intensity and indoor air acceptability were assessed by a sensory panel. The concentrations of total volatile organic compounds and carbon dioxide were measured. The odours from occupancy and building materials were studied under different air change rate. The case study of indoor air acceptability concerning to indoor odours and its effect on perceived air quality are also presented in this paper.

  1. Dataset on daytime outdoor thermal comfort for Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Simone Queiroz da Silveira; Assis, Eleonora Sad de; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2016-12-01

    This dataset describe microclimatic parameters of two urban open public spaces in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil; physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index values and the related subjective responses of interviewees regarding thermal sensation perception and preference and thermal comfort evaluation. Individuals and behavioral characteristics of respondents were also presented. Data were collected at daytime, in summer and winter, 2013. Statistical treatment of this data was firstly presented in a PhD Thesis ("Percepção sonora e térmica e avaliação de conforto em espaços urbanos abertos do município de Belo Horizonte - MG, Brasil" (Hirashima, 2014) [1]), providing relevant information on thermal conditions in these locations and on thermal comfort assessment. Up to now, this data was also explored in the article "Daytime Thermal Comfort in Urban Spaces: A Field Study in Brazil" (Hirashima et al., in press) [2]. These references are recommended for further interpretation and discussion.

  2. Wearable Sweat Rate Sensors for Human Thermal Comfort Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2018-01-19

    We propose watch-type sweat rate sensors capable of automatic natural ventilation by integrating miniaturized thermo-pneumatic actuators, and experimentally verify their performances and applicability. Previous sensors using natural ventilation require manual ventilation process or high-power bulky thermo-pneumatic actuators to lift sweat rate detection chambers above skin for continuous measurement. The proposed watch-type sweat rate sensors reduce operation power by minimizing expansion fluid volume to 0.4 ml through heat circuit modeling. The proposed sensors reduce operation power to 12.8% and weight to 47.6% compared to previous portable sensors, operating for 4 hours at 6 V batteries. Human experiment for thermal comfort monitoring is performed by using the proposed sensors having sensitivity of 0.039 (pF/s)/(g/m 2 h) and linearity of 97.9% in human sweat rate range. Average sweat rate difference for each thermal status measured in three subjects shows (32.06 ± 27.19) g/m 2 h in thermal statuses including 'comfortable', 'slightly warm', 'warm', and 'hot'. The proposed sensors thereby can discriminate and compare four stages of thermal status. Sweat rate measurement error of the proposed sensors is less than 10% under air velocity of 1.5 m/s corresponding to human walking speed. The proposed sensors are applicable for wearable and portable use, having potentials for daily thermal comfort monitoring applications.

  3. Evaluation technology of clothing comfortableness; Ifuku tekigosei hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwaya, H.

    1999-10-26

    Modern apparel industries are required to supply many kinds of products corresponding to various needs of consumers. Among consumers' needs, comfortableness to wear such as size-fitness is primarily important. To facilitate apparel industries, it is expected to develop a new technology of pattern designing of comfortable garment and measuring garment pressure distribution. Our research is aimed at developing technology that uses computer simulation to predict and evaluate wear comfort, including size suitability, without the need to actually sew up a garment. First, we developed a basic system to predict wearing silhouette, garment pressure, and ease looseness of the garment. Using this system, we carried on the following study. The 3-dimensional distributions of the garment pressure and ease looseness were reversely mapped on the paper pattern in order to indicate the preferable modification. The system was extended for several poses, e.g. twist, bend. From various parameters, we examined the factors of garment pressure and ease looseness. In addition, we selected the parameters for the size-fit indicators and investigated size-fit evaluation indicators. (author)

  4. Comfort Women in Human Rights Discourse: Fetishized Testimonies, Small Museums, and the Politics of Thin Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hee-Jung Serenity

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the issue of comfort women--the women and girls who were forced into sex slavery for the Japanese army before and during WWII--has risen to global attention. Tens of thousands of comfort women (the average estimate is anywhere between 80,000 and 200,000) were confined at comfort stations managed by the Japanese Imperial…

  5. Agent-based modelling to improve comfort and save energy in the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Houten, van M.A.; Velden, van der J.A.J.; Wortel, W.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Rangan, R; Proctor, F

    2008-01-01

    In Europe comfort in buildings needs 40% of the total energy. With effects of Global warming becoming more and more apparent there is a need to reduce this energy demand by comfort within the built environment. In comfort control strategy there is an exciting development based on inclusive design:

  6. Thermal comfort assessment in a Dutch hospital setting – model applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenheijm, E.M.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Kort, H.S.M.; Trip, A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Limited information is available on thermal comfort performance of the indoor environment in health care facilities both for staff and patients. Thermal comfort models such as Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Adaptive Thermal Comfort (ATC), have not been applied extensively for this setting. In

  7. Feasibility study of context-awareness device Comfort calculation methods and their application to comfort-based access control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jingjing; Jensen, Christian D.; Ma, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices have become more powerful and are increasingly integrated in the everyday life of people; from playing games, taking pictures and interacting with social media to replacing credit cards in payment solutions. Some actions may only be appropriate in some situations, so the security...... of a mobile device is therefore increasingly linked to its context, such as its location, surroundings (e.g. objects in the immediate environment) and so on. However, situational awareness and context are not captured by traditional security models. In this paper, we examine the notion of Device Comfort......, which captures a device's ability to secure and reason about its environment. Specifically, we study the feasibility of two device comfort calculation methods we proposed in previous work. We do trace driven simulations based on a large body of sensed data from mobile devices in the real world...

  8. ComfortPower - System improvements and long-term evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik [Catator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Catator has previously developed a novel heating system abbreviated ComfortPower in a RandD-programme supported by Catator, Swedish Gas Centre (SGC), Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV), Skanska, Nibe and Alfa Laval. The ComfortPower unit comprises a multi fuel reformer system tied to a high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEM) and a heat pump system. Since the residual heat from the fuel cell system can be utilized in a very effective way, it is possible to reach high thermal efficiencies. Indeed, the thermal efficiency in the unit has previously been shown to reach values as high as 175 - 200 % based on the lower heating value of the fuel. In addition to heat, ComfortPower can supply comfort cooling and surplus electricity. This project phase has focused on the following elements: 1. System improvements to further enhance the efficiency with existing fuel cell (HT-PEM). 2. System simplifications (e.g. DC-compressor system) to manage issues with start-up currents. 3. Tests with biogas qualities (various levels of CO{sub 2}) and biogas/air. 4. Long-term test with biogas quality (upgraded biogas). 5. Additional tests with liquid fuels (alcohols and diesel). 6. Map the need for cooling and heating in various applications. 7. Investigate how ComfortPower can reduce the primary energy consumption and reduce the environmental impact. 8. Study the possibility with a SOFC-based system with internal reforming. It was found that the Optiformer technology can be used to derive a suitable reformate gas for the HT-PEM unit from a wide range of fuels. Even if operation with fuel gases is the natural choice in most cases, it is possible also to use alcohols and other liquid fuels (e.g. in Campus applications). The heat pump system was equipped with a 24 V DC-compressor provided by Nibe. The compressor could be directly powered by the accumulator system and start-up currents, harmful to the inverter, could be avoided. Some improvements were made on the

  9. Medical-grade footwear: the impact of fit and comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Bessie; Branthwaite, Helen; Greenhalgh, Andrew; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2017-01-01

    Pressure-related skin lesions on the digits are a significant cause of discomfort. Most foot pain related to ill-fitting shoes occurs in the forefoot and digital areas. Pain has been associated with poor shoe fit, reduced toe box volume, as well as contour and shape of the shoe Off-the-shelf medical-grade footwear is designed as an intervention for chronic lesions on the digits. These shoes are designed with a flexible neoprene fabric upper that is thought to reduce pressure on the forefoot and reduce discomfort associated with ill-fitting shoes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an off-the-shelf, medical-grade shoe on dorsal digital pressure and perceived comfort when compared to participant's own preferred shoe. Thirty participants (18 females, 12 males) scored their perceived comfort whilst wearing each footwear style using a visual analog comfort scale. Dorsal digital and interdigital pressures were measured in using the WalkinSense® in-shoe pressure system. Sensors were placed on predetermined anatomical landmarks on the digits. Participants were randomly assigned the test shoe and their own shoe. Once wearing the shoe, the participants walked across a 6 m walkway and pressure data from each sensor was collected and processed to obtain peak pressure, time to peak pressure and contact time. Participants scored the test shoe with higher comfort points than their own footwear. Overall peak pressure, pressure time integral and contact time decreased, whilst the time taken to reach peak pressure increased across all anatomical landmarks whilst wearing the test shoe. Statistically significant changes were observed for all of the measured variables relating to pressure on the medial border of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The test shoe provided greater comfort and reduced the amount of pressure on the forefoot. The medical-grade footwear therefore, is a viable alternative to custom made prescription footwear and is more suitable than a

  10. EffectS of non-nutritive sWeetened beverages on appetITe during aCtive weigHt loss (SWITCH): Protocol for a randomized, controlled trial assessing the effects of non-nutritive sweetened beverages compared to water during a 12-week weight loss period and a follow up weight maintenance period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Christiansen, P; Cuthbertson, D J; Hardman, C A; Robinson, E; Halford, J C G

    2017-02-01

    Acute and medium-term intervention studies suggest that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are beneficial for weight loss, however there is limited human data on the long-term effects of consuming NNS on weight loss, maintenance, and appetite. Further research is therefore required to elucidate the prolonged impact of NNS consumption on these outcome measures. A randomized parallel groups design will be used to assess whether regular NNS beverage intake is equivalent to a water control in promoting weight loss over 12-weeks (weekly weight loss sessions; Phase I), then supporting weight maintenance over 40-weeks (monthly sessions; Phase II) and subsequently independent weight maintenance over 52-weeks (Phase III) in 432 participants. A subset of these participants (n=116) will complete laboratory-based appetite probe days (15 sessions; 3 sessions each at baseline, at the start of phase I and the end of each phase). A separate subset (n=50) will complete body composition scans (DXA) at baseline and at the end of each phase. All participants will regularly be weighed and will complete questionnaires and cognitive tasks to assess changes in body weight and appetitive behaviours. Measures of physical activity and biochemical markers will also be taken. The trial will assess the efficacy of NNS beverages compared to water during a behavioural weight loss and maintenance programme. We aim to understand whether the impact of NNS on weight, dietary adherence and well-being are beneficial or transient and effects on prolonged successful weight loss and weight maintenance through sustained changes in appetite and eating behaviour. Clinical Trials: NCT02591134; registered: 23.10.2015. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal Perception in the Mediterranean Area: Comparing the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI to Other Outdoor Thermal Comfort Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Golasi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor thermal comfort is an essential factor of people’s everyday life and deeply affects the habitability of outdoor spaces. However the indices used for its evaluation were usually developed for indoor environments assuming still air conditions and absence of solar radiation and were only later adapted to outdoor spaces. For this reason, in a previous study the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI was developed, which is an empirical index able to estimate the thermal perception of people living in the Mediterranean area. In this study it was compared numerically (by using the data obtained through a field survey with other selected thermal indices. This comparison, performed in terms of Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient, association Gamma, percentage of correct predictions and cross-tabulation analysis, led to identify the MOCI as the most suitable index to examine outdoor thermal comfort in the interested area. As a matter of fact it showed a total percentage of correct predictions of 35.5%. Good performances were reported even in thermophysiological indices as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Moreover it was revealed that adaptation and acclimatization phenomena tend to have a certain influence as well.

  12. Integration of human physiology. Individual Thermal comfort in thermal comfort models; Integratie van de menselijke fysiologie. Individueel thermisch comfort in thermische comfortmodellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frijns, A. [Faculteit Werktuigbouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.; Kingsma, B. [Department of Human Biology, Nutrim School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    When designing climate installations, the PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) and PPD (Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied index) values are used as guidelines. Installations are designed in such a way that the 'average' user in a 'steady-state' condition experiences thermal comfort. Studies show that individual physiological processes might be suitable for integration in the design models. [Dutch] Bij het ontwerp van klimaatinstallaties worden de PMV/PPD-waarden van Fanger (PMV staat voor de Predicted Mean Vote index en PPD is de Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied index) als richtlijn gebruikt. Installaties worden zodanig ontworpen dat een 'gemiddelde' persoon in een 'steady-state' conditie deze als thermisch comfortabel ervaart. Studies wijzen uit dat individuele fysiologische processen mogelijk ook in ontwerpmodellen inpasbaar zijn.

  13. Optimal bus temperature for thermal comfort during a cool day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velt, K B; Daanen, H A M

    2017-07-01

    A challenge for electric buses is to minimize heating and cooling power to maximally extend the driving range, but still provide sufficient thermal comfort for the driver and passengers. Therefore, we investigated the thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) of passengers in buses during a cool day (temperature 13.4 ± 0.5 °C, relative humidity (RH) 60 ± 5.8%) typical for the Dutch temperate maritime climate. 28 Males and 72 females rated TS and TC and gave information on age, stature, body weight and worn garments. The temperature in the bus of 22.5 ± 1.1 °C and RH of 59.9 ± 5.8% corresponded to a slightly warm feeling (TS = 0.85 ± 1.06) and TC of 0.39 ± 0.65. TS related significantly to bus temperature, clothing insulation and age. Linear regression based on these parameters showed that the temperature in the bus corresponding to TC = 0 and TS = 0 would have been 20.9 ± 0.6 °C. In conclusion, a 1.6 °C lower bus temperature during the investigated cool day probably would have led to less thermal discomfort and energy savings of electrical busses. The methodology to relate climatic measurements to subjective assessments is currently employed in a wider climatic range and may prove to be useful to find a better balance between thermal comfort and energy savings of the bus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. EXAMINING COMFORT PROPERTIES OF LEATHER and ARTIFICIAL LEATHER COVER MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÇETİN Münire Sibel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and regulation of workplace, working instruments, the comfort of office chair, business environment (sound, lighting, climate, vibration, temperature, and humidity, work and break times, analysis and editing of the organization, are some of the topics of interest of ergonomics. Environmental impact and conditions have important role on the employee’s working comfortably and efficiently. Therefore these conditions need to be aligned to the human body nature. Unsuitable working conditions (noise, etc. cause additional load, which the human body endures, and this additional load reveals the signs of tiredness in the body. Even an office environment, unsuitable physical environment impairs health of workers and reduces the performance. Therefore, office climate, environmental factors such as lighting and noise must be harmonized with the employee’s body nature in all working environments. Seating comfort is one of the important factors affecting the performance of employees in the office environment. There are so many studies about chair dimensions and the disorders on human body which were caused by the inappropriate chair dimensions and sitting positions. However, there are a spot of studies about the surface of the chair and the discomfort caused by the chair cover and its negative performance effects. In this study, some results of seat cover analysis for the design of an ergonomic chair. Recently, ease of cleaning, low cost advantages caused the increasing of the use of artificial leather especially on the surface of the seat used in offices. The physical properties of natural leather and artificial leather were compared as the candidate covers to be used on the design of an ergonomic office chair.

  15. Urban environment and vegetation: comfort and urban heat island mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Magliocco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the outcomes of an experimental simulation on the microclimatic effects and on thermal comfort of vegetation in urban environment, conducted by means of a three-dimensional microclimate model, ENVI- met 3.1. The simulation considers a wide range of hypothetical cases of typical city areas with different characteristics related to: building density, building height, vegetation type and density. The results of the study show how different combinations of amount and type of vegetation, density and height of buildings affect the urban heat island phenomenon in Mediterranean climate.

  16. Natural gas, the comfort stamina; Le gaz nerf du confort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bail, L. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    According to consumers and thermal engineers opinion, natural gas is the most performing and the less expensive energy source for domestic uses. In this optimistic context, the customers expectations for more performing, economical and aesthetic appliances and systems is growing up. This paper gives a general overview of the recent improvements of natural gas heating systems and appliances: high efficiency heating plants, mural and airtight central heating plants, condensation heating plants, heaters, mono- or dual-pipe heating installations, heating floors etc.. All these products have a significant effect on the thermal comfort of residential buildings and on the reduction of energy costs. (J.S.)

  17. Combining energy, comfort and health data for behavioural change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Barthelmes, Verena M.; Kingma, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and gaining insights on occupant behaviour requires a multidisciplinary approach and involvement of various scientific expertise. By bringing together the necessary scientific expertise a step forward can be made in understanding how the occupants behave, how they can be motivated......, and how to stimulate them to change their behaviour based on targeted feedback and guidance. Finally, users could be provided of confidence of choosing the right thing and making the right decisions concerning energy, comfort and health. This paper presents a research project funded on the framework...

  18. Upper limits for air humidity based on human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole; Jørgensen, Anette S.

    1998-01-01

    respiratory cooling. Human subjects perceived the condition of their skin to be less acceptable with increasing skin humidity. Inhaled air was rated warmer, more stuffy and less acceptable with increasing air humidity and temperature. Based on the subjects' comfort responses, new upper limits for air humidity......The purpose of this study was to verify the hypothesis that insufficient respiratory cooling and a high level of skin humidity are two reasons for thermal discomfort at high air humidities, and to prescribe upper limits for humidity based on discomfort due to elevated skin humidity and insufficient...

  19. Evaluation of the Indoor Environment in the Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2012-01-01

    and in a process of doing so, it is important to maintain a good and healthy indoor environment and not on the expense of it. One way of saving energy is to build passive houses. This paper presents the result of a case study of some of the first certified passive houses in Denmark, called the Comfort Houses....... The paper evaluates the indoor environment through both quantitative measurements in the houses and qualitative interviews with the occupants about their experiences of the indoor environment. Two set of knowledge which together gives a more complete and holistic picture of the indoor environment. The study...

  20. Improvement of thermal comfort by cooling clothing in warm climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kolencíková, Sona

    2014-01-01

    on the inner surface. We conducted experiments with human subjects in climate chambers maintained at 30 °C and RH 50% to compare the effectiveness of the cooling clothing with that of other convective cooling devices. The use of cooling clothing with a convective cooling device improved the subjects’ thermal...... comfort compared to convective cooling alone. The supply of a small amount of water allowed the cooling clothing to provide a continuous cooling effect, whereas the effect of convective cooling alone decreased as sweat dried. However, the controllability of the cooling clothing needs to be improved....

  1. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  2. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming, using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model’s input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators’ operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  3. Electric radiant heating: A hot item in home comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, G. [Britech Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-12-01

    Electric radiant heating as a floor warming system and its growing popularity in home comfort are discussed. Price can be as low as $2.00 per square foot; cost of operation may be as little as 30 cents per square foot per year, depending on time of use and local hydro rates. The use of radiant cable heating is said to have surged in popularity; it provides the same warmth and comfort as more expensive hydronic systems. Radiant cable is simple and inexpensive to install since unlike hydronic systems, it requires no complicated mechanical system with boiler, heat exchanger, valves, pumps and extensive controls. Nevertheless, prospective end users are warned to make sure that the cable is sturdy, tough, has multiple layers of protection with a thick grounding system and conductor core. In addition to heating floors, electric heating cables can also be used for snow and ice control and for melting in driveways and gutters. In these type of installations heavy duty cables are used which are installed under asphalt, concrete or interlocking stones. Thirty watts per square foot per hour is the typical requirement for melting snow and ice. Based on average electricity prices in Ontario, melting snow on an 800 square foot driveway would cost about $2.20 per hour. Assuming five hours for the system to clear the driveway, installing a heating system under the driveway could be an economically viable solution for the home owner, providing freedom from ice, the inconvenience of shovelling snow, and saving time and money.

  4. Research tools application for female fashion underwear comfort assesment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Salvan Pagnan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the women's clothing of the universe's underwear were long an insignificant plan with regard to the development of new textile materials, shapes and colors. The panties that had been known as breeches or long underwear only became a necessity around the twentieth century with the vaporous dresses Christian Dior in the 50 Technological advances in the textile industry brought spandex created by the American laboratory DuPont's better known as the lycra. The elasticity of the fabric gave comfort to women's lingerie, passing this attribute to be considered as a quality factor in lingeries. To understand the desires of the users a qualitative research was conducted with women 18-45 years collecting opinions on the perceived comfort of already existing models compared to a new one be launched. Through the Quality Function Deployment Tool (QFD, or Quality Function Deployment, the data obtained from users of the answers given an interpretation which is to prioritize targets for the development of a based product on analyzes of desired characteristics which are converted into attributes technicians.

  5. Comfort-oriented vehicle suspension design with skyhook inerter configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinlong; Chen, Michael Z. Q.; Sun, Yonghui

    2017-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the comfort-oriented vehicle suspension design problem by using a skyhook inerter configuration. The rationale of the skyhook inerter is to use a grounded inerter to virtually increase the sprung mass of a vehicle, as it is analytically demonstrated that increasing the sprung mass can always improve the ride comfort performance. Semi-active means to realize the skyhook inerter configuration are investigated by using semi-active inerters. Three control laws, that is the on-off control, the anti-chatter on-off control, and the continuous control, are proposed for the semi-active inerter to approximate the skyhook inerter. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and performances of these control laws. It is shown that the semi-active realizations of the skyhook inerter by using the proposed control laws can achieve over 10% improvement compared with the traditional strut, and similar performances are obtained for these control laws, with slight differences with respect to different static stiffnesses of the suspension system.

  6. Retrofitted green roofs and walls and improvements in thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Renato Castiglia; Wilkinson, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Increased urbanization has led to a worsening in the quality of life for many people living in large cities in respect of the urban heat island effect and increases of indoor temperatures in housing and other buildings. A solution may be to retrofit existing environments to their former conditions, with a combination of green infrastructures applied to existing walls and rooftops. Retrofitted green roofs may attenuate housing temperature. However, with tall buildings, facade areas are much larger compared to rooftop areas, the role of green walls in mitigating extreme temperatures is more pronounced. Thus, the combination of green roofs and green walls is expected to promote a better thermal performance in the building envelope. For this purpose, a modular vegetated system is adopted for covering both walls and rooftops. Rather than temperature itself, the heat index, which comprises the combined effect of temperature and relative humidity is used in the evaluation of thermal comfort in small scale experiments performed in Sydney - Australia, where identical timber framed structures prototypes (vegetated and non-vegetated) are compared. The results have shown a different understanding of thermal comfort improvement regarding heat index rather than temperature itself. The combination of green roof and walls has a valid role to play in heat index attenuation.

  7. Development of a shear force measurement dummy for seat comfort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Guk Kim

    Full Text Available Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%. The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826 and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.

  8. Development of a shear force measurement dummy for seat comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Guk; Ko, Chang-Yong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Song, Ye Eun; Kang, Tae Uk; Ahn, Sungwoo; Lim, Dohyung; Kim, Han Sung

    2017-01-01

    Seat comfort is one of the main factors that consumers consider when purchasing a car. In this study, we develop a dummy with a shear-force sensor to evaluate seat comfort. The sensor has dimensions of 25 mm × 25 mm × 26 mm and is made of S45C. Electroless nickel plating is employed to coat its surface in order to prevent corrosion and oxidation. The proposed sensor is validated using a qualified load cell and shows high accuracy and precision (measurement range: -30-30 N; sensitivity: 0.1 N; linear relationship: R = 0.999; transverse sensitivity: <1%). The dummy is manufactured in compliance with the SAE standards (SAE J826) and incorporates shear sensors into its design. We measure the shear force under four driving conditions and at five different speeds using a sedan; results showed that the shear force increases with speed under all driving conditions. In the case of acceleration and deceleration, shear force significantly changes in the lower body of the dummy. During right and left turns, it significantly changes in the upper body of the dummy.

  9. Building envelope regulations on thermal comfort in glass facade buildings and energy-saving potential for PMV-based comfort control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Shu, Shiu-Ya [Department of Architecture, National United University, 1, Lien-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miaoli, 36003 (China)

    2011-04-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the effect of building envelope regulation on thermal comfort and on the energy-saving potential for PMV-based comfort control in glass facade buildings. Occurrences and severity of overheating, based on the PMV-PPD model contained in ISO 7730, were used for the thermal comfort assessment. Parametric study simulations for an actual building with a large glass facade were carried out to predict the changes in thermal comfort levels in a space due to different glazing types, depths of overhang and glazing areas, which are the key parameters of the building envelope regulation index, named ENVLOAD, in Taiwan. The result demonstrates that the ENVLOAD has significant effect on thermal comfort. Additionally, comparative simulations between PMV-based comfort control and conventional thermostatic control were performed to investigate the changes in the energy-saving potential of a thermal comfort-controlled space due to changes of its ENVLOAD. The results demonstrate that the energy-saving potential in a PMV-based controlled space increases with low ENVLOAD conditions. (author)

  10. A comparison of suit dresses and summer clothes in the terms of thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Can; Atilgan, Ibrahim

    2013-12-19

    Fanger's PMV equation is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative air velocity, humidity, activity level and clothing insulation. This paper contains a comparison of suit dresses and summer clothes in terms of thermal comfort, Fanger's PMV equation. Studies were processed in the winter for an office, which locates in Ankara, Turkey. The office was partitioned to fifty square cells. Humidity, relative air velocity, air temperature and mean radiant temperature were measured on the centre points of these cells. Thermal comfort analyses were processed for suit dressing (Icl = 1 clo) and summer clothing (Icl = 0.5 clo). Discomfort/comfort in an environment for different clothing types can be seen in this study. The relationship between indoor thermal comfort distribution and clothing type was discussed. Graphics about thermal comfort were sketched according to cells. Conclusions about the thermal comfort of occupants were given by PMV graphics.

  11. Children thermal comfort in primary schools in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Thi Ho Vi; Gillott, Mark C.; Rodrigues, Lucélia Taranto

    2017-01-01

    Indoor environmental quality significantly impacts on students’ performance and productivity, particularly thermal comfort levels. Currently in Vietnam, very few studies have dealt with the issue and the current trend is to install energy-intensive air-conditioning in primary schools as this is perceived as more comfortable. In this study, the authors investigated the users’ perceptions of thermal comfort in three primary schools in Ho Chi Minh City during the mid-season (September 2015) and ...

  12. THERMAL COMFORT STUDY OF AN AIR-CONDITIONED DESIGN STUDIO IN TROPICAL SURABAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Dwi Hariyanto

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current thermal comfort condition in an air-conditioned design studio using objective measurement and subjective assessment. Objective measurement is mainly to quantify the air temperature, MRT, relative humidity, and air velocity. Subjective assessment is conducted using a questionnaire to determine the occupants thermal comfort sensations and investigate their perception of the thermal comfort level. A design studio in an academic institution in Surabaya was chosen ...

  13. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    OpenAIRE

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments, influence the perception of comfort.To meet the objective, the following actions were taken: (1) a literature survey exploring which indoor environmental parameters (thermal, acoustic, visualenvironmen...

  14. The issue of thermal comfort of medical clothing in the operating room

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Isabel; Ribeiro, Patrícia; Abreu, Maria José

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Medical clothes have the primary function of protection. However this function must be correlated with a good comfort experience to the user. The comfort is a very important issue, since professionals are exposed to stress situations that can influence, negatively, their performance work. More specific, thermal comfort plays a crucial role for the best performance of OR medical clothing, involving heat regulation and mass transfer between a clothed body and the environment, once clot...

  15. The moral economy of comfortable living: Negotiating individualism and collectivism through housing in Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, C. E.

    2018-01-01

    The moral economy of comfortable living: Negotiating individualism and collectivism through housing in Belgrade Charlotte E Johnson First Published February 28, 2018 Research Article Download PDFPDF download for The moral economy of comfortable living: Negotiating individualism and collectivism through housing in Belgrade Article information No Access Please click here for full access options Abstract Comfort in the home depends on material and social connections. From pipes and wires to lega...

  16. Predicting Comfort Temperature in Indonesia, an Initial Step to Reduce Cooling Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Harso Karyono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has no reliable thermal comfort standard that is based on research works. The current national standard (SNI 6390:2011 states only a single range of comfort temperature that is 25.5 °C Ta, with a range of +1.5 °C Ta. Previous thermal studies in a number of different buildings in Indonesia showed that the neutral (comfort temperatures of subjects were about 27 to 28 °C, which is higher than the values stated in the standard. As a big country with various ambient temperatures, Indonesian needs a better and more reliable thermal comfort predictor which can be applied properly across the country. This study is an attempt to propose an initial Indonesian thermal predictor, in the form of a simple equation, which could predict comfort temperatures properly across the country. Reanalysing the previous comfort studies in Indonesia, a simple regression equation is constructed as to be used as the initial Indonesian comfort predictor. Using this predictor, the comfort temperatures in a lowland or coastal cities like Jakarta is found to be higher than the current comfort standard. It is expected that this predictor would help to provide a better indoor thermal environment and at the same reduce the cooling energy in air conditioning (AC building, thus reducing a building’s carbon emissions.

  17. The evaluation of (social-)psychological comfort in clothing, a possible approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matté, L. L.; Broega, A. C.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the first results of a PhD research on psychological comfort of clothing. In order to understand and conceptualize the psychological aspects of clothing comfort, a variation of the Delphi Method was used to seek opinions from experts. This method was chosen because of its consensus-building features. The results were obtained from a qualitative text analysis, conducted over the experts’ responses to the first round of questions. The analytic process shed some light on the formation of the psychological comfort concept as well as the potential attributes to be evaluated when assessing this comfort dimension.

  18. Stress-induced endocrine response and anxiety: the effects of comfort food in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Daniela; Garcia, Márcia Carvalho; Melo-Thomas, Liana; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2014-05-01

    The long-term effects of comfort food in an anxiogenic model of stress have yet to be analyzed. Here, we evaluated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic parameters in rats submitted or not to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), with access to commercial chow alone or to commercial chow and comfort food. Stress did not alter the preference for comfort food but decreased food intake. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, stressed rats were less likely to enter/remain in the open arms, as well as being more likely to enter/remain in the closed arms, than were control rats, both conditions being more pronounced in the rats given access to comfort food. In the open field test, stress decreased the time spent in the centre, independent of diet; neither stress nor diet affected the number of crossing, rearing or grooming episodes. The stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone was attenuated in rats given access to comfort food. Serum concentration of triglycerides were unaffected by stress or diet, although access to comfort food increased total cholesterol and glucose. It is concluded that CUMS has an anorexigenic effect. Chronic stress and comfort food ingestion induced an anxiogenic profile although comfort food attenuated the endocrine stress response. The present data indicate that the combination of stress and access to comfort food, common aspects of modern life, may constitute a link among stress, feeding behavior and anxiety.

  19. Comfort and experience with online learning: trends over nine years and associations with knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Thompson, Warren G

    2014-07-01

    Some evidence suggests that attitude toward computer-based instruction is an important determinant of success in online learning. We sought to determine how comfort using computers and perceptions of prior online learning experiences have changed over the past decade, and how these associate with learning outcomes. Each year from 2003-2011 we conducted a prospective trial of online learning. As part of each year's study, we asked medicine residents about their comfort using computers and if their previous experiences with online learning were favorable. We assessed knowledge using a multiple-choice test. We used regression to analyze associations and changes over time. 371 internal medicine and family medicine residents participated. Neither comfort with computers nor perceptions of prior online learning experiences showed a significant change across years (p > 0.61), with mean comfort rating 3.96 (maximum 5 = very comfortable) and mean experience rating 4.42 (maximum 6 = strongly agree [favorable]). Comfort showed no significant association with knowledge scores (p = 0.39) but perceptions of prior experiences did, with a 1.56% rise in knowledge score for a 1-point rise in experience score (p = 0.02). Correlations among comfort, perceptions of prior experiences, and number of prior experiences were all small and not statistically significant. Comfort with computers and perceptions of prior experience with online learning remained stable over nine years. Prior good experiences (but not comfort with computers) demonstrated a modest association with knowledge outcomes, suggesting that prior course satisfaction may influence subsequent learning.

  20. DoubleFace: Adjustable translucent system to improve thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Turrin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The DoubleFace project aims at developing a new product that passively improves thermal comfort of indoor and semi-indoor spaces by means of lightweight materials for latent heat storage, while simultaneously allowing daylight to pass through as much as possible. Specifically, the project aims at designing and prototyping an adjustable translucent modular system featuring thermal insulation and thermal absorption in a calibrated manner, which is adjustable according to different heat loads during summer- and wintertime. The output consists of a proof of concept, a series of performance simulations and measurement and a prototype of an adjustable thermal mass system based on lightweight and translucent materials: phase-changing materials (PCM for latent heat storage and translucent aerogel particles for thermal insulation.

  1. Continuous Context-Aware Device Comfort Evaluation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jingjing; Jensen, Christian D.; Ma, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices have become more powerful and are increasingly integrated in the everyday life of people; from playing games, taking pictures and interacting with social media to replacing credit cards in payment solutions. The security of a mobile device is therefore increasingly linked to its...... context, such as its location, surroundings (e.g. objects and people in the immediate environment) and so on, because some actions may only be appropriate in some situations; this is not captured by traditional security models. In this paper, we examine the notion of Device Comfort and propose a way...... to calculate the sensitivity of a specific action to the context. We present two different methods for a mobile device to dynamically evaluate its security status when an action is requested, either by the user or by another device. The first method uses the predefined ideal context as a standard to assess...

  2. Speaking comfort and voice use of teachers in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    Teachers suffer from voice problems more often than the rest of the population, as a consequence of the intensive use of their voices during teaching. Noise and classroom acoustics have been defined as hazards eventually leading to voice problems. In order to make a good classroom acoustic design...... to preserve the teachers’ voices and maximize their comfort, it is necessary to understand the underlaying relationship between classroom acoustics and teachers’ voice production. This paper presents a brief summary of investigations looking into this relationship. A pilot study, carried out in different...... located at various distances, in rooms with very different acoustics. A field study in schools of southern Sweden found out that teachers with and without voice problems, during actual teaching, are affected differently by the support of the classroom. A last laboratory experiment was carried out...

  3. Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Bioclimate conditions at Sun Moon Lake, one of Taiwan’s most popular tourist destinations, are presented. Existing tourism-related climate is typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and excludes the thermal perception of tourists. This study presents a relatively more detailed analysis of tourism climate by using a modified thermal comfort range for both Taiwan and Western/Middle European conditions, presented by frequency analysis of 10-day intervals. Furthermore, an integrated approach (climate tourism information scheme) is applied to present the frequencies of each facet under particular criteria for each 10-day interval, generating a time-series of climate data with temporal resolution for tourists and tourism authorities.

  4. COMFORT PROVIDING SYSTEMS IN SPACES WITH ACOUTIC INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz KLEKOT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High capacities of currently available devices for sound registering and processing have generated a need for sound insulated spaces dedicated to exchange of confidential information. In such spaces, preventing propagation of vibroacoustic signals both by the way of air and construction elements entails complete insulation of the room. In order to meet this requirement, proper chemical composition of air and stabilized temperature conditions have to be guaranteed. The paper discusses questions related to the process of solving the task of providing thermal comfort and satisfying air quality in a room for confidential discussions. It presents prototype solutions of installations dedicated to stabilize human-friendly conditions inside a modular chamber provided with acoustic insulation.

  5. Ozone initiated reactions and human comfort in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas, Gyöngyi

    2006-01-01

    Chemical reactions between ozone and pollutants commonly found indoors have been suggested to cause adverse health and comfort effects among building occupants. Of special interest are reactions with terpenes and other pollutants containing unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds that are fast enough...... to occur under normal conditions in various indoor settings. These reactions are known to occur both in the gas phase (homogeneous reactions) and on the surfaces of building materials (heterogeneous reactions), producing a number of compounds that can be orders of magnitude more odorous and irritating than...... their precursors. The present thesis investigates the effects of ozone-initiated reactions with limonene and with various interior surfaces, including those associated with people, on short-term sensory responses. The evaluations were conducted using a perceived air quality (PAQ) method introduced by Fanger (1988...

  6. Thermal comfort of dual-chamber ski gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotti, F.; Colonna, M.; Ferri, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the special design of a pair of ski gloves has been assessed in terms of thermal comfort. The glove 2in1 Gore-Tex has a dual-chamber construction, with two possible wearing configurations: one called “grip” to maximize finger flexibility and one called “warm” to maximize thermal insulation in extremely cold conditions. The dual-chamber gloves has been compared with two regular ski gloves produced by the same company. An intermittent test on a treadmill was carried out in a climatic chamber: it was made of four intense activity phases, during which the volunteer ran at 9 km/h on a 5% slope for 4 minutes, spaced out by 5-min resting phases. Finger temperature measurements were compared with the thermal sensations expressed by two volunteers during the test.

  7. Speakers’ comfort and voice level variation in classrooms: Laboratory research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    from 0.93 dB/dB, with free speech, to 0.1 dB/dB with other less demanding communication tasks as reading and talking at short distances. The room effect for some individuals can be as strong as 1.7 dB/dB. A questionnaire investigation showed that the acoustic comfort for talking in classrooms......, in the absence of background noise, is correlated to the decay times derived from an impulse response measured from the mouth to the ears of a talker, and that there is a maximum of preference for decay times between 0.4 and 0.5 s. Teachers with self-reported voice problems prefer higher decay times to speak...

  8. Computation of thermal comfort inside a passenger car compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezrhab, A.; Bouzidi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical model to study the behaviour of thermal comfort inside the passenger car compartment according to climatic conditions and materials that compose the vehicle. The specifically developed numerical model is based on the nodal method and the finite difference method. Its specificities are: (i) the transient mode, (ii) the taking into account of the combined convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, (iii) the coupling of two spectral bands (short-wave and long-wave radiation) and two solar fluxes (beam and diffuse). The compartment is subdivided in several solid nodes (materials constituting the compartment) and fluid nodes (volumes of air inside the compartment). The establishment of the heat balance for each node gives the evolution of its temperature. Effects of solar radiation, types of glazing, car colour and radiative properties of materials constituting the compartment are investigated

  9. Weather and Tourism: Thermal Comfort and Zoological Park Visitor Attendance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Perkins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weather events have the potential to greatly impact business operations and profitability, especially in outdoor-oriented economic sectors such as Tourism, Recreation, and Leisure (TRL. Although a substantive body of work focuses on the macroscale impacts of climate change, less is known about how daily weather events influence attendance decisions, particularly relating to the physiological thermal comfort levels of each visitor. To address this imbalance, this paper focuses on ambient thermal environments and visitor behavior at the Phoenix and Atlanta zoos. Daily visitor attendances at each zoo from September 2001 to June 2011, were paired with the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET to help measure the thermal conditions most likely experienced by zoo visitors. PET was calculated using hourly atmospheric variables of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and cloud cover from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. at each zoological park location and then classified based on thermal comfort categories established by the American Society of Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE. The major findings suggested that in both Phoenix and Atlanta, optimal thermal regimes for peak attendance occurred within “slightly warm” and “warm” PET-based thermal categories. Additionally, visitors seemed to be averse to the most commonly occurring thermal extreme since visitors appeared to avoid the zoo on excessively hot days in Phoenix and excessively cold days in Atlanta. Finally, changes in the daily weather impacted visitor attendance as both zoos experienced peak attendance on days with dynamic changes in the thermal regimes and depressed attendances on days with stagnant thermal regimes. Building a better understanding of how weather events impact visitor demand can help improve our assessments of the potential impacts future climate change may have on tourism.

  10. The determinants of thermal comfort in cool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéritée, J; House, J R; Redortier, B; Tipton, M J

    2015-10-01

    Water-based activities may result in the loss of thermal comfort (TC). We hypothesized that in cooling water, the hands and feet would be responsible. Supine immersions were conducted in up to five clothing conditions (exposing various regions), as well as investigations to determine if a "reference" skin temperature (Tsk) distribution in thermoneutral air would help interpret our findings. After 10 min in 34.5 °C water, the temperature was decreased to 19.5 °C over 20 min; eight resting or exercising volunteers reported when they no longer felt comfortable and which region was responsible. TC, rectal temperature, and Tsk were measured. Rather than the extremities, the lower back and chest caused the loss of overall TC. At this point, mean (SD) chest Tsk was 3.3 (1.7) °C lower than the reference temperature (P = 0.005), and 3.8 (1.5) °C lower for the back (P = 0.002). Finger Tsk was 3.1 (2.7) °C higher than the reference temperature (P = 0.037). In cool and cooling water, hands and feet, already adapted to colder air temperatures, will not cause discomfort. Contrarily, more discomfort may arise from the chest and lower back, as these regions cool by more than normal. Thus, Tsk distribution in thermoneutral air may help understand variations in TC responses across the body. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Deceit and dishonesty as practice: the comfort of lying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Melody

    2016-07-01

    Lying and deceit are instruments of power, used by social actors in the pursuit of their practices as they seek to maintain social order. All social actors, nurses included, have deceit and dishonesty within their repertoire of practice. Much of this is benign, well intentioned and a function of being sociable and necessary in the pursuit of social order in the healthcare environment. Lying and deceit from a sociological point of view, is a reflection of the different modes of domination that exist within a social space. French philosopher Pierre Bourdieu theorized about the way that symbolic power works within social space. The social structures and the agency of individual actors moving within it are interrelated and interdependent. Bourdieu's ideas will be used to theorize about real clinical experiences where acts of deceit can be identified and a case example will be presented. Nurses are actors in the social space of clinical care, and their world is complex, challenging, and often fraught with the contradictory demands and choices that reflect and influence their behaviours. An exploration of lying and deceit in nursing as an instrument in the modes of domination that persist enables us to challenge some of the assumptions that are made about the motives that cause or tempt nurses to lie as well as to understand the way on which they are sometimes lied to, according to the acts of domination that exist in the field. Lying or acting dishonestly is a powerful act that is intent on retaining stability and social order and could be seen to be a justification of lying and deceit. However, we need to pause and consider, in whose interests are we striving to create social order? Is it in the end about the comfort of patients or for the comfort of professionals? © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. CFD modeling of airflow for indoor comfort in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aynsley, R.; Su, B.

    2006-01-01

    In humid tropical environments air movement is a common means to achieving indoor thermal comfort. In many locations closer to the equator, breezes are weaker and less reliable. Whatever the source of air movement it is important to quantity its potential in terms of the percentage of time the air movement will be available and the likely speed of the air movement in occupied zone of a building. It is also important to establish appropriate thermal comfort criteria with respect to air temperature, humidity and air movement. There are a number of techniques for modeling air movement inside naturally ventilated buildings. Boundary layer wind tunnels provide an opportunity to both measure and visually observe such airflow through model building. It is important to model adjacent buildings and any significant landscaping features that will influence outdoor airflow patterns. Such studies are relatively expensive. The recent availability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software for personal computers offers an alternative method for modeling air movement inside naturally ventilated buildings. Very expensive versions of this software have been available for large computers and work stations for many years but they have only recently become available for smaller computers. There are some features of such software that should be compared before purchasing a copy or a license. This paper discusses such features in detail. It is important in the case of natural ventilation that adjacent buildings and any significant landscaping features that will influence outdoor airflow patterns are included in the modeling. This paper also stresses the importance of calibrating the CFD software output against some physical measurements or wind tunnel modeling to ensure that the CFD results are realistic

  13. Human thermal sensation and comfort in a non-uniform environment with personalized heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihong; Wang, Runhuai; Li, Yuguo; Miao, Yufeng; Zhao, Jinping

    2017-02-01

    Thermal comfort in traditionally uniform environment is apparent and can be improved by increasing energy expenses. To save energy, non-uniform environment implemented by personalized conditioning system attracts considerable attention, but human response in such environment is unclear. To investigate regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort in a cool environment with personalized heating. In total 36 subjects (17 males and 19 females) including children, adults and the elderly, were involved in our experiment. Each subject was first asked to sit on a seat in an 18°C chamber (uniform environment) for 40min and then sit on a heating seat in a 16°C chamber (non-uniform environment) for another 40min after 10min break. Subjects' regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort were surveyed by questionnaire and their skin temperatures were measured by wireless sensors. We statistically analyzed subjects' thermal sensation and comfort and their skin temperatures in different age and gender groups and compared them between the uniform and non-uniform environments. Overall thermal sensation and comfort votes were respectively neutral and just comfortable in 16°C chamber with personalized heating, which were significantly higher than those in 18°C chamber without heating (pthermal sensation and comfort was consistent in subjects of different age and gender. However, adults and the females were more sensitive to the effect of personalized heating and felt cooler and less comfort than children/elderly and the males respectively. Variations of the regional thermal sensation/comfort across human body were consistent with those of skin temperature. Personalized heating significantly improved human thermal sensation and comfort in non-uniform cooler environment, probably due to the fact that it increased skin temperature. However, the link between thermal sensation/comfort and variations of skin temperature is rather complex and warrant further

  14. Urban Climate Design: Improving thermal comfort in Dutch neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kleerekoper

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This thesis presents research into the possibilities for climate adaptation in Dutch urban areas. We want to know how cities can best prepare for extreme rainfall, droughts, and heat waves in future climates. These events are likely to become more frequent and more extreme. The focus is on heat resistance as this has been a neglected concept in Dutch urban planning. The aim of this study is to extend our knowledge of the effects of climate-adaptation measures and to stimulate the implementation of such measures in the design of public space. Anticipating on the effects of climate change, the research was guided by the question: Which urban design principles can be applied in specific Dutch neighbourhoods to respond to the effects of climate change, especially in terms of outdoor thermal comfort and water management? The three stages of the project are:  • A literature review of existing knowledge on climate adaptation and knowledge gaps • Research into the specific field of urban climatology • Applied research on the broader field of urban planning The urban climate and adaptation measures In the evaluation of measures for climate robust urban areas it is important to gauge the extent of the effects of such measures. These effects are generally expressed in terms of air temperature. However, the comparison of results of measures from various studies is not a simple matter: there are significant differences in spatial, climatological and methodological variations adopted in these studies. Bringing results together from very specific studies may give an impression of the potential of certain measures. For example, most studies support the idea that greening has the highest effect on thermal comfort as it provides both shade and active cooling due to ‘evapotranspiration’1. Nevertheless, vegetation can also retain heat, as we can feel after sundown. Other measures that were investigated for their effects are water, urban morphology

  15. Investigating the impact of different thermal comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, S.G.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The selection of a thermal comfort model has a major impact on energy consumption of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) in hot climates. The objective of this paper is to compare the influence of using different comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates. The paper compares the impact

  16. Behavioural aspects of automatic vehicle guidance : the relationship between headway and driver comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.P. de; Theeuwes, J.; Hoekstra, W.

    1996-01-01

    In de rijsimulator is de relatie tussen volgtijd en comfort bij Automatische Voertuiggeleiding (AVG) onderzocht. Gevonden is dat een volgtijd van 0,9 seconden bij AVG overeenkomt met het comfort in druk gewoon verkeer. Een volgtijd van 0,3 seconden in AVG correspondeert met een incident in normaal

  17. Ride comfort analysis with physiological parameters for an e-health train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngbum; Shin, Kwangsoo; Lee, Sangjoon; Song, Yongsoo; Han, Sungho; Lee, Myoungho

    2009-12-01

    Transportation by train has numerous advantages over road transportation, especially with regard to energy efficiency, ecological features, safety, and punctuality. However, the contrast in ride comfort between standard road transportation and train travel has become a competitive issue. The ride comfort enhancement technology of tilting trains (TTX) is a particularly important issue in the development of the Korean high-speed railroad business. Ride comfort is now defined in international standards such as UIC13 and ISO2631. The Korean standards such as KSR9216 mainly address physical parameters such as vibration and noise. In the area of ride comfort, living quality parameter techniques have recently been considered in Korea, Japan, and Europe. This study introduces biological parameters, particularly variations in heart rate, as a more direct measure of comfort. Biological parameters are based on physiological responses rather than on purely external mechanical parameters. Variability of heart rate and other physiological parameters of passengers are measured in a simulation involving changes in the tilting angle of the TTX. This research is a preliminary study for the implementation of an e-health train, which would provide passengers with optimized ride comfort. The e-health train would also provide feedback on altered ride comfort situations that can improve a passenger's experience and provide a healthcare service on the train. The aim of this research was to develop a ride comfort evaluation system for the railway industry, the automobile industry, and the air industry. The degree of tilt correlated with heart rate, fatigue, and unrelieved alertness.

  18. Participant Comfort with and Application of Inquiry-Based Learning: Results from 4-H Volunteer Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Heidi; Stevenson, Anne; Meyer, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how a one-time training designed to support learning transfer affected 4-H volunteers' comfort levels with the training content and how comfort levels, in turn, affected the volunteers' application of tools and techniques learned during the training. Results of a follow-up survey suggest that the training participants…

  19. Comfort as a determiner of treatment position in radiotherapy of the male pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.; Davison, A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A comfortable treatment position in radiotherapy may promote patient stability and contribute to the best possible patient experience. Patients receiving radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer lie supine or prone, but little evaluation has been made of the comfort of these positions. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the comfort of the prone and supine positions and to assess any influence of feelings of anxiety. Methods: Self-reported comfort and anxiety levels were measured using visual analogue scales in the first and last weeks of treatment for patients receiving radical prostatic radiotherapy. The subjects were from two hospitals, 23 routinely treated lying prone and 21 routinely treated lying supine. Six subjects from each group were interviewed in the first week of treatment. Results: Comfort levels were high and no significant difference was found between treatment positions or between the first and last weeks of treatment. Anxiety levels were low with no significant variation according to position or week of treatment. Little correlation was seen between reported anxiety and comfort levels. Interview data supported the quantitative findings. Supine subjects indicated the need for lateral elbow support to improve feelings of stability. Conclusions: For radiotherapy of male patients without pain or other complicating factors, selection between the prone and supine positions may be made without considering comfort. Supine patients should be provided with lateral elbow support. Further research is indicated into the comfort of these positions for females and the phenomenon of low reported anxiety in male cancer patients

  20. Towards predicting the (dis)comfort performance by modelling: methods and findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naddeo, A.

    2017-01-01

    The research work underlying this thesis starts from a societal issue: A comfortable artefact helps people to improve their well-being and can be sold easier.
    In order to fulfil these two requirements (wellbeing and companies’ profit) a comfort-driven human-centred design method is

  1. Three experiments to support the design of lightweight comfortable vehicle seats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Franz, M.; Kampa, I.; Zenk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Seats need to be more lightweight for airplanes, cars, busses and even trains to contribute to a better environment and to reduce energy consumption. However, a reduction in comfort due to weight reduction is not preferable, which opens a new area of research: improving comfort with a minimum of

  2. Street greenery and its physical and psychological impact on outdoor thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Lenzholzer, S.; Hove, van B.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the benefits of street greenery for creating thermally comfortable streetscapes in moderate climates. It reports on investigations on the impact of street greenery on outdoor thermal comfort from a physical and psychological perspective. For this purpose, we examined nine

  3. Towards comfortable and efficient man-machine interaction in the cabins of vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Roetting, M.; Vink, P.; Luczak, H.

    2000-01-01

    The comfort of the operators in the cabins of vehicles is getting an increasingly important issue. At first glance, the cabins of professional machines (earth-moving equipment, busses, harvesting equipment) might look modern and highly comfortable. However, this does not imply that the cabins

  4. Advanced cabin design : how to improve comfort and performance by progressive cabin design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, R.E.; Looze, M.P. de

    2005-01-01

    In the automotive industry comfort has become an important issue. In the last decade, the word has entered the world of professional equipment builders like earthmoving machines (wheel loaders, excavators), forklift trucks, cranes, trucks, busses etcetera. comfort nowadays is the buzzword in all

  5. Data-driven public transport ridership prediction approach including comfort aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Drost, M.; Brands, T.; Yap, M.

    2015-01-01

    The most important aspects on which passengers base their choice whether to travel by public transport are the perceived travel time, costs, reliability and comfort. Despite its importance, comfort is often not explicitly considered when predicting demand for public transport. In this paper, we

  6. Quantifying the relevance of adaptive thermal comfort models in moderate thermal climate zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Standards governing thermal comfort evaluation are on a constant cycle of revision and public review. One of the main topics being discussed in the latest round was the introduction of an adaptive thermal comfort model, which now forms an optional part of ASHRAE Standard 55. Also on a national

  7. Thermal Comfort: An Index for Hot, Humid Asia. Educational Building Digest 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The sensation of thermal comfort is determined by a combination of air temperature, humidity of the air, rate of movement of the air, and radiant heat. This digest is intended to assist architects to design educational facilities that are as thermally comfortable as is possible without recourse to mechanical air conditioning. A nomogram is…

  8. Understanding thermal comfort perception of nurses in a hospital ward work environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.T.H.; Mishra, A.K.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Kort, H.S.M.

    2018-01-01

    In indoor comfort research, thermal comfort of care-professionals in hospital environment is a little explored topic. To address this gap, a mixed methods study, with the nursing staff in hospital wards acting as participants, was undertaken. Responses were collected during three weeks in the summer

  9. The Adaptive Thermal Comfort model may not always predict thermal effects on performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyon, David Peter; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years," by R.J. de Dear and colleagues.......A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years," by R.J. de Dear and colleagues....

  10. A literature review of comfort in the paediatric critical care patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Alcaraz, Alejandro; Falcó-Pegueroles, Anna; Jordan, Iolanda

    2018-03-08

    To investigate the meaning of comfort and to contextualise it within the framework of paediatric critical care. The concept of comfort is closely linked to care in all health contexts. However, in specific settings such as the paediatric critical care unit, it takes on particular importance. A literature review was conducted. A literature search was performed of articles in English and Spanish in international health science databases, from 1992-March 2017, applying the quality standards established by the PRISMA methodology and the Joanna Briggs Institute. A total of 1,203 publications were identified in the databases. Finally, 59 articles which met the inclusion criteria were entered in this literature review. Almost all were descriptive studies written in English and published in Europe. The concept of comfort was defined as the immediate condition of being strengthened through having the three types of needs (relief, ease and transcendence) addressed in the four contexts of experience (physical, psychospiritual, social and environmental). Only two valid and reliable tools for assessing comfort were found: the Comfort Scale and the Comfort Behavior Scale. Comfort is subjective and difficult to assess. It has four facets: physical, emotional, social and environmental. High levels of noise and light are the inputs that cause the most discomfort. Comfort is a holistic, universal concept and an important component of quality nursing care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comfort and hope in the preanesthesia stage in patients undergoing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedfatemi, Naima; Rafii, Forough; Rezaei, Mahboubeh; Kolcaba, Katharine

    2014-06-01

    Comfort and hope have been identified as important components in the care of perianesthesia patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between comfort and hope in the preanesthesia stage in patients undergoing surgery. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted with 191 surgical patients. Data were collected using the Perianesthesia Comfort Questionnaire and Herth Hope Index. Direct and significant relationships were observed between comfort and hope (P≤.001, r=0.65). Also, significant relationships were observed between educational level and marital status with comfort (P≤.01). The relationship between educational level and hope was significant (P≤.001). Significant relationships were also observed between gender and marital status with hope (P≤.01). Overall, this study showed that a significant relationship exists between comfort and hope. Additionally, some demographic characteristics influenced comfort and hope in these patients. Health care providers should arrange the environment in a way that allows the surgical patients to experience comfort and hope and recognize the impact of personal characteristics when caring for surgical patients, particularly in the preanesthesia stage. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring Holistic Comfort in Children Who Experience a Clinical Venipuncture Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bice, April A; Hall, Joanne; Devereaux, Matthew J

    2018-06-01

    Children often experience the uncomfortable effects of invasive procedures as a part of primary care and during times of illness. Holistic comfort has been well documented in adult literature but little research exists on the understanding of holistic procedural comfort from the child's perspective. In this study, holistic comfort related to an invasive venipuncture procedure was explored in children age 5 to 7 years and their caregivers of all ages. A qualitative descriptive design described by Sandelowski was used. The philosophical underpinnings of naturalistic inquiry of Guba and Lincoln were used. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 child and 15 caregiver participants. Children also drew pictures to help describe their perceptions. Traditional thematic content analysis described by Hsieh and Shannon yielded four overarching themes of holistic comfort related to venipuncture procedures in children: Body Comfort, Cognitive and Emotional Comfort, Comfort in the Procedure Surroundings, and Comfort Play. Numerous recommendations for future research are included. Implications for nursing and related health sciences, organizational and administrative policy, invasive procedures, theory, and methods were found and are discussed. Findings from this study will assist nurses in providing procedure management for children from a holistic care perspective.

  13. Editorial: Comfort and discomfort studies demonstrate the need for a new model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Hallbeck, S.

    2012-01-01

    The term comfort is often seen relating to the marketing of products like chairs, cars, clothing, hand tools and even airplane tickets, while in the scientific literature, the term discomfort shows up often, since it is used in research. Few papers explain the concept of a localized comfort

  14. Perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort in European “Modern” office buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakellaris, I.A.; Saraga, D.E.; Mandin, C.; Roda, C.; Fossati, S.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Carrer, P.; Dimitroulopoulou, S.; Mihucz, V.G.; Szigeti, T.; Hänninen, O.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.G.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to

  15. A review of human thermal comfort experiments in controlled and semi-controlled environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craenendonck, Van Stijn; Lauriks, Leen; Vuye, Cedric; Kampen, Jarl

    2018-01-01

    There are three main methods to improve thermal comfort in existing buildings: modeling, experiments and measurements. Regarding experiments, no standardized procedure exists. This article provides an answer to the question: “What is the most common practice for human thermal comfort experiments in

  16. Measuring comfort in caregivers and patients during late end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, B; Kolcaba, K; Steiner, R; Dowd, T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test several formats of end-of-life comfort instruments for patients and closely involved caregivers. Kolcaba's Comfort Theory was the theoretical framework utilized. Different response formats for two end-of-life (EOL) comfort questionnaires (for patients and caregivers, respectively), and horizontal and vertical visual analog scales for total comfort (TC) lines were compared in two phases. Evaluable data were collected from both members of 38 patient-caregiver dyads in each phase. Suitable dyads were recruited from two hospice agencies in northeastern Ohio. Cronbach's alpha for the EOL comfort questionnaire (six response Likert-type format) tested during phase I for patients was .98 and for caregivers was .97. Test-retest reliability for the vertical TC line tested during phase I for patients was .64 and for caregivers was .79. The implications of this study for nursing practice and research are derived from the American Nursing Association (ANA) position statement about EOL care, which states that comfort is the goal of nursing for this population. These instruments will be useful for assessing comfort in actively dying patients and comfort of their caregivers as well as for developing evidence-based practice for this population.

  17. Renewable building energy systems and passive human comfort solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer, Abdeen Mustafa [17 Juniper Court, Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    With environmental protection posing as the number one global problem, man has no choice but to reduce his energy consumption. One way to accomplish this is to resort to passive and low-energy systems to maintain thermal comfort in buildings. The conventional and modern designs of wind towers can successfully be used in hot arid regions to maintain thermal comfort (with or without the use of ceiling fans) during all hours of the cooling season, or a fraction of it. Climatic design is one of the best approaches to reduce the energy cost in buildings. Proper design is the first step of defence against the stress of the climate. Buildings should be designed according to the climate of the site, reducing the need for mechanical heating or cooling. Hence maximum natural energy can be used for creating a pleasant environment inside the built envelope. Technology and industry progress in the last decade diffused electronic and informatics' devices in many human activities, and also in building construction. The utilisation and operating opportunities components, increase the reduction of heat losses by varying the thermal insulation, optimise the lighting distribution with louver screens and operate mechanical ventilation for coolness in indoor spaces. In addition to these parameters the intelligent envelope can act for security control and became an important part of the building domotic revolution. Application of simple passive cooling measure is effective in reducing the cooling load of buildings in hot and humid climates. Fourty-three percent reductions can be achieved using a combination of well-established technologies such as glazing, shading, insulation, and natural ventilation. More advanced passive cooling techniques such as roof pond, dynamic insulation, and evaporative water jacket need to be considered more closely. The building sector is a major consumer of both energy and materials worldwide, and that consumption is increasing. Most industrialised

  18. THERMAL COMFORT STUDY OF AN AIR-CONDITIONED DESIGN STUDIO IN TROPICAL SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Dwi Hariyanto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the current thermal comfort condition in an air-conditioned design studio using objective measurement and subjective assessment. Objective measurement is mainly to quantify the air temperature, MRT, relative humidity, and air velocity. Subjective assessment is conducted using a questionnaire to determine the occupants thermal comfort sensations and investigate their perception of the thermal comfort level. A design studio in an academic institution in Surabaya was chosen for the study. Results show that more than 80% of the occupants accepted the indoor thermal conditions even though both the environmental and comfort indices exceeded the limit of the standard (ASHRAE Standard 55 and ISO 7730. In addition, non-uniformity of spatial temperature was present in this studio. Some practical recommendations were made to improve the thermal comfort in the design studio.

  19. Relationship between comfort and attenuation measurements for two types of earplugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss is almost always preventable if properly fitted hearing protectors are worn to reduce exposure. Many individuals choose not to wear hearing protection because it may interfere with effective communication in the workplace or it may be uncomfortable. Hearing protector comfort has not received the same amount of attention as noise reduction capability. The present study was conducted to evaluate the comfort level of two different types of insert earplugs as well as the attenuation levels achieved by the earplugs. Attenuation levels were obtained with a commercially available earplug fit-test system, and the comfort ratings were obtained by questionnaire. The primary research objective was to determine whether hearing protector comfort was related to measured attenuation values. A linear mixed effects model provided evidence for an inverse relationship between comfort and attenuation.

  20. Influences of Carbody Vertical Flexibility on Ride Comfort of Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the influence of the carbody vertical flexibility on the ride comfort of the railway vehicles. The ride comfort is evaluated via the comfort index calculated in three reference points of the carbody. The results of the numerical simulations bring attention to the importance of the carbody symmetrical vertical bending upon the dynamic response of the vehicle, mainly at high velocities. Another conclusion is that the ride comfort can be significantly affected as a function of the symmetrical bending frequency of the carbody. Similarly, there are improvement possibilities for the ride comfort when the best selection of the stiffness in the longitudinal traction system between the carbody and bogie and the vertical suspension damping is made.

  1. Ride comfort enhancement in railway vehicle by the reduction of the car body structural flexural vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitriu, M.

    2017-08-01

    The paper approaches the issue of reduction in the vertical bending vibrations of the railway vehicle carbody and the ride comfort enhancement at high velocities, starting from the prospect of isolating the vibrations by the best possible selection of the passive suspension damping in the vehicle. To this purpose, the examination falls on the influence of the vertical suspension damping upon the vibrations regime of the vehicle at the bending resonance frequency and upon the ride comfort. The results of the numerical simulations regarding the frequency response of the carbody acceleration and the comfort index will be therefore used. A value of the secondary suspension damping can be thus identified that will provide the best ride comfort performance. Similarly, the ride comfort can be increased by raising the primary suspension damping ratio.

  2. Using a Zonal Model To Assess the Effect of a Heated Floor on Thermal Comfort Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukhris, Yosr; Gharbi, Leila; Ghrab-Morcos, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    People s perceptions of indoor air quality and thermal comfort are affected by air speed and temperature. We have extended the three-dimensional zonal model, ZAER, to be able to predict the temperature fields and the air distributions between and within rooms in the case of natural convection. This paper presents an application of the new zonal model dealing with the influence of a heated floor of one room upon the winter thermal comfort of an unconditioned Tunisian dwelling. Coupling ZAER with a thermal comfort model allows the assessment of the thermal quality of the dwelling through the prediction of a comfort indicator. The obtained results show that a heated floor can be a useful component to improve thermal comfort in the Tunisian context, even in another room

  3. Optimizing visual comfort for stereoscopic 3D display based on color-plus-depth signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Feng; Jiang, Qiuping; Fu, Randi; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi

    2016-05-30

    Visual comfort is a long-facing problem in stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display. In this paper, targeting to produce S3D content based on color-plus-depth signals, a general framework for depth mapping to optimize visual comfort for S3D display is proposed. The main motivation of this work is to remap the depth range of color-plus-depth signals to a new depth range that is suitable to comfortable S3D display. Towards this end, we first remap the depth range globally based on the adjusted zero disparity plane, and then present a two-stage global and local depth optimization solution to solve the visual comfort problem. The remapped depth map is used to generate the S3D output. We demonstrate the power of our approach on perceptually uncomfortable and comfortable stereoscopic images.

  4. Literature survey on how different factors influence human comfort in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    examined the extent to which other factors unrelated to the indoor environment, such as individual characteristics of building occupants, building-related factors and outdoor climate including seasonal changes, influence whether the indoor environment is evaluated as comfortable or not. The results suggest...... environmental conditions influencing comfort in the built environment were surveyed: thermal, visual and acoustic, as well as air quality. The literature was surveyed to determine which of these conditions were ranked by building users as being the most important determinants of comfort. The survey also...... quality. Thermal comfort is ranked by building occupants to be of greater importance compared with visual and acoustic comfort and good air quality. It also seems to influence to a higher degree the overall satisfaction with indoor environmental quality compared with the impact of other indoor...

  5. Investigation of Comfort Temperature and Occupant Behavior in Japanese Houses during the Hot and Humid Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom B. Rijal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the comfort temperature and to investigate the behavioral adaptation in Japanese houses, we have conducted a thermal comfort survey and occupant behavior survey in 30 living rooms during the hot and humid season in the Kanto region of Japan. We collected 3991 votes from 52 subjects. The comfort temperature was predicted by Griffiths’ method. They are analyzed according to humidity levels and compared with the adaptive model. The logistic regression analysis was conducted in order to understand occupant behavior. The mean comfort temperature in naturally ventilated mode is 27.6 °C which is within the acceptable zone of the adaptive model. The comfort temperature is related with skin moisture sensation. The results showed that the residents adapt to the hot and humid environments by increasing the air movement using behavioral adaptation such as window opening and fan use.

  6. The role of respondents’ comfort for variance in stated choice surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emang, Diana; Lundhede, Thomas; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    they complete surveys correlates with the error variance in stated choice models of their responses. Comfort-related variables are included in the scale functions of the scaled multinomial logit models. The hypothesis was that higher comfort reduces error variance in answers, as revealed by a higher scale...... parameter and vice versa. Information on, e.g., sleep and time since eating (higher comfort) correlated with scale heterogeneity, and produced lower error variance when controlled for in the model. That respondents’ comfort may influence choice behavior suggests that knowledge of the respondents’ activity......Preference elicitation among outdoor recreational users is subject to measurement errors that depend, in part, on survey planning. This study uses data from a choice experiment survey on recreational SCUBA diving to investigate whether self-reported information on respondents’ comfort when...

  7. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  8. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  9. Effects of Drains on Pain, Comfort and Anxiety in Patients Undergone Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Yildiz Findik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Surgical drains negatively affect patients’ comfort, cause anxiety along with pain, as they are used to promote healing after surgery.Purpose: This study aimed to determine pain, comfort and anxiety levels of patients with drains postoperatively.Methodology: Research was performed with 192 patients undergone abdominal, neck, breast and open heart surgery and had surgical and underwater chest drains at the postoperative period. Patient Information Form, Numerical Pain Scale, General Comfort Questionnaire and Trait Anxiety Scale was used for collection of data. In evaluating the data, we used the t-test, variance and correlation analysis, mean, percentage and frequency.Results: The patients’ mean score of pain was 4.67±2.93, comfort was 2.75±0.29 and anxiety was 39.31±9.21. It was found statistically significant that the comfort level decreases as the pain level increases and that the patients undergone open heart surgery and with underwater chest drains have higher pain levels. It was found statistically significant that, comfort level in patients undergone abdominal or cardiac surgery is lower than patients undergone breast or neck surgery, and that the comfort level decreases as the duration of drains increases. The increasing state anxiety while pain increases and comfort decreases was found statistically significant.Conclusions: Surgeries and drains applied after these procedures decrease the comfort level of the patients as increases the pain level. Also, pain and discomfort increase the patients’ anxiety. Nurses who providing care to these patients are suggested to improve measures about pain and anxiety reduction for maintaining of comfort.

  10. A Comfortable Solution To Tracheal Anastomosis Protection: Tracheal Retention Sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapolat, Sami; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Seyis, Kubra Nur; Tekinbas, Celal

    2018-04-01

    Fixation of the chin to the anterior chest wall is the most commonly used method of reducing anastomotic tension following a segmental resection of the trachea and reconstruction with primary anastomosis. However, the sutures required for this method may lead to various organic and psychological problems. In five patients who underwent tracheal resection and primary anastomosis, retention sutures were placed on the proximal and distal-lateral edges of the anastomotic line rather than placing a Guardian chin stitch. All patients were mobilised in the early postoperative period and were able to perform their routine daily activities without restrictions. During their average 14.4 months of follow-up, no complications were found in their anastomotic lines during their clinical, radiological, and bronchoscopic assessments. The placement of tracheal retention sutures proved an inexpensive and reliable method to reduce anastomotic tension without additional surgical burden, and was effective in terms of patient comfort. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A possible connection between thermal comfort and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, John L.

    2004-05-20

    It is a well-established fact that cardiovascular health requires periodic exercise during which the human body often experiences significant physical discomfort. It is not obvious to the exerciser that the short-term pain and discomfort has a long-term positive health impact. Many cultures have well-established practices that involve exposing the body to periodic thermal discomfort. Scandinavian saunas and American Indian sweat lodges are two examples. Both are believed to promote health and well-being. Vacations often intentionally include significant thermal discomfort as part of the experience (e.g., sunbathing, and downhill skiing). So people often intentionally make themselves thermally uncomfortable yet the entire foundation of providing the thermal environment in our buildings is done to minimize the percentage of people thermally dissatisfied. We must provide an environment that does not negatively impact short-term health and we need to consider productivity but are our current thermal comfort standards too narrowly defined and do these standards actually contribute to longer-term negative health impacts? This paper examines the possibility that the human body thermoregulatory system has a corollary relationship to the cardiovascular system. It explores the possibility that we have an inherent need to exercise our thermoregulatory system. Potential, physiological, sociological and energy ramifications of these possibilities are discussed.

  12. How I Left My Comfort Zone in Pure Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda UYSAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Why am I writing a diary? What did I gain by writing a diary? When I write randomly on a piece of paper, it gives me inspiration about my life and about my academic plans. I discovered my interests with writing practice, and I thought sharing my story with others might be a good idea. I studied mathematics as my major. When I was a senior, I already felt tired of abstract mathematics. Psychology of education could be better for me, or another field which has its concrete application in real life. However, at the same time, I did not want to move away from mathematics. Then I met the Department of Education, and I started to take some classes related to education to get ready for my teaching carrier. Because with some background in pedagogy, I knew that I would be able to be more helpful to my students in the future. Then I realized that some mathematical issues which my professors probably worked on for hours were quite barren and not useful for my purposes: teaching mathematics, I mean, usable mathematics that is lots of fun! When I started teaching after having my bachelor’s degree, the biggest challenge for me was to motivate my students. The classroom had good materials and I had the skills to solve the advanced problem sets in mathematics. But how could I find the opportunity to have good communication with my students? These years were worse than my college years. I loved mathematics and I did not understand why they did not! I pondered and made observations about it for almost a year, and I realized that there could be a bigger reason; not related to me personally or to math. I kept records of my teaching experience and wrote down my opinions daily. My husband and I discussed specific problematic situations in the classroom. Finally I happened to figure it out that I decided to leave my comfort zone. What was my comfort zone? It was where I felt safe and what I felt comfortable in doing. I was solving mathematics problems by myself, but

  13. Thermal comfort of seats as visualized by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Rosemary Bom Conselho; Pereira, Romeu Rodrigues; Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino; Cardoso, Antônio Valadão

    2017-07-01

    Published studies that deal with the question of how the temperature of chair seats influences human activities are few, but the studies considering such a factor, a function of the type of material, could contribute to improvements in the design of chairs. This study evaluates seat temperatures of 8 types of chairs made of different materials. The parts of the furniture that people come into contact with, and the thermal response of the material to heating and cooling have been evaluated. Infrared thermography was used for this, as it is a non-contact technique that does not present any type of risk in the measurement of temperatures. Seats made of synthetic leather (leatherette), wood and polyester fabric were found to have the highest temperatures, and the plywood seat showed the lowest. The study has also revealed that thermography can contribute to studies of thermal comfort of chair seats in addition to determining the most suitable material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. GHL Comfort Hotel Los Héroes. Historia Empresarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Álvarez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available En un contexto administrativo, la historia empresarial marca la presencia de un lenguaje en donde se procede a describir, explicar y evaluar la toma de decisiones en el ambiente empresarial. Esta toma de decisiones se convierte entonces en una política, que tomará como base el entorno en el cual se desenvuelve. Es así que resulta imprescindible el comportamiento a nivel interno y externo de la organización, de esta manera se evalúa qué papel juega el control administrativo en la producción, el bienestar y desarrollo no sólo de la empresa, sino además de su personal. En este artículo estableceremos la importancia del análisis y descripción de los procesos claves de éxito que se realizan puntualmente en GHL comfort hotel los héroes, organización que se ha mantenido en el mercado y en su corta vida ha logrando no sólo un posicionamiento, sino además ser una empresa estable e innovadora.

  15. Influence of Knits Structure on Flammability and Comfortability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikučionienė D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the influence of the knit structure, i.e. the loop length and the number of yarns in a loop, on flammability and comfortability are presented in this paper. The investigations were carried out using single jersey knits from Delta TA 18 tex × 2 yarns with five variants of a loop length. Single yarn as well as folded yarn from two single yarns was used in the investigations. Comparison of the results of single-layer knits flammability and air permeability with those of multilayer packet was made. The results obtained show that an increase in the loop length of the knit increases their permeability to air and decreases the burning time as well as increase in the number of layers decreases the air permeability and increases the burning time. Moreover, the similar burning time with significantly different permeability to air can be achieved changing the basic knitting parameters, i.e. the loop length and/or the yarn linear density.

  16. Analysis of comfort and ergonomics for clinical work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafti, Ali; Lazpita, Beatriz Urbistondo; Elhage, Oussama; Wurdemann, Helge A; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2016-08-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) are a serious risk to workers' health in any work environment, and especially in clinical work places. These disorders are typically the result of prolonged exposure to non-ergonomic postures and the resulting discomfort in the workplace. Thus a continuous assessment of comfort and ergonomics is necessary. There are different techniques available to make such assessments, such as self-reports on perceived discomfort and observational scoring models based on the posture's relevant joint angles. These methods are popular in medical and industrial environments alike. However, there are uncertainties with regards to objectivity of these methods and whether they provide a full picture. This paper reports on a study about these methods and how they correlate with the activity of muscles involved in the task at hand. A wearable 4-channel electromyography (EMG) and joint angle estimation device with wireless transmission was made specifically for this study to allow continuous, long-term and real-time measurements and recording of activities. N=10 participants took part in an experiment involving a buzz-wire test at 3 different levels, with their muscle activity (EMG), joint angle scores (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment - RULA), self-reports of perceived discomfort (Borg scale) and performance score on the buzz-wire being recorded and compared. Results show that the Borg scale is not responsive to smaller changes in discomfort whereas RULA and EMG can be used to detect more detailed changes in discomfort, effort and ergonomics.

  17. Comfort food is comforting to those most stressed: evidence of the chronic stress response network in high stress women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Dallman, Mary F; Epel, Elissa S

    2011-11-01

    Chronically stressed rodents who are allowed to eat calorie-dense "comfort" food develop greater mesenteric fat, which in turn dampens hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We tested whether similar relations exist in humans, at least cross-sectionally. Fifty-nine healthy premenopausal women were exposed to a standard laboratory stressor to examine HPA response to acute stress and underwent diurnal saliva sampling for basal cortisol and response to dexamethasone administration. Based on perceived stress scores, women were divided into extreme quartiles of low versus high stress categories. We found as hypothesized that the high stress group had significantly greater BMI and sagittal diameter, and reported greater emotional eating. In response to acute lab stressor, the high stress group showed a blunted cortisol response, lower diurnal cortisol levels, and greater suppression in response to dexamethasone. These cross-sectional findings support the animal model, which suggests that long-term adaptation to chronic stress in the face of dense calories result in greater visceral fat accumulation (via ingestion of calorie-dense food), which in turn modulates HPA axis response, resulting in lower cortisol levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceived health and comfort in relation to energy use and building characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, C.-A.; Johner, N. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Foradini, F. [E4Tech S., Lausanne (Switzerland); Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Oliveira Fernandes, E. De [IDMEC-FUEP, Porto (Portugal); Mueller, B. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Aizlewood, C. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    Within the European research project Health Optimisation Protocol for Energy-efficient Building (HOPE), 96 apartment buildings and 64 office buildings (of which approximately 75% have been designed to be energy-efficient) were investigated. The building characteristics were assessed according to a checklist during a walk-through survey. Occupant questionnaires were used to determine satisfaction about comfort (thermal visual, acoustical and indoor air quality (IAQ)) and their health (Sick Building Syndrome and allergies). Building-averaged collected data are compared, looking for correlations between building characteristics on one hand, and perceived comfort and health on the other hand. Strong correlations are found between perceived IAQ, thermal, acoustic and lighting comfort, confirming results from other studies. Significant correlations between the perceived comfort and building related symptoms were also found, comfortable and healthier buildings being well distinct from uncomfortable ones. Differences of perceived comfort or health between low- and high-energy buildings show that it is possible to design buildings that are healthy, comfortable and energy efficient. (author)

  19. A decision-tree-based model for evaluating the thermal comfort of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Assis Maia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is of great importance in preserving body temperature homeostasis during thermal stress conditions. Although the thermal comfort of horses has been widely studied, there is no report of its relationship with surface temperature (T S. This study aimed to assess the potential of data mining techniques as a tool to associate surface temperature with thermal comfort of horses. T S was obtained using infrared thermography image processing. Physiological and environmental variables were used to define the predicted class, which classified thermal comfort as "comfort" and "discomfort". The variables of armpit, croup, breast and groin T S of horses and the predicted classes were then subjected to a machine learning process. All variables in the dataset were considered relevant for the classification problem and the decision-tree model yielded an accuracy rate of 74 %. The feature selection methods used to reduce computational cost and simplify predictive learning decreased model accuracy to 70 %; however, the model became simpler with easily interpretable rules. For both these selection methods and for the classification using all attributes, armpit and breast T S had a higher power rating for predicting thermal comfort. Data mining techniques show promise in the discovery of new variables associated with the thermal comfort of horses.

  20. Using a Music Video Parody to Promote Breastfeeding and Increase Comfort Levels Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Erin L; Beadle, Julie; Lukeman, Sionnach; Lukeman, Ellen; Aquino, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    North Americans are not meeting the World Health Organization's breastfeeding recommendations. Young adults understand that breastfeeding is healthy but are uncomfortable seeing breastfeeding. Research aim: The aim of the current project was to determine if a music video parody promoting breastfeeding is perceived by young adults to be an effective means of promotion and if exposure to such a video could increase comfort levels. Young adults rated how comfortable they felt looking at breastfeeding and bottle-feeding images (pretest). Two months later, a subset of participants watched the music video parody "Breastfeeding My Baby." In Phase 1, participants completed the picture-rating task again (posttest) after a 2-month delay, plus a survey to assess memory and perception of the video. In Phase 2, participants were reminded of the video before completing the comfort ratings, and in the final phase, posttest measures were administered only 1 week after exposure to the video. Across all phases, the video was perceived to be effective and was memorable. Breastfeeding comfort ratings were comparable at pretest across participant groups; comfort ratings improved at posttest for participants who saw the video but only if they were reminded of seeing it before providing their ratings. At shorter intervals between seeing the video and completing the posttests, comfort ratings for breastfeeding images increased for all participants, highlighting the general importance of exposure to breastfeeding. Young adults are receptive to using a music video parody to promote breastfeeding, which can help to increase comfort levels with breastfeeding.

  1. Outdoor thermal comfort in public space in warm-humid Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik; Yahia, Moohammed Wasim; Arroyo, Ivette; Bengs, Christer

    2018-03-01

    The thermal environment outdoors affects human comfort and health. Mental and physical performance is reduced at high levels of air temperature being a problem especially in tropical climates. This paper deals with human comfort in the warm-humid city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. The main aim was to examine the influence of urban micrometeorological conditions on people's subjective thermal perception and to compare it with two thermal comfort indices: the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the standard effective temperature (SET*). The outdoor thermal comfort was assessed through micrometeorological measurements of air temperature, humidity, mean radiant temperature and wind speed together with a questionnaire survey consisting of 544 interviews conducted in five public places of the city during both the dry and rainy seasons. The neutral and preferred values as well as the upper comfort limits of PET and SET* were determined. For both indices, the neutral values and upper thermal comfort limits were lower during the rainy season, whereas the preferred values were higher during the rainy season. Regardless of season, the neutral values of PET and SET* are above the theoretical neutral value of each index. The results show that local people accept thermal conditions which are above acceptable comfort limits in temperate climates and that the subjective thermal perception varies within a wide range. It is clear, however, that the majority of the people in Guayaquil experience the outdoor thermal environment during daytime as too warm, and therefore, it is important to promote an urban design which creates shade and ventilation.

  2. Using Upper Extremity Skin Temperatures to Assess Thermal Comfort in Office Buildings in Changsha, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing thermal comfort field studies are mainly focused on the relationship between the indoor physical environment and the thermal comfort. In numerous chamber experiments, physiological parameters were adopted to assess thermal comfort, but the experiments’ conclusions may not represent a realistic thermal environment due to the highly controlled thermal environment and few occupants. This paper focuses on determining the relationships between upper extremity skin temperatures (i.e., finger, wrist, hand and forearm and the indoor thermal comfort. Also, the applicability of predicting thermal comfort by using upper extremity skin temperatures was explored. Field studies were performed in office buildings equipped with split air-conditioning (SAC located in the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW climate zone of China during the summer of 2016. Psychological responses of occupants were recorded and physical and physiological factors were measured simultaneously. Standard effective temperature (SET* was used to incorporate the effect of humidity and air velocity on thermal comfort. The results indicate that upper extremity skin temperatures are good indicators for predicting thermal sensation, and could be used to assess the thermal comfort in terms of physiological mechanism. In addition, the neutral temperature was 24.7 °C and the upper limit for 80% acceptability was 28.2 °C in SET*.

  3. Design of intelligent comfort control system with human learning and minimum power control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent comfort control system by combining the human learning and minimum power control strategies for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In the system, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is adopted as the control objective to improve indoor comfort level by considering six comfort related variables, whilst a direct neural network controller is designed to overcome the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation for better performance. To achieve the highest comfort level for the specific user, a human learning strategy is designed to tune the user's comfort zone, and then, a VAV and minimum power control strategy is proposed to minimize the energy consumption further. In order to validate the system design, a series of computer simulations are performed based on a derived HVAC and thermal space model. The simulation results confirm the design of the intelligent comfort control system. In comparison to the conventional temperature controller, this system can provide a higher comfort level and better system performance, so it has great potential for HVAC applications in the future

  4. Using Upper Extremity Skin Temperatures to Assess Thermal Comfort in Office Buildings in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhibin; Li, Nianping; Cui, Haijiao; Peng, Jinqing; Chen, Haowen; Liu, Penglong

    2017-09-21

    Existing thermal comfort field studies are mainly focused on the relationship between the indoor physical environment and the thermal comfort. In numerous chamber experiments, physiological parameters were adopted to assess thermal comfort, but the experiments' conclusions may not represent a realistic thermal environment due to the highly controlled thermal environment and few occupants. This paper focuses on determining the relationships between upper extremity skin temperatures (i.e., finger, wrist, hand and forearm) and the indoor thermal comfort. Also, the applicability of predicting thermal comfort by using upper extremity skin temperatures was explored. Field studies were performed in office buildings equipped with split air-conditioning (SAC) located in the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) climate zone of China during the summer of 2016. Psychological responses of occupants were recorded and physical and physiological factors were measured simultaneously. Standard effective temperature (SET*) was used to incorporate the effect of humidity and air velocity on thermal comfort. The results indicate that upper extremity skin temperatures are good indicators for predicting thermal sensation, and could be used to assess the thermal comfort in terms of physiological mechanism. In addition, the neutral temperature was 24.7 °C and the upper limit for 80% acceptability was 28.2 °C in SET*.

  5. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants' Comfort in European "Modern" Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A; Saraga, Dikaia E; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G; Bluyssen, Philomena M

    2016-04-25

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers' comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants' comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 "modern" office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants' comfort. The highest association with occupants' overall comfort was found for "noise", followed by "air quality", "light" and "thermal" satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that "noise inside the buildings" was highly associated with occupants' overall comfort. "Layout of the offices" was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building's location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants.

  6. Intelligent multi-objective optimization for building energy and comfort management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervez Hameed Shaikh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid economic and population growth in developing countries, effective and efficient energy usage has turned out to be crucial due to the rising concern of depleting fossil fuels, of which, one-third of primary energy is consumed in buildings and expected to rise by 53% up to 2030. This roaring sector posing a challenge, due to 90% of people spend most of their time in buildings, requires enhanced well-being of indoor environment and living standards. Therefore, building operations require more energy because most of the energy is consumed to make the indoor environment comfortable. Consequently, there is the need of improved energy efficiency to decrease energy consumption in buildings. In relation to this, the primary challenge of building control systems is the energy consumption and comfort level are generally conflicting to each other. Therefore, an important problem of sustainable smart buildings is to effectively manage the energy consumption and comfort and attain the trade-off between the two. Thus, smart buildings are becoming a trend of future construction that facilitates intelligent control in buildings for the fulfillment of occupant’s comfort level. In this study, an intelligent multi-objective system has been developed with evolutionary multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA optimization method. The corresponding case study simulation results for the effective management of users’ comfort and energy efficiency have been carried out. The case study results show the management of energy supply for each comfort parameter and maintain high comfort index achieving balance between the energy consumption and comfort level. Keywords: Energy, Buildings, Comfort, Management, Optimization, Trade-off

  7. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A.; Saraga, Dikaia E.; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G.; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G.; Bluyssen, Philomena M.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building’s location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants. PMID:27120608

  8. The effect of human-mattress interface's temperature on perceived thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, R; Naddeo, A; Vink, P

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, methods that allow for an objective evaluation of perceived comfort, in terms of postural, physiological, cognitive and environmental comfort, have received a great deal of attention from researchers. This paper focuses on one of the factors that influences physiological comfort perception: the temperature difference between users and the objects with which they interact. The first aim is to create a measuring system that does not affect the perceived comfort during the temperatures' acquisition. The main aim is to evaluate how the temperature at the human-mattress interface can affect the level of perceived comfort. A foam mattress has been used for testing in order to take into account the entire back part of the human body. The temperature at the interface was registered by fourteen 100 Ohm Platinum RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors) placed on the mattress under the trunk, the shoulders, the buttocks, the legs, the thighs, the arms and the forearms of the test subject. 29 subjects participated in a comfort test in a humidity controlled environment. The test protocol involved: dress-code, anthropometric-based positioning on mattress, environment temperature measuring and an acclimatization time before the test. At the end of each test, each of the test subject's thermal sensations and the level of comfort perception were evaluated using the ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers) scale. The data analyses concerned, in the first instance, correlations between the temperature at the interface and comfort levels of the different parts of the body. Then the same analyses were performed independently of the body parts being considered. The results demonstrated that there was no strong correlation among the studied variables and that the total increase of temperature at interface is associated with a reduction in comfort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Sakellaris

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality may affect workers’ comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants’ comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 “modern” office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality, and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants’ comfort. The highest association with occupants’ overall comfort was found for “noise”, followed by “air quality”, “light” and “thermal” satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that “noise inside the buildings” was highly associated with occupants’ overall comfort. “Layout of the offices” was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index, and building characteristics (office type and building’s location. Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants.

  10. Reliability of an instrument to determine lower limb comfort in professional football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Kinchington1, Kevin Ball1, Geraldine Naughton21School of Human Movement, Recreation and Performance, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; 2The Centre of Physical Activity Across the Lifespan (COPAAL, Australian Catholic University, Victoria, AustraliaAims and Objectives: This study extends previous work in the field of injury awareness using a novel lower limb comfort index (LLCI, which was developed to assess comfort in professional football. Participants rated comfort for designated anatomical segments of the lower limb utilizing a seven point Likert scale. The aims of the study were (i to assess the reliability of the LLCI in a competitive football environment (Australian Rules and Rugby League, and (ii to assess whether LLCI measurements were responsive to changes in lower limb comfort over time.Methods and Results: The reliability of the LLCI was observed in two professional football environments: Training Week (mean difference 0.1 point, intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC 0.99 for n = 41 participants; and Match Day (mean difference 0.2 points, ICC 0.97 for n = 22 players. Measurements of lower limb comfort were responsive to changes in comfort over time. Within-player differences were not significant for periods 0–8 hrs (P > 0.05 but, generally, significant for time periods 0–24 hrs (P < 0.05, and significant between 24–96 hrs (P < 0.01. The results indicate that the LLCI was reliable when tested for repeated measures and indicated how the index measures lower limb comfort changes over time.Conclusion: This study shows that the use of a lower limb comfort index, when used in a competitive football environment, is both reliable and responsive to change during both a training week and under match day conditions.Keywords: lower limb comfort, musculoskeletal, football, injury

  11. Using Dashboards to Improve Energy and Comfort in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Marini, Kyle; Ghatikar, Girish; Diamond, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Federal agencies are taking many steps to improve the sustainability of their operations, including improving the energy efficiency of their buildings, promoting recycling and reuse of materials, encouraging carpooling and alternative transit schemes, and installing low flow water fixture units are just a few of the common examples. However, an often overlooked means of energy savings is to provide feedback to building users about their energy use through information dashboards connected to a building?s energy information system. An Energy Information System (EIS), broadly defined, is a package of performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems that is used to collect, store, analyze, and display energy information. At a minimum, the EIS provides the whole-building energy-use information (Granderson 2009a). We define a ?dashboard? as a display and visualization tool that utilizes the EIS data and technology to provide critical information to users. This information can lead to actions resulting in energy savings, comfort improvements, efficient operations, and more. The tools to report analyzed information have existed in the information technology as business intelligence (Few 2006). The dashboard is distinguished from the EIS as a whole, which includes additional hardware and software components to collect and storage data, and analysis for resources and energy management (Granderson 2009b). EIS can be used for a variety of uses, including benchmarking, base-lining, anomaly detection, off-hours energy use evaluation, load shape optimization, energy rate analysis, retrofit and retro-commissioning savings (Granderson 2009a). The use of these EIS features depends on the specific users. For example, federal and other building managers may use anomaly detection to identify energy waste in a specific building, or to benchmark energy use in similar buildings to identify energy saving potential and reduce operational cost. There are

  12. Zones of comfortable living of habitants on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Temperature in the sunflower point on Mercury +480 °C; before sunrise, the temperature at the equator drops to-183 °C. In this regard, after arrival on the surface of Mercury, a person immediately needs to protect himself from extreme temperatures and radiation, hiding, for example, under the surface. Temperature fluctuations observed on the surface of the Earth too, very slowly propagate into the depth of the soil. 228 years ago by the French scientist Antoine Lavoisier proved that the temperature in the mine under the surface at a depth of 28 m in the territory of the Paris Observatory year-round is constant and equal to +11.7 C. For Kiev this constant temperature is always + 9°Ð¡. Solving a similar problem for Mercury, we obtained at latitudes |70-90 deg.| that the temperature below the surface at depths of 3-30 m will be guaranteed constant in range of +15-25 C. The area of settlements with comfort temperatures for the biological life form at subsurface subpolar regions is more than three million km2. Thus, under the surface (endo) of Mercury at depths of 3-30 m tens of endo-settlements can be located. It remains only to provide people in these settlements - water and specialized spacesuits. This will enable people to live there for a long time, and will allow them to extract mineral resources on Mercury. Therefore, now it is necessary to work on the creation of special symbiotic "cocoons", which can themselves be buried. This will ensure the long-term existence of endoplanetary stations on Mercury.

  13. The field investigation on thermal comfort of tent in early autumn of Tianjin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a university campus in Tianjin, four tents were set up to investigate the thermal environment and thermal comfort. Both the field investigation and questionnaires were adopted in this experiment. Two hundred people were investigated, and two hundred questionnaires were gotten. The results show that the thermal comfort zone of officers and soldiers is 24°C to 28°C in early fall, it is a wide range. There is a big error between the PMV index and the actual survey results, PMV calculation index is not accurate in tents environment. The results will have a significant effect on improving the thermal comfort of tents..

  14. Data on the interaction between thermal comfort and building control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June Young; Nagy, Zoltan

    2018-04-01

    This dataset contains bibliography information regarding thermal comfort and building control research. In addition, the instruction of a data-driven literature survey method guides readers to reproduce their own literature survey on related bibliography datasets. Based on specific search terms, all relevant bibliographic datasets are downloaded. We explain the keyword co-occurrences of historical developments and recent trends, and the citation network which represents the interaction between thermal comfort and building control research. Results and discussions are described in the research article entitled "Comprehensive analysis of the relationship between thermal comfort and building control research - A data-driven literature review" (Park and Nagy, 2018).

  15. CFD Modeling of Thermal Manikin Heat Loss in a Comfort Evaluation Benchmark Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Håkan O.; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2007-01-01

    for comfort evaluation. The main idea is to focus on people. It is the comfort requirements of occupants that decide what thermal climate that will prevail. It is therefore important to use comfort simulation methods that originate from people, not just temperatures on surfaces and air.......Computer simulated persons (CSPs) today are different in many ways, reflecting various software possibilities and limitations as well as different research interest. Unfortunately, too few of the theories behind thermal manikin simulations are available in the public domain. Many researchers...

  16. Assessment methods for comfort of consumer products at early stages of the development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavrakos, Stavros-Konstantinos

    Design engineers who are involved in the early conceptual phase of the development of products such as seats, headphones and domestic appliances stress the increasing importance of comfort. Comfort is taken into account in the purchasing decisions of buying a chair, a bed, and when driving a car...... stages of the design process and, to investigate the factors that influence the different dimensions of comfort (physical, physiological and psychological). The investigation has been conducted in strong collaboration with an industrial partner working with ear-worn devices, providing access to data...

  17. The Relationship of Cow Comfort and Flooring to Lameness Disorders in Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Marcia I

    2017-07-01

    Cow comfort and flooring contribute to lameness incidence in dairy herds. The trigger factors for lameness can all be exacerbated by poor cow comfort. Reduced cow comfort influences lameness incidence by increasing the risk for development of new cases and the time it takes for a cow to recover. Reduction in resting time will increase the cow's exposure to hard flooring surfaces. Many factors are associated with lameness prevalence. Housing and management factors should be optimized to reduce lameness incidence on dairy farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Measures of Bus Comfort Levels Using Kinematic Parameters Recorded by Smartphone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, S. dell' ; Eboli, L.; Futia, G.; Mazzulla, G.; Pungillo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Comfort on board plays an essential role in the levels of satisfaction of a bus service perceived by passengers. The aim of this paper is to propose a measure of comfort based on two kinds of data: perceptions of passengers (subjective data) and accelerations of bus (objective data). For the collection of subjective data a questionnaire was addressed to a sample of university students, while a smartphone, equipped with GPS device and 3-axis accelerometer, was used to record the accelerations. Based on the recorded parameters, we determined the thresholds of the acceleration values beyond which the level of comfort cannot be considered as good.. (Author)

  19. Attention for users improves the results. Performances and comfort differ from the design of a building; Aandacht voor gebruikers verbetert resultaat. Prestaties en comfort wijken af van gebouwontwerp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Van Houten, R.; Vissers, D.; Maaijen, R. [Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van der Velden, J.; Noom, P.; Haan, J.F.; Wortel, W.; Dubbeldam, J.W. [Kropman Installatietechniek, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The comfort and energy performance of a building design in practice often not met. This results in more energy, higher absenteeism and reduced performance of the users. A huge energy savings is possible, but only with new energy management systems that also consider the role of the user. [Dutch] Het comfort en de energetische prestaties van een gebouwontwerp worden in de praktijk vaak niet gehaald. Dit resulteert in meer energiegebruik, een hoger ziekteverzuim en een geringere prestatie van de gebruikers. Een enorme energiebesparing is mogelijk, maar dan alleen met nieuwe energiemanagementsystemen die ook oog hebben voor de rol van de gebruiker.

  20. Determination of thermal and acoustic comfort inside a vehicle’s cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal and acoustic comfort, inside a vehicle’s cabin, are highly interconnected and can greatly influence the health of the passengers. On one hand, the H.V.A.C. system brings the interior air parameters to a comfortable value while on the other hand, it is the main source of noise. It is an intriguing task to find a balance between the two. In this paper, several types of air diffusers were used in order to optimize the ratio between thermal and acoustic interior comfort. Using complex measurements of noise and thermal comfort parameters we have determined for each type of air diffuser the sound pressure level and its impact on air temperature and air velocity.

  1. Application of thermal comfort theory in probabilistic safety assessment of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Sun Canhui; Li Zhenyang; Wang Zenghui

    2011-01-01

    Human factor errors in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) can be prevented using thermal comfort analysis. In this paper, the THERP + HCR model is modified by using PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) and PPD (Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied) index system, so as to obtain the operator cognitive reliability,and to reflect and analyze human perception, thermal comfort status,and cognitive ability in a specific NPP environment. The mechanism of human factors in the PSA is analyzed by operators of skill, rule and knowledge types. The THERP + HCR model modified by thermal comfort theory can reflect the conditions in actual environment, and optimize reliability analysis of human factors. Improving human thermal comfort for different types of operators reduces adverse factors due to human errors, and provides a safe and optimum decision-making for NPPs. (authors)

  2. Investigation of Different Configurations of a Ventilated Window to Optimize Both Energy Efficiency and Thermal Comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Heiselberg, Per; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2017-01-01

    on thermal comfort. Hourly simulations of the heat balances of the windows are conducted on four days representing different typical weather conditions according to the method described in EN ISO 13790. Uand g values used in the calculation method are calculated in European software tool (WIS......) for the calculation of the thermal and solar properties of commercial and innovative window systems. Additionally, comfort performance is evaluated by inlet air temperature and internal surface temperature of the windows calculated by WIS software. The results of the study show the energy and comfort performance...... the energy consumption or optimizing the thermal comfort. The provided optimal window typologies can be used in residential and commercial buildings for both new constructions and renovations....

  3. Human Thermal Comfort In Residential House Buildings Of Jimma Town Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chali Yadeta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor human thermal comfort is an important factor in indoor air quality assessment. Thermal comfort affects human health work efficiency and overall wellbeing. Thermal discomfort in indoors lowers the emotional and physical health of the occupants. This paper targets to explore human thermal comfort in residential house buildings of Jimma town and state some possible mechanisms to improve the existing thermal discomfort in large number the houses. For the study 303 structured questionnaires were distributed to the residential houses in thirteen places of the town based on predetermined criteria. The study reveals that human thermal discomfort in residential houses Jimma town are mainly from poor architectural design and improper use of heat generating appliances in indoors. The uses architectural design that suites the present climatic conditions and use of materials that facilitates ventilations will enhance the realization of the required human thermal comfort in residential houses of the study area.

  4. Investigation of Different Configurations of a Ventilated Window to Optimize Both Energy Efficiency and Thermal Comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Heiselberg, Per; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2017-01-01

    on thermal comfort. Hourly simulations of the heat balances of the windows are conducted on four days representing different typical weather conditions according to the method described in EN ISO 13790. U and g values used in the calculation method are calculated in European software tool (WIS......) for the calculation of the thermal and solar properties of commercial and innovative window systems. Additionally, comfort performance is evaluated by inlet air temperature and internal surface temperature of the windows calculated by WIS software. The results of the study show the energy and comfort performance...... the energy consumption or optimizing the thermal comfort. The provided optimal window typologies can be used in residential and commercial buildings for both new constructions and renovations....

  5. Turkish Version of Kolcaba's Immobilization Comfort Questionnaire: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Tosun, RN, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings of this study reveal that the ICQ is a valid and reliable tool for assessing the comfort of patients in Turkey who are immobilized because of lower extremity orthopedic problems.

  6. A theoretical adaptive model of thermal comfort - Adaptive Predicted Mean Vote (aPMV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Runming [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading (United Kingdom); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University (China); Li, Baizhan [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment (Ministry of Education), Chongqing University (China); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University (China); Liu, Jing [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents in detail a theoretical adaptive model of thermal comfort based on the ''Black Box'' theory, taking into account factors such as culture, climate, social, psychological and behavioural adaptations, which have an impact on the senses used to detect thermal comfort. The model is called the Adaptive Predicted Mean Vote (aPMV) model. The aPMV model explains, by applying the cybernetics concept, the phenomena that the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) is greater than the Actual Mean Vote (AMV) in free-running buildings, which has been revealed by many researchers in field studies. An Adaptive coefficient ({lambda}) representing the adaptive factors that affect the sense of thermal comfort has been proposed. The empirical coefficients in warm and cool conditions for the Chongqing area in China have been derived by applying the least square method to the monitored onsite environmental data and the thermal comfort survey results. (author)

  7. The development of a post occupancy evaluation tool for primary schools: learner comfort assessment tool (LCAT)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motsatsi, L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Students spend majority of their time indoors, in school buildings or classroom. A poor and unsatisfactory indoor environment can affect health, productivity and comfort of occupants. Hence, a satisfactory indoor environment quality is important...

  8. Assessment of monitored energy use and thermal comfort conditions in mosques in hot-humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Homoud, Mohammad S.; Abdou, Adel A.; Budaiwi, Ismail M. [Architectural Engineering Department, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-06-15

    In harsh climatic regions, buildings require air-conditioning in order to provide an acceptable level of thermal comfort. In many situations buildings are over cooled or the HVAC system is kept running for a much longer time than needed. In some other situations thermal comfort is not achieved due to improper operation practices coupled with poor maintenance and even lack it, and consequently inefficient air-conditioning systems. Mosques represent one type of building that is characterized by their unique intermittent operating schedule determined by prayer times, which vary continuously according to the local solar time. This paper presents the results of a study designed to monitor energy use and thermal comfort conditions of a number of mosques in a hot-humid climate so that both energy efficiency and the quality of thermal comfort conditions especially during occupancy periods in such intermittently operated buildings can be assessed accurately. (author)

  9. THERMAL COMFORT STUDY OF TEACHERS' ROOM AT SEKOLAH BINA MULIA PONTIANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Suryajaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is one of the important aspects to ensure the comfort of a building. School building, e.g. Sekolah Bina Mulia, Pontianak is used for education activities for about eight hours a day. The teachersfourth floor and still applies the natural air ventilation system while other rooms use mechanical ventilation system. It is interesting to see thermal comfort condition in the ort of the room depends on the environment. Because of its position on the fourth floor, the wind circulation can flow freely and the application of air ventilation is possible. The average temperature is 29.599ºC, 71.216% for relative humidity and 0.143 m/s for wind speed, and 29.482ºC for MRT. The average value of PMV is 1.615. The thermal comfort value, based on the average of PPS*(PMV calculation for three days observation is 0.130 and it is the neutral condition. This means the room is comfort for the users and it is mainly because  of the windows, sun shading, and the building materials which support the natural air ventilation of the school   Kenyamanan termal merupakan salah satu aspek penting untuk memastikan suatu bangunan dapat memberikan kenyamanan bagi penggunanya. Bangunan sekolah, seperti Sekolah Bina Mulia Pontianak merupakan bangunan pendidikan yang digunakan kurang lebih delapan jam dalam satu hari. Ruang guru pada sekolah Bina Mulia, yang terletak pada lantai empat masih menggunakan sistem ventilasi udara alami sementara ruangan lain menggunakan sistem penghawaan mekanikal. Kenyamanan termal pada ruangan tentu sangat tergantung pada Keadaan lingkungan. Karena posisinya yang cukup tinggi, pergerakan udara pada ruangan juga lebih bebas. Artinya, aplikasi ventilasi udara alami sangat memungkinkan. Nilai temperatur udara rata-rata pada ruangan adalah 29,599 ºC, kelembaban 71,216%, kecepatan udara 0,143 m/det dan nilai temperatur radiasi 29,482ºC. Nilai PMV rata-rata pada ruangan adalah 1,615. Nilai PPS*(PMV rata-rata pada ruangan

  10. Design of Launcher Towards Spacecraft Comfort: Ariane 6 Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, Patrick; Lambare, Hadrien; Valbuena, Matias F.

    2014-06-01

    Preliminary advanced studies were performed recently to select the possible concepts for a launcher that could succeed to Ariane 5. During the end of 2012 Space Ministry Conference, a configuration defining the propellant of the stages and the coarse staging ("PPH") was frozen in order to engage the preliminary selection concept studies. The first phase consisted to select the main features of the architecture in order to go deeper in the different matters or the advanced studies. The concept was selected mid of 2013.During all these phases of the preliminary project, different criteria (such as the recurring cost which is a major one) were used to quote the different concepts, among which the "payload comfort", ie the minimization of the environment generated by the launcher toward the satellites.The minimization of the environment was first expressed in term of objectives in the Mission Requirement Document (MRD) for the different mechanical environment such as quasi-static loads, dynamic loads, acoustics, shocks... Criteria such as usable volume, satellites frequency requirement and interface requirement are also expressed in the MRD.The definition of these different criteria was of course fixed taking benefit from the launcher operator experience based on a long story of dealing with spacecraft-launcher interface issues on Ariane, Soyouz and Vega. The general idea is to target improved or similar levels than those currently applicable for Ariane 5. For some environment for which a special need is anticipated from the potential end users, a special effort is aimed.The preliminary advanced study phase is currently running and has to address specific topics such as the definition of the upper part layout including geometry ofthe fairing, the definition of the launch pad with preliminary ideas to minimize acoustics and blast wave or first calculations on dimensioning dynamic load- cases such as thrust oscillations of the solid rocket motors (SRM).The present paper

  11. Effect of Kuwait oil field fires on human comfort and environment in Jubail, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

    1992-03-01

    The plumes from the Kuwait oil field fires reduced hemispheric (total) solar radiation by 26 36% during January June 1991 in Jubail (300 km SE of Kuwait City), Saudi Arabia. Residents feel noticeably cooler even though air temperatures have not been lowered significantly (up to June 1991). These observations support human comfort theories and demonstrate the importance of shade to comfort. The desirability of complete solar radiation measurements, including those of diffuse radiation, is indicated.

  12. Advanced thermal comfort modeling for an optimal interior design; Erweiterte thermische Komfortmodellierung fuer eine optimale Innenraumgestaltung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streblow, Rita; Mueller, Dirk [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Gebaeude- und Raumklimatechnik/E.ON Energy Research Center; Wick, Andreas [Airbus Operations GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Standard comfort models, which consider the human body as one compartment, fail in the case of non-uniform environments. Clear evaluations are only possible by considering local effects. The 33 node comfort model was developed with extensive experimental data with test persons in an airplane cabin, as an example for an inhomogeneous environment. It can be flexibly adapted to other complex interior spaces for their adequate evaluation. (orig.)

  13. Biomechanical variables and perception of comfort in running shoes with different cushioning technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinato, Roberto C; Ribeiro, Ana P; Butugan, Marco K; Pereira, Ivye L R; Onodera, Andrea N; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationships between the perception of comfort and biomechanical parameters (plantar pressure and ground reaction force) during running with four different types of cushioning technology in running shoes. Randomized repeated measures. Twenty-two men, recreational runners (18-45 years) ran 12km/h with running shoes with four different cushioning systems. Outcome measures included nine items related to perception of comfort and 12 biomechanical measures related to the ground reaction forces and plantar pressures. Repeated measure ANOVAs, Pearson correlation coefficients, and step-wise multiple regression analyses were employed (p≤0.05). No significant correlations were found between the perception of comfort and the biomechanical parameters for the four types of investigated shoes. Regression analysis revealed that 56% of the perceived general comfort can be explained by the variables push-off rate and pressure integral over the forefoot (p=0.015) and that 33% of the perception of comfort over the forefoot can be explained by second peak force and push-off rate (p=0.016). The results did not demonstrate significant relationships between the perception of comfort and the biomechanical parameters for the three types of shoes investigated (Gel, Air, and ethylene-vinyl acetate). Only the shoe with Adiprene+ technology had its general comfort and cushioning perception predicted by the loads over the forefoot. Thus, in general, one cannot predict the perception of comfort of a running shoe through impact and plantar pressure received. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urban Physics: Effect of the micro-climate on comfort, health and energy demand

    OpenAIRE

    Moonen, Peter; Defraeye, Thijs; Dorer, Viktor; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The global trend towards urbanisation explains the growing interest in the study of the modification of the urban climate due to the heat island effect and global warming, and its impact on energy use of buildings. Also urban comfort, health and durability, referring respectively to pedestrian wind/thermal comfort, pollutant dispersion and wind-driven rain are of interest. Urban Physics is a well-established discipline, incorporating relevant branches of physics, environmental chemistry, aero...

  15. Prosthetic Smart Socket Technology to Improve Patient Interaction, Usability, Comfort, Fit and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    impact on society beyond science and technology ? Nothing to report at this time. 5. CHANGES/PROBLEMS: Changes in approach and reasons for...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0785 TITLE: Prosthetic Smart Socket Technology to Improve Patient Interaction, Usability, Comfort, Fit and Function...2016 - 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prosthetic Smart Socket Technology to Improve Patient Interaction, Usability, Comfort, Fit and Function 5a

  16. Sound insulation of dwellings - Legal requirements in Europe and subjective evaluation of acoustical comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2003-01-01

    Acoustical comfort is a concept that can be characterised by absence of unwanted sound and by opportunities for acoustic activities without annoying other people. In order to achieve acoustical comfort in dwellings certain requirements have to be fulfilled concerning the airborne sound insulation, the impact sound insulation and the noise level from traffic and building services.For road traffic noise it is well established that an outdoor noise level LAeq, 24 h below 55 dB in a housing area ...

  17. Thermal comfort, physiological responses and performance during exposure to a moderate temperature drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter; de Wit, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effects of a moderate temperature drift on human thermal comfort, physiological responses, productivity and performance. A dynamic thermophysiological model was used to examine the possibility of simulating human thermal responses and thermal comfort...... temperature corresponding with a neutral thermal sensation (control situation). During the experiments both physiological responses and thermal sensation were measured. Productivity and performance were assessed with a ‘Remote Performance Measurement’ (RPM) method. Physiological and thermal sensation data...

  18. Testing thermal comfort of trekking boots: an objective and subjective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L

    2013-07-01

    The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Nurses' comfort level with spiritual assessment: a study among nurses working in diverse healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Pamela H; Giske, Tove

    2017-10-01

    To gain knowledge about nurses' comfort level in assessing spiritual matters and to learn what questions nurses use in practice related to spiritual assessment. Spirituality is important in holistic nursing care; however, nurses report feeling uncomfortable and ill-prepared to address this domain with patients. Education is reported to impact nurses' ability to engage in spiritual care. This cross-sectional exploratory survey reports on a mixed-method study examining how comfortable nurses are with spiritual assessment. In 2014, a 21-item survey with 10 demographic variables and three open-ended questions were distributed to Norwegian nurses working in diverse care settings with 172 nurse responses (72 % response rate). SPSS was used to analyse quantitative data; thematic analysis examined the open-ended questions. Norwegian nurses reported a high level of comfort with most questions even though spirituality is seen as private. Nurses with some preparation or experience in spiritual care were most comfortable assessing spirituality. Statistically significant correlations were found between the nurses' comfort level with spiritual assessment and their preparedness and sense of the importance of spiritual assessment. How well-prepared nurses felt was related to years of experience, degree of spirituality and religiosity, and importance of spiritual assessment. Many nurses are poorly prepared for spiritual assessment and care among patients in diverse care settings; educational preparation increases their comfort level with facilitating such care. Nurses who feel well prepared with spirituality feel more comfortable with the spiritual domain. By fostering a culture where patients' spirituality is discussed and reflected upon in everyday practice and in continued education, nurses' sense of preparedness, and thus their level of comfort, can increase. Clinical supervision and interprofessional collaboration with hospital chaplains and/or other spiritual leaders can

  20. An Improved Optimization Function for Maximizing User Comfort with Minimum Energy Consumption in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israr Ullah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the smart home environment, efficient energy management is a challenging task. Solutions are needed to achieve a high occupant comfort level with minimum energy consumption. User comfort is measured in terms of three fundamental parameters: (a thermal comfort, (b visual comfort and (c air quality. Temperature, illumination and CO 2 sensors are used to collect indoor contextual information. In this paper, we have proposed an improved optimization function to achieve maximum user comfort in the building environment with minimum energy consumption. A comprehensive formulation is done for energy optimization with detailed analysis. The Kalman filter algorithm is used to remove noise in sensor readings by predicting actual parameter values. For optimization, we have used genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithms and performed comparative analysis with a baseline scheme on real data collected for a one-month duration in our lab’s indoor environment. Experimental results show that the proposed optimization function has achieved a 27 . 32 % and a 31 . 42 % reduction in energy consumption with PSO and GA, respectively. The user comfort index was also improved by 10 % i.e., from 0 . 86 to 0 . 96 . GA-based optimization results were better than PSO, as it has achieved almost the same user comfort with 4 . 19 % reduced energy consumption. Results show that the proposed optimization function gives better results than the baseline scheme in terms of user comfort and the amount of consumed energy. The proposed system can help with collecting the data about user preferences and energy consumption for long-term analysis and better decision making in the future for efficient resource utilization and overall profit maximization.

  1. A simplified tool for building layout design based on thermal comfort simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Anand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort aspects of indoor spaces are crucial during the design stages of building layout planning. This study presents a simplified tool based on thermal comfort using predicted mean vote (PMV index. Thermal comfort simulations were performed for 14 different possible room layouts based on window configurations. ECOTECT 12 was used to determine the PMV of these rooms for one full year, leading to 17,808 simulations. Simulations were performed for three different climatic zones in India and were validated using in-situ measurements from one of these climatic zones. For moderate climates, rooms with window openings on the south façade exhibited the best thermal comfort conditions for nights, with comfort conditions prevailing for approximately 79.25% of the time annually. For operation during the day, windows on the north façade are favored, with thermal comfort conditions prevailing for approximately 77.74% of the time annually. Similar results for day and night time operation for other two climatic zones are presented. Such an output is essential in deciding the layout of buildings on the basis of functionality of the different rooms (living room, bedroom, kitchen corresponding to different operation times of the day.

  2. Investigating the adaptive model of thermal comfort for naturally ventilated school buildings in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Chen-Peng; Kuo, Nai-Jung

    2009-03-01

    Divergence in the acceptability to people in different regions of naturally ventilated thermal environments raises a concern over the extent to which the ASHRAE Standard 55 may be applied as a universal criterion of thermal comfort. In this study, the ASHRAE 55 adaptive model of thermal comfort was investigated for its applicability to a hot and humid climate through a long-term field survey performed in central Taiwan among local students attending 14 elementary and high schools during September to January. Adaptive behaviors, thermal neutrality, and thermal comfort zones are explored. A probit analysis of thermal acceptability responses from students was performed in place of the conventional linear regression of thermal sensation votes against operative temperature to investigate the limits of comfort zones for 90% and 80% acceptability; the corresponding comfort zones were found to occur at 20.1-28.4°C and 17.6-30.0°C, respectively. In comparison with the yearly comfort zones recommended by the adaptive model for naturally ventilated spaces in the ASHRAE Standard 55, those observed in this study differ in the lower limit for 80% acceptability, with the observed level being 1.7°C lower than the ASHRAE-recommended value. These findings can be generalized to the population of school children, thus providing information that can supplement ASHRAE Standard 55 in evaluating the thermal performance of naturally ventilated school buildings, particularly in hot-humid areas such as Taiwan.

  3. Monitoring indices of cow comfort in free-stall-housed dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N B; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V

    2005-11-01

    Indices of cow comfort are used widely by consultants in the dairy industry, with a general understanding that they are representative of lying behavior. This study examines the influence of stall base type (sand or a geotextile mattress filled with rubber crumbs) and time of measurement on 4 indices of comfort collected at hourly intervals in 12 herds, aligned by morning and afternoon milking. Stall base type significantly influenced all indices of comfort. For example, the least squares mean (SE) cow comfort index (proportion of cows touching a stall that are lying down) was 0.76 (0.015) in herds with mattresses compared with 0.86 (0.015) in herds with sand stalls. Significant hourly variation was also identified suggesting that timing of measurement is important. None of the indices of cow comfort derived from the high-yielding group pen was associated with the mean 24-h lying time of 10 sentinel cows whose time budgets were known in each herd. However, the cow comfort index was associated with the herd mean 24-h stall standing time, with the strongest relationships occurring 2 h before the morning and afternoon milking, when stall base type did not significantly influence the association. When measured at these times, we recommend use of the stall standing index (proportion of cows touching a stall that are standing), with values greater than 0.20 being associated with abnormally long herd mean stall standing times greater than 2 h/d.

  4. Physically coupling two objects in a bimanual task alters kinematics but not end-state comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Charmayne M L; Haddad, Jeffrey M; Franz, Elizabeth A; Zelaznik, Howard N; Ryu, Joong Hyun

    2011-06-01

    People often grasp objects with an awkward grip to ensure a comfortable hand posture at the end of the movement. This end-state comfort effect is a predominant constraint during unimanual movements. However, during bimanual movements the tendency for both hands to satisfy end-state comfort is affected by factors such as end-orientation congruency and task context. Although bimanual end-state comfort has been examined when the hands manipulate two independent objects, no research has examined end-state comfort when the hands are required to manipulate two physically-coupled objects. In the present experiment, kinematics and grasp behavior during a unimanual and bimanual reaching and placing tasks were examined, when the hands manipulate two physically-connected objects. Forty-five participants were assigned to one of three groups; unimanual, bimanual no-spring (the objects were not physically connected), and bimanual spring (the objects were connected by a spring), and instructed to grasp and place objects in various end-orientations, depending on condition. Physically connecting the objects did not affect end-state comfort prevalence. However, it resulted in decreased interlimb coupling. This finding supports the notion of a flexible constraint hierarchy, in which action goals guide the selection of lower level action features (i.e., hand grip used for grasping), and the particular movements used to accomplish that goal (i.e., interlimb coupling) are controlled throughout the movement.

  5. Exploring the design of a lightweight, sustainable and comfortable aircraft seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorikou, A; Vink, P; de Pauw, I C; Braca, A

    2016-07-19

    Making a lightweight seat that is also comfortable can be contradictory because usually comfort improvement means adding a feature (e.g. headrest, adjustable lumbar support, movable armrests, integrated massage systems, etc.), which makes seats heavier. This paper explores the design of an economy class aircraft seat that aims to be lightweight, comfortable and sustainable. Theory about comfort in seats, ergonomics, lightweight design, Biomimicry and Cradle to cradle was studied and resulted in a list of requirements that the new seat should satisfy. The design process resulted in a new seat that is 36% lighter than the reference seat, which showed that a significant weight reduction can be achieved. This was completed by re-designing the backrest and seat pan and integrating their functions into a reduced number of parts. Apart from the weight reduction that helps in reducing the airplane's environmental impact, the seat also satisfies most of the other sustainability requirements such as the use of recyclable materials, design for disassembly, easy to repair. A user test compared the new seat with a premium economy class aircraft seat and the level of comfort was similar. Strong points of the new design were identified such as the lumbar support and the cushioning material, as well as shortcomings on which the seat needs to be improved, like the seat pan length and the first impression. Long term comfort tests are still needed as the seat is meant for long-haul flights.

  6. Research on optimization of test cycles for comfort to the special vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroi, Marian; Chiru, Anghel

    2017-10-01

    The comfort of vehicles, regardless of their type is represent a requirement to by fulfilled in the context of current technological developments special vehicles generally move under different soil, time, or season conditions, and the land in which the vehicles move is complex and varied in the physical structure. Due to the high level of involvement in the driveability, safety and comfort of automotive, suspension system is a key factor with major implications for vibration and noise, affecting the human body. The objective of the research is related to determining the test cycles of special vehicles that are approaching real situations, to determine the level of comfort. The evaluate of the degree of comfort will be realized on acceleration values recorded, especially the vertical ones that have the highest influence on the human body. Thus, in this way the tests can be established needed to determine the level of comfort required for each particular type of special vehicle. The utility of the test cycles to optimize comfort is given to the accurate identification of the specific test needs, depending on the each vehicle.

  7. Quantifying the relevance of adaptive thermal comfort models in moderate thermal climate zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoof, Joost van; Hensen, Jan L.M. [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Vertigo 6.18, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Standards governing thermal comfort evaluation are on a constant cycle of revision and public review. One of the main topics being discussed in the latest round was the introduction of an adaptive thermal comfort model, which now forms an optional part of ASHRAE Standard 55. Also on a national level, adaptive thermal comfort guidelines come into being, such as in the Netherlands. This paper discusses two implementations of the adaptive comfort model in terms of usability and energy use for moderate maritime climate zones by means of literature study, a case study comprising temperature measurements, and building performance simulation. It is concluded that for moderate climate zones the adaptive model is only applicable during summer months, and can reduce energy for naturally conditioned buildings. However, the adaptive thermal comfort model has very limited application potential for such climates. Additionally we suggest a temperature parameter with a gradual course to replace the mean monthly outdoor air temperature to avoid step changes in optimum comfort temperatures. (author)

  8. Experimental investigation of radiation effect on human thermal comfort by Taguchi method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanoglu, Nurullah; Yigit, Abdulvahap

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation heat flux from lighting lamps on human thermal comfort is studied. • The effect of posture position on thermal comfort is investigated. • The effect of clothing color on thermal comfort is examined. • Radiation heat flux from halogen reflector lamp increase skin temperature more. • Posture position effect on thermal comfort is less than the other parameters. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of radiation heat flux of lighting lamps on human thermal comfort was investigated by using Taguchi method. In addition, at indoor conditions, clothing color and posture position under the radiation effect on thermal comfort were also investigated. For this purpose, experiments were performed in an air conditioned laboratory room in summer and autumn seasons. The amount of temperature rise on the back was considered as performance parameter. An L8 orthogonal array was selected as an experimental plan for the third parameters mentioned above for summer and autumn seasons. The results were analyzed for the optimum conditions using signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and ANOVA method. The optimum results were found to be clear halogen lamp as lighting lamp, white as t-shirt color, standing as posture position, in summer season. The optimum levels of the lighting lamp, t-shirt color and posture position were found to be clear halogen lamp, white, sitting in autumn season, respectively.

  9. CFD simulation of a cabin thermal environment with and without human body - thermal comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danca, Paul; Bode, Florin; Nastase, Ilinca; Meslem, Amina

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, thermal comfort became one of the criteria in choosing a vehicle. In last decades time spent by people in vehicles had risen substantially. During each trip, thermal comfort must to be ensured for a good psychological and physical state of the passengers. Also, a comfortable environment leads to a higher power concentration of the driver thereby to a safe trip for vehicle occupants and for all traffic participants. The present study numerically investigated the effect of human body sited in the driver's place, over the air velocity distribution and over the thermal comfort in a passenger compartment. CFD simulations were made with different angles of the left inlet grill, in both cases, with and without driver presence. In majority of the actual vehicles environment studies, are made without consideration of human body geometry, in this case, the results precision can be affected. The results show that the presence of human body, lead to global changing of the whole flow pattern inside the vehicular cabin. Also, the locations of the maximum velocities are changing with the angle of the guiding vanes. The thermal comfort PMV/PPD indexes were calculated for each case. The presence of human body leads to a more comfortable environment.

  10. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles.

  11. Thermal Comfort Level Assessment in Urban Area of Petrolina-PE County, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vieira de Azevedo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the thermal conditions of urban areas in Petrolina-PE, from continuous data collected in urban and rural areas for the year of 2012. The results characterized urban heat islands (UHI with varying intensity in urban areas, especially UHI = 5.3 °C (high intensity occurred on April 28, 2012. It was evident that the constituent elements of urban areas contribute to the formation and expansion of UHI bringing thermal discomfort for its inhabitants. An adaptation to Thom’s equation for calculating the Thermal Discomfort Index (DIT, was used to obtain the maximum (DITx and minimum (DITm thermal discomfort. In the urban area, the DITm indicated thermal comfort in 23.0% of the days and partial comfort in 77.0% of days surveyed. Already, the DITx characterized 71.6% of days with partial comfort and 28.4% of days with thermal discomfort. In the rural area, The DITm indicated that 41.5% of days were thermally comfortable and 58.5% of days had partial comfort. However, the DITx pointed 87.7% of the days of this environment with partial thermal comfort and 12.3% of thermally uncomfortable days. Finally, the results showed that afforestation of urban area constitutes to an effective and efficient way to mitigate thermal discomfort.

  12. Sensor design for outdoor racing bicycle field testing for human vibration comfort evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanwalleghem, Joachim; De Baere, Ives; Van Paepegem, Wim; Loccufier, Mia

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the vibrational comfort evaluation of the cyclist when cycling a rough surface. Outdoor comfort tests have so far only been done through instrumenting the bicycle with accelerometers. This work instruments a racing bicycle with custom-made contact force sensors and velocity sensors to acquire human comfort through the absorbed power method. Comfort evaluation is assessed at the hand–arm and seat interface of the cyclist with the bicycle. By means of careful finite-element analysis for designing the force gauges at the handlebar and the seat combined with precise calibration of both force and velocity sensors, all sensors have proven to work properly. Initial field tests are focused on the proper functioning of the designed sensors and their suitability for vibration comfort measurements. Tests on a cobblestone road reveal that the outcome of the absorbed power values is within the same range as those from laboratory tests found in the literature. This sensor design approach for outdoor testing with racing bicycles may give a new interpretation on evaluating the cyclist's comfort since the vibrational load is not only quantified in terms of acceleration but also in terms of force and velocity at the bicycle–cyclist contact points. (paper)

  13. Thermal Comfort Assessment in The Open Space in Bandung Case Study Dago Street and Riau Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugangga, M.; Janesonia, K. I.; Illiyin, D. F.; Donny Koerniawan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Bandung’s temperature has been higher since last years. This phenomenon affects the level of thermal comfort in open space. One indicator that determines the thermal comfort level is the type of activity performed by the open space user. Riau Street and Dago Street are corridors that are often used by the people for strolling, jogging, shopping. Dago Street has special event every Sunday namely car free day. Both corridors have different orientation; Dago Street is North to South corridor while Riau Street’s is West to East. The goal of the study is to compare people’s perception of thermal comfort in both corridors. This research uses two methods, namely qualitative method and quantitative method. Based on the results of qualitative analysis found that the thermal conditions in Dago Street more comfortable than the Riau Street. The result of quantitative analysis found that the average PET (thermal comfort indices) value of Dago Street was at 27.5 °C PET and Riau Street 28.6 °C PET. Dago Street is considered more convenient because it has a lower PET value than Riau Street. The people perception of thermal comfort is very important to start the steps for designing the orientation of street in urban design.

  14. Influence of humidification on comfort during noninvasive ventilation with a helmet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Kazuyoshi; Tomita, Toshiji; Uchiyama, Akinori; Ohta, Noriyuki; Iguchi, Naoya; Goto, Yukiko; Fujino, Yuji

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate optimal humidifier water temperature when using a helmet for noninvasive ventilation. Twenty-eight healthy individuals underwent 8 cm H2O CPAP ventilation with FIO2 of 0.21 and 0.5. Each was sequentially tested in the following order: using the helmet without humidification at ambient temperature; with humidification with unheated chamber water; and with humidification with the chamber water at 31°C, 34°C, and 37°C. At each setting, after a 20 min stabilization period, measurements were taken. Comfort level at each setting was evaluated using a visual analog scale rated zero (least comfortable) to 10 (most comfortable). Temperature and relative and absolute humidity inside the helmet increased; however, the comfort scores significantly decreased as the humidification chamber water temperature increased. Regardless of the FIO2, statistically significantly highest comfort scores were obtained when humidification water, with and without active humidification, was at ambient temperature. Unacceptable absolute humidity was obtained only without humidification at room temperature when FIO2 was 0.5. With the clinical use of a helmet, for patient comfort and mucosal humidification during CPAP, the most desirable conditions are likely to be obtained by humidifying without heating, that is by leaving the water in the humidifier chamber at room temperature.

  15. Can We Study Autonomous Driving Comfort in Moving-Base Driving Simulators? A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellem, Hanna; Klüver, Malte; Schrauf, Michael; Schöner, Hans-Peter; Hecht, Heiko; Krems, Josef F

    2017-05-01

    To lay the basis of studying autonomous driving comfort using driving simulators, we assessed the behavioral validity of two moving-base simulator configurations by contrasting them with a test-track setting. With increasing level of automation, driving comfort becomes increasingly important. Simulators provide a safe environment to study perceived comfort in autonomous driving. To date, however, no studies were conducted in relation to comfort in autonomous driving to determine the extent to which results from simulator studies can be transferred to on-road driving conditions. Participants ( N = 72) experienced six differently parameterized lane-change and deceleration maneuvers and subsequently rated the comfort of each scenario. One group of participants experienced the maneuvers on a test-track setting, whereas two other groups experienced them in one of two moving-base simulator configurations. We could demonstrate relative and absolute validity for one of the two simulator configurations. Subsequent analyses revealed that the validity of the simulator highly depends on the parameterization of the motion system. Moving-base simulation can be a useful research tool to study driving comfort in autonomous vehicles. However, our results point at a preference for subunity scaling factors for both lateral and longitudinal motion cues, which might be explained by an underestimation of speed in virtual environments. In line with previous studies, we recommend lateral- and longitudinal-motion scaling factors of approximately 50% to 60% in order to obtain valid results for both active and passive driving tasks.

  16. Nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Crespo Barreiros

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo revisa e apresenta os principais adoçantes utilizados na atualidade, seu poder adoçante e calórico e os eventuais efeitos colaterais. Para isso, foi feita uma pesquisa na literatura, em artigos originais, artigos de revisão e livros a respeito do tema. A pesquisa ainda apresenta enfoque na utilização de adoçantes em crianças.

  17. Non-Nutritive Sweeters (Artificial Sweeteners)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  18. Características da sucção não-nutritiva em RN a termo e pré-termo tardio Characteristics of non-nutritive sucking in full-term and late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula d'Oliveira Gheti Kao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os parâmetros de sucção não nutritiva de recém-nascidos a termo e pré-termo tardio. MÉTODOS: Os recém-nascidos foram divididos em dois grupos, pré-termo tardio (RNPT tardio e a termo (RN a termo e, submetidos à avaliação da sucção não-nutritiva utilizando-se um protocolo adaptado da Escala de Avaliação Motora Oral. Foi realizada análise estatística para comparação dos grupos. RESULTADOS: Os reflexos de procura e de sucção foram menos frequentes nos RNPT tardio, comparados aos RN a termo, assim como a preensão palmar e mãos em linha média. A maioria dos RNPT tardio apresentou sono leve ou estava sonolento antes da avaliação. Os RNPT tardio apresentaram predominantemente sucção esporádica ou grupos de sucção com pausas longas e travamento e/ou tremores de mandíbula. A retração de língua e a protrusão de língua foram mais presentes nos RNPT tardio e o canolamento de língua nos RN a termo. CONCLUSÃO: Prontidão para a mamada, estado comportamental, postura corporal, padrão e força de sucção e movimentos de língua foram os parâmetros menos frequentes nos RNPT tardio em relação aos RN a termo.PURPOSE: To compare non-nutritive sucking parameters between late preterm and full-term infants. METHODS: Infants were divided into two groups, full-term and late preterm, and were submitted to non-nutritive sucking assessment using a protocol adapted from the Oral Motor Assessment Scale. Statistical analysis was conducted for comparison between the groups. RESULTS: The seeking and sucking reflexes were less frequent in late preterm than in full-term newborns, as well as palmar grip and hands in the midline. Most late preterm infants presented light sleep or drowsiness before the assessment. Late preterm subjects predominantly presented sporadic sucking or blocks of sucking with long pauses and mandibular locking and/or tremors. Tongue retraction and protrusion were mostly present in late preterm

  19. On the determination of the thermal comfort conditions of a metropolitan city underground railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavoutas, George; Assimakopoulos, Margarita N; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N

    2016-10-01

    Although the indoor thermal comfort concept has received increasing research attention, the vast majority of published work has been focused on the building environment, such as offices, residential and non-residential buildings. The present study aims to investigate the thermal comfort conditions in the unique and complex underground railway environment. Field measurements of air temperature, air humidity, air velocity, globe temperature and the number of passengers were conducted in the modern underground railway of Athens, Greece. Environmental monitoring was performed in the interior of two types of trains (air-conditioned and forced air ventilation cabins) and on selected platforms during the summer period. The thermal comfort was estimated using the PMV (predicted mean vote) and the PPD (predicted percentage dissatisfied) scales. The results reveal that the recommended thermal comfort requirements, although at relatively low percentages are met only in air-conditioned cabins. It is found that only 33% of the PPD values in air-conditioned cabins can be classified in the less restrictive comfort class C, as proposed by ISO-7730. The thermal environment is "slightly warm" in air-conditioned cabins and "warm" in forced air ventilation cabins. In addition, differences of the thermal comfort conditions on the platforms are shown to be associated with the depth and the design characteristics of the stations. The average PMV at the station with small depth is 0.9 scale points higher than that of the station with great depth. The number of passengers who are waiting at the platforms during daytime reveals a U-shaped pattern for a deep level station and an inverted course of PMV for a small depth station. Further, preliminary observations are made on the distribution of air velocity on the platforms and on the impact of air velocity on the thermal comfort conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of shade on outdoor thermal comfort-a seasonal field study in Tempe, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-12-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C-38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

  1. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; de Groot, Rudolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed in five different green spaces. We aimed to analyze people's thermal comfort perception and preference in outdoor urban green spaces, and to specify the combined effects between the thermal environmental and personal factors. The results imply that non-physical environmental and subjective factors (e.g., natural view, quiet environment, and emotional background) were more important in perceiving comfort than the actual thermal conditions. By applying a linear regression and probit analysis, the comfort temperature was found to be 22.2 °C and the preferred temperature was at a surprisingly high 35.7 °C. This can be explained by the observation that most respondents, who live in temperate regions, have a natural tendency to describe their preferred state as "warmer" even when feeling "warm" already. Using the Kruskal-Wallis H test, the four significant factors influencing thermal comfort were people's exposure time in green spaces, previous thermal environment and activity, and their thermal history. However, the effect of thermal history needs further investigation due to the unequal sample sizes of respondents from different climate regions. By providing evidence for the role of the objective and subjective factors on human thermal comfort, the relationship between UGI, microclimate, and thermal comfort can assist urban planning to make better use of green spaces for microclimate regulation.

  2. Thermal comfort in sun spaces: To what extend can energy collectors and seasonal energy storages provide thermal comfort in sun space?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wiegel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for fossil fuel substitution in the building sector persists as an essential subject in architectural engineering. Since the building sector still remains as one of the three major global end energy consumer – climate change is closely related to construction and design. We have developed the archetype sun space to what it is today : a simple but effective predominant naturally ventilated sun trap and as well as living space enlargement. With the invention of industrial glass orangery’s more and more changed from frost protecting envelopes to living spaces from which we meantime expect thermal comfort in high quality. But what level of thermal comfort provide sun spaces? And to what extend may sun spaces manage autarkic operation profiting from passive solar gains and, beyond that, surplus energy generation for energy neutral conditioning of aligned spaces? We deliver detailed information for this detected gap of knowledge. We know about limited thermal comfort in sun spaces winter times. This reasons the inspection of manifold collector technologies, which enable to be embedded in facades and specifically in sun space envelopes. Nonetheless, effective façade integrated collectors are ineffective in seasons with poor irradiation. Hence, the mismatch of offer and demand we have experienced with renewable energies ignites thinking about appropriate seasonal energy storages, which enlarges the research scope of this work. This PhD thesis project investigates on both, a yearly empirical test set up analysis and a virtual simulation of different oriented and located sun spaces abroad Germany. Both empirical and theoretical evaluation result in a holistic research focusing on a preferred occupation time in terms of cumulative frequencies of operational temperature and decided local discomfort, of potential autarkic sun space operation and prospective surplus exergy for alternative heating of aligned buildings. The results are mapped

  3. In-situ Study of Seating Static Comfort in Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seraj Umi Salmah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s automotive market, comfort is huge selling point of a vehicle. Priority is given by buyers to how comfortable a seat feels during purchase decisions. The measure of comfort is harmonious mix of many aspects such as human ergonomics and physiological factors. However, a gap still exists between objective and subjective measures due to lack of emphasis by past researchers. This is particularly obvious in the lumbar support feature that has still not been able to address the health problems related to driving. This project focuses on bridging the gap by giving users the ability to define true preferred posture in realistic settings. This is done by the creation of a apparatus that allows users to individually manipulate the seat contour for optimum support in more segments than just lumbar area. The experiment is performed in 3 parts, where in each part different segments of the apparatus are manipulatable (lumbar segment, sacral & thoracic segment, and all segments. Sixty human subjects’ statistics are recorded (gender, age, BMI and height and the subjects are palpated to locate internal joints. These joints are marked and postural angles between them are measured using a goniometer. In each seat configuration, the angles are measured and a comfort rating is taken to be compared. It was found that the posture angles are different among the 3 experiments, and there is a change in comfort felt. Some human factors have also been proven to contribute heavily to angles chosen by occupants.

  4. [Comfort and discomfort: the role of emotions in GPs' prescription practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Kristin; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2005-12-05

    The role of emotions in GPs' prescribing has been ignored. The present article describes 20 GPs' reflections about what precedes comfort and discomfort in prescribing situations. In-depth interviews were done with 20 GPs who contributed with examples on an open comfort-discomfort scale. Analysis of the data was inspired by grounded theory. The GPs experienced a broad spectrum of emotions when prescribing. In every prescribing situation, conditions could pull towards both comfort and discomfort. Comfort appeared when the indication was correct and the patient's condition was serious, when the patient experienced the problem as serious, when the situation was acute and the medicine effective, and when the GP experienced himself as competent. Medicines were placed between comfort and discomfort when prescribing was perceived as indifferent, unproblematic and easy, when the GP was concerned about inflicting a sick role on the patients, and when patients were not convinced about the appropriateness of the medication. Discomfort appeared when there was a great risk of dependence, when GPs experienced and gave in to pressure, when they had to convince patients, and when they prescribed addictive medicine regularly. The totality of conditions in the situation determined the emotional state in the prescribing situation. The GPs' emotions reflected how they evaluated the appropriateness of their prescribing. This should be taken advantage of in rational pharmacotherapy. Future interventions should address both the rationality of GPs and their emotions.

  5. How to improve the comfort of Kesawan Heritage Corridor, Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegar; Ginting, Nurlisa; Suwantoro, H.

    2018-03-01

    Comfort is indispensable to make a friendly neighborhood or city. Especially the comfort of the infrastructure in the corridor. People must be able to feel comfortable to act rationally in their physical environment. Existing infrastructure must able to support Kesawan as a historic district. Kesawan is an area that is filled with so many unique buildings. Without comfort, how good the existing buildings’ architecture cannot be enjoyed. It will also affect the identity of a region or city. The aim of this research is to re-design the public facilities from Kesawan corridor’s comfort aspect: orientation, traffic calming, vegetation, signage, public facilities (toilet, seating place, bus station, bins), information center, parking and pedestrian path. It will translate the design concept in the form of design criteria. This research uses qualitative methods. Some facilities in this corridor are unsuitable even some of them are not available. So, we need some improvements and additions to the existing facilities. It is expected that by upgrading the existing facilities, visitors who come to Kesawan will be able to enjoy more and able to make Medan city more friendly.

  6. WESBES: A Wireless Embedded Sensor for Improving Human Comfort Metrics using Temporospatially Correlated Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Hewlett; Milos Manic; Craig Rieger

    2012-08-01

    When utilized properly, energy management systems (EMS) can offer significant energy savings by optimizing the efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. However, difficulty often arises due to the constraints imposed by the need to maintain an acceptable level of comfort for a building’s occupants. This challenge is compounded by the fact that human comfort is difficult to define in a measurable way. One way to address this problem is to provide a building manager with direct feedback from the building’s users. Still, this data is relative in nature, making it difficult to determine the actions that need to be taken, and while some useful comfort correlations have been devised, such as ASHRAE’s Predicted Mean Vote index, they are rules of thumb that do not connect individual feedback with direct, diverse feedback sensing. As they are a correlation, quantifying effects of climate, age of buildings and associated defects such as draftiness, are outside the realm of this correlation. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is the Wireless Embedded Smart Block for Environment Sensing (WESBES); an affordable wireless sensor platform that allows subjective human comfort data to be directly paired with temporospatially correlated objective sensor measurements for use in EMS. The described device offers a flexible research platform for analyzing the relationship between objective and subjective occupant feedback in order to formulate more meaningful measures of human comfort. It could also offer an affordable and expandable option for real world deployment in existing EMS.

  7. Evaluating Thermal Comfort in a Naturally Conditioned Office in a Temperate Climate Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gallardo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the optimal approach for evaluating thermal comfort in an office that uses natural ventilation as the main conditioning strategy; the office is located in Quito-Ecuador. The performance of the adaptive model included in CEN Standard EN15251 and the traditional PMV model are compared with reports of thermal environment satisfaction surveys presented simultaneously to all occupants of the office to determine which of the two comfort models is most suitable to evaluate the thermal environment. The results indicate that office occupants have developed some degree of adaptation to the climatic conditions of the city where the office is located (which only demands heating operation, and tend to accept and even prefer lower operative temperatures than those considered optimum by applying the PMV model. This is an indication that occupants of naturally conditioned buildings are usually able to match their comfort temperature to their normal environment. Therefore, the application of the adaptive model included in CEN Standard EN15251 seems like the optimal approach for evaluating thermal comfort in naturally conditioned buildings, because it takes into consideration the adaptive principle that indicates that if a change occurs such as to produce discomfort, people tend to react in ways which restore their comfort.

  8. Enhancement of stereoscopic comfort by fast control of frequency content with wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Nicolas; Moreau, Guillaume; Fuchs, Philippe

    2003-05-01

    As the scope of virtual reality applications including stereoscopic imaging becomes wider, it is quite clear that not every designer of a VR application thinks of its constraints in order to make a correct use of stereo. Stereoscopic imagery though not required can be a useful tool for depth perception. It is possible to limit the depth of field as shown by Perrin who has also undertaken research on the link between the ability of fusing stereoscopic images (stereopsis) and local disparity and spatial frequency content. We will show how we can extend and enhance this work especially on the computational complexity point of view. The wavelet theory allows us to define a local spatial frequency and then a local measure of stereoscopic comfort. This measure is based on local spatial frequency and disparity as well as on the observations made by Woepking. Local comfort estimation allows us to propose several filtering methods to enhance this comfort. The idea to modify the images such as they check a "stereoscopic comfort condition" defined as a threshold for the stereoscopic comfort condition. More technically, we seek to limit high spatial frequency content when disparity is high thanks to the use of fast algorithms.

  9. Thermal Comfort At The Street Corridor Around Public Places, Case Study Alun-Alun Malang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Winansih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malang as the second largest city in East Java province become crowded recently. The congestion almost happens everyday. The scenery of the street corridor is full of iron stacks. It is said that Malang city is less comfortable and less walkable. The decrease of this environment encourages to conduct the study (Q.S. 16:90, Q.S. 96:1-5, Q.S. 30:41. The study aimed to analyze the thermal comfort at pedestrian ways around Malang city squares, the street corridor of Merdeka Alun-Alun (MAA and the Tugu Alun-Alun (TAA. The temperature and relative humidity were measured by multinorm instrument. The THI (Temperature Humidity Index method was used to analyze the thermal comfort. The results showed that the THI average at TAA (27 were more comfortable than at MAA (27,5. The south side of the MAA corridor became the most comfortable with the THI value of 26,4, which the side covered by trees canopy (Q.S. 7:58. It needs to conduct next research (Q.S. 13:11, because of the change of the activities at these street corridors.

  10. Comfort in High-Performance Homes in a Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-01-22

    "9IBACOS monitored 37 homes during the late summer and early fall of 2014 in a hot and humid climate to better understand indoor comfort conditions. These homes were constructed in the last several years by four home builders that offered a comfort and performance guarantee for the homes. The homes were located in one of four cities: Tampa, Florida; Orlando, Florida; Houston, Texas; and San Antonio, Texas. Temperature and humidity data were collected from the thermostat and each room of the house using small, battery-powered data loggers. To understand system runtime and its impact on comfort, supply air temperature also was measured on a 1-minute interval. Overall, the group of homes only exceeded a room-to-room temperature difference of 6 degrees F for 5% of the time. For 80% of the time, the rooms in each house were within 4 degrees F of each other. Additionally, the impact of system runtime on comfort is discussed. Finally, measurements made at the thermostat were used to better understand the occupant operation of each cooling system's thermostat setpoint. Builders were questioned on their perceived impact of offering a comfort and performance guarantee. Their feedback, which generally indicates a positive perception, has been summarized in the report.

  11. Combining several thermal indices to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam EL Hachem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The proposed methodology hopes to provide a systematic multi-disciplinary approach to assess the thermal environment while minimizing unneeded efforts. Design/methodology/approach: Different factors affect the perception of the human thermal experience: metabolic rate (biology, surrounding temperatures (heat balance and environmental factors and cognitive treatment (physiology.This paper proposes a combination of different multidisciplinary variables to generate a unique heat comfort assessment methodology. The variables at stake are physiological, biological, and environmental. Our own heat analysis is thoroughly presented and all relevant equations are described. Findings: Most companies are oblivious about potential dangers of heat stress accidents and thus about methods to monitor and prevent them. This methodology enables the company or the concerned individual to conduct a preliminary assessment with minimal wasted resources and time in unnecessary steps whilst providing a guideline for a detailed study with minimal error rates if needed. More so, thermal comfort is an integral part of sound ergonomics practices, which in turn are decisive for the success of any lean six sigma initiative. Research limitations/implications: This methodology requires several full implementations to finalize its design. Originality/value: Most used heat comfort models are inherently uncertain and tiresome to apply. An extensive literature review confirms the need for a uniform assessment methodology that combines the different thermal comfort models such as the Fanger comfort model (PMV, PPD and WGBT since high error rates coupled with tiresome calculations often hinder the thermal assessment process.

  12. Energy and comfort in contemporary open plan and traditional personal offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, Sally; Brennan, John; Theodossopoulos, Dimitris; Hughes, Ben; Calautit, John Kaiser

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • User satisfaction is compared in offices with high and low thermal control. • Thermal control is secondary in British and main system in Norwegian approach. • Individual thermal control in Norway improved satisfaction (35%) and comfort (20%). • The energy use is much higher in the Norwegian than British case studies. • A balance is required between energy efficiency and providing thermal comfort. - Abstract: Two office layouts with high and low levels of thermal control were compared, respectively traditional cellular and contemporary open plan offices. The traditional Norwegian practice provided every user with control over a window, blinds, door, and the ability to adjust heating and cooling. Occupants were expected to control their thermal environment to find their own comfort, while air conditioning was operating in the background to ensure the indoor air quality. In contrast, in the British open plan office, limited thermal control was provided through openable windows and blinds only for occupants seated around the perimeter of the building. Centrally operated displacement ventilation was the main thermal control system. Users’ perception of thermal environment was recorded through survey questionnaires, empirical building performance through environmental measurements and thermal control through semi-structured interviews. The Norwegian office had 35% higher user satisfaction and 20% higher user comfort compared to the British open plan office. However, the energy consumption in the British practice was within the benchmark and much lower than the Norwegian office. Overall, a balance between thermal comfort and energy efficiency is required, as either extreme poses difficulties for the other.

  13. Estimating a just-noticeable difference for ocular comfort in contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Eric B; Keay, Lisa; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2011-06-21

    To estimate the just-noticeable difference (JND) in ocular comfort rating by human, contact lens-wearing subjects using 1 to 100 numerical scales. Ostensibly identical, new contact lenses were worn simultaneously in both eyes by 40 subjects who made individual comfort ratings for each eye using a 100-point numerical ratings scale (NRS). Concurrently, interocular preference was indicated on a five-point Likert scale (1 to 5: strongly prefer right, slightly prefer right, no preference, slightly prefer left, strongly prefer left, respectively). Differences in NRS comfort score (ΔC) between the right and left eyes were determined for each Likert scale preference criteria. The distribution of group ΔC scores was examined relative to alternative definitions of JND as a means of estimating its value. For Likert scores indicating the presence of a slight interocular preference, absolute ΔC ranged from 1 to 30 units with a mean of 7.4 ± 1.3 (95% confidence interval) across all lenses and trials. When there was no Likert scale preference expressed between the eyes, absolute ΔC did not exceed 5 units. For ratings of comfort using a 100-point numerical rating scale, the inter-ocular JND is unlikely to be less than 5 units. The estimate for the average value in the population was approximately 7 to 8 units. These numbers indicate the lowest level at which changes in comfort measured with such scales are likely to be clinically significant.

  14. Neural computing thermal comfort index PMV for the indoor environment intelligent control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Yifei

    2013-03-01

    Providing indoor thermal comfort and saving energy are two main goals of indoor environmental control system. An intelligent comfort control system by combining the intelligent control and minimum power control strategies for the indoor environment is presented in this paper. In the system, for realizing the comfort control, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is designed as the control goal, and with chastening formulas of PMV, it is controlled to optimize for improving indoor comfort lever by considering six comfort related variables. On the other hand, a RBF neural network based on genetic algorithm is designed to calculate PMV for better performance and overcoming the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation better. The formulas given in the paper are presented for calculating the expected output values basing on the input samples, and the RBF network model is trained depending on input samples and the expected output values. The simulation result is proved that the design of the intelligent calculation method is valid. Moreover, this method has a lot of advancements such as high precision, fast dynamic response and good system performance are reached, it can be used in practice with requested calculating error.

  15. Passenger thermal comfort and behavior: a field investigation in commercial aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W; Wu, T; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Passengers' behavioral adjustments warrant greater attention in thermal comfort research in aircraft cabins. Thus, a field investigation on 10 commercial aircrafts was conducted. Environment measurements were made and a questionnaire survey was performed. In the questionnaire, passengers were asked to evaluate their thermal comfort and record their adjustments regarding the usage of blankets and ventilation nozzles. The results indicate that behavioral adjustments in the cabin and the use of blankets or nozzle adjustments were employed by 2/3 of the passengers. However, the thermal comfort evaluations by these passengers were not as good as the evaluations by passengers who did not perform any adjustments. Possible causes such as differences in metabolic rate, clothing insulation and radiation asymmetry are discussed. The individual difference seems to be the most probable contributor, suggesting possibly that passengers who made adjustments had a narrower acceptance threshold or a higher expectancy regarding the cabin environment. Local thermal comfort was closely related to the adjustments and significantly influenced overall thermal comfort. Frequent flying was associated with lower ratings for the cabin environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Dynamic indoor thermal comfort model identification based on neural computing PMV index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahari, K S Mohamed; Jalal, M F Abdul; Homod, R Z; Eng, Y K

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on modelling and simulation of building dynamic thermal comfort control for non-linear HVAC system. Thermal comfort in general refers to temperature and also humidity. However in reality, temperature or humidity is just one of the factors affecting the thermal comfort but not the main measures. Besides, as HVAC control system has the characteristic of time delay, large inertia, and highly nonlinear behaviour, it is difficult to determine the thermal comfort sensation accurately if we use traditional Fanger's PMV index. Hence, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been introduced due to its ability to approximate any nonlinear mapping. Using ANN to train, we can get the input-output mapping of HVAC control system or in other word; we can propose a practical approach to identify thermal comfort of a building. Simulations were carried out to validate and verify the proposed method. Results show that the proposed ANN method can track down the desired thermal sensation for a specified condition space.

  17. Experimental study of the influence of anticipated control on human thermal sensation and thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y; Feng, C; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether occupants' anticipated control of their thermal environment can influence their thermal comfort and to explain why the acceptable temperature range in naturally ventilated environments is greater than that in air-conditioned environments, a series of experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in which the thermal environment remained the same but the psychological environment varied. The results of the experiments show that the ability to control the environment can improve occupants' thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Specifically, occupants' anticipated control decreased their thermal sensation vote (TSV) by 0.4-0.5 and improved their thermal comfort vote (TCV) by 0.3-0.4 in neutral-warm environment. This improvement was due exclusively to psychological factors. In addition, having to pay the cost of cooling had no significant influence on the occupants' thermal sensation and thermal comfort in this experiment. Thus, having the ability to control the thermal environment can improve occupants' comfort even if there is a monetary cost involved. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Relative importance of different surface regions for thermal comfort in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mayumi; Yoda, Tamae; Crawshaw, Larry I; Kasuga, Momoko; Uchida, Yuki; Tokizawa, Ken; Nagashima, Kei; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the contribution of the surface of the face, chest, abdomen, and thigh to thermal comfort by applying local temperature stimulation during whole-body exposure to mild heat or cold. In hot conditions, humans prefer a cool face, and in cold they prefer a warm abdomen. In this study, we extended investigation of regional differences in thermal comfort to the neck, hand, soles, abdomen (Experiment 1), the upper and lower back, upper arm, and abdomen (Experiment 2). The methodology was similar to that used in the previous study. To compare the results of each experiment, we utilized the abdomen as the reference area in these experiments. Thermal comfort feelings were not particularly strong for the limbs and extremities, in spite of the fact that changes in skin temperature induced by local temperature stimulation of the limbs and extremities were always larger than changes that were induced in the more proximal body parts. For the trunk areas, a significant difference in thermal comfort was not observed among the abdomen, and upper and lower back. An exception involved local cooling during whole-body mild cold exposure, wherein the most dominant preference was for a warmer temperature of the abdomen. As for the neck and abdomen, clear differences were observed during local cooling, while no significant difference was observed during local warming. We combined the results for the current and the previous study, and characterized regional differences in thermal comfort and thermal preference for the whole-body surface.

  19. Field study of thermal comfort in non-air-conditioned buildings in a tropical island climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shilei; Pang, Bo; Qi, Yunfang; Fang, Kun

    2018-01-01

    The unique geographical location of Hainan makes its climate characteristics different from inland areas in China. The thermal comfort of Hainan also owes its uniqueness to its tropical island climate. In the past decades, there have been very few studies on thermal comfort of the residents in tropical island areas in China. A thermal environment test for different types of buildings in Hainan and a thermal comfort field investigation of 1944 subjects were conducted over a period of about two months. The results of the survey data show that a high humidity environment did not have a significant impact on human comfort. The neutral temperature for the residents in tropical island areas was 26.1 °C, and the acceptable temperature range of thermal comfort was from 23.1 °C to 29.1 °C. Residents living in tropical island areas showed higher heat resistance capacity, but lower cold tolerance than predicted. The neutral temperature for females (26.3 °C) was higher than for males (25.8 °C). Additionally, females were more sensitive to air temperature than males. The research conclusions can play a guiding role in the thermal environment design of green buildings in Hainan Province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Local body cooling to improve sleep quality and thermal comfort in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, L; Qian, X L; Lian, Z W; Lin, Y B

    2018-01-01

    The effects of local body cooling on thermal comfort and sleep quality in a hot environment were investigated in an experiment with 16 male subjects. Sleep quality was evaluated subjectively, using questionnaires completed in the morning, and objectively, by analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that were continuously monitored during the sleeping period. Compared with no cooling, the largest improvement in thermal comfort and sleep quality was observed when the back and head (neck) were both cooled at a room temperature of 32°C. Back cooling alone also improved thermal comfort and sleep quality, although the effects were less than when cooling both back and head (neck). Mean sleep efficiency was improved from 84.6% in the no cooling condition to 95.3% and 92.8%, respectively, in these conditions, indicating good sleep quality. Head (neck) cooling alone slightly improved thermal comfort and subjective sleep quality and increased Stage N3 sleep, but did not otherwise improve sleep quality. The results show that local cooling applied to large body sections (back and head) could effectively maintain good sleep and improve thermal comfort in a hot environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. An Open Source "Smart Lamp" for the Optimization of Plant Systems and Thermal Comfort of Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2016-03-07

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a smart object integrated in a desk lamp and called "Smart Lamp", useful to optimize the indoor thermal comfort and energy savings that are two important workplace issues where the comfort of the workers and the consumption of the building strongly affect the economic balance of a company. The Smart Lamp was built using a microcontroller, an integrated temperature and relative humidity sensor, some other modules and a 3D printer. This smart device is similar to the desk lamps that are usually found in offices but it allows one to adjust the indoor thermal comfort, by interacting directly with the air conditioner. After the construction phase, the Smart Lamp was installed in an office normally occupied by four workers to evaluate the indoor thermal comfort and the cooling consumption in summer. The results showed how the application of the Smart Lamp effectively reduced the energy consumption, optimizing the thermal comfort. The use of DIY approach combined with read-write functionality of websites, blog and social platforms, also allowed to customize, improve, share, reproduce and interconnect technologies so that anybody could use them in any occupied environment.

  2. Young people's comfort receiving sexual health information via social media and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Megan Sc; Vella, Alyce; Sacks-Davis, Rachel; Hellard, Margaret E

    2014-12-01

    Social media are growing in popularity and will play a key role in future sexual health promotion initiatives. We asked 620 survey participants aged 16 to 29 years about their time spent using social media and their comfort in receiving information about sexual health via different channels. Median hours per day spent using social network sites was two; 36% spent more than 2 hours per day using social network sites. In multivariable logistic regression, being aged less than 20 years and living in a major city (compared to rural/regional Australia) were associated with use of social media more than 2 hours per day. Most participants reported being comfortable or very comfortable accessing sexual health information from websites (85%), followed by a doctor (81%), school (73%), and the mainstream media (67%). Fewer reported being comfortable getting information from social media; Facebook (52%), apps (51%), SMS (44%), and Twitter (36%). Several health promotion programmes via social media have demonstrated efficacy; however, we have shown that many young people are not comfortable with accessing sexual health information through these channels. Further research is needed to determine how to best take advantage of these novel opportunities for health promotion. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Real-Time Monitoring of Occupants’ Thermal Comfort through Infrared Imaging: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pavlin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermally comfortable indoor environments are of great importance, as modern lifestyles often require people to spend more than 20 h per day indoors. Since most of the thermal comfort models use a variety of different environmental and personal factors that need to be measured or estimated, real-time and continuous assessment of thermal comfort is often not practically feasible. This work presents a cheap and non-invasive approach based on infrared imaging for monitoring the occupants’ thermal sensation and comfort in real time. Thanks to a mechatronic device developed by the authors, the imaging is performed on the forehead skin, selected because it is always exposed to the environment and, thus, facilitating the monitoring activity in a non-invasive manner. Tests have been performed in controlled conditions on ten subjects to assess the hypothesis that the forehead temperature is correlated with subjects’ thermal sensation. This allows the exploitation of this quantity as a base for a simple monitoring of thermal comfort, which could later be tuned with an extensive experimental campaign.

  4. The influence of patient positioning in breast CT on breast tissue coverage and patient comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, A.C.; Althoff, F.; Kalender, W. [Erlangen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics; Wenkel, E. [University Hospital of Erlangen (Germany). Radiological Inst.

    2015-02-15

    The presented study aimed at optimizing a patient table design for breast CT (BCT) systems with respect to breast tissue coverage and patient comfort. Additionally, the benefits and acceptance of an immobilization device for BCT using underpressure were evaluated. Three different study parts were carried out. In a positioning study women were investigated on an MRI tabletop with exchangeable inserts (flat and cone-shaped with different opening diameters) to evaluate their influence on breast coverage and patient comfort in various positioning alternatives. Breast length and volume were calculated to compare positioning modalities including various opening diameters and forms. In the second study part, an underpressure system was tested for its functionality and comfort on a stereotactic biopsy table mimicking a future CT scanner table. In the last study part, this system was tested regarding breast tissue coverage. Best results for breast tissue coverage were shown for cone-shaped table inserts with an opening of 180 mm. Flat inserts did not provide complete coverage of breast tissue. The underpressure system showed robust function and tended to pull more breast tissue into the field of view. Patient comfort was rated good for all table inserts, with highest ratings for cone-shaped inserts. Cone-shaped tabletops appeared to be adequate for BCT systems and to allow imaging of almost the complete breast. An underpressure system proved promising for the fixation of the breast during imaging and increased coverage. Patient comfort appears to be adequate.

  5. Evaluation and optimization of footwear comfort parameters using finite element analysis and a discrete optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannis, P.; Azariadis, P.; Papanikos, P.

    2017-10-01

    Footwear is subject to bending and torsion deformations that affect comfort perception. Following review of Finite Element Analysis studies of sole rigidity and comfort, a three-dimensional, linear multi-material finite element sole model for quasi-static bending and torsion simulation, overcoming boundary and optimisation limitations, is described. Common footwear materials properties and boundary conditions from gait biomechanics are used. The use of normalised strain energy for product benchmarking is demonstrated along with comfort level determination through strain energy density stratification. Sensitivity of strain energy against material thickness is greater for bending than for torsion, with results of both deformations showing positive correlation. Optimization for a targeted performance level and given layer thickness is demonstrated with bending simulations sufficing for overall comfort assessment. An algorithm for comfort optimization w.r.t. bending is presented, based on a discrete approach with thickness values set in line with practical manufacturing accuracy. This work illustrates the potential of the developed finite element analysis applications to offer viable and proven aids to modern footwear sole design assessment and optimization.

  6. Annual Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort of Autonomously Heated and Cooled Office Chairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chin, Justin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Doug [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Energy use in offices buildings is largely driven by air conditioning demands. But the optimal temperature is not the same for all building occupants, leading to the infamous thermostat war. And many occupants have independently overcome building comfort weaknesses with their own space heaters or fans. NREL tested is a customized office chair that automatically heats and cools the occupant along the seat and chair back according to the occupants' personal preferences. This product is shown to deliver markedly better comfort at room temperatures well above typical office cooling setpoints. Experimental subjects reported satisfaction in these elevated air temperatures, partly because the chair's cooling effect was tuned to their own individual needs. Simulation of the chair in office buildings around the U.S. shows that energy can be saved everywhere, with impacts varying due to the climate. Total building HVAC energy savings exceeded 10% in hot-dry climate zones. Due to high product cost, simple payback for the chair we studied is beyond the expected chair life. We then understood the need to establish cost-performance targets for comfort delivery packages. NREL derived several hypothetical energy/cost/comfort targets for personal comfort product systems. In some climate regions around the U.S., these show the potential for office building HVAC energy savings in excess of 20%. This report documents this research, providing an overview of the research team's methods and results while also identifying areas for future research building upon the findings.

  7. Epilepsy monitoring - The patients' views: A qualitative study based on Kolcaba's Comfort Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger-Rainer, Andrea; Trinka, Eugen; Höfler, Julia; Dieplinger, Anna Maria

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to determine which perception of personal comfort patients name in the context of their hospitalization in an Austrian Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU). Problem-centred interviews with twelve inpatients were conducted. Data analyses were done according to Mayring's qualitative content analyses following the technique of structuring-deductive category assignment. Patients experienced different kinds of comfort along with their hospitalization in the EMU. Comfort-decreasing factors were bed rest, boredom, and waiting for possible seizures. As comfort-increasing factors, hope for enhanced seizure control, support by family and staff, and intelligible information about the necessity of restrictive conditions were identified. The study results should assist health care professionals, enabling them to design comfort enhancing interventions for patients undergoing video-electroencephalography (EEG) investigations in an EMU. Some of these seem to be simple and obtainable without high financial or technical effort. Others are more complex and have to be further assessed for their feasibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A CFD study for evaluating the effects of natural ventilation on indoor comfort conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mora-Pérez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in improving energy efficiency in buildings due to the increased awareness about environmental impact and energy cost. Natural ventilation is an environmentally friendly technique which has become more attractive way for reducing energy use while it also provides acceptable comfort conditions. The research shows a case study building in which the natural ventilation effect due to wind-driven forces on indoor comfort conditions is evaluated. Moreover, the architectural solutions selected during the building design phase to improve the natural ventilation behaviour are successfully validated in a full-scale building. The indoor comfort conditions are evaluated through contrasted performance indicators: draught risk (DR, predicted percentage of dissatisfied people (PPD and predicted mean vote (PMV indexes. The results show that air movement due to natural ventilation allows increasing indoor air temperature maintaining the initial comfort conditions. Therefore, the mechanical air conditioning use can be postponed until the indoor air temperature is high and would, consequently, reduce the total building energy consumption. Thereby, a proper natural ventilation focus during the initial design stage could improve the building energy efficiency without compromising the indoor comfort conditions.

  9. The relationship between psychological comfort space and self-esteem in people with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunikata, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Yuko; Nakajima, Kazuo; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Tomotake, Masahito

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a causal model of the sense of having psychological comfortable space that is call 'ibasho' in Japanese and self-esteem in people with mental disorders who had difficulty in social activities. The subjects were 248 schizophrenia patients who were living in the community and receiving day care treatment. Data were collected from December 2007 to April 2009 using the Scale for the Sense of ibasho for persons with mentally ill (SSI) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and analyzed for cross-validation of construct validity by conducting covariance structure analysis. A relationship between the sense of having comfortable space and self-esteem was investigated. Multiple indicator models of the sense of having psychological comfortable space and self-esteem were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Furthermore, the SSI scores were compared between the high- and low-self-esteem groups. The path coefficient from the sense of having comfortable space to self-esteem was significant (0.80). High-self-esteem group scored significantly higher in the SSI subscales, 'the sense of recognizing my true self' and 'the sense of recognizing deep person-to-person relationships' than the low-self-esteem group. It was suggested that in order to help people with mental disorders improve self-esteem, it might be useful to support them in a way they can enhance the sense of having comfortable space.

  10. Effects of climate change process on comfort climate of Shiraz station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakoor, A.; Roshan, G.R.; Khoshakhlagh, F.; Hejazizadeh, Z. [Islamic Azad Univ., Larestan (Iran)

    2008-09-30

    Dwelling in cities and city development together with quick increase of population and development of industrial activites with unplanned consumption of fossil fuels have intensively increased pollution with consequences whcih will cause different diseases in short periods, and will lead to some climatic oscillations and its environmental effects such as the change of desirable periods in view of comfort climate in long period. The objective point of view of this reasearch was to study the climate in Shiraz and its effect on comfort conditions for human physiology. In this research, using 55-year cliamtic data (1952-2006), the relative humidity and temperature through the application of Guni comfort climatic model, the desirable months for the comfort of human physiology have been determined in the five 11-year periods and the linear process of these changes have been estimated for the next 11 years. The results of this research show that the temperature trend in Shiraz station is increasing and most months have heating process in a way that it is expected in the future the cold months will have more favorable conditions for physiological comfort of residents and correspondingly in the warm months, heating tension will have remarkable increase.

  11. Comfort of the patient's family in an Intensive Care Unit related to welcoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Almeida Moraes Gibaut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the level of comfort of families of patients in a critical health condition related to the welcoming practices performed by the hospital staff. Interviews were conducted with 250 relatives in hospitals of the state Bahia, using a Likert scale. Data were analyzed as percentages and quartiles. For nine of the 12 statements of the scale, most relatives scored their comfort level between very and totally comfortable, median of 4,revealing kindness, tranquility and friendly communication with family members. More than half of the sample scored its level as not at all to more or less comfortable, median of 3, for statements about demonstration of interest towards the relative by the staff and flexible visiting of the patient. The necessity of greater interest of the team in the condition and needs of the family was observed. Promoting comfort from the dimension of welcoming demands interdisciplinary actions grounded in humanistic philosophy, in which the nurse has an important role to play.

  12. Adaptive Thermal Comfort in Japanese Houses during the Summer Season: Behavioral Adaptation and the Effect of Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom B. Rijal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify effect of humidity on the room temperatures reported to be comfortable, an occupant thermal comfort and behavior survey was conducted for five summers in the living rooms and bedrooms of residences in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 13,525 thermal comfort votes from over 239 residents of 120 homes, together with corresponding measurements of room temperature and humidity of the air. The residents were generally well-satisfied with the thermal environment of their houses, with or without the use of air-conditioning, and thus were well-adapted to their thermal conditions. The humidity was found to have very little direct effect on the comfort temperature. However, the comfort temperature was strongly related to the reported skin moisture. Behavioral adaptation such as window opening and fan use increase air movement and improve thermal comfort.

  13. Monitoring and assessment of thermical comfort in hygrothermically moderate offices and laboratories; Monitoraggio e valutazione del comfort termico negli ambienti di lavoro termoigrometricamente moderati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    This study reports the results of the micro climatic measurements carried out in some ENEA work environments. The work conditions in the surveyed areas, have been evaluated following welfare indexes or thermical comfort: PMV= Predicted Mean Vote (ISO recommendation 7730); PPD= Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (ISO recommendation 7730). [Italiano] In questo studio sono riportati i risultati delle misure microclimatiche eseguite in alcuni ambienti di lavoro dei centri ENEA di Bologna. Le condizioni di lavoro (delle zone che sono state sottoposte ad indagine) sono state valutate mediante i seguenti indici di benessere o `comfort` termico: Voto Medio Previsto (PMV= Predicted Mean Vote) - raccomandazione ISO 7730; Percentuale Prevista di Insoddisfatti (PPD= Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied) - raccomandazione ISO 7730.

  14. Monitoring and assessment of thermical comfort in hygrothermically moderate offices and laboratories; Monitoraggio e valutazione del comfort termico negli ambienti di lavoro termoigrometricamente moderati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, A [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ` Ezio Clementel` , Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1999-12-31

    This study reports the results of the micro climatic measurements carried out in some ENEA work environments. The work conditions in the surveyed areas, have been evaluated following welfare indexes or thermical comfort: PMV= Predicted Mean Vote (ISO recommendation 7730); PPD= Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (ISO recommendation 7730). [Italiano] In questo studio sono riportati i risultati delle misure microclimatiche eseguite in alcuni ambienti di lavoro dei centri ENEA di Bologna. Le condizioni di lavoro (delle zone che sono state sottoposte ad indagine) sono state valutate mediante i seguenti indici di benessere o `comfort` termico: Voto Medio Previsto (PMV= Predicted Mean Vote) - raccomandazione ISO 7730; Percentuale Prevista di Insoddisfatti (PPD= Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied) - raccomandazione ISO 7730.

  15. Evaluation of ceiling lifts: transfer time, patient comfort and staff perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Li, Olivia Wei; Yu, Shicheng; Gorman, Erin; Fast, Catherine; Kidd, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Mechanical lifting devices have been developed to reduce healthcare worker injuries related to patient handling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ceiling lifts in comparison to floor lifts based on transfer time, patient comfort and staff perceptions in three long-term care facilities with varying ceiling lift coverage. The time required to transfer or reposition patients along with patient comfort levels were recorded for 119 transfers. Transfers performed with ceiling lifts required on average less time (bed to chair transfers: 156.9 seconds for ceiling lift, 273.6 seconds for floor lift) and were found to be more comfortable for patients. In the three facilities, 143 healthcare workers were surveyed on their perceptions of patient handling tasks and equipment. For both transferring and repositioning tasks, staff preferred to use ceiling lifts and also found them to be less physically demanding. Further investigation is needed on repositioning tasks to ensure safe practice.

  16. Hearing aid processing of loud speech and noise signals: Consequences for loudness perception and listening comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik

    2007-01-01

    sounds, has found that both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners prefer loud sounds to be closer to the most comfortable loudness-level, than suggested by common non-linear fitting rules. During this project, two listening experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, hearing aid users......Hearing aid processing of loud speech and noise signals: Consequences for loudness perception and listening comfort. Sound processing in hearing aids is determined by the fitting rule. The fitting rule describes how the hearing aid should amplify speech and sounds in the surroundings......, such that they become audible again for the hearing impaired person. The general goal is to place all sounds within the hearing aid users’ audible range, such that speech intelligibility and listening comfort become as good as possible. Amplification strategies in hearing aids are in many cases based on empirical...

  17. Influence of the ventilation system on thermal comfort of the chilled panel system in heating mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhe; Ding, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Yin, Xinglei; Wang, Menglei [Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    In heating mode, fresh air is still essential for a chilled panel system in order to ensure the indoor air quality. In this paper, a chilled ceiling panel system was designed and built in a typical office room. The thermal environment and thermal comfort in the room were fully measured and evaluated by using the Fanger's PMV-PPD model and the standard of ISO 7730 respectively, when room was heated in two modes, one of which is the chilled panel heating mode and the other of which is the combined heating mode of chilled panel and supply air. The research results indicate that in the combined mode, ceiling ventilation improves the general thermal comfort and reduces the risk of local discomfort. Under the condition of same general thermal comfort, the heating supply upper limit of chilled panel can be increased by 12.3% because of air mixing effect caused by introduction of air ventilation. (author)

  18. Numerical Analysis on Color Preference and Visual Comfort from Eye Tracking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Color preferences in engineering are very important, and there exists relationship between color preference and visual comfort. In this study, there are thirty university students who participated in the experiment, supplemented by pre- and posttest questionnaires, which lasted about an hour. The main purpose of this study is to explore the visual effects of different color assignment with subjective color preferences via eye tracking technology. Eye-movement data through a nonlinear analysis detect slight differences in color preferences and visual comfort, suggesting effective physiological indicators as extensive future research discussed. Results found that the average pupil size of eye-movement indicators can effectively reflect the differences of color preferences and visual comfort. This study more confirmed that the subjective feeling will make people have misjudgment.

  19. Energy usage while maintaining thermal comfort: A case study of a UNT dormitory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Dusten

    Campus dormitories for the University of North Texas house over 5500 students per year; each one of them requires certain comfortable living conditions while they live there. There is an inherit amount of money required in order to achieve minimal comfort levels; the cost is mostly natural gas for water and room heating and electricity for cooling, lighting and peripherals. The US Department of Energy has developed several programs to aid in performing energy simulations to help those interested design more cost effective building designs. Energy-10 is such a program that allows users to conduct whole house evaluations by reviewing and altering a few parameters such as building materials, solar heating, energy efficient windows etc. The idea of this project was to recreate a campus dormitory and try to emulate existent energy consumption then try to find ways of lowering that usage while maintaining a high level of personal comfort.

  20. Emotion Reactivity, Comfort Expressing Emotions, and Future Suicidal Ideation in Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Moore, Alyssa; Tsypes, Aliona; Jacobson, Colleen; Miranda, Regina

    2018-01-01

    Emotion reactivity and difficulties in expressing emotions have been implicated in risk for suicidal behavior. This study examined comfort in expressing emotions (positive vs. negative) and depressive symptoms as mediators of the prospective relation between emotion reactivity and suicidal ideation. Emerging adults (N = 143; 72% female; 28% White) completed measures of emotion reactivity, comfort expressing emotions, and suicidal ideation at baseline and of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation 12 months later. Emotion reactivity predicted suicidal ideation at follow-up through depressive symptoms. Difficulty expressing love-but not happiness, sadness, and anger-partially mediated the relationship between emotion reactivity and suicidal ideation at follow-up before but not after adjusting for baseline ideation. The relation between high emotion reactivity and suicidal ideation may be explained by discomfort in the expression of positive emotions and by depressive symptoms. Promotion of comfort in positive emotion expression may reduce vulnerability to suicidal ideation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comfort in High-Performance Homes in a Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    IBACOS monitored 37 homes during the late summer and early fall of 2014 in a hot and humid climate to better understand indoor comfort conditions. These homes were constructed in the last several years by four home builders that offered a comfort and performance guarantee for the homes. The homes were located in one of four cities: Tampa, Florida; Orlando, Florida; Houston, Texas; and San Antonio, Texas. Temperature and humidity data were collected from the thermostat and each room of the house using small, battery-powered data loggers. To understand system runtime and its impact on comfort, supply air temperature also was measured on a 1-minute interval. Overall, the group of homes only exceeded a room-to-room temperature difference of 6 degrees Fahrenheit for 5% of the time.

  2. Assessment of a rail vehicle running with the damaged wheel on a ride comfort for passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dižo Ján

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain conditions rail vehicles wheels can be during operation damaged. Then, the profile of wheels is no longer circular, but it is changed depending on the type and severity of defects. When such rail vehicle with the damaged wheel operates, the quality of a ride comfort for passenger is degraded. This article is focused on the assessment of ride comfort for passenger based on results obtained from dynamic analyses. Simulations and calculations were carried out in commercial multibody software. In our research we considered one type of the railway wheel untrueness – wheel-flat. This type of wheel damaging is relatively common and has such influence on the ride comfort for passenger worsening, which needs to be detected and investigated.

  3. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-01-01

    The Markov chain’s first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%

  4. An experimental study of thermal comfort at different combinations of air and mean radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    It is often discussed if a person prefers a low air temperature (ta) and a high mean radiant temperature (tr), vice-versa or it does not matter as long as the operative temperature is acceptable. One of the hypotheses is that it does not matter for thermal comfort but for perceived air quality......, a lower air temperature is preferred. This paper presents an experimental study with 30 human subjects exposed to three different combinations of air- and mean radiant temperature with an operative temperature around 23 °C. The subjects gave subjective evaluations of thermal comfort and perceived air...... quality during the experiments. The PMV-index gave a good estimation of thermal sensation vote (TSV) when the air and mean radiant temperature were the same. In the environment with different air- and mean radiant temperatures, a thermal comfort evaluation shows an error up to 1 scale unit on the 7-point...

  5. Thermo-active building systems and sound absorbers: Thermal comfort under real operation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Benjamin; Rage, Nils; Chigot, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Radiant systems are established today and have a high ecological potential in buildings while ensuring thermal comfort. Free-hanging sound absorbers are commonly used for room acoustic control, but can reduce the heat exchange when suspended under an active slab. The aim of this study...... is to evaluate the impact on thermal comfort of horizontal and vertical free-hanging porous sound absorbers placed in rooms of a building cooled by Thermo-Active Building System (TABS), under real operation conditions. A design comparing five different ceiling coverage ratios and two room types has been...... implemented during three measurement periods. A clear correlation between increase of ceiling coverage ratio and reduction of thermal comfort could not be derived systematically for each measurement period and room type, contrarily to what was expected from literature. In the first two monitoring periods...

  6. THE EFFECT OF THE WINDOW-TO-WALL RATIO ON COOLING ENERGY USAGE AND COMFORT TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Budhiyanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of the effect of building envelope, especially glass facade buildings on cooling energy usage and thermal comfort. An office building was modeled with various window-to-wall ratio (WWR using panasap glass with SC=0.58 in order to analyze the effect of the WWR addition on cooling energy usage and comfort temperature. The result suggested that the average increase of the cooling energy usage is about 5.67% per 10% WWR addition, and of the operative temperature ranges from 0.350C to 0.560C per 10% WWR addition. Moreover, the building with above 20% WWR doesn’t provide comfort temperature.

  7. A review on the major sources of the interior sound vibration and riding comfort in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDhahebi, Adel Mohammed; Junoh, Ahmad Kadri; Ahmed, Amran

    2016-10-01

    Vehicle interior comfort is a crucial criteria that is considered by the perspective customer when purchasing a new vehicle. Meanwhile, automotive industries face the challenges for producing vehicles with better design criteria that meet the expectations of customers and eventually promote higher competitive advantages in areas of acoustic performance, cost effectiveness, product weight, and global competitive market. This review presents the major sources that influence the generation of noise and vibration in the interior part of the vehicles. It also demonstrates the relative methods that are used to assess the interior acoustics and vibration and further improve the riding comfort. This study is of a particular importance for acoustical researchers and automobile engineers, where it brings about suggestions and fundamentals that can contribute to acoustical comfort in vehicles.

  8. Conventional Vs Digital Impressions: Acceptability, Treatment Comfort and Stress Among Young Orthodontic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Alessandro; Beretta, Matteo; Luongo, Giuseppe; Mangano, Carlo; Mangano, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare patients' acceptability, comfort and stress with conventional and digital impressions. Thirty young orthodontic patients (15 males and 15 females) who had no previous experience of impressions were enrolled in this study. Conventional impressions for orthodontic study models of the dental arches were taken using an alginate impression material (Hydrogum ® , Zhermack Spa, Badia Polesine, Rovigo, Italy). Fifteen days later, digital impressions of both arches were acquired using an intraoral scanner (CS3600 ® , Carestream Dental, Rochester, NY, USA). Immediately after impression taking, patients' acceptability, comfort and stress were measured using two questionnaires and the State anxiety scale. Data showed no difference in terms of anxiety and stress; however, patients preferred the use of digital impressions systems instead of conventional impression techniques. Alginate impressions resulted as fast as digital impressions. Digital impressions resulted the most accepted and comfortable impression technique in young orthodontic patients, when compared to conventional techniques.

  9. Investigation of Different Configurations of a Ventilated Window to Optimize Both Energy Efficiency and Thermal Comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Heiselberg, Per; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2017-01-01

    The study in this article investigates 15 ventilated window typologies with different pane configurations and glazing types in climates of four European countries (United Kingdom, Denmark, France and Germany) in order to identify the optimum typology with regard to their energy balance and impact...... on thermal comfort. Hourly simulations of the heat balances of the windows are conducted on four days representing different typical weather conditions according to the method described in EN ISO 13790. U and g values used in the calculation method are calculated in European software tool (WIS......) for the calculation of the thermal and solar properties of commercial and innovative window systems. Additionally, comfort performance is evaluated by inlet air temperature and internal surface temperature of the windows calculated by WIS software. The results of the study show the energy and comfort performance...

  10. The continuous end-state comfort effect: weighted integration of multiple biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Oliver; Butz, Martin V

    2012-05-01

    The grasp orientation when grasping an object is frequently aligned in anticipation of the intended rotation of the object (end-state comfort effect). We analyzed grasp orientation selection in a continuous task to determine the mechanisms underlying the end-state comfort effect. Participants had to grasp a box by a circular handle-which allowed for arbitrary grasp orientations-and then had to rotate the box by various angles. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed both that the rotation's direction considerably determined grasp orientations and that end-postures varied considerably. Experiments 3 and 4 further showed that visual stimuli and initial arm postures biased grasp orientations if the intended rotation could be easily achieved. The data show that end-state comfort but also other factors determine grasp orientation selection. A simple mechanism that integrates multiple weighted biases can account for the data.

  11. Faith leaders' comfort implementing an HIV prevention curriculum in a faith setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Latrice C; Griffith, Derek M; Campbell, Bettina; Allen, Julie Ober; Williams, Terrinieka T; Addo, Angela Y

    2012-08-01

    YOUR Blessed Health (YBH) is a faith-based HIV prevention pilot program designed to increase faith-based organizations' capacity to address HIV/AIDS among African American congregations. Faith leaders (e.g., pastors, pastors' spouses) were trained to deliver youth and adult HIV education sessions. Perceptions of comfort with discussing 11 sexual health topics were assessed after program implementation. Twenty-nine faith leaders self-reported their comfort discussing sexual behaviors, sexual communication, and sexual abuse. Overall, faith leaders were comfortable discussing these sexual health topics; however, denominational and leadership role differences were found. These findings suggest African American faith leaders are willing to lead faith-based HIV prevention efforts, but that consideration of denominational differences and organizational roles in faith-based health promotion programs is critical.

  12. Influence of seasonality on the comfort supplied by different materials used as cubicle flooring for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Palo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The comfort provided by four different cubicle floorings was evaluated with a preference test in relation to winter and summer seasons. The test showed that polyethylene vinyl acetate and polypropylene vinyl acetate mats were preferred during winter, while solid manure and wood shavings assured more comfort than inorganic floorings during summer period. Results obtained suggest that the resting comfort of cubicle floorings may be evaluated also in relation to environmental microclimatic patterns.

  13. Comfortable car interiors: Experiments as a basis for car interior design contributing to the pleasure of the driver and passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Kamp, I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for car manufacturers is complying with the stringent environmental regulations without compromising driving comfort and pleasure. Reducing the overall weight of a car reduces fuel consumption and increases acceleration. However weight reduction seems in contradiction with another important aspect of car-sales; comfort. In this PhD thesis five experiments are presented proving that weight reduction and comfort improvement can go hand in hand. In these studies specif...

  14. Future comfort cooling in domestic and commercial buildings in Sweden; Naesta generations klimatkyla i bostaeder och lokaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Roger; Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Rolfsman, Lennart; Lindahl, Markus; Alsbjer, Markus; Axell, Monica

    2010-09-15

    This report presents results from a national project on future potential for comfort cooling in the built sector. Results from an interview study are presented. Future changes in energy demand for comfort cooling in different building types based on scenarios are also presented and discussed. It is clear from the simulated results that the future need for comfort cooling will decrease due to a number of factors, including user behavior, regulations and new building codes

  15. Sustainable comfort services. The impact of a combination of comfort and environment; Duurzame gemaksdiensten. Combinatie van gemak en milieu biedt kansen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Keizer, I.; Van Swigchem, J.

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to determine the environmental impact of so-called sustainable and environment-friendly comfort services which are offered to individual consumers from a central point. The comfort services discussed in this report are a laundry service, delivery or messenger service, and a meal service or domestic caterer. [Dutch] Mensen die werk en prive(of zorg) combineren, leiden een druk bestaan, waardoor de behoefte bestaat om bijvoorbeeld huishoudelijke taken efficient in te richten. Verhoging van gemak en comfort gaat echter vaak gepaard met een toename van de milieudruk: meer apparatuur, dus hogere energieverbruik, en meer behoefte aan mobiliteit. Voor het Ministerie van VROM ligt de uitdaging in het zoeken naar kansen die zowel gemak opleveren als winst voor het milieu. en mogelijk concept hiervoor wordt gezien in zogenaamde 'duurzame gemaksdiensten', zoals een was-, boodschappen- en een maaltijdservice, die aangeboden worden op een centraal punt: het dienstenknooppunt. Elk van deze services blijkt kansen te bieden, varierend van reducties in energiegebruik (max. 36% per huishouden per jaar) tot een (forse) reductie van het aantal gereden autokilometers. oordat deze kansen echter optimaal benut kunnen worden, is een aantal aspecten van belang om verder te onderzoeken: de werkelijke vraag naar duurzame gemaksdiensten vanuit de consument, de locatie van het dienstenknooppunt en het vervoer op en rondom het knooppunt.

  16. Joint energy demand and thermal comfort optimization in photovoltaic-equipped interconnected microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Simone; Karagevrekis, Athanasios; Michailidis, Iakovos T.; Kosmatopoulos, Elias B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficient operation of photovoltaic-equipped interconnected microgrids. • Optimized energy demand for a block of heterogeneous buildings with different sizes. • Multiobjective optimization: matching demand and supply taking into account thermal comfort. • Intelligent control mechanism for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning units. • Optimization of energy consumption and thermal comfort at the aggregate microgrid level. - Abstract: Electrical smart microgrids equipped with small-scale renewable-energy generation systems are emerging progressively as an alternative or an enhancement to the central electrical grid: due to the intermittent nature of the renewable energy sources, appropriate algorithms are required to integrate these two typologies of grids and, in particular, to perform efficiently dynamic energy demand and distributed generation management, while guaranteeing satisfactory thermal comfort for the occupants. This paper presents a novel control algorithm for joint energy demand and thermal comfort optimization in photovoltaic-equipped interconnected microgrids. Energy demand shaping is achieved via an intelligent control mechanism for heating, ventilating, and air conditioning units. The intelligent control mechanism takes into account the available solar energy, the building dynamics and the thermal comfort of the buildings’ occupants. The control design is accomplished in a simulation-based fashion using an energy simulation model, developed in EnergyPlus, of an interconnected microgrid. Rather than focusing only on how each building behaves individually, the optimization algorithm employs a central controller that allows interaction among the buildings of the microgrid. The control objective is to optimize the aggregate microgrid performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the optimization algorithm efficiently integrates the microgrid with the photovoltaic system that provides free electric energy: in

  17. Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Kang-Ting; Kántor, Noémi; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thermal comfort is a subjective psychological perception of people based also on physiological thermoregulation mechanisms when the human body is exposed to a combination of various environmental factors including air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Due to the importance of gender in the issue of outdoor thermal comfort, this study compared and examined the thermal comfort-related differences between male and female subjects using previous data from Taiwanese questionnaire survey. Compared with males, the results indicated that females in Taiwan are less tolerant to hot conditions and intensely protect themselves from sun exposure. Our analytical results are inconsistent with the findings of previous physiological studies concerning thermal comfort indicating that females have superior thermal physiological tolerance than males. On the contrary, our findings can be interpreted on psychological level. Environmental behavioral learning theory was adopted in this study to elucidate this observed contradiction between the autonomic thermal physiological and psychological-behavioral aspects. Women might desire for a light skin tone through social learning processes, such as observation and education, which is subsequently reflected in their psychological perceptions (fears of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustments (carrying umbrellas or searching for shade). Hence, these unique psychological and behavioral phenomena cannot be directly explained by autonomic physiological thermoregulation mechanisms. The findings of this study serve as a reference for designing spaces that accommodates gender-specific thermal comfort characteristics. Recommendations include providing additional suitable sheltered areas in open areas, such as city squares and parks, to satisfy the thermal comfort needs of females.

  18. Psychiatrists' Comfort Using Computers and Other Electronic Devices in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Farifteh F; Fochtmann, Laura J; Clarke, Diana E; Barber, Keila; Hong, Seung-Hee; Yager, Joel; Mościcki, Eve K; Plovnick, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    This report highlights findings from the Study of Psychiatrists' Use of Informational Resources in Clinical Practice, a cross-sectional Web- and paper-based survey that examined psychiatrists' comfort using computers and other electronic devices in clinical practice. One-thousand psychiatrists were randomly selected from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and asked to complete the survey between May and August, 2012. A total of 152 eligible psychiatrists completed the questionnaire (response rate 22.2 %). The majority of psychiatrists reported comfort using computers for educational and personal purposes. However, 26 % of psychiatrists reported not using or not being comfortable using computers for clinical functions. Psychiatrists under age 50 were more likely to report comfort using computers for all purposes than their older counterparts. Clinical tasks for which computers were reportedly used comfortably, specifically by psychiatrists younger than 50, included documenting clinical encounters, prescribing, ordering laboratory tests, accessing read-only patient information (e.g., test results), conducting internet searches for general clinical information, accessing online patient educational materials, and communicating with patients or other clinicians. Psychiatrists generally reported comfort using computers for personal and educational purposes. However, use of computers in clinical care was less common, particularly among psychiatrists 50 and older. Information and educational resources need to be available in a variety of accessible, user-friendly, computer and non-computer-based formats, to support use across all ages. Moreover, ongoing training and technical assistance with use of electronic and mobile device technologies in clinical practice is needed. Research on barriers to clinical use of computers is warranted.

  19. Psychiatrists’ Comfort Using Computers and Other Electronic Devices in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochtmann, Laura J.; Clarke, Diana E.; Barber, Keila; Hong, Seung-Hee; Yager, Joel; Mościcki, Eve K.; Plovnick, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    This report highlights findings from the Study of Psychiatrists’ Use of Informational Resources in Clinical Practice, a cross-sectional Web- and paper-based survey that examined psychiatrists’ comfort using computers and other electronic devices in clinical practice. One-thousand psychiatrists were randomly selected from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and asked to complete the survey between May and August, 2012. A total of 152 eligible psychiatrists completed the questionnaire (response rate 22.2 %). The majority of psychiatrists reported comfort using computers for educational and personal purposes. However, 26 % of psychiatrists reported not using or not being comfortable using computers for clinical functions. Psychiatrists under age 50 were more likely to report comfort using computers for all purposes than their older counterparts. Clinical tasks for which computers were reportedly used comfortably, specifically by psychiatrists younger than 50, included documenting clinical encounters, prescribing, ordering laboratory tests, accessing read-only patient information (e.g., test results), conducting internet searches for general clinical information, accessing online patient educational materials, and communicating with patients or other clinicians. Psychiatrists generally reported comfort using computers for personal and educational purposes. However, use of computers in clinical care was less common, particularly among psychiatrists 50 and older. Information and educational resources need to be available in a variety of accessible, user-friendly, computer and non-computer-based formats, to support use across all ages. Moreover, ongoing training and technical assistance with use of electronic and mobile device technologies in clinical practice is needed. Research on barriers to clinical use of computers is warranted. PMID:26667248

  20. The experience of critically ill children: A phenomenological study of discomfort and comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Franco A; Gaudreault, Josée

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that critically ill children are particularly at risk for incurring significant psychological harm. Little is known about these children's actual experiences. The aim of the study was to examine children's experience of critical illness. The research question was: What are a critically ill child's sources of discomfort and comfort? Interpretive phenomenology was selected as the study's method. Children's accounts were examined to identify what they considered meaningful, in terms of their experienced discomfort and comfort. Data sources included formal and informal interviews with child-participants, drawings provided by some participants, and field-notes documenting observed non-verbal data. Twelve children were enrolled in the study, ranging from 3 to 17years of age; including four girls and eight boys. Although all participants were able to discuss the discomfort and comfort they experienced, they reported difficulties in remembering part or most of their experience. Some participants characterized their Pediatric Intensive Care Unit stay quite favourably or as "not that bad", while some described their experience unfavourably. Diverse types of discomforts were reported, including fears and worries, hurt and pain, invasive interventions, missing significant people, noise, food or eating problems, boredom, physical symptoms, as well as four additional discomforts reported by individual participants. Several sources of comfort were described, including parents, visitors and friends, hospital staff (principally nurses), stuffed animal/favourite blanket, entertainment and play, food, selected medical interventions, thinking of going home, being able to walk or run, sleep, waking up, gifts, along with two other comforts reported by individual participants. Embodiment and a tension between aloneness and being with were identified as the principal phenomena underlying these children's experiences. The findings complement existing knowledge

  1. Imposed Work of Breathing and Breathing Comfort of Nonintubated Volunteers Breathing with Three Portable Ventilators and a Critical Care Ventilator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the imposed inspiratory work of breathing and breathing comfort of nonintubated healthy volunteers breathing spontaneously through three portable ventilators...

  2. Thermal Comfort at the Street Corridor Around Public Places, Case Study Alun-Alun Malang City

    OpenAIRE

    Winansih, Erna; Antariksa, Antariksa; Surjono, Surjono; Leksono, Amin Setyo

    2015-01-01

    Malang as the second largest city in East Java province become crowded recently. The congestion almost happens everyday. The scenery of the street corridor is full of iron stacks. It is said that Malang city is less comfortable and less walkable. The decrease of this environment encourages to conduct the study (Q.S. 16:90, Q.S. 96:1-5, Q.S. 30:41). The study aimed to analyze the thermal comfort at pedestrian ways around Malang city squares, the street corridor of Merdeka Alun-Alun (MAA) and t...

  3. Influence of duration of thermal comfort provision on heating behavior of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojic, Milorad; Despotovic, Milan

    2007-01-01

    Because of the permanent dilemma whether residential buildings using district heating should be heated continually or discontinuously, we evaluated how the yearly heating load and the peak heating load of a small building in Serbia depend on the duration of thermal comfort provision. Using HTB2 software, a product of the Welsh School of Architecture, it was found that an increase in the duration of thermal comfort provision in the building from 16 h to 24 h increases the yearly heating load by 20%, reduces the peak heating load by up to 40% and may increase the number of new customers served with the same heating plant by up to 40%

  4. Can Pillow Height Effect the Body Pressure Distribution and Sleep Comfort: a Study of Quinquagenarian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinzhu; Hu, Huimin; Liao, Su

    2018-03-01

    A proper sleeping pillow can relax the neck muscles during sleep, yet does not impose stress on the spine or other tissues. By analyzing the different body pressure and subjective comfort evaluation of quinquagenarian women with different pillow heights (3cm, 7cm, 11cm and 15cm), this paper found that as the pillow height increased, the neck contact pressure, contact area and force increased at the same time, as well as the peak force and peak contact pressure gradually shifted from the head to the hip area. It was shown that the pillow with a height of 7cm was the most comfortable for supine positions.

  5. A Comparison Study on the Assessment of Ride Comfort for LRT Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengku Munawir, Tengku Imran; Abqari Abu Samah, Ahmad; Afiq Akmal Rosle, Muhammad; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Hasnan, Khalid; Sabri, S. M.; Ismail, S. M.; Yunos, Muhammad Nur Annuar Mohd; Yen Bin, Teo

    2017-08-01

    Ride comfort in railway transportation is very mind boggling and it relies on different dynamic performance criteria as well as subjective observation from the train passengers. Vibration discomfort from different elements such as vehicle condition, track area condition and working condition can prompt poor ride comfort. However, there are no universal applicable standards to analyse the ride comfort. There are several factors including local condition, vehicle condition and the track condition. In this current work, level of ride comfort by previous Adtranz-Walker light rapid transit (LRT) passengers at Ampang line were analysed. A comparison was done via two possible methods which are BS EN 12299 (2009) and Sperling’s Ride Index equation. BS EN 12299 standard is used to measure and evaluate the ride comfort of seating (Nvd) and standing (Nva) of train passenger in three different routes. Next, Sperling’s ride comfort equation is used to conduct validation and comparison between the obtained data. The result indicates a higher extent of vibration in the vertical axis which impacts the overall result. The standing position demonstrates a higher exposure of vibration in all the three tested routes. Comparison of the ride comfort assessment of passenger in sitting and standing position for both methods indicates that all the track sections exceeds “pronounced but not unpleasant (medium)” limit range. Nevertheless, the seating position at track section AU did not exceed the limit and stayed at the comfortable zone. The highest discomfort level achieved for both methods for seating position are 3.34 m/s2 for Nva and 2.63 m/s2 respectively, which is at route C uptrack that is from Chan Sow Lin station to Sri Petaling station. Meanwhile, the highest discomfort level achieved for both methods for standing are 3.80 m/s2 for Nvd and 2.88 m/s2 for Wz respectively, at uptrack section which is from Sri Petaling station to Chan Sow Lin station. Thus, the highest

  6. Automatic control of human thermal comfort with a liquid-cooled garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetz, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    Water cooling in a liquid-cooled garment is used to maintain the thermal comfort of crewmembers during extravehicular activity. The feasibility of a simple control that will operate automatically to maintain the thermal comfort is established. Data on three test subjects are included to support the conclusion that heat balance can be maintained well within allowable medical limits. The controller concept was also successfully demonstrated for ground-based applications and shows potential for any tasks involving the use of liquid-cooled garments.

  7. Effect of three different liposomal eye sprays on ocular comfort and tear film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pult, Heiko; Gill, Felicity; Riede-Pult, Britta H

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of three different liposomal eye sprays on ocular comfort and tear film stability. OptrexActiMist (AM, Optima-Pharma, Germany) was applied onto one, randomly selected eye of 80 subjects (female=49; mean age=49 years±18.6 SD) in a multi-centred, double-masked study. DryEyesMist (DEM, Boots) or TearMist (TM, Tesco) was applied onto the contralateral eye in randomized order. Over-all symptoms were investigated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Ocular comfort (visual-analogue scale 0-100 [100=perfect]) and non-invasive tear film stability (NIBUT) of each eye was evaluated before application (randomized order) and were again measured 10 min after application. Effects of products on ocular comfort and NIBUT were calculated as "factor" (=after-treatment/before-treatment). Differences between measurements were analysed by ANOVA repeated measurements and differences between groups by the dependent t-test (or the non-parametric equivalent). OSDI-scores (mean=8.1±9.0 SD), comfort (65±24) and NIBUT (12 s±12.3) were statistically similar between centres (p>0.400). Comfort and NIBUT were not different (p>0.14) between product groups before application. Comfort and NIBUT improved significantly after application of AM (p<0.001) but worsened with the comparing products (p<0.058). Comfort improved by a mean factor of 1.5 (±0.82 SD) after application of AM but decreased after application of the comparing products (DEM: 0.9±0.33; TM: 0.9±0.34). Both factors were significantly better in AM (p<0.027). The original liposomal eye-spray 'OptrexActiMist' significantly improved ocular comfort and tear film stability while 'TearMist' or 'DryEyesMist' worsened both criteria. The latter two products may not be clinically effective in the treatment of dry eye. Copyright © 2012 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Questionnaire survey on factors influencing comfort with indoor environmental quality in Danish housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Andersen, Rune Vinther; Wargocki, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    . A total of 2499 questionnaires were sent to inhabitants of the most common types of housing in Denmark; 645 persons replied (response rate of 26%). The results show that the main indoor environmental parameters (visual, acoustic and thermal conditions, and air quality) are considered by occupants......A questionnaire survey in Danish homes investigated the factors that influence occupants’ comfort. The questionnaire contained questions on inhabitants’ behaviour, their knowledge as regards building systems designed for controlling the indoor environment and the ways in which they achieve comfort...

  9. Association between objective and subjective measurements of comfort and discomfort in hand tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Bosch, T.; Huysmans, M.A.; Looze, M.P.de; Vink, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the current study, the relationship between objective measurements and subjective experienced comfort and discomfort in using handsaws was examined. Twelve carpenters evaluated five different handsaws. Objective measures of contact pressure (average pressure, pressure area and pressure-time (P-t)

  10. Examining Teachers' Use of iPads: Comfort Level, Perception, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Navarrete, Cesar C.; Scordino, Robert; Kang, Jina; Ko, Yujung; Lim, Mihyun

    2016-01-01

    While there is evidence of the growing popularity of iPads and other tablets in K-12 education, little is understood about how teachers use these devices in their instruction. This study examines 342 teachers' comfort level with and perception toward iPad use and any changes that occurred over the implementation year. Using a mixed-methods design,…

  11. Building America Case Study: Occupant Comfort from a Mini-Split Heat Pump, San Antonio, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-03

    IBACOS worked with builder Imagine Homes to evaluate the performance of an occupied new construction test house following construction of the house in the hot, humid climate of San Antonio, Texas. The project measures the effectiveness of a space conditioning strategy using a multihead mini-split heat pump (MSHP) system in a reduced-load home to achieve acceptable comfort levels (temperature and humidity) and energy performance. IBACOS collected long-term data and analyzed the energy consumption and comfort conditions of the occupied house after one year of operation. Although measured results indicate that the test system provides comfort both inside and outside the ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 range, the occupants of the house claimed both adequate comfort and appreciation of the ease of use and flexibility of the installed MSHP system. IBACOS also assisted the builder to evaluate design and specification changes necessary to comply with Zero Energy Ready Home, but the builder chose to not move forward with it because of concerns about the 'solar ready' requirements of the program.

  12. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yafei; Groot, de Dolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed

  13. Body Space in Social Interactions: A Comparison of Reaching and Comfort Distance in Immersive Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Tina; Coello, Yann; Frassinetti, Francesca; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Do peripersonal space for acting on objects and interpersonal space for interacting with con-specifics share common mechanisms and reflect the social valence of stimuli? To answer this question, we investigated whether these spaces refer to a similar or different physical distance. Methodology Participants provided reachability-distance (for potential action) and comfort-distance (for social processing) judgments towards human and non-human virtual stimuli while standing still (passive) or walking toward stimuli (active). Principal Findings Comfort-distance was larger than other conditions when participants were passive, but reachability and comfort distances were similar when participants were active. Both spaces were modulated by the social valence of stimuli (reduction with virtual females vs males, expansion with cylinder vs robot) and the gender of participants. Conclusions These findings reveal that peripersonal reaching and interpersonal comfort spaces share a common motor nature and are sensitive, at different degrees, to social modulation. Therefore, social processing seems embodied and grounded in the body acting in space. PMID:25405344

  14. Statistical model evaluation and calibrations for outdoor comfort assessment in South Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldieron, J.M.; Thitisawat, M.; Polakit, K.; Mangone, G.

    2011-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas, people can spend more time outdoors than in other latitudes. Understanding the sensitivity of outdoor comfort is a fundamental element for architects and urban designers working in these specific climates. This study is part of a research project attempting to

  15. Optimisation of Heating Energy Demand and Thermal Comfort of a Courtyard-Atrium Dwelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taleghani, M.; Tenpierik, M.; Dobbelsteen, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the light of energy reduction, transitional spaces are recognised as ways to receive natural light and fresh air. This paper analyses the effects of courtyard and atrium as two types of transitional spaces on heating demand and thermal comfort of a Dutch low-rise dwelling, at current and future

  16. Numerical study on human model shape and grid dependency for indoor thermal comfort evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jin Won; Choi, Yun Ho [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hong [LIG Nexl Co. Ltd, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Various computer-simulated person (CSP) models have been used to represent occupants in indoor airflow simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Despite the capability of CFD to predict temperature and velocity fields in an automotive cabin or a room in a building, it is more difficult to evaluate the degree of thermal comfort considered by the CSP models. Up to now, the shapes of CSP models and their grid characteristics have not been studied for the evaluation of indoor thermal comfort. In this paper, the effects of the human model's shape and the physical characteristics of the grids are studied. The FLUENT code is used for analysis, and the predicted mean vote (PMV), predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD), and equivalent homogeneous temperature (EHT) values are used for the evaluation and comparison of thermal comfort. The computational results show that the CSP shape and grid features do not affect the global flow fields or the evaluations of PMV and PPD. However, more precise results are obtained from the evaluation of thermal comfort by EHT when detailed human models with a prism grid are used.

  17. The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space a correlational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Schiano di Cola, Armando; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to

  18. The influence of anxiety and personality factors on comfort and reachability space: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Tina; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Ruotolo, Francesco; Schiano di Cola, Armando; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Although the effects of several personality factors on interpersonal space (i.e. social space within personal comfort area) are well documented, it is not clear whether they also extend to peripersonal space (i.e. reaching space). Indeed, no study has directly compared these spaces in relation to personality and anxiety factors even though such a comparison would help to clarify to what extent they share similar mechanisms and characteristics. The aim of the present paper was to investigate whether personality dimensions and anxiety levels are associated with reaching and comfort distances. Seventy university students (35 females) were administered the Big Five Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; afterwards, they had to provide reachability- and comfort-distance judgments towards human confederates while standing still (passive) or walking towards them (active). The correlation analyses showed that both spaces were positively related to anxiety and negatively correlated with the Dynamism in the active condition. Moreover, in the passive condition higher Emotional Stability was related to shorter comfort distance, while higher cognitive Openness was associated with shorter reachability distance. The implications of these results are discussed.

  19. Short-term airing by natural ventilation - implication on IAQ and thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiselberg, P; Perino, M

    2010-04-01

    The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. Among the available ventilation strategies that are currently available, buoyancy driven, single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) control. However, to promote a wider distribution of these systems an improvement in the knowledge of their working principles is necessary. The present study analyses and presents the results of an experimental evaluation of airing performance in terms of ventilation characteristics, IAQ and thermal comfort. It includes investigations of the consequences of opening time, opening frequency, opening area and expected airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective and can provide both acceptable IAQ and thermal comfort conditions in buildings. Practical Implications This study gives the necessary background and in-depth knowledge of the performance of window airing by single-sided natural ventilation necessary for the development of control strategies for window airing (length of opening period and opening frequency) for optimum IAQ and thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings.

  20. "Sub Specie Boni": The Comfort Zone of Self-Belief--A Dimension in Counseling Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, James Lee

    1996-01-01

    Claims that self-defeating behavior is a rational attempt to satisfy early, introjected messages about the type of person one is, arising from a desire for things perceived as good--sub specie boni. Examines the notion of the comfort zone, toxic shame, and therapists' responsibility to nourish acceptable joy. (RJM)

  1. Comfort, Energy Efficiency and Adoption of Personal Cooling Systems in Warm Environments: A Field Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingdong He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that personal cooling improves thermal comfort and save energy. This study aims to: (1 compare different personal cooling systems and (2 understand what influences users’ willingness to adopt them. A series of experiments on several types of personal cooling systems, which included physical measurements, questionnaires and feedback, was conducted in a real office environment. The obtained results showed that personal cooling improved comfort of participants in warm environments. Then an improved index was proposed and used to compare different types of personal cooling systems in terms of comfort and energy efficiency simultaneously. According to the improved index, desk fans were highly energy-efficient, while the hybrid personal cooling (the combination of radiant cooling desk and desk fan consumed more energy but showed advantages of extending the comfortable temperature range. Moreover, if personal cooling was free, most participants were willing to adopt it and the effectiveness was the main factor influencing their willingness, whereas if participants had to pay, they probably refused to adopt it due to the cost and the availability of conventional air conditioners. Thus, providing effective and free personal cooling systems should be regarded as a better way for its wider application.

  2. From intelligent buildings to careful buildings : a concept to implement individual health and comfort demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Wortel, W.; Houten, van M.A.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Jelsma, J.; Oliveira Fernandes, de E.; Gameiro da Silva, M.; Rosado Pinto, J.

    2006-01-01

    Buildings are built for users, so the user preferences and their behaviour should become leading in building services control strategy. The paper reviews 3 projects on intelligent process control. The insights of these projects were combined into a new technology; FACT, Forgiving Agent Comfort

  3. Comfort and well-being in passive solar buildings. Results from a european Audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Cox, C.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Within the European research project HOPE, 97 apartment buildings and 67 office buildings - a large part of which designed to be energy-efficient - were investigated using checklists regarding building characteristics and questionnaires addressed to the occupants regarding their perceived comfort

  4. A Pilot Project to Increase Parent Comfort Communicating with Their Children about Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Elissa M.; Johnson Moore, Michele; Howard, Alexandria

    2012-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviors among U.S. adolescents have resulted in epidemic rates of sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and unintended pregnancy. This article describes a community-developed pilot program for parents in a large South Florida county aimed at increasing parent comfort in discussing sexuality with their children to improve adolescent…

  5. GPs' communication skills - a study into women's comfort to disclose intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eleanor; O'Doherty, Lorna; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative research investigating the effects of general practitioner communication on a patient's comfort to disclose intimate partner violence is lacking. We explored the association between GPs' communication and patients' comfort to discuss fear of an intimate partner. A health/lifestyle survey mailed to 14 031 women (aged 16-50 years) who attended the participating GPs of 40 Victorian general practices during the previous year. There was a 32% response rate (n=4467). The results showed that female GPs were perceived as having better communication; an association between female GPs and comfort to disclose was not apparent in multivariate analyses. Time, caring, involving the patient in decisions and putting the patient at ease maintained associations with comfort to discuss, as did language, lower education, age >25 years and current fear. This study advocates increasing communication competence to allow for greater disclosure of sensitive issues such as intimate partner violence in the primary care context. However, it also signals a need in research and practice to focus on marginalised groups and intimate partner violence.

  6. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge and Teaching Comfort Levels for Agricultural Science and Technology Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; White, Judith McIntosh; Degenhart, Shannon; Pannkuk, Tim; Kujawski, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs are defined as context-specific assessments of one's competence to perform specific tasks, influence one's efforts, persistence, and resilience to succeed in a given task. Such beliefs are important determinants when considering agricultural science teachers' subject matter knowledge, teaching comfort levels, and their…

  7. Between Discomfort and Comfort: Towards Language That Creates Space for Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christie

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of the term "settler ally" to create productive discomfort alongside productive comfort, thereby creating space for positive social change. The setting in which the term is examined is Canada--Alberta in particular--following the release of the recommendations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission…

  8. The impact of air pollution from used ventilation filters on human comfort and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Alm, O.; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    The comfort and health of 30 women was studied during 4 hours´ exposure in an experimental room with either a used or a new filter present in the ventilation system. All other environmental parameters were kept constant. The presence of the used filter in the ventilation system had a significant ...

  9. Improvement of social infrastructure as a way to ensure a comfortable urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century the mankind to came to understanding that the comfortable living environment is the basis of a high-quality life, which represents the strategic resource of the state. The comfortable environment consists of numerous factors, which include the social infrastructure as well. The author of the article stats with the statement that the project of creation of the comfortable urban environment includes: economical, commercial and budget efficiency of the project, ecological consequences or results of the project impact on the environment, contribution of the project implementable to improvement of the social environment. Developing such approach, the author comes to a wider concept of the life quality. Thus, all three elements of the project of creation of the comfortable urban environment influence the quality of life of the population. According to the research results, presented in the article it becomes obvious that medical-and-demographic characteristics are being improved when the development of housing is followed by the corresponding development of the social infrastructure. Thus, the author makes the conclusion that for the solution of the task of creation of the social infrastructure as the environment for a healthy lifestyle, development of managerial decisions, which are made not on intuition basis but on rational estimation taking into account above-mentioned factors are necessary.

  10. Diseases of comfort: primary cause of death in the 22nd century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K; Hunter, David J; Tsou, Walter; Sainsbury, Peter

    2005-12-01

    The world has started to feel the impact of a global chronic disease epidemic, which is putting pressure on our health care systems. If uncurbed, a new generation of "diseases of comfort" (such as those chronic diseases caused by obesity and physical inactivity) will become a major public health problem in this and the next century. To describe the concept, causes, and prevention and control strategies of diseases of comfort. Brokered by a senior research scientist specialised in knowledge translation, a chair, a president, and a past president of national public health associations contributed their views on the subject. Diseases of comfort have emerged as a price of living in a modern society. It is inevitable that these diseases will become more common and more disabling if human "progress" and civilisation continue toward better (more comfortable) living, without necessarily considering their effects on health. Modern technology must be combined with education, legislation, intersectoral action, and community involvement to create built and social environments that encourage, and make easy, walking, physical activity, and nutritious food choices, to reduce the health damaging effects of modern society for all citizens and not only the few. Public health needs to be more passionate about the health issues caused by human progress and adopt a health promotion stance, challenging the assumptions behind the notion of social "progress" that is giving rise to the burden of chronic disease and developing the skills to create more health promoting societies in which individual health thrives.

  11. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

  12. Comfort, Energy Efficiency and Adoption of Personal Cooling Systems in Warm Environments: A Field Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingdong; Li, Nianping; Wang, Xiang; He, Meiling; He, De

    2017-11-17

    It is well known that personal cooling improves thermal comfort and save energy. This study aims to: (1) compare different personal cooling systems and (2) understand what influences users' willingness to adopt them. A series of experiments on several types of personal cooling systems, which included physical measurements, questionnaires and feedback, was conducted in a real office environment. The obtained results showed that personal cooling improved comfort of participants in warm environments. Then an improved index was proposed and used to compare different types of personal cooling systems in terms of comfort and energy efficiency simultaneously. According to the improved index, desk fans were highly energy-efficient, while the hybrid personal cooling (the combination of radiant cooling desk and desk fan) consumed more energy but showed advantages of extending the comfortable temperature range. Moreover, if personal cooling was free, most participants were willing to adopt it and the effectiveness was the main factor influencing their willingness, whereas if participants had to pay, they probably refused to adopt it due to the cost and the availability of conventional air conditioners. Thus, providing effective and free personal cooling systems should be regarded as a better way for its wider application.

  13. Comfort level of post graduate residents working in different clinical domains in managing common ophthalmic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffar, S.; Tayyab, A.; Shah, S.S.; Naseem, S.; Ghazanfar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ophthalmological conditions are frequently encountered in almost all clinical specialties. Assessing the adequacy of ophthalmology teaching in undergraduate medical education is important in order to diagnose and manage different ophthalmological conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the comfort level of post graduate residents working in different clinical domains in managing common ophthalmic conditions. Methods: A cross sectional survey involving 277 post graduate residents was carried out over a period of six months in both private and public tertiary care hospital. A questionnaire containing two sections and 17 variables in total were distributed among Medical Residents of different specialties except ophthalmology residents. Participants of the study were selected through consecutive non probability sampling. Results: Mean hours of classroom based ophthalmology instruction during during undergraduate program was 59.38 hours (55.9) and mean hours of clinical based ophthalmology instruction during undergraduate program was 62.73 hours (60.8) 54 percentage were either not comfortable or somewhat comfortable in managing common ophthalmic condition. Conclusion: Teaching hours in under graduate program meet or exceed requisite criteria. However graduating doctors generally feel that the time spent does not provide them with the comfort and skill level required to care for patients with ocular presentations. (author)

  14. Urban physics : effect of the micro-climate on comfort, health and energy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Defraeye, T.W.J.; Dorer, V.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Carmeliet, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The global trend towards urbanization explains the growing interest in the study of the modification of the urban climate due to the heat island effect and global warming, and its impact on energy use of buildings. Also urban comfort, health and durability, referring respectively to pedestrian

  15. DETERMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY OPERATORS’ OPINIONS ABOUT THE CABIN COMFORT IN ESKİŞEHİR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge ACARBAŞ BALTACI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Comfort has a great importance in the interior design of tractor and agricultural machinery cabins. Operators are exposed to muscoskeletal system disorders since they spend long time periods during the day in these vehicles. There is a few work in the literature reporting operators’ opinions about cabin comfort of these machineries. In this study, a questionnaire was conducted in order to get information about agricultural machinery operators’ opinions about the comfort of their vehicles. Tractor cabins and combine harvester machine cabins were selected as machineries. The study was conducted in Eskişehir in Turkey. Questionnaire was composed of four groups of questions and five ordered response levels were used in the Likert's scale. Demographic questions, general questions about the machine, personal evaluation questions and open ended questions were asked to the operators. After the questionnaire completed, collected data were classified according to the machine type. Frequency tables were used to present the results. Visibility and the accessibility were the most satisfied issues for the tractor operators with 55.9% and 55.4% percentages, respectively. Seat comfort has the highest satisfaction degree with 43.7% for the combine harvester operators. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was used for the satisfaction questions in the applied questionnaire. The reliability of the study was high with coefficients of 0.878 and 0.940 for the tractor and combine harvester questionnaires, respectively. This study will support design and development process of new products by considering operator opinions.

  16. The entry-level physical therapist: a case for COMFORT communication training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Joy; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Frisby, Brandi N; Platt, Christine Small

    2015-01-01

    Entry-level physical therapists provide clinical care for patients with functional mobility limitations. Their care spans the continuum of settings, disease processes, and diagnoses. Although effective communication skills are required to conduct physical therapy work, there is limited instruction provided in physical therapy education and students receive little exposure to seriously or chronically ill patients. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of communication training for the entry-level physical therapist facing palliative and end-of-life communication with patients/families. A pre-post survey design and narrative writing were used to assess the effect of the COMFORT communication training curriculum provided to doctorally trained, graduating physical therapists. The study demonstrated decreased student apprehension about communicating with dying patients and their families, and a comparison of mean scores reflecting the students' communication knowledge, confidence, and behaviors increased in a positive direction. As students became more willing to communicate, they were also more adept at integrating task and relational messages, as well as assimilating emotional support messages for patients and families. This study shows promise for the feasibility and utilization of the COMFORT curriculum for entry-level physical therapists. Further research should address the integration of COMFORT earlier into physical therapy education, as well as assess evidence of COMFORT communication skills in the clinical context.

  17. Lifetime intimate partner violence exposure, attitudes and comfort among Canadian health professions students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber Megan R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread public health problem and training of health professions students has become common. Understanding students' prior knowledge, attitudes and personal exposure to IPV will aid educators in designing more effective curriculum. As interprofessional educational efforts proliferate, understanding differences across disciplines will be critical. Findings Students in the schools of Medicine, Nursing and Rehabilitation at a university in Ontario attend an annual daylong interprofessional IPV training. To measure perceived role and comfort with IPV and prior personal exposure, we administered a brief Likert scale survey to a convenience sample of students over three years. 552 students completed the survey; the overall response rate was 73%. The majority (82% agreed that it was their role to intervene in cases of IPV; however Rehabilitation students expressed lower overall comfort levels than did their peers in other schools (p Conclusion While the majority of professional students believe it is their role to address IPV in clinical practice, comfort level varied significantly by field of study. More than one fifth of the students reported some personal exposure to IPV. However this did not impact their level of comfort in addressing this issue. Educators need to take students' preexisting attitudes and personal exposure into account when planning curriculum initiatives in this area.

  18. A comparison of optimal semi-active suspension systems regarding vehicle ride comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulocheris, Dimitrios; Papaioannou, Georgios; Chrysos, Emmanouil

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to present a comparison of the main semi active suspension systems used in a passenger car, after having optimized the suspension systems of the vehicle model in respect with ride comfort and road holding. Thus, a half car model, equipped with controllable dampers, along with a seat and a driver was implemented. Semi-active suspensions have received a lot of attention since they seem to provide the best compromise between cost (energy consumption, actuators/sensors hardware) and performance in comparison with active and passive suspensions. In this work, the semi active suspension systems studied are comfort oriented and consist of (a) the two version of Skyhook control (two states skyhook and skyhook linear approximation damper), (b) the acceleration driven damper (ADD), (c) the power driven damper (PDD), (d) the combination of Skyhook and ADD (Mixed Skyhook-ADD) and (e) the combination of the two with the use of a sensor. The half car model equipped with the above suspension systems was excited by a road bump, and was optimized using genetic algorithms (GA) in respect with ride comfort and road holding. This study aims to highlight how the optimization of the vehicle model could lead to the best compromise between ride comfort and road holding, overcoming their well-known trade-off. The optimum results were compared with important performance metrics regarding the vehicle’s dynamic behaviour in general.

  19. Towards a new procedure for identifying causes of health and comfort problems in office buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Fossati, S.; Mandin, C.; Cattaneo, A.; Carrer, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the European project OFFICAIR a procedure has been prepared for the inventory and identification of associations between possible characteristics of European modern offices (building, sources and events) and health and comfort of office workers, via a questionnaire and a checklist including

  20. A foreground object features-based stereoscopic image visual comfort assessment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, G.; Ying, H.; Yu, M.; Ding, S.; Peng, Z.; Shao, F.

    2014-11-01

    Since stereoscopic images provide observers with both realistic and discomfort viewing experience, it is necessary to investigate the determinants of visual discomfort. By considering that foreground object draws most attention when human observing stereoscopic images. This paper proposes a new foreground object based visual comfort assessment (VCA) metric. In the first place, a suitable segmentation method is applied to disparity map and then the foreground object is ascertained as the one having the biggest average disparity. In the second place, three visual features being average disparity, average width and spatial complexity of foreground object are computed from the perspective of visual attention. Nevertheless, object's width and complexity do not consistently influence the perception of visual comfort in comparison with disparity. In accordance with this psychological phenomenon, we divide the whole images into four categories on the basis of different disparity and width, and exert four different models to more precisely predict its visual comfort in the third place. Experimental results show that the proposed VCA metric outperformance other existing metrics and can achieve a high consistency between objective and subjective visual comfort scores. The Pearson Linear Correlation Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) are over 0.84 and 0.82, respectively.