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Sample records for sonyusareta kosei deno

  1. Fracture inspection by BHTV logging through a vinyl chloride tube; Enbi pipe ga sonyusareta kosei deno BHTV ni yoru kiretsu chosa

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    Horikawa, H.; Okabe, T.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging was conducted to investigate cracks in bored wells. The logging process shoots ultrasonic waves onto bore walls and utilizes reflection waves from the bore walls. If the bores are filled with muddy water, or the ultrasonic waves can pass through even if vinyl chloride tubes have been inserted after excavation, the state of the bore walls can be investigated in principle. Conventional optical scanners are, however, incapable of making this investigation. The BHTV logging can be used for identifying lithofacies from reflection intensities from bore walls (it depends on sound impedance of rocks), not to speak of finding cracks. As a result of making logging upon setting time windows from 105 to 145 {mu} sec in a bored well inserted with a vinyl chloride tube, cracks in the bore wall were identified clearly through the vinyl chloride tube. If the distance between the bore wall and the vinyl chloride tube becomes smaller, setting the time window becomes difficult, making reflection data acquisition more difficult. Impacts of decentering in the vinyl chloride tube on the data and the crack analysis result are small. The reflection intensity has decreased by about half as a result of having the circular vinyl chloride tube inserted. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Characterisation of the Novel Mixed Mu-NOP Peptide Ligand Dermorphin-N/OFQ (DeNo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F Bird

    Full Text Available Opioid receptors are currently classified as Mu (μ, Delta (δ, Kappa (κ plus the opioid related nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ peptide receptor (NOP. Despite compelling evidence for interactions and benefits of targeting more than one receptor type in producing analgesia, clinical ligands are Mu agonists. In this study we have designed a Mu-NOP agonist named DeNo. The Mu agonist component is provided by dermorphin, a peptide isolated from the skin of Phyllomedusa frogs and the NOP component by the endogenous agonist N/OFQ.We have assessed receptor binding profile of DeNo and compared with dermorphin and N/OFQ. In a series of functional screens we have assessed the ability to (i increase Ca2+ in cells coexpressing recombinant receptors and a the chimeric protein Gαqi5, (ii stimulate the binding of GTPγ[35S], (iii inhibit cAMP formation, (iv activate MAPKinase, (v stimulate receptor-G protein and arrestin interaction using BRET, (vi electrically stimulated guinea pig ileum (gpI assay and (vii ability to produce analgesia via the intrathecal route in rats.DeNo bound to Mu (pKi; 9.55 and NOP (pKi; 10.22 and with reasonable selectivity. This translated to increased Ca2+ in Gαqi5 expressing cells (pEC50 Mu 7.17; NOP 9.69, increased binding of GTPγ[35S] (pEC50 Mu 7.70; NOP 9.50 and receptor-G protein interaction in BRET (pEC50 Mu 8.01; NOP 9.02. cAMP formation was inhibited and arrestin was activated (pEC50 Mu 6.36; NOP 8.19. For MAPK DeNo activated p38 and ERK1/2 at Mu but only ERK1/2 at NOP. In the gpI DeNO inhibited electrically-evoked contractions (pEC50 8.63 that was sensitive to both Mu and NOP antagonists. DeNo was antinociceptive in rats.Collectively these data validate the strategy used to create a novel bivalent Mu-NOP peptide agonist by combining dermorphin (Mu and N/OFQ (NOP. This molecule behaves essentially as the parent compounds in vitro. In the antonocicoeptive assays employed in this study DeNo displays only weak antinociceptive

  3. Next Generation Automotive DeNO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogenoxides (NOx, including NO and NOx) are a group of hazardous, toxic and harmfulgasses, which have an adverse effect on both environment and human health,e.g., acid rain, photochemical smog, and affecting the human respiratorysystem. The NOx concentration in most of the EUcities exceeds the EU

  4. Heat transfer and combustion in microgravity; Mujuryokuka deno netsukogaku

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    Ito, K [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-09-05

    Examples of thermal engineering under gravity free state are introduced. When making semiconductor crystals, the thermal conductivity of the molten substance becomes important but in a microgravity environment where the thermal convection is suppressed, this value can be accurately measured. Although there are many unknown points regarding the thermal conductive mechanism of thermal control equipment elements under microgravity, theoretical analysis is being advanced. It is anticipated that the verification of this theory using liquid droplets will be made. The conveying of boiling heat under microgravity is suppressed because the bubbles stick to the heat source. When a non-azeotropic composition is used, Marangoni convection occurs, and the conveying is promoted. Since there is no thermal convection in microgravity combustion, diffusion dominates. In order to make the phenomenon clear, the free-fall tower can be utilized. A liquid droplet flame will become a complete, integrated, spherical flame. Vaporization coefficient and combustion velocity which are impossible to measure on the ground can be measured. In the case of metal fires occuring in space, the movement of metal dominates the combustion. In microgravity, dust coal will float in a stationary state so the process of combustion can be observed. It is believed that the diffusion flame of hydrocarbons will be thicker than the flame on the ground. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Study on evaluating method for earthquake resisting performance of steel piers; Kosei kyokyaku no taishinsei ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

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    Isoe, A.; Hashimoto, Y.; Morimoto, C.; Sakoda, H.; Ishige, T.; Yoshikawa, T.; Kishida, K. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-12-20

    After the shock of Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake in 1995, protection against level 2 earthquake becomes important subject for civil structures. Subsequently plastic design methods for steel piers have been studied and rapidly introduced. The authors developed a method to evaluate the earthquake resisting performance of a steel pier with a single mass model. This model is useful for design because of its simplicity but on the other hand it can not consider the effects of piers` interaction in space. To include this effect in an analysis a simple 3 dimensional calculation model of box-column pier is developed. (author)

  6. Water saving in IC wafer washing process; IC wafer senjo deno sessui taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, H. [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Araki, M.; Nakazawa, T.

    1997-11-30

    This paper reports features of a wafer washing technology, a new IC wafer washing process, its pure water saving effect, and a `QC washing` which has pure water saving effect in the wafer washing. Wafer washing processes generally include the SC1 process (using ammonia + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to ultrafine particles, the SC2 process (using hydrochloric acid + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to heavy metals, the piranha washing process (using hot sulfuric acid + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to organic matters, and the DHF (using dilute hydrofluoric acid) purposed for removing natural oxide films. Natural oxide films are now remained as surface protection films, by which surface contamination has been reduced remarkably. A high-temperature washing chemical circulating and filtering technology developed in Japan has brought about a reform in wafer washing processes having been used previously. Spin washing is used as a water saving measure, in which washing chemicals or pure water are sprayed onto one each of wafers which is spin-rotated, allowing washing and rinsing to be made with small amount of washing chemicals and pure water. The QC washing is a method to replace tank interior with pure was as quick as possible in order to increase the rinsing effect. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Engymatic synthesis of aspartame precursor in organic solvent; Yuki yobaichu deno asuparutemu zenkutai no koso gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, K. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-11-05

    Taking up the synthetic reaction of the precursor of artificial sweetener aspartame for which thermolysin is used as the catalyst, the features and problems of enzymatic reaction in organic solvent are discussed. It is found that immobilized enzyme which has high activity and stability can be prepared by adsorbing high concentration thermolysin in Amberlite XAD7 followed by bridge immobilization. The initial rate of the synthesis and the stability of immobilized enzyme depend on the types of solvents. Continuous reaction is attempted using a columnar ferment reactor (PFR) in ethyl acetate at the beginning, but the yield decreases in a short period because the immobilized enzyme lose its activity gradually from the upper area of the column where Z-Asp concentration is high. When CSTR (complete mixed type reactor) is used, deactivation of immobilized enzyme can be restricted because low Z-Asp concentration in the reactor can be maintained. It is demonstrated that continuous reaction of longer than 200 hours is possible although the reaction rate is as low as 90%. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveying in the Kakkonda geothermal area; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki deno MT ho tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y; Takakura, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Uchida, T [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes the MT surveying conducted at the vicinity of a deep well (WD-1) in the Kakkonda geothermal area. For the MT surveying, the interval between measuring points was 300 m. Electric field dipole with a length of 300 m was given in the direction of traverse line, and that with a length of 50 m was given in the direction perpendicular to the line. Three components of magnetic field were measured using induction coil. Frequency band of the data was between 0.0005 Hz and 300 Hz. Characteristics of specific resistance model obtained from the MT surveying were illustrated. Low specific resistance zone less than 30 ohm-m was observed in the shallow zone below the altitude 0 m. This zone was comparable to the distribution of montmorillonite. High specific resistance anomaly was analyzed at the western half of the traverse line in the altitude between 0 m and -2000 m, which corresponded to the collective part of focuses. The bottom surface of the anomaly agreed well with the upper surface of neo-granite, i.e., the lower limits of earthquakes. Low specific resistance was observed in the altitude below -2000 m. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Analysis of the pressure response of high angle multiple (HAM) fractures intersecting a welbore; Kokeisha multi fracture (HAM) kosei ni okeru atsuryoku oto kaiseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujo, S; Osato, K [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arihara, N [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Schroeder, R

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports pressure response analysis on wells piercing a high angle multi (HAM) fracture model. In this model which is defined on a three-dimensional space, a plurality of slanted fractures intersect with wells at high angles (however, intersection of fractures with each other is not considered). With respect to the pressure response analysis method using this model, the paper presents a basic differential equation on pressure drawdown and boundary conditions in the wells taking flows in the fractures pseudo-linear, as well as external boundary conditions in calculation regions (a reservoir spreads to an infinite distance, and its top and bottom are closed by non-water permeating beds). The paper also indicates that results of calculating a single vertical fracture model and a slanted fracture model by using a numerical computation program (MULFRAC) based on the above equations agree well respectively with the existing calculation results (calculations performed by Erlougher and Cinco et al). 5 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Evaluation stationariness of triaxial seismic while drilling and detection of reflected wave; Kosei kussaku ni tomonau danseiha no sanjiku kaiseki ni yoru hiteijo hyoka to hanshaha no kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T; Asanuma, H; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports a method to detect reflected wave components contained in an elastic wave caused in association with well drilling. Measurement was made on an elastic wave caused in association with well drilling in an experimental field by using a triaxial elastic wave detector disposed in a measurement well. Analyzing the particle motion tracks in the derived elastic wave signals (to derive the main axial direction of a three-dimensional hologram) revealed that oscillation direction of the signals changes non-steadily by time centering around the S-wave oscillation direction. In addition, a sound source position was estimated during the drilling. Existence probability of the S-wave signal in the non-steady continuous signals was estimated by handling the particle motion tracks stochastically. In addition, this existence probability was used as a weighting function for a correlative analysis to detect a reflected wave from directly reaching wave components in the non-steady continuous signals. Thus, improvement in reliability of reflected wave detection was attempted. Effectiveness of this method was endorsed by the field data. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Fault fracture zone evaluation using borehole geophysical logs; case study at Nojima fault, Awaji island; Kosei butsuri kenso ni yoru danso hasaitai no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, R; Omura, K [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, T [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Ikeda, et al., in their examination of log data obtained from a borehole (2000m deep) drilled at Ashio, Tochigi Prefecture, where micro-earthquakes swarm at very shallow levels, pay special attention to porosity. Using correlationship between the porosity and elastic wave velocity/resistivity, the authors endeavor to find the presence of secondary pores, dimensions of faults, composition of water in strata in faults, and difference in matrix between rocks, all these for the classification and evaluation of fault fracture zones. In the present report, log data from a borehole (1800m deep) drilled to penetrate the Nojima fault (Nojima-Hirabayashi, Awaji island) that emerged during the Great Hanshin-Himeji Earthquake are analyzed in the same way as the above-named Ashio data, and the results are compared with the Ashio results. Immediately below the Nojima-Hirabayashi fault fractured zone, stress is found remarkably reduced and the difference stress quite small in size. This is interpreted as indicating a state in which clay has already developed well in the fault fractured zone ready to allow the occurrence of shear fracture or a state in which such has already occurred for the release of stress. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Three-dimensional mise-a-la-masse modeling using horizontal well; Suihei kosei wo mochiita ryuden den`iho no sanjigen modeling

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    Mizunaga, H; Ushijima, K; Hashimoto, K; Masuda, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    The 3-D model program was developed to apply a mise-a-la-masse method to linear current sources with optional shapes. Mise-a-la-masse method is a bipolar mapping survey method using current sources installed in wells, and recently has been widely used for direct exploration of geothermal reservoirs. This method is also used for monitoring underground fluid as electrode arrangement of fluid flow tomography for surveying underground fluid (geothermal fluid, underground water, petroleum). In the geothermal reservoir exploration, the casing pipes of wells are used as linear current sources, and measured data are processed as those based on vertical current source. In the largely inclined well, the inclination of current sources should be considered. The 3-D modeling program was developed by difference calculus using the theoretical potential equation and apparent resistivity based on linear current sources with optional 3-D shapes. The numerical model experiment result clarified that the previous theoretical equation for vertical wells is inapplicable to inclined linear current sources because of clear asymmetric apparent resistivity distribution. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Survey on the innovative well drilling technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kakushinteki kosei kussaku gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the geothermal drilling, reduction of the cost of well drilling is an important subject for technical development. The geothermal resource development tends to be made at higher temperatures and at deeper wells. In the present drilling technology, the cost is rising with the exponentially increasing depth and temperature, and there is also occurring the technical limit. Accordingly, the survey clarified the limit of the present drilling technology/cost to point out the research trend of the drilling technology as substitute for the present one, possibilities of the introduction, and the R and D target and subjects. As to latest drilling systems abroad and in Japan, the following were surveyed to study and extract promising technologies and systems: improvement/application of drilling equipment/materials (enhancement of heat resistance of the main drilling equipment, etc., cooling effects of top drive, heat resistance verification of MWD tools, PDM, tricone bits, multi-stage cementing tools, etc.), heightening of drilling rates, trend surveys of slim hole drilling, control drilling, well maintenance/workover, and well design technology. 68 refs., 73 figs., 40 tabs.

  14. Construction of taste-odor recognitition system using optimized sensory device; Kankaku tekio sensa wo mochiita aji/nioi shikibetsu sisutemu no kosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osada, H.; Yoshida, H.; Omamiuda, Y.; Ajishi, Y.; Seki, K. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan); Kikuchi, S. [Tohoku Gakuin University, Miyagi (Japan)

    1997-06-20

    Until now, the quality of foods, that is, as the electrical measuring method of taste and odor, the utilizing method of artificial fatty films and ceramics of ZnO and so on are devised and put to practical use. However, the field of measuring of taste and odor is a comparative new field, and it is still developing stage in the lasting quality and so on. To measure the quality of foods holds an important position in the safety management, together with supporting the development of products as the needs of user. Authors studied a new taste/odor sensor utilizing the optimized sensory device (OSD) which is prepared from sintering the mixture of the magnetic semiconductor powder such as Mn-An ferrite and ruthenium compound. When various taste and odor components included in food adheres to the OSD, resistance or electromotive force faced on surface electric conduction of the OSD change, therefore it can be clearly discriminated the sort and quality of foods. This paper describes preparation of a thick-film OSD and construction of the multi-channel taste/odor recognition system for some drinks. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Glass Melting under microgravity. ; Space experiment by Mori astronaut. Mujuryokuka deno glass yoyu. ; Morisan no uchu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makihara, M. (Osaka National Research Institute, Osaka (Japan))

    1993-03-01

    A space experiment on glass melting under microgravity was performed in a space shuttle in September 1992. The experiment has been intended to make glass from glass material floating in air by heating and melting it with light and an acoustic levitation furnace. The acoustic levitation furnace used in the experiment has been arranged so that a sound wave from a speaker makes a steady wave in a cylindrical quartz glass core tube with a length of 16 cm and a diameter of 4 cm, and a test sample can be retained floating in a valley of central wave pressures. The test sample retained floating has been collected and heated by light from a 500-W halogen lamp. Behavior of molten glass liquid under microgravity has been investigated. The glass material powder spheres have been melted completely and made into glass without crystallization. With regard to flows generated in the test sample placed in the acoustic levitation furnace, a glass spot containing cobalt oxide has been attached onto part of the test sample surface for observation. As a result, the spot has been incorporated in the glass without developing diffusion. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Investigating the effect of aeration powder filling on the actual compacting press; Eareto jutenho no jikki press deno hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, M. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Urata, I. [Toyota Motor Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-05-15

    The authors proposed an aeration filling method as a new filling method in order to obtain uniform and high speed filling by carrying out basic experiments on powder material filling using a visual apparatus. In this study, the aeration powder filling was applied to the product compacting on the actual compacting press, and its evaluation was carried out. As a result, the following effects were confirmed. The weight scattering was reduced to about 70% in the high speed filling and about 50% in the low speed filling. The maximum density was reduced to about 30% in the high speed filling and about 25% in the low speed filling. The maximum thickness difference was reduced to 65% in the high speed filling and about 20% in the low speed filling. The aeration powder effect was stronger in the high speed filling than that in the low speed filling. The weight and size accuracy of the components were increased by the aeration powder filling. The pause and the shaking operation were discarded in the front part of the powder box, thus the filling time could be remarkable shortened. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Enzymatic synthesis of tasty oligopeptide in organic solvent. Yuki yobaichu deno teimisei origo pepuchido no koso gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Tomita, K.; Nakanishi, K. (Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    An introduction is made to examples of the latest researches on methods to manufacture oligopeptides by enzymatic synthesizing methods in regards to to various processes using reactions in organic solvents as a means to increase the yield, particularly on synthesis of one that have taste effects. To raise the yield of peptides that are produced by condensing amino acid and amino acid derivatives, it is necessary that an equilibrium control reaction is operated in such a way that the product concentration and product moisture concentration are reduced, and the concentration of substrates of non-dissociation type is raised. In the case ofamino acid reacting with amino acid ester or amide, a velocity control is carried out, in which the velocity to produce the peptides from the acyl intermediates is raised and the velocity of the ester hydrolysis is slowed down. Examples of synthesis of tasty oligopeptides include, for example, the precursor in manufacturing artificial sweetener, aspartyl-phenylalanine methyl, as well as synthesis in an aqueous solution using special enzymes or in an organic solvent, and synthesis of other acidic amino acid oligomers. 24 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Study on the creation of biopolymer materials under micro-gravity; Bisho juryokuka deno seitai kobunshi zairyo no sosei kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In order to create new functional organic thin film materials, basic data were examined under micro-gravity. Polymerization of pyrrole was affected by micro-gravity after a few minutes from the beginning of reaction. Although relatively uniform particles were obtained, the particle size was finely dependent on conditions. Electrolytic polymerization of conductive organic thin films was yet unstable in reproducibility. On orientation control and thin film formation of protein under gravity-free environment, electrodeposited films were obtained using bacteriorhodopsin film suspension by applying voltage of 6.4V for 9s after 1s from falling. The reproducibility of the number and area of molecular layers was poor. On the study on the formation process of organic thin films, creation of homogeneous films is probably possible by filtration from suspension under reduced pressure under micro-gravity for a short time. Trial linear polymer tied in a row was obtained by capillary injection of dense polymer solution. The viscous fingering phenomenon of viscoelastic bodies under micro-gravity was compared with that on the ground. 11 refs., 36 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Precise measurement of remanent magnetism of rocks under non-magnetic fields; Mujikaika deno ganseki zanryu jiki no seimitsu sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y; Nakatsuka, K [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Various magnetic information data from solidification or deposition up to date are contained in rocks. For the analysis of remanent magnetism, in general, the stable thermal remanent magnetization and the secondary magnetization are separately evaluated using vector variations determined by the location changes of magnetic pole from ac demagnetization or thermal demagnetization. Especially, in geothermal fields, the remanent magnetism in rocks is complicated due to the predominant alteration. When the remanent magnetism of rocks can be precisely measured and the primary and secondary magnetization can be evaluated, important data can be obtained, which represent oriented core samples required for evaluating the geothermal reservoirs. A rock remanent magnetism measuring system using superconductive magnetic shield has been developed, to evaluate the location of magnetic pole. This system can distinguish the remanent magnetization in rocks, and can be applied to the remanent magnetism in rocks in which the location of dipole model is shifted from the center of core. Important basic data of orientation information in rocks can be provided. 6 figs.

  20. Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart; Jugo chart jo deno kyokuchi gensho jikan contour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kametani, T

    1997-05-27

    Time contour expression of limited range phenomena on stack chart is examined for further improvement on the result of the ultimate interpretation in the seismic reflection survey. The policy is made clear from the beginning that local phenomena are to be discussed, and data prior CMP stacking is interpreted in detail. For this purpose, it is effective to make use of the time contour expression in the midpoint-offset plane simultaneously with the CMP and COP panels. For the review of data prior to CMP stacking, it is convenient to use the CMP (CDP) stacking chart in which the data is arranged methodically. In this chart, all the channels which are crude data prior to stacking are plotted on midpoint-offset coordinates, which plane is called the MOD (Midpoint Offset Domain) panel. Various panels can be chosen unrestrictedly, and their mutual relations can be easily grasped. When data points are given a time axis, they can be expressed in a time contour. Studies are conducted about the underground structure, multiple reflection paths divided by it, and characteristics of detour reflection attributable to faults. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  1. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, S; Ikuma, T; Tanifuji, R [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Agglomeration and reaction characteristics of various coal chars in fluidized-bed coal gasifier; Ryudoso sekitan gas ka ronai deno sekitan no gyoshu tokusei to hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemiya, S.; Aoki, K.; Mori, S.; Kojima, T. [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With relation to the coals delivered as common samples in the coal fundamental technology development project, an experimental study was conducted on agglomeration characteristics and reaction characteristics in the fluidized-bed coal gasifier. For the experiment, used was a fluidized bed gasifier inserted with a cone-shape dispersion plate with a nozzle in the center. After raising the temperature of the gasifier up to 773K, gasification was conducted sending to the gasifier air from the nozzle and steam from the dispersion plate. The mean particle diameter and gas concentration of chars were measured till the temperature reaches 1373K. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion ratio increases with a decrease in coalification degree of the coal. Moreover, influence of the coal kind was markedly observed at the grid zone of the lower part of the bed, and it was clarified that the lower carbon content ratio the coal kind has, the faster the speed of CO formation and water gasification get. The agglomeration temperature of charcoal which is a product of the condensate is lower by as many as several hundred K than the point of softening, and it was considered to be necessary to study the relation with the temperature distribution in the bed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Bond cleavage reactions of the bridge structure in coal in the presence of hydrogen donating compounds; Suiso kyoyosei kagobutsu sonzaika deno sekitanchu no kakyo kozo no kairetsu hanno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bando, N.; Kidena, K.; Murata, S.; Nomura, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In this paper, bond cleavage reactions are discussed in relation to the softening and solubilization of coal. Were used 9,10-dihydroanthracene (DHA) and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (DHP) as models of hydrogen donating compounds in coal, and bibenzyl, 1,2-diethane, benzylphenylether, and 1,5-dibenzylnaphthalene were used as models of bridge structure compounds. They were compared mutually, as to reactivity of coal against DHA and DHP. For the homolytic cleavage of bridges, DHA with excellent radical supplement performance provided excellent hydrogen donating performance. While, for the ipso-position cleavage of bridges, it was found that DHP can act as an effective hydrogen donor. For the reaction between coal and hydrogenated aromatic compounds, cleavage of relatively weak bonds, such as ether linkage and dimethylene linkage, occurred at about 380{degree}C, and hydrogen from DHA or DHP was consumed. On the other hand, the results suggested that the cleavage reaction at ipso-position affected by hydrogen donating solvent is also important at temperature range around 420{degree}C. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Cement manufacture and sludge; Semento seizo to gesui odei. Semento kojo deno antei shori {center{underscore}dot} yuko riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Yoji; Yamazaki, Masayasu; Hashimoto, Koichi [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    There was the percussion of the sludge processing from the Kitakyushu City in 1995. Within various waste treatment technology cultivated to it, the technology (direct combustion system) of cement raw material by the direct injection of sludge dehydrated cake to cement baking furnace was adopted. It became dealing with in cement baking furnace of the Kurosaki factory in our company. Through the processing by the present, it is not completely finding even in cement quality of the product, environmental side and on the problem. It was confirmed to be the processing technology of sewage dewatered sludge in which this technology was safely stabilized. In addition, the superiority in much global environmental protection has also been confirmed. (NEDO)

  5. Stochastic model of flow and dispersion of fine particles in a packed bed; Kakuritsu katei wo mochiita juten sonai deno funtai no ryudo to bunsan model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, K [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Lockwood, F

    1996-06-01

    For the calculation of pulverized coal combustion in a blast furnace blow pipe and tuyere, a model was built for the evaluation of the movement and dispersion of particles in a packed bed by use of a stochastic approach. In the stochastic particle trajectory calculation taking into consideration the impact of fluctuations in gas turbulence, interaction distance between particles and eddies and interaction time have to be determined, in addition to fluctuations in gas flow velocity (to be determined by measuring the instantaneous flow velocity in a normal distribution generated according to random numbers). The eddy life was determined using Shuen`s formula on the premise that the particle-eddy interaction occurs within the calculated life or the transit time, whichever is shorter. As for the turbulence energy {kappa}, it was determined by the {kappa}-{epsilon} model for the free space and by the {kappa}-Lm(mixing length) model for the packed bed. From the average of a multiplicity of particles in the experiment, such time average specific values as the average density and flow velocity vectors of particles in the space, and particle trajectories, were calculated, which proved to agree with values from experiments. Once in the packed bed, the pulverized coal underwent a sudden deceleration due to its interaction with particles in the packed bed, and the pulverized coal flow near the central axis was rapidly diffused in the packed bed. This model is expected to find its use in the study of pulverized coal combustion in the blast furnace. 18 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Estimation of durability of GFRP laminates under stress-corrosive environments using acoustic emission; AE wo mochiita ouryoku fushoku kankyoka deno GFRP no taikyusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Yoshimichi. [Seikow Chemical Engineering and Machinery, Ltd., Hyogo (Japan). Laboratory of Composite Materials; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki. [Osaka Prefectural College of Tehcnology, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    The objective of this investigation is to estimate the creep life of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) under stress-corrosive environments using acoustic emission(AE). The laminates were fabricated using combinations of vinylester resin (R806) and random fiber mat or woven cloth. The creep tests were conducted in 5% nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) environment. The AE depends on the loading level and the environment condition. For the creep test, the woven cloth reinforced specimens gave higher number of AE counts than the random mat reinforced specimens. The creep life decreased with increasing creep stress, whereas the rate of AE counts increased with increasing creep stress. A linear relationship was found between the creep life and the AE count rate. Using the proposed equation, a prediction of the creep life of GFRP under corrosive environments would presumably be possible. (author)

  7. Resistivity tomography using borehole of 500m in depth at the seaside site; 500m shin boring wo mochiita kaigan fukin deno hiteiko tomography tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Kono, T [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan); Chiba, A [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    With an objective to verify exploration methods to identify geological structures to a depth of about 500 m and continuity of fissure zones, a case study was carried out on a resistivity tomography method using ground surface exploration by means of the resistivity method and boreholes of 500 m in depth. The investigated area is consisted of abyssal rocks of the Cretaceous period, where granodiorites of coarse grain and intrusive rocks of small scale are distributed. Fissures on the ground surface have gentle inclination, and are of opening type showing high water permeability. The data analysis has derived apparent resistivities in the Wenner electrode arrangement, the Eltran electrode arrangement and the pole-pole electrode arrangement. The resistivity tomography has derived apparent resistivity in the pole-dipole electrode arrangement which is relatively high in accuracy and strong against noise. As a result of inputting these resistivities and performing an analysis on a two-dimensional resistivity structure, a structure of 100-m scale was made clear, in which difference of the resistivity values is distinct. The result of the resistivity tomography may be thought to have identified the resistivity anomaly of a small scale, although the absolute values show some variation. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Wave fields simulation in difficult terrain using numerical grid method; Hyoko henka no aru chiiki deno suchi koshi wo mochiita hado simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, W; Ogawa, T [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Tamagawa, T; Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    This paper describes that a high-accuracy simulation can be made on seismic exploration by using the numerical grid method. When applying a wave field simulation using the difference calculus to an area subjected to seismic exploration, a problem occurs as to how a boundary of the velocity structure including the ground surface should be dealt with. Simply applying grids to a boundary changing continuously makes accuracy of the simulation worse. The difference calculus using a numerical grid is a method to solve the problem by imaging a certain region into a rectangular region through use of variable conversion, which can impose the boundary condition more accurately. The wave field simulation was carried out on a simple two-layer inclined structure and a two-layer waved structure. It was revealed that amplitudes of direct waves and reflection waves are disturbed in the case where no numerical grid method is applied, and the amplitudes are more disperse in the reflection waves than those obtained by using the numerical grid method. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Bearing life in contaminated oil and oil passing into bearing for tapered roller bearing; Ensui koro jikuuke ni okeru ibutsu yuchu deno jumyo to kantsu yuryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Y; Oshima, H; Sakamoto, K [Koyo Seiko Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In this paper a relationship between depth of dents, area of dents gathered and bearing life has been investigated for tapered roller bearings used in differential gear case. It is effective for the longer bearing life to reduce hard particles of Fe especially among several contaminations existing in the gear case. It is also effective to make oil level lower in the case from the view point for reduction of number of dents. 8 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Self-potential monitoring around wells in Mutnovsky geothermal field, Kamchatka; Kamchatka hanto mutnovsky deno chinetsui shuhen no shizen den`i monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, N.; Tosha, T.; Ishito, K. [Geological Survey of Japan Ibaragi (Japan); Delemen, I.; Kiryukhin, A. [Institute of Volcanology Far East Branch Russia Academy of Sciences (Russia)

    1997-07-01

    Mutnovsky is a geothermal field which lies to the south of and about 80km away from Petropavlovsk, Kamchatsky, the state capital of Kamchatka. The geothermal survey has been conducted since 1978 in this field. In this study, the self-potential variation was observed by monitoring the potential difference between places near and far from a well in the same region. Then, the self-potential associated with spurting vapor from a well was analyzed using a model of the self-potential generated from the steaming current coupled with the flow of hot water in the porous medium. As results of an experiment on the spurt of stream, vapor containing 80% stream in weight was exhausted at a mass flow rate of 30kg/sec at 100degC from wells. Since the specific enthalpy of this vapor is 2225kJ/kg, the underground geothermal storage layer was estimated to be a state of liquid and vapor two-phase. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Independent power source hybrid system - recent examples mainly of mountain huts.; Dokuritsu dengengata no haiburiddo shisutemu -saikin no yamagoya deno jirei wo chushin ni.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T. [Kanagawa Inst. of Tech., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-09-30

    History of the independent power source hybrid systems used at such as mountain huts were outlined, and recent application examples of the hybrid systems were explained. At Natsuzawa mineral spring in Nagano pref., 7 kW of hybrid power generator system composed of solar cell and wind power generator, as well as 400 W of small hydraulic power generator are working supplying electric power for the private sewerage system, and the system without diesel generator is being tested. At Senjogahara refuge hut in South Alps, a hybrid power generation system composed of 10.7 kW of solar cell and 6.4 kW of wind power generator was installed, and is working. In mountainous area, there exist critical factors such as weather condition and difficulty in carrying equipment, accordingly, cost reduction and sizing down of relevant apparatus such as batteries and inverters are expected. (NEDO)

  12. Example of garbage recycling. Pt. 1. On-site energy recovery by microbial treatment of garbage at a shopping mall; Namagomi recycle jirei. 1. Tenpo deno namagomi recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, M.; Tatara, M.; Togo, Y. [Kajima Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-05

    A total treatment and energy recovery system for garbage was developed, and has been installed at 2 large-scale shopping malls. The system consists of garbage separation-pretreatment process, thermophilic methane fermentation process, biogas utilization process and secondary treatment system for fermentation effluent. Operational data of the past 2.5 years indicate that the system produces ca. 210 {approx} 240 m{sup 3} of biogas (ca. 66 % methane content) per 1,000 kg garbage treated per day, which is used as a hotwater boiler fuel on the sites. A demonstration project on fuel cell power generation by using the biogas has also been successfully conducted in a pilot-scale garbage treatment system. (author)

  13. Explosion properties of aluminum/oxidizer mixtures in a closed vessel; Aluminium/sankazai kongobutsu no mippei yokinai deno bakuhatsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, A.; Aochi, T.; Shiraki, K.; Ogawa, T. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-10-31

    In order to understand explosion properties of aluminum/oxidized mixtures for firework a closed vessel test was carried out, and pressure profile and ignition delay time were measured. It was found that flake aluminum (Al(f))/oxidized mixtures were more reactive and showed higher pressure values than those of atomized aluminum (Al(a))/oxidized mixtures. At a positive oxygen balance region Al(f)/oxidized mixtures showed a good agreement with the theoretically predicted values of combustion pressure at a constant volume. The combustion parameters with equilibrium calculation of aluminum/potassium chlorate showed almost the same ones of aluminum/potassium perchlorate. Furthermore, to investigate the influence of particle diameter of potassium chlorate on the explosion properties of Al(f)/potassium chlorate mixtures, the same kind of closed vessel test was performed and it was found that the mixtures became less sensitive and reactive with the increase of particle diameter. 17 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Methods for constructing time synchronous networks. Part 1. Consideration and experiment of time synchronizing functions and devices; Zenkei jikoku dokimo no kosei shuho. 1. Jikoku doki hoshiki no kino kento to jikkenteki kensho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serizawa, Y.; Kitamura, K.; Myojin, M.; Shimizu, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Nenohi, H.; Morimitsu, M.; Masui, O.; Matsushima, T. [NEC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of the back-up protection of regional power line system and the protection and control of accident influence, construction methods of time synchronizing network have been investigated. This paper proposes a method suitable for business power communication. For the synchronization between stations, transmission delay and its fluctuation have to be measured accurately by transmitting time signals between stations. Based on the observed delay values, the function of time correction (phase synchronizing control) of synchronized station is required. A mutual type synchronizing method was proposed, to which a sampling synchronization method of carrier relay system for transmission line protection was applied. In this method, transmission of time signals and measurement of delays are mutually conducted between stations, and phases of independent transmitters of the both stations are controlled so as to be equivalent. This method is characterized by the suppression of delays with fluctuation in the same direction of two-way transmission. For the transmission of time signals, two types of synchronizing devices were employed, i.e., synchronous and asynchronous manners. In the former, frequency synchronous network of SDH (synchronous digital hierarchy) was synchronized. In the latter, a carrier relay device was utilized independent of frequency synchronous network. It was expected that a synchronous network with an order of {mu}s can be constructed. 11 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. FY1997 report on test well drilling and well investigation for the Akinomiya area survey in the geothermal development promotion survey; 1997 nendo chinetsu sokushin chosa. Akinomiya chiiki chosa shisui kussaku koji oyobi kosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to extract promising areas with high geothermal feasibility, the Akinomiya area was surveyed by drilling test wells. In the N9-AY-3 excavating work, the first stage (depth from 15 to 33 m) used the water-free excavation to prevent adverse effects on the water sources. The second stage (depth from 33 to 409 m) reached the targeted depth with slanted excavation. The third stage drilled into depths from 409 to 1,006 m. The fourth stage was targeted to drill down to 1,802 m, but an entire lost returns have occurred at the depth of 1,598 m, whereas lost water drilling was performed by using fresh water, and the drilling was terminated at the targeted depth. The AY-4 excavation was also advanced with the first, second, third and fourth stage method, and when the entire lost returns have occurred at 1,196 m, the lost water drilling was carried out by using fresh water, and the drilling was terminated at the scheduled 1,505 m. The AY-5 excavation was also advanced with the first, second, third and fourth stage method. The first and second stages used water-free excavation (using air hammers) to avoid influence on the nearby spa areas. The third stage went down to 405 m performing coring, but the entire lost returns occurred at 298 m. The excavation rate was very high, and the core recovery rate reached 100%. The fourth stage presented the same coring condition as that for the third stage down to 1,002 m. (NEDO)

  16. Effect of operating methods of wind turbine-generator system on net power extraction under wind speed fluctuations in fields; Hendo fukyoka deno doryoku chushutsu kara mita furyoku hatsuden system no unten seigyoho ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Hashizume, T.; Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    2000-01-25

    The effect of operating methods of wind turbine-generator system on net power extraction under wind speed fluctuations is discussed in relation to the dynamic behavior of the system. The system is composed of a Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine and a load generator. In this paper, two types of operating method are examined; constant tip speed ratio operation for stand-alone power systems (Scheme 1) and synchronous operation for utility power systems (Scheme 2). The computed results of the net extracting power using our dynamic simulation model show that the dominant factor of power extraction in Scheme 1 is the dynamic characteristics of rotational components and that it is important to select the appropriate rated wind speed in Scheme 2. Thus, it is concluded that a conformable operating method and rated power output of the system exist for each wind condition. In particular, small-scale systems, which are smaller than approximately 10 kW-system range, are desirable to be operated under a constant tip speed ratio as stand-alone power systems. (author)

  17. Time domain electromagnetic method for petroleum exploration. Part 3. Case study in Yoneyama area; Sekiyu tansa ni okeru TDEM ho data shutoku to kaiseki ni tsuite. 3. Niigataken Yoneyama chiiki deno tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H; Mitsuhata, Y [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shiga, N [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The result is reported of a TDEM method-based survey for oil exploration conducted in the Yoneyama district, Niigata Prefecture. The survey covered the southern part of the sedimentary basin in the prefecture, known for the poor quality of the seismic prospecting data that had been recorded. The purpose of the TDEM method-assisted survey was to probe the high-resistivity volcanic rock structure and low-resistivity sedimentary layer, and to know their details. The obtained data were subjected to interpretation by use of the 1D inversion method. A 4000m-deep level was subjected to interpretation, 34 data were inputted, and the early model consisted of 20 layers. As the result, it was found that there was a high-resistivity layer ranging from the ground surface down to a depth of approximately 500m, that a low-resistivity layer 2500-3000m in thickness lay thereunder, and that the lowest layer had a high resistivity of approximately 100 Ohm m. By comparing these data with the geological structure, structures were disclosed corresponding to the rock bed depth, Ukawa syncline, Ishiguro anticline, and Yoneyama mountain mass. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Development of research activity support system. 3. Automatic link generation/maintenance on self-evolving database; Kenkyu katsudo shien system no kaihatsu. 3. Jiko zoshokugata database deno bunsho link no jido sakusei/shufuku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, T.; Futakata, A. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    For a coordinated task to be accomplished in an organization, documents, charts, and data produced by plural workers need to be shared by the plural workers. This information sharing setup will function more effectively when the meanings and purposes of documents, etc., are arranged in good order relative to the other documents and when they are managed as a group of documents organically linked with each other and properly updated as the task approaches completion. In the self-evolving databases proposed so far, five types of document links representing the relations between documents are automatically generated and the documents are unifiedly managed for the documents yielded by coordinated work to be arranged in a proper order. A procedure for automatically generating document links are established on the basis of information received from the document retrieval system and Lotus Notes application. In a self-evolving database, the document on either side of a link is apt to be lost due to users` moving or deleting documents. An automatic procedure is developed in this report which will enable such document links to correctly restore themselves without loss of semantic relations. 12 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Analysis of transient thermal behaviors during the charging process in stratified heat storage tanks. 2nd Report. Effects of characteristic parameters; Seiso chikunetsu sonai deno juten katei no kato netsuteki kyodo ni kansuru kaiseki. 2. Tokusei inshi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, H; Hong, H; Pak, E

    1997-11-25

    The mixing effect deteriorates performance in a stratified heat storage tank. In the present study, the effect of characteristic factors during the charging process was analyzed, based on the analytical solution in the previous study in which a strict boundary condition was applied and a mixing effect was included. Also, the usefulness of the solution was verified and the method of application to a real system was examined by comparing it to other experimental results. It was concluded that the depth of the perfectly mixed region is dominant unless the Peclet number is very small. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Experiment for estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave from three component microtremor array observation in Morioka area; Moriokashiiki deno bido no sanseibun array kansoku ni yoru love ha no iso sokudo oyobi power hi suitei no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Yakuwa, A; Saito, T [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-22

    Three component microtremor array observations were carried out in two locations in the city of Morioka for an attempt of estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave by applying the expanded three component spatial self-correlation method. The microtremors were observed by using a seismograph with a natural period of one second. The arrays were so arranged as to form an equilateral triangle consisted of seven points. The maximum radii were 100 m, 50 m, 25 m and 12.5 m for vertical movements, and 100 m and 30 m for horizontal movements at the Iwate University, and 80 m, 40 m, 20 m and 10 m for vertical movements and 90 m for horizontal movements at the Morioka Technical Highschool. The analysis has used three sections, each with relatively steady state of about 40 seconds as selected from records of observations for about 30 minutes. The result of the discussions revealed that it is possible to derive phase velocity of not only Rayleigh waves but also Love waves by applying the expanded spatial self-correlation method to the observation record. Thus, estimation of underground structures with higher accuracy has become possible by using simultaneously the Rayleigh waves and Love waves. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Influence of fragmentation of substrate on synergistic effect in hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose with cellulases; Seruraze niyoru kessho serurosu bunkaikatei deno sojokoka ni oyobosu kishitsu no danpenka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Morita, M.; Mitsui, R. [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2000-05-10

    The expression mechanism of synergistic effect is investigated by using two cellulase components obtained from Meicelase CEP-6000 by purification. Purified cellulose components are classified into two types. One, tentatively named CMCase-type (FIE and FIIIE), has relatively low values of the ratio of MCC hydrolysis to CMC hydrolysis, and considerably high values of the ratio of K{sub m} for MCC and CMC. The other, tentatively named MCCase-type (FIIE and FIVE), has largely different values about those properties. In the case of MCC hydrolysis with FIVE alone, the particle diameter of MCC decreases (fragmentation) and the particle number of MCC increased rapidly in the early stage of reaction, and both decrease gradually in the late stage of reaction. In the case of a mixture of the above two components is for an increase in amounts of reaction site in the substrate for FIIIE, dependent on fragmentation of MCC by FIVE, and the activity of FIVE is stimulated by FIIIE. In the case of the mixture of FIE and FIIIE, the synergistic effect is not expressed. This finding suggests that these two components do not have the activity of fragmentation of MCC. (author)

  2. WE-NET substask 3. Conceptual design of the total system (City-level energy estimation and assessment); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 3. Zentai system gainen sekkei (toshi kibo deno yosoku hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The effort of fiscal 1997 at isolating the best way to introduce a relatively small amount of hydrogen into urban fuel economy was carried over to fiscal 1998. In the research of fiscal 1998, comparison was made between Tokyo and London in connection with hydrogen introduction, and a transition scenario was proposed for introducing hydrogen into Tokyo. Models were built for Tokyo and London, and studied. The result of this study was different from that obtained in the previous study, and places the two cities under similar conditions. The difference is attributed to the rapid progress in the development of the fuel cell and to the resultant reduction in cost. It is inferred that, in consideration of the transportation situation, the introduction of pure hydrogen will be the most cost-effective for both cities at least for some time to come. According to the revised data, natural gas may be procured in Tokyo as in London but the size of supply available in Tokyo is fairly smaller than that in London. Several transition scenarios covering the period up to 2025 were subjected to discussion. (NEDO)

  3. How Sharp is a Unicorn's Horn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Peter H.; Allignton, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Criticizes a study of the reliability and validity of curriculum-based reading inventories by L. S. Fuchs, D. Fuchs, and S. L. Deno and raises questions regarding the study's internal and external validity. (AEA)

  4. Analysis and study on the performance variation of SCR DeNOx catalyst of Coal-Fired Boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianxing, Ren; Fangqin, Li; Jiang, Wu; Qingrong, Liu; Yongwen, Yang; Zhongzhu, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are one kind of harmful substances from the burning process of fossil fuel and air at high temperature. NO x emissions cause serious pollution on atmospheric environment. In this paper, coal-fired utility boilers were chosen as the object, NO x formation mechanism and control were studied, and SCR deNO x technology was used to control NO x emissions from coal-fired boilers. Analyzed the relationship between deNO x efficiency and characteristics of SCR DeNO x catalyst. Through analysis, affecting SCR DeNO x catalyst failure factors, change law of catalytic properties and technical measures to extend the service life of the catalyst were gotten. (author)

  5. Fiscal 1998 investigation of geothermal development and promotion in Akinomiya area survey. Report on exploratory drilling/well survey and incidental work (1/2); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa Akinomiya chiiki chosa hokokusho. 1/2. Shisui kussaku koji kosei chosa oyobi futai koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    Exploratory drilling and well survey were conducted, for the purpose of grasping underground geological structure, temperature and physical properties of Akinomiya area, Akita prefecture, as a part of fiscal 1998 investigation of geothermal development and promotion. The exploratory drilling well N10-AY-6 was excavated to the depth of 1,701 m. This well had a small lost circulation of about 4.2 kL/h at the end of drilling; hence, pressurized water injection was carried out for the purpose of enhancing the performance as a reducing well, resulting in an improvement to 21.6 kL/h. The well N10-AY-7 was in the bedrocks of the Old Tertiary system at the depth of 492 m or deeper, which revealed that the Old Tertiary bedrocks lay more shallowly than expected. At the depth of 1,900 m, the maximum temperature showed 223.3 degree C. In a temperature recovery test, it climbed to 277.2 degree C at the depth of 1,400 m. In the well N10-AY-8, the Old Tertiary bedrocks were found drilled at the depth of 87 m or deeper. Inside well temperatures at the time of temperature recovery test showed nearly the same degrees from the depth of 880 m to 1,090 m or about, thereafter rising until the depth of 1,330 m, further rising from 1,370 m until the bottom of the well, and showing the maximum temperature of 277.0 degree C at the depth of 1,450 m. (NEDO)

  6. In-situ testing of the liquefaction potential of soft ground using an s-wave vibrator and seismic cones. Part 1. System, concept and preliminary test result; S ha vibrator oyobi seismic cone wo mochiita gen`ichi jiban ekijoka potential no hyoka. 1. System kosei oyobi genchi yosatsu keisoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazaki, T [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the purpose of evaluating liquefaction in situ, it was proposed that an S-wave vibrator designed to serve as a source in a reflection exploration method be utilized as a strong vibration generating source, and measurement was conducted in this connection. Equipment used in this test included an S-wave vibrator, static cone penetration machine, and various measuring cones. A multiplicity of measuring cones had been inserted beforehand into the target layers and comparison layers, and changes upon vibrator activation were measured. On a dry bed of the Tonegawa river, a 40m{sup 2} field was set up, and 41 cone penetration tests were conducted, with the cones positioned zigzag at 5m intervals. In this way, the ground structure was disclosed from the surface to the 10m-deep level. For the measurement, 3-component cones and seismic cones were placed at prescribed depths, and fluctuations and waveforms presented by pore water pressure at each level were determined with the vibration source changing its place. It was found that the changes in the pore water pressure exposed to vibration assume characteristic patterns corresponding to the conditions of vibration application. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / R and D of a task adaptation type group architecture transfer robot system, TRIPTERS (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / task tekigogata gun kosei hanso robot system TRIPTERS no kaihatsu kenkyu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper stated the fiscal 1997 result of the development of a task adaptation type group architecture transfer robot system (TRIPTERS) which can cope with changes in carrying task rapidly and flexibly. R and D were conducted mainly of various functional modules, the operation management technology which enables group architecture, and the basic design of a standardized transfer robot. As to the positioning, studied were the construction of the basic hardware of laser position measuring device, and the application method. Concerning the cooperative carrying, conducted were securing of positioning accuracy of matters to be carried, high speed heavy transfer control, and design of dead reckoning system. Relating to the operation management, passable areas were divided into more than one zones, and the effective path reservation method was constructed so that one and the same zone is not occupied. As to the environmental recognition/obstacle avoidance, developed were actual hour/distance acquisition equipment, and autonomous cars running according to the directions of the color sign recognition system by stereo CCD camera. Also conducted were the development of methods to recognize the distance to obstacles and to discriminate areas, the development of mobile sensor, and the basic experiment on running of the demonstration machine. 44 refs., 153 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Hydrogen utilization international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbines (development of the main component devices such as turbine blades and rotors); Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (turbine yoku, rotor nado shuyo kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper described the result of the fiscal 1996 development relating to hydrogen combustion turbines, as one of the hydrogen utilization technologies, which have excellent environmentality and are expected of remarkably high efficiency. In the film cooling system of first-stage moving/stationary blades, the smaller the pitch of film pore is, the higher the mean cooling efficiency becomes, indicating 0.7 at maximum. As compared with the conventional shower head type, the metal temperature can be reduced 30-40degC. In the recovery type inner (convection) cooling system, by reducing the blade number, the consumption amount of coolant can be reduced 6% in stationary blade and 13% in moving blade, as compared with the result of the preceding year. In the element test of the hybrid cooling system, film cooling efficiency was actually measured by the porous module test equipment, and the result well agreed with the calculation result. In the water cooling system, studied were water (stationary blade) and vapor (moving blade) of the closed cooling structure for realization of a cycle efficiency of 60%. In rotor/disk cooling, analyses were made of seal characteristic grasp tests and characteristics of the rotor. The effect of deflection in the mainstream was small. Besides, proper value of the seal overlapping amount could be obtained. 6 refs., 368 figs., 55 tabs.

  9. Report on results of 1998 regional consortium R and D project. 'Regional consortium energy R and D field' 'R and D of task-adaptive platoon transportation robot system, TRIPTERS'; 1998 nendo task tekigogatagun kosei hanso robot system TRIPTERS no kaihatsu kenkyu (dai 2 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the purpose of realizing a task-adaptive platoon transportation robot system, R and D were conducted concerning functional modules, platoon transportation control technologies, etc.. In the R and D of a positioning module, measuring accuracy was examined in a stationary state in relation to the two- and three-dimensional instrumentation of a robot by using laser. In the R and D of a module for recognizing environmental state and avoiding obstacles, the steering of an autonomous running vehicle and a method of recognizing its position were examined using a stereo camera, with a steering theory constructed. In the R and D of a standardized robot, a large AGV (automated guided vehicle) and a running control program were prepared, with the validity verified for the hardware and the control method of the robot by the running test. In the R and D of a autonomous and distributed cooperative module and a small imaging module for workspace sensing, the movement of plural robots was simulated, with a simulator developed capable of visually confirming the movement. The experiment of the plural robots proved effectiveness of the clustering. (NEDO)

  10. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1998. Hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Subtask 8. Development of hydrogen combustion turbine (development of major components such as turbine blades and rotors); 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET). 8. Suiso nensho turbine no kaihatsu (turbine yoku, rotor nado shuyo kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The present research and development is intended to establish the fundamental technologies required to develop a pilot plant, by investigating development of such major component devices as turbine blades and rotors in a hydrogen combustion turbine. In the turbine moving and stator blade cooling technology, it is intended to achieve the power plant efficiency of 60% (based on HHV) as established in the interim evaluation performed in fiscal 1996. Therefore, the necessary element tests, detailed blade design, and partial fabrication were moved forward on the three kinds of the selected blade cooling systems as the cooling systems that can deal with the steam temperature condition as high as 1,700 degrees C. Fiscal 1998 will execute the design and fabrication of test blades and testing devices for blade cooling evaluation tests to be performed at Tashiro Township in Akita Prefecture. At the same time, evaluation and selection will be made on the three kinds of the cooling blades. In the rotor cooling technology, for the purpose of analyzing the rolling-in phenomenon of steam in the main turbine flow, a method will be developed to analyze rotor disk cavity temperatures based on CFD, the basic sealing conditions based thereon will be discussed, and generalization will be made on the rotor cooling technology. (NEDO)

  11. NC-6301, a polymeric micelle rationally optimized for effective release of docetaxel, is potent but is less toxic than native docetaxel in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Mitsunobu; Harada,; Iwata,; Saito,; Ishii,; Hayashi,; Yashiro,; Hirakawa,; Miyazono,Kohei; Kato,Yasuki; Kano,Mitsunobu

    2012-01-01

    Mitsunori Harada,1 Caname Iwata,2 Hiroyuki Saito,1 Kenta Ishii,1 Tatsuyuki Hayashi,1 Masakazu Yashiro,3 Kosei Hirakawa,3 Kohei Miyazono,2 Yasuki Kato,1 Mitsunobu R Kano21Research Division, NanoCarrier Co, Ltd, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University, Osaka, JapanAbstract: Drug release rate is an important factor in determining efficacy and toxicity of nanoscale dru...

  12. High-temperature radiation-induced removal of gaseous air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Rojas, I.; Thomson, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the use of high-temperature electron beam irradiation to simultaneous remove aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling with validated mechanisms predicts that electron beam irradiation will simultaneously reduce NO with the thermal De-NO x process and oxidize benzene or ethyl chloride over a wide temperature range. Electron beam dosage of 2-10 kGy more than double the width of the temperature window over which the thermal De-NO x process is effective. At these dosages, the benzene and ethyl chloride removal efficiencies can exceed 90% within this temperature window. (author)

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1993. International clean energy system technology to utilize hydrogen - WE-NET (Sub-task 8. Development of hydrogen burning turbines - Development of main components including turbine blades and rotors); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) (Sub tusk 8: Suiso nensho tabin no kaihatsu - tabin yoku rota tou shuyou kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Among the research and development items in relation with the 'development of hydrogen burning turbines' based on the WE-NET project, surveys have been performed on developing the main components including turbine blades and rotors. The current fiscal year has surveyed the latest trends in the existing gas turbine and rotor cooling technologies, and the technological problems were extracted from the viewpoint of application to the hydrogen fueled turbines. Since the hydrogen fueled turbines have the entrance temperature higher than that of power generation gas turbines, development of the blade cooling technology is important. Main cooling methods available are the film cooling and transpiration cooling, whose technological development is necessary in the advanced forms. Cooling method for the inner side of blades includes the impingement cooling and the pin fin cooling, whereas the V-letter shaped turbulence accelerating rib and the serpentine flow path structure are considered promising. Increasing the anti-heat temperature of blades may be realized by utilizing ceramics. As a technology close to putting it into practical use, application of heat shield coating is promising. (NEDO)

  14. 3D electrical method and step continuous wave radar method for Nojima site. Results of measurement of resistivity at trench site; Nojima danso ni okeru sanjigenhi teikoho to step shiki renzokuha chika radar ho tansa. Trench chosa chiten deno hiteiko sokutei kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K; Oda, Y; Tank, K [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Hayashi, H [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Jomori, A [Japan Crust Research, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Several surveys were carried out near the Nojima fault, including three-dimensional resistivity measurement and underground radar survey at the Ogura area, underground radar survey at the Hirabayashi area, and resistivity measurement in the vicinity of the trench at the Nashinomoto area, in order to investigate in detail the underground structures at a depth up to several tens meters from the ground surface. Resistivity was measured by an automatic analyzer capable of simultaneously measuring potential levels at 14 channels which can cover 112 measuring points at the largest. At the Ogura area, the boundary planes of the resistivity structures are continuously detected in the direction of the fault moving during the earthquake period. The underground radar measurement results suggest accumulated displacement of strata at a depth of around 25m in the Osaka Strata and flexible structures. At the Hirabayashi area, the underground radar analysis detects discrete sections in the reflection planes at the fault position, but no reflection planes of high continuity. At the Nashinomoto area, the clay stratum detected in the fault by excavating the trenches are found to be low in resistivity by the resistivity measurement. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Study on the energy performance of an energy producing and saving house. Part 3. Measurement results of the connecting system to the power grid and prediction of the PV system electric generation residence in Kyushu; So sho energy seino ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gyakuchoryu keito renkei system no nenkan jisseki to Kyushu ni okeru jutaku deno hatsudenryo yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O.; Sakai, K.; Hirakawa, M. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    Two-year study of an energy-producing/-saving house equipped with a 5kWp photovoltaic power generation system is described, in which the track records of this system capable of back-flow and system interconnection and inverter performance are analyzed, and the power expected to be obtained when photovoltaic power generation systems are installed in some residential houses in the Kyushu area is predicted. In the analysis of the yearly variance in the demand/supply of electric power, it turns out that more is generated in spring than in summer, which is thanks to the good weather in spring, typhoons in summer, and power generation efficiency degraded due to temperature rise in the modules. The amount of photovoltaic cell module-generated power is estimated by performing a multiple regression analysis involving the amount of insolation, outside air temperature, and wind speeds. Furthermore, available power is calculated using a relational expression involving inverter performance. On the assumption of 3kW-capacity photovoltaic power generation systems installed at residential houses at various locations across Kyushu, the expected amount of power to be generated is calculated, which proves to be approximately 3000kWh a year, confirming the effectiveness of the photovoltaic power generation system. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Desolvation of L-histidine and {alpha}-ketoisocaproic acid complex from ethanolate crystals under humidified conditions and influence of crystallinity on its desolvation; Histidine Ketoisocapron san ensan ethanol wamono kessho no koshitsudo jokenka deno datsu ethanol to datsu ethanol sei ni oyobosu kesshosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, S.; Tanabe, T.; Maruyama, S.; Kishishita, A.; Nagashima, N. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    Desolvation of L-histidine and a-ketoisocaproic acid complex from ethanolate crystals was investigated. The ethanolate crystals were obtained from ethanol aqueous solutions of above 60 wt% of ethanol. It was difficult to remove ethanol molecules from the crystals lay vacuum drying. However, it was found that ethanol molecules in the crystal lattice could be released under humidified conditions, for example, 313 K and 60% relative humidity, accompanied by transformation to non-solvated crystals. When the peak of 2{theta}=9.0{degree}(CuK{alpha} radiation) in powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the ethanolate crystals was weak, ethanol molecules (about 1wt.%) remained in the crystals at the end of transformations and then the residual ethanol decreased slowly. A controlled moderate cooling process, where the supersaturation is released slowly, is the key point to obtain ethanolate crystals having high `crystallinity` (defined as peak height of 2{theta}=9.0{degree}) which shows quick desolation rather than adding ethanol for a rapid increase of supersaturation in crystallization. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Elucidation of hydrogen mobility in tetralin under coal liquefaction conditions using a tritium tracer method. Effects of the addition of H2S and H2O; Tritium tracer ho wo mochiita sekitan ekika hanno jokenka deno tetralin no suiso idosei hyoka. Ryuka suiso oyobi mizu no tenka koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, M.; Saito, M.; Ishihara, A.; Kabe, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    It was previously reported that the tritium tracer method is useful for the quantitative consideration of hydrogen behavior in coal during coal liquefaction reaction. Tetralin is excellent hydrogen donating solvent, and is considered as one of the model compounds of coal. In this study, effects of H2S and H2O on the hydrogen exchange reaction between tetralin and gaseous hydrogen labeled by tritium were investigated. It was suggested that the conversion of tetralin and the hydrogen exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and tetralin proceed through the radical reaction mechanism with a tetralyl radical as an intermediate product. When H2S existed in this reaction, the hydrogen exchange yield increased drastically without changing the conversion yield. This suggested that the hydrogen exchange reaction proceeds even in the reaction where radical does not give any effect. In the case of H2O addition, the conversion yield and hydrogen exchange rate decreased into a half or one-third. It was suggested that H2O inhibited the formation process of tetralyl radical. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Environment-oriented private house of Mr.K in Kyushu. Self-sufficing concept of the entire house demands for heating and cooling by natural energy, including the sewage disposal; Kyushu ni tatsu kankyo kyoseigata jutaku (K tei). Danbo/ryobo/seikatsu haisui no subete wo teinai deno shizen energy wo mochiite jusoku/shorisuru konseputo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O. [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-30

    A case study for a natural energy system serving for a private house is reported with the outline of the system and the measurement results of the temperature and heat environments both in summer and winter. A 2-story house with an area of 141m{sup 2} and a total floor area of 186m{sup 2} is introduced including the site where it stands. Then, it is described on a floor heating system by circulating warm water through pipings embedded in the structural bodies, made of reinforced concrete from a solar heat collector consisted of 20 galvanized steel pipes of 100mm in diameter and 7m in length, a wall and ceiling cooling system with well water that gushes out at a rate of about 2 tons/min, and also the use of 20 amorphous solar cell panels as the source of electric power generation of about 17W capacity for these 2 systems, a house sewage disposal after the first stage treatment into the soil of kicken garden and so forth. Upon these system installed, 50 measurement items such as temperatures of outdoor and each room, humidity, quantity of sunshine and so on were measured for 1 year, and the instrumentation data were collected. From various analytical results, it was revealed that the highest temperature of warm water pipings in winter was 32{degree}C, while the lowest temperature of 17{degree}C was recorded in the morning and the surface temperature in the structural bodies of a room located at the south-east corner remained stable in summer more or less at 27{degree}C and so forth. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Ionization current in N2 gas. 11. Three dimensional analysis for loss processes of metastable particles affected by the reflection at the boundary; N2 gas chu ni okeru denri denryu. 11. Kyokai deno hansha wo koryoshita jun`antei reiki ryushi sonshitsu katei no sanjigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Ito, H.; Sekizawa, H.; Ikuta, N. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Loss processes of the nitrogen metastable molecule N2(A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) in plane parallel electrodes have been investigated by us previously by solving the diffusion equation. Our procedure is based on an analysis using the third kind of boundary condition which can take account of finite values for the density of N2(A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) at the electrode surfaces. The values of the effective lifetime of N2(A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) calculated from this analysis were reasonably consistent with our experiments. This paper describes the behavior of the effective lifetimes of N2(A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) in a cylindrical cavity. The analytical treatment of the diffusion equation for N2(A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) proposed by us is extended to the three dimensional space. We report the nature of the effective lifetimes of metastable molecule in the cylindrical cavity systematically. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Study on homogeneous charge diesel combustion engine. 4th Report. Search for low emission combustion method with diesel fuel pre-mixture; Kin`itsu kongo asshuku chakka diesel kikan ni kansuru kenkyu. 4. Keiyu yokongoka deno tei emission no kanosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H; Koike, S; Odaka, M [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Single fuel operation with diesel fuel has been tried experimentally for the Homogeneous Charge Diesel Combustion method (HCDC). The higher the pre-mixed fuel ratio, the lower the emissions. But diesel knock due to early self ignition may be occurred under high pre-mixed fuel ratio conditions and consequently the maximum pre-mixed fuel ratio is restricted by these knock limits. Full load operations with higher pre-mixed fuel ratio can be possible with a supercharging which improve the knock limits and emissions. 8 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 3 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (conceptual design of the total system/city-level energy estimation and assessment); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask zentai system gainen sekkei (toshi kibo deno yosoku hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1997 result of the study of scenarios for introducing hydrogen to the urban area. In the case of studying it in London, it was found that hythane (mixture of hydrogen into town gas) was effective, but in the case of doing in Tokyo, it was found that the scenario was undesirable because of the increasing infracost. Accordingly, another scenario was studied. It was assessed from the aspects of environmental advantages, infracosts, and potential advantageous values in urban areas associated with hydrogen utilization (hydrogen premium). It is most effective to use hydrogen as a fuel of transportation means from the aspect of environmental merits as the decrease in external cost. In Tokyo, the dependence upon electric power is large, and therefore it is attractive to introduce highly efficient fuel cells which enable the dispersed cogeneration using hydrogen. The value of hydrogen is determined by the avoidance of environmentally influential substances and the surplus generated output by fuel cells (substitution for the existing natural gas). When the high external cost can be assumed, the value of hydrogen becomes large. The paper also considered the arrangement of infrastructures in Tokyo. 187 refs., 14 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Experimental Microkinetic Approach of De-NO x by NH 3 on V 2 O 5 /WO 3 /TiO 2 Catalysts. 4. Individual Heats of Adsorption of Adsorbed H 2 O Species on Sulfate-Free and Sulfated TiO 2 Supports

    KAUST Repository

    Giraud, Franç ois; Couble, Julien; Geantet, Christophe; Guilhaume, Nolven; Puzenat, Eric; Gros, Sé bastien; Porcheron, Lynda; Kanniche, Mohamed; Bianchi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The present study is a part of an experimental microkinetic approach of the removal of NOx from coal-fired power plants by reduction with NH3 on V2O5/WO3/TiO2 catalysts (NH3-selective catalytic reduction, NH3-SCR). It is dedicated to the characterization of the heats of adsorption of molecularly adsorbed H2Oads species formed on sulfate-free and sulfated TiO2 supports. Water, which is always present during the NH3-SCR, may be in competition and/or react (formation of NH4+) with the adsorbed NH3 species controlling the coverage of the adsorbed intermediate species of the reaction. Mainly, an original experimental procedure named adsorption equilibrium infrared spectroscopy (AEIR) previously used for the adsorption of NH3 species on the same solids is adapted for the adsorption of H2O. At Ta = 300 K and for PH2 O ≤ 1 kPa, three main H2Oads species are formed (associated with a minor amount of dissociated H2O species) on the two TiO2 solids. The species are identified by the positions of their IR bands in the 3750-3000 cm-1 range. Considering the decreasing order of stability, they are (a) coordinated to strong (L2) and weak (L1) Lewis sites and denoted H2O ads-L2 and H2Oads-L1, respectively, and (b) hydrogen bonded to the H2Oads-L species and on O2-/OH sites of the solids (denoted H2Owads). The three species have a common well-defined δH2O IR band at a position in the range 1640-1610 cm-1 according to the total coverage of the surface. According to the AEIR method, the evolution of the intensity of this IR band during the increase in the adsorption temperature Ta in isobaric condition provides the evolution of the average coverage of the three species and then to their individual heats of adsorption as a function of their coverage. It is shown that there are no significant differences on the two TiO2 solids. In particular, the heat of adsorption of the H2Oads-L2 species varies from ∼114 to 61 kJ/mol at low and high coverages respectively, indicating that it can be present in the experimental conditions of the NH3-SCR. In a forthcoming article, the competitive chemisorptions and reaction between adsorbed H2O and NH3 species are studied and modeled on the TiO2 supports and model and commercial V2O5/WO3/TiO2 catalysts.

  3. Time path of marginal cost for measures against global warming toward the greenhouse gas concentration target. Analytic solution and case study of the electric power sector; Onshitsu koka gas nodo mokuhyoka deno ondanka taisaku genkai hiyo no jikan keiro. Kaisekikai to denryoku bumon no case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, K.; Sugiyama, H.; Takahashi, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is studied from the viewpoint of implementing costs. As far as the global warming issue is concerned, the factor to affect the environment is not the emitted volume but the concentration in the air. The ultimate target is the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentration at a level not to impose serious artificial damage on the ecosystem. Accordingly, various time paths are considered, including one in which much emission is allowed at the beginning and suppression is enforced acceleratedly in the later stage. In this study, a path demanding but the minimal cost in the period up to the target time point is discussed, using as the tool the marginal cost for measure implementation. In a reasonable emission control strategy, the emission control marginal cost follows a time path that is dependent upon an increase function to be determined by the discount rate and survival rate (time constant) in the atmosphere. In the industrial branch, instead of imposing short-term and rigid emission volume control limits, a longer-term target may be set for reduction in the loads responsible for concentration acceleration, concrete emission controls under the given conditions may be implemented at the discretion of the implementing organizations, and reduction in cost may be realized by time distribution with the environmental impacts kept at approximately equal levels. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Study on application of single-crystal ice `Kurobe ice column` to high-speed skating rinks. Demonstration test result at Olympic memorial arena `M wave` in Nagano city; Tankesshohyo `Kurobe no hyojun` no kosoku skate link eno tekiyosei kenkyu. Naganoshi olympic kinen arina `Emu Wave` deno jissho shiken kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-06-10

    For high-speed low-friction skating rinks, research was made on sticking artificial ice columns (ice bamboo shoot). The ice columns were fabricated with the ice column production equipment equipped with 4-line water droplet dropping devices which were installed at intervals of 0.3m on both sides of a pathway of 200m long, 2.6m wide and 1.8m high in the lateral adit of Kurobegawa No.4 hydroelectric power station. The grown ice columns were processed for high-speed skating rinks through cutting, confirmation of single crystal and crystal orientation, slicing for every 7mm thickness and packaging. The ice columns were spread all over the rink while sliding them to prevent mixing of bubbles after spraying distilled water of nearly 25 degreesC onto base ices. In addition, hot water of nearly 40 degreesC was sprayed to produce the final ice rink of 30mm thick by nearly 5mm a day. The dynamic friction coefficient of the ice column rink reduced to 0.0038 by nearly 16% as compared with 0.0045 of conventional rinks. (NEDO)

  5. Experimental Microkinetic Approach of De-NO x by NH 3 on V 2 O 5 /WO 3 /TiO 2 Catalysts. 4. Individual Heats of Adsorption of Adsorbed H 2 O Species on Sulfate-Free and Sulfated TiO 2 Supports

    KAUST Repository

    Giraud, François

    2015-07-16

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The present study is a part of an experimental microkinetic approach of the removal of NOx from coal-fired power plants by reduction with NH3 on V2O5/WO3/TiO2 catalysts (NH3-selective catalytic reduction, NH3-SCR). It is dedicated to the characterization of the heats of adsorption of molecularly adsorbed H2Oads species formed on sulfate-free and sulfated TiO2 supports. Water, which is always present during the NH3-SCR, may be in competition and/or react (formation of NH4+) with the adsorbed NH3 species controlling the coverage of the adsorbed intermediate species of the reaction. Mainly, an original experimental procedure named adsorption equilibrium infrared spectroscopy (AEIR) previously used for the adsorption of NH3 species on the same solids is adapted for the adsorption of H2O. At Ta = 300 K and for PH2 O ≤ 1 kPa, three main H2Oads species are formed (associated with a minor amount of dissociated H2O species) on the two TiO2 solids. The species are identified by the positions of their IR bands in the 3750-3000 cm-1 range. Considering the decreasing order of stability, they are (a) coordinated to strong (L2) and weak (L1) Lewis sites and denoted H2O ads-L2 and H2Oads-L1, respectively, and (b) hydrogen bonded to the H2Oads-L species and on O2-/OH sites of the solids (denoted H2Owads). The three species have a common well-defined δH2O IR band at a position in the range 1640-1610 cm-1 according to the total coverage of the surface. According to the AEIR method, the evolution of the intensity of this IR band during the increase in the adsorption temperature Ta in isobaric condition provides the evolution of the average coverage of the three species and then to their individual heats of adsorption as a function of their coverage. It is shown that there are no significant differences on the two TiO2 solids. In particular, the heat of adsorption of the H2Oads-L2 species varies from ∼114 to 61 kJ/mol at low and high coverages respectively, indicating that it can be present in the experimental conditions of the NH3-SCR. In a forthcoming article, the competitive chemisorptions and reaction between adsorbed H2O and NH3 species are studied and modeled on the TiO2 supports and model and commercial V2O5/WO3/TiO2 catalysts.

  6. Fiscal 1998 research report on International Clean Energy Network using Hydrogen Conversion (WE-NET). Subtask 3. Prediction evaluation on a national scale; 1998 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) sub task. 3. Ikkoku kibo deno yosoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Japanese long-term energy demand and various energy use styles were simulated from the viewpoint of a profitability and environmental preservation, and hydrogen consumption was studied. In the research in fiscal 1998, the data on available primary energy was modified based on the upper limit of CO{sub 2} emission by COP3, and the long-term energy supply and demand outlook of Advisory Committee for Energy in June, 1998. The result of scenario analysis is as follows: (1) The reference scenario showed that reduction of a hydrogen price is indispensable to use imported hydrogen, (2) The carbon externality scenario showed that market penetration of hydrogen can be large if the carbon externality amounts to $300/t-C, (3) The high fossil fuel price scenario showed that a fossil fuel price (in particular, price of hydrocarbon) highly affects market penetration of hydrogen, and (4) The low nuclear capacity scenario suggested that a competitiveness of hydrogen is considerably improved as an energy supply-demand-balance is tight. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Subtask 3 (hydrogen utilization worldwide clean energy system technology) (WE-NET) (total system/nation-level energy estimation and assessment); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) subtask 3 zentai system ikkoku kibo deno yosoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    With relation to the energy supply/demand in Japan toward the second half of the 21st century, an analysis was made using the MARKAL model to predict the amount of hydrogen introduction in the future. As in the last fiscal year, conditions of the study of IEA/ETSAP were continuously used. It was decided on that hydrogen was produced by hydroelectric/photovoltaic power generation overseas. Prices were made 14 yen and 27 yen/103 kcal. The limit price of introduction of import hydrogen was calculated. During the period from 2030 to 2050, if the hydrogen price is less than 7 ten/103 kcal, the result showed that hydrogen can be introduced in a lot of scenarios (case of the severe control of CO2 emissions, case of high priced fossil fuels, case of the low capacity of the development of nuclear power generation, etc.) As the form of hydrogen use, promising are the hydrogen combustion turbine power generation, mixture with town gas (hythane) and hydrogen cars. However, a precondition for the introduction is that the cost of hydrogen car should be more economical than the competitive means of transportation. As to hydrogen combustion turbines and hythane, the quantity of hydrogen introduction depends little on variations of characteristics of the equipment used. 11 refs., 55 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. An Evaluation of the Word Triad Method for Monitoring Spelling Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Craig; Wang, Ze

    2018-01-01

    Although spelling skill progress has typically been studied within the context of students' responses to written story starters (Deno, Marsten, & Mirkin, 1982; Fuchs & Fuchs, 2011; Hosp, Hosp, & Howell, 2007; Shinn & Shinn, 2002), there has been little research conducted within a curriculum-based measurement framework that has…

  9. Generation: the case for evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharman, Hugh

    1994-01-01

    This article puts forward the case for conventional coal fired power stations. The dash for gas is examined, and the case for an international coal supply, and for conventionally fired boilers with Rankine-cycle and de-NO x /flue-gas desulphurisation is considered. Flue gas cleaning and large scale diesel engines are discussed. (UK)

  10. Developing a General Outcome Measure Off Growth in Social Skills for Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Judith; Greenwood, Charles; Luze, Gayle; Cline, Gabriel; Kuntz, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Proficiency in social interaction with adults and peers is an important outcome in early childhood. The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in social skills in children birth to 3 years is described. Based on the general outcome measurement (GOM) approach (e.g., Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for use by early…

  11. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in Social Skills for Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Judith; Greenwood, Charles; Luze, Gayle; Cline, Gabriel; Kuntz, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Proficiency in social interaction with adults and peers is an important outcome in early childhood. The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in social skills in children birth to 3 years is described. Based on the general outcome measurement (GOM) approach (e.g., Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for use by early…

  12. Fundamental cooperation project in fiscal 2000 for improving international energy consumption efficiency. Investigations in relation with prevention of global warming (analytical comparison centering around cost effectiveness related to greenhouse effect gas (GHG) reduction in overseas countries); 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsu ka chosa nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo - chikyu ondanka boshi kanren chosa hokokusho. Kaigai deno GHG sakugen ni kansuru hiyo tai koka wo chushin to shita bunseki hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In order to provide discussion materials for measures to achieve the GHG emission reduction target, investigations and discussions have been made on the following subjects: cost effectiveness of reducing GHG emission by target countries and target technologies, use of maps and databases on the possible reduction quantity of GHG emission, the targeted countries and business categories. Regarding the target countries, investigations were made on the general situation of the energy consumption efficiency, difference between their energy consumption efficiency by industries and that in Japan, and the GHG emission quantities by sectors. As a result, 31 counties hopeful in reducing CO2 emission were selected. With regard to technologies to reduce CO2 emission, technologies having been practically used and proliferated in Japan were used as the base, whereas 43 technologies were systematized for such departments as industries, business operations, households, and transportation. According to a trial calculation on the effect of CO2 emission reduction, if the 43 technologies are applied to the 31 target countries, CO2 emission reduction of 698 million tons as a whole would be possible, for which the required expense was calculated as 114.4 trillion yen. In evaluating the CO2 emission reducing technologies, the cost effectiveness of each technology was evaluated by cost per GHG emission reduction of 1t-CO2. (NEDO)

  13. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the global warming prevention related investigations in cooperative fundamental project of investigating improvement in international energy consumption efficiency. Analysis and comparison centering on cost effectiveness in relation with greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction in Japan; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsuka chosanado kyoryoku kiso jigyo chikyu ondanka boshi kanren chosa hokokusho. Kokunai deno GHG sakyugen ni kansuru hiyo tai koka wo chushin to shita bunseki hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The present investigative research is intended to grasp the whole image of cost effectiveness of the energy saving and new energy technologies to suppress and reduce CO2 emission in Japan. Furthermore, the research considers the cost effectiveness and discusses the efficiency and the directionality of reducing CO2 emission from an estimation of the social introduction cost of individual technologies and quantity of CO2 emission reduction. These activities are intended to provide the fundamental items of information when discussing the measures to achieve the emission reduction target imposed on Japan. The research divides the whole aspect into energy conversion, industrial, consumer and transportation departments for discussion, and calculates the technological items that can be introduced by 2010 and the quantity of the introduction thereof, as well as the effect of reducing CO2 emission. Calculations are also performed on 27 elementary technologies in total and the CO2 emission reducing effect, assuming technological possibilities. Subsequently, analyses are carried out from the viewpoint of cost effectiveness by departments. It is shown that the average cost effectiveness is distributed in the range from 108,000 yen/ton to 1,129,000 yen/ton. Scenarios of reducing CO2 emission are discussed from the analyses of the cost effectiveness. (NEDO)

  14. Study on application of single-crystal ice 'Kurobe ice column' to high-speed skating rinks. Demonstration test result at Olympic memorial arena 'M wave' in Nagano city. Tankesshohyo 'Kurobe no hyojun' no kosoku skate link eno tekiyosei kenkyu. Naganoshi olympic kinen arina 'Emu Wave' deno jissho shiken kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, M. (Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))

    1999-06-10

    For high-speed low-friction skating rinks, research was made on sticking artificial ice columns (ice bamboo shoot). The ice columns were fabricated with the ice column production equipment equipped with 4-line water droplet dropping devices which were installed at intervals of 0.3m on both sides of a pathway of 200m long, 2.6m wide and 1.8m high in the lateral adit of Kurobegawa No.4 hydroelectric power station. The grown ice columns were processed for high-speed skating rinks through cutting, confirmation of single crystal and crystal orientation, slicing for every 7mm thickness and packaging. The ice columns were spread all over the rink while sliding them to prevent mixing of bubbles after spraying distilled water of nearly 25 degreesC onto base ices. In addition, hot water of nearly 40 degreesC was sprayed to produce the final ice rink of 30mm thick by nearly 5mm a day. The dynamic friction coefficient of the ice column rink reduced to 0.0038 by nearly 16% as compared with 0.0045 of conventional rinks. (NEDO)

  15. Investigação sobre o desamparo aprendido em humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Januario Samelo

    2008-01-01

    A literatura sobre o desamparo aprendido utilizando humanos como participantes de pesquisa, tem encontrado dificuldades metodologicas. O presente experimento teve como objetivo geral estabelecer um procedimento que permitisse controle experimental suficiente para verificacao do efeito de uma historia de incontrolabilidade, com e sem feedback de erro, sobre a aprendizagem de uma nova resposta operante em sujeitos humanos. Estudantes universitarios foram divididos em quatro grupos (n=10), deno...

  16. The Mortality of Euthansia in the Light of the Catholic Church's Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Tochi, Amadi Declan

    2005-01-01

    The question of euthanasia has kept pre-occupying and agitating the minds of thinkers, sweeping the globe, pummelling pedagogy, assailing assumptions, and bludgeoning biases. Both the moralist, ethicist, theologian, psychologist, educationist, anthropologist, politician, physician, patient as well as the common man in the street are interested in it. This pervading interest simply arises out of the fact that euthanasia involves the question of life, and life is something that is a common deno...

  17. The Impacts of U.S. Agricultural and Trade Policy on Trade Liberalization and Integation via a U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Dale E. Hathaway

    2003-01-01

    This study looks at several major legislative actions in 2002 that will substantially affect trade negotiations with the United States, and examines the US import protection for agricultural products that will be critical in trade negotiations with Central American countries. The two important legislative actions were the passage of the 2002 Farm Bill and the passage of Trade Promotion Authority, which provides for "fast track" treatment of trade agreements. The 2002 farm bill was widely deno...

  18. A general strategy for the in situ decoration of porous Mn-Co bi-metal oxides on metal mesh/foam for high performance de-NOx monolith catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Sixiang; Liu, Jie; Zha, Kaiwen; Li, Hongrui; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2017-05-04

    Owing to their advantages of strong mechanical stability, plasticity, thermal conductivity and mass transfer ability, metal foam or meshes are considered promising monolith supports for de-NO x application. In this work, we developed a facile method for the decoration of porous Mn-Co bi-metal oxides on Fe meshes. The block-like structure was derived from in situ coating, and simultaneous nucleation and growth of the Mn-Co hydroxide precursor, while the porous Mn-Co oxides were formed via the calcination process. Moreover, the decoration of the high-purity Co 2 MnO 4 spinel could lead to enhanced reducibility and adsorption behaviors, which are crucial to the catalytic process. Of note is the fact that the Fe mesh used in the synthesis procedure could be substituted by various metal supports including Ti mesh, Cu foam and Ni foam. Driven by the above motivations, metal supports decorated with Mn-Co oxides were evaluated as monolith de-NO x catalysts for the first time. Inspiringly, these catalysts demonstrate outstanding low-temperature catalytic activity, desirable stability and excellent H 2 O resistance. This work might open up a new path for the design and development of high performance de-NO x monolith catalysts.

  19. Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma in the Retroperitoneum in an Atomic Bomb Survivor: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Nakamura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old Japanese man was admitted to Kosei-Nenkin Hospital (Osaka, Japan in November 2006; his chief complaint was a 10-kg loss in body weight over 3 months prior to admission. Abdominal computed tomography (CT and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed three masses in the retroperitoneum. The patient subsequently underwent surgery. The final histopathological diagnosis of tumors 1 and 2 was malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the retroperitoneum, and tumor 3 was a well-differentiated liposarcoma. By the presence of the liposarcoma, tumor 1 and 2 were thought to be the dedifferentiated areas of liposarcomas. At the age of 16, the patient had been exposed to radiation from the atomic bomb at Hiroshima towards the end of the Second World War. We postulate that in this case, radiation from the atomic bomb may have played an important role in the development of the sarcomas.

  20. Application of numerical modeling of selective NOx reduction by hydrocarbon under diesel transient conditions in consideration of hydrocarbon adsorption and desorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Asano, A.; Banno, K.; Yokota, K.; Sugiura, M.

    2001-01-01

    A model of NO x selective reduction by hydrocarbon (HC) was developed, which takes into account the adsorption and desorption of HC. The model was applied for predicting the performance of a De-NO x catalytic reactor, working under transient conditions such as a legislative driving cycle. Diesel fuel was used as a supplemental reductant. The behavior of HC and NO x reactions and HC adsorption and desorption has been simulated successfully by our numerical approach under the transient conditions of the simulated Japanese 10-15 driving cycle. Our model is expected to optimize the design of selective diesel NO x reduction systems using a diesel fuel as a supplemental reductant

  1. Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Veg, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    When Yan Lianke published his novel The Joy of Living (Shou huo) in 2004, in which a gang of disabled villagers sets out to make enough money to buy Lenin’s embalmed corpse, many readers may have been reminded of the seemingly boundless symbolic benefits reaped daily from another embalmed corpse in present-day China: the one enshrined in the mausoleum on Tiananmen square. Although some may choose not to see it, Mao’s portrait continues to adorn Tiananmen Gate, as well as banknotes of all deno...

  2. Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NOx Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO x reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO x reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO x reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO x unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO x to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO x concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO x unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO x reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO x unit. The NO x destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO x reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO x reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO x concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm), dry basis with an average concentration of approximately 17 ppm, dry

  3. Fundamental limitations of non-thermal plasma processing for internal combustion engine NOx control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the physics and chemistry of non-thermal plasma processing for post-combustion NO x control in internal combustion engines. A comparison of electron beam and electrical discharge processing is made regarding their power consumption, radical production, NO x removal mechanisms, and by product formation. Can non-thermal deNO x operate efficiently without additives or catalysts? How much electrical power does it cost to operate? What are the by-products of the process? This paper addresses these fundamental issues based on an analysis of the electron-molecule processes and chemical kinetics

  4. Catalytic reduction of NH4NO3 by NO. Effects of solid acids and implications for low temperature DeNOx processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savara, Aditya; Li, Mei-Jun; Sachtler, Wolfgang M.H.; Weitz, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate is thermally stable below 250 C and could potentially deactivate low temperature NO x reduction catalysts by blocking active sites. It is shown that NO reduces neat NH 4 NO 3 above its 170 C melting point, while acidic solids catalyze this reaction even at temperatures below 100 C. NO 2 , a product of the reduction, can dimerize and then dissociate in molten NH 4 NO 3 to NO + + NO 3 - , and may be stabilized within the melt as either an adduct or as HNO 2 formed from the hydrolysis of NO + or N 2 O 4 . The other product of reduction, NH 4 NO 2 , readily decomposes at ≤100 C to N 2 and H 2 O, the desired end products of DeNO x catalysis. A mechanism for the acid catalyzed reduction of NH 4 NO 3 by NO is proposed, with HNO 3 as an intermediate. These findings indicate that the use of acidic catalysts or promoters in DeNO x systems could help mitigate catalyst deactivation at low operating temperatures (<150 C). (author)

  5. Capacity-building of the allied health workforce to prevent and control diabetes: Lessons learnt from the National Initiative to Reinforce and Organize General Diabetes Care in Sri Lanka (NIROGI Lanka) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyaratne, Chandrika; Arambepola, Carukshi; Karunapema, Palitha; Periyasamy, Kayathri; Hemachandra, Nilmini; Ponnamperuma, Gominda; Beneragama, Hemantha; de Alwis, Sunil

    2016-04-01

    In 2008, to tackle the exponential rise in the clinical burden of diabetes that was challenging the health systems in Sri Lanka, a shift in focus towards patient-centred care linked with community health promotion was initiated by the National Initiative to Reinforce and Organize General Diabetes Care in Sri Lanka (NIROGI Lanka) project of the Sri Lanka Medical Association. Specific training of "diabetes educator nursing officers" (DENOs), field staff in maternal and child health, footwear technicians, and health promoters from the community, was instituted to improve knowledge, skills and attitudes in the area of control and prevention of diabetes. This article highlights some of the activities carried out to date with the allied health workforce and volunteer community. Specifically, it describes experiences with the DENO programme: the educational and administrative processes adopted, challenges faced and lessons learnt. It also highlights an approach to prevention and management of complications of chronic diabetic foot through training a cohort of prosthetics and orthotics technicians, in the absence of podiatrists, and an initiative to provide low-cost protective footwear. Harnessing the enthusiasm of volunteers - adults and schoolchildren - to address behavioural risk factors in a culturally appropriate fashion has also been a key part of the NIROGI Lanka strategy.

  6. Improved therapy-success prediction with GSS estimated from clinical HIV-1 sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironti, Alejandro; Pfeifer, Nico; Kaiser, Rolf; Walter, Hauke; Lengauer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Rules-based HIV-1 drug-resistance interpretation (DRI) systems disregard many amino-acid positions of the drug's target protein. The aims of this study are (1) the development of a drug-resistance interpretation system that is based on HIV-1 sequences from clinical practice rather than hard-to-get phenotypes, and (2) the assessment of the benefit of taking all available amino-acid positions into account for DRI. A dataset containing 34,934 therapy-naïve and 30,520 drug-exposed HIV-1 pol sequences with treatment history was extracted from the EuResist database and the Los Alamos National Laboratory database. 2,550 therapy-change-episode baseline sequences (TCEB) were assigned to test set A. Test set B contains 1,084 TCEB from the HIVdb TCE repository. Sequences from patients absent in the test sets were used to train three linear support vector machines to produce scores that predict drug exposure pertaining to each of 20 antiretrovirals: the first one uses the full amino-acid sequences (DEfull), the second one only considers IAS drug-resistance positions (DEonlyIAS), and the third one disregards IAS drug-resistance positions (DEnoIAS). For performance comparison, test sets A and B were evaluated with DEfull, DEnoIAS, DEonlyIAS, geno2pheno[resistance], HIVdb, ANRS, HIV-GRADE, and REGA. Clinically-validated cut-offs were used to convert the continuous output of the first four methods into susceptible-intermediate-resistant (SIR) predictions. With each method, a genetic susceptibility score (GSS) was calculated for each therapy episode in each test set by converting the SIR prediction for its compounds to integer: S=2, I=1, and R=0. The GSS were used to predict therapy success as defined by the EuResist standard datum definition. Statistical significance was assessed using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A comparison of the therapy-success prediction performances among the different interpretation systems for test set A can be found in Table 1, while those for test set

  7. NOx formation and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) in a fluidized bed combustor of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, Shiva; Baeyens, Jan; Seville, Jonathan P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Caledonian Paper (CaPa) is a major paper mill, located in Ayr, Scotland. For its steam supply, it previously relied on the use of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC) of 58 MW th , burning coal, wood bark and wastewater treatment sludge. It currently uses a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) of 102 MW th to generate steam at 99 bar, superheated to 465 o C. The boiler is followed by steam turbines and a 15 kg/s steam circuit into the mill. Whereas previously coal, wood bark and wastewater treatment sludge were used as fuel, currently only plantation wood (mainly spruce), demolition wood, wood bark and sludge are used. Since these biosolids contain nitrogen, fuel NO x is formed at the combustion temperature of 850-900 o C. NO x emissions (NO + NO 2 ) vary on average between 300 and 600 mg/Nm 3 (dry gas). The current emission standard is 350 mg/Nm 3 but will be reduced in the future to a maximum of 233 mg/Nm 3 for stand-alone biomass combustors of capacity between 50 and 300 MW th according to the EU LCP standards. NO x abatement is therefore necessary. In the present paper we firstly review the NO x formation mechanisms, proving that for applications of fluidized bed combustion, fuel NO x is the main consideration, and the contribution of thermal NO x to the emissions insignificant. We then assess the deNO x techniques presented in the literature, with an updated review and special focus upon the techniques that are applicable at CaPa. From these techniques, Selective Non-catalytic Reduction (SNCR) using ammonia or urea emerges as the most appropriate NO x abatement solution. Although SNCR deNO x is a selective reduction, the reactions of NO x reduction by NH 3 in the presence of oxygen, and the oxidation of NH 3 proceed competitively. Both reactions were therefore studied in a lab-scale reactor and the results were transformed into design equations starting from the respective reaction kinetics. An overall deNO x yield can then be predicted for any

  8. A new X-ray absorption experimental set-up dedicated to DeNOx catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, R.; Bazin, D.; Seigneurin, A.; Barthe, P.; Dubuisson, J.M.; Decamps, T.; Sonneville, H.; Poher, J.J.; Maire, F.; Lefrancois, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a complete in situ X-ray absorption reaction cell that simulates DeNO x experimental conditions. In this device, the sample is placed at high temperature under the flow of a complex mixture of reactive gases (NO, C 3 H 6 , O 2 , N 2 ). Particular attention has been paid to the material and design of the sample holders in order to avoid preferential gas circulation and thus ensure a true diffusion of the reactive gases on the catalyst. Moreover, precise control of the gas flow is maintained by means of mass flow controllers, and the safety of the set-up is assured by CO, CO 2 and NO detectors directly relayed to an electronic device, which is itself linked to the various mass flow controllers. Finally, the possibilities of this device are illustrated through the in situ XANES study of a Cu-ZSM-5 catalytic system

  9. Selective catalytic reduction converter design: The effect of ammonia nonuniformity at inlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramadayalan, Thiyagarajan; Pant, Atul

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional CFD model of SCR converter with detailed chemistry is developed. The model is used to study the effects of radial variation in inlet ammonia profile on SCR emission performance at different temperatures. The model shows that radial variation in inlet ammonia concentration affects the SCR performance in the operating range of 200-400 .deg. C. In automotive SCR systems, ammonia is non-uniformly distributed due to evaporation/reaction of injected urea, and using a 1D model or a 3D model with flat ammonia profile at inlet for these conditions can result in erroneous emission prediction. The 3D SCR model is also used to study the effect of converter design parameters like inlet cone angle and monolith cell density on the SCR performance for a non-uniform ammonia concentration profile at the inlet. The performance of SCR is evaluated using DeNO x efficiency and ammonia slip

  10. Combinatorial computational chemistry approach to the design of metal catalysts for deNOx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endou, Akira; Jung, Changho; Kusagaya, Tomonori; Kubo, Momoji; Selvam, Parasuraman; Miyamoto, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Combinatorial chemistry is an efficient technique for the synthesis and screening of a large number of compounds. Recently, we introduced the combinatorial approach to computational chemistry for catalyst design and proposed a new method called ''combinatorial computational chemistry''. In the present study, we have applied this combinatorial computational chemistry approach to the design of precious metal catalysts for deNO x . As the first step of the screening of the metal catalysts, we studied Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, and Au clusters regarding the adsorption properties towards NO molecule. It was demonstrated that the energetically most stable adsorption state of NO on Ir model cluster, which was irrespective of both the shape and number of atoms including the model clusters

  11. DIAGNÓSTICO SÓCIO-ECONÔMICO DA PISCICULTURA PRATICADA POR PEQUENOS PRODUTORES DA REGIONAL DO BAIXO ACRE.

    OpenAIRE

    Sa, Claudenor Pinho De; Balzon, Tatiana; Oliveira, Tony John; Bayma, Marcio Muniz Albano; Carneiro Junior, Jose Marques

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho propõe analisar o desempenho financeiro da piscicultura no sistema semi-intensivo, praticado por pequenos produtores da regional do Baixo Acre e avaliar os fatores que atuam como ameaças ao desenvolvimento da cadeia produtiva. A análise financeira foi realizada com o método do orçamento e como indicadores foram utilizados a renda líquida, o custo unitário de produção e a remuneração da mão de obra familiar. Para os fatores de risco, utilizou-se uma adaptação do método Zoop, deno...

  12. Effect of UV on De-NOx performance and microbial community of a hybrid catalytic membrane biofilm reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhouyang; Huang, Zhensha; He, Yiming; Xiao, Xiaoliang; Wei, Zaishan

    2018-02-01

    The hybrid membrane catalytic biofilm reactor provides a new way of flue gas denitration. However, the effects of UV on denitrification performance, microbial community and microbial nitrogen metabolism are still unknown. In this study, the effects of UV on deNO x performance, nitrification and denitrification, microbial community and microbial nitrogen metabolism of a bench scale N-TiO2/PSF hybrid catalytic membrane biofilm reactor (HCMBR) were evaluated. The change from nature light to UV in the HCMBR leads to the fall of NO removal efficiency of HCMBR from 92.8% to 81.8%. UV affected the microbial community structure, but did not change microbial nitrogen metabolism, as shown by metagenomics sequencing method. Some dominant phyla, such as Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, increased in abundance, whereas others, such as Proteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, decreased. There were nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen fixation, and organic nitrogen metabolism in the HCMBR.

  13. Safety and Complications of Medical Thoracoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimaa Nour Moursi Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To highlight the possible complications of medical thoracoscopy (MT and how to avoid them. Methods. A retrospective and prospective analysis of 127 patients undergoing MT in Nagoya Medical Center (NMC and Toyota Kosei Hospital. The data about complications was obtained from the patients, notes on the computer system, and radiographs. Results. The median age was 71.0 (range, 33.0–92.0 years and 101 (79.5% were males. The median time with chest drain after procedure was 7.0 (range, 0.0–47.0 days and cases with talc poudrage were 30 (23.6%. Malignant histology was reported in 69 (54.3%, including primary lung cancer in 35 (27.5, mesothelioma in 18 (14.2, and metastasis in 16 (12.6. 58 (45.7% revealed benign pleural diseases and TB was diagnosed in 15 (11.8%. 21 (16.5% patients suffered from complications including lung laceration in 3 (2.4%, fever in 5 (3.9% (due to hospital acquired infection (HAI in 2, talc poudrage in 2, and malignancy in 1, HAI in 2 (1.6%, prolonged air-leak in 14 (11.0%, and subcutaneous emphysema in 1 (0.8%. Conclusions. MT is generally a safe procedure. Lung laceration is the most serious complication and should be managed well. HAI is of low risk and can be controlled by medical treatment.

  14. Isolation and propagation of mutations in dahlia by in vitro culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahira, T.; Yamagata, H.; Inagaki, M.; Osuga, S.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to search for a successful method for in vitro culture of mutated tissues in dahlia. Preceding the objective, the features of induced mutations and the effects of cutting propagation in dahlia were investigated, and the tissues easily regenerating plantlets in vitro were searched following the examination of effective condition of medium. Induction of mutations: Tuberous roots of two cultivars, 'Kosei' and 'Sunlight', were irradiated with 1,000 - 2,000 R of X-rays. Chlorophyll and flower-color mutations were successfully induced in both cultivars, but the frequency differed with genotypic constitution. The maximum frequency was observed at leaves and shoots on or from the fourth to fifth nodes from the base of plant. The use of M 1 tuberous roots seemed a way for isolating mutations though not so much efficient. Tissue culture: In vitro cultured basal parts of ray florets, exactly the ovary, differentiated shoots. No shoot formation occurred in receptacle and leaf cultures, while roots were differentiated in leaf culture. Supplements of auxin and adenine to the medium besides cytokinin appeared to be necessary for inducing shoots. It is a serious problem in the tissue culture of dahlia that a large number of explants are endogenously comtaminated with bacteria. Taking into consideration low rates of surviving and regenerating explants, it seems difficult at present for dahlia to conclude whether or not the tissue culture may become efficient in mutation breeding as compared with cutting propagation. (author)

  15. The change of macrolide resistance rates in group A Streptococcus isolates from children between 2002 and 2013 in Asahikawa city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    This study targeted patients in the Department of Pediatrics, Asahikawa Kosei Hospital, between January 2002 and December 2013. In patients suspected of having hemolytic streptococcal infection, Group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains isolated from a throat swab were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The MICs were measured by the broth microdilution method. The annual number of GAS strains examined for antimicrobial susceptibility testing ranged from 28 to 65 strains, for a total of 574 strains. Some of the isolates obtained from 2006 to 2009 and from 2011 to 2013 were analyzed to determine their emm types. An erythromycin (EM) resistant strain was not detected until 2004, but one EM-resistant strain appeared in 2005. Subsequently, EM-resistant strains rapidly increased, and 48 of 65 strains (73.8%) examined in 2009 were resistant. In 2010, the number of EM-resistant strains decreased to 12 of 36 strains (33.3%). However, it gradually increased afterwards, and 37 of 60 strains (61.7%) were resistant in 2013. Out of 574 strains examined, 184 exhibited EM-resistance, and the overall resistance rate was 31.9%. Partitioning the 124 strains examined between 2006 and 2008 according to emm types, only emm28 strains, which exhibited a high resistance rate, and emm12 strains demonstrated resistance. For the 142 strains examined between 2011 and 2013, the resistance rate of emm28 strains was similarly high; the resistance of emm12 strains significantly increased, and emm1 strains exhibited a high resistance rate. The number of emm types associated with the resistant strains increased. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of host quality of life and immune function in breast cancer patients treated with combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashima Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Nagashima,1 Noriko Maeda,2 Shigeru Yamamoto,2 Shigefumi Yoshino,2 Masaaki Oka21Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Shakaihoken Shimonoseki Kosei Hospital, Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi, Japan; 2Department of Digestive Surgery and Surgical Oncology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube City, Yamaguchi, JapanPurpose: Anthracycline-based chemotherapies for breast cancer are well known to have adverse effects and can also negatively affect host immune function. There is therefore a necessity for an adjuvant that maintains the quality of life (QOL and immune function of cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapies.Patients and methods: The present study investigated the effectiveness of the concomitant use of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract (LEM, an oral immunomodulator, with FEC75 (5-fluorouracil + epirubicin + cyclophosphamide therapy on host QOL and immune function in breast cancer patients with nodal metastases. Ten breast cancer patients with nodal metastases receiving surgery were enrolled in this study. Treatment with 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m2, epirubicin (75 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2 was performed every 21 days for two courses, and LEM (1800 mg/day by mouth was administered during the second course.Results: In the first course, hematological toxicity was observed and host QOL and immune function were exacerbated. In the second course, however, the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes did not decrease and host QOL was maintained. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activities of natural killer (NK and lymphokine-activated killer cells and the proportion of activated NK and NK T-cells in lymphocytes were maintained in the second course.Conclusion: It has been suggested that the concomitant use of LEM with FEC75 therapy can maintain host QOL and immune function, and offer important implications for an application of LEM as a useful oral adjuvant to anthracycline-based chemotherapies

  17. A combined radiation and platinum chemotherapy for esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Akio; Saito, Hiroya; Sakurai, Yasuo; Horio, Keiji; Mizoe, Junetsu.

    1993-01-01

    The prognosis of the patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma treated by definitive radiotherapy is still dismal with a reported 5-year survival rate of 5-10% in most series. Since 1986, combined radiotherapy with chemotherapy using platinum analogue was initiated at Asahikawa and Obihiro Kosei Hospitals in order to improve local-regional control and the survival of the patients. From 1980 to 1992, 81 patients with unresectable esophageal carcinoma were treated with radiotherapy. Since April 1986, 37 out of the 81 patients received both radiotherapy and chemotherapy with platinum. Platinum was used during the course of radiotherapy. The method of administration of platinum was as follows; Cisplatin intravenously (50 mg, weekly, total 200 mg) in 9 patients, Carboplatin intravenously (100-150 mg, weekly, total 400-900 mg) in 11 patients and Cisplatin intraarterially (100 mg, at a 3-4 week interval, total 100-300 mg) in 17 patients. These 37 patients (Group A) were compared to 44 patients treated by radiotherapy alone (Group B) with respect to initial response and survival rate. Response was defined according to the guidelines recommended by Japanese Society for Esophageal Diseases. Response rates were 59.1% (19 CR and 7 PR) in Group B and 70.3% (7 CR and 19 PR) in Group A. Primary relapse-free rates were 36.4% in Group B and 37.8% in Group A. The cumulative survival at 3 years were 11.7% in Group B and 10.6% in Group A. Enhancement of side effects by chemotherapy was minimal and acceptable. Improvement of local-regional control and survival was not obvious by adding a concomitant platinum-chemotherapy. A definite conclusion, however, could not be drawn because of the retrospective, non-controlled nature of this study. Introduction of more intensive, multiple agents chemotherapy seems necessary if one aims at improving the results. (author)

  18. Urea thermolysis and NOx reduction with and without SCR catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Howard L.; DaCosta, Herbert F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been a leading contender for removal of nitrogen oxides (deNO x ) from diesel engine emissions. Despite its advantages, the SCR technology faces some critical detriments to its catalytic performance such as catalyst surface passivation (caused by deposit formation) and consequent stoichiometric imbalance of the urea consumption. Deposit formation deactivates catalytic performance by not only consuming part of the ammonia produced during urea decomposition but also degrading the structural and thermal properties of the catalyst surface. We have characterized the urea thermolysis with and without the urea-SCR catalyst using both spectroscopic (DRIFTS and Raman) and thermal techniques (thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)) to identify the deposit components and their corresponding thermal properties. Urea thermolysis exhibits two decomposition stages, involving ammonia generation and consumption, respectively. The decomposition after the second stage leads to the product of melamine complexes, (HNC=NH) x (HNCO) y , that hinder catalytic performance. The presence of catalyst accompanied with a good spray of the urea solution helps to eliminate the second stage. In this work, kinetics of the direct reduction of NO x by urea is determined and the possibility of using additives to the urea solution in order to rejuvenate the catalyst surface and improve its performance will be discussed

  19. Emissions control of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans at municipal waste combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, S.C.; Jozewicz, W.; Sedman, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives the results of an analysis of available emission data of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) to evaluate the effectiveness of various air pollution control devices on PCDD/PCDF removal. The effects of flue gas temperature, recycling fabric filter ash, and process additives such as ammonia and Tesisorb powder were also analyzed. The analysis shows that MWCs equipped with a spray dryer followed by fabric filters can achieve PCDD/PCDF removal efficiencies (REs) of 97% and higher. A RE of 94% has been achieved at a combustor equipped with a Thermal DeNO x system followed by a spray dryer and fabric filters. MWCs equipped with a duct sorbent injection system followed by fabric filters can potentially achieve a RE of 99%. A combustor equipped with a spray dryer followed by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) has achieved a RE of 64%. Neither a duct sorbent injection system followed by ESPs nor a furnace sorbent injection system followed by ESPs could effectively remove PCDD/PCDF. PCDD/PCDF were not effectively removed from MWCs equipped with ESPs as the only devices to control air pollution

  20. El aprendizaje visto por los estudiantes venezolanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Elena Barrios

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo se presentan los resultados de un estudio sobre las con-cepciones del aprendizaje de un grupo de estudiantes venezolanos de educa-ción primaria y media. Se trató de replicar el instrumento y procedimiento deanálisis utilizado por los investigadores Berry y Sahlberg (1996, con el objetivode caracterizar cómo conciben el aprendizaje estudiantes venezolanos entre 11y 15 años de edad y compararlo con sus pares ingleses y finlandeses. El análi-sis de resultados se basó en los criterios propuestos por dichos autores, deno-minados Pasos para un Buen Aprendizaje. Los hallazgos indican que los estu-diantes venezolanos conciben el aprendizaje como memorizar conocimientos,básicamente escolares, enseñados por los docentes. Las concepciones deambas poblaciones se ubican en una visión pasiva del aprendizaje. Se discutela vinculación de las concepciones del aprendizaje con las prácticas de la escuela.

  1. Technical and economical aspects of SO2 and NOx removal from flue gas by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, S.; Karadeniz, S.; Tugluoglu, N.; Eken, M.; Oktar, O.; Ercan, I.

    2001-01-01

    The emission of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 , also SO 3 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO 2 , called NO x ) from fossil fuel burning power and industrial plants is one of the major sources of environmental pollution. These pollutants are named as acid gases causing acid rain and also indirect greenhouse gases contributing greenhouse effect. Acid rain damages forest, agriculture fields and flora, and cause public health concerns in regions having a number of industrial plants. Today, many countries have started to impose industrial emission limits and this movement has generated renewed interest in finding viable and cost effective solutions to SO 2 and NO x pollution control. The conventional technologies, wet scrubbing de-SO 2 and de-NO x , now reached their full potential therefore these methods are not expected to provide further improvements in terms of efficiency or reduction in construction costs. However, new technologies are being investigated for industrial scale commercial viability. One of them is electron beam process, which is dry scrubbing process and simultaneously removes SO 2 and NO x , and useful by-product for agriculture fertilizer. In this study, the economical and technical aspects of electron beam flue gas treatment process are discussed. Because an electron accelerator facility with electron beam energy of 500 KeV and electron beam current of 20 mA will be installed at ANRTC in TURKEY

  2. Comparison based on environmental effects of nitrogen management techniques in a manure digestate case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccanelli, Nicola; Teli, Aronne; Scaglione, Davide; Insabato, Gabriele; Casula, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate issues and favourable energy market, biogas is spreading as a manure management technique. Digestate is rich in nutrient and has to be handled in order to respect the 'nitrate directive' that limits nitrogen field application in areas defined as vulnerable. In this study, we compared different nitrogen management scenarios: a non-treatment option, a biological short-cut nitrification, a complete autotrophic process (anammox) and ammonia stripping from membrane filtration concentrate. The environmental effect comparison was obtained with 'Cross media effects analysis' and life cycle assessment (LCA). The results were different in some aspects, especially the impacts on eutrophication. According to cross media, the best process is DENO 2, while LCA shows similar impacts for all techniques and the best solution would be the no-treatment option. The main reason to adopt a digestate treatment technique is the lack of area for a correct disposal. If LCA eutrophication results are multiplied with the hectares necessary for each technology, a result similar to that of cross media is obtained.

  3. Alumina- and titania-based monolithic catalysts for low temperature selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.; Avila, P.; Suarez, S.; Martin, J.A.; Knapp, C.

    2000-01-01

    The selective catalytic reduction of NO+NO 2 (NO x ) at low temperature (180-230C) with ammonia has been investigated with copper-nickel and vanadium oxides supported on titania and alumina monoliths. The influence of the operating temperature, as well as NH 3 /NO x and NO/NO 2 inlet ratios has been studied. High NO x conversions were obtained at operating conditions similar to those used in industrial scale units with all the catalysts. Reaction temperature, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide inlet concentration increased the N 2 O formation with the copper-nickel catalysts, while no increase was observed with the vanadium catalysts. The vanadium-titania catalyst exhibited the highest DeNO x activity, with no detectable ammonia slip and a low N 2 O formation when NH 3 /NO x inlet ratio was kept below 0.8. TPR results of this catalyst with NO/NH 3 /O 2 , NO 2 /NH 3 /O 2 and NO/NO 2 /NH 3 /O 2 feed mixtures indicated that the presence of NO 2 as the only nitrogen oxide increases the quantity of adsorbed species, which seem to be responsible for N 2 O formation. When NO was also present, N 2 O formation was not observed

  4. Turbine-generators for 400 mw coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, W.; Bergmann, D.; Boer, J.; Termuehlen, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that presently, standard coal-fired power plant concepts including flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and DENO x systems are in the design stage to be built on relatively short delivery schedules. The rating in the 400 MW range has generally been selected, because such small power plant units with short delivery times cause a minimum financial burden during planning, delivery and installation. They also follow more closely the growth of electric energy demand at specific locations. However economical considerations could lead to larger unit ratings, since the planning and building process of higher capacity plants is not significantly different but specific plant costs are certainly smaller with increased unit size. Historically large tandem-compound steam turbine-generators have been built and have proven reliable operation with ratings in excess of 800 MW. Already in the late 1950's main steam pressures and temperatures as high as 4,500 psig and 1,200 degrees F respectively were successfully used for smaller steam turbines

  5. NOx removal from the flue gas of oil-fired boiler using a multistage plasma-catalyst hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Youl; Deshwal, Bal Raj; Moon, Seung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The study on removal of NO x from the flue gas of oil-fired boiler has been carried out using non-thermal plasma cum catalyst hybrid reactor at 150 C. Propylene (C 3 H 6 ) was used as a reducing agent. A multistage plasma-catalyst hybrid reactor was newly designed and successfully operated to clean up the flue gas stream having a flow rate of 30 Nm 3 /h. TiO 2 and Pd/ZrO 2 wash-coated on cordierite honeycomb were used as catalysts in the present study. Though the plasma-catalyst hybrid reactor with TiO 2 showed good activity on the removal of NO yet it removed only 50-60% of NO x because a significant portion of NO oxidized to NO 2 . On the contrary, the plasma-catalyst hybrid reactor with Pd/ZrO 2 removed about 50% of inlet NO with a negligible amount of NO oxidation into NO 2 . The plasma/dual-catalysts hybrid system (front two units of plasma-Pd/ZrO 2 + rear two units of plasma/TiO 2 ) proved to be very promising in NO x removal in the presence of C 3 H 6 . DeNO x efficiency of about 74% has been achieved at a space velocity of 3300/h at 150 C. (author)

  6. Analysis of oxy-fuel combustion power cycle utilizing a pressurized coal combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jongsup; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson, J.G.; Field, Randall; Gazzino, Marco; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new technology in which fuels are burned in an environment of oxygen and recycled combustion gases. In this paper, an oxy-fuel combustion power cycle that utilizes a pressurized coal combustor is analyzed. We show that this approach recovers more thermal energy from the flue gases because the elevated flue gas pressure raises the dew point and the available latent enthalpy in the flue gases. The high-pressure water-condensing flue gas thermal energy recovery system reduces steam bleeding which is typically used in conventional steam cycles and enables the cycle to achieve higher efficiency. The pressurized combustion process provides the purification and compression unit with a concentrated carbon dioxide stream. For the purpose of our analysis, a flue gas purification and compression process including de-SO x , de-NO x , and low temperature flash unit is examined. We compare a case in which the combustor operates at 1.1 bars with a base case in which the combustor operates at 10 bars. Results show nearly 3% point increase in the net efficiency for the latter case.

  7. Financing private power in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.

    1993-01-01

    Finance is needed for upgrading Eastern Europe's electric power industries. Capacity is not a problem, as all countries have more than adequate capacity in the light of the deep industrial recession. However, much of the capacity is elderly and poorly maintained, so availability is low. Coal fired plant may have electrostatic precipitators, but no desulfurization or de-NO x equipment is present. Price rises in oil and gas imported from Russia have however increased interest in energy efficiency measures. Power generation is mainly coal or lignite based. Commercial banks will be little involved in financing. The best viable sources of large scale financing will be the IBRD, EIB, EBRD, and IFC, among the multilateral investment banks. Loans so far have mainly gone to Poland. The multilateral institutions have great experience in lending to developing countries, but long procurement processes are often involved. Raising finance is inevitably a difficult process. The financing of the Cracow Environmental Project, a model private power venture in Poland is described and discussed, with particular reference to contract, legal and economic problems

  8. Where we are heading: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Six key driving forces which will change the electrical system technology over the next ten years are studied. First, the unavailability of low energy cost. The evolution of gas turbine firing temperature, superconducting generators, and amorphous magnetic materials are examples of more efficient use. Second, concern for environmental protection. Third generation flue gas desulphurization systems are under active development to remove SO 2 from the atmosphere. NO /SUB x/ (acid rain) is also now understood. Catalytic deNO /SUB x/ systems have been developed. Third, concern for safety of nuclear plants. The band aid safety measures following TMI must be replaced by a ''second nuclear age'' safety criteria. Fourth, the capital crunch of the electric utility industry. Fifth, new technological advances, where transitions of technical emphasis are mentioned. Also, the ''electronics revolution'' has consisted of increased activity in automatic meter reading, time of day pricing, load management, and distribution system automation. And sixth, invention and innovation waves in history. Evolutionary changes from the first fossil age to the second fossil age are reviewed. The next wave of innovation may appear in the neighborhood of 1990

  9. Establishing community-based integrated care for elderly patients through interprofessional teamwork: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asakawa T

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Asakawa,1 Hidenobu Kawabata,1 Kengo Kisa,2 Takayoshi Terashita,3 Manabu Murakami,4 Junji Otaki1 1Department of Medical Education and General Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 2Kutchan-Kosei General Hospital, Kutchan, Hokkaido, 3Graduate School of Radiological Technology Gunma Prefectural College of Health Sciences, Kamioki-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 4International Relations Office, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan Background: Working in multidisciplinary teams is indispensable for ensuring high-quality care for elderly people in Japan’s rapidly aging society. However, health professionals often experience difficulty collaborating in practice because of their different educational backgrounds, ideas, and the roles of each profession. In this qualitative descriptive study, we reveal how to build interdisciplinary collaboration in multidisciplinary teams. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 26 medical professionals, including physicians, nurses, public health nurses, medical social workers, and clerical personnel. Each participant worked as a team member of community-based integrated care. The central topic of the interviews was what the participants needed to establish collaboration during the care of elderly residents. Each interview lasted for about 60 minutes. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to content analysis. Results: The analysis yielded the following three categories concerning the necessary elements of building collaboration: 1 two types of meeting configuration; 2 building good communication; and 3 effective leadership. The two meetings described in the first category – “community care meetings” and “individual care meetings” – were aimed at bringing together the disciplines and discussing individual cases, respectively. Building good communication referred to the activities

  10. NC-6301, a polymeric micelle rationally optimized for effective release of docetaxel, is potent but is less toxic than native docetaxel in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitsunori Harada,1 Caname Iwata,2 Hiroyuki Saito,1 Kenta Ishii,1 Tatsuyuki Hayashi,1 Masakazu Yashiro,3 Kosei Hirakawa,3 Kohei Miyazono,2 Yasuki Kato,1 Mitsunobu R Kano21Research Division, NanoCarrier Co, Ltd, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Surgical Oncology, Osaka City University, Osaka, JapanAbstract: Drug release rate is an important factor in determining efficacy and toxicity of nanoscale drug delivery systems. However, optimization of the release rate in polymeric micellar nanoscale drug delivery systems has not been fully investigated. In this study NC-6301, a poly(ethylene glycol-poly(aspartate block copolymer with docetaxel (DTX covalently bound via ester link, was synthesized with various numbers of DTX molecules bound to the polymer backbone. The number of DTX molecules was determined up to 14 to achieve an optimal release rate, based upon the authors' own pharmacokinetic model using known patient data. Efficacy and toxicity of the formulation was then tested in animals. When administered three times at 4-day intervals, the maximum tolerated doses of NC-6301 and native DTX were 50 and 10 mg/kg, respectively, in nude mice. Tissue distribution studies of NC-6301 in mice at 50 mg/kg revealed prolonged release of free DTX in the tumor for at least 120 hours, thus supporting its effectiveness. Furthermore, in cynomolgus monkeys, NC-6301 at 6 mg/kg three times at 2-week intervals showed marginal toxicity, whereas native DTX, at 3 mg/kg with the same schedule, induced significant decrease of food consumption and neutrophil count. NC-6301 at 50 mg/kg in mice also regressed a xenografted tumor of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer. Native DTX, on the other hand, produced only transient and slight regression of the same tumor xenograft. NC-6301 also significantly inhibited growth of OCUM-2MLN human scirrhous gastric carcinoma in an orthotopic mouse

  11. Performance evaluation of high-sulphur coal-fired USC plant integrated with SNOX and CO2 capture sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cau, Giorgio; Tola, Vittorio; Bassano, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In recent years coal-fired power plants have increased their role in the global energy scenario thanks to reliability, security of fuel supply and lower cost of fuel and electricity. In this framework global warming issues require a sustainable use of coal and great efforts for greenhouse gases reduction, addressing research and development projects towards more efficient solutions in terms of efficiency and environmental impact. With this aim in this paper a performance assessment of an Ultra Super Critical (USC) steam plant integrated with a CO 2 removal section was carried out. The study is based on simulation models specifically developed through Aspen-Plus and Gate-Cycle software platforms. Performance was assessed referring to typical USC commercial size plants (400–600 MW), fuelled by a mix of a low-sulphur coal and a Sardinian (Sulcis) high-sulphur coal. The USC plant, based on a reheated and regenerative Rankine cycle, is integrated with an SNOX section, with integrated DeNO x and DeSO x processes, and a low temperature CO 2 capture section. The SNOX technology shows several advantages in comparison to conventional de-nitrification and de-sulphuration systems. In particular it is capable to remove both nitrogen and sulphur oxides, requiring less energy absorption compared to traditional FGD systems, allowing a further preheating of the combustion air and without producing process waste. Besides the SNOX releases a commercial product as the sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and operational costs are reduced when sulphur content in the coal increases. The CO 2 capture system was based on a chemical absorption process. A conventional system based on an amine (monoethanolamine, MEA) aqueous solution was considered. In order to match high pressure and purity CO 2 transportation requirements, the CO 2 removal section is also integrated with a conditioning and compression section. A performance assessment of the USC plant was carried out varying the high-sulphur coal

  12. Effect of Sr/Ti Ratio on the Photocatalytic Properties of SrTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaeman, U; Yin, S; Sato, T

    2011-01-01

    Since strontium titanate is a wide gap semiconductor, it requires UV light to generate the photocatalytic activities. Modification of strontium titanate to show photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation is the essential work to efficiently utilize the sun light energy for environmental application. It is expected that the synthesis of SrTiO 3 with variation of Sr/Ti atomic ratio could induce the defect crystals having unique photocatalytic properties. The SrTiO 3 with various Sr/Ti atomic ratios were synthesized by microwave-assisted solvothermal reaction of SrCl 2 .6H 2 O and Ti(OC 3 H 7 ) 4 in KOH aqueous solutions with different atomic ratios of Sr/Ti. The products were characterized by TG-DTA, XRD and DRS. The photocatalytic activity was determined by DeNO x ability using LED lamps with the wavelengths of 627 nm (red), 530 nm (green), 445 nm (blue) and 390 nm (UV). The nanoparticles of perovskite type SrTiO 3 with the particle size of 30-40 nm were successfully synthesized. The visible light responsive photocatalytic activity was generated by adding excess amount of Sr. The photocatalytic activity in visible light could be enhanced by an increase in the Sr/Ti atomic ratio up to 1.25, indicating that the visible light responsive photocatalytic activity is due to the generation of new band gap between the conduction band and valence band of SrTiO 3 by the formation of oxygen vacancy.

  13. Numerical investigation of a dual-loop EGR split strategy using a split index and multi-objective Pareto optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jungsoo; Song, Soonho; Lee, Kyo Seung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Model-based control of dual-loop EGR system is performed. • EGR split index is developed to provide non-dimensional index for optimization. • EGR rates are calibrated using EGR split index at specific operating conditions. • Multi-objective Pareto optimization is performed to minimize NO X and BSFC. • Optimum split strategies are suggested with LP-rich dual-loop EGR at high load. - Abstract: A proposed dual-loop exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) system that combines the features of high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) systems is considered a key technology for improving the combustion behavior of diesel engines. The fraction of HP and LP flows, known as the EGR split, for a given dual-loop EGR rate play an important role in determining the engine performance and emission characteristics. Therefore, identifying the proper EGR split is important for the engine optimization and calibration processes, which affect the EGR response and deNO X efficiencies. The objective of this research was to develop a dual-loop EGR split strategy using numerical analysis and one-dimensional (1D) cycle simulation. A control system was modeled by coupling the 1D cycle simulation and the control logic. An EGR split index was developed to investigate the HP/LP split effects on the engine performance and emissions. Using the model-based control system, a multi-objective Pareto (MOP) analysis was used to minimize the NO X formation and fuel consumption through optimized engine operating parameters. The MOP analysis was performed using a response surface model extracted from Latin hypercube sampling as a fractional factorial design of experiment. By using an LP rich dual-loop EGR, a high EGR rate was attained at low, medium, and high engine speeds, increasing the applicable load ranges compared to base conditions

  14. Filter bag De-NOx system with powder type catalysts at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Heon; Kang, Pil-Sun; Yoo, Seung-Kwan; Yoon, Kyoon-Duk

    2010-01-01

    Combustion of carbon source materials (MSW, RDF, sludge, coal etc.) leads to the emission of harmful gaseous pollutants such as SO x , NO x , mercury, particulate matter, and dioxins etc. In particular, the emission of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from the solid waste incinerator remains a serious air pollution problem. The previous research concerns have focused mainly on NO x reduction of stationary sources at high temperature SCR or SNCR process. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH 3 is the most widespread system used to control NO x emissions. However, this process suffers from several disadvantages due to the use of thermo fragile honeycomb type module and high temperature (about 300 degree Celsius) operation which consumes additional heating energy. To overcome this hurdle, filter bag De-NO x system with powder type catalysts at low temperature (less than 200 degree Celsius) has been under investigation in recent years and looks interesting because neither additional heat nor honeycomb type modules are required. Filter bag and powder type catalysts are cheap and effective materials to remove NO x at low temperature. In this study, the selective catalytic reduction of NO x was carried out on a filter support reactor with 300 mesh powder type catalysts at low temperature. The experiments were performed by powder type MnO x and V 2 O 5 / TiO 2 catalyst at low temperature ranging between 130 and 250 degree Celsius. Also, the effect of SO 2 and H 2 O on the NO conversion was investigated under our test conditions. The powder type catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) for measuring the state of oxygen on the catalyst surface and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was observed that NO conversion of the powder type V 2 O 5 / TiO 2 catalyst was 85 % at 200 degree Celsius under presence of oxygen and that of MnO x was 50 % at the same condition. From these results, the powder type V 2 O 5 / TiO 2 catalyst showed an excellent performance on the

  15. Velódromo en el valle de Hebrón. Barcelona/España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonell, Esteve

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Open circular plant which develops within a velodrome of 250 m of average perimeter, fitted to various cycle sports and its training. It contents two levels, the lower occupied by the track, the dressing rooms, the administration buildings, etc., and the upper one devoted to tiers with a capacity of 4.000 spectators, which can be enlarged to 7.000. Its constructive disposition will permit to be covered. The building is almost made of bare reinforced concrete and the finishing of the track is of wood tightened on metallic structure. The central area "pelouse" has an access from the outside of the building and may be used for another kind of sports. In the surrounding area, town planning has been also carefully studied. The building is of great plastic and architectural beauty, with a careful quality of design and construction that allowed the authors to win the F.A.D. prize 1984 of architecture.Edificio de planta circular al aire libre que desarrolla en su interior un velódromo de 250 m. de cuerda apto para diversas modalidades deportivas ciclistas y para su enseñanza. Consta de dos niveles, el inferior donde se sitúa el desarrollo de la pista, vestuarios, locales técnicos, etc. y el superior destinado a espectadores con grádenos en n." de 4.000 ampliables a 7.000 y otros locales. Su disposición constructiva permitirá el poder ser cubierto. En general, el edificio está ejecutado en hormigón armado visto y el acabado de la pista es de madera sobre estructura de formas metálicas. El área central "pelouse" con acceso desde el exterior del edificio puede ser utilizada para otro tipo de modalidades deportivas. La urbanización exterior ha sido a su vez cuidadosamente estudiada. Edificio de gran belleza plástica y arquitectónica y con esmerada calidad de diseño y construcción ha merecido que sus autores reciban el premio F.A.D. 1984 de arquitectura. Esta instalación ha servido como marco a los Campeonatos del

  16. Development of a versatile experimental setup for the evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of construction materials under realistic outdoor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, S; Portela, R; Hernández-Alonso, M D; Sánchez, B

    2014-10-01

    samples at the same time. The suitability of the system for the evaluation of the DeNO x properties of construction elements at realistic outdoor conditions was demonstrated. The designed experimental device can be used 24/7 for testing materials under real fluctuations of NO x concentration, temperature, UV irradiation, and relative humidity and the presence of other outdoor air pollutants such as VOCs, SO x , or NH3. The chamber-based design allows comparing a photocatalytic material with respect to a reference substrate without the photoactive phase, or even the comparison of several outdoor elements at the same time.

  17. Effects of fuel properties, temperature, and pressure on fuel reactivity, formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides, and release of alkalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho, M.

    1998-01-01

    This study assists in the development of advanced combustion technologies (PFBC, IGCC) with high efficiency of electricity production from solid fuels (η = 47 - 50%) and in minimizing emissions of nitrogen oxides in atmospheric and pressurised FB combustion. In addition to the work done within the LIEKKI 2 programme, research work has been carried out inside the Joule 2 programme of EU. The research work may be divided into three parts: (1) Study of N x O y formation and destruction, (2) Study of fuel reactivity at elevated pressures, and (3) Study on alkali release from different coals. Experimental work was carried out utilizing a novel pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR) completed in VTT Energy in the autumn 1992. The device was unique in the world between 1992 and 1995. The effects of fuel properties on the formation of N 2 O and NO at conditions typical to FB combustion were studied for a large number of fuels including different coals, coal-derived char, peat, and bark. This work started before 1993 and was completed in 1995. FTIR technology was utilized for on-line gas analysis of N 2 O, NO, and NO 2 . The ratio fuel-O/fuel-N was found to be the most important fuel factor determining the formation of N 2 O and NO from volatile fuel-N. Only a small part of N 2 O is formed from char-N. The effect of pressure (0.2 - 2.0 MPa) on the formation of N 2 O, NO, and NO 2 , and destruction of NO with ammonia (Thermal DeNO x , experiments at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.5 MPa) and urea (NO x Out, experiments at 0.5 MPa) were studied in cooperation with Aabo Akademi University (AaAU). VTT performed the experimental work and AaAU the kinetic modelling. A part of these results are presented in the report by AaAU. Increase of pressure decreases NO formation and increases NO 2 formation. The behaviour of N 2 O is more complex. Both destruction processes for NO seem to operate well at elevated pressure, although clear effects of pressure on the temperature window of Thermal DeNO x