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Sample records for sonoran region california

  1. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste: characterization of the Sonoran region, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, Kenneth A.; Langer, William H.

    1989-01-01

    The Sonoran region of California lies west of the Colorado River and adjoins the Mojave Desert on the west, Death Valley on the northwest, and the Salton trough on the south. The region is arid with annual precipitation ranging from less than 80 millimeters to as great as 250 millimeters in one mountain range; annual free-surface evaporation is as great as 2,500 millimeters. The characteristic basin and range topography of the region was caused by a mid-Tertiary period of intense crustal extension, accompanied by volcanic eruptions, clastic sedimentation, faulting, and tilting. Potential host media for isolation of high-level radioactive waste include granite and other coarsegrained plutonic rocks, ash-flow tuff, and basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows. Thick sections of the unsaturated zone in basin fill, intrusive, and volcanic rocks appear to have potential as host media. The region is bordered on the west by areas of relatively greater Quaternary faulting, vertical crustal uplift, and seismicity. The region has a few areas of Quaternary volcanic activity. Geothermal heat flows of 2.5 heat-flow units or greater and one earthquake of magnitude 6-7 have been recorded. The region includes topographically closed basins as well as basins that drain to the Colorado River. Dry lakes and playas occupy the closed basins. Ground-water recharge and surface runoff are small because of the small amount of precipitation and great potential evaporation. Natural ground-water discharge is by evaporation in the basin playas and by underflow to the Colorado River. Dissolved-solids concentration of ground water generally is less than 500 milligrams per liter, and much of it is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Ground water is saline in many of the playas, and chloride or sulfate is the predominant anion. Small tonnages of ore have been produced from numerous precious and fewer base-metal deposits. (author)

  2. Temperature and Heat-Related Mortality Trends in the Sonoran and Mojave Desert Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polioptro F. Martinez-Austria

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme temperatures and heat wave trends in five cities within the Sonoran Desert region (e.g., Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona, in the United States and Ciudad Obregon and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora; and Mexicali, Baja California, in Mexico and one city within the Mojave Desert region (e.g., Las Vegas, Nevada were assessed using field data collected from 1950 to 2014. Instead of being selected by watershed, the cities were selected because they are part of the same arid climatic region. The data were analyzed for maximum temperature increases and the trends were confirmed statistically using Spearman’s nonparametric test. Temperature trends were correlated with the mortality information related with extreme heat events in the region. The results showed a clear trend of increasing maximum temperatures during the months of June, July, and August for five of the six cities and statically confirmed using Spearman’s rho values. Las Vegas was the only city where the temperature increase was not confirmed using Spearman’s test, probably because it is geographically located outside of the Sonoran Desert or because of its proximity to the Hoover Dam. The relationship between mortality and temperature was analyzed for the cities of Mexicali, Mexico and Phoenix. Arizona.

  3. diurnal and seasonal water relations of the desert phreatophyte prosopis-glandulosa (honey mesquite) in the Sonoran Desert of California

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, E. T.; Sharifi, M. R.; Rundel, P. W.; Jarrell, W. M.; Virginia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Diurnal and Seasonal water relations were monitored in a population of Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana in the Sonoran Desert of southern California. Prosopis glandulosa at this research site acquired its water from a ground water source 4-6 m deep. Measurements of diurnal and seasonal cycles of aboveground environmental conditions, soil moisture, and soil water potential (to 6 m depth) were taken to ascertain environmental water availability and water stress. Leaf water potential, leaf con...

  4. Comparative phylogeography reveals deep lineages and regional evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin A.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Barr, Kelly R.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: We explored lineage diversification within desert-dwelling fauna. Our goals were (1) to determine whether phylogenetic lineages and population expansions were consistent with younger Pleistocene climate fluctuation hypotheses or much older events predicted by pre-Pleistocene vicariance hypotheses, (2) to assess concordance in spatial patterns of genetic divergence and diversity among species and (3) to identify regional evolutionary hotspots of divergence and diversity and assess their conservation status. Location: Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran Deserts, USA. Methods: We analysed previously published gene sequence data for twelve species. We used Bayesian gene tree methods to estimate lineages and divergence times. Within each lineage, we tested for population expansion and age of expansion using coalescent approaches. We mapped interpopulation genetic divergence and intra-population genetic diversity in a GIS to identify hotspots of highest genetic divergence and diversity and to assess whether protected lands overlapped with evolutionary hotspots. Results: In seven of the 12 species, lineage divergence substantially predated the Pleistocene. Historical population expansion was found in eight species, but expansion events postdated the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in only four. For all species assessed, six hotspots of high genetic divergence and diversity were concentrated in the Colorado Desert, along the Colorado River and in the Mojave/Sonoran ecotone. At least some proportion of the land within each recovered hotspot was categorized as protected, yet four of the six also overlapped with major areas of human development. Main conclusions: Most of the species studied here diversified into distinct Mojave and Sonoran lineages prior to the LGM – supporting older diversification hypotheses. Several evolutionary hotspots were recovered but are not strategically paired with areas of protected land. Long-term preservation of species-level biodiversity would

  5. Status of groundwater quality in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mary C.; Hancock, Tracy Connell; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 963-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in southern California in San Bernardino, Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 52 wells (49 grid wells and 3 understanding wells) and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, not the

  6. Phylogeography of the Cactophilic Drosophila and Other Arthropods Associated with Cactus Necroses in the Sonoran Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. Markow

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the population genetics, phylogenetic relationships, systematics and evolution of arthropods that inhabit necrotic tissue of cacti in the Sonoran Desert of North America are reviewed. These studies have focused upon several species of insects (orders Diptera and Coleoptera and arachnids (order Pseudoscorpiones. For most taxa studied, little genetic structure and high dispersal ability are found in populations inhabiting the mainland and Baja California peninsula regions of the Sonoran Desert, consistent with the availability of the rotting cactus microhabitat which is patchily distributed and ephemeral. There is evidence, however, that the Gulf of California, which bisects the Sonoran Desert, has played a role in limiting gene flow and promoting speciation in several taxa, including histerid beetles, whereas other taxa, especially Drosophila nigrospiracula and D. mettleri, apparently are able to freely cross the Gulf, probably by taking advantage of the Midriff Islands in the northern Gulf as dispersal “stepping stones”. Genetic evidence has also been found for historical population expansions dating to the Pleistocene and late Pliocene in several taxa. Overall, these studies have provided important insights into how arthropods with different life history traits, but generally restricted to a necrotic cactus microhabitat, have evolved in an environmentally harsh and tectonically active region. In addition, they suggest some taxa for further, and more detailed, hypothesis driven studies of speciation.

  7. Drawing a line in the sand: Effectiveness of off-highway vehicle management in California's Sonoran desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Nathan; Defalco, Lesley A.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    Public land policies manage multiple uses while striving to protect vulnerable plant and wildlife habitats from degradation; yet the effectiveness of such policies are infrequently evaluated, particularly for remote landscapes that are difficult to monitor. We assessed the use and impacts of recreational vehicles on Mojave Desert washes (intermittent streams) in the Chemehuevi Desert Wildlife Management Area (DWMA) of southern California. Wash zones designated as open and closed to off-highway vehicle (OHV) activity were designed in part to protect Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) habitat while allowing recreation in designated areas. OHV tracks were monitored in washes located near access roads during winter and early spring holidays – when recreation is typically high – and at randomly dispersed locations away from roads. Washes near access roads had fewer vehicle tracks within closed than open zones; further away from roads, OHV tracks were infrequent and their occurrence was not different between wash designations. Washes were in better condition in closed zones following major holidays as indicated by less vegetation damage, presence of trash, and wash bank damage. Furthermore, the frequency of washes with live tortoises and their sign was marginally greater in closed than open wash zones. Collectively, these results suggest that low impacts to habitats in designated closed wash zones reflect public compliance with federal OHV policy and regulations in the Chemehuevi DWMA during our study. Future monitoring to contrast wash use and impacts during other seasons as well as in other DWMAs will elucidate spatial and temporal patterns of recreation in these important conservation areas.

  8. Extending a field-based Sonoran desert vegetation classification to a regional scale using optical and microwave satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Scott Marshall

    2000-10-01

    Vegetation mapping in and regions facilitates ecological studies, land management, and provides a record to which future land changes can be compared. Accurate and representative mapping of desert vegetation requires a sound field sampling program and a methodology to transform the data collected into a representative classification system. Time and cost constraints require that a remote sensing approach be used if such a classification system is to be applied on a regional scale. However, desert vegetation may be sparse and thus difficult to sense at typical satellite resolutions, especially given the problem of soil reflectance. This study was designed to address these concerns by conducting vegetation mapping research using field and satellite data from the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (USYPG) in Southwest Arizona. Line and belt transect data from the Army's Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) Program were transformed into relative cover and relative density classification schemes using cluster analysis. Ordination analysis of the same data produced two and three-dimensional graphs on which the homogeneity of each vegetation class could be examined. It was found that the use of correspondence analysis (CA), detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination methods was superior to the use of any single ordination method for helping to clarify between-class and within-class relationships in vegetation composition. Analysis of these between-class and within-class relationships were of key importance in examining how well relative cover and relative density schemes characterize the USYPG vegetation. Using these two classification schemes as reference data, maximum likelihood and artificial neural net classifications were then performed on a coregistered dataset consisting of a summer Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image, one spring and one summer ERS-1 microwave image, and elevation, slope, and aspect layers

  9. Late Miocene (Proto-Gulf) Extension and Magmatism on the Sonoran Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, P.; MacMillan, I.; Roldan-Quintana, J.

    2003-12-01

    Constraints on the magnitude and character of late Miocene (Proto-Gulf) deformation on the Sonoran margin of the Gulf of California extensional province are key to understanding how and when Baja California was captured by the Pacific plate and how strain was partitioned during the early stages of this transtensional rift system. Our new geologic mapping in southwestern Sonora and 40Ar/39Ar dating of pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic volcanic units indicate that late Miocene deformation and volcanic activity were largely restricted to a NW-trending, 100-120 km wide belt adjacent to the coast. Inboard of this belt, NW-SE extension is mainly older (>15 Ma) and occurred in an intra-arc or back-arc setting. Proto-Gulf deformation within the coastal belt was profoundly transtensional, with NW-striking, dextral strike slip faults operating in concert with N-S and NNE-striking normal and oblique slip faults to produce an inferred NW or NNW tectonic transport direction. The total amount of late Miocene NW directed dextral shear within the coastal belt is still poorly constrained, but may exceed 100 km. The locus of deformation and volcanic activity migrated westward or northwestward within the Sonoran coastal belt. in the eastern portion (Sierra Libre and Sierra El Bacatete) major volcanic activity commenced at ˜13.0 Ma and peaked at 12.0 Ma, and major faulting and tilting is bracketed between 12.0 and 10.6 Ma. Further west in the Sierra El Aguaje/San Carlos region, major volcanic activity commenced at 11.5 Ma and peaked at 10.5 Ma, and most faulting and tilting is bracketed between 10.7 and 9.3 Ma. On the coastal mountains northwest of San Carlos, rift related faulting and tilting continued after 8.5 Ma. Voluminous late Miocene (13-8 Ma) volcanic rocks within the Sonoran coastal belt were erupted from numerous centers (e.g. Sierra Libre, Guaymas, Sierra El Aguaje). These thick volcanic sections are compositionally diverse (basalt to rhyolite, with abundant dacite and

  10. Groundwater-quality data in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010--Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Wright, Michael T.; Beuttel, Brandon S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 12,103-square-mile Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts (CLUB) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from December 2008 to March 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CLUB study unit was the twenty-eighth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA CLUB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) are defined as parts of aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CLUB study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CLUB study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 52 wells in 3 study areas (Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts) in San Bernardino, Riverside, Kern, San Diego, and Imperial Counties. Forty-nine of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and three wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile

  11. Southern California Regional Technology Acceleration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa, Rosibel [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Jacobs School of Engineering; Rasochova, Lada [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Rady School of Management

    2014-09-30

    UC San Diego and San Diego State University are partnering to address these deficiencies in the renewable energy space in the greater San Diego region, accelerating the movement of clean energy innovation from the university laboratory into the marketplace, building on the proven model of the William J. von Liebig Center’s (vLC’s) Proof of Concept (POC) program and virtualizing the effort to enable a more inclusive environment for energy innovation and expansion of the number of clean energy start-ups and/or technology licenses in greater California.

  12. Regional Planning in California: Objectives, Obstacles, and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; Alford, Janis C.

    1976-01-01

    At the direction of the California State Legislature, the authors explored regional planning in other states as well as in California in an effort to determine the advantages and disadvantages of voluntary versus mandated interinstitutional cooperation. In this revised report the current state of regional planning and various alternatives for…

  13. Current depression among women in California according to residence in the California-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Ibarra, Suzanne; Epstein, Joan Faith; Induni, Marta; Wright, Michael A

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of current depression; examine the relationship between current depression and immigration, health status, health care access, and health behaviors; and assess differences by California-Mexico border region (Imperial and San Diego Counties) among women in California. Using a cross-sectional, representative sample of adult women from the California Women's Health Survey (n = 13 454), a statewide telephone survey, prevalence of current depression and predictors of depression were examined in California and according to border region residence. Depression was assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire. The prevalence of current depression for women in California was 12.0%. It was similar in the border (13.0%) and the nonborder (11.9%) regions. Odds of current depression in women were lower among recent immigrants (depression and health status, health care access, and binge drinking were larger in the border region than outside the border region. Similar prevalences of current depression were observed among those who live in the border region of California and in those who do not, but the relationship between depression and health status, health care access, and binge drinking varied by border region residence. Ideally, future surveillance of depression and its predictors along the Mexico-California border will be conducted binationally to inform interventions and tracking such as the Healthy Border Program's objectives.

  14. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and change detection: the Sonoran initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Lozar; Charles Ehlschlaeger

    2005-01-01

    Ecoregional Systems Heritage and Encroachment Monitoring (ESHEM) examines issues of land management at an ecosystem level using remote sensing. Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), in partnership with Western Illinois University, has developed an ecoregional database and monitoring capability covering the Sonoran region. The monitoring time horizon will...

  15. Temporal patterns in species flowering in Sky Islands of the Sonoran Desert ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa M. Crimmins; Michael A. Crimmins; C. David. Bertelsen

    2013-01-01

    Highly variable moisture conditions in the Sonoran Desert play a significant role in shaping the composition and phenology of plants in this water-limited region. The flowering patterns of plants of the Finger Rock trail, located in the Santa Catalina Mountains of southern Arizona, have been very carefully documented on approximately a weekly basis for nearly three...

  16. Organic Chemistry and the Native Plants of the Sonoran Desert: Conversion of Jojoba Oil to Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daconta, Lisa V.; Minger, Timothy; Nedelkova, Valentina; Zikopoulos, John N.

    2015-01-01

    A new, general approach to the organic chemistry laboratory is introduced that is based on learning about organic chemistry techniques and research methods by exploring the natural products found in local native plants. As an example of this approach for the Sonoran desert region, the extraction of jojoba oil and its transesterification to…

  17. California Migrant Student Movement Study--Region 3 Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin G.

    The five counties of Madera, Merced, Contra Costa, San Joaquin and Stanislaus constitute Region 3 of the California Migrant Education Program. A study to evaluate movement patterns of migrant students from, to and within the state was conducted using data from the Migrant Student Record Transfer System. It indicates that in 1977 Region 3 ranked…

  18. Characterization of the Sonoran desert as a radiometric calibration target for Earth observing sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Chander, Gyanesh; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-young; Wu, Aisheng

    2011-01-01

    To provide highly accurate quantitative measurements of the Earth's surface, a comprehensive calibration and validation of the satellite sensors is required. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Characterization Support Team, in collaboration with United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, has previously demonstrated the use of African desert sites to monitor the long-term calibration stability of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). The current study focuses on evaluating the suitability of the Sonoran Desert test site for post-launch long-term radiometric calibration as well as cross-calibration purposes. Due to the lack of historical and on-going in situ ground measurements, the Sonoran Desert is not usually used for absolute calibration. An in-depth evaluation (spatial, temporal, and spectral stability) of this site using well calibrated L7 ETM+ measurements and local climatology data has been performed. The Sonoran Desert site produced spatial variability of about 3 to 5% in the reflective solar regions, and the temporal variations of the site after correction for view-geometry impacts were generally around 3%. The results demonstrate that, barring the impacts due to occasional precipitation, the Sonoran Desert site can be effectively used for cross-calibration and long-term stability monitoring of satellite sensors, thus, providing a good test site in the western hemisphere.

  19. Assessing the geologic and climatic forcing of biodiversity and evolution surrounding the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolby, Greer; Bennett, Scott E. K.; Lira-Noriega, Andres; Wilder, Benjamin T.; Munguia-Vega, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    For almost a century the Baja California peninsula (Peninsula), Gulf of California (Gulf), and broader Sonoran Desert region (figure 1) have drawn geologists and biologists alike to study its unique physical and evolutionary processes (e.g., Wittich 1920; Darton 1921; Nelson 1921; Johnston 1924; Beal 1948; Durham and Allison 1960). The challenge remains to untangle the long, intricate, and at times enigmatic geological and climatological histories that have shaped the high levels of endemism and biodiversity observed in the region today (Van Devender 1990; Grismer 2000; Riddle et al. 2000).

  20. Regional variations in breast cancer among california teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Peggy; Hurley, Susan; Goldberg, Debbie E; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bernstein, Leslie; Deapen, Dennis; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Peel, David; Pinder, Richard; Ross, Ronald K; West, Dee; Wright, William E; Ziogas, Argyrios

    2004-11-01

    Observed regional differences in breast cancer incidence could provide valuable clues to the etiology of this disease. The pattern of historically higher breast cancer rates among residents of California's San Francisco Bay and Southern Coastal areas is evident in the disease experience among members of the California Teachers Study. This large cohort study has followed female professional school employees for cancer incidence since 1995 and has collected extensive information on breast cancer risk factors. Between 1996 and 1999, invasive breast cancer was diagnosed in 1562 of the 115,611 cohort members who could be geocoded to a California address in 1995 and who had no previous breast cancer diagnosis. Adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRs) were estimated through multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. Rates were higher for cohort members in the San Francisco Bay area (HR = 1.22; 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.40) and Southern Coastal area (1.16; 1.04-1.30) compared with those in the rest of California. The distributions of variables representing socioeconomic status, urbanization, and personal risk factors were consistent with higher risks for cohort members residing in the San Francisco Bay and Southern Coastal areas. Adjustment for these factors, however, did not explain regional differences in incidence, resulting in HRs that remained elevated for these 2 areas. Regional differences in breast cancer incidence in this large, well-defined cohort are not easily explained by known risk factors.

  1. The Tenebrionidae of California: A Time Sensitive Snapshot Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Aalbu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to a diversity of habitats and its geologic history, the US state of California hosts a spectacular assemblage of darkling beetle species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. In addition to being part of the California Floristic Province, one of 34 global biodiversity hotspots identified by Conservation International, California also has additional areas which are parts of the Great Basin, Mojave, and Sonoran deserts. California is divided into nine floristic regions. Each region is assessed in terms of faunal composition and endemism. A “snapshot” of our present knowledge of the Tenebrionidae indicates that 447 currently recognized species, representing 108 genera, occur in California of which one hundred and ninety are endemic. California is compared to other nearby regions in diversity and endemism. An analysis of currently valid species vs a more realistic species account based on unpublished records of likely synonyms and known species yet to be described in the scientific literature is presented. The California Floristic Region, rather than other more arid parts of California, has the highest number of total and endemic species. Because of their high diversity and endemism, tenebrionids could potentially provide a valuable tool for monitoring the environment for conservation purposes.

  2. The tenebrionidae of california: a time sensitive snapshot assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbu, Rolf L; Smith, Aaron D

    2014-01-01

    DUE TO A DIVERSITY OF HABITATS AND ITS GEOLOGIC HISTORY, THE US STATE OF CALIFORNIA HOSTS A SPECTACULAR ASSEMBLAGE OF DARKLING BEETLE SPECIES (COLEOPTERA: Tenebrionidae). In addition to being part of the California Floristic Province, one of 34 global biodiversity hotspots identified by Conservation International, California also has additional areas which are parts of the Great Basin, Mojave, and Sonoran deserts. California is divided into nine floristic regions. Each region is assessed in terms of faunal composition and endemism. A "snapshot" of our present knowledge of the Tenebrionidae indicates that 447 currently recognized species, representing 108 genera, occur in California of which one hundred and ninety are endemic. California is compared to other nearby regions in diversity and endemism. An analysis of currently valid species vs a more realistic species account based on unpublished records of likely synonyms and known species yet to be described in the scientific literature is presented. The California Floristic Region, rather than other more arid parts of California, has the highest number of total and endemic species. Because of their high diversity and endemism, tenebrionids could potentially provide a valuable tool for monitoring the environment for conservation purposes.

  3. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp. from the Sonoran Desert of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pfeiler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented.

  4. Genetic Diversity and Population Genetics of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae: Culex spp.) from the Sonoran Desert of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Flores-López, Carlos A.; Mada-Vélez, Jesús Gerardo; Escalante-Verdugo, Juan; Markow, Therese A.

    2013-01-01

    The population genetics and phylogenetic relationships of Culex mosquitoes inhabiting the Sonoran Desert region of North America were studied using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite molecular markers. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from mosquitoes collected over a wide geographic area, including the Baja California peninsula, and mainland localities in southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, showed several well-supported partitions corresponding to Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tarsalis, and two unidentified species, Culex sp. 1 and sp. 2. Culex quinquefasciatus was found at all localities and was the most abundant species collected. Culex tarsalis was collected only at Tucson, Arizona and Guaymas, Sonora. The two unidentified species of Culex were most abundant at Navojoa in southern Sonora. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the COI gene segment were substantially lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with the other three species. Analysis of molecular variance revealed little structure among seven populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, whereas significant structure was found between the two populations of Cx. tarsalis. Evidence for an historical population expansion beginning in the Pleistocene was found for Cx. tarsalis. Possible explanations for the large differences in genetic diversity between Cx. quinquefasciatus and the other species of Culex are presented. PMID:24302868

  5. Water demand studies. [central and southern California regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, L. W.; Estes, J. E.; Churchman, C. W.; Johnson, C. W.; Huning, J. R.; Rozelle, K.; Hamilton, J.; Washburn, G.; Tinney, L. R.; Thaman, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The areas of focus of the Santa Barbara and Riverside groups in conducting water demand studies are the central and southern California regional test sites, respectively. Within each test site, sub-areas have been selected for use in the making of detailed investigations. Within each of these sub-areas an in-depth evaluation is being made as to the capability of remote sensing systems to provide pertinent data relative to water demand phenomena. These more limited sub-areas are: (1) Kern County and the San Joaquin Basin; (2) Chino-Riverside Basin; and (3) the Imperial Valley. Rational for the selection of these subareas included the following: Much of the previous remote sensing research had been conducted in these areas and therefore a great deal of remote sensing imagery and pertinent ground truth for the areas was already available.

  6. Geophysical study of the Clear Lake region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of geophysical studies in the Clear Lake region of California, north of San Francisco, have revealed a prominent, nearly circular negative gravity anomaly with an amplitude of more than 25 milligals (mgal) and an areal extent of approximately 250 square miles and, in addition, a number of smaller positive and negative anomalies. The major negative gravity anomaly is closely associated with the Clear Lake volcanic field and with an area characterized by hot springs and geothermal fields. However, the anomaly cannot be explained by mapped surface geologic features of the area. Aeromagnetic data in the Clear Lake region show no apparent correlation with the major negative gravity anomaly; the local magnetic field is affected principally by serpentine. An electrical resistivity low marks the central part of the gravity minimum, and a concentration of earthquake epicenters characterizes the Clear Lake volcanic field area. The primary cause of the major negative gravity anomaly is believed to be a hot intrusive mass, possibly a magma chamber, that may underlie the Clear Lake volcanic field and vicinity. This mass may serve as a source of heat for the geothermal phenomena in the area. Other smaller gravity anomalies in the Clear Lake region are apparently caused by near-surface geologic features, including relatively dense units of the Franciscan Formation and less dense Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rock units.

  7. Landscape Sustainability in a Sonoran Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss concepts of landscape sustainability in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Phoenix is situated in the greater Salt River Valley of the lower Sonoran Desert in the southwest United States. In this paper I use the ecological frameworks of ecosystem services and resiliency as a metric for understanding landscape sustainability. An assessment of landscape sustainability performance benchmarks were made by surveying research findings of scientists affiliated with the Central Arizona Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER. In Phoenix, present day emphases on cultural, aesthetic, and habitat formation ecosystem services within an arid ecoregion of low natural resilience coupled to a complex matrix of socioeconomic stratification, excessive landscape water use and pruning practices has had the undesired effect of degrading landscape sustainability. This has been measured as mixed patterns of plant diversity and human-altered patterns of carbon regulation, microclimate control, and trophic dynamics. In the future, sustainable residential landscaping in desert cities such as Phoenix may be fostered through use of water-conserving irrigation technologies, oasis-style landscape design motifs, recycling of landscape green waste, and conservative plant pruning strategies.

  8. California Wintertime Precipitation in Regional and Global Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, P M

    2009-04-27

    In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California (CA) and compared. Several averaging methodologies are considered and all are found to give similar values when model grid spacing is less than 3{sup o}. This suggests that CA is a reasonable size for regional intercomparisons using modern GCMs. Results show that reanalysis-forced RCMs tend to significantly overpredict CA precipitation. This appears to be due mainly to overprediction of extreme events; RCM precipitation frequency is generally underpredicted. Overprediction is also reflected in wintertime precipitation variability, which tends to be too high for RCMs on both daily and interannual scales. Wintertime precipitation in most (but not all) GCMs is underestimated. This is in contrast to previous studies based on global blended gauge/satellite observations which are shown here to underestimate precipitation relative to higher-resolution gauge-only datasets. Several GCMs provide reasonable daily precipitation distributions, a trait which doesn't seem tied to model resolution. GCM daily and interannual variability is generally underpredicted.

  9. Curie Depth Analysis of the Salton Sea Region, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickus, Kevin; Hussein, Musa

    2016-02-01

    Aeromagnetic data were analyzed to determine the bottom of magnetic bodies that might be related to the Curie point depth (CPD) by 2D spectral and 3D inversion methods within the Salton Trough and the surrounding region in southern California. The bottom of the magnetic bodies for 55 × 55 km windows varied in depth between 11 and 23 km in depth using 2D spectral methods. Since the 55 × 55 km square window may include both shallow and deep source, a 3D inversion method was used to provide better resolution of the bottom of the magnetic bodies. The 3D models indicate the depth to the bottom of the magnetic bodies varied between 5 and 23 km. Even though both methods produced similar results, the 3D inversion method produced higher resolution of the CPD depths. The shallowest depths (5-8 km) occur along and west of the Brawley Seismic Zone and the southwestern portion of the Imperial Valley. The source of these shallow CPD values may be related to geothermal systems including hydrothermal circulation and/or partially molten material. Additionally, shallow CPD depths (7-12 km) were found in a northwest-trending zone in the center of the Salton Trough. These depths coincide with previous seismic analyses that indicated a lower crustal low velocity region which is believed to be caused by partially molten material. Lower velocity zones in several regions may be related to fracturing and/or hydrothermal fluids. If the majority of these shallow depths are related to temperature, they are likely associated with the CPD, and the partially molten material extends over a wider zone than previously known. Greater depths within the Salton Trough coincide with the base of basaltic material and/or regions of intense metamorphism intruded by mafic material in the middle/lower crust.

  10. Hydrologic model of the Modesto Region, California, 1960-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven P.; Rewis, Diane L.; Traum, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Strategies for managing water supplies and groundwater quality in the Modesto region of the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, are being formulated and evaluated by the Stanislaus and Tuolumne Rivers Groundwater Basin Association. Management issues and goals in the basin include an area in the lower part of the basin that requires drainage of the shallow water table to sustain agriculture, intra- and inter-basin migration of poor-quality groundwater, and efficient management of surface and groundwater supplies. To aid in the evaluation of water-management strategies, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Stanislaus and Tuolumne Rivers Groundwater Basin Association have developed a hydrologic model that simulates monthly groundwater and surface-water flow as governed by aquifer-system properties, annual and seasonal variations in climate, surface-water flow and availability, water use, and land use. The model was constructed by using the U.S. Geological Survey groundwater-modeling software MODFLOW-OWHM with the Farm Process.

  11. Geothermal regimes of the Clearlake region, northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, M. [ed.; Burns, K.L.; Potter, R.M.

    1998-06-01

    The first commercial production of power from geothermal energy, at The Geysers steamfield in northern California in June 1960, was a triumph for the geothermal exploration industry. Before and since, there has been a search for further sources of commercial geothermal power in The Geysers--Clear Lake geothermal area surrounding The Geysers. As with all exploration programs, these were driven by models. The models in this case were of geothermal regimes, that is, the geometric distribution of temperature and permeability at depth, and estimates of the physical conditions in subsurface fluids. Studies in microseismicity and heat flow, did yield geophysical information relevant to active geothermal systems. Studies in stable-element geochemistry found hiatuses or divides at the Stoney Creek Fault and at the Collayomi Fault. In the region between the two faults, early speculation as to the presence of steamfields was disproved from the geochemical data, and the potential existence of hot-water systems was predicted. Studies in isotope geochemistry found the region was characterized by an isotope mixing trend. The combined geochemical data have negative implications for the existence of extensive hydrothermal systems and imply that fluids of deep origin are confined to small, localized systems adjacent to faults that act as conduits. There are also shallow hot-water aquifers. Outside fault-localized systems and hot-water aquifers, the area is an expanse of impermeable rock. The extraction of energy from the impermeable rock will require the development and application of new methods of reservoir creation and heat extraction such as hot dry rock technology.

  12. A regional soil and sediment geochemical study in northern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, Martin B.; Morrison, Jean M.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Wanty, Richard B.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Smith, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale variations in soil geochemistry were investigated in a 20,000-km 2 study area in northern California that includes the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sacramento Valley and the northern Coast Ranges. Over 1300 archival soil samples collected from the late 1970s to 1980 in El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Sacramento, Yolo and Solano counties were analyzed for 42 elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a near-total dissolution. These data were supplemented by analysis of more than 500 stream-sediment samples from higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada from the same study site. The relatively high-density data (1 sample per 15 km 2 for much of the study area) allows the delineation of regional geochemical patterns and the identification of processes that produced these patterns. The geochemical results segregate broadly into distinct element groupings whose distribution reflects the interplay of geologic, hydrologic, geomorphic and anthropogenic factors. One such group includes elements associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks including Cr, Ni, V, Co, Cu and Mg. Using Cr as an example, elevated concentrations occur in soils overlying ultramafic rocks in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (median Cr = 160 mg/kg) as well as in the northern Coast Ranges. Low concentrations of these elements occur in soils located further upslope in the Sierra Nevada overlying Tertiary volcanic, metasedimentary and plutonic rocks (granodiorite and diorite). Eastern Sacramento Valley soil samples, defined as those located east of the Sacramento River, are lower in Cr (median Cr = 84 mg/kg), and are systematically lower in this suite compared to soils from the west side of the Sacramento Valley (median Cr = 130 mg/kg). A second group of elements showing a coherent pattern, including Ca, K, Sr and REE, is derived from relatively silicic rocks types. This group occurs at elevated

  13. A regional soil and sediment geochemical study in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.; Holloway, J.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Helsel, D.R.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale variations in soil geochemistry were investigated in a 20,000-km2 study area in northern California that includes the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sacramento Valley and the northern Coast Ranges. Over 1300 archival soil samples collected from the late 1970s to 1980 in El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Sacramento, Yolo and Solano counties were analyzed for 42 elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a near-total dissolution. These data were supplemented by analysis of more than 500 stream-sediment samples from higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada from the same study site. The relatively high-density data (1 sample per 15 km2 for much of the study area) allows the delineation of regional geochemical patterns and the identification of processes that produced these patterns. The geochemical results segregate broadly into distinct element groupings whose distribution reflects the interplay of geologic, hydrologic, geomorphic and anthropogenic factors. One such group includes elements associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks including Cr, Ni, V, Co, Cu and Mg. Using Cr as an example, elevated concentrations occur in soils overlying ultramafic rocks in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (median Cr = 160 mg/kg) as well as in the northern Coast Ranges. Low concentrations of these elements occur in soils located further upslope in the Sierra Nevada overlying Tertiary volcanic, metasedimentary and plutonic rocks (granodiorite and diorite). Eastern Sacramento Valley soil samples, defined as those located east of the Sacramento River, are lower in Cr (median Cr = 84 mg/kg), and are systematically lower in this suite compared to soils from the west side of the Sacramento Valley (median Cr = 130 mg/kg). A second group of elements showing a coherent pattern, including Ca, K, Sr and REE, is derived from relatively silicic rocks types. This group occurs at elevated

  14. Characterization of emissions sources in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Bei, N.; Barrera, H.; Tejeda, D.; Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex 2010 Emissions Team

    2010-12-01

    The California-Mexico border region provides an opportunity to evaluate the characteristics of the emission processes in rapidly expanding urban areas where intensive international trade and commerce activities occur. Intense anthropogenic activities, biomass burning, as well as biological and geological sources significantly contribute to high concentration levels of particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and ozone observed in the California-US Baja California-Mexico border region. The continued efforts by Mexico and US for improving and updating the emissions inventories in the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali has helped to understand the emission processes in the border region. In addition, the recent Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region. In this work we will present our analyzes of the data obtained during Cal-Mex 2010 for the characterization of the emission sources and their use for the evaluation of the recent emissions inventories for the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Mexicali. The developed emissions inventories will be implemented in concurrent air quality modeling efforts for understanding the physical and chemical transformations of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region and their impacts.

  15. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  16. 76 FR 80961 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Sonoran Solar Energy Project, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...;AZA34187] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Sonoran Solar Energy Project, Arizona... Management (BLM) announces the availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Sonoran Solar Energy... view the final EIS at the following Web site: http://www.blm.gov/az/st/en/prog/energy/solar/sonoran...

  17. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  18. Disturbance and Plant Succession in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of the American Southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Abella

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances such as fire, land clearing, and road building remove vegetation and can have major influences on public health through effects on air quality, aesthetics, recreational opportunities, natural resource availability, and economics. Plant recovery and succession following disturbance are poorly understood in arid lands relative to more temperate regions. This study quantitatively reviewed vegetation reestablishment following a variety of disturbances in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of southwestern North America. A total of 47 studies met inclusion criteria for the review. The time estimated by 29 individual studies for full reestablishment of total perennial plant cover was 76 years. Although long, this time was shorter than an estimated 215 years (among 31 individual studies required for the recovery of species composition typical of undisturbed areas, assuming that recovery remains linear following the longest time since disturbance measurement made by the studies.

  19. Evidence of aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation from biogenic emissions in the North American Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Wonaschütz, Anna; Arellano, Avelino; Betterton, Eric A; Sorooshian, Armin

    2013-07-16

    This study examines the role of aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation in the North American Sonoran Desert as a result of intense solar radiation, enhanced moisture, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). The ratio of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) to organic carbon (OC) nearly doubles during the monsoon season relative to other seasons of the year. When normalized by mixing height, the WSOC enhancement during monsoon months relative to preceding dry months (May-June) exceeds that of sulfate by nearly a factor of 10. WSOC:OC and WSOC are most strongly correlated with moisture parameters, temperature, and concentrations of O 3 and BVOCs. No positive relationship was identified between WSOC or WSOC:OC and anthropogenic tracers such as CO over a full year. This study points at the need for further work to understand the effect of BVOCs and moisture in altering aerosol properties in understudied desert regions.

  20. Southwest Regional Climate Hub and California Subsidiary Hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile Elias; Caiti Steele; Kris Havstad; Kerri Steenwerth; Jeanne Chambers; Helena Deswood; Amber Kerr; Albert Rango; Mark Schwartz; Peter Stine; Rachel Steele

    2015-01-01

    This report is a joint effort of the Southwest Regional Climate Hub and the California Subsidiary Hub (Sub Hub). The Southwest Regional Climate Hub covers Arizona, California, Hawai‘i and the U.S. affiliated Pacific Islands, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah and contains vast areas of western rangeland, forests, and high-value specialty crops (Figure 1). The California Sub...

  1. Survival of fishers in the southern Sierra Nevada region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sweitzer; Craig M. Thompson; Rebecca E. Green; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Fishers in the western United States were recently proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of concerns for loss of suitable habitat and evidence of a diversity of mortality risks that reduce survival. One of 2 remnant populations of fishers in California is in the southern Sierra Nevada region, where we studied them at 2 research sites in the...

  2. Winter precipitation and fire in the Sonoran Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, G.F.; Vint, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Historical fire and climate records from the Arizona Upland portion of the Tonto National forest were used to test the hypothesis that fires burn larger areas in the Sonoran Desert after two wet winters than after one. We found that many more hectares burn in years following two winters that are wetter than normal, than during any other years. We agree with other ecologists, that desert fire occurrence is probably related to increased production of winter annual plants, and we suggest ways that the relationship may be clarified.

  3. Urban-wildland fires: how California and other regions of the US can learn from Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Scott L; Moritz, Max A; Adams, Mark A; Handmer, John; Kearns, Faith R; Leicester, Bob; Leonard, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Most urban-wildland interface (UWI) fires in California and the other regions of the US are managed in a similar fashion: fire agencies anticipate the spread of fire, mandatory evacuations are ordered, and professional fire services move in and attempt to suppress the fires. This approach has not reduced building losses in California. Conversely, losses and the associated suite of environmental impacts, including reduced air quality, have dramatically increased over the last three decades. In contrast to California, Australia has developed a more effective 'Prepare, stay and defend, or leave early' policy. Using this approach, trained residents decide whether they will stay and actively defend their well-prepared property or leave early before a fire threatens them. Australian strategies have the distinct advantage of engaging and preparing those most affected by such fires: homeowners. Investing more in fire suppression alone, the common response after large UWI fires in California, will not reduce losses. US society has attempted to accommodate many of the natural hazards inherent to the landscapes that we inhabit; by examining the Australian model, we may approach a more sustainable coexistence with fire as well. However, it should be noted that some California communities are so vulnerable that a 'Prepare and leave early' strategy may be the only option.

  4. Structure, agency, and the transformation of the Sonoran Desert by buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare): An application of land change science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Jacob C.

    A regional land transformation is underway in the Sonoran Desert of southwestern North America as a result of the conversion of native rangeland to exotic pasture. In northwestern Sonora, Mexico the process involves clearing native vegetation for cultivation of buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare). Southern African buffelgrass was introduced to Sonora through the United States in the 1950s with generous support from the Mexican federal and Sonoran state governments. The ascendance of buffelgrass as a range management tool in Sonora has been conditioned by an international political economy of beef production. However, land use decisions regarding buffelgrass are also conditioned by factors internal to the ranch household. This research examines the expansion of buffelgrass in the Sonoran Desert, addressing its extent and drivers. Through the use of systematic interviews with ranchers, key informant interviews with government officials, and an examination of northern Mexico's cattle ranching history and policy, the dissertation documents why buffelgrass has spread as a policy program and management choice. This part of the work addresses a "structure-agency debate" in human-environment geography. Next the research turns to landscape impacts of buffelgrass cultivation, through vegetation plot and transect sampling. The extent, cover, and density of buffelgrass inside and outside fenced pastures are examined, confirming the hypothesis that disturbance facilitates invasion from pastures onto surrounding lands. Finally, the research employs novel methods of remote sensing and geographic information science using a 1973-2006 time series of Landsat imagery to characterize the patterns and temporal trajectories of land change by buffelgrass across the site. Object-based image processing techniques are combined with traditional maximum likelihood techniques and classification tree analysis to address the difficult task of distinguishing buffelgrass from other prevalent land

  5. Characterization of the Deep Water Surface Wave Variability in the California Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Bôas, Ana B.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2017-11-01

    Surface waves are crucial for the dynamics of the upper ocean not only because they mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, but also because they determine the sea state. The surface wave field in a given region is set by the combination of local and remote forcing. The present work characterizes the seasonal variability of the deep water surface wave field in the California Current region, as retrieved from over two decades of satellite altimetry data combined with wave buoys and wave model hindcast (WaveWatch III). In particular, the extent to which the local wind modulates the variability of the significant wave height, peak period, and peak direction is assessed. During spring/summer, regional-scale wind events of up to 10 m/s are the dominant forcing for waves off the California coast, leading to relatively short-period waves (8-10 s) that come predominantly from the north-northwest. The wave climatology throughout the California Current region shows average significant wave heights exceeding 2 m during most of the year, which may have implications for the planning and retrieval methods of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.

  6. Eikonal Tomography of the Southern California Plate Boundary Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, H.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Zigone, D.; Lin, F. C.

    2016-12-01

    We use eikonal tomography to derive directionally-dependent phase velocities of surface waves for the plate boundary region in southern CA sensitive to the approximate depth range 1-20 km. Seismic noise data recorded by 346 stations in the area provide a spatial coverage with 5-25 km typical station spacing and period range of 1-20 s. Noise cross-correlations are calculated for vertical component data recorded in year 2014. Rayleigh wave group and phase travel times between 2 and 13 sec period are derived for each station pair using frequency-time analysis. For each common station, all available phase travel time measurements with sufficient signal to noise ratio and envelope peak amplitude are used to construct a travel time map for a virtual source at the common station location. By solving the eikonal equation, both phase velocity and propagation direction are evaluated at each location for each virtual source. Isotropic phase velocities and 2-psi azimuthal anisotropy and their uncertainties are determined statistically using measurements from different virtual sources. Following the method of Barmin et al. (2001), group velocities are also inverted using all the group travel times that pass quality criteria. The obtained group and phase dispersions of Rayleigh waves are then inverted on a 6 x 6 km2 grid for local 1D piecewise shear wave velocity structures using the procedure of Herrmann (2013). The results agree well with previous observations of Zigone et al. (2015) in the overlapping area. Clear velocity contrasts and low velocity zones are seen for the San Andreas, San Jacinto, Elsinore and Garlock faults. We also find 2-psi azimuthal anisotropy with fast directions parallel to geometrically-simple fault sections. Details and updated results will be presented in the meeting.

  7. Development of State Interindustry Models for Rocky Mountain Region and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Kunin, Leonard

    1976-02-01

    Interindustry tables have been developed for the eight Rocky Mountain States and California. These tables are based on the 367-order 1967 national interindustry table. The national matrix was expanded to 404 sectors by disaggregating the seven minerals industries to 44 industries. The state tables can be used for energy and other resource analysis. Regional impacts of alternate development strategies can be evaluated with their use. A general computer program has been developed to facilitate construction of state interindustry tables.

  8. Modified Mercalli intensities for some recent California earthquakes and historic San Francisco Bay Region earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun, William H.

    1998-01-01

    Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) data for recent California earthquakes were used by Bakun and Wentworth (1997) to develop a strategy for bounding the location and moment magnitude M of earthquakes from MMI observations only. Bakun (Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer., submitted) used the Bakun and Wentworth (1997) strategy to analyze 19th century and early 20th century San Francisco Bay Region earthquakes. The MMI data and site corrections used in these studies are listed in this Open-file Report. 

  9. Results of the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) test of earthquake forecasts in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Ting; Turcotte, Donald L; Holliday, James R; Sachs, Michael K; Rundle, John B; Chen, Chien-Chih; Tiampo, Kristy F

    2011-10-04

    The Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) test of earthquake forecasts in California was the first competitive evaluation of forecasts of future earthquake occurrence. Participants submitted expected probabilities of occurrence of M ≥ 4.95 earthquakes in 0.1° × 0.1° cells for the period 1 January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010. Probabilities were submitted for 7,682 cells in California and adjacent regions. During this period, 31 M ≥ 4.95 earthquakes occurred in the test region. These earthquakes occurred in 22 test cells. This seismic activity was dominated by earthquakes associated with the M = 7.2, April 4, 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in northern Mexico. This earthquake occurred in the test region, and 16 of the other 30 earthquakes in the test region could be associated with it. Nine complete forecasts were submitted by six participants. In this paper, we present the forecasts in a way that allows the reader to evaluate which forecast is the most "successful" in terms of the locations of future earthquakes. We conclude that the RELM test was a success and suggest ways in which the results can be used to improve future forecasts.

  10. Changing patterns in water toxicity associated with current use pesticides in three California agriculture regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Deng, Xin; Geraci, Jeff; Worcester, Karen; Tjeerdema, Ron S

    2018-03-01

    Regulation of agriculture irrigation water discharges in California, USA, is assessed and controlled by its 9 Regional Water Quality Control Boards under the jurisdiction of the California State Water Resources Control Board. Each Regional Water Board has developed programs to control pesticides in runoff as part of the waste discharge requirements implemented through each region's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program. The present study assessed how pesticide use patterns differ in the Imperial (Imperial County) and the Salinas and Santa Maria (Monterey County) valleys, which host 3 of California's prime agriculture areas. Surface-water toxicity associated with current use pesticides was monitored at several sites in these areas in 2014 and 2015, and results were linked to changes in pesticide use patterns in these areas. Pesticide use patterns appeared to coincide with differences in the way agriculture programs were implemented by the 2 respective Regional Water Quality Control Boards, and these programs differed in the 2 Water Board Regions. Different pesticide use patterns affected the occurrence of pesticides in agriculture runoff, and this influenced toxicity test results. Greater detection frequency and higher concentrations of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos were detected in agriculture runoff in Imperial County compared to Monterey County, likely due to more rigorous monitoring requirements for growers using this pesticide in Monterey County. Monterey County agriculture runoff contained toxic concentrations of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid pesticides, which impacted amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus) in toxicity tests. Study results illustrate how monitoring strategies need to evolve as regulatory actions affect change in pesticide use and demonstrate the importance of using toxicity test indicator species appropriate for the suite of contaminants in runoff in order to accurately assess environmental risk. Integr

  11. GPS-seismograms reveal amplified shaking in California's San Joaquin Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    The March 10, 2014, the Mw6.8 Ferndale earthquake occurred off the coast of Northern California, near the Mendocino Triple Junction. Aftershocks suggest a northeast striking fault plane for the strike-slip earthquake, oriented such that the California coast is roughly perpendicular to the rupture plane. Consequently, large amplitude Love waves were observed at seismic stations and continuous GPS stations throughout Northern California. While GPS is less sensitive then broadband instruments, in Northern California their station density is much higher, potentially providing valuable detail. A total of 269 GPS stations that have high-rate (1 sps) data available were used to generate GPS-seismograms. These include stations from the Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO, operated by UNAVCO), and the USGS, Menlo Park. The Track software package was used to generate relative displacements between pairs of stations, determined using Delaunay triangulation. This network-based approach allows for higher precision than absolute positioning, because common noise sources, in particular atmospheric noise, are cancelled out. A simple least-squares network adjustment with a stable centroid constraint is performed to transform the mesh of relative motions into absolute motions at individual GPS stations. This approach to generating GPS-seismograms is validated by the good agreement between time series records at 16 BARD stations that are co-located with broadband seismometers from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). While the distribution of peak dynamic displacements is dominated in long periods by the radiation pattern, at shorter periods other patterns become visible. In particular, stations in the San Joaquin Delta (SJD) region show higher peak dynamic displacements than those in surrounding areas, as well as longer duration shaking. SJD stations also have higher dynamic displacements on the radial component than surrounding

  12. Late Pleistocene paleohydrology near the boundary of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts, southeastern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; Bright, Jordon E.; Shanahan, Timothy M.; Mahan, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits form in arid environments as water tables rise and approach or breach the ground surface during periods of enhanced effective precipitation. Where preserved, these deposits contain information on the timing and elevation of past ground-water fluctuations. Here we report on the investigation of a series of GWD deposits that are exposed in discontinuous outcrops along a ???150-km stretch of the San Pedro Valley in southeastern Arizona, near the boundary of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts. Chronologic, isotopic, geochemical, faunal assemblage (ostracodes and gastropods), and sedimentological evidence collectively suggest that the elevation of the regional water table in the valley rose in response to a change in climate ???50 ka ago and remained relatively high for the next ???35 ka before falling during the B??lling-Aller??d warm period, rebounding briefly during the Younger Dryas cold event, and falling again at the onset of the Holocene. The timing of these hydrologic changes coincides closely with variations in ??18O values of calcite from a nearby speleothem to the west and changes in lake levels at pluvial Lake Cochise to the east. Thus, in southeastern Arizona, the assumption that changes in climate are reflected in all aspects of the hydrologic cycle of a region simultaneously is validated. The timing of these changes also broadly coincides with variations in the GISP2 ??18O record, which supports the hypothesis that atmospheric teleconnections existed between the North Atlantic and the deserts of the American Southwest during the late Pleistocene.

  13. Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach ecosystems and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern California. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern California. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on California mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern California. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area currently support 74% of the remaining isopod

  14. Regional three-dimensional seismic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle of northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, C.; Zhang, H.; Brocher, T.; Langenheim, V.

    2009-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) tomographic model of the P wave velocity (Vp) structure of northern California. We employed a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm that incorporates a finite-difference travel time calculator and spatial smoothing constraints. Arrival times from earthquakes and travel times from controlled-source explosions, recorded at network and/or temporary stations, were inverted for Vp on a 3D grid with horizontal node spacing of 10 to 20 km and vertical node spacing of 3 to 8 km. Our model provides an unprecedented, comprehensive view of the regional-scale structure of northern California, putting many previously identified features into a broader regional context and improving the resolution of a number of them and revealing a number of new features, especially in the middle and lower crust, that have never before been reported. Examples of the former include the complex subducting Gorda slab, a steep, deeply penetrating fault beneath the Sacramento River Delta, crustal low-velocity zones beneath Geysers-Clear Lake and Long Valley, and the high-velocity ophiolite body underlying the Great Valley. Examples of the latter include mid-crustal low-velocity zones beneath Mount Shasta and north of Lake Tahoe. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Ranching and conservation in the Santa Cruz River Region, Sonora: Milpillas Case Study (Ganaderia y Conservacion en la Region del Rio Santa Cruz, Sonora: El Caso del Grupo Milpillas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joaquin Murrieta-Saldivar

    2006-01-01

    The Sonoran Institute (SI) is a non-profit organization working with people toward common conservation goals. Two objectives guide the work of the Sonoran Institute in the Santa Cruz River Region in Sonora, Mexico: to establish projects with community participation that can result in tangible and long-lasting benefits to the environment, and to ensure success by...

  16. A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faunt, C.C.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km 2 along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing

  17. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H.E.; Phoenix, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Most people in the California Region live in a semiarid or arid climate, with precipitation less than the potential evapotranspiration- environments of perennial water deficiency. The deficiency becomes most onerous during the characteristically rainless summers and during recurrent droughts that may continue for 10--20 years. However, water from winter rain and snow can be stored for use during the dry summer months, and water stored during a wet climatic period can be used in a succeeding dry period; moreover, perennial deficiency can be overcome by bringing water from areas of perennial surplus. Ground-water reservoirs have especial significance in arid and semiarid regions as repositories where water is stored or can be stored with minimum loss by evaporation.

  18. REVIEW OF THE FISHERIES OF THE SALTON SEA, CALIFORNIA, USA: PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE. (R826552)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Salton Sea is an endorheic, 980-km2 salt lake in the Sonoran Desert of southern California. The historical fish community switched from freshwater to marine species as salinity increased due to evaporation and brackish water inflows. Three species, bairdiella (<...

  19. High-resolution regional climate model evaluation using variable-resolution CESM over California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Rhoades, A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Zarzycki, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the effect of climate change at regional scales remains a topic of intensive research. Though computational constraints remain a problem, high horizontal resolution is needed to represent topographic forcing, which is a significant driver of local climate variability. Although regional climate models (RCMs) have traditionally been used at these scales, variable-resolution global climate models (VRGCMs) have recently arisen as an alternative for studying regional weather and climate allowing two-way interaction between these domains without the need for nudging. In this study, the recently developed variable-resolution option within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is assessed for long-term regional climate modeling over California. Our variable-resolution simulations will focus on relatively high resolutions for climate assessment, namely 28km and 14km regional resolution, which are much more typical for dynamically downscaled studies. For comparison with the more widely used RCM method, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model will be used for simulations at 27km and 9km. All simulations use the AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) protocols. The time period is from 1979-01-01 to 2005-12-31 (UTC), and year 1979 was discarded as spin up time. The mean climatology across California's diverse climate zones, including temperature and precipitation, is analyzed and contrasted with the Weather Research and Forcasting (WRF) model (as a traditional RCM), regional reanalysis, gridded observational datasets and uniform high-resolution CESM at 0.25 degree with the finite volume (FV) dynamical core. The results show that variable-resolution CESM is competitive in representing regional climatology on both annual and seasonal time scales. This assessment adds value to the use of VRGCMs for projecting climate change over the coming century and improve our understanding of both past and future regional climate related to fine

  20. Occurrence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in anurans of the Mediterranean region of Baja California, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Garcia, Anny; Adams, Andrea J.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Galina-Tessaro, Patricia; Valdez-Villavicencio, Jorge H.; Hollingsworth, Bradford; Shaffer, H. Bradley; Fisher, Robert N.

    2018-01-01

     Chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and is regarded as one of the most significant threats to global amphibian populations. In México, Bd was first reported in 2003 and has now been documented in 13 states. We visited 33 localities and swabbed 199 wild-caught anurans from 7 species (5 native, 2 exotic) across the Mediterranean region of the state of Baja California. Using quantitative PCR, Bd was detected in 94 individuals (47.2% of samples) at 25 of the 33 survey localities for 5 native and 1 exotic frog species. The exotic Xenopus laevis was the only species that tested completely negative for Bd. We found that remoteness, distance to agricultural land, and elevation were the best predictors of Bd presence. These are the first Bd-positive results for the state of Baja California and its presence should be regarded as an additional conservation threat to the region’s native frog species. 

  1. Volatile organic compound measurements in the California/Mexico border region during SCOS97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, B.; Sagebiel, J.; Harshfield, G.; Pasek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were carried out in the California/Mexico border region during the Southern California Ozone Study in the summer of 1997 (SCOS97). Integrated 3-h samples were collected in Rosarito (south of Tijuana, Mexico) and in Mexicali during intensive operational periods (IOP), twice per IOP day. VOC were collected using stainless-steel 6-l canisters; carbonyl compounds were collected using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) impregnated C18 SepPak cartridges. The canister samples were analyzed for speciated volatile hydrocarbons (C 2 -C 12 ), CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), and halogenated hydrocarbons. DNPH-impregnated cartridges were analyzed for 14 C 1 -C 7 carbonyl compounds. The concentrations of all species were higher at Mexicali than in Rosarito. A good correlation between total non-methane hydrocarbons (TNMHC), CO, and other pollutants associated with motor vehicle emissions observed for Mexicali indicates that the main source of TNMHC at this site is vehicular traffic

  2. Seismotectonic Implications Of Clustered Regional GPS Velocities In The San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R. W.; Simpson, R.

    2012-12-01

    We have used a hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance and centroid linkage, applied to continuous GPS observations for the Bay region available from the U.S. Geological Survey website. This analysis reveals 4 robust, spatially coherent clusters that coincide with 4 first-order structural blocks separated by 3 major fault systems: San Andreas (SA), Southern/Central Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama (HAY), and Northern Calaveras-Concord-Green Valley-Berryessa-Bartlett Springs (NCAL). Because observations seaward of the San Gregorio (SG) fault are few in number, the cluster to the west of SA may actually contain 2 major structural blocks not adequately resolved: the Pacific plate to the west of the northern SA and a Peninsula block between the Peninsula SA and the SG fault. The average inter-block velocities are 11, 10, and 9 mm/yr across SA, HAY, and NCAL respectively. There appears to be a significant component of fault-normal compression across NCAL, whereas SA and HAY faults appear to be, on regional average, purely strike-slip. The velocities for the Sierra Nevada - Great Valley (SNGV) block to the west of NCAL are impressive in their similarity. The cluster of these velocities in a velocity plot forms a tighter grouping compared with the groupings for the other cluster blocks, suggesting a more rigid behavior for this block than the others. We note that for 4 clusters, none of the 3 cluster boundaries illuminate geologic structures other than north-northwest trending dominantly strike-slip faults, so plate motion is not accommodated by large-scale fault-parallel compression or extension in the region or by significant plastic deformation , at least over the time span of the GPS observations. Complexities of interseismic deformation of the upper crust do not allow simple application of inter-block velocities as long-term slip rates on bounding faults. However, 2D dislocation models using inter-block velocities and typical

  3. Precipitation in a warming world: Assessing projected hydro-climate changes in California and other Mediterranean climate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polade, Suraj D; Gershunov, Alexander; Cayan, Daniel R; Dettinger, Michael D; Pierce, David W

    2017-09-07

    In most Mediterranean climate (MedClim) regions around the world, global climate models (GCMs) consistently project drier futures. In California, however, projections of changes in annual precipitation are inconsistent. Analysis of daily precipitation in 30 GCMs reveals patterns in projected hydrometeorology over each of the five MedClm regions globally and helps disentangle their causes. MedClim regions, except California, are expected to dry via decreased frequency of winter precipitation. Frequencies of extreme precipitation, however, are projected to increase over the two MedClim regions of the Northern Hemisphere where projected warming is strongest. The increase in heavy and extreme precipitation is particularly robust over California, where it is only partially offset by projected decreases in low-medium intensity precipitation. Over the Mediterranean Basin, however, losses from decreasing frequency of low-medium-intensity precipitation are projected to dominate gains from intensifying projected extreme precipitation. MedClim regions are projected to become more sub-tropical, i.e. made dryer via pole-ward expanding subtropical subsidence. California's more nuanced hydrological future reflects a precarious balance between the expanding subtropical high from the south and the south-eastward extending Aleutian low from the north-west. These dynamical mechanisms and thermodynamic moistening of the warming atmosphere result in increased horizontal water vapor transport, bolstering extreme precipitation events.

  4. Modeling Soil-Landscape Relations in the Sonoran Desert, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, N. R.; Rasmussen, C.

    2015-12-01

    Digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques that integrate remotely sensed surface topography and reflectance, and map soil-landscape associations have the potential in improve understanding of critical zone evolution and landscape processes. The goal of this study was to understand the soil-geomorphic evolution of Quaternary alluvial and eolian deposits in the Sonoran Desert using a data-driven DSM technique and mapping of soil-landscape relationships. An iterative principal component analysis (iPCA) data reduction routine was developed and implemented for a set of LiDAR elevation- and Landsat ETM+-derived environmental covariates that characterize soil-landscape variability. Principal components that explain more than 95% of the soil-landscape variability were then integrated and classified based on an ISODATA (Iterative Self-Organizing Data) unsupervised technique. The classified map was then segmented based on a region growing algorithm and multi-scale maps of soil-landscape relations were developed, which then compared with maps of major arid-region landforms that can be identified on aerial photographs and satellite images by their distinguishing tone and texture, and in the field by their distinguishing surface and sub-surface soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The approach identified and mapped the soil-landscape variability of alluvial and eolian landscapes, and illustrated the applicability of coupling covariate selection and integration by iPCA, ISODATA classifications of integrated layers, and image segmentation for effective spatial prediction of soil-landscape characteristics. The approach developed here is data-driven, cost- and time-effective, applicable for multi-scale mapping, allows incorporation of wide variety of covariates, and provides accurate quantitative prediction of wide range of soil-landscape attributes that are necessary for hydrologic models, land and ecosystem management decisions, and hazard assessment.

  5. Alpine Plant Monitoring for Global Climate Change; Analysis of the Four California GLORIA Target Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, A.; Westfall, R. D.; Millar, C. I.

    2007-12-01

    The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international research project with the goal to assess climate-change impacts on vegetation in alpine environments worldwide. Standardized protocols direct selection of each node in the network, called a Target Region (TR), which consists of a set of four geographically proximal mountain summits at elevations extending from treeline to the nival zone. For each summit, GLORIA specifies a rigorous mapping and sampling design for data collection, with re-measurement intervals of five years. Whereas TRs have been installed in six continents, prior to 2004 none was completed in North America. In cooperation with the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT), California Native Plant Society, and the White Mountain Research Station, four TRs have been installed in California: two in the Sierra Nevada and two in the White Mountains. We present comparative results from analyses of baseline data across these four TRs. The number of species occurring in the northern Sierra (Tahoe) TR was 35 (16 not found in other TRs); in the central Sierra (Dunderberg) TR 65 species were found. In the White Mountains, 54 species were found on the granitic/volcanic soils TR and 46 (19 not found in other TRs) on the dolomitic soils TR. In all, we observed 83 species in the Sierra Nevada range TRs and 75 in the White Mountain TRs. Using a mixed model ANOVA of percent cover from summit-area-sections and quadrat data, we found primary differences to be among mountain ranges. Major soil differences (dolomite versus non-dolomite) also contribute to floristic differentiation. Aspect did not seem to contribute significantly to diversity either among or within target regions. Summit floras in each target region comprised groups of two distinct types of species: those with notably broad elevational ranges and those with narrow elevational ranges. The former we propose to be species that

  6. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  7. Cytogeography of Larrea tridentata at the Chihuahuan-Sonoran Desert ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Laport; Robert L.. Minckley

    2013-01-01

    The long separation of the Chihuahuan and Sonoran Deserts is reflected in the high species richness and endemism of their floras. Although many endemic species from both deserts reach their distributional limits where the Sierra Madre Occidental massif fragments into smaller mountain complexes in northern Mexico and adjoining areas of the United States, indicator...

  8. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  9. Effects of drought on shrub survival and longevity in the northern Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Janice E.

    2005-01-01

    Permanent vegetation plots in the northern Sonoran Desert, USA, provided an opportunity to assess the effects of recent drought on desert shrubs and to examine survival in relation to rainfall variability during the past 76 years. Survival and maximum longevity of six species were determined for eight intercensus periods between 1928 and 2004. Average annual survival was Ambrosia deltoidea, 0.9167 ?? 0.0415; Encelia farinosa, 0.7952 ?? 0.0926; Janusia gracilis, 0.9334 ?? 0.0247; Krameria grayi, 0.9702 ?? 0.0270; Larrea tridentata, 0.9861 ?? 0.0174; and Lycium berlandieri, 0.9910 ?? 0.0077. The longest-lived species were Larrea, Lycium, and Krameria, with average maximum life spans of 330, 211, and 184 years. Janusia, Ambrosia, and Encelia were much shorter lived, with average maximum longevity of 53, 40, and 16 years. Winter rain equalled or exceeded 90% of the long-term average accumulation except during 1948 to 1959 (65% of average) and from 2001 to 2003 (49% of average). Summer rain did not drop below 90% of the average accumulation in any period. The 1950s drought caused modest declines in survival of Ambrosia, Encelia, Janusia, Krameria, and Lycium. The effects of the recent drought were much more pronounced, resulting in sharp declines in survival and maximum longevity of Ambrosia, Encelia, Krameria, and Larrea, and modest declines for Lycium. Despite heightened mortality during the recent severe drought, 72% of the deaths observed between 1928 and 2004 occurred during periods of average or better-than-average rain, providing support for the idea that demography of shrubs in arid regions is influenced by continuous as well as episodic processes.

  10. From Fireproof Desert to Flammable Grassland: Buffelgrass Invasion in the Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Only a few decades ago, the Sonoran Desert of northwestern Mexico and southern Arizona was considered mostly fireproof, a case of not enough fine fuel to connect the dominant shrubs and cacti. This has changed with invasions by non-native, winter annual and summer-flower perennial grasses that are rapidly transforming fireproof desert into flammable grassland. Of particular concern is buffelgrass, Pennisetum ciliare, a fire-prone and invasive African perennial grass that has already converted millions of hectares across Sonora since the mid-1960s and has made quick headway in southern and central Arizona beginning in the 1980s. Near Tucson and Phoenix, AZ, buffelgrass invasion is proceeding exponentially, with population expansion (and the costs of mitigation) more than doubling every year. As this conversion progresses, there will be increased fire risks, lost tourist revenue, diminished property values, insurmountable setbacks to conservation efforts, and the threat of large ignition fronts in desert valleys routinely spreading into the mountains. Although somewhat belated, an integrated, multi-jurisdictional effort is being organized to reduce ecological and economic impacts. My presentation will summarize the history and context of buffelgrass introduction and invasion, the disconnect in attitudes and policies across state and international boundaries, ongoing management efforts, the role of science and responsibilities of scientists, accelerated spread with changing climate, and impacts to regional ecosystems and economies. This narrative may serve as a template for other semi-arid lands where buffelgrass and similar grasses have become invasive, including Australia, South America, and many islands in the Pacific Ocean (including Hawaii), Indian Ocean, and Caribbean Sea.

  11. Correspondence of biological condition models of California streams at statewide and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Waite, Ian R.; Ode, Peter R; Mazor, Raphael D; Schiff, Kenneth C

    2015-01-01

    taxonomic completeness is imperative for sound management. Our results suggest that invertebrate taxonomic completeness is affected by human disturbance at the statewide and regional levels, with some differences among regions in the importance of natural gradients and types of human disturbance. The construction and application of models similar to the ones presented here could be useful in the planning and prioritization of actions for protection and conservation of biodiversity in California streams.

  12. A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling

    2006-12-01

    Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured

  13. Regional Attenuation in Northern California: A Comparison of Five 1-D Q Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Mayeda, K; Walter, W R; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S

    2007-08-03

    The determination of regional attenuation Q{sup -1} can depend upon the analysis method employed. The discrepancies between methods are due to differing parameterizations (e.g., geometrical spreading rates), employed datasets (e.g., choice of path lengths and sources), and the methodologies themselves (e.g., measurement in the frequency or time domain). Here we apply five different attenuation methodologies to a Northern California dataset. The methods are: (1) coda normalization (CN), (2) two-station (TS), (3) reverse two-station (RTS), (4) source-pair/receiver-pair (SPRP), and (5) coda-source normalization (CS). The methods are used to measure Q of the regional phase, Lg (Q{sub Lg}), and its power-law dependence on frequency of the form Q{sub 0}f{sup {eta}} with controlled parameterization in the well-studied region of Northern California using a high-quality dataset from the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network. We investigate the difference in power-law Q calculated among the methods by focusing on the San Francisco Bay Area, where knowledge of attenuation is an important part of seismic hazard mitigation. This approximately homogeneous subset of our data lies in a small region along the Franciscan block. All methods return similar power-law parameters, though the range of the joint 95% confidence regions is large (Q{sub 0} = 85 {+-} 40; {eta} = 0.65 {+-} 0.35). The RTS and TS methods differ the most from the other methods and from each other. This may be due to the removal of the site term in the RTS method, which is shown to be significant in the San Francisco Bay Area. In order to completely understand the range of power-law Q in a region, it is advisable to use several methods to calculate the model. We also test the sensitivity of each method to changes in geometrical spreading, Lg frequency bandwidth, the distance range of data, and the Lg measurement window. For a given method, there are significant differences in the power-law parameters, Q{sub 0} and {eta

  14. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite.

  15. Geology and uranium favorability of the Sonora Pass region, Alpine and Tuolumne Counties, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, J.S.; Short, W.O.

    1981-06-01

    Uranium mineralization at the Juniper Mine is restricted to host rocks of the Relief Peak Formation and is most common in coarse-grained lithic sandstone, conglomerate, and lithic wacke. The richest beds contain as much as 0.5% U 3 O 8 . Uranium is present as coffinite, uraninite, and unidentified minerals. Thorium/uranium ratios are generally low and erratic. Equivalent uranium determinations are low in comparison with chemical uranium values, indicating that uranium mineralization of the Juniper Mine is geologically young. Core drilling at 16 localities shows that widely separated exposures of the Relief Peak Formation have very similar lithology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy. Some sections are similar to the Juniper Mine section. Core from the bottom of drill hole SP-1 contains 83 ppM uranium, the greatest known concentration outside the mine area. Significant uranium deposits may be concealed beneath the thick Tertiary volcanic cover of the region. The quartz latitic Eureka Valley Tuff is fairly widespread in east-central California and western Nevada. It contains 12 to 14 ppM uranium and stratigraphically overlies the Relief Peak Formation. It is permeable and contains abundant alkali metals and volcanic glass. Because of its petrology, geochemistry, and position, this formation is the most likely source for uranium mineralization of the Sonora Pass region. It should be examined as a potential source rock in other areas with special regard to its relationship to carbonaceous sedimentary formations. The uraniferous granite pegmatitite dike that crops out in the Niagara Creek area appears too small to be a significant source rock. The most favorable rocks in the Sonora Pass region occur near the Juniper Mine and west of it, in the Dardanelles, the Whittakers Dardanelles, and the area of the Big Meadow Quadrangle. Potential uranium host rocks crop out in areas along the crest of the Sierra Nevada from Lake Tahoe to Yosemite

  16. Drought-caused delay in nesting of Sonoran Desert birds and its facilitation of parasite- and predator-mediated variation in reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreedy, Chris; van Riper, Charles

    2015-01-01

    As our understanding of climate change has increased, so has our awareness of the impacts of these changes on biotic systems. Climate models are nearly unanimous in their predictions for increased drought frequency in southwestern North America, and delays in nest initiation due to drought may influence nesting success and productivity for many Sonoran Desert bird species. In southeastern California and western Arizona in 2004–2009, we found negative correlations for 13 of 13 species between nest initiation date and rainfall accumulation during the preceding 4-month winter rainy season. Nesting was delayed more than 3 weeks for some species during extreme droughts in 2006 and 2007. During 2004–2009, we found a significant negative effect of nest initiation date on nest survival probability (β̂ = −0.031 ± 0.005 SE, P nesting delay in nesting success and productivity, in 2010 we conducted a manipulative experiment with Black-tailed Gnatcatchers (Polioptila melanura; BTGN) and Verdins (Auriparus flaviceps; VERD). Following a wet winter, we delayed clutch initiation dates for treatment pairs to match first-egg dates that we observed during droughts in 2006 and 2007. Nest initiation date had a significant negative effect on nest survival of both species (BTGN: β̂ = −1.18 ± 0.27 SE, P nest predation and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were the most common causes of nest failure, we conclude that the impacts of climate change–caused drought on annual reproductive output in the Sonoran Desert will be further compounded by parasitism and predation for Black-tailed Gnatcatchers and by predation for Verdins.

  17. Coastal currents and mass transport of surface sediments over the shelf regions of Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S.C.

    1970-01-01

    In Monterey Bay, the highest concentrations of medium and fine sands occur nearshore between ten and thirty fathoms. Silt and clay accumulate in greater depths. Contours of median diameter roughly parallel the isobaths. Fine-grained materials are supplied to the bay region from erosion of cliffs which partly surround Monterey Bay, from sediment laden river discharge, and from continual reworking of widespread Pleistocene and Recent sea floor sediments. These sediments in turn are picked up by coastal currents and distributed over the shelf regions by present day current regimes. Studies of bottom currents over the shelf regions and in Monterey Canyon have revealed patterns which vary with seasonal changes. Current patterns during August and September exhibit remarkable symmetry about the axis of Monterey Submarine Canyon. Central Shelf currents north and south of Monterey Canyon flowed northwest at an average rate of 0.2 knots and south at 0.3 knots respectively. On the North Shelf between January and March currents flowed east to southeast at 0.3-0.5 knots with mirror image patterns above the South Shelf during the same period. Irregular current flow in the canyon indicates a complex current structure with frequent shifts in counterclockwise and clockwise direction over very short periods of time. Bottom topography of the canyon complex often causes localization of canyon currents. One particular observation at a depth of 51 fathoms indicated up-canyon flow at a rate of 0.2 knots. Most of the observed currents are related to seasonal variations, upwelling, ocean swell patterns, and to changes in the California and Davidson currents. Changes in current regimes are reflected in the patterns of sediment distribution and transport. Sediment transport is chiefly parallel to the isobaths, particularly on the North and South Shelf regions. Complex dispersal patterns are observed near Monterey Canyon and Moss Landing Harbor jetties. Longshore currents move sediments

  18. Evaluating Form and Function of Regional Partnerships: Applying Social Network Analysis to the "Network for a Healthy California", 2001-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Jennifer; Sowa, Marcy; Flynn, Heather Kohler

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the partnership structure of the "Network for a Healthy California" ("Network"), a social marketing program, from 2001-2007, to determine if California's program was able to establish and maintain partnerships that (1) provided access to a local audience, (2) facilitated regional collaboration, (3)…

  19. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron B. Switalski; Heather L. Bateman

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert...

  20. Evaluation and Analysis of Regional Best Management Practices in San Diego, California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, K.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    In urban areas, surface water quality is often impaired due to pollutants transported by stormwater runoff. To maintain and improve surface water quality, the United States Clean Water Act (CWA) requires an evaluation of available water quality information to develop a list of impaired water bodies and establish contaminant restrictions. Structural Best Management Practices (BMPs) are designed to reduce runoff volume and/or pollutant concentrations to comply with CWA requirements. Local level policy makers and managers require an improved understanding of the costs and benefits associated with BMP installation, performance, and maintenance. The International Stormwater BMP Database (Database) is an online platform for submittal of information about existing BMPs, such as cost, design details, and statistical analysis of influent and effluent pollutant concentrations. While the Database provides an aggregation of data which supports analysis of overall BMP performance at international and national scales, the sparse spatial distribution of the data is not suitable for regional and local analysis. This research conducts an extensive review of local inventory and spatial analysis of existing permanent BMPs throughout the San Diego River watershed in California, USA. Information collected from cities within the San Diego River watershed will include BMP types, locations, dates of installation, costs, expected removal efficiencies, monitoring data, and records of maintenance. Aggregating and mapping this information will facilitate BMP evaluation. Specifically, the identification of spatial trends, inconsistencies in BMP performances, and gaps in current records. Regression analysis will provide insight into the nature and significance of correlations between BMP performance and physical characteristics such as land use, soil type, and proximity to impaired waters. This analysis will also result in a metric of relative BMP performance and will provide a basis for future

  1. Full-Wave Ambient Noise Tomography of the Long Valley Volcanic Region (California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, A. F.; Shelly, D. R.; Dawson, P. B.; Hill, D. P.; Shen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In the late 1970s, and throughout the 1990s, Long Valley Caldera (California) experienced intense periods of unrest characterized by uplift of the resurgent dome, earthquake swarms, and CO2 emissions around Mammoth Mountain. While modeling of the uplift and gravity changes support the possibility of new magmatic intrusions beneath the caldera, geologic interpretations conclude that the magmatic system underlying the caldera is moribund. Geophysical studies yield diverse versions of a sizable but poorly resolved low-velocity zone at depth (> 6km), yet whether this zone is indicative of a significant volume of crystal mush, smaller isolated pockets of partial melt, or magmatic fluids, is inconclusive. The nature of this low-velocity zone, and the state of volcano's magmatic system, carry important implications for the significance of resurgent-dome inflation and the nature of associated hazards. To better characterize this low-velocity zone we present preliminary results from a 3D full-waveform ambient-noise seismic tomography model derived from the past 25 years of vertical component broadband and short-period seismic data. This new study uses fully numerical solutions of the wave equation to account for the complex wave propagation in a heterogeneous, 3D earth model, including wave interaction with topography. The method ensures that wave propagation is modeled accurately in 3D, enabling the full use of seismic records. By using empirical Green's functions, derived from ambient noise and modeled as Rayleigh surface waves, we are able to extend model resolution to depths beyond the limits of previous local earthquake studies. The model encompasses not only the Long Valley Caldera, but the entire Long Valley Volcanic Region, including Mammoth Mountain and the Mono Crater/Inyo Domes volcanic chain.

  2. Present, future, and novel bioclimates of the San Francisco, California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    Bioclimates are syntheses of climatic variables into biologically relevant categories that facilitate comparative studies of biotic responses to climate conditions. Isobioclimates, unique combinations of bioclimatic indices (continentality, ombrotype, and thermotype), were constructed for northern California coastal ranges based on the Rivas-Martinez worldwide bioclimatic classification system for the end of the 20th century climatology (1971–2000) and end of the 21st century climatology (2070–2099) using two models, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model and the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), under the medium-high A2 emission scenario. The digitally mapped results were used to 1) assess the relative redistribution of isobioclimates and their magnitude of change, 2) quantify the loss of isobioclimates into the future, 3) identify and locate novel isobioclimates projected to appear, and 4) explore compositional change in vegetation types among analog isobioclimate patches. This study used downscaled climate variables to map the isobioclimates at a fine spatial resolution −270 m grid cells. Common to both models of future climate was a large change in thermotype. Changes in ombrotype differed among the two models. The end of 20th century climatology has 83 isobioclimates covering the 63,000 km2 study area. In both future projections 51 of those isobioclimates disappear over 40,000 km2. The ordination of vegetation-bioclimate relationships shows very strong correlation of Rivas-Martinez indices with vegetation distribution and composition. Comparisons of vegetation composition among analog patches suggest that vegetation change will be a local rearrangement of species already in place rather than one requiring long distance dispersal. The digitally mapped results facilitate comparison with other Mediterranean regions. Major remaining challenges include predicting vegetation composition of novel isobioclimates and developing metrics to compare

  3. Present, future, and novel bioclimates of the San Francisco, California region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Torregrosa

    Full Text Available Bioclimates are syntheses of climatic variables into biologically relevant categories that facilitate comparative studies of biotic responses to climate conditions. Isobioclimates, unique combinations of bioclimatic indices (continentality, ombrotype, and thermotype, were constructed for northern California coastal ranges based on the Rivas-Martinez worldwide bioclimatic classification system for the end of the 20(th century climatology (1971-2000 and end of the 21(st century climatology (2070-2099 using two models, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL model and the Parallel Climate Model (PCM, under the medium-high A2 emission scenario. The digitally mapped results were used to 1 assess the relative redistribution of isobioclimates and their magnitude of change, 2 quantify the loss of isobioclimates into the future, 3 identify and locate novel isobioclimates projected to appear, and 4 explore compositional change in vegetation types among analog isobioclimate patches. This study used downscaled climate variables to map the isobioclimates at a fine spatial resolution -270 m grid cells. Common to both models of future climate was a large change in thermotype. Changes in ombrotype differed among the two models. The end of 20(th century climatology has 83 isobioclimates covering the 63,000 km(2 study area. In both future projections 51 of those isobioclimates disappear over 40,000 km(2. The ordination of vegetation-bioclimate relationships shows very strong correlation of Rivas-Martinez indices with vegetation distribution and composition. Comparisons of vegetation composition among analog patches suggest that vegetation change will be a local rearrangement of species already in place rather than one requiring long distance dispersal. The digitally mapped results facilitate comparison with other Mediterranean regions. Major remaining challenges include predicting vegetation composition of novel isobioclimates and developing metrics to

  4. Santa Ana Winds of Southern California: Their Climatology and Variability Spanning 6.5 Decades from Regional Dynamical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Morales, J.; Gershunov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana Winds (SAWs) are an integral feature of the regional climate of Southern California/Northern Baja California region. In spite of their tremendous episodic impacts on the health, economy and mood of the region, climate-scale behavior of SAW is poorly understood. In the present work, we identify SAWs in mesoscale dynamical downscaling of a global reanalysis product and construct an hourly SAW catalogue spanning 65 years. We describe the long-term SAW climatology at relevant time-space resolutions, i.e, we developed local and regional SAW indices and analyse their variability on hourly, daily, annual, and multi-decadal timescales. Local and regional SAW indices are validated with available anemometer observations. Characteristic behaviors are revealed, e.g. the SAW intensity-duration relationship. At interdecadal time scales, we find that seasonal SAW activity is sensitive to prominent large-scale low-frequency modes of climate variability rooted in the tropical and north Pacific ocean-atmosphere system that are also known to affect the hydroclimate of this region. Lastly, we do not find any long-term trend in SAW frequency and intensity as previously reported. Instead, we identify a significant long-term trend in SAW behavior whereby contribution of extreme SAW events to total seasonal SAW activity has been increasing at the expense of moderate events. These findings motivate further investigation on SAW evolution in future climate and its impact on wildfires.

  5. Field Trip Guide to Serpentinite, Silica-Carbonate Alteration, and Related Hydrothermal Activity in the Clear Lake Region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser Goff; George Guthrie

    1999-06-01

    This guide is designed to familiarize scientists with the geology, structure, alteration, and fluids typical of California serpentinites for purposes of carbon dioxide sequestration (Lackner et al., 1995). Goff et al. (1997) and Goff and Lackner (1998) describe the geology and geochemistry of some of the serpentinites from this area. Mechanisms of silica-carbonate alteration were outlined by Barnes et al. (1973). Donnelly-Nolan et al. (1993) most recently reviewed relations between regional hydrothermal alteration and Quarternary volcanic activity. Stanley et al. (1998) summarized geophysical characteristics of the region.

  6. Preliminaries to a feasibility analysis of the Maglev proposal of the Southern California Association of Governments for the region : a seed grant study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-30

    This is a seed grant study to perform a preliminary investigation of the system components and : generalized costs of the magnetic levitation type of high speed rail system that is proposed for the : Southern California Region, TGVbased high speed...

  7. Physiological response of Cucurbita pepo var. pepo mycorrhized by Sonoran desert native arbuscular fungi to drought and salinity stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citlalli Harris-Valle

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plants response to symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF under water stress is important to agriculture. Under abiotic stress conditions native fungi are more effective than exotics in improving plant growth and water status. Mycorrhization efficiency is related to soil fungi development and energy cost-benefit ratio. In this study, we assessed the effect on growth, water status and energy metabolism of Cucurbita pepo var. pepo when inoculated with native AMF from the Sonoran desert Mexico (mixed isolate and field consortium, and compared with an exotic species from a temperate region, under drought, low and high salinity conditions. Dry weights, leaf water content, water and osmotic potentials, construction costs, photochemistry and mycorrhization features were quantified. Under drought and low salinity conditions, the mixed isolate increased plant growth and leaf water content. Leaf water potential was increased only by the field consortium under drought conditions (0.5-0.9 MPa. Under high salinity, the field consortium increased aerial dry weight (more than 1 g and osmotic potential (0.54 MPa, as compared to non-mycorrhized controls. Plants inoculated with native AMF, which supposedly diminish the effects of stress, exhibited low construction costs, increased photochemical capacity, and grew larger external mycelia in comparison to the exotic inoculum.

  8. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  9. Urban and community forests of the Pacific region: California, Oregon, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of California, Oregon, and Washington by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in...

  10. Regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and tectonic significance of Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Burns, Beverly

    1994-01-01

    Upper Oligocene (?) to middle Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks in northern Baja California were deposited along the western margin of North America during subduction of the Guadalupe plate and southward migration of the Rivera Triple Junction. Regional mapping and compilation of stratigraphic data reveal a sequence of three regionally traceable stratigraphic units. (1) Oligocene (?) to lower Miocene Mesa Formation: basal quartz-rich fluvial sandstone, grus, conglomerate, and accessory facies, whose detrital compositions reflect the composition of local pre-Tertiary basement rock. (2) Lower to middle Miocene Comondú Formation: laterally variable sequence of volcaniclastic conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, tuff and minor volcanic flow units. (3) Widespread mesa-capping rhyolite tuff, typically welded and crystal-rich, probably upper Miocene in age. The Mesa Formation overlies a highly irregular and deeply dissected erosional surface developed on pre-Tertiary basement rock. The shift from pre-Mesa erosion to widespread (though localized) deposition and valley-filling records the final phase of late Cretaceous to middle Tertiary regional subsidence and eastward transgression that resulted from slow cooling and thermal contraction of Cretaceous arc crust during a temporal gap in magmatic activity along the western Cordilleran margin. Nonmarine sediments of the Mesa Formation were deposited in small, steep-walled paleovalleys and basins that gradually filled and evolved to form through-going, low-energy ephemeral stream systems. The gradational upward transition from the Mesa to Comondú Formation records the early to middle Miocene onset of subduction-related arc magmatism in eastern Baja California and related westward progradation of alluvial volcaniclastic aprons shed from high-standing eruptive volcanic centers. Pre-existing streams were choked with the new influx of volcanic detritus, causing the onset of rapid sediment deposition by stream flows and dilute

  11. The California Alliance for Sustainability: A Collaborative Pilot Project to Build Regional Advocacy and Leadership for Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, E. P.; Smith, G.; Cordero, E. C.; Santone, S.

    2012-12-01

    For Education for Sustainability (Efs) to have the presence in the K-12 curriculum that it arguably should, considerable obstacles must be overcome. Barriers include the role of high-stakes testing in marginalizing science and social studies and the lack of environmental and sustainability content in teacher education programs. The California Alliance for Sustainability (CASE), a collaborative 18-month project funded by the Clarence E. Heller Charitable Foundation, unites San José State University (SJSU) and Creative Change Educational Solutions (CCES) (http://www.creativechange.net/) to investigate and address potential barriers to Efs in San Francisco Bay area schools and regional teacher education programs and to document best practices for integrating sustainability into teachers' existing standards-based teaching. The overarching goal of the CASE project is to create a regional infrastructure of K-12 teachers and pre-service teacher educators who use EfS as a context for educational innovation and transformation, thus supplying a focused first step for investigating how Efs can be more broadly implemented in California's classrooms. This presentation will showcase the efforts of a pilot group of classroom teachers and teacher educators to bring EfS to their teaching. In summer 2012, the CASE Project provided 16 in-service teachers and 5 pre-service teacher education faculty from SJSU and California State University East Bay with a three-day professional development workshop. Practicing teachers and teacher educators experienced joint instruction in the content and pedagogy of sustainability though investigation of topics (e.g., Sustainable Communities, Ecological Footprint Analysis, Climate Change, Resource Use, Food Systems and Life Cycle Analysis) that offer broad connections to California standards in science and other disciplines. Sustainability concepts were also discussed as an engaging context for addressing the emerging Common Core and Next Generation

  12. Regional Systems Development for Geothermal Energy Resources Pacific Region (California and Hawaii). Task 3: water resources evaluation. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, J.L.

    1979-03-19

    The fundamental objective of the water resources analysis was to assess the availability of surface and ground water for potential use as power plant make-up water in the major geothermal areas of California. The analysis was concentrated on identifying the major sources of surface and ground water, potential limitations on the usage of this water, and the resulting constraints on potentially developable electrical power in each geothermal resource area. Analyses were completed for 11 major geothermal areas in California: four in the Imperial Valley, Coso, Mono-Long Valley, Geysers-Calistoga, Surprise Valley, Glass Mountain, Wendel Amedee, and Lassen. One area in Hawaii, the Puna district, was also included in the analysis. The water requirements for representative types of energy conversion processes were developed using a case study approach. Cooling water requirements for each type of energy conversion process were estimated based upon a specific existing or proposed type of geothermal power plant. The make-up water requirements for each type of conversion process at each resource location were then estimated as a basis for analyzing any constraints on the megawatts which potentially could be developed.

  13. Current depression among women in California according to residence in the California-Mexico border region Depresión actual en las mujeres en California según el lugar de residencia en la región fronteriza entre California y México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Ryan-Ibarra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of current depression; examine the relationship between current depression and immigration, health status, health care access, and health behaviors; and assess differences by California-Mexico border region (Imperial and San Diego Counties among women in California. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional, representative sample of adult women from the California Women's Health Survey (n = 13 454, a statewide telephone survey, prevalence of current depression and predictors of depression were examined in California and according to border region residence. Depression was assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of current depression for women in California was 12.0%. It was similar in the border (13.0% and the nonborder (11.9% regions. Odds of current depression in women were lower among recent immigrants (OBJETIVO: Calcular la prevalencia de la depresión actual; examinar la relación entre la depresión actual y la inmigración, el estado de salud, el acceso a la atención de la salud y las conductas relacionadas con la salud; y evaluar las diferencias en la región fronteriza entre California (condados Imperial y San Diego y México en las mujeres. MÉTODOS: Se empleó una muestra transversal y representativa de mujeres adultas de la Encuesta de Salud de la Mujer de California (n = 13 454, una encuesta telefónica estatal, para examinar la prevalencia de depresión actual y los factores predictivos de depresión tanto en California como según el lugar de residencia en la región fronteriza. La depresión se evaluó mediante el Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente-8. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de depresión actual en las mujeres en California fue 12,0%, y fue semejante en las regiones fronteriza (13,0% y no fronteriza (11,9% del estado. Las probabilidades de presentar depresión actual fueron menores en las mujeres que habían inmigrado recientemente (< 5 años o de 5 a

  14. Modeling of Trans-boundary Transport of Air Pollutants in the California-Mexico Border Region during Cal-Mex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, N.; Zavala, M. A.; Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    The US and Mexico share a common air basin along the ~200 km border between California and Baja California. The economical activities in this region are heavily influenced by the international trade and commerce between Mexico and the US that mainly occurs through the borders of the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali. The diversity and differences in the characteristics of emissions sources of air pollutants in the California-Mexico border region make this an important area for the study of the chemistry and trans-boundary transport of air pollutants. During May-June of 2010, the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign included a series of measurements aimed at characterizing the emissions from major sources in the California-Mexico border region and assessing the possible impacts of these emissions on local and regional air quality. In this work we will present the results of the use of the Comprehensive Air quality model with extensions (CAMx) in a modeling domain that includes the sister cities of San Diego-Tijuana and Calexico-Mexicali for studying events of trans-boundary transport of air pollutants during Cal-Mex 2010. The measurements obtained during the Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign are used in the evaluation of the model performance and in the design of air quality improvement policies in the California-Mexico border region.

  15. Evolution of regional stress state based on faulting and folding near the pit river, Shasta county, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Lauren Jean

    We investigate the evolution of the regional stress state near the Pit River, northern California, in order to understand the faulting style in a tectonic transition zone and to inform the hazard analysis of Fault 3432 near the Pit 3 Dam. By analyzing faults and folds preserved in and adjacent to a diatomite mine north of the Pit River, we have determined principal stress directions preserved during the past million years. We find that the stress state has evolved from predominantly normal to strike slip and most recently to reverse, which is consistent with regional structures such as the extensional Hat Creek Fault to the south and the compressional folding of Mushroom Rock to the north. South of the Pit River, we still observe normal and strike slip faults, suggesting that changes in stress state are moving from north to south through time.

  16. Comparison of trailside degradation across a gradient of trail use in the Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Helen Ivy; Tluczek, Melanie; Broatch, Jennifer; Gruber, Dan; Jones, Steve; Langenfeld, Debbie; McNamara, Peggy; Weinstein, Leona

    2018-02-01

    As recreational visitation to the Sonoran Desert increases, the concern of scientists, managers and advocates who manage its natural resources deepens. Although many studies have been conducted on trampling of undisturbed vegetation and the effects of trails on adjacent plant and soil communities, little such research has been conducted in the arid southwest. We sampled nine 450-m trail segments with different visitation levels in Scottsdale's McDowell Sonoran Preserve over three years to understand the effects of visitation on soil erosion, trailside soil crusts and plant communities. Soil crust was reduced by 27-34% near medium and high use trails (an estimated peak rate of 13-70 visitors per hour) compared with control plots, but there was less than 1% reduction near low use trails (peak rate of two to four visitors per hour). We did not detect soil erosion in the center 80% of the trampled area of any of the trails. The number of perennial plant species dropped by less than one plant species on average, but perennial plant cover decreased by 7.5% in trailside plots compared with control plots 6 m off-trail. At the current levels of visitation, the primary management focus should be keeping people on the originally constructed trail tread surface to reduce impact to adjacent soil crusts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Education in a Global Age: An Inter-California Strategy for the Tijuana-San Diego Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Vásquez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un bosquejo para una estrategia Inter-California que enlazaría las áreas de San Diego y Tijuana como una sola fuerza regional. Esto intenta conceptualizar dos distintas y frecuentemente contradictorias áreas como una sola, haciendo una aproximación a grosso modo de las desiguales condiciones económicas y educativas en ambos lados de la frontera. Se discute la colaboración binacional en el pasado en educación, y se plantean las posibilidades para el futuro de dicha colaboración, ofreciendo recomendaciones y predicciones de las metas que podrían alcanzarse. Llamando a la región Inter-California, el artículotambién argumenta por una identidad global, y específicamente, por una educación que es relevante para la nueva economía, asi como los avances científicos y tecnológicos que están iluminando cada vez más una nueva sociedad global.

  18. Radiated Seismic Energy of Earthquakes in the South-Central Region of the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Raúl R.; Mendoza-Camberos, Antonio; Pérez-Vertti, Arturo

    2018-05-01

    We estimated the radiated seismic energy (ES) of 65 earthquakes located in the south-central region of the Gulf of California. Most of these events occurred along active transform faults that define the Pacific-North America plate boundary and have magnitudes between M3.3 and M5.9. We corrected the spectral records for attenuation using nonparametric S-wave attenuation functions determined with the whole data set. The path effects were isolated from the seismic source using a spectral inversion. We computed radiated seismic energy of the earthquakes by integrating the square velocity source spectrum and estimated their apparent stresses. We found that most events have apparent stress between 3 × 10-4 and 3 MPa. Model independent estimates of the ratio between seismic energy and moment (ES/M0) indicates that this ratio is independent of earthquake size. We conclude that in general the apparent stress is low (σa < 3 MPa) in the south-central and southern Gulf of California.

  19. Relative Prevalence of Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Virus Species in Wine Grape-Growing Regions of California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhineet M Sharma

    Full Text Available Some diseases manifest as one characteristic set of symptoms to the host, but can be caused by multiple pathogens. Control treatments based on plant symptoms can make it difficult to effectively manage such diseases, as the biology of the underlying pathogens can vary. Grapevine leafroll disease affects grapes worldwide, and is associated with several viral species in the family Closteroviridae. Whereas some of the viruses associated with this disease are transmitted by insect vectors, others are only graft-transmissible. In three regions of California, we surveyed vineyards containing diseased vines and screened symptomatic plants for all known viral species associated with grapevine leafroll disease. Relative incidence of each virus species differed among the three regions regions, particularly in relation to species with known vectors compared with those only known to be graft-transmitted. In one region, the pathogen population was dominated by species not known to have an insect vector. In contrast, populations in the other surveyed regions were dominated by virus species that are vector-transmissible. Our survey did not detect viruses associated with grapevine leafroll disease at some sites with characteristic disease symptoms. This could be explained either by undescribed genetic diversity among these viruses that prevented detection with available molecular tools at the time the survey was performed, or a misidentification of visual symptoms that may have had other underlying causes. Based on the differences in relative prevalence of each virus species among regions and among vineyards within regions, we expect that region and site-specific management strategies are needed for effective disease control.

  20. Partnering with K-12 Education in Building Healthy, Sustainable, and Competitive Regions: A California Policy Symposium. Proceedings Summary & Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jeff; McKoy, Deborah; Alex, Ken; Mitchell, Connie; Moore, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    On December 6, 2012, UC Berkeley's Center for Cities & Schools, in collaboration with the California Department of Education, California Department of Public Health, Governor's Office of Planning and Research, Strategic Growth Council, and Health in All Policies Task Force, brought together leaders from across California to discuss the…

  1. Seismicity, focal mechanisms, and stress distribution in the Tres Virgenes volcanic and geothermal region, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Victor; Munguia, Luis [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (Mexico)

    2006-01-15

    In October 1993 we carried out a seismic monitoring in the Tres Virgenes volcanic region in order to record the background seismicity associated with the volcanic structures, the geothermal field and the tectonic features of the area. Hypocenters for 257 microearthquakes were located in the volcanic edifices and along the northwest right-lateral, strike-slip La Virgen fault. Focal depths range from close to the Earth surface to about 8 km. Shallow depths occur mainly in the volcanic edifices. Deeper seismic events occurred outside the volcanic area. The duration magnitudes of the located microearthquakes range between 1 and 3. The Vp/Vs ratio and the low-Q values estimated suggest heterogeneous material properties in the volcanic structures mainly toward the El Azufre fault and the El Aguajito Caldera, where hydrothermal activity has been reported. The P- and T-axes of focal mechanisms for 90 microearthquakes suggest that the region is under N-S compression and E-W extension, in agreement with the regional tectonic stress field of the NW-SE right-lateral strike-slip transform fault system of the Gulf of California. [Spanish] En octubre de 1993 se llevo a cabo un monitoreo sismico en la region volcanica Las Tres Virgenes con el proposito de registrar la actividad sismica asociada a las estructuras volcanicas, al campo geotermico y a la tectonica local. Se localizaron 257 microsismos con hipocentros en los edificios volcanicos y a lo largo de la falla de rumbo, lateral derecha conocida como falla La Virgen. La profundidad focal de los sismos varia desde los muy cercanos a la superficie de la Tierra hasta los 8 km. Las profundidades someras ocurren principalmente en los edificios volcanicos. Los sismos mas profundos ocurren fuera del area volcanica. La magnitud de duracion de los microsismos localizados varia entre 1 y 3. La razon Vp/Vs y los valores bajos de Q que se estimaron en la zona sugieren un material con propiedades heterogeneas bajo las estructuras

  2. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada Regional study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada Regional (SNR) study unit was investigated as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide statistically unbiased assessments of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system of the Sierra Nevada. The primary aquifer system for the SNR study unit was delineated by the depth intervals over which wells in the State of California’s database of public drinking-water supply wells are open or screened. Two types of assessments were made: (1) a status assessment that described the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) an evaluation of relations between groundwater quality and potential explanatory factors that represent characteristics of the primary aquifer system. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, rather than the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.

  3. Estimating criteria pollutant emissions using the California Regional Multisector Air Quality Emissions (CA-REMARQUE model v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Zapata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The California Regional Multisector Air Quality Emissions (CA-REMARQUE model is developed to predict changes to criteria pollutant emissions inventories in California in response to sophisticated emissions control programs implemented to achieve deep greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reductions. Two scenarios for the year 2050 act as the starting point for calculations: a business-as-usual (BAU scenario and an 80 % GHG reduction (GHG-Step scenario. Each of these scenarios was developed with an energy economic model to optimize costs across the entire California economy and so they include changes in activity, fuels, and technology across economic sectors. Separate algorithms are developed to estimate emissions of criteria pollutants (or their precursors that are consistent with the future GHG scenarios for the following economic sectors: (i on-road, (ii rail and off-road, (iii marine and aviation, (iv residential and commercial, (v electricity generation, and (vi biorefineries. Properly accounting for new technologies involving electrification, biofuels, and hydrogen plays a central role in these calculations. Critically, criteria pollutant emissions do not decrease uniformly across all sectors of the economy. Emissions of certain criteria pollutants (or their precursors increase in some sectors as part of the overall optimization within each of the scenarios. This produces nonuniform changes to criteria pollutant emissions in close proximity to heavily populated regions when viewed at 4 km spatial resolution with implications for exposure to air pollution for those populations. As a further complication, changing fuels and technology also modify the composition of reactive organic gas emissions and the size and composition of particulate matter emissions. This is most notably apparent through a comparison of emissions reductions for different size fractions of primary particulate matter. Primary PM2.5 emissions decrease by 4 % in the GHG

  4. Estimating criteria pollutant emissions using the California Regional Multisector Air Quality Emissions (CA-REMARQUE) model v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Christina B.; Yang, Chris; Yeh, Sonia; Ogden, Joan; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    The California Regional Multisector Air Quality Emissions (CA-REMARQUE) model is developed to predict changes to criteria pollutant emissions inventories in California in response to sophisticated emissions control programs implemented to achieve deep greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. Two scenarios for the year 2050 act as the starting point for calculations: a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and an 80 % GHG reduction (GHG-Step) scenario. Each of these scenarios was developed with an energy economic model to optimize costs across the entire California economy and so they include changes in activity, fuels, and technology across economic sectors. Separate algorithms are developed to estimate emissions of criteria pollutants (or their precursors) that are consistent with the future GHG scenarios for the following economic sectors: (i) on-road, (ii) rail and off-road, (iii) marine and aviation, (iv) residential and commercial, (v) electricity generation, and (vi) biorefineries. Properly accounting for new technologies involving electrification, biofuels, and hydrogen plays a central role in these calculations. Critically, criteria pollutant emissions do not decrease uniformly across all sectors of the economy. Emissions of certain criteria pollutants (or their precursors) increase in some sectors as part of the overall optimization within each of the scenarios. This produces nonuniform changes to criteria pollutant emissions in close proximity to heavily populated regions when viewed at 4 km spatial resolution with implications for exposure to air pollution for those populations. As a further complication, changing fuels and technology also modify the composition of reactive organic gas emissions and the size and composition of particulate matter emissions. This is most notably apparent through a comparison of emissions reductions for different size fractions of primary particulate matter. Primary PM2.5 emissions decrease by 4 % in the GHG-Step scenario vs

  5. Detection of Rickettsia Species in Fleas Collected from Cats in Regions Endemic and Nonendemic for Flea-Borne Rickettsioses in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Sarah A; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Jett, Lindsey A; Wournell, Andrea L; Kjemtrup, Anne M; Padgett, Kerry A; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Metzger, Marco E; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-03-01

    Rickettsia typhi, transmitted by rat fleas, causes most human flea-borne rickettsioses worldwide. Another rickettsia, Rickettsia felis, found in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, has also been implicated as a potential human pathogen. In the continental United States, human cases of flea-borne rickettsioses are reported primarily from the southern regions of Texas and California where the cat flea is considered the principal vector. In California, more than 90% of locally acquired human cases are reported from suburban communities within Los Angeles and Orange counties despite the almost ubiquitous presence of cat fleas and their hosts throughout the state. The objective of this study is to assess the presence and infection rate of Rickettsia species in cat fleas from selected endemic and nonendemic regions of California. Cat fleas were collected from cats in Los Angeles County (endemic region) and Sacramento and Contra Costa counties (nonendemic region). Sequencing of 17 amplicons confirmed the presence of R. felis in both the endemic and non-endemic regions with a calculated maximum likelihood estimation of 131 and 234 per 1000 fleas, respectively. R. typhi was not detected in any flea pools. Two R. felis-like genotypes were also detected in fleas from Los Angeles County; Genotype 1 was detected in 1 flea pool and Genotype 2 was found in 10 flea pools. Genotype 1 was also detected in a single flea pool from Sacramento County. Results from this study show that R. felis is widespread in cat flea populations in both flea-borne rickettsioses endemic and nonendemic regions of California, suggesting that a high prevalence of this bacterium in cat fleas does not predispose to increased risk of human infection. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of R. felis and the two R. felis-like organisms as etiologic agents of human flea-borne rickettsioses in California.

  6. Preliminary maps of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility, nine-county San Francisco Bay region, California: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Witter, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Helley, Edward J.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Wright, Heather M.; Brown, Katherine H.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the nine-county San Francisco Bay region, together with a digital compendium of ground effects associated with past earthquakes in the region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database of fivedata layers (Quaternary deposits, quadrangle index, and three ground effects layers) and two text layers (a labels and leaders layer for Quaternary deposits and for ground effects), (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map, liquefaction interpretation, and the ground effects compendium, and (4) the databse description pamphlet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a modern and regionally consistent treatment of Quaternary surficial deposits that builds on the pioneering mapping of Helley and Lajoie (Helley and others, 1979) and such intervening work as Atwater (1982), Helley and others (1994), and Helley and Graymer (1997a and b). Like these earlier studies, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, and inferred depositional environments to define and distinguish the map units. In contrast to the twelve map units of Helley and Lajoie, however, this new map uses a complex stratigraphy of some forty units, which permits a more realistic portrayal of the Quaternary depositional system. The two colored maps provide a regional summary of the new mapping at a scale of 1:275,000, a scale that is sufficient to show the general distribution and relationships of

  7. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  8. Volcanic unrest and hazard communication in Long Valley Volcanic Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Mangan, Margaret T.; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    The onset of volcanic unrest in Long Valley Caldera, California, in 1980 and the subsequent fluctuations in unrest levels through May 2016 illustrate: (1) the evolving relations between scientists monitoring the unrest and studying the underlying tectonic/magmatic processes and their implications for geologic hazards, and (2) the challenges in communicating the significance of the hazards to the public and civil authorities in a mountain resort setting. Circumstances special to this case include (1) the sensitivity of an isolated resort area to media hype of potential high-impact volcanic and earthquake hazards and its impact on potential recreational visitors and the local economy, (2) a small permanent population (~8000), which facilitates face-to-face communication between scientists monitoring the hazard, civil authorities, and the public, and (3) the relatively frequent turnover of people in positions of civil authority, which requires a continuing education effort on the nature of caldera unrest and related hazards. Because of delays associated with communication protocols between the State and Federal governments during the onset of unrest, local civil authorities and the public first learned that the U.S. Geological Survey was about to release a notice of potential volcanic hazards associated with earthquake activity and 25-cm uplift of the resurgent dome in the center of the caldera through an article in the Los Angeles Times published in May 1982. The immediate reaction was outrage and denial. Gradual acceptance that the hazard was real required over a decade of frequent meetings between scientists and civil authorities together with public presentations underscored by frequently felt earthquakes and the onset of magmatic CO2 emissions in 1990 following a 11-month long earthquake swarm beneath Mammoth Mountain on the southwest rim of the caldera. Four fatalities, one on 24 May 1998 and three on 6 April 2006, underscored the hazard posed by the CO2

  9. Characterization of Quaternary and suspected Quaternary faults, regional studies, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.E.; Bucknam, R.C.; Crone, A.J.; Haller, K.M.; Machette, M.N.; Personius, S.F.; Barnhard, T.P.; Cecil, M.J.; Dart, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    This report presents the results of geologic studies that help define the Quaternary history of selected faults in the region around Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These results are relevant to the seismic-design basis of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The relevancy is based, in part, on a need for additional geologic data that became apparent in ongoing studies that resulted in the identification of 51 relevant and potentially relevant individual and compound faults and fault zones in the 100-km-radius region around the Yucca Mountain site. Geologic data used to characterize the regional faults and fault zones as relevant or potentially relevant seismic sources includes age and displacement information, maximum fault lengths, and minimum distances between the fault and the Yucca Mountain site. For many of the regional faults, no paleoseismic field studies have previously been conducted, and age and displacement data are sparse to nonexistent. In November 1994, the Branch of Earthquake and Landslide Hazards entered into two Memoranda of Agreement with the Yucca Mountain Project Branch to conduct field reconnaissance, analysis, and interpretation of six relevant and six potentially relevant regional faults. This report describes the results of study of those faults exclusive of those in the Pahrump-Stewart Valley-Ash Meadows-Amargosa Valley areas. We also include results of a cursory study of faults on the west flank of the Specter Range and in the northern part of the Last Chance Range. A four-phase strategy was implemented for the field study.

  10. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  11. A Gravity data along LARSE (Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment) Line II, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed gravity study along part of the Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment (LARSE) transect across the San Fernando Basin and Transverse Ranges to help characterize the structure underlying this area. 249 gravity measurements were collected along the transect and to augment regional coverage near the profile. An isostatic gravity low of 50-60 mGal reflects the San Fernando-East Ventura basin. Another prominent isostatic gravity with an amplitude of 30 mGal marks the Antelope Valley basin. Gravity highs occur over the Santa Monica Mountains and the Transverse Ranges. The highest isostatic gravity values coincide with outcrops of Pelona schist.

  12. Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom

    2002-01-01

    As of the time of this writing, the San Francisco Bay region is home to about 6.8 million people, ranking fifth among population centers in the United States. Most of these people live on the coastal lands along San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento River delta, and the Pacific coast. The region straddles the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates and is crossed by several strands of the San Andreas Fault system. These faults, which are stressed by about 4 cm of relative plate motion each year, pose an obvious seismic hazard.

  13. Using NASA's Giovanni System to Simulate Time-Series Stations in the Outflow Region of California's Eel River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James G.; Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Lee, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    Oceanographic time-series stations provide vital data for the monitoring of oceanic processes, particularly those associated with trends over time and interannual variability. There are likely numerous locations where the establishment of a time-series station would be desirable, but for reasons of funding or logistics, such establishment may not be feasible. An alternative to an operational time-series station is monitoring of sites via remote sensing. In this study, the NASA Giovanni data system is employed to simulate the establishment of two time-series stations near the outflow region of California s Eel River, which carries a high sediment load. Previous time-series analysis of this location (Acker et al. 2009) indicated that remotely-sensed chl a exhibits a statistically significant increasing trend during summer (low flow) months, but no apparent trend during winter (high flow) months. Examination of several newly-available ocean data parameters in Giovanni, including 8-day resolution data, demonstrates the differences in ocean parameter trends at the two locations compared to regionally-averaged time-series. The hypothesis that the increased summer chl a values are related to increasing SST is evaluated, and the signature of the Eel River plume is defined with ocean optical parameters.

  14. Geothermal direct heat use: market potential/penetration analysis for Federal Region IX (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, W.; Tang, K. (eds.)

    1980-05-01

    A preliminary study was made of the potential for geothermal direct heat use in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada (Federal Region IX). The analysis for each state was performed by a different team, located in that state. For each state, the study team was asked to: (1) define the resource, based on the latest available data; (2) assess the potential market growth for geothermal energy; and (3) estimate the market penetration, projected to 2020. Each of the four states of interest in this study is unique in its own way. Rather than impose the same assumptions as to growth rates, capture rates, etc. on all of the study teams, each team was asked to use the most appropriate set of assumptions for its state. The results, therefore, should reflect the currently accepted views within each state. The four state reports comprise the main portion of this document. A brief regional overview section was prepared by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, following completion of the state reports.

  15. Ammonia and Methane Dairy Emission Plumes in the San Joaquin Valley of California from Individual Feedlot to Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David J.; Sun, Kang; Pan, Da; Zondlo, Mark A.; Nowak, John B.; Liu, Zhen; Diskin, Glenn; Sachse, Glen; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Ferrare, Richard; hide

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions are highly uncertain, with high spatiotemporal variability and a lack of widespread in situ measurements. Regional NH3 emission estimates using mass balance or emission ratio approaches are uncertain due to variable NH3 sources and sinks as well as unknown plume correlations with other dairy source tracers. We characterize the spatial distributions of NH3 and methane (CH4) dairy plumes using in situ surface and airborne measurements in the Tulare dairy feedlot region of the San Joaquin Valley, California, during the NASA Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality 2013 field campaign. Surface NH3 and CH4 mixing ratios exhibit large variability with maxima localized downwind of individual dairy feedlots. The geometric mean NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio derived from surface measurements is 0.15 +/- 0.03 ppmv ppmv-1. Individual dairy feedlots with spatially distinct NH3 and CH4 source pathways led to statistically significant correlations between NH3 and CH4 in 68% of the 69 downwind plumes sampled. At longer sampling distances, the NH3:CH4 enhancement ratio decreases 20-30%, suggesting the potential for NH3 deposition as a loss term for plumes within a few kilometers downwind of feedlots. Aircraft boundary layer transect measurements directly above surface mobile measurements in the dairy region show comparable gradients and geometric mean enhancement ratios within measurement uncertainties, even when including NH3 partitioning to submicron particles. Individual NH3 and CH4 plumes sampled at close proximity where losses are minimal are not necessarily correlated due to lack of mixing and distinct source pathways. Our analyses have important implications for constraining NH3 sink and plume variability influences on regional NH3 emission estimates and for improving NH3 emission inventory spatial allocations.

  16. Effect of faulting on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faunt, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    This study characterizes the hydrogeologic system of the Death Valley region, an area covering approximately 100,000 square kilometers. The study also characterizes the effects of faults on ground-water movement in the Death Valley region by synthesizing crustal stress, fracture mechanics,a nd structural geologic data. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. Faulting and associated fracturing is pervasive and greatly affects ground-water flow patterns. Faults may become preferred conduits or barriers to flow depending on whether they are in relative tension, compression, or shear and other factors such as the degree of dislocations of geologic units caused by faulting, the rock types involved, the fault zone materials, and the depth below the surface. The current crustal stress field was combined with fault orientations to predict potential effects of faults on the regional ground-water flow regime. Numerous examples of fault-controlled ground-water flow exist within the study area. Hydrologic data provided an independent method for checking some of the assumptions concerning preferential flow paths. 97 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Assessing the combined effect of dams and climate warming on streamflow in California's Sierra Nevada for regional-scale adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinheimer, D. E.; Viers, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Dams and their operations harm river ecosystems, in part by altering the natural flow regimes that those ecosystems depend on. In the multi-reservoir water management systems of California's Sierra Nevada, greater emphasis is being placed on re-operating existing reservoir systems to recover downstream ecosystems. However, climate change is changing inflow patterns, affecting both ecosystems and traditional water system benefits across the region. As new reservoir operation schemes will be needed to manage for natural resources management objectives at the regional scale, characterizing historical and future environmental impacts of current operations across the region can aid in prioritizing planning efforts. We used a coarse-scale water resources simulation model developed for the western Sierra Nevada to explore the independent and combined effects of dams and climate warming on the flow regime directly below reservoirs, the focal point for instream flow requirements in operations licenses. We quantified changes to mean annual flow, annual low flow duration, annual runoff centroid timing, and weekly rate of decrease under binary combinations of management (unregulated/regulated) and climate (historical/future) conditions. We demonstrate that although rivers in the Sierra Nevada are currently managed in ways that are harmful to instream ecosystems, and that streamflow effects of operations are typically much worse than climate change effects, there are signals that reservoirs can potentially be used to help adapt to some of climate changes harmful effects with little additional effort in some cases. This study is the first step toward a better understanding of the environmental costs from and opportunities afforded by the current stock of reservoirs in a large hydroregion under changing social and environmental conditions.

  18. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region greatly enhances previous magnetic interpretations that were based on older, low-resolution, and regional aeromagnetic data sets and provides new insights into volcano-tectonic processes. The surveyed area covers a 8,750 km2 NNW-trending swath situated between the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Basin and Range Province to the east. The surveyed area includes the volcanic centers of Mono Lake, Mono-Inyo Craters, Mammoth Mountain, Devils Postpile, and Long Valley Caldera. The NW-trending eastern Sierra frontal fault zone crosses through the study area, including the active Mono Lake, Silver Lake, Hartley Springs, Laurel Creek, and Hilton Creek faults. Over 6,000 line-kilometers of aeromagnetic data were collected at a constant terrain clearance of 150 m, a flight-line spacing of 400 m, and a tie-line spacing of 4 km. Data were collected via helicopter with an attached stinger housing a magnetic sensor using a Scintrex CS-3 cesium magnetometer. In the northern part of the survey area, data improve the magnetic resolution of the individual domes and coulees along Mono Craters and a circular shaped magnetic anomaly that coincides with a poorly defined ring fracture mapped by Kistler (1966). Here, aeromagnetic data combined with other geophysical data suggests that Mono Craters may have preferentially followed a pre-existing plutonic basement feature that may have controlled the sickle shape of the volcanic chain. In the northeastern part of the survey, aeromagnetic data reveal a linear magnetic anomaly that correlates with and extends a mapped fault. In the southern part of the survey, in the Sierra Nevada block just south of Long Valley Caldera, aeromagnetic anomalies correlate with NNW-trending Sierran frontal faults rather than to linear NNE-trends observed in recent seismicity over the last 30 years. These data provide an important framework for the further analysis of the

  19. Hydrothermal vent fields discovered in the southern Gulf of California clarify role of habitat in augmenting regional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredi, Shana K; Johnson, Shannon; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Caress, David; Clague, David; Escobar, Elva; Lundsten, Lonny; Paduan, Jennifer B; Rouse, Greg; Salcedo, Diana L; Soto, Luis A; Spelz-Madero, Ronald; Zierenberg, Robert; Vrijenhoek, Robert

    2017-07-26

    Hydrothermal vent communities are distributed along mid-ocean spreading ridges as isolated patches. While distance is a key factor influencing connectivity among sites, habitat characteristics are also critical. The Pescadero Basin (PB) and Alarcón Rise (AR) vent fields, recently discovered in the southern Gulf of California, are bounded by previously known vent localities (e.g. Guaymas Basin and 21° N East Pacific Rise); yet, the newly discovered vents differ markedly in substrata and vent fluid attributes. Out of 116 macrofaunal species observed or collected, only three species are shared among all four vent fields, while 73 occur at only one locality. Foundation species at basalt-hosted sulfide chimneys on the AR differ from the functional equivalents inhabiting sediment-hosted carbonate chimneys in the PB, only 75 km away. The dominant species of symbiont-hosting tubeworms and clams, and peripheral suspension-feeding taxa, differ between the sites. Notably, the PB vents host a limited and specialized fauna in which 17 of 26 species are unknown at other regional vents and many are new species. Rare sightings and captured larvae of the 'missing' species revealed that dispersal limitation is not responsible for differences in community composition at the neighbouring vent localities. Instead, larval recruitment-limiting habitat suitability probably favours species differentially. As scenarios develop to design conservation strategies around mining of seafloor sulfide deposits, these results illustrate that models encompassing habitat characteristics are needed to predict metacommunity structure. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. 3-D P- and S-wave velocity structure and low-frequency earthquake locations in the Parkfield, California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Thurber, Clifford H.; Shelly, David R.; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Bennington, Ninfa L.; Peterson, Dana; Guo, Bin; McClement, Kara

    2016-01-01

    To refine the 3-D seismic velocity model in the greater Parkfield, California region, a new data set including regular earthquakes, shots, quarry blasts and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) was assembled. Hundreds of traces of each LFE family at two temporary arrays were stacked with time–frequency domain phase weighted stacking method to improve signal-to-noise ratio. We extend our model resolution to lower crustal depth with LFE data. Our result images not only previously identified features but also low velocity zones (LVZs) in the area around the LFEs and the lower crust beneath the southern Rinconada Fault. The former LVZ is consistent with high fluid pressure that can account for several aspects of LFE behaviour. The latter LVZ is consistent with a high conductivity zone in magnetotelluric studies. A new Vs model was developed with S picks that were obtained with a new autopicker. At shallow depth, the low Vs areas underlie the strongest shaking areas in the 2004 Parkfield earthquake. We relocate LFE families and analyse the location uncertainties with the NonLinLoc and tomoDD codes. The two methods yield similar results.

  1. Phytoplankton oceanographic characterization during El Niño 2004 event in the Northwest region of Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda-Alvarez, A. C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An oceanographic cruise in front of the Coast of Baja California was carried from the 9th to the 29th day of July in 2004, in 91 stations at 10 m depth. The aim of this study was to identify the variability of phytoplankton and its oceanographic characterization in the coast-ocean region during an anomalous year with El Niño characteristics. Results showed a taxonomic composition of 21 phytoplankton genera in an interval size called nano-microphytoplankton: Gymnodinium, Scrippsiella, Ceratium, Coscinodiscus, Oxytoxum, Gyrodinium, Protoperidinium, Nitzschia, Gonyaulax. On the other hand, spatial distribution of light absorption coefficient for phytoplankton (aph440 and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration showed high values in front of the San Quintin coast and south of Punta Eugenia, detecting a clear decrease towards the oceanic zone. In regard to the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton, a dominance of dinoflagellates in contrast to diatoms was observed, results coinciding with the basic characteristics of phytoplankton ecology during an El Niño event.

  2. Assessing Drought Impacts on Water Storage using GRACE Satellites and Regional Groundwater Modeling in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Save, H.; Faunt, C. C.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concerns about drought impacts on water resources in California underscores the need to better understand effects of drought on water storage and coping strategies. Here we use a new GRACE mascons solution with high spatial resolution (1 degree) developed at the Univ. of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) and output from the most recent regional groundwater model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate changes in water storage in response to recent droughts. We also extend the analysis of drought impacts on water storage back to the 1980s using modeling and monitoring data. The drought has been intensifying since 2012 with almost 50% of the state and 100% of the Central Valley under exceptional drought in 2015. Total water storage from GRACE data declined sharply during the current drought, similar to the rate of depletion during the previous drought in 2007 - 2009. However, only 45% average recovery between the two droughts results in a much greater cumulative impact of both droughts. The CSR GRACE Mascons data offer unprecedented spatial resolution with no leakage to the oceans and no requirement for signal restoration. Snow and reservoir storage declines contribute to the total water storage depletion estimated by GRACE with the residuals attributed to groundwater storage. Rates of groundwater storage depletion are consistent with the results of regional groundwater modeling in the Central Valley. Traditional approaches to coping with these climate extremes has focused on surface water reservoir storage; however, increasing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and storing excess water from wet periods in depleted aquifers is increasing in the Central Valley.

  3. Ambient Noise Tomography at Regional and Local Scales in Southern California using Rayleigh Wave Phase Dispersion and Ellipticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E.; Lin, F. C.; Qiu, H.; Wang, Y.; Allam, A. A.; Clayton, R. W.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Rayleigh waves extracted from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise have proven useful in imaging the shallow subsurface velocity structure. In contrast to phase velocities, which are sensitive to slightly deeper structure, Rayleigh wave ellipticity (H/V ratios) constrains the uppermost crust. We conduct Rayleigh wave ellipticity and phase dispersion measurements in Southern California between 6 and 18 second periods, computed from multi-component ambient noise cross-correlations using 315 stations across the region in 2015. Because of the complimentary sensitivity of phase velocity and H/V, this method enables simple and accurate resolution of near-surface geological features from the surface to 20km depth. We compare the observed H/V ratios and phase velocities to predictions generated from the current regional models (SCEC UCVM), finding strong correspondence where the near-surface structure is well-resolved by the models. This includes high H/V ratios in the LA Basin, Santa Barbara Basin and Salton Trough; and low ratios in the San Gabriel, San Jacinto and southern Sierra Nevada mountains. Disagreements in regions such as the Western Transverse Ranges, Salton Trough, San Jacinto and Elsinore fault zones motivate further work to improve the community models. A new updated 3D isotropic model of the area is derived via a joint inversion of Rayleigh phase dispersions and H/V ratios. Additionally, we examine azimuthal dependence of the H/V ratio to ascertain anisotropy patterns for each station. Clear 180º periodicity is observed for many stations suggesting strong shallow anisotropy across the region including up to 20% along the San Andreas fault, 15% along the San Jacinto Fault and 25% in the LA Basin. To better resolve basin structures, we apply similar techniques to three dense linear geophone arrays in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino basins. The three arrays are composed by 50-125 three-component 5Hz geophones deployed for one month each with 15-25km

  4. The ophiolitic North Fork terrane in the Salmon River region, central Klamath Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, C.J.; Irwin, W.P.; Jones, D.L.; Saleeby, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The North Fork terrane is an assemblage of ophiolitic and other oceanic volcanic and sedimentary rocks that has been internally imbricated and folded. The ophiolitic rocks form a north-trending belt through the central part of the region and consist of a disrupted sequence of homogeneous gabbro, diabase, massive to pillowed basalt, and interleaved tectonitic harzburgite. U-Pb zircon age data on a plagiogranite pod from the gabbroic unit indicate that at least this part of the igneous sequence is late Paleozoic in age.The ophiolitic belt is flanked on either side by mafic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, limestone, bedded chert, and argillite. Most of the chert is Triassic, including much of Late Triassic age, but chert with uncertain stratigraphic relations at one locality is Permian. The strata flanking the east side of the ophiolitic belt face eastward, and depositional contacts between units are for the most part preserved. The strata on the west side of the ophiolitic belt are more highly disrupted than those on the east side, contain chert-argillite melange, and have unproven stratigraphic relation to either the ophiolitic rocks or the eastern strata.Rocks of the North Fork terrane do not show widespread evidence of penetrative deformation at elevated temperatures, except an early tectonitic fabric in the harzburgite. Slip-fiber foliation in serpentinite, phacoidal foliation in chert and mafic rocks, scaly foliation in argillite, and mesoscopic folds in bedded chert are consistent with an interpretation of large-scale anti-formal folding of the terrane about a north-south hinge found along the ophiolitic belt, but other structural interpretations are tenable. The age of folding of North Fork rocks is constrained by the involvement of Triassic and younger cherts and crosscutting Late Jurassic plutons. Deformation in the North Fork terrane must have spanned a short period of time because the terrane is bounded structurally above and below by Middle or Late

  5. Chronology of Miocene-Pliocene deposits at Split Mountain Gorge, Southern California: A record of regional tectonics and Colorado River evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, R.J.; Fluette, A.; McDougall, K.; Housen, B.A.; Janecke, S.U.; Axen, G.J.; Shirvell, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Late Miocene to early Pliocene deposit at Split Mountain Gorge, California, preserve a record of basinal response to changes in regional tectonics, paleogeography, and evolution of the Colorado River. The base of the Elephant Trees Formation, magnetostratigraphically dated as 8.1 ?? 0.4 Ma, provides the earliest well-dated record of extension in the southwestern Salton Trough. The oldest marine sediments are ca. 6.3 Ma. The nearly synchronous timing of marine incursion in the Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California region supports a model for localization of Pacific-North America plate motion in the Gulf ca. 6 Ma. The first appearance of Colorado River sand at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary (5.33 Ma) suggests rapid propagation of the river to the Salton Trough, and supports a lake-spillover hypothesis for initiation of the lower Colorado River. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  6. Clean Water Act Section 319 Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Projects Grants, US EPA Region 9, 2008, California Nonpoint Source Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The California Nonpoint Source (NPS) Program allocates about $4.5 million of CWA Section 319 funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency annually to...

  7. Concurrent Detection of Human Norovirus and Bacterial Pathogens in Water Samples from an Agricultural Region in Central California Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens and human norovirus (HuNoV are major cause for acute gastroenteritis caused by contaminated food and water. Public waterways can become contaminated from a variety of sources and flood after heavy rain events, leading to pathogen contamination of produce fields. We initiated a survey of several public watersheds in a major leafy green produce production region of the Central California Coast to determine the prevalence of HuNoV as well as bacterial pathogens. Moore swabs were used to collect environmental samples bi-monthly at over 30 sampling sites in the region. High prevalence of HuNoV and bacterial pathogens were detected in environmental water samples in the region. The overall detection rates of HuNoV, O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and Listeria were 25.58, 7.91, 9.42, 59.65, and 44.30%, respectively. The detection rates of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were significantly higher in the spring. Fall and spring had elevated detection rates of O157 STEC. The overall detection rates of non-O157 STEC in the fall were lower than the other seasons but not significant. The overall detection rates of HuNoV were highest in fall, followed by spring and winter, with summer being lowest and significantly lower than other seasons. This study presented the first study of evaluating the correlation between the detection rate of HuNoV and the detection rates of four bacterial pathogens from environmental water. Overall, there was no significant difference in HuNoV detection rates between samples testing positive or negative for the four bacterial pathogens tested. Pathogens in animal-impacted and human-impacted areas were investigated. There were significant higher detection rates in animal-impacted areas than that of human-impacted areas for bacterial pathogens. However, there was no difference in HuNoV detection rates between these two areas. The overall detection levels of generic E

  8. Ocean climate indicators: A monitoring inventory and plan for tracking climate change in the north-central California coast and ocean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Benet; Higgason, Kelley; Suchanek, Tom; Largier, John; Stachowicz, Jay; Allen, Sarah; Bograd, Steven; Breen, R.; Gellerman, Holly; Hill, Tessa; Jahncke, Jaime; Johnson, Rebecca L.; Lonhart, Steve I.; Morgan, Steven; Wilkerson, Frances; Roletto, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of climate change, defined as increasing atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide and associated increases in average global temperature and oceanic acidity, have been observed both globally and on regional scales, such as in the North-central California coast and ocean, a region that extends from Point Arena to Point Año Nuevo and includes the Pacific coastline of the San Francisco Bay Area. Because of the high economic and ecological value of the region’s marine environment, the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) and other agencies and organizations have recognized the need to evaluate and plan for climate change impacts. Climate change indicators can be developed on global, regional, and site-specific spatial scales, and they provide information about the presence and potential impacts of climate change. While indicators exist for the nation and for the state of California as a whole, no system of ocean climate indicators exist that specifically consider the unique characteristics of the California coast and ocean region. To that end, GFNMS collaborated with over 50 regional, federal, and state natural resource managers, research scientists, and other partners to develop a set of 2 ocean climate indicators specific to this region. A smaller working group of 13 regional partners developed monitoring goals, objectives, strategies, and activities for the indicators and recommended selected species for biological indicators, resulting in the Ocean Climate Indicators Monitoring Inventory and Plan. The working group considered current knowledge of ongoing monitoring, feasibility of monitoring, costs, and logistics in selecting monitoring activities and selected species.

  9. Conserving the Greater Sage-grouse: A social-ecological systems case study from the California-Nevada region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Alison L; Metcalf, Alexander L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) continues to serve as one of the most powerful and contested federal legislative mandates for conservation. In the midst of heated debates, researchers, policy makers, and conservation practitioners champion the importance of cooperative conservation and social-ecological systems approaches, which forge partnerships at multiple levels and scales to address complex ecosystem challenges. However, few real-world examples exist to demonstrate how multifaceted collaborations among stakeholders who share a common goal of conserving at-risk species may be nested within a systems framework to achieve social and ecological goals. Here, we present a case study of Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) conservation efforts in the “Bi-State” region of California and Nevada, United States. Using key-informant interviews, we explored dimensions and drivers of this landscape-scale conservation effort. Three themes emerged from the interviews, including 1) ESA action was transformed into opportunity for system-wide conservation; 2) a diverse, locally based partnership anchored collaboration and engagement across multiple levels and scales; and 3) best-available science combined with local knowledge led to “certainty of effectiveness and implementation”—the criteria used by the US Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate conservation efforts when making listing decisions. Ultimately, collaborative conservation through multistakeholder engagement at various levels and scales led to proactive planning and implementation of conservation measures and precluded the need for an ESA listing of the Bi-State population of Greater Sage-grouse. This article presents a potent example of how a systems approach integrating policy, management, and learning can be used to successfully overcome the conflict-laden and “wicked” challenges that surround at-risk species conservation.

  10. Does urbanization influence the spatial ecology of Gila monsters in the Sonoran Desert?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, M.A.; Schuett, G.W.; Repp, R.A.; Nowak, E.M.; Sullivan, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    To assess whether urbanization influences the spatial ecology of a rare and protected venomous reptilian predator, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum, we compared home range (HR) size and movement parameters at three sites varying in degree of urbanization in the Sonoran Desert. We predicted that the urban population of H. suspectum would exhibit smaller HRs, avoid human structures and show less movement. Multivariate analysis indicated that males generally exhibited larger HRs and had higher movement rates and activity levels than females at all three sites. Contrary to our predictions, however, HR size and movement parameters did not vary across the sites in relation to the level of urbanization. At the urban site, individuals often crossed narrow roads and regularly used artificial structures as refuges for extended periods. Furthermore, the population sex ratio at the urban site was female-biased, consistent with the expectation that occupation of larger HRs and higher movement rates results in higher mortality for males in urbanized areas. Gila monsters did not appear to alter certain aspects of their spatial ecology in response to low levels of human activity but additional work will be required to assess population viability and possible effects in the long term and with higher levels of urbanization.

  11. Sonoran Desert winter annuals affected by density of red brome and soil nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, L.F.; McPherson, G.R.; Williams, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    Red brome [Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (L.) Husn.] is a Mediterranean winter annual grass that has invaded Southwestern USA deserts. This study evaluated interactions among 13 Sonoran Desert annual species at four densities of red brome from 0 to the equivalent of 1200 plants ma??2. We examined these interactions at low (3 I?g) and high (537 I?g NO3a?? g soila??1) nitrogen (N) to evaluate the relative effects of soil N level on survival and growth of native annuals and red brome. Red brome did not affect emergence or survival of native annuals, but significantly reduced growth of natives, raising concerns about effects of this exotic grass on the fecundity of these species. Differences in growth of red brome and of the three dominant non nitrogen-fixing native annuals at the two levels of soil N were similar. Total species biomass of red brome was reduced by 83% at low, compared to high, N levels, whereas that of the three native species was reduced by from 42 to 95%. Mean individual biomass of red brome was reduced by 87% at low, compared to high, N levels, whereas that of the three native species was reduced by from 72 to 89%.

  12. Thermal biology of Pacific cicada killers, Sphecius convallis Patton, in the Upper Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Joseph R; Holliday, Charles W; Hastings, Jon M; Phillips, Christy M

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the Pacific cicada killer, Sphecius convallis Patton, was undertaken to examine the behavioral and physiological mechanisms by which they are able to complete their life cycle in the thermal extremes of the Upper Sonoran Desert. S. convallis were endothermic, exhibiting elevated and relatively constant thorax temperatures during many activities. Males basked in trees at dawn to warm up, then used a variety of behaviors and perching strategies to maintain thorax temperature during territorial behavior. The thorax temperature of females was highest during provisioning and orientation flights, somewhat lower while investigating burrows, and lowest while digging burrows. The optimal thorax temperature for flight was about 40°C, which was approximated most closely by males resting in the shade during the afternoon. In mating clusters, the mated male was the hottest, the female was coolest and the other males were intermediate. Wasps lost about 5% of body mass during heating treatments, and may use evaporative water loss for cooling. Pacific cicada killers use a complex suite of behavioral and physiological adaptations to regulate body temperature during their nesting season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Remote sensing of Sonoran Desert vegetation structure and phenology with ground-based LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Duran, Cesar M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  14. Regional systems development for geothermal energy resources: Pacific region (California and Hawaii). Task 2: Regional program monitoring and progress evaluation, topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-19

    All the objectives of the regional program monitoring and progress evaluation have been met through personal contacts and the review of data. They are as follows: to determine the existing status of power plant projects and future plans; to identify major problem areas for each project (technical, financial, regulatory) that are affecting progress; and to analyze the data and to develop recommendations directed toward resolving problems. The results have been presented in a tabular summary format that is accompanied by explanatory text covering 25 projects.

  15. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  16. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  17. Riverine Nutrient Trends in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Basins, California: A Comparison to State and Regional Water Quality Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Schlegel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/1015447/sfews.2015v13iss4art2Non-point source (NPS contaminant control strategies were initiated in California in the late 1980s under the authority of the State Porter–Cologne Act and eventually for the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL plans, under the federal Clean Water Act. Most of the NPS TMDLs developed for California’s Central Valley (CV region were related to pesticides, but not nutrients. Efforts to reduce pesticide loads and concentrations began in earnest around 1990. The NPS control strategies either encouraged or mandated the use of management practices (MPs. Although TMDLs were largely developed for pesticides, the resultant MPs might have affected the runoff of other potential contaminants (such as nutrients. This study evaluates the effect of agricultural NPS control strategies implemented in California’s CV before and between 1990 and 2013, on nutrients, by comparing trends in surface-water concentrations and loads. In general, use of MPs was encouraged during a “voluntary” period (1990 to 2004 and mandated during an “enforcement” period (2004 to 2013. Nutrient concentrations, loads, and trends were estimated by using a recently developed Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS model. Sufficient total phosphorus (TP, total nitrogen (TN, and nitrate (NO3 data were available to compare the voluntary and enforcement periods for twelve sites within the lower Sacramento and San Joaquin basins. Ammonia concentrations and fluxes were evaluated at a subset of these sites. For six of these sites, flow-normalized mean annual concentrations of TP or NO3 decreased at a faster rate during the enforcement period than during the voluntary period. Concentration changes during similar years and ranges of flow conditions suggest that MPs designed for pesticides may also have reduced nutrient loads. Results show that enforceable NPS policies, and accelerated MP implementation

  18. Distance-decay relationships partially determine diversity patterns of phyllosphere bacteria on Tamarix trees across the Sonoran Desert [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Omri M; Burch, Adrien Y; Elad, Tal; Huse, Susan M; Lindow, Steven E; Post, Anton F; Belkin, Shimshon

    2012-09-01

    Dispersal limitation in phyllosphere communities was measured on the leaf surfaces of salt-excreting Tamarix trees, which offer unique, discrete habitats for microbial assemblages. We employed 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to measure bacterial community dissimilarity on leaves of spatially dispersed Tamarix specimens in sites with uniform climatic conditions across the Sonoran Desert in the Southwestern United States. Our analyses revealed diverse bacterial communities with four dominant phyla that exhibited differential effects of environmental and geographic variables. Geographical distance was the most important parameter that affected community composition, particularly that of betaproteobacteria, which displayed a statistically significant, distance-decay relationship.

  19. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B. Switalski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic water sources (AWS are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. A total of 370 individual mammals representing three genera and eight species were captured in 4,800 trap nights from winter 2011 to spring 2012. A multi-response permutation procedure was used to identify differences in small mammal community abundance and biomass by season and treatment. Rodent abundance, biomass, and richness were greater at AWS compared to control sites. Patterns of abundance and biomass were driven by the desert pocket mouse (Chaetodipus penicillatus which was the most common capture and two times more numerous at AWS compared to controls. Vegetation characteristics, explored using principal components analysis, were similar between AWS and controls. Two species that prefer vegetation structure, Bailey’s pocket mouse (C. baileyi and white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula, had greater abundances and biomass near AWS and were associated with habitat having high cactus density. Although small mammals do not drink free-water, perhaps higher abundances of some species of desert rodents at AWS could be related to artificial structure associated with construction or other resources. Compared to the 30-year average of precipitation for the area, the period of our study occurred during a dry winter. During dry periods, perhaps AWS provide resources to rodents related to moisture.

  20. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switalski, Aaron B; Bateman, Heather L

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. A total of 370 individual mammals representing three genera and eight species were captured in 4,800 trap nights from winter 2011 to spring 2012. A multi-response permutation procedure was used to identify differences in small mammal community abundance and biomass by season and treatment. Rodent abundance, biomass, and richness were greater at AWS compared to control sites. Patterns of abundance and biomass were driven by the desert pocket mouse ( Chaetodipus penicillatus ) which was the most common capture and two times more numerous at AWS compared to controls. Vegetation characteristics, explored using principal components analysis, were similar between AWS and controls. Two species that prefer vegetation structure, Bailey's pocket mouse ( C. baileyi ) and white-throated woodrat ( Neotoma albigula) , had greater abundances and biomass near AWS and were associated with habitat having high cactus density. Although small mammals do not drink free-water, perhaps higher abundances of some species of desert rodents at AWS could be related to artificial structure associated with construction or other resources. Compared to the 30-year average of precipitation for the area, the period of our study occurred during a dry winter. During dry periods, perhaps AWS provide resources to rodents related to moisture.

  1. One hundred and six years of population and community dynamics of Sonoran Desert Laboratory perennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Buritica, Susana; Raichle, Helen; Webb, Robert H.; Turner, Raymond M.; Venable, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This data set constitutes all information associated with the Spalding-Shreve permanent vegetation plots from 1906 through 2012, which is the longest-running plant monitoring program in the world. The program consists of detailed maps of all Sonoran Desert perennial plants in 30 permanent plots located on Tumamoc Hill, near Tucson, Arizona, USA. Most of these plots are 10 m × 10 m quadrats that were established by Volney Spalding and Forrest Shreve between 1906 and 1928. Analyses derived from these data have been pivotal in testing early theories on plant community succession, plant life history traits, plant longevity, and population dynamics. One of the major contributions of this data set is the species-specific demographic traits that derived from estimating individual plant trajectories for more than 106 years. Further use of these data might shed light on spatially explicit population and community dynamics, as well as long-term changes attributable to global change. Data presented here consist of digital versions of original maps created between 1906 and 1984 and digital data from recent censuses between 1993 and 2012. Attributes associated with these maps include location and coverage of all shrubs, and in some cases, plant height. In addition, we present plot-specific summaries of plant cover and density for each census year and all other information collected, including seedling counts, grass coverage, and annual species enumerations. We reference the repeat photography of these plots, which began in 1906; these images are stored at the Desert Laboratory Collection of Repeat Photography in Tucson. Initial data collection consisted of grid-mapping the plots manually on graph paper; starting in 1993, Total Stations (which allow a direct digitalization, and more accurate mapping) were used to survey root crowns and canopies.

  2. Predictions of soil-water potentials in the north-western Sonoran Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.R.; Nobel, P.S.

    1986-03-01

    A simple computer model was developed to predict soil-water potential at a Sonoran Desert site. The variability of precipitation there, coupled with the low water-holding capacity of the sandy soil, result in large temporal and spatial variations in soil-water potential. Predicted soil-water potentials for depths of 5, 10 and 20 cm were in close agreement with measured values as the soil dried after an application of water. Predicted values at a depth of 10 cm, the mean rooting depth of Agave deserti and other succulents common at the study site, also agreed with soil-water potentials measured in the field throughout 1 year. Both soil-water potential and evaporation from the soil surface were very sensitive to simulated changes in the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. The annual duration of soil moisture adequate for succulents was dependent on the rainfall as well as on the spacing and amount of individual rainfalls. The portion of annual precipitation evaporated from the soil surface varied from 73% in a dry year (77 mm precipitation) to 59% in a wet year (597 mm). Besides using the actual precipitation events, simulations were performed using the figures for total monthly precipitation. Based on the average number of rainfalls for a particular month, the rainfall was distributed throughout the month in the model. Predictions using both daily and monthly inputs were in close agreement, especially for the number of days during a year when the soil-water potential was sufficient for water absorption by the succulent plants (above -0.5 MPa).

  3. Sonoran Desert ecosystem transformation by a C4 grass without the grass/fire cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Aaryn D.; Betancourt, Julio; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biological invasions facilitate ecosystem transformation by altering the structure and function, diversity, dominance and disturbance regimes. A classic case is the grass–fire cycle in which grass invasion increases the frequency, scale and/or intensity of wildfires and promotes the continued invasion of invasive grasses. Despite wide acceptance of the grass–fire cycle, questions linger about the relative roles that interspecific plant competition and fire play in ecosystem transformations. Location Sonoran Desert Arizona Upland of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA. Methods We measured species cover, density and saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) size structure along gradients of Pennisetum ciliare invasion at 10 unburned/ungrazed P. ciliare patches. Regression models quantified differences in diversity, cover and density with respect to P. ciliare cover, and residence time and a Fisher's exact test detected demographic changes in saguaro populations. Because P. ciliare may have initially invaded locations that were both more invasible and less diverse, we ran analyses with and without the plots in which initial infestations were located. Results Richness and diversity decreased with P. ciliare cover as did cover and density of most dominant species. Richness and diversity declined with increasing time since invasion, suggesting an ongoing transformation. The proportion of old-to-young Carnegiea gigantea was significantly lower in plots with dominant P. ciliare cover. Main conclusions Rich desert scrub (15–25 species per plot) was transformed into depauperate grassland (2–5 species per plot) within 20 years following P. ciliare invasion without changes to the fire regime. While the onset of a grass–fire cycle may drive ecosystem change in the later stages and larger scales of grass invasions of arid lands, competition by P. ciliare can drive small-scale transformations earlier in the invasion. Linking competition-induced transformation rates with

  4. Long-term changes in abundances of Sonoran Desert lizards reveal complex responses to climatic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Aaron D; Rosen, Philip C; Holm, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how climatic variation affects animal populations and communities is essential for addressing threats posed by climate change, especially in systems where impacts are projected to be high. We evaluated abundance dynamics of five common species of diurnal lizards over 25 years in a Sonoran Desert transition zone where precipitation decreased and temperature increased across time, and assessed hypotheses for the influence of climatic flux on spatiotemporal variation in abundances. We repeatedly surveyed lizards in spring and summer of each year at up to 32 sites, and used hierarchical mixture models to estimate detection probabilities, abundances, and population growth rates. Among terrestrial species, abundances of a short-lived, winter-spring breeder increased markedly by an estimated 237%-285% across time, while two larger spring-summer breeders with higher thermal preferences declined by up to 64%. Abundances of two arboreal species that occupy shaded and thus sheltered microhabitats fluctuated but did not decline systematically. Abundances of all species increased with precipitation at short lag times (1-1.5 years) likely due to enhanced food availability, but often declined after periods of high precipitation at longer lag times (2-4 years) likely due to predation and other biotic pressures. Although rising maximum daily temperatures (T max ) are expected to drive global declines of lizards, associations with T max were variable and weak for most species. Instead, abundances of all species declined with rising daily minimum temperatures, suggesting degradation of cool refugia imposed widespread metabolic or other costs. Our results suggest climate warming and drying are having major impacts on lizard communities by driving declines in species with traits that augment exposure to abiotic extremes and by modifying species interactions. The complexity of patterns we report indicates that evaluating and responding to the influence of climate change

  5. The vascular flora and floristic relationships of the Sierra de La Giganta in Baja California Sur, Mexico La flora vascular y las relaciones florísticas de la sierra de La Giganta de Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis León de la Luz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sierra de La Giganta is a semi-arid region in the southern part of the Baja California peninsula of Mexico. Traditionally, this area has been excluded as a sector of the Sonoran Desert and has been more often lumped with the dry-tropical Cape Region of southern Baja California peninsula, but this classical concept of the vegetation has not previously been analyzed using formal documentation. In the middle of the last century, Annetta Carter, a botanist from the University of California, began explorations in the Sierra de La Giganta that lasted 24 years, she collected 1 550 specimens and described several new species from this area, but she never published an integrated study of the flora. Our objectives, having developed extensive collections in the same area over the past years, are to provide a comprehensive species list and description of the vegetation of this mountain range. We found a flora of 729 taxa, poorly represented in tree life-forms (3.1%, a moderate level (4.4% of endemism, and the dominance of plants in the sampling plots is composed mainly for legume trees and shrubs. Additionally, using a biogeographical approach, we compare our list with other known lists of plants from 5 areas, 3 in the Cape Region, 1 in the Sonoran Desert, and other in the thornscrub area of NW Mexico. We conclude that the La Giganta flora has a mixed composition, primarily made up of plants shared with the lowlands of the southern Cape Region, but also share an important proportion of the flora with the desert mountains of the central peninsula and some with the Sonoran desertscrub of mainland Mexico. Consequently we support that the La Giganta flora is part of a floristic continuum along the volcanic mountains of the southern peninsula that eventually could be considered a new eco-region in the same peninsular land.La sierra de La Giganta se localiza en el estado de Baja California Sur, México, en una región semi-árida. Tradicionalmente, esta

  6. Ecosystem feedbacks to climate change in California: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subin, Z.M.; Riley, W.J.; Kueppers, L.M.; Jin, J.; Christianson, D.S.; Torn, M.S.

    2010-11-01

    A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future California land-cover changes. The impact was evaluated on California's climate of changes in natural vegetation under climate change and of intentional afforestation. The ability of WRF3 to simulate California's climate was assessed by comparing simulations by WRF3-CLM3.5 and WRF3-Noah to observations from 1982 to 1991. Using WRF3-CLM3.5, the authors performed six 13-yr experiments using historical and future large-scale climate boundary conditions from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The land-cover scenarios included historical and future natural vegetation from the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System-Century 1 (MC1) dynamic vegetation model, in addition to a future 8-million-ha California afforestation scenario. Natural vegetation changes alone caused summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature changes of -0.7 to +1 C in regions without persistent snow cover, depending on the location and the type of vegetation change. Vegetation temperature changes were much larger than the 2-m air temperature changes because of the finescale spatial heterogeneity of the imposed vegetation change. Up to 30% of the magnitude of the summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature increase and 70% of the magnitude of the 1600 local time (LT) vegetation temperature increase projected under future climate change were attributable to the climate-driven shift in land cover. The authors projected that afforestation could cause local 0.2-1.2 C reductions in summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature and 2.0-3.7 C reductions in 1600 LT vegetation temperature for snow-free regions, primarily because of increased evapotranspiration. Because some of these temperature changes are of comparable magnitude to those

  7. Wildlife survey and monitoring in the Sky Island Region with an emphasis on neotropical felids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jessica Lamberton-Moreno

    2013-01-01

    The Sky Island region of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico consists of isolated mountain ranges separated by deserts and grasslands. It mixes elements from five major ecosystems: the Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre Occidental, the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts and the Neotropics. Here some Neotropical species reach their northern ranges, such as jaguars...

  8. Aeromagnetic maps of the Colorado River region including the Kingman, Needles, Salton Sea, and El Centro 1 degree by 2 degrees quadrangles, California, Arizona, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, John; Grauch, V.J.

    1988-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data for the Colorado river region have been compiled as part of the Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE) Project. The data are presented here in a series of six compilations for the Kingman, Needles, Salton Sea, and El Centro 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangles, California, Arizona, and Nevada, at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:750,000. The scales and map areas are identical to those used by Mariano and others (1986) to display the Bouguer and isotatic residual gravity for this region. Data were compiled separately for the Kingman quadrangle, the Needles quadrangle, and an area covering the Salton Sea quadrangle and part of the El Centro quadrangle.

  9. Determination of the Anthropogenic Carbon Signal to the Total Change in Dissolved Carbon in the Coastal Upwelling Region Along the Washington-Oregon-California Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf region off the Washington-Oregon-California coast is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canthro) contribution to the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we use an adaptation of the linear regression approach described in Feely et al (2008) along with the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data sets from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canthro and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program west coast cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canthro in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canthro in surface waters along the coast with the lowest surface values (40-45 µmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions of off northern California and southern Oregon and higher values (50-70 µmol kg-1) to the north and south. Canthro contributes an average of about 70% of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the upwelled waters at the surface. In contrast, at 50 m the Canthro contribution is approximately 31% and at 100 m it averages about 16%. The remaining contributions are primarily due to respiration processes in the water that was upwelled and transported to coastal regions or underwent respiration processes that occurred locally during the course of the upwelling season. The uptake of Canthro has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since preindustrial period so that the undersaturated waters are well within the regions that affect the biological communities on the continental shelf.

  10. Modeling regional aerosol and aerosol precursor variability over California and its sensitivity to emissions and long-range transport during the 2010 CalNex and CARES campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, J. D.; Allan, J.; Bahreini, R.; Craven, J.; Emmons, L.; Ferrare, R.; Hayes, P. L.; Hodzic, A.; Holloway, J.; Hostetler, C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Jonsson, H.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Metcalf, A.; Middlebrook, A.; Nowak, J.; Pekour, M.; Perring, A.; Russell, L.; Sedlacek, A.; Seinfeld, J.; Setyan, A.; Shilling, J.; Shrivastava, M.; Springston, S.; Song, C.; Subramanian, R.; Taylor, J. W.; Vinoj, V.; Yang, Q.; Zaveri, R. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-09-01

    The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting regional model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) in simulating the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol mass, composition, and size over California is quantified using the extensive meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected during the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Experiment (CalNex) and the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) conducted during May and June of 2010. The overall objective of the field campaigns was to obtain data needed to better understand processes that affect both climate and air quality, including emission assessments, transport and chemical aging of aerosols, aerosol radiative effects. Simulations were performed that examined the sensitivity of aerosol concentrations to anthropogenic emissions and to long-range transport of aerosols into the domain obtained from a global model. The configuration of WRF-Chem used in this study is shown to reproduce the overall synoptic conditions, thermally driven circulations, and boundary layer structure observed in region that controls the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols. Reducing the default emissions inventory by 50% led to an overall improvement in many simulated trace gases and black carbon aerosol at most sites and along most aircraft flight paths; however, simulated organic aerosol was closer to observed when there were no adjustments to the primary organic aerosol emissions. We found that sulfate was better simulated over northern California whereas nitrate was better simulated over southern California. While the overall spatial and temporal variability of aerosols and their precursors were simulated reasonably well, we show cases where the local transport of some aerosol plumes were either too slow or too fast, which adversely affects the statistics quantifying the differences between observed and simulated quantities. Comparisons with lidar and in situ measurements indicate

  11. Three-Dimensional P-wave Velocity Structure Beneath Long Valley Caldera, California, Using Local-Regional Double-Difference Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, H. M.; Thurber, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    Eastern California's Long Valley Caldera (LVC) and the Mono-Inyo Crater volcanic systems have been active for the past ~3.6 million years. Long Valley is known to produce very large silicic eruptions, the last of which resulted in the formation of a 17 km by 32 km wide, east-west trending caldera. Relatively recent unrest began between 1978-1980 with five ML ≥ 5.7 non-double-couple (NDC) earthquakes and associated aftershock swarms. Similar shallow seismic swarms have continued south of the resurgent dome and beneath Mammoth Mountain, surrounding sites of increased CO2 gas emissions. Nearly two decades of increased volcanic activity led to the 1997 installation of a temporary three-component array of 69 seismometers. This network, deployed by the Durham University, the USGS, and Duke University, recorded over 4,000 high-frequency events from May to September. A local tomographic inversion of 283 events surrounding Mammoth Mountain yielded a velocity structure with low Vp and Vp/Vs anomalies at 2-3 km bsl beneath the resurgent dome and Casa Diablo hot springs. These anomalies were interpreted to be CO2 reservoirs (Foulger et al., 2003). Several teleseismic and regional tomography studies have also imaged low Vp anomalies beneath the caldera at ~5-15 km depth, interpreted to be the underlying magma reservoir (Dawson et al., 1990; Weiland et al., 1995; Thurber et al., 2009). This study aims to improve the resolution of the LVC regional velocity model by performing tomographic inversions using the local events from 1997 in conjunction with regional events recorded by the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) between 1980 and 2010 and available refraction data. Initial tomographic inversions reveal a low velocity zone at ~2 to 6 km depth beneath the caldera. This structure may simply represent the caldera fill. Further iterations and the incorporation of teleseismic data may better resolve the overall shape and size of the underlying magma reservoir.

  12. Using the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to Analyze Impacts of Climate Change on Ecosystems within Northern California Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, K.; Little, M.; Loewenstein, M.; Iraci, L. T.; Milesi, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    The projected impacts of climate change on Northern California ecosystems using model outputs from the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) for the period 1950-2099 based on 1km downscaled climate data from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model are analyzed in this study. The impacts are analyzed for the Special Report Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2, both maintaining present levels of urbanization constant and under projected urban expansion. The analysis is in support of the Climate Adaptation Science Investigation at NASA Ames Research Center. A statistical analysis is completed for time series of temperature, precipitation, gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration, soil runoff, and vapor pressure deficit. Trends produced from this analysis show that increases in maximum and minimum temperatures lead to declines in peak GPP, length of growing seasons, and overall declines in runoff within the watershed. For Northern California, GPP is projected under the A2 scenario to decrease by 18-25% by the 2090 decade as compared to the 2000 decade. These trends indicate a higher risk to crop production and other ecosystem services, as conditions would be less hospitable to vegetation growth. The increase in dried out vegetation would then lead to a higher risk of wildfire and mudslides in the mountainous regions.

  13. A new algorithm for three-dimensional joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data and its application to the Southern California plate boundary region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongjian; Zhang, Haijiang; Yao, Huajian; Allam, Amir; Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Thurber, Clifford; van der Hilst, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for joint inversion of body wave and surface wave data to get better 3-D P wave (Vp) and S wave (Vs) velocity models by taking advantage of the complementary strengths of each data set. Our joint inversion algorithm uses a one-step inversion of surface wave traveltime measurements at different periods for 3-D Vs and Vp models without constructing the intermediate phase or group velocity maps. This allows a more straightforward modeling of surface wave traveltime data with the body wave arrival times. We take into consideration the sensitivity of surface wave data with respect to Vp in addition to its large sensitivity to Vs, which means both models are constrained by two different data types. The method is applied to determine 3-D crustal Vp and Vs models using body wave and Rayleigh wave data in the Southern California plate boundary region, which has previously been studied with both double-difference tomography method using body wave arrival times and ambient noise tomography method with Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion measurements. Our approach creates self-consistent and unique models with no prominent gaps, with Rayleigh wave data resolving shallow and large-scale features and body wave data constraining relatively deeper structures where their ray coverage is good. The velocity model from the joint inversion is consistent with local geological structures and produces better fits to observed seismic waveforms than the current Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) model.

  14. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  15. Source apportionment of visual impairment during the California regional PM 10/PM 2.5 air quality study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjun; Ying, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2009-12-01

    Gases and particulate matter predictions from the UCD/CIT air quality model were used in a visibility model to predict source contributions to visual impairment in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), the southern portion of California's Central Valley, during December 2000 and January 2001. Within the SJV, daytime (0800-1700 PST) light extinction was dominated by scattering associated with airborne particles. Measured daytime particle scattering coefficients were compared to predicted values at approximately 40 locations across the SJV after correction for the increased temperature and decreased relative humidity produced by "smart heaters" placed upstream of nephelometers. Mean fractional bias and mean fractional error were -0.22 and 0.65, respectively, indicating reasonable agreement between model predictions and measurements. Particulate water, nitrate, organic matter, and ammonium were the major particulate species contributing to light scattering in the SJV. Daytime light extinction in the SJV averaged between December 25, 2000 and January 7, 2001 was mainly associated with animal ammonia sources (28%), diesel engines (18%), catalyst gasoline engines (9%), other anthropogenic sources (9%), and wood smoke (7%) with initial and boundary conditions accounting for 13%. The source apportionment results from this study apply to wintertime conditions when airborne particulate matter concentrations are typically at their annual maximum. Further study would be required to quantify source contributions to light extinction in other seasons.

  16. Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35 degrees N., long 115 degrees W and lat 38 degrees N., long 118 degrees W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system

  17. Hydrogeochemical evaluation of conventional and hot dry rock geothermal resource potential in the Clear Lake region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1993-05-01

    Chemistry, stable isotope, and tritium contents of thermal/mineral waters in the Clear Lake region were used to evaluate conventional and hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal potential for electrical generation. Thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region are broadly classified as thermal meteoric and connate types based on chemical and isotopic criteria. Ratios of conservative components such as B/Cl are extremely different among all thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region except for clusters of waters emerging from specific areas such as the Wilbur Springs district and the Agricultural Park area south of Mt. Konocti. In contrast ratios of conservative components in large, homogeneous geothermal reservoirs are constant. Stable isotope values of Clear Lake region waters show a mixing trend between thermal meteoric and connate (generic) end-members. The latter end-member has enriched {delta}D as well as enriched {delta}{sup 18}O, from typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir waters. Tritium data indicate most Clear Lake region waters are mixtures of old and young fluid components. Subsurface equilibration temperature of most thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region is {le}150{degree}C based on chemical geothermometers but it is recognized that Clear Lake region waters are not typical geothermal fluids and that they violate rules of application of many geothermometers. The combined data indicate that no large geothermal reservoir underlies the Clear Lake region and that small localized reservoirs have equilibration temperatures {le}150{degree}C (except for Sulphur Bank mine). HDR technologies are probably the best way to commercially exploit the known high-temperatures existing beneath the Clear Lake region particularly within and near the main Clear Lake volcanic field.

  18. California Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (CEVA) Score, San Joaquin Valley CA, 2013, UC Davis Center for Regional Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set is based on a three year study by the UC Davis Center for Regional Change, in affiliation with the Environmental Justice Project of the John Muir...

  19. Geochemistry of thermal/mineral waters in the Clear Lake region, California, and implications for hot dry rock geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Mansfield, J.

    1993-02-01

    Thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region are broadly classified as thermal meteoric and connote types based on chemical and isotopic criteria. Ratios of conservative components such as B/Cl are extremely different among all thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region except for clusters of waters emerging from specific areas such as the Wilbur Springs district and the Agricultural Park area south of Mt. Konocti. In contrast, ratios of conservative components in large, homogeneous geothermal reservoirs are constant. Stable isotope values of Clear Lake region waters show a mixing trend between thermal meteoric and connote end-members. The latter end-member has enriched [delta]D as well as enriched d[sup l8]O, very different from typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir waters. Tritium data and modeling of ages indicate most Clear Lake region waters are 500 to > 10,000 yr., although mixing of old and young components is implied by the data. The age of end-member connate water is probably > 10,000 yr. Subsurface equilibration temperature of most thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region is [le] 150[degrees]C based on chemical geothermometers but it is recognized that Clear Lake region waters are not typical geothermal fluids and that they violate rules of application of many geothermometers. The combined data indicate that no large geothermal reservoir underlies the Clear Lake region and that small localized reservoirs have equilibration temperatures [le] 150[degrees]C (except for Sulphur Bank Mine). Hot dry rock technologies are the best way to commercially exploit the known high temperatures existing beneath the Clear Lake region, particularly within the main Clear Lake volcanic field.

  20. Prevalence of shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes at public access watershed sites in a California Central Coast agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Michael B; Quiñones, Beatriz; Oryang, David; Mandrell, Robert E; Gorski, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Produce contaminated with enteric pathogens is a major source of foodborne illness in the United States. Lakes, streams, rivers, and ponds were sampled with Moore swabs bi-monthly for over 2 years at 30 locations in the vicinity of a leafy green growing region on the Central California Coast and screened for Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes to evaluate the prevalence and persistence of pathogen subtypes. The prevalence of STEC from 1386 samples was 11%; 110 samples (8%) contained E. coli O157:H7 with the highest prevalence occurring close to cattle operations. Non-O157 STEC isolates represented major clinical O-types and 57% contained both shiga toxin types 1 and 2 and intimin. Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of STEC isolates indicated prevalent strains during the period of study. Notably, Salmonella was present at high levels throughout the sampling region with 65% prevalence in 1405 samples resulting in 996 isolates with slightly lower prevalence in late autumn. There were 2, 8, and 14 sites that were Salmonella-positive over 90, 80, and 70% of the time, respectively. The serotypes identified most often were 6,8:d:-, Typhimurium, and Give. Interestingly, analysis by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis indicated persistence and transport of pulsotypes in the region over several years. In this original study of L. monocytogenes in the region prevalence was 43% of 1405 samples resulting in 635 individual isolates. Over 85% of the isolates belonged to serotype 4b with serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 3a, 4d with 4e representing the rest, and there were 12 and 2 sites that were positive over 50 and 80% of the time, respectively. Although surface water is not directly used for irrigation in this region, transport to the produce can occur by other means. This environmental survey assesses initial contamination levels toward an understanding of transport leading to produce recalls or outbreaks.

  1. Overview of the Kinematics of the Salton Trough and Northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    In the Salton Trough and Northern Gulf of California, transtensional rifting is leading to full continental plate breakup, as a major continental block is being transferred to an oceanic plate. Since at least 6 Ma this region has taken up most of the plate boundary slip between the Pacific and North America plates at this latitude. We review the structural history of plate separation, as constrained by many recent studies of present and past fault configurations, seismicity, and basin development as seen from geology and geophysics. Modern activity in the USA is dominated by NW-striking strike-slip faults (San Andreas, San Jacinto, Elsinore), and subsidiary NE-striking faults. There is an equally broad zone in Mexico (faults from the Mexicali Valley to the Colorado River Delta and bounding the Laguna Salada basin), including active low-angle detachment faults. In both areas, shifts in fault activity are indicated by buried faults and exhumed or buried earlier basin strata. Seismicity defines 3 basin segments in the N Gulf: Consag-Wagner, Upper Delfin, and Lower Delfin, but localization is incomplete. These basins occupy a broad zone of modern deformation, lacking single transform faults, although major strike-slip faults formed in the surrounding continental area. The off-boundary deformation on the western side of the plate boundary has changed with time, as seen by Holocene and Quaternary faults controlling modern basins in the Gulf Extensional Province of NE Baja California, and stranded Pliocene continental and marine basin strata in subaerial fault blocks. The eastern side of the plate boundary, in the shallow northeastern Gulf, contains major NW-striking faults that may have dominated the earlier (latest Miocene-early Pliocene) kinematics. The Sonoran coastal plain likely buries additional older faults and basin sequences; further studies here are needed to refine models of the earlier structural development of this sector. Despite > 250 km of plate

  2. Simulated effects of climate change on the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; O'Brien, G.M.; Faunt, C.C.; San Juan, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional flow system as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. As part of the hydrologic investigation, regional, three-dimensional conceptual and numerical ground-water-flow models have been developed to assess the potential effects of past and future climates on the regional flow system. A simulation that is based on climatic conditions 21,000 years ago was evaluated by comparing the simulated results to observation of paleodischarge sites. Following acceptable simulation of a past climate, a possible future ground-water-flow system, with climatic conditions that represent a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, was simulated. The steady-state simulations were based on the present-day, steady-state, regional ground-water-flow model. The finite-difference model consisted of 163 rows, 153 columns, and 3 layers and was simulated using MODFLOWP. Climate changes were implemented in the regional ground-water-flow model by changing the distribution of ground-water recharge. Global-scale, average-annual, simulated precipitation for both past- and future-climate conditions developed elsewhere were resampled to the model-grid resolution. A polynomial function that represents the Maxey-Eakin method for estimating recharge from precipitation was used to develop recharge distributions for simulation

  3. Tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic interaction in the eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engielle Mae Raot-raot Paguican

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA, is an extensively faulted volcanic corridor between the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau. The east-west extending region is in the transition zone between the convergence and subduction of the Gorda Plate underneath the North American Plate; north-south shortening within the Klamath Mountain region; and transcurrent movement in the Walker Lane. We describe the geomorphological and tectonic features, their alignment and distribution, in order to understand the tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic relationships. One outcome of the work is a more refined morpho-structural description that will affect future hazard assessment in the area.A database of volcanic centers and structures was created from interpretations of topographic models generated from satellite images. Volcanic centers in the region were classified by morphological type into cones, sub-cones, shields and massifs. A second classification by height separated the bigger and smaller edifices and revealed an evolutionary trend. Poisson Nearest Neighbor analysis shows that bigger volcanoes are spatially dispersed while smaller ones are clustered. Using volcano centroid locations, about 90 lineaments consisting of at least three centers within 6km of one another were found, revealing that preferential north-northwest directed pathways control the transport of magma from the source to the surface, consistent with the strikes of the major fault systems. Most of the volcano crater openings are perpendicular to the maximum horizontal stress, expected for extensional environments with dominant normal regional faults. These results imply that the extension of the Hat Creek Graben region and impingement of the Walker Lane is accommodated mostly by extensional faults and partly by the intrusions that formed the volcanoes. Early in the history of a volcano or volcano cluster, melt produced at depth in the

  4. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  5. Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, Nevada and California-Hydrogeologic framework and transient groundwater flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient groundwater flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the groundwater flow system and previous less extensive groundwater flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect groundwater flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the groundwater flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural groundwater discharge occurring through evapotranspiration (ET) and spring flow; the history of groundwater pumping from 1913 through 1998; groundwater recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were provided

  6. Regional variations in upper mantle compressional velocities beneath southern California 1. Post-shock temperatures: Their experimental determination, calculation, and implications, 2.. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    The compressional velocity within the upper mantle beneath Southern California is investigated through observations of the dependence of teleseismic P-delays at all stations of the array on the distance and azimuth to the event. The variation of residuals with azimuth was found to be as large as 1.3 sec at a single station; the delays were stable as a function of time, and no evidence was found for temporal velocity variations related to seismic activity in the area. These delays were used in the construction of models for the upper mantle P-velocity structure to depths of 150 km, both by ray tracing and inversion techniques. The models exhibit considerable lateral heterogeneity including a region of low velocity beneath the Imperial Valley, and regions of increased velocity beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Transverse Ranges. The development is described of a technique for the experimental determination of post-shock temperatures, and its application to several metals and silicates shocked to pressures in the range 5 to 30 GPa. The technique utilizes an infra-red radiation detector to determine the brightness temperature of the free surface of the sample after the shock wave has passed through it.

  7. An estimated potentiometric surface of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California, developed using geographic information system and automated interpolation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    An estimated potentiometric surface was constructed for the Death Valley region, Nevada and California, from numerous, disparate data sets. The potentiometric surface was required for conceptualization of the ground-water flow system and for construction of a numerical model to aid in the regional characterization for the Yucca Mountain repository. Because accurate, manual extrapolation of potentiometric levels over large distances is difficult, a geographic-information-system method was developed to incorporate available data and apply hydrogeologic rules during contour construction. Altitudes of lakes, springs, and wetlands, interpreted as areas where the potentiometric surface intercepts the land surface, were combined with water levels from well data. Because interpreted ground-water recharge and discharge areas commonly coincide with groundwater basin boundaries, these areas also were used to constrain a gridding algorithm and to appropriately place local maxima and minima in the potentiometric-surface map. The resulting initial potentiometric surface was examined to define areas where the algorithm incorrectly extrapolated the potentiometric surface above the land surface. A map of low-permeability rocks overlaid on the potentiometric surface also indicated areas that required editing based on hydrogeologic reasoning. An interactive editor was used to adjust generated contours to better represent the natural water table conditions, such as large hydraulic gradients and troughs, or ''vees''. The resulting estimated potentiometric-surface map agreed well with previously constructed maps. Potentiometric-surface characteristics including potentiometric-surface mounds and depressions, surface troughs, and large hydraulic gradients were described

  8. Accelerated Educational Change; The Annual Western Regional Conference on Testing Problems (15th, San Francisco, California, May 6, 1966).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    The 1966 meeting of the Western Regional Conference on Testing Problems dealt with accelerated educational change. The following speeches were presented: (1) "Access to Higher Education: Implications for Future Planning" by Richard Pearson; (2) "The Differentiated Youth: A Challenge to Traditional Institutions" by Joseph D. Lohman; (3) "Teaching…

  9. Evaluating process domains in small arid granitic watersheds: Case study of Pima Wash, South Mountains, Sonoran Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Yeong Bae; Larson, Phillip H.; Dorn, Ronald I.; Yu, Byung Yong

    2016-02-01

    This paper provides support for the concept of geomorphic process domains developed by Montgomery (1999) by linking geomorphic processes to ecological variations seen in the Pima arid granitic watershed of the Sonoran Desert, Phoenix, Arizona. Closer joint spacing shows a statistically significant correlation with lower percentages of mineral grain attachment as measured by digital image processing of backscattered electron microscope imagery. Lower mineral grain attachment leads to more frequent spalling of rock surfaces, as measured by varnish microlamination (VML) ages of the last spalling event. In contrast, more distant joint spacing leads to in situ 10Be erosion rates of 3.4-8.5 mm/ka and the emergence of low domes and kopje granitic landforms; these low domes also serve as knickpoints along ephemeral washes. Distant jointing thus plays a key role in generating the bare bedrock surfaces that funnel limited precipitation to bedrock margins - enhancing the canopy cover of perennial plants next to the bare bedrock. Joint-influenced geomorphic processes at Pima Wash generate four distinct process domains: (PD1) armored drainage divides; (PD2) slopes with different granite landforms; (PD3) mid- and upper basin channels that mix knickzones, strath floodplains, and sandy alluvial sections; and (PD4) the main ephemeral channel transitioning to the piedmont. Distant jointing promotes bedrock exposure and rock armoring along drainage divides in PD1 that then concentrates runoff and promotes perennial plant growth. More distant joint spacing on slopes in PD2 promotes exposure of granitic bedrock forms that shed overland flow to their margin and promotes flora and fauna growths along the margins of low granitic domes and kopjes. Similarly, wider joint spacing along ephemeral washes in PD3 leads to knickpoints, which in turn act to concentrate moisture immediately downstream. The stream terraces in PD4 influence the ecology through xeric desert pavements on terrace treads

  10. Soil texture drives responses of soil respiration to precipitation pulses in the sonoran desert: Implications for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J.M.; Ogle, K.; Williams, D.G.; Weltzin, J.F.; Huxman, T. E.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change predictions for the desert southwestern U.S. are for shifts in precipitation patterns. The impacts of climate change may be significant, because desert soil processes are strongly controlled by precipitation inputs ('pulses') via their effect on soil water availability. This study examined the response of soil respiration-an important biological process that affects soil carbon (C) storage-to variation in pulses representative of climate change scenarios for the Sonoran Desert. Because deserts are mosaics of different plant cover types and soil textures-which create patchiness in soil respiration-we examined how these landscape characteristics interact to affect the response of soil respiration to pulses. Pulses were applied to experimental plots of bare and vegetated soil on contrasting soil textures typical of Sonoran Desert grasslands. The data were analyzed within a Bayesian framework to: (1) determine pulse size and antecedent moisture (soil moisture prior to the pulse) effects on soil respiration, (2) quantify soil texture (coarse vs. fine) and cover type (bare vs. vegetated) effects on the response of soil respiration and its components (plant vs. microbial) to pulses, and (3) explore the relationship between long-term variation in pulse regimes and seasonal soil respiration. Regarding objective (1), larger pulses resulted in higher respiration rates, particularly from vegetated fine-textured soil, and dry antecedent conditions amplified respiration responses to pulses (wet antecedent conditions dampened the pulse response). Regarding (2), autotrophic (plant) activity was a significant source (???60%) of respiration and was more sensitive to pulses on coarse- versus fine-textured soils. The sensitivity of heterotrophic (microbial) respiration to pulses was highly dependent on antecedent soil water. Regarding (3), seasonal soil respiration was predicted to increase with both growing season precipitation and mean pulse size (but only for pulses

  11. Assessment of regional change in nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Central Valley, California, USA, 1950s-2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2013-01-01

    A regional assessment of multi-decadal changes in nitrate concentrations was done using historical data and a spatially stratified non-biased approach. Data were stratified into physiographic subregions on the basis of geomorphology and soils data to represent zones of historical recharge and discharge patterns in the basin. Data were also stratified by depth to represent a shallow zone generally representing domestic drinking-water supplies and a deep zone generally representing public drinking-water supplies. These stratifications were designed to characterize the regional extent of groundwater with common redox and age characteristics, two factors expected to influence changes in nitrate concentrations over time. Overall, increasing trends in nitrate concentrations and the proportion of nitrate concentrations above 5 mg/L were observed in the east fans subregion of the Central Valley. Whereas the west fans subregion has elevated nitrate concentrations, temporal trends were not detected, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of the water quality in this area and geologic sources of nitrate, combined with sparse and uneven data coverage. Generally low nitrate concentrations in the basin subregion are consistent with reduced geochemical conditions resulting from low permeability soils and higher organic content, reflecting the distal portions of alluvial fans and historical groundwater discharge areas. Very small increases in the shallow aquifer in the basin subregion may reflect downgradient movement of high nitrate groundwater from adjacent areas or overlying intensive agricultural inputs. Because of the general lack of regionally extensive long-term monitoring networks, the results from this study highlight the importance of placing studies of trends in water quality into regional context. Earlier work concluded that nitrate concentrations were steadily increasing over time in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, but clearly those trends do not apply to other

  12. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Clara Valley is a long, narrow trough extending about 35 miles southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay where the regional alluvial-aquifer system has been a major source of water. Intensive agricultural and urban development throughout the 20th century and related ground-water development resulted in ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet and land subsidence of as much as 12.7 feet between the early 1900s and the mid-1960s. Since the 1960s, Santa Clara Valley Water District has imported surface water to meet growing demands and reduce dependence on ground-water supplies. This importation of water has resulted in a sustained recovery of the ground-water flow system. To help support effective management of the ground-water resources, a regional ground-water/surface-water flow model was developed. This model simulates the flow of ground water and surface water, changes in ground-water storage, and related effects such as land subsidence. A numerical ground-water/surface-water flow model of the Santa Clara Valley subbasin of the Santa Clara Valley was developed as part of a cooperative investigation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The model better defines the geohydrologic framework of the regional flow system and better delineates the supply and demand components that affect the inflows to and outflows from the regional ground-water flow system. Development of the model includes revisions to the previous ground-water flow model that upgraded the temporal and spatial discretization, added source-specific inflows and outflows, simulated additional flow features such as land subsidence and multi-aquifer wellbore flow, and extended the period of simulation through September 1999. The transient-state model was calibrated to historical surface-water and ground-water data for the period 197099 and to historical subsidence for the period 198399. The regional ground-water flow system consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped

  13. Impacts of using an ensemble Kalman filter on air quality simulations along the California-Mexico border region during Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Meng, Zhiyong; Weng, Yonghui; Zavala, Miguel; Molina, L T

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) on air quality simulations in the California-Mexico border region on two days (May 30 and June 04, 2010) during Cal-Mex 2010. The uncertainties in ozone (O3) and aerosol simulations in the border area due to the meteorological initial uncertainties were examined through ensemble simulations. The ensemble spread of surface O3 averaged over the coastal region was less than 10ppb. The spreads in the nitrate and ammonium aerosols are substantial on both days, mostly caused by the large uncertainties in the surface temperature and humidity simulations. In general, the forecast initialized with the EnKF analysis (EnKF) improved the simulation of meteorological fields to some degree in the border region compared to the reference forecast initialized with NCEP analysis data (FCST) and the simulation with observation nudging (FDDA), which in turn leading to reasonable air quality simulations. The simulated surface O3 distributions by EnKF were consistently better than FCST and FDDA on both days. EnKF usually produced more reasonable simulations of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to the observations, but still have difficulties in improving the simulations of organic and sulfate aerosols. However, discrepancies between the EnKF simulations and the measurements were still considerably large, particularly for sulfate and organic aerosols, indicating that there are still ample rooms for improvement in the present data assimilation and/or the modeling systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A basin-scale approach for assessing water resources in a semiarid environment: San Diego region, California and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Flint

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many basins throughout the world have sparse hydrologic and geologic data, but have increasing demands for water and a commensurate need for integrated understanding of surface and groundwater resources. This paper demonstrates a methodology for using a distributed parameter water-balance model, gaged surface-water flow, and a reconnaissance-level groundwater flow model to develop a first-order water balance. Flow amounts are rounded to the nearest 5 million cubic meters per year.

    The San Diego River basin is 1 of 5 major drainage basins that drain to the San Diego coastal plain, the source of public water supply for the San Diego area. The distributed parameter water-balance model (Basin Characterization Model was run at a monthly timestep for 1940–2009 to determine a median annual total water inflow of 120 million cubic meters per year for the San Diego region. The model was also run specifically for the San Diego River basin for 1982–2009 to provide constraints to model calibration and to evaluate the proportion of inflow that becomes groundwater discharge, resulting in a median annual total water inflow of 50 million cubic meters per year. On the basis of flow records for the San Diego River at Fashion Valley (US Geological Survey gaging station 11023000, when corrected for upper basin reservoir storage and imported water, the total is 30 million cubic meters per year. The difference between these two flow quantities defines the annual groundwater outflow from the San Diego River basin at 20 million cubic meters per year. These three flow components constitute a first-order water budget estimate for the San Diego River basin. The ratio of surface-water outflow and groundwater outflow to total water inflow are 0.6 and 0.4, respectively. Using total water inflow determined using the Basin Characterization Model for the entire San Diego region and the 0.4 partitioning factor, groundwater outflow from the San Diego region, through

  15. Using CAM3 and the Alkenone Method to Understand how Pliocene SST's Affect California and Other Climates Adjacent to Upwelling Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searles, Z. A.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Rosenbloom, N. A.; Dekens, P. S.

    2008-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change fourth assessment report established with 90% confidence that anthropogenic climate change will result in a warmer world. In order to more fully understand possible future climate, past analogues of warm periods should be analyzed. The early Pliocene is an appropriate analogue because the continental configuration was similar to today and CO2 levels were comparable to present (~100ppm higher than pre-anthropogenic levels). This project has two objectives: 1.To test the atmospheric sensitivity to USGS PRISM2 dataset revised to better approximate proxy data indicating warmer SST's in upwelling regions and 2. To provide early-Pliocene (2.7- 3.5 Ma) SST estimates for ODP site 1018 on the California Margin (36°59.4'N, 123°16.5'W) using the UK'37 SST proxy. Recent UK'37 proxy data reveals that PRISM2 underestimates SST's in Pacific and Atlantic coastal upwelling regions. The sensitivity of the atmosphere to significantly warmer SST's in upwelling regions was tested using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model, version 3 (CAM3). Initial conditions were supplied by the USGS PRISM2 project and include Pliocene SST's, vegetation cover, sea level height, topography, marine and continental ice extent. Pliocene SST's along the Californian, Peruvian, North African and South African margin were modified to reflect proxy observations from 4 sites. The lack of observational coverage (1 data point per region) required interpolation of the areal extent of the SST warming anomaly indicated by the proxies. Experiment results show increased cumulative precipitation and humidity in regions where the original PRISM2 predicted drying. The predicted North American increase in precipitation is in better agreement with geologic proxies indicating wetter conditions. Warmer SST's also causes weaker wind velocities along the North American, Peruvian, and North African margins, and stronger winds along the

  16. Preliminary estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge for the Death Valley region, Nevada-California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional ground-water flow model has been developed to evaluate the Death Valley regional flow system, which includes ground water beneath the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge are needed to define upper boundary conditions. This study presents a preliminary application of a conceptual and numerical model of net infiltration. The model was developed in studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located in the approximate center of the Death Valley ground-water flow system. The conceptual model describes the effects of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and redistribution of water in the shallow unsaturated zone on predicted rates of net infiltration; precipitation and soil depth are the two most significant variables. The conceptual model was tested using a preliminary numerical model based on energy- and water-balance calculations. Daily precipitation for 1980 through 1995, averaging 202 millimeters per year over the 39,556 square kilometers area of the ground-water flow model, was input to the numerical model to simulate net infiltration ranging from zero for a soil thickness greater than 6 meters to over 350 millimeters per year for thin soils at high elevations in the Spring Mountains overlying permeable bedrock. Estimated average net infiltration over the entire ground-water flow model domain is 7.8 millimeters per year. To evaluate the application of the net-infiltration model developed on a local scale at Yucca Mountain, to net-infiltration estimates representing the magnitude and distribution of recharge on a regional scale, the net-infiltration results were compared with recharge estimates obtained using empirical methods. Comparison of model results with previous estimates of basinwide recharge suggests that the net-infiltration estimates obtained using this model may overestimate recharge because of uncertainty in modeled precipitation, bedrock permeability, and soil properties for

  17. Water supplementation affects the behavioral and physiological ecology of Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) in the Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F

    2009-01-01

    In desert species, seasonal peaks in animal activity often correspond with times of higher rainfall. However, the underlying reason for such seasonality can be hard to discern because the rainy season is often associated with shifts in temperature as well as water and food availability. We used a combination of the natural climate pattern of the Sonoran Desert and periodic water supplementation to determine the extent to which water intake influenced both the behavioral ecology and the physiological ecology of a long-lived desert lizard, the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) (Cope 1869). Water-supplemented lizards had lower plasma osmolality (i.e., were more hydrated) and maintained urinary bladder water reserves better during seasonal drought than did control lizards. During seasonal drought, water-supplemented lizards were surface active a significantly greater proportion of time than were controls. This increased surface activity can lead to greater food acquisition for supplemental Gila monsters because tail volume (an index of caudal lipid stores) was significantly greater in supplemented lizards compared with controls in one of the two study years.

  18. Remote Sensing of Sonoran Desert Vegetation Structure and Phenology with Ground-Based LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel B. Sankey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  19. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (≤1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ≥12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  20. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  1. Presentations from the Workshop On SABER: South Arc Beam Experimental Region, March 15-16, 2006, Menlo Park, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.

    2006-01-01

    SABER (the South Arc Beam Experimental Region) is a proposed facility for experiments with 30 GeV electron and positron beams from the SLAC linac. The combination of a short bunch length (s z ∼ 30 microns), high beam charge (3 nC), and small focal spot size (s r = 10 microns) will offer unique scientific opportunities. For more detailed information about the SABER facility and an overview of some of the science possible take a look at the SABER proposal. Initial experiments with electrons could start as early as 2007. A central goal of SABER is to provide a facility responsive to the research needs of its users. The workshop's purposes are to introduce SABER to the potential user community and to explore the range of experiments that are possible. This is an opportunity for the research community to provide input about science at SABER and on the required beam parameters and infrastructure

  2. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. Data are included in this report from 1910 through 1992

  3. Data from theodolite measurements of creep rates on San Francisco Bay region faults, California, 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Forrest S.; Lienkaemper, James J.; Caskey, S. John

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose is to annually update our creep-data archive on San Francisco Bay region active faults for use by the scientific research community. Earlier data (1979-2001) were reported in Galehouse (2002) and were analyzed and described in detail in a summary report (Galehouse and Lienkaemper, 2003). A complete analysis of our earlier results obtained on the Hayward Fault was presented in Lienkaemper, Galehouse and Simpson (2001) and updated in Lienkaemper and others (2012). Lienkaemper and others (2014a) provide a new overview and analysis of fault creep along all sections of the northern San Andreas Fault system, from which they estimate by how much fault creep reduces the seismic hazard for each fault section.

  4. Joint innversion of seismic and magnetotelluric data in the Parkfield Region of California using the normalized cross-gradient constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Ninfa L.; Zhang, Haijiang; Thurber, Cliff; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    We present jointly inverted models of P-wave velocity (Vp) and electrical resistivity for a two-dimensional profile centered on the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). Significant structural similarity between main features of the separately inverted Vp and resistivity models is exploited by carrying out a joint inversion of the two datasets using the normalized cross-gradient constraint. This constraint favors structurally similar Vp and resistivity images that adequately fit the seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) datasets. The new inversion code, tomoDDMT, merges the seismic inversion code tomoDD and the forward modeling and sensitivity kernel subroutines of the MT inversion code OCCAM2DMT. TomoDDMT is tested on a synthetic dataset and demonstrates the code’s ability to more accurately resolve features of the input synthetic structure relative to the separately inverted resistivity and velocity models. Using tomoDDMT, we are able to resolve a number of key issues raised during drilling at SAFOD. We are able to infer the distribution of several geologic units including the Salinian granitoids, the Great Valley sequence, and the Franciscan Formation. The distribution and transport of fluids at both shallow and great depths is also examined. Low values of velocity/resistivity attributed to a feature known as the Eastern Conductor (EC) can be explained in two ways: the EC is a brine-filled, high porosity region, or this region is composed largely of clay-rich shales of the Franciscan. The Eastern Wall, which lies immediately adjacent to the EC, is unlikely to be a fluid pathway into the San Andreas Fault’s seismogenic zone due to its observed higher resistivity and velocity values.

  5. Plate boundary deformation at the latitude of the Salton Trough - northern Gulf of California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    characteristics suggest that the zone of strike-slip faults related to past plate boundary deformation extends eastward into SW Arizona and beneath the Sonoran coastal plain. 3) 'New' crust and mantle lithosphere at the plate boundary, in the Salton Trough and the non-oceanic part of the northern Gulf of California, varies in seismic velocity structure and dimensions, both within and across extensional segments. Details of within-segment variations imaged by SSIP (e.g., Ma et al., and Han et al., this meeting) are attributed to active fault patterns and small scale variations in hydrothermal activity and magmatism superposed on a more uniform sedimentation. Differences between the Imperial Valley rift segment and the north Gulf of California segments may be due to more involvement of low angle normal faults in the marine basins in the south (Martin et al., 2013, Tectonics), as well as differences in lower crustal or mantle lithospheric flow from the adjacent continental regions.

  6. Landslides, Floods, and Marine Effects of the Storm of January 3-5, 1982, in the San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Stephen D.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.

    1988-01-01

    A catastrophic rainstorm in central California on January 3-5,1982, dropped as much as half the mean annual precipitation within a period of about 32 hours, triggering landslides and floods throughout 10 counties in the vicinity of the San Francisco Bay. More than 18,000 of the slides induced by the storm transformed into debris flows that swept down hillslopes or drainages with little warning. Debris flows damaged at least 100 homes, killed 14 residents, and carried a 15th victim into a creek. Shortly after rainfall ceased, more than 459,000 m3 of earth and rock slid from a mountainside above the community of Love Creek in Santa Cruz County, burying 10 people in their homes. Throughout the bay region, thousands of people vacated homes in hazardous areas, entire communities were isolated as roads were blocked, public water systems were destroyed, and power and telephone services were disrupted. Altogether, the storm damaged 6,300 homes, 1,500 businesses, and tens of kilometers of roads, bridges, and communication lines. Preliminary rough estimates of total storm damage, compiled for emergency purposes within 2 weeks of the storm, exceeded $280 million. Carefully documented direct costs from landslides exceeded $66 million; total costs from landslides certainly were greater and probably constituted a much larger proportion of the total storm damage than suggested by these disparate figures. Landslides accounted for 25 of the 33 deaths attributed to the storm.

  7. LEED, Its Efficacy and Fallacy in a Regional Context—An Urban Heat Island Case in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ho Shin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of energy in the building sector has increased rapidly over the past two decades. Accordingly, various building assessment methods have developed in green building practices. However, the questions still remain in regard to how positively green buildings affect regional surroundings. This study investigates the possible relationship between LEED-certified buildings and urban heat island effect. Using GIS with spatial regression, the study found that constructing an LEED building in a 30-m boundary could possibly lower the temperature of the surrounding environment by 0.35 °C. Also, having a higher certification level, such as Gold or Platinum, increased the lowering effect by 0.48 °C, while a lower certification level, such as Certified or Silver, had a lowering effect of 0.26 °C. Although LEED has gained a substantial amount of interest and skepticism at the same time, the study results could be a potential sign that the Sustainable Sites Credits or energy-efficient materials play a positive role in lowering the temperature.

  8. Applying a regional hydrology model to evaluate locations for groundwater replenishment with hillslope runoff under different climate and land use scenarios in an agricultural basin, central coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganskas, S.; Young, K. S.; Fisher, A. T.; Lozano, S.; Harmon, R. E.; Teo, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    We are applying a regional hydrology model, Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), to evaluate locations for groundwater replenishment with hillslope runoff in the Pajaro Valley Groundwater Basin (PVGB), central coastal California. Stormwater managed aquifer recharge (MAR) projects collect hillslope runoff before it reaches a stream and infiltrate it into underlying aquifers, improving groundwater supply. The PVGB is a developed agricultural basin where groundwater provides >85% of water for irrigation and municipal needs; stormwater-MAR projects are being considered to address chronic overdraft and saltwater intrusion. We are applying PRMS to assess on a subwatershed scale (10-100 ha; 25-250 acres) where adequate runoff is generated to supply stormwater-MAR in coincidence with suitable conditions for infiltration and recharge. Data from active stormwater-MAR projects in the PVGB provide ground truth for model results. We are also examining how basinwide hydrology responds to changing land use and climate, and the potential implications for future water management. To prepare extensive input files for PRMS models, we developed ArcGIS and Python tools to delineate a topographic model grid and incorporate high-resolution soil, vegetation, and other physical data into each grid region; we also developed tools to analyze and visualize model output. Using historic climate records, we generated dry, normal, and wet climate scenarios, defined as having approximately 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile annual rainfall, respectively. We also generated multiple land use scenarios by replacing developed areas with native vegetation. Preliminary results indicate that many parts of the PVGB generate significant runoff and have suitable infiltration/recharge conditions. Reducing basinwide overdraft by 10% would require collecting less than 5% of total hillslope runoff, even during the dry scenario; this demonstrates that stormwater-MAR could be an effective water management

  9. GPS Installation Progress in the Northern California Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory Coyle, B., Basset, A., Williams, T., Enders, M., Feaux, K., Jackson, M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, B.; Basset, A.; Enders, M.; Williams, T.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is the geodetic component of the NSF funded EarthScope Project . The final PBO GPS network will comprise 875 continuously operating GPS stations installed throughout the Western US and Alaska. There are 435 stations planned for California with 229 of these in Northern California (NCA). This poster will present the past year's progress of GPS installations in NCA. At the end of the first year of the Project, PBO NCA installed 12 stations. During the second year, another 56 were installed for a total of 68 stations including 18 SDBM, and 50 DDBM. We have sited 128 stations, submitted 112 permit applications and received 73 permits. A particularly important statistic for planning our schedules is the time lag between reconnaissance and permit accepted; our average thus far is 137 days. We have been particularly successful locating stations on Caltrans Rights of Way with 20 Stations built, 3 sites permitted and 5 permits pending. Other land use partners include: East Bay Regional Parks - 8 Stations built and 2 sites permitted, Bureau of Land Management - 5 Stations built, 3 permits pending, Water Municipalities - 4 Stations built, 3 sites permitted and 4 permits pending, and Airports - 4 Stations built and 3 permits pending. Highlights from last year: On September 28, 2004 a Mw 6.0 earthquake occurred on the San Andreas Fault seven miles southeast of the town of Parkfield, CA. Field crews from the Northern and Southern California offices of PBO began the site reconnaissance and permitting process the day after the earthquake and installation of the first Station was begun within 36 hours and completed the following day. In total, 5 Stations were installed by the first week of November. On June 14, 2045 a Mw 7.1 earthquake occurred on the Gorda Plate, approximately 100 miles NW of Eureka. PBO stations, P158, P162, P169 and P170, recorded coseismic deformation associated with this event. We plan to have 127 stations built by the end

  10. A paleomagnetic investigation of vertical-axis rotations in coastal Sonora, Mexico: Evidence for distributed transtensional deformation during the Proto-Gulf shift from a subduction-dominated to transform-dominated plate boundary in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Scott William

    The history of late Miocene (Proto-Gulf) deformation on the Sonoran margin of the Gulf of California is key to understanding how Baja California was captured by the Pacific plate and how strain was partitioned during the Proto-Gulf period (12.5-6 Ma). The Sierra el Aguaje and Sierra Tinajas del Carmen are located in southwestern coastal Sonora, Mexico, and represent the eastern rifted margin of the central Gulf of California. The ranges are composed of volcanic units and their corresponding volcaniclastic units which are the result of persistent magmatic activity between 20 and 8.8 Ma, including three packages of basalt and andesite that make excellent paleomagnetic recorders. Based on cross cutting relations and geochronologic data for pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic volcanic units, most of the faulting and tilting in the Sierra El Aguaje is bracketed between 11.9 and 9.0 Ma, thus falling entirely within Proto-Gulf time. A paleomagnetic investigation into possible vertical axis rotations in the Sierra el Aguaje has uncovered evidence of clockwise rotations between ~13º and ~105º with possible translations. These results are consistent with existing field relations, which suggest the presence of large (>45°) vertical axis rotations in this region. This evidence includes: a) abrupt changes in the strike of tilted strata in different parts of the range, including large domains characterized by E-W strikes b) ubiquitous NE-SW striking faults with left lateral-normal oblique slip, that terminate against major NW-trending right lateral faults, and c) obliquity between the general strike of tilted strata and the strike of faults. These rotations occurred after 12 Ma and largely prior to 9 Ma, thus falling into the Proto-Gulf period. Such large-scale rotations lend credence to the theory that the area inboard of Baja California was experiencing transtension during the Proto-Gulf period, rather than the pure extension that would be the result of strain partitioning

  11. Simulation of net infiltration and potential recharge using a distributed-parameter watershed model of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the development and application of the distributed-parameter watershed model, INFILv3, for estimating the temporal and spatial distribution of net infiltration and potential recharge in the Death Valley region, Nevada and California. The estimates of net infiltration quantify the downward drainage of water across the lower boundary of the root zone and are used to indicate potential recharge under variable climate conditions and drainage basin characteristics. Spatial variability in recharge in the Death Valley region likely is high owing to large differences in precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, bedrock permeability, soil thickness, vegetation characteristics, and contributions to recharge along active stream channels. The quantity and spatial distribution of recharge representing the effects of variable climatic conditions and drainage basin characteristics on recharge are needed to reduce uncertainty in modeling ground-water flow. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, developed a regional saturated-zone ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system to help evaluate the current hydrogeologic system and the potential effects of natural or human-induced changes. Although previous estimates of recharge have been made for most areas of the Death Valley region, including the area defined by the boundary of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, the uncertainty of these estimates is high, and the spatial and temporal variability of the recharge in these basins has not been quantified. To estimate the magnitude and distribution of potential recharge in response to variable climate and spatially varying drainage basin characteristics, the INFILv3 model uses a daily water-balance model of the root zone with a primarily deterministic representation of the processes controlling net infiltration and potential recharge. The daily water balance includes precipitation

  12. Mercury Bioaccumulation in Fish in a Region Affected by Historic Gold Morning: The South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River Watersheds, California, 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    May, Jason T; Hothem, Roger L; Alpers, Charles N; Law, Matthew A

    2000-01-01

    ... Francisco Bay of northern California. Methylmercury is of particular concern because it is the most prevalent form of mercury in fish and is a potent neurotoxin that bioaccumulates at successive trophic levels within food webs...

  13. Mercury methylation, export and bioaccumulation in rice agriculture - model results from comparative and experimental studies in 3 regions of the California Delta, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.; Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Seasonally flooded wetland ecosystems are often poised for mercury (Hg) methylation, thus becoming sources of methylmercury (MeHg) to in situ and downstream biota. The seasonal flooding associated with cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) also generates MeHg, which may be stored in sediment or plants, bioaccumulated into fauna, degraded or exported, depending on hydrologic and seasonal conditions. While many U.S. waters are regulated for total Hg concentrations based on fish targets, California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) will soon implement the first MeHg total maximum daily load (TMDL) control program. Since 2007, a conceptual model (DRERIP-MCM) and several ecosystem-level studies have been advanced to better understand the mechanisms behind Hg methylation, export and bioaccumulation within Delta wetlands, including rice agriculture. Three Delta rice-growing regions (Yolo Bypass, Cosumnes River, Central Delta) of varied soil characteristics, mining influences and hydrology, were monitored over full crop years to evaluate annual MeHg dynamics. In addition to fish tissue Hg accumulation, a broad suite of biogeochemical and hydrologic indices were assessed and compared between wetland types, seasons, and regions. In general, Delta rice fields were found to export MeHg during the post-harvest winter season, and promote MeHg uptake in fish and rice grain during the summer growing season. As described in a companion presentation (Eagles-Smith et al., this session), the experimental Cosumnes River study suggests that rice-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fuels MeHg production and uptake into aquatic foodwebs. Explicit DRERIP-MCM linkages for the role of rice-DOC in MeHg production, export and bioaccumulation were verified across two summers (2011, 2012): rice biomass and root productivity influenced porewater DOC availability and microbial processes, which drove sediment MeHg production and flux to surface water, promoting MeHg bioaccumulation in fish

  14. Water-use efficiency and relative growth rate mediate competitive interactions in Sonoran Desert winter annual plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Kimball, Sarah; Keck, Katie R; Huxman, Travis E; Angert, Amy L; Venable, D Lawrence

    2013-10-01

    A functional approach to investigating competitive interactions can provide a mechanistic understanding of processes driving population dynamics, community assembly, and the maintenance of biodiversity. In Sonoran Desert annual plants, a trade-off between relative growth rate (RGR) and water-use efficiency (WUE) contributes to species differences in population dynamics that promote long-term coexistence. Traits underlying this trade-off explain variation in demographic responses to precipitation as well as life history and phenological patterns. Here, we ask how these traits mediate competitive interactions. • We conducted competition trials for three species occupying different positions along the RGR-WUE trade-off axis and compared the effects of competition at high and low soil moisture. We compared competitive effect (ability to suppress neighbors) and competitive response (ability to withstand competition from neighbors) among species. • The RGR-WUE trade-off predicted shifts in competitive responses at different soil moistures. The high-RGR species was more resistant to competition in high water conditions, while the opposite was true for the high-WUE species. The intermediate RGR species tended to have the strongest impact on all neighbors, so competitive effects did not scale directly with differences in RGR and WUE among competitors. • Our results reveal mechanisms underlying long-term variation in fitness: high-RGR species perform better in years with large, frequent rain events and can better withstand competition under wetter conditions. The opposite is true for high-WUE species. Such resource-dependent responses strongly influence community dynamics and can promote coexistence in variable environments.

  15. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste-characterization of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Death Valley region, Nevada and California, in the Basin and Range province, is an area of about 80,200 sq km located in southern Nevada and southeastern California. Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive basement rocks are overlain by a thick section of Paleozoic clastic and evaporitic sedimentary rocks. Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks include extrusive and intrusive rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks. Structural features within the Death Valley indicate a long and complex tectonic evolution from late Precambrian to the present. Potential repository host media in the region include granite and other coarse-grained plutonic rocks, ashflow tuff, basaltic and andesitic lava flows, and basin fill. The Death Valley region is composed largely of closed topographic basins that are apparently coincident with closed groundwater flow systems. In these systems, recharge occurs sparingly at higher altitudes by infiltration of precipitation or by infiltration of ephemeral runoff. Discharge occurs largely by spring flow and by evaporation and transpiration in the playas. Death Valley proper, for which the region was named, is the ultimate discharge area for a large, complex system of groundwater aquifers that occupy the northeastern part of the region. The deepest part of the system consists of carbonate aquifers that connect closed topographic basins at depth. The discharge from the system occurs in several intermediate areas that are geomorphically, stratigraphically, and structurally controlled. Ultimately, most groundwater flow terminates by discharge to Death Valley; groundwater is discharged to the Colorado River from a small part of the region

  16. Ca Biodiversity Council Bioregions (INACC Regions)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  17. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) file of topographic elevations for the Death Valley region of southern Nevada and southeastern California processed from US Geological Survey 1-degree Digital Elevation Model data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.K.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevation data have been compiled into a digital data base for an ∼100,000-km 2 area of the southern Great Basin, the Death Valley region of southern Nevada, and SE Calif., located between lat 35 degree N, long 115 degree W, and lat 38 degree N, long 118 degree W. This region includes the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and adjacent parts of southern Nevada and eastern California and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water system. Because digital maps are often useful for applications other than that for which they were originally intended, and because the area corresponds to a region under continuing investigation by several groups, these digital files are being released by USGS

  18. Final report for SERDP project RC-1648: new tools for estimating and managing local/regional air quality impacts of prescribed burns. University of California - Riverside

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Miller; D. Weise; S. Mahalingam; M. Princevac; R. Yokelson; W. Hao; D. Cocker; H. Jung; G. Tonnesen; S. Urbanski; I. Burling; S. Hosseini; S. Akagi

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions were measured for a variety of chaparral and Madrean oak woodland fuel types in a series of laboratory and field experiments in California and Arizona. Emissions were measured using state of the art ground-based and aircraft-based sampling systems. Emission factors were determined for many new chemical species for the fuels....

  19. Ecoregions of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Smith, David W.; Cook, Terry D.; Tallyn, Ed; Moseley, Kendra; Johnson, Colleen B.

    2016-02-23

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance (Bryce and others, 1999). These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across Federal agencies, State agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources in the same geographical areas (Omernik and others, 2000).The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions are hierarchical and can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity (Wiken, 1986; Omernik, 1987, 1995). These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997, map revised 2006). At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2013). Level IV, depicted here for California, is a further refinement of level III ecoregions. Explanations of the methods used to define these ecoregions are given in Omernik (1995), Omernik and others

  20. Urban birds in the Sonoran Desert: estimating population density from point counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Johnston López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted bird surveys in Hermosillo, Sonora using distance sampling to characterize detection functions at point-transects for native and non-native urban birds in a desert environment. From March to August 2013 we sampled 240 plots in the city and its surroundings; each plot was visited three times. Our purpose was to provide information for a rapid assessment of bird density in this region by using point counts. We identified 72 species, including six non-native species. Sixteen species had sufficient detections to accurately estimate the parameters of the detection functions. To illustrate the estimation of density from bird count data using our inferred detection functions, we estimated the density of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto under two different levels of urbanization: highly urbanized (90-100% of urban impact and moderately urbanized zones (39-50% of urban impact. Density of S. decaocto in the highly-urbanized and moderately-urbanized zones was 3.97±0.52 and 2.92±0.52 individuals/ha, respectively. By using our detection functions, avian ecologists can efficiently relocate time and effort that is regularly used for the estimation of detection distances, to increase the number of sites surveyed and to collect other relevant ecological information.

  1. Development of a source oriented version of the WRF/Chem model and its application to the California regional PM10 / PM2.5 air quality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A source-oriented version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (SOWC, hereinafter was developed. SOWC separately tracks primary particles with different hygroscopic properties rather than instantaneously combining them into an internal mixture. This approach avoids artificially mixing light absorbing black + brown carbon particles with materials such as sulfate that would encourage the formation of additional coatings. Source-oriented particles undergo coagulation and gas-particle conversion, but these processes are considered in a dynamic framework that realistically "ages" primary particles over hours and days in the atmosphere. SOWC more realistically predicts radiative feedbacks from anthropogenic aerosols compared to models that make internal mixing or other artificial mixing assumptions. A three-week stagnation episode (15 December 2000 to 6 January 2001 in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV during the California Regional PM10 / PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS was chosen for the initial application of the new modeling system. Primary particles emitted from diesel engines, wood smoke, high-sulfur fuel combustion, food cooking, and other anthropogenic sources were tracked separately throughout the simulation as they aged in the atmosphere. Differences were identified between predictions from the source oriented vs. the internally mixed representation of particles with meteorological feedbacks in WRF/Chem for a number of meteorological parameters: aerosol extinction coefficients, downward shortwave flux, planetary boundary layer depth, and primary and secondary particulate matter concentrations. Comparisons with observations show that SOWC predicts particle scattering coefficients more accurately than the internally mixed model. Downward shortwave radiation predicted by SOWC is enhanced by ~1% at ground level chiefly because diesel engine particles in the source-oriented mixture are not artificially coated with material that

  2. Application of GIS and Visualization Technology in the Regional-Scale Ground-Water Modeling of the Twentynine Palms and San Jose Areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.

    2003-12-01

    Application of GIS and visualization technology significantly contributes to the efficiency and success of developing ground-water models in the Twentynine Palms and San Jose areas, California. Visualizations from GIS and other tools can help to formulate the conceptual model by quickly revealing the basinwide geohydrologic characteristics and changes of a ground-water flow system, and by identifying the most influential components of system dynamics. In addition, 3-D visualizations and animations can help validate the conceptual formulation and the numerical calibration of the model by checking for model-input data errors, revealing cause and effect relationships, and identifying hidden design flaws in model layering and other critical flow components. Two case studies will be presented: The first is a desert basin (near the town of Twentynine Palms) characterized by a fault-controlled ground-water flow system. The second is a coastal basin (Santa Clara Valley including the city of San Jose) characterized by complex, temporally variable flow components ­¦ including artificial recharge through a large system of ponds and stream channels, dynamically changing inter-layer flow from hundreds of multi-aquifer wells, pumping-driven subsidence and recovery, and climatically variable natural recharge. For the Twentynine Palms area, more than 10,000 historical ground-water level and water-quality measurements were retrieved from the USGS databases. The combined use of GIS and visualization tools allowed these data to be swiftly organized and interpreted, and depicted by water-level and water-quality maps with a variety of themes for different uses. Overlaying and cross-correlating these maps with other hydrological, geological, geophysical, and geochemical data not only helped to quickly identify the major geohydrologic characteristics controlling the natural variation of hydraulic head in space, such as faults, basin-bottom altitude, and aquifer stratigraphies, but also

  3. The Non-Regularity of Earthquake Recurrence in California: Lessons From Long Paleoseismic Records in Simple vs Complex Fault Regions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, T. K.

    2010-12-01

    A long paleoseismic record at Hog Lake on the central San Jacinto fault (SJF) in southern California documents evidence for 18 surface ruptures in the past 3.8-4 ka. This yields a long-term recurrence interval of about 210 years, consistent with its slip rate of ~16 mm/yr and field observations of 3-4 m of displacement per event. However, during the past 3800 years, the fault has switched from a quasi-periodic mode of earthquake production, during which the recurrence interval is similar to the long-term average, to clustered behavior with the inter-event periods as short as a few decades. There are also some periods as long as 450 years during which there were no surface ruptures, and these periods are commonly followed by one to several closely-timed ruptures. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the timing of these earthquakes is about 0.6 for the past 4000 years (17 intervals). Similar behavior has been observed on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) south of the Transverse Ranges where clusters of earthquakes have been followed by periods of lower seismic production, and the CV is as high as 0.7 for some portions of the fault. In contrast, the central North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in Turkey, which ruptured in 1944, appears to have produced ruptures with similar displacement at fairly regular intervals for the past 1600 years. With a CV of 0.16 for timing, and close to 0.1 for displacement, the 1944 rupture segment near Gerede appears to have been both periodic and characteristic. The SJF and SAF are part of a broad plate boundary system with multiple parallel strands with significant slip rates. Additional faults lay to the east (Eastern California shear zone) and west (faults of the LA basin and southern California Borderland), which makes the southern SAF system a complex and broad plate boundary zone. In comparison, the 1944 rupture section of the NAF is simple, straight and highly localized, which contrasts with the complex system of parallel faults in southern

  4. Structure of the San Andreas Fault Zone in the Salton Trough Region of Southern California: A Comparison with San Andreas Fault Structure in the Loma Prieta Area of Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuis, G. S.; Catchings, R.; Scheirer, D. S.; Goldman, M.; Zhang, E.; Bauer, K.

    2016-12-01

    The San Andreas fault (SAF) in the northern Salton Trough, or Coachella Valley, in southern California, appears non-vertical and non-planar. In cross section, it consists of a steeply dipping segment (75 deg dip NE) from the surface to 6- to 9-km depth, and a moderately dipping segment below 6- to 9-km depth (50-55 deg dip NE). It also appears to branch upward into a flower-like structure beginning below about 10-km depth. Images of the SAF zone in the Coachella Valley have been obtained from analysis of steep reflections, earthquakes, modeling of potential-field data, and P-wave tomography. Review of seismological and geodetic research on the 1989 M 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, in central California (e.g., U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1550), shows several features of SAF zone structure similar to those seen in the northern Salton Trough. Aftershocks in the Loma Prieta epicentral area form two chief clusters, a tabular zone extending from 18- to 9-km depth and a complex cluster above 5-km depth. The deeper cluster has been interpreted to surround the chief rupture plane, which dips 65-70 deg SW. When double-difference earthquake locations are plotted, the shallower cluster contains tabular subclusters that appear to connect the main rupture with the surface traces of the Sargent and Berrocal faults. In addition, a diffuse cluster may surround a steep to vertical fault connecting the main rupture to the surface trace of the SAF. These interpreted fault connections from the main rupture to surface fault traces appear to define a flower-like structure, not unlike that seen above the moderately dipping segment of the SAF in the Coachella Valley. But importantly, the SAF, interpreted here to include the main rupture plane, appears segmented, as in the Coachella Valley, with a moderately dipping segment below 9-km depth and a steep to vertical segment above that depth. We hope to clarify fault-zone structure in the Loma Prieta area by reanalyzing active

  5. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  6. High water-use efficiency and growth contribute to success of non-native Erodium cicutarium in a Sonoran Desert winter annual community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Sarah; Gremer, Jennifer R; Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Angert, Amy L; Huxman, Travis E; Venable, D Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    The success of non-native, invasive species may be due to release from natural enemies, superior competitive abilities, or both. In the Sonoran Desert, Erodium cicutarium has increased in abundance over the last 30 years. While native species in this flora exhibit a strong among-species trade-off between relative growth rate and water-use efficiency, E. cicutarium seems to have a higher relative growth rate for its water-use efficiency value relative to the pattern across native species. This novel trait combination could provide the non-native species with a competitive advantage in this water-limited environment. To test the hypothesis that E. cicutarium is able to achieve high growth rates due to release from native herbivores, we compared the effects of herbivory on E. cicutarium and its native congener, Erodium texanum. We also compared these two species across a range of environmental conditions, both in a common garden and in two distinct seasons in the field, using growth analysis, isotopic compositions and leaf-level gas exchange. Additionally, we compared the competitive abilities of the two Erodium species in a greenhouse experiment. We found no evidence of herbivory to either species. Physiological measurements in a common environment revealed that E. cicutarium was able to achieve high growth rates while simultaneously controlling leaf-level water loss. Non-native E. cicutarium responded to favourable conditions in the field with greater specific leaf area and leaf area ratio than native E. texanum. The non-native Erodium was a stronger competitor than its native congener in a greenhouse competition experiment. The ability to maintain relatively higher values of water-use efficiency:relative growth rate in comparison to the native flora may be what enables E. cictarium to outcompete native species in both wet and dry years, resulting in an increase in abundance in the highly variable Sonoran Desert.

  7. Accessing northern California earthquake data via Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Neuhauser, Douglas; Bogaert, Barbara; Oppenheimer, David

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) provides easy access to central and northern California digital earthquake data. It is located at the University of California, Berkeley, and is operated jointly with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Menlo Park, Calif., and funded by the University of California and the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. It has been accessible to users in the scientific community through Internet since mid-1992.The data center provides an on-line archive for parametric and waveform data from two regional networks: the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) operated by the USGS and the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) operated by the Seismographic Station at the University of California, Berkeley.

  8. Gravity Data for California and Southern Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity data (88,514 records) were compiled largely from a state-wide regional gravity study program organized by the California Division of Mines and Geology in...

  9. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  10. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  11. Historical Fire Perimeters - Southern California [ds384

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — CDF, USDA Forest Service Region 5, BLM, NPS, Contract Counties and other agencies jointly maintain a comprehensive fire perimeter GIS layer for public and private...

  12. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  13. Modeling The Evolution Of A Regional Aquifer System With The California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, C. F.; Dogrul, E. C.; Kadir, T. N.; Moncrief, M. R.; Shultz, S.; Tonkin, M.; Wendell, D.

    2006-12-01

    The finite element application IWFM has been used to develop an integrated groundwater-surface water model for California's Central Valley, an area of ~50,000 km2, to simulate the evolution of the groundwater flow system and historical groundwater-surface water interactions on a monthly time step from October 1921 to September 2003. The Central Valley's hydrologic system changed significantly during this period. Prior to 1920, most surface water flowed unimpeded from source areas in the mountains surrounding the Central Valley through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to the Pacific Ocean, and groundwater largely flowed from recharge areas on the valley rim to discharge as evapotransipration in extensive marshes along the valley's axis. Rapid agricultural development led to increases in groundwater pumping from ~0.5 km3/yr in the early 1920's to 13-18 km3/yr in the 1940's to 1970's, resulting in strong vertical head gradients, significant head declines throughout the valley, and subsidence of >0.3 m over an area of 13,000 km2. Construction of numerous dams and development of an extensive surface water delivery network after 1950 altered the surface water flow regime and reduced groundwater pumping to the current ~10 km3/yr, increasing net recharge and leading to local head gradient reversals and water level recoveries. A model calibrated to the range of historical flow regimes in the Central Valley will provide robust estimations of stream-groundwater interactions for a range of projected future scenarios. C2VSIM uses the IWFM application to simulate a 3-D finite element groundwater flow process dynamically coupled with 1-D land surface, stream flow, lake and unsaturated zone processes. The groundwater flow system is represented with three layers each having 1393 elements. Land surface processes are simulated using 21 subregions corresponding to California DWR water-supply planning areas. The surface-water network is simulated using 431 stream nodes representing 72

  14. Natural recharge estimation and uncertainty analysis of an adjudicated groundwater basin using a regional-scale flow and subsidence model (Antelope Valley, California, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siade, Adam J.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater has provided 50–90 % of the total water supply in Antelope Valley, California (USA). The associated groundwater-level declines have led the Los Angeles County Superior Court of California to recently rule that the Antelope Valley groundwater basin is in overdraft, i.e., annual pumpage exceeds annual recharge. Natural recharge consists primarily of mountain-front recharge and is an important component of the total groundwater budget in Antelope Valley. Therefore, natural recharge plays a major role in the Court’s decision. The exact quantity and distribution of natural recharge is uncertain, with total estimates from previous studies ranging from 37 to 200 gigaliters per year (GL/year). In order to better understand the uncertainty associated with natural recharge and to provide a tool for groundwater management, a numerical model of groundwater flow and land subsidence was developed. The transient model was calibrated using PEST with water-level and subsidence data; prior information was incorporated through the use of Tikhonov regularization. The calibrated estimate of natural recharge was 36 GL/year, which is appreciably less than the value used by the court (74 GL/year). The effect of parameter uncertainty on the estimation of natural recharge was addressed using the Null-Space Monte Carlo method. A Pareto trade-off method was also used to portray the reasonableness of larger natural recharge rates. The reasonableness of the 74 GL/year value and the effect of uncertain pumpage rates were also evaluated. The uncertainty analyses indicate that the total natural recharge likely ranges between 34.5 and 54.3 GL/year.

  15. Baja California: literatura y frontera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Trujillo Muñoz

    2014-06-01

    Baja California is a region that not only has migration problems and criminal violence because of the war of drugs or is a space of border conflicts in close neighborhood with the United States of America. Baja California is too a geographic space of culture and art, of creative writing and struggle to narrate the things and persons that here live, a plain sight, like their house, like their home, like a center of creation. This text give a cultural context of the border literature in the north of Mexico like a phenomenon in notice because his own merits, books and writers.

  16. Overfishing Drivers and Opportunities for Recovery in Small-Scale Fisheries of the Midriff Islands Region, Gulf of California, Mexico: the Roles of Land and Sea Institutions in Fisheries Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cinti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Institutions play an important role in shaping individual incentives in complex social-ecological systems, by encouraging or discouraging resource overuse. In the Gulf of California, Mexico, there is widespread evidence of declines in small-scale fishery stocks, largely attributed to policy failures. We investigated formal and informal rules-in-use regulating access and resource use by small-scale fishers in the two most important fishing communities of the Midriff Islands region in the Gulf of California, which share several target species and fishing grounds. The Midriff Islands region is a highly productive area where sustainable use of fisheries resources has been elusive. Our study aimed to inform policy by providing information on how management and conservation policies perform in this unique environment. In addition, we contrast attributes of the enabling conditions for sustainability on the commons in an effort to better understand why these communities, albeit showing several contrasting attributes of the above conditions, have not developed sustainable fishing practices. We take a novel, comprehensive institutional approach that includes formal and informal institutions, incorporating links between land (i.e., communal land rights and sea institutions (i.e., fisheries and conservation policies and their effects on stewardship of fishery resources, a theme that is practically unaddressed in the literature. Insufficient government support in provision of secure rights, enforcement and sanctioning, and recognition and incorporation of local arrangements and capacities for management arose as important needs to address in both cases. We highlight the critical role of higher levels of governance, that when disconnected from local practices, realities, and needs, can be a major impediment to achieving sustainability in small-scale fisheries, even in cases where several facilitating conditions are met.

  17. Addressing Climate Change Adaptation in Regional Transportation Plans in California: A Guide and Online Visualization Tool for Planners to Incorporate Risks of Climate Change Impacts in Policy and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.; Tucker, K.; DeFlorio, J.

    2012-12-01

    The reality of a changing climate means that transportation and planning agencies need to understand the potential effects of changes in storm activity, sea levels, temperature, and precipitation patterns; and develop strategies to ensure the continuing robustness and resilience of transportation infrastructure and services. This is a relatively new challenge for California's regional planning agencies - adding yet one more consideration to an already complex and multifaceted planning process. In that light, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) is developing a strategy framework using a module-based process that planning agencies can undertake to incorporating the risks of climate change impacts into their decision-making and long-range transportation plans. The module-based approach was developed using a best practices survey of existing work nationally, along with a set of structured interviews with metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) and regional transportation planning agencies (RTPAs) within California. Findings led to the development of a process, as well as a package of foundational geospatial layers (i.e. the Statewide Transportation Asset Geodatabase - STAG), primarily comprising state and Federal transportation assets. These assets are intersected with a set of geospatial layers for the climate stressors of relevance in the state which are placed in the same reference layers as the STAG; thus providing a full set of GIS layers that can be a starting point for MPOs/RTPAs that want to follow the step-by-step module-based approach in its entirety. The fast-paced changes in science and climate change knowledge requires a flexible platform to display continuously evolving information. To this end, the development of the modules are accompanied by a set of geospatial analysis disseminated using an online web portal. In this way, the information can be relayed to MPO/RTPAs in a easy-to-use fashion that can help them follow the modules

  18. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish in a region affected by historic gold mining; the South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds, California, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Alpers, Charles N.; Law, Matthew A.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury that was used historically for gold recovery in mining areas of the Sierra Nevada continues to enter local and downstream water bodies, including the Sacramento Delta and the San Francisco Bay of northern California. Methylmercury is of particular concern because it is the most prevalent form of mercury in fish and is a potent neurotoxin that bioaccumulates at successive trophic levels within food webs. In April 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several other agencies the Forest Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture), the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California State Water Resources Control Board, and the Nevada County Resource Conservation District began a pilot investigation to characterize the occurrence and distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota in the South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds of California. Biological samples consisted of semi-aquatic and aquatic insects, amphibians, bird eggs, and fish. Fish were collected from 5 reservoirs and 14 stream sites during August through October 1999 to assess the distribution of mercury in these watersheds. Fish that were collected from reservoirs included top trophic level predators (black basses, Micropterus spp.) intermediate trophic level predators [sunfish (blue gill, Lepomis macrochirus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; and black crappie, Poxomis nigromaculatus)] and benthic omnivores (channel catfish, Ictularus punctatus). At stream sites, the species collected were upper trophic level salmonids (brown trout, Salmo trutta) and upper-to-intermediate trophic level salmonids (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Boneless and skinless fillet portions from 161 fish were analyzed for total mercury; 131 samples were individual fish, and the remaining 30 fish were combined into 10 composite samples of three fish each of the same species and size class. Mercury concentrations in samples of black basses

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): North Hollywood/Burbank Well Field Area 1, San Fernando Valley Site, California (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-24

    The North Hollywood - Burbank Well Field (NHBWF) is located within the San Fernando Valley Ground Water basin, which can provide drinking water for approximately 500,000 people residing in the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles. In 1980 TCE and PCE were discovered in 25% of DWP's wells. In July 1981, DWP and the Southern California Association of Governments began a two-year study funded by EPA. The study revealed the occurrence of ground-water contamination plume patterns that are spreading toward the southeast. The primary contaminant of concern to the ground-water is TCE with PCE and other VOCs present. The selected remedial action for the site is ground-water pump and treatment using aeration and granular-activated-carbon - air-filtering units, with discharge to the DWP Pumping Station for chlorination and distribution. Spent carbon will be removed and replaced with fresh carbon, with the spent carbon scheduled either for disposal or regeneration. The estimated capital cost for this remedial action is $2,192,895 with present worth OandM of $2,284,105.

  20. Captura de atún aleta azul en Baja California, México: ¿pesquería regional o maquiladora marina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El atún aleta azul, capturado por la flota mexicana en las costas de la península de Baja California, se destinaba al enlatado local, para ofrecer a los consumidores nacionales un producto barato y con valor nutritivo alto. Sin embargo, esto cambió en la última década con la llegada de inversionistas, sobre todo japoneses. Ahora el atún se captura, engorda y exporta a los mercados japonés y estadounidense, que pagan un precio elevado, para satisfacer su demanda de sashimi. Esto tiene repercusiones positivas en el orden social y económico en México y Japón; determinadas a partir del trabajo de campo directo e indirecto realizado en el marco de esta investigación. Además, se identificaron algunas similitudes entre el comportamiento de las empresas estudiadas y la industria maquiladora de exportación, lo que abrió un debate sobre el tema.

  1. Componentes de cambio y economía regional: El sector manufacturero en el estado de Baja California y en el municipio de Mexicali (1985-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Dolores Sánchez Soler

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó con dos propósitos: el primero es comparar los cambios manifestados en la estructura del empleo manufacturero durante el período de 1985-1988, en el municipio de Mexicali, en relación con el estado de Baja California y el país en su conjunto; para ello se hace uso de la técnica de cambio y participación (shift & share utilizando la información de los censos económicos: El segundo, relacionado con el anterior, se refiere a la aplicación de las tres versiones de dicha técnica a fin de determinar cuál de éstas presenta mayores elementos para la descripción de los cambios observados. El trabajo muestra que la entidad presenta ventajas de localización en las actividades de manufactura de productos metálicos, maquinaria y equipos e instrumentos quirúrgicos y de precisión; mientras que en Mexicali se registran ventajas para las actividades de papel y productos de papel y productos minerales no metálicos, aun cuando no se reporta especialización.Finalmente, se concluye que el modelo síntesis, presentado por Bishop y Simpson, es el que aporta mayores elementos para la descripción.

  2. Using a Regional Cluster of AmeriFlux Sites in Central California to Advance Our Knowledge on Decadal-Scale Ecosystem-Atmosphere Carbon Dioxide Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldocchi, Dennis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-03-24

    Continuous eddy convariance measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat were measured continuously between an oak savanna and an annual grassland in California over a 4 year period. These systems serve as representative sites for biomes in Mediterranean climates and experience much seasonal and inter-annual variability in temperature and precipitation. These sites hence serve as natural laboratories for how whole ecosystem will respond to warmer and drier conditions. The savanna proved to be a moderate sink of carbon, taking up about 150 gC m-2y-1 compared to the annual grassland, which tended to be carbon neutral and often a source during drier years. But this carbon sink by the savanna came at a cost. This ecosystem used about 100 mm more water per year than the grassland. And because the savanna was darker and rougher its air temperature was about 0.5 C warmer. In addition to our flux measurements, we collected vast amounts of ancillary data to interpret the site and fluxes, making this site a key site for model validation and parameterization. Datasets consist of terrestrial and airborne lidar for determining canopy structure, ground penetrating radar data on root distribution, phenology cameras monitoring leaf area index and its seasonality, predawn water potential, soil moisture, stem diameter and physiological capacity of photosynthesis.

  3. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  4. The Evergreen basin and the role of the Silver Creek fault in the San Andreas fault system, San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachens, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Graymer, Russell W.; Williams, Robert; Ponce, David A.; Mankinen, Edward A.; Stephenson, William J.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The Evergreen basin is a 40-km-long, 8-km-wide Cenozoic sedimentary basin that lies mostly concealed beneath the northeastern margin of the Santa Clara Valley near the south end of San Francisco Bay (California, USA). The basin is bounded on the northeast by the strike-slip Hayward fault and an approximately parallel subsurface fault that is structurally overlain by a set of west-verging reverse-oblique faults which form the present-day southeastward extension of the Hayward fault. It is bounded on the southwest by the Silver Creek fault, a largely dormant or abandoned fault that splays from the active southern Calaveras fault. We propose that the Evergreen basin formed as a strike-slip pull-apart basin in the right step from the Silver Creek fault to the Hayward fault during a time when the Silver Creek fault served as a segment of the main route by which slip was transferred from the central California San Andreas fault to the Hayward and other East Bay faults. The dimensions and shape of the Evergreen basin, together with palinspastic reconstructions of geologic and geophysical features surrounding it, suggest that during its lifetime, the Silver Creek fault transferred a significant portion of the ∼100 km of total offset accommodated by the Hayward fault, and of the 175 km of total San Andreas system offset thought to have been accommodated by the entire East Bay fault system. As shown previously, at ca. 1.5–2.5 Ma the Hayward-Calaveras connection changed from a right-step, releasing regime to a left-step, restraining regime, with the consequent effective abandonment of the Silver Creek fault. This reorganization was, perhaps, preceded by development of the previously proposed basin-bisecting Mount Misery fault, a fault that directly linked the southern end of the Hayward fault with the southern Calaveras fault during extinction of pull-apart activity. Historic seismicity indicates that slip below a depth of 5 km is mostly transferred from the Calaveras

  5. Mineral parageneses, regional architecture, and tectonic evolution of Franciscan metagraywackes, Cape Mendocino-Garberville-Covelo 30' x 60' quadrangles, northwest California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Franciscan Complex is a classic subduction-zone assemblage. In northwest California, it comprises a stack of west vergent thrust sheets: westernmost Eastern Belt outliers; Central Belt mélange; Coastal Belt Yager terrane; Coastal Belt Coastal terrane; Coastal Belt King Range/False Cape terranes. We collected samples and determined P-T conditions of recrystallization for 88 medium-fine-grained metasandstones to assess their subduction-exhumation histories and assembly of the host allochthons. Feebly recrystallized Yager, Coastal, and King Range strata retain clear detrital features. Scattered neoblastic prehnite occurs in several Coastal terrane metasandstones; traces of possible pumpellyite are present in three Yager metaclastic rocks. Pumpellyite ± lawsonite ± aragonite-bearing Central Belt metasandstones are moderately deformed and reconstituted. Intensely contorted, thoroughly recrystallized Eastern Belt affinity quartzose metagraywackes contain lawsonite + jadeitic pyroxene ± aragonite ± glaucophane. We microprobed neoblastic phases in 23 rocks, documenting mineral parageneses that constrain the tectonic accretion and metamorphic P-T evolution of these sheets. Quasi-stable mineral assemblages typify Eastern Belt metasandstones, but mm-sized domains in the Central and Coastal belt rocks failed to achieve chemical equilibrium. Eastern Belt slabs rose from subduction depths approaching 25–30 km, whereas structurally lower Central Belt mélanges returned from ∼15–18 km. Coastal Belt assemblages suggest burial depths less than 5–8 km. Eastern and Central belt allochthons sequentially decoupled from the downgoing oceanic lithosphere and ascended into the accretionary margin; K-feldspar-rich Coastal Belt rocks were stranded along the continental edge without undergoing appreciable subduction, probably during Paleogene unroofing of the older, deeply subducted units of the Franciscan Complex in east-vergent crustal wedges.

  6. Biomass resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangco, V.M.; Sethi, P.S. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The biomass resources in California which have potential for energy conversion were assessed and characterized through the project funded by the California Energy Commission and the US Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP). The results indicate that there is an abundance of biomass resources as yet untouched by the industry due to technical, economic, and environmental problems, and other barriers. These biomass resources include residues from field and seed crops, fruit and nut crops, vegetable crops, and nursery crops; food processing wastes; forest slash; energy crops; lumber mill waste; urban wood waste; urban yard waste; livestock manure; and chaparral. The estimated total potential of these biomass resource is approximately 47 million bone dry tons (BDT), which is equivalent to 780 billion MJ (740 trillion Btu). About 7 million BDT (132 billion MJ or 124 trillion Btu) of biomass residue was used for generating electricity by 66 direct combustion facilities with gross capacity of about 800 MW. This tonnage accounts for only about 15% of the total biomass resource potential identified in this study. The barriers interfering with the biomass utilization both in the on-site harvesting, collection, storage, handling, transportation, and conversion to energy are identified. The question whether these barriers present significant impact to biomass {open_quotes}availability{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} remains to be answered.

  7. biofuel development in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaprasad Bandaru

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are expected to play a major role in meeting California's long-term energy needs, but many factors influence the commercial viability of the various feedstock and production technology options. We developed a spatially explicit analytic framework that integrates models of plant growth, crop adoption, feedstock location, transportation logistics, economic impact, biorefinery costs and biorefinery energy use and emissions. We used this framework to assess the economic potential of hybrid poplar as a feedstock for jet fuel production in Northern California. Results suggest that the region has sufficient suitable croplands (2.3 million acres and nonarable lands (1.5 million acres for poplar cultivation to produce as much as 2.26 billion gallons of jet fuel annually. However, there are major obstacles to such large-scale production, including, on nonarable lands, low poplar yields and broad spatial distribution and, on croplands, competition with existing crops. We estimated the production cost of jet fuel to be $4.40 to $5.40 per gallon for poplar biomass grown on nonarable lands and $3.60 to $4.50 per gallon for biomass grown on irrigated cropland; the current market price is $2.12 per gallon. Improved poplar yields, use of supplementary feedstocks at the biorefinery and economic supports such as carbon credits could help to overcome these barriers.

  8. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  9. Teale California shoreline

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  10. Vallejo, California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the innovative city region of the San Francisco Bay Area. However, it does not focus on its prosperous places, but instead analyses one of its social, economic and geographical fringes: the city of Vallejo. The municipality received the infamous distinction of being...... the largest city in the USA to have been officially bankrupt, from May 2008 to November 2011. Findings are based on an historical-economic-geographic study and dozens of interviews. It is argued that Vallejo, and more importantly the San Francisco city region, requires a deep process of socioeconomic...

  11. California Workforce: California Faces a Skills Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2011

    2011-01-01

    California's education system is not keeping up with the changing demands of the state's economy--soon, California will face a shortage of skilled workers. Projections to 2025 suggest that the economy will continue to need more and more highly educated workers, but that the state will not be able to meet that demand. If current trends persist,…

  12. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    addition, several Federal candidate species, the California Hibiscus , California tiger salamander, Sacramento Anthicid Beetle, Sacramento Valley tiger...Board, California Waste Management Board, and Department of Health Services contribute to this list. The Yolo County Health Services Agency maintains and...operation and maintenance of the completed recreational facility. Recreation development is limited to project lands unless health and safety

  13. Western Regional Conference on Testing Problems (7th, Los Angeles, California, March 14, 1958). Testing for the Discovery and Development of Human Talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, Los Angeles, CA.

    At the seventh Western Regional Conference on Testing Problems, the following speeches were given: (1) "A Guidance Person's Approach to Testing for the Discovery and Development of Human Talent" by Frances D. McGill; (2) "The Instructional Uses of Measurement in the Discovery and Development of Human Talent" by Roy P. Wahle; (3) "New Frontiers of…

  14. Facies Analysis of Tertiary Basin-Filling Rocks of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water System and Surrounding Areas, Nevada and California; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J.; Taylor, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Existing hydrologic models of the Death Valley region typically have defined the Cenozoic basins as those areas that are covered by recent surficial deposits, and have treated the basin-fill deposits that are concealed under alluvium as a single unit with uniform hydrologic properties throughout the region, and with depth. Although this latter generalization was known to be flawed, it evidently was made because available geologic syntheses did not provide the basis for a more detailed characterization. As an initial attempt to address this problem, this report presents a compilation and synthesis of existing and new surface and subsurface data on the lithologic variations between and within the Cenozoic basin fills of this region. The most permeable lithologies in the Cenozoic basin fills are freshwater limestones, unaltered densely welded tuffs, and little-consolidated coarse alluvium. The least permeable lithologies are playa claystones, altered nonwelded tuffs, and tuffaceous and cl ay-matrix sediments of several types. In all but the youngest of the basin fills, permeability probably decreases strongly with depth owing to a typically increasing abundance of volcanic ash or clay in the matrices of the clastic sediments with increasing age (and therefore with increasing depth in general), and to increasing consolidation and alteration (both hydrothermal and diagenetic) with increasing depth and age. This report concludes with a categorization of the Cenozoic basins of the Death Valley region according to the predominant lithologies in the different basin fills and presents qualitative constraints on the hydrologic properties of these major lithologic categories

  15. Fumigation success for California facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Robert

    2010-02-01

    As Robert Hacker, at the time director of facilities management at the St John's Regional Medical Center in Oxnard, California, explains, the hospital, one of the area's largest, recently successfully utilised a new technology to eliminate mould, selecting a cost and time-saving fumigation process in place of the traditional "rip and tear" method. Although hospital managers knew the technology had been used extremely effectively in other US buildings, this was reportedly among the first ever healthcare applications.

  16. Eruption probabilities for the Lassen Volcanic Center and regional volcanism, northern California, and probabilities for large explosive eruptions in the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel; Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Chronologies for eruptive activity of the Lassen Volcanic Center and for eruptions from the regional mafic vents in the surrounding area of the Lassen segment of the Cascade Range are here used to estimate probabilities of future eruptions. For the regional mafic volcanism, the ages of many vents are known only within broad ranges, and two models are developed that should bracket the actual eruptive ages. These chronologies are used with exponential, Weibull, and mixed-exponential probability distributions to match the data for time intervals between eruptions. For the Lassen Volcanic Center, the probability of an eruption in the next year is 1.4x10-4 for the exponential distribution and 2.3x10-4 for the mixed exponential distribution. For the regional mafic vents, the exponential distribution gives a probability of an eruption in the next year of 6.5x10-4, but the mixed exponential distribution indicates that the current probability, 12,000 years after the last event, could be significantly lower. For the exponential distribution, the highest probability is for an eruption from a regional mafic vent. Data on areas and volumes of lava flows and domes of the Lassen Volcanic Center and of eruptions from the regional mafic vents provide constraints on the probable sizes of future eruptions. Probabilities of lava-flow coverage are similar for the Lassen Volcanic Center and for regional mafic vents, whereas the probable eruptive volumes for the mafic vents are generally smaller. Data have been compiled for large explosive eruptions (>≈ 5 km3 in deposit volume) in the Cascade Range during the past 1.2 m.y. in order to estimate probabilities of eruption. For erupted volumes >≈5 km3, the rate of occurrence since 13.6 ka is much higher than for the entire period, and we use these data to calculate the annual probability of a large eruption at 4.6x10-4. For erupted volumes ≥10 km3, the rate of occurrence has been reasonably constant from 630 ka to the present, giving

  17. Regional and temporal variability of melts during a Cordilleran magma pulse: Age and chemical evolution of the jurassic arc, eastern mojave desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Miller, David; Howard, Keith A.; Fox, Lydia; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Jacobson, C.E.

    2017-01-01

    Intrusive rock sequences in the central and eastern Mojave Desert segment of the Jurassic Cordilleran arc of the western United States record regional and temporal variations in magmas generated during the second prominent pulse of Mesozoic continental arc magmatism. U/Pb zircon ages provide temporal control for describing variations in rock and zircon geochemistry that reflect differences in magma source components. These source signatures are discernible through mixing and fractionation processes associated with magma ascent and emplacement. The oldest well-dated Jurassic rocks defining initiation of the Jurassic pulse are a 183 Ma monzodiorite and a 181 Ma ignimbrite. Early to Middle Jurassic intrusive rocks comprising the main stage of magmatism include two high-K calc-alkalic groups: to the north, the deformed 183–172 Ma Fort Irwin sequence and contemporaneous rocks in the Granite and Clipper Mountains, and to the south, the 167–164 Ma Bullion sequence. A Late Jurassic suite of shoshonitic, alkali-calcic intrusive rocks, the Bristol Mountains sequence, ranges in age from 164 to 161 Ma and was emplaced as the pulse began to wane. Whole-rock and zircon trace-element geochemistry defines a compositionally coherent Jurassic arc with regional and secular variations in melt compositions. The arc evolved through the magma pulse by progressively greater input of old cratonic crust and lithospheric mantle into the arc magma system, synchronous with progressive regional crustal thickening.

  18. Tectonic Setting of the Gravity Fault and Implications for Ground-Water Resources in the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Faunt, C. C.; Jansen, J. R.; McPhee, D. K.; Morin, R. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Amargosa trough, extending south from Crater Flat basin to the California-Nevada state line, is believed to be a transtensional basin accommodated in part by strike-slip displacement on the northwest-striking State Line fault and normal displacement on the north-striking Gravity fault. The Gravity fault, lying along the eastern margin of the Amargosa trough, was first recognized in the 1970s on the basis of correlations between gravity anomalies and a prominent spring line in Amargosa Valley. The Gravity fault causes an inflection in water-table levels, similar to other (but not all) normal faults in the area. Pools along the spring line, some of which lie within Death Valley National Park and Ash Meadows Wildlife Refuge, include endemic species potentially threatened by increasing agricultural activities in Amargosa Valley immediately to the west, where water tables are declining. Most of the springs and pools lie east of the Gravity fault, however, and it is important to understand the role that the Gravity fault plays in controlling ground-water flow. We have conducted a variety of geophysical investigations at various scales to better understand the tectonic framework of the Amargosa Desert and support new ground-water-flow models. Much of our focus has been on the tectonic interplay of the State Line, Gravity, and other faults in the area using gravity, ground-magnetic, audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), and time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) surveys. With 1250 new gravity measurements from Ash Meadows and Stewart Valley, we have developed a revised three-dimensional crustal model of the Amargosa trough constrained by well information and geologic mapping. The model predicts approximately 2 km of vertical offset on the Gravity fault but also suggests a complex structural framework. The fault is conventionally seen as a simple, down-to-the-west normal fault juxtaposing permeable pre-Tertiary carbonate rocks to the east against less permeable Tertiary sediments to

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the importance of existing hydraulic-head observation locations to advective-transport predictions, Death Valley regional flow system, California and Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.C.; Ely, D.M.; Tiedeman, C.R.; O'Brien, G.M.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    When a model is calibrated by nonlinear regression, calculated diagnostic statistics and measures of uncertainty provide a wealth of information about many aspects of the system. This report presents a method of ranking the likely importance of existing observation locations using measures of prediction uncertainty. It is suggested that continued monitoring is warranted at more important locations, and unwarranted or less warranted at less important locations. The report develops the methodology and then demonstrates it using the hydraulic-head observation locations of a three-layer model of the Death Valley regional flow system (DVRFS). The predictions of interest are subsurface transport from beneath Yucca Mountain and 14 underground Test Area (UGTA) sites. The advective component of transport is considered because it is the component most affected by the system dynamics represented by the regional-scale model being used. The problem is addressed using the capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey computer program MODFLOW-2000, with its ADVective-Travel Observation (ADV) Package, and an additional computer program developed for this work

  20. Swainson's Hawk Nests - DFG Region 2 [ds696

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — During the spring and summer of 2009, California Department of Fish and Game (DFG), North Central Region (Region 2) staff surveyed a portion of the Sacramento Valley...

  1. Fish larvae in Bahía Sebastián Vizcaíno and the adjacent oceanic region, Baja California, México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez–Rosenberg, S. P. A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic composition of the fish larvae assemblage of Bahía Sebastián Vizcaíno and the adjacentoceanic region is presented based on oblique zooplankton hauls made during 12 oceanographic surveys between fall1997 and fall 2000. In total, 186 taxa representing 71 families were collected. Myctophidae, Phosichthyidae, andEngraulidae were the most abundant during winter and Myctophidae, Merlucciidae, and Bathylagidae during spring. Insummer and fall Phosichthyidae and Myctophidae were the most abundant. During 1999 and 2000, seasonal variabilitywas identified in the area by the fish larvae composition, defining winter and fall as a low diversity period and springand summer as a high diversity period. Interannual variability was detected with an El Niño event, with higher larvalabundances of tropical and subtropical taxa, and a La Niña event, with high abundances of larvae of Engraulis mordax.

  2. Fault structure and kinematics of the Long Valley Caldera region, California, revealed by high-accuracy earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanism stress inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejean, Stephanie; Ellsworth, William L.; Zoback, Mark; Waldhauser, Felix

    2002-01-01

    We have determined high-resolution hypocenters for 45,000+ earthquakes that occurred between 1980 and 2000 in the Long Valley caldera area using a double-difference earthquake location algorithm and routinely determined arrival times. The locations reveal numerous discrete fault planes in the southern caldera and adjacent Sierra Nevada block (SNB). Intracaldera faults include a series of east/west-striking right-lateral strike-slip faults beneath the caldera's south moat and a series of more northerly striking strike-slip/normal faults beneath the caldera's resurgent dome. Seismicity in the SNB south of the caldera is confined to a crustal block bounded on the west by an east-dipping oblique normal fault and on the east by the Hilton Creek fault. Two NE-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults are responsible for most seismicity within this block. To understand better the stresses driving seismicity, we performed stress inversions using focal mechanisms with 50 or more first motions. This analysis reveals that the least principal stress direction systematically rotates across the studied region, from NE to SW in the caldera's south moat to WNW-ESE in Round Valley, 25 km to the SE. Because WNW-ESE extension is characteristic of the western boundary of the Basin and Range province, caldera area stresses appear to be locally perturbed. This stress perturbation does not seem to result from magma chamber inflation but may be related to the significant (???20 km) left step in the locus of extension along the Sierra Nevada/Basin and Range province boundary. This implies that regional-scale tectonic processes are driving seismic deformation in the Long Valley caldera.

  3. Restoration of eroded soil in the Sonoran Desert with native leguminous trees using plant growth-promoting microorganisms and limited amounts of compost and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashan, Yoav; Salazar, Bernardo G; Moreno, Manuel; Lopez, Blanca R; Linderman, Robert G

    2012-07-15

    Restoration of highly eroded desert land was attempted in the southern Sonoran Desert that had lost its natural capacity for self-revegetation. In six field experiments, the fields were planted with three native leguminous trees: mesquite amargo Prosopis articulata, and yellow and blue palo verde Parkinsonia microphylla and Parkinsonia florida. Restoration included inoculation with two of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus pumilus), native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and small quantities of compost. Irrigation was applied, when necessary, to reach a rainy year (300 mm) of the area. The plots were maintained for 61 months. Survival of the trees was marginally affected by all supplements after 30 months, in the range of 60-90%. This variation depended on the plant species, where all young trees were established after 3 months. Plant density was a crucial variable and, in general, low plant density enhanced survival. High planting density was detrimental. Survival significantly declined in trees 61 months after planting. No general response of the trees to plant growth-promoting microorganisms and compost was found. Mesquite amargo and yellow palo verde responded well (height, number of branches, and diameter of the main stem) to inoculation with PGPB, AM fungi, and compost supplementation after three months of application. Fewer positive effects were recorded after 30 months. Blue palo verde did not respond to most treatments and had the lowest survival. Specific plant growth parameters were affected to varying degrees to inoculations or amendments, primarily depending on the tree species. Some combinations of tree/inoculant/amendment resulted in small negative effects or no response when measured after extended periods of time. Using native leguminous trees, this study demonstrated that restoration of severely eroded desert lands was possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring the long term stability of the IRS-P6 AWiFS sensor using the Sonoran and RVPN sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Sampath, Aparajithan; Angal, Amit; Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2010-10-01

    This paper focuses on radiometric and geometric assessment of the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS-P6) Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) sensor using the Sonoran desert and Railroad Valley Playa, Nevada (RVPN) ground sites. Imageto- Image (I2I) accuracy and relative band-to-band (B2B) accuracy were measured. I2I accuracy of the AWiFS imagery was assessed by measuring the imagery against Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) 2000. The AWiFS images were typically registered to within one pixel to the GLS 2000 mosaic images. The B2B process used the same concepts as the I2I, except instead of a reference image and a search image; the individual bands of a multispectral image are tested against each other. The B2B results showed that all the AWiFS multispectral bands are registered to sub-pixel accuracy. Using the limited amount of scenes available over these ground sites, the reflective bands of AWiFS sensor indicate a long-term drift in the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Because of the limited availability of AWiFS scenes over these ground sites, a comprehensive evaluation of the radiometric stability using these sites is not possible. In order to overcome this limitation, a cross-comparison between AWiFS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) was performed using image statistics based on large common areas observed by the sensors within 30 minutes. Regression curves and coefficients of determination for the TOA trends from these sensors were generated to quantify the uncertainty in these relationships and to provide an assessment of the calibration differences between these sensors.

  5. A 30-year chronosequence of burned areas in Arizona: effects of wildfires on vegetation in Sonoran Desert Tortoise (Gopherus morafkai) habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shryock, Daniel F.; Esque, Todd C.; Chen, Felicia C.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is widely regarded as a key evolutionary force in fire-prone ecosystems, with effects spanning multiple levels of organization, from species and functional group composition through landscape-scale vegetation structure, biomass, and diversity (Pausas and others, 2004; Bond and Keeley 2005; Pausas and Verdu, 2008). Ecosystems subjected to novel fire regimes may experience profound changes that are difficult to predict, including persistent losses of vegetation cover and diversity (McLaughlin and Bowers, 1982; Brown and Minnich, 1986; Brooks, 2012), losses to seed banks (Esque and others, 2010a), changes in demographic processes (Esque and others, 2004; DeFalco and others, 2010), increased erosion (Soulard and others, 2013), changes in nutrient availability (Esque and others, 2010b), increased dominance of invasive species (Esque and others, 2002; Brooks and others, 2004), and transitions to alternative community states (Davies and others, 2012). In the deserts of the Southwestern United States, fire size and frequency have increased substantially over the last several decades because of an invasive grass/fire feedback cycle (Schmid and Rogers, 1988; D’Antonio and Vitousek, 1992; Swantek and others, 1999; Brooks and Matchett, 2006; Esque and others, 2010a), in which invasive annual species are able to establish fuel loads capable of sustaining large-scale wildfires following years of high rainfall (Esque and Schwalbe, 2002). Native perennial vegetation is not well-adapted to fire in these environments, and widespread, physiognomically dominant species such as creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia), giant saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea), and paloverde (Parkinsonia spp.) may be reduced or eliminated (Brown and Minnich, 1986; Esque and others, 2006; DeFalco and others, 2010), potentially affecting wildlife populations including the Sonoran and federally threatened Mojave Desert Tortoises (Gopherus morafkai and Gopherus agassizii

  6. Prevalence of Shiga toxin Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes at Public Access Watershed Sites in a California Central Coast Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Cooley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Produce contaminated with enteric pathogens is a major source of foodborne illness in the United States. Lakes, streams, rivers, and ponds were sampled with Moore swabs bi-monthly for over two years at 30 locations in the vicinity of a leafy green growing region on the Central California Coast and screened for Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes to evaluate the prevalence and persistence of pathogen subtypes. The prevalence of STEC from 1,386 samples was 11%; 110 samples (8% contained E. coli O157:H7 with the highest prevalence occurring close to cattle operations. Non-O157 STEC isolates represented major clinical O-types and 57% contained both shiga toxin types 1 and 2 and intimin. Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of STEC isolates indicated prevalent strains during the period of study. Notably, Salmonella was present at high levels throughout the sampling region with 65% prevalence in 1,405 samples resulting in 996 isolates with slightly lower prevalence in late autumn. There were 2, 8 and 14 sites that were Salmonella-positive over 90%, 80% and 70% of the time, respectively. The serotypes identified most often were 6,8:d:-, Typhimurium, and Give. Interestingly, analysis by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis indicated persistence and transport of pulsotypes in the region over several years. In this original study of L. monocytogenes in the region prevalence was 43% of 1,405 samples resulting in 635 individual isolates. Over 85% of the isolates belonged to serotype 4b with serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 3a, 4d with 4e representing the rest, and there were 12 and 2 sites that were positive over 50% and 80% of the time, respectively. Although surface water is not directly used for irrigation in this region, transport to the produce can occur by other means. This environmental survey assesses initial contamination levels towards an understanding of transport leading to produce

  7. Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Colorado River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Colorado River study area is approximately 884 square miles (2,290 square kilometers) and includes the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, Palo Verde Valley, and Yuma groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Colorado River study area has an arid climate and is part of the Sonoran Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 3 inches (8 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 47 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 47% agricultural, and 6% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban area is the city of Blythe (2010 population of 21,000). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposited by the Colorado River or derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Colorado River study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Colorado River basins are completed to depths between 230 and 460 feet (70 to 140 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 of 390 feet (39 to 119 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. The main source of recharge to the groundwater systems in the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, and Palo Verde Valley basins is the Colorado River; in the Yuma basin, the main source of recharge is from

  8. Region 9 Tribal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  9. Factors affecting marsh vegetation at the Liberty Island Conservation Bank in the Cache Slough region of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Drexler, Judith Z.

    2017-07-07

    The Liberty Island Conservation Bank (LICB) is a tidal freshwater marsh restored for the purpose of mitigating adverse effects on sensitive fish populations elsewhere in the region. The LICB was completed in 2012 and is in the northern Cache Slough region of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. The wetland vegetation at the LICB is stunted and yellow-green in color (chlorotic) compared to nearby wetlands. A study was done to investigate three potential causes of the stunted and chlorotic vegetation: (1) improper grading of the marsh plain, (2) pesticide contamination from agricultural and urban inputs upstream from the site, (3) nitrogen-deficient soil, or some combination of these. Water samples were collected from channels at five sites, and soil samples were collected from four wetlands, including the LICB, during the summer of 2015. Real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) elevation surveys were completed at the LICB and north Little Holland Tract, a closely situated natural marsh that has similar hydrodynamics as the LICB, but contains healthy marsh vegetation.The results showed no significant differences in carbon or nitrogen content in the surface soils or in pesticides in water among the sites. The elevation survey indicated that the mean elevation of the LICB was about 26 centimeters higher than that of the north Little Holland Tract marsh. Because marsh plain elevation largely determines the hydroperiod of a marsh, these results indicated that the LICB has a hydroperiod that differs from that of neighboring north Little Holland Tract marsh. This difference in hydroperiod contributed to the lower stature and decreased vigor of wetland vegetation at the LICB. Although the LICB cannot be regraded without great expense, it could be possible to reduce the sharp angle of the marsh edge to facilitate deeper and more frequent tidal flooding along the marsh periphery. Establishing optimal elevations for restored wetlands is necessary for obtaining

  10. Integration of Ground-based Magnetics and Vertical Deformation Measurements for the Characterization of the San Andreas Fault at the Durmid Hill Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, K.; Polet, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Durmid Hill region is located near the termination of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at Bombay Beach. This section of the fault has not experienced any major earthquakes for at least the last three centuries. During a 6 year study, Sylvester et al. (1993) collected vertical deformation measurements at Durmid Hill from monuments they installed along a 2.37 km leveling line normal to the SAF. They concluded that interseismic processes account for most of the growth at Durmid Hill and estimated more than 9 mm of uplift within the leveling line, with uniform tilt at distances greater than 500 m from the fault. Langenheim et al. (2014) created a model based on ground-based magnetic data that they collected in the same area and found a complex magnetic structure with a broad band magnetic anomaly present on the northeast side of SAF and a prominent magnetic high along the main mapped trace of the SAF. A primary objective of our study is to reoccupy the leveling line from Sylvester et al. (1993), across the SAF at Durmid Hill. Additionally, we will utilize subsurface geophysical techniques to enhance our understanding of the fault geometry along the southernmost end of the SAF and its relationship to the aseismic deformation at Durmid Hill. Elevation profiles are measured using Nikon Nivo 5C total stations and magnetic field intensity measurements are made by a GSM-19TGW v7.0 walking magnetometer, with a VLF (Very Low requency) attachment. We will present preliminary results from data sets gathered in March and May of 2017, as well as additional surveys that will be carried out in October and November. The preliminary maps produced from the results of the first magnetic surveys show two significant and distinct magnetic anomalies consistent with earlier studies. Initial monument elevation comparisons could only be made for monuments located at the north-eastern end of the leveling line, at a distance of about 1.5 km behind Bat Cave Buttes. There appear to be sections of

  11. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in

  12. Simulation of Optical Properties and Direct and Indirect Radiative Effects of Smoke Aerosols Over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds During Summer 2008 in California With the Regional Climate Model RegCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Solmon, F.; Roblou, L.; Peers, F.; Turquety, S.; Waquet, F.; Jethva, H.; Torres, O.

    2017-10-01

    The regional climate model RegCM has been modified to better account for the climatic effects of biomass-burning particles. Smoke aerosols are represented by new tracers with consistent radiative and hygroscopic properties to simulate the direct radiative forcing (DRF), and a new parameterization has been integrated for relating the droplet number concentration to the aerosol concentration for marine stratocumulus clouds (Sc). RegCM has been tested during the summer of 2008 over California, when extreme concentration of smoke, together with the presence of Sc, is observed. This work indicates that significant aerosol optical depth (AOD) ( 1-2 at 550 nm) is related to the intense 2008 fires. Compared to Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, the regional pattern of RegCM AOD is well represented although the magnitude is lower than satellite observations. Comparisons with Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER) above-clouds aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) show the ability of RegCM to simulate realistic ACAOD during the transport of smoke above the Pacific Ocean. The simulated single scattering albedo is 0.90 (at 550 nm) near biomass-burning sources, consistent with OMI and POLDER, and smoke leads to shortwave heating rates 1.5-2°K d-1. RegCM is not able to correctly resolve the daily patterns in cloud properties notably due to its coarse horizontal resolutions. However, the changes in the sign of the DRF at top of atmosphere (TOA) (negative to positive) from clear-sky to all-sky conditions is well simulated. Finally, the "aerosol-cloud" parameterization allows simulating an increase of the cloud optical depth for significant concentrations, leading to large perturbations of radiative fluxes at TOA.

  13. California Earthquake Clearinghouse Crisis Information-Sharing Strategy in Support of Situational Awareness, Understanding Interdependencies of Critical Infrastructure, Regional Resilience, Preparedness, Risk Assessment/mitigation, Decision-Making and Everyday Operational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, A.; Morentz, J.; Beilin, P.

    2017-12-01

    The principal function of the California Earthquake Clearinghouse is to provide State and Federal disaster response managers, and the scientific and engineering communities, with prompt information on ground failure, structural damage, and other consequences from significant seismic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. The overarching problem highlighted in discussions with Clearinghouse partners is the confusion and frustration of many of the Operational Area representatives, and some regional utilities throughout the state on what software applications they should be using and maintaining to meet State, Federal, and Local, requirements, and for what purposes, and how to deal with the limitations of these applications. This problem is getting in the way of making meaningful progress on developing multi-application interoperability and the necessary supporting cross-sector information-sharing procedures and dialogue on essential common operational information that entities need to share for different all hazards missions and related operational activities associated with continuity, security, and resilience. The XchangeCore based system the Clearinghouse is evolving helps deal with this problem, and does not compound it by introducing yet another end-user application; there is no end-user interface with which one views XchangeCore, all viewing of data provided through XchangeCore occurs in and on existing, third-party operational applications. The Clearinghouse efforts with XchangeCore are compatible with FEMA, which is currently using XchangeCore-provided data for regional and National Business Emergency Operations Center (source of business information sharing during emergencies) response. Also important, and should be emphasized, is that information-sharing is not just for response, but for preparedness, risk assessment/mitigation decision-making, and everyday operational needs for situational awareness. In other words, the benefits of the Clearinghouse

  14. Rock-colonizing plants: abundance of the endemic cactus Mammillaria fraileana related to rock type in the southern Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca R. Lopez; Yoav Bashan; Macario Bacilio; Gustavo. De la Cruz-Aguero

    2009-01-01

    Establishment, colonization, and permanence of plants affect biogenic and physical processes leading to development of soil. Rockiness, temperature, and humidity are accepted explanations to the influence and the presence of rock-dwelling plants, but the relationship between mineral and chemical composition of rocks with plant abundance is unknown in some regions. This...

  15. Thermal and mass implications of magmatic evolution in the Lassen volcanic region, California, and minimum constraints on basalt influx to the lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Clynne, M.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed the heat and mass demands of a petrologic model of basaltdriven magmatic evolution in which variously fractionated mafic magmas mix with silicic partial melts of the lower crust. We have formulated steady state heat budgets for two volcanically distinct areas in the Lassen region: the large, late Quaternary, intermediate to silicic Lassen volcanic center and the nearby, coeval, less evolved Caribou volcanic field. At Caribou volcanic field, heat provided by cooling and fractional crystallization of 52 km3 of basalt is more than sufficient to produce 10 km3 of rhyolitic melt by partial melting of lower crust. Net heat added by basalt intrusion at Caribou volcanic field is equivalent to an increase in lower crustal heat flow of ???7 mW m-2, indicating that the field is not a major crustal thermal anomaly. Addition of cumulates from fractionation is offset by removal of erupted partial melts. A minimum basalt influx of 0.3 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is needed to supply Caribou volcanic field. Our methodology does not fully account for an influx of basalt that remains in the crust as derivative intrusives. On the basis of comparison to deep heat flow, the input of basalt could be ???3 to 7 times the amount we calculate. At Lassen volcanic center, at least 203 km3 of mantle-derived basalt is needed to produce 141 km3 of partial melt and drive the volcanic system. Partial melting mobilizes lower crustal material, augmenting the magmatic volume available for eruption at Lassen volcanic center; thus the erupted volume of 215 km3 exceeds the calculated basalt input of 203 km3. The minimum basalt input of 1.6 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is >5 times the minimum influx to the Caribou volcanic field. Basalt influx high enough to sustain considerable partial melting, coupled with locally high extension rate, is a crucial factor in development of Lassen volcanic center; in contrast. Caribou volcanic field has failed to develop into a large silicic center primarily because basalt supply

  16. California Institute for Water Resources - California Institute for Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Skip to Content Menu California Institute for Water Resources Share Print Site Map Resources Publications Keep in Touch QUICK LINKS Our Blog: The Confluence Drought & Water Information University of California California Institute for Water Resources California Institute for Water Resources

  17. 75 FR 17027 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Changes in Handling Requirements for Fresh Nectarines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ..., Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing... been implemented to reflect changes in industry operating practices and to solve marketing problems as...

  18. 76 FR 37617 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California; Section 610 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order... with USDA to solve marketing problems. The marketing order continues to be beneficial to producers...

  19. Organic matter in central California radiation fogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herckes, Pierre; Lee, Taehyoung; Trenary, Laurie; Kang, Gongunn; Chang, Hui; Collett, Jeffrey L

    2002-11-15

    Organic matter was studied in radiation fogs in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the California Regional Particulate Air Quality Study (CRPAQS). Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations ranged from 2 to 40 ppm of C. While most organic carbon was found in solution as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 23% on average was not dissolved inside the fog drops. We observe a clear variation of organic matter concentration with droplet size. TOC concentrations in small fog drops (fogwater, consistent with the enrichment of the organic matter in smaller fog drops with lower terminal settling velocities.

  20. The carbon budget of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government's recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by 115 MMTCE per year in fossil fuel emissions of CO 2 (>85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries (7%), livestock-based agriculture (5%), and waste treatment activities (2%). The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) was used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s (estimated by CASA at 120 MMTCE per year) was roughly equivalent to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of about 24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon estimated by CASA to be stored in forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the importance of protection of the natural NPP capacity of California ecosystems cannot be overemphasized.

  1. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  2. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  3. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  4. California Harpoon Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data from harpoon vessels that fish within 200 miles of the California coast, from 1974 to present. The harpoon...

  5. Kelp distribution off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set delineates kelp beds (Nereocystis leutkeana and Macrocystis spp.) along the Pacific Coast of California. Multiple years of kelp mapping data for the...

  6. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  7. California Watershed Hydrologic Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is intended to be used as a tool for water-resource management and planning activities, particularly for site-specific and localized studies requiring a...

  8. Overview of the Inland California Translational Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkas, Linda H.

    2017-05-01

    The mission of the Inland California Translational Consortium (ICTC), an independent research consortium comprising a unique hub of regional institutions (City of Hope [COH], California Institute of Technology [Caltech], Jet Propulsion Laboratory [JPL], University of California Riverside [UCR], and Claremont Colleges Keck Graduate Institute [KGI], is to institute a new paradigm within the academic culture to accelerate translation of innovative biomedical discoveries into clinical applications that positively affect human health and life. The ICTC actively supports clinical translational research as well as the implementation and advancement of novel education and training models for the translation of basic discoveries into workable products and practices that preserve and improve human health while training and educating at all levels of the workforce using innovative forward-thinking approaches.

  9. Development of a robust method for isolation of shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli (STEC from fecal, plant, soil and water samples from a leafy greens production region in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Cooley

    Full Text Available During a 2.5-year survey of 33 farms and ranches in a major leafy greens production region in California, 13,650 produce, soil, livestock, wildlife, and water samples were tested for Shiga toxin (stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC. Overall, 357 and 1,912 samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7 (2.6% or non-O157 STEC (14.0%, respectively. Isolates differentiated by O-typing ELISA and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA resulted in 697 O157:H7 and 3,256 non-O157 STEC isolates saved for further analysis. Cattle (7.1%, feral swine (4.7%, sediment (4.4%, and water (3.3% samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7; 7/32 birds, 2/145 coyotes, 3/88 samples from elk also were positive. Non-O157 STEC were at approximately 5-fold higher incidence compared to O157 STEC: cattle (37.9%, feral swine (21.4%, birds (2.4%, small mammals (3.5%, deer or elk (8.3%, water (14.0%, sediment (12.3%, produce (0.3% and soil adjacent to produce (0.6%. stx1, stx2 and stx1/stx2 genes were detected in 63%, 74% and 35% of STEC isolates, respectively. Subtilase, intimin and hemolysin genes were present in 28%, 25% and 79% of non-O157 STEC, respectively; 23% were of the "Top 6″ O-types. The initial method was modified twice during the study revealing evidence of culture bias based on differences in virulence and O-antigen profiles. MLVA typing revealed a diverse collection of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from multiple locations and sources and O157 STEC strains matching outbreak strains. These results emphasize the importance of multiple approaches for isolation of non-O157 STEC, that livestock and wildlife are common sources of potentially virulent STEC, and evidence of STEC persistence and movement in a leafy greens production environment.

  10. Challenge theme 1: Understanding and preserving ecological resources: Chapter 3 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, J. Bruce; Papoulias, Diana M.; van Riper, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The notable biodiversity within the United States–Mexican border region is driven by the wide variety of natural landscapes in the area and its biologically unique transition zone of habitats for xeric, temperate, and subtropical species. Six diverse ecoregions cover the length of the border (fig. 3–1): California Coastal Sage, Chaparral, and Oak Woodlands; Sonoran Desert; Madrean Archipelago; Chihuahuan Desert; Southern

  11. Citizen-Scientist Led Quartz Vein Investigation in the McDowell Sonoran Preserve, Scottsdale, Arizona, Resulting in Significant Geologic Discoveries and a Peer-Reviewed Report Coauthored and with Maps by Citizen-Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, D.; Gootee, B.

    2016-12-01

    Citizen-scientists of the McDowell Sonoran Conservancy Field Institute originated and led this project to study milky quartz deposits. Milky quartz veins of all sizes are visible throughout the McDowell Sonoran Preserve (Scottsdale, Arizona) and are commonly found in Arizona Proterozoic rocks. No research on milky quartz has been done locally and little is known about its formation and emplacement history. Working with Brian Gootee, research geologist with the Arizona Geological Survey (AZGS), a citizen science team identified candidate study sites with large quartz veins and then conducted aerial balloon photography followed by geologic mapping, basic data collection, photo-documentation, and sampling from two sites. Samples were analyzed with a UV lamp, Geiger counter, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Petroscopic analysis and interpretation of the samples were done by Gootee. Daniel Gruber, the citizen-science project leader, and Gootee summarized methodology, sample analyses, and interpretation in a report including detailed geologic maps. Analysis of samples from one site provided evidence of several events of Proterozoic quartz formation. The other site hosted pegmatite, cumulates, graphic granite and orbicular granite in association with milky quartz, all discovered by citizen scientists. The milky quartz and surrounding pegmatites in granite at this site trace the progression of late-stage crystallization at the margin of a fractionated granite batholith, providing an exemplary opportunity for further research into batholith geochemistry and evolution. The project required 1000 hours of citizen-science time for training, field work, data organization and entry, mapping, and writing. The report by Gootee and Gruber was reviewed and published by AZGS as an Open File Report in its online document repository. The citizen scientist team leveraged the time of professional geologists to expand knowledge of an important geologic feature of the McDowell Mountains.

  12. Tribal Land Polygons, Region 9, 2006, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  13. Tribal Boundary Polygons, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  14. Private Schools, California, 2009, California Department of Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — California law (California Education Code Section 33190) requires private schools offering or conducting a full-time elementary or secondary level day school for...

  15. The California Hazards Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  16. Reproduction, abundance, and population growth for a fisher (Pekania pennanti) population in the Sierra National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick A. Sweitzer; Viorel D. Popescu; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell; Craig M. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    In the west coast region of the United States, fishers (Pekania pennanti) exist in 2 remnant populations—1 in northern California and 1 in the southern Sierra Nevada, California—and 3 reintroduced populations (western Washington, southern Oregon, and northeastern California). The West Coast Distinct Population Segment of fishers encompassing all of...

  17. Historical occurrence of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in streams of the Santa Cruz Mountain region of California: response to an Endangered Species Act petition to delist coho salmon south of San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Spence; Walter G. Duffy; John Carlos Garza; Bret Harvey; Susan M. Sogard; Laurie A. Weitkamp; Thomas H. Williams; David A. Boughton

    2011-01-01

    In November 2003, the National Marine Fisheries Service received a petition from Homer T. McCrary to redefine the southern extent of the Central California Coast Coho Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (CCC Coho Salmon ESU) to exclude populations that spawn in coastal watersheds south of the entrance to San Francisco Bay (i.e., the Golden Gate). The petitioner’s...

  18. The Story of California = La Historia de California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nick

    "The Story of California" is a history and geography of the state of California, intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The book is designed with the left page in English and the right page in Spanish to facilitate student transition into…

  19. Integrated Climate Change Impacts Assessment in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change assessments for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three Assessments have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the assessments have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The assessment results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and impacts. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the assessments and recognize the need for a sustained assessment process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.

  20. LLWPA: Implementation in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.; Romano, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    US Ecology has been designated by the State of California to locate, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In early 1986, the firm identified eighteen desert basins in southeastern California for siting considerations. Three candidate sites were selected for detailed field characterization work in February, 1987. A preferred site for licensing purposes will be identified in late 1987. California is currently ahead of the siting milestone schedule mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act. It is likely that a license application will be filed in mid-1988, well before the 1990 milestone date. It is anticipated that the site will be constructed around that milestone date. This paper describes the process undertaken by US Ecology to identify three candidate sites for characterization, and the public involvement program supporting this decision. Future activities leading to a final site development are also described

  1. Earthquakes and faults in southern California (1970-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.; Walter, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The map depicts both active and inactive faults and earthquakes magnitude 1.5 to 7.3 in southern California (1970–2010). The bathymetry was generated from digital files from the California Department of Fish And Game, Marine Region, Coastal Bathymetry Project. Elevation data are from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Database. Landsat satellite image is from fourteen Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper scenes collected between 2009 and 2010. Fault data are reproduced with permission from 2006 California Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey data. The earthquake data are from the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center.

  2. Transit performance measures in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This research is the result of a California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) request to assess the most commonly : available transit performance measures in California. Caltrans wanted to understand performance measures and data used by : Metr...

  3. Solar: California, not dreaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-03-15

    The California Solar Initiative (CSI) was approved by the California Public Utilities Commission (PUC) in January 2006. The CSI is the largest solar programme of this kind ever in the USA and provides for $3.2 billion in incentives for solar projects between 2007 and 2017. The PUC will oversee a $2.5 billion programme to provide funding for solar installations on commercial and existing residential buildings, while the California Energy Commission (CEC) will manage a separate $350 million fund targeted at new residential building. Existing solar programmes operated by the PUC and CEC will be consolidated into the CSI. The CEC programme will use already allocated funding, but the PUC programme will be funded through revenues collected from customers of the main gas and electric utilities in California. Funds will be distributed via rebates to householders or companies that install solar. As well as solar photovoltaics (PV), rebates will also go to solar thermal power (concentrating solar power) and solar heating and cooling. CSI funding can be used in combination with existing federal tax credits. The aim is a gradual increase from installation of 40 MW of PV in 2005 to 100 MW by 2009. The CSI is also expected to create favourable market conditions for PV manufacturers in California and to encourage investment in production of solar-grade silicon in or near California. Objections from the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) appear to have been overcome but a number of other potential snags remain. CSI is expected to be replicated in other US states.

  4. Best practices in developing regional transportation plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) Regional Transportation Plans (RTP) and planning processes in California with selected regions. A total of 17 MPOs were included to provide a balance of geographic locat...

  5. Music and Culture Areas of Native California

    OpenAIRE

    Keeling, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This paper sketches the principal music and culture areas of native California and identifies general characteristics that distinguish the region in the overall sphere of Native American music. Rather than provide notations or detailed analyses I describe the music according to a set of general parameters that I have found useful in previous comparative research. The following elements are considered: (1) vocal quality or timbre; (2) presence of words or vocables, text-setting, and repetition...

  6. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  8. California Budget Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The California Budget Challenge produced by Next10 provides a useful and intuitive tool for instructors to introduce students to public budgeting. Students will reason through a series of budgeting decisions using information provided on the fiscal and practical implications of their choices. The Challenge is updated with each budget cycle, so it…

  9. Oak management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb. Timothy R.; Philip M. McDonald

    1981-01-01

    Native oak species grow on 15 to 20 million acres (6 to 8 million ha) of California land, and have an estimated net volume of about 3 billion ft3 (85 million m3). This resource, valuable not only for traditional wood products, but also for wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreational-esthetic values, is not...

  10. California's Perfect Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, David

    2010-01-01

    The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…

  11. FELLOWS ADDRESS California Dreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van Kees

    2017-01-01

    California was the first jurisdiction to mandate a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. This target was subsequently endorsed by the G8 in 2009 and the European Commission in 2014, and is the guiding principle of the 2015 Paris Agreement. To achieve these

  12. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  13. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  14. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Ventura map area lies within the Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the Ventura Basin, in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The city of Ventura is the major cultural center in the map area. The Ventura River cuts through Ventura, draining the Santa Ynez Mountains and the coastal hills north of Ventura. Northwest of Ventura, the coastal zone is a narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors and a few small residential clusters. Rincon Island, an island constructed for oil and gas production, lies offshore of Punta Gorda. Southeast of Ventura, the coastal zone consists of the mouth and broad, alluvial plains of the Santa Clara River

  15. Economic regulation of ambulance services in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narad, R A

    1997-01-01

    This study was intended to identify economic regulatory programs used by California counties (including ambulance franchising and rate setting), to inventory their foci and application, and to identify differences around the state. By studying the variety of programs used in one state, this study establishes a framework for evaluation of state and local regulatory programs elsewhere. This study surveyed all California local EMS agencies (LEMSAs); these are California's equivalent of regional EMS organizations. The survey achieved a 100% response rate, and all data involve population parameters obviating the need for inferential statistics. Seventy-three percent of California counties use economic regulations. Large-population counties and those that operate their own LEMSAs are more likely to use economic regulations than are small counties and those that participate in multicounty EMS agencies. Despite a preference for competition in the authorizing statute, most franchises were granted without competition to existing providers. The majority of franchises in the state were granted to public services. Most ambulance rate setting occurs outside of a competitive process. Economic regulations that were intended to provide a structured marketplace are often being used to protect existing providers, particularly public services, from competition. The growing interest by fire departments in entering the market for emergency ambulance service, along with the existing bias toward them in granting of franchises, does not bode well for use of the competitive process. The growth of managed care may change or eliminate the need for economic regulations but, if they are to continue, more state oversight should be considered.

  16. Native Americans in California Surveyed on Diets, Nutrition Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Joanne; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of the diets of 51 Native Americans in California's Yosemite-Mariposa region was undertaken to develop a culturally relevant nutrition education and counseling program. Native Americans in this region have limited opportunities to obtain the foods they need for a healthy diet and also need information on obtaining help from federally…

  17. Regional Landscape System Protection in the Urbanising Desert Southwest: Lessons from the Phoenix Metropolitan Region, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musacchio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the late nineteenth century, landscape protection in the deserts of the Southwest, United States of America, like many places worldwide, has been driven by the conservation of landscape icons, such as unusual geological features in wilderness areas. Yet, in the past two decades, leading conservation scholars worldwide have called for a shift in this paradigm to one that emphasises landscape systems, which is based on holistic landscape ecology. The shift in emphas is to landscape systems opens new opportunities to protect desert landscape systems at the regional scale rather than just remnant patches at the local scale. In this paper, the authors present, for public consideration, a typology of the five major desert landscapes that can be used as the bas is for protecting regional landscape systems in the deserts of the Southwest. As a case study, several representative examples of recent regional open space plans from the Phoenix metropolitan area are analysed and compared with the typology in order to understand how successfully the projects have addressed protection of the regional landscape system in the Sonoran Desert.

  18. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-01-01

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database

  19. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-05-17

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database.

  20. Transhumant Ranchers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, A.; Forero, L.; Huntsinger, L.

    2009-04-01

    There is a strong link between some of the richest, most productive lands of the western United States, including California's oak woodlands, and the traditional "transhumance" of ranchers using public ranges. Oak woodland ranchers with government grazing leases report that about half of their income stems from using government -owned montane ranges. For many, loss of these leases reduces their ranch productive capacity to a level insufficient for sustainability, augmenting the sale of ranch lands for development. Many thousands of hectares of oak woodlands are linked to the fate of government leases in this way, and this linkage limits the opportunities for conservation of oak woodlands as "working landscapes" via conservation easements. This type of conservation is the fastest growing type in California today. The first case study shows that over the past 100 years there has been a reduction in access to the natural resources needed for transhumance from three sources: competition from use of the pastures for recreation and nature preservation, management practices that have brought about change in the character of the natural resources themselves, and urban sprawl. Ranchers are leasing other properties, purchasing feed, and transporting animals to other regions to compensate. Most had increased their privately leased land over the previous five years. Though they desire to stay on their ranches, transhumant ranching is becoming increasingly difficult because of land use changes on both public and private lands and a third of ranchers believe that they may need to sell the property for development if they lose their summer permits. There are many "line camps" on Forest Service range—cabins that families or workers would stay in during the summer to tend the cattle. However, the need to support the ranch with work in town limits the ability of the household to participate in transhumance or even travel into the mountains to check on the animals. For ranching to

  1. 78 FR 77447 - California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation, Southern...), California Wind Energy Association and First Solar, Inc. (collectively, Complainants) filed a formal complaint against the California Independent System Operator Corporation (CAISO) and Southern California...

  2. Biomonitoring in California Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Leslie; McNeel, Sandra; Voss, Robert; Wang, Miaomiao; Gajek, Ryszard; Park, June-Soo; Harwani, Suhash; Barley, Frank; She, Jianwen; Das, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 μg/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 μg/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Conclusions: Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals. PMID:25563545

  3. SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines, quarries, and prospects the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, California, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or energy resources. Units of carbonate rock and graphitic schist have demonstrated resources of magnesian marble and graphite. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rock are present in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area.

  4. Microsatellite analysis of medfly bioinfestations in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoni, M; Zheng, L; Guglielmino, C R; Haymer, D S; Gasperi, G; Gomulski, L M; Malacrida, A R

    2001-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is a destructive agricultural pest with a long history of invasion success. This pest has been affecting different regions of the United States for the past 30 years, but a number of studies of medfly bioinfestations has focused on the situation in California. Although some progress has been made in terms of establishing the origin of infestations, the overall status of this pest in this area remains controversial. Specifically, do flies captured over the years represent independent infestations or the persistence of a resident population? We present an effort to answer this question based on the use of multilocus genotyping. Ten microsatellite loci were used to analyse 109 medflies captured in several infestations within California between 1992 and 1998. Using these same markers, 242 medflies from regions of the world having 'established' populations of this pest including Hawaii, Guatemala, El Salvador, Ecuador, Brazil, Argentina and Peru, were also analysed. Although phylogenetic analysis, amova analysis, the IMMANC assignment test and geneclass exclusion test analysis suggest that some of the medflies captured in California are derived from independent invasion events, analysis of specimens from the Los Angeles basin provides support for the hypothesis that an endemic population, probably derived from Guatemala, has been established.

  5. The california electricity reform debacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccard, M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, California launched a dramatic reform of its electricity sector, vertically de-integrating its major utilities and establishing a competitive generation market, with separate entities responsible for grid control and power exchange. After two uneventful years, wholesale prices rose dramatically in the summer of 2000 and have remained high into 2001. An imbalance between the high wholesale prices and frozen retail rates caused a financial crisis for the electric utilities and power shortages have been a chronic threat. Several factors contributed to this crisis: capacity has not expanded in step with demand either in California or its larger trading region; extreme weather and poorly timed plant outages further increased demand and decreased supply; market design flaws allowed significant suppliers to influence the market while frozen retail rates limited the demand response that would have mitigated the supply-demand imbalance. State and federal agencies have taken corrective action but the situation may remain critical for some time. Longer term solutions involve recognizing the special characteristics of electricity in designing marking reform. Because electricity supply and demand must be instantaneously balanced at all times, market reform must ensure that someone has the responsibility and effective tools to ensure that this occurs, in spite of unforeseen circumstances, and to prevent the exercise of market power. Because a competitive commodity market must work in concert with a monopoly delivery system, someone must be responsible and have the means to develop and operate the grid in ways that are amenable to effective competition. Finally, reform design must ensure that the cyclical investment and price patterns of normal commodity markets are minimized in the electricity market and that when they do occur, market volatility does not compromise reliability and price stability for those who value these highly and would pay a premium for them

  6. Medical marijuana: California update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1996-08-23

    The Cannabis Buyers' Club in San Francisco remains closed after it was raided by the office of California Attorney General Dan Lungren. Many individuals with serious illnesses such as AIDS and cancer are without safe access to medical marijuana to relieve the symptoms of their diseases. The need for access to medicinal marijuana, the return of the confiscated confidential medical records held at the buyers' club, and the passage of California Proposition 215 in the November election, which allows for the legitimate use of marijuana for medical purposes are of immediate concern. Since the raid, the Cannabis Buyers' Club has denied charges that it sold marijuana to teenagers, saying the drug was sold to a teen's mother, an undercover narcotics officer. However, the club admitted to sales to non-medical individuals who used fraudulent documents in order to obtain the drug and acknowledges the need to tighten procedures. Individuals may be able to obtain marijuana at other buyers' clubs if they have documentation of a medical need. While literature on the medical use of marijuana is lacking, the Federal government continues to block any efforts toward medical research on this issue. A list of other cannabis buyers' clubs in California is included, as well as a list of organizations working for Proposition 215.

  7. Marine Spatial Planning in a Transboundary Context: Linking Baja California with California's Network of Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arafeh-Dalmau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that an effective path to globally protect marine ecosystems is through the establishment of eco-regional scale networks of MPAs spanning across national frontiers. In this work we aimed to plan for regionally feasible networks of MPAs that can be ecologically linked with an existing one in a transboundary context. We illustrate our exercise in the Ensenadian eco-region, a shared marine ecosystem between the south of California, United States of America (USA, and the north of Baja California, Mexico; where conservation actions differ across the border. In the USA, California recently established a network of MPAs through the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA, while in Mexico: Baja California lacks a network of MPAs or a marine spatial planning effort to establish it. We generated four different scenarios with Marxan by integrating different ecological, social, and management considerations (habitat representation, opportunity costs, habitat condition, and enforcement costs. To do so, we characterized and collected biophysical and socio-economic information for Baja California and developed novel approaches to quantify and incorporate some of these considerations. We were able to design feasible networks of MPAs in Baja California that are ecologically linked with California's network (met between 78.5 and 84.4% of the MLPA guidelines and that would represent a low cost for fishers and aquaculture investors. We found that when multiple considerations are integrated more priority areas for conservation emerge. For our region, human distribution presents a strong gradient from north to south and resulted to be an important factor for the spatial arrangement of the priority areas. This work shows how, despite the constraints of a data-poor area, the available conservation principles, mapping, and planning tools can still be used to generate spatial conservation plans in a transboundary context.

  8. Interpretation of Recent Temperature Trends in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, P B; Bonfils, C; Lobell, D

    2007-09-21

    Regional-scale climate change and associated societal impacts result from large-scale (e.g. well-mixed greenhouse gases) and more local (e.g. land-use change) 'forcing' (perturbing) agents. It is essential to understand these forcings and climate responses to them, in order to predict future climate and societal impacts. California is a fine example of the complex effects of multiple climate forcings. The State's natural climate is diverse, highly variable, and strongly influenced by ENSO. Humans are perturbing this complex system through urbanization, irrigation, and emission of multiple types of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Despite better-than-average observational coverage, we are only beginning to understand the manifestations of these forcings in California's temperature record.

  9. Retrofit California Overview and Final Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Howard; Rosales, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (also called upgrades) are widely recognized as a critical component to achieving energy savings in the building sector to help lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, however, upgrades have accounted for only a small percentage of aggregate energy savings in building stock, both in California and nationally. Although the measures and technologies to retrofit a building to become energy efficient are readily deployed, establishing this model as a standard practice remains elusive. Retrofit California sought to develop and test new program models to increase participation in the energy upgrade market in California. The Program encompassed 24 pilot projects, conducted between 2010 and mid-2013 and funded through a $30 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The broad scope of the Program can be seen in the involvement of the following regionally based Grant Partners: Los Angeles County (as prime grantee); Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), consisting of: o StopWaste.org for Alameda County o Regional Climate Protection Authority (RCPA) for Sonoma County o SF Environment for the City and County of San Francisco o City of San Jose; California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE) for the San Diego region; Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD). Within these jurisdictions, nine different types of pilots were tested with the common goal of identifying, informing, and educating the people most likely to undertake energy upgrades (both homeowners and contractors), and to provide them with incentives and resources to facilitate the process. Despite its limited duration, Retrofit California undoubtedly succeeded in increasing awareness and education among home and property owners, as well as contractors, realtors, and community leaders. However, program results indicate that a longer timeframe will be needed to

  10. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively

  11. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Carpinteria map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The small city of Carpinteria is the most significant onshore cultural center in the map area; the smaller town of Summerland lies west of Carpinteria. These communities rest on a relatively flat coastal piedmont that is surrounded on the north, east, and west by hilly relief on the flanks of the Santa Ynez Mountains. El Estero, a salt marsh on the coast west of Carpinteria, is an ecologically important coastal estuary. Southeast of Carpinteria, the coastal zone is narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors

  12. Monitoring guidelines improve control of walnut husk fly in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, Susan B.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Pickel, Carolyn; Olson, William

    2000-01-01

    The walnut husk fly (WHF), Rhagoletis completa Cresson, is a key pest of walnuts (Juglans spp.) in California, where over 95% of the US and approximately two-thirds of the world's commercial walnuts are produced. The primary hosts of this monophagous fruit fly are J. regia L. (commercially grown English walnut), J. californica S. Wats. var. hindsii (northern California black walnut), J. californica var. californica (southern California black walnut) and J. nigra Thunb. (eastern black walnut). Some cultivars of the English walnut are more susceptible than others; the most heavily infested varieties of English walnut include Eureka, Franquette, Hartley, Mayette and Payne. Neither English walnuts nor the walnut husk fly are native to California. So-called 'English' walnuts are sometimes more appropriately called 'Persian' walnuts, in reference to Persia, the origin of J. regia. English walnuts were first planted in southern California in the 1860s. In contrast, the native range of WHF is the mid- and south-central United States where it attacks J. nigra (Boyce 1934). The fly was likely to have been introduced into southern California in the mid-1920s by tourists travelling from Kansas, New Mexico, Texas or Oklahoma. WHF was first documented in California in 1926 in the San Bernardino County when maggots were found in the husks of English walnuts (Boyce 1929). The fly gradually spread throughout walnut growing regions of California. In 1928, only three or four orchards in the San Bernardino County were known to be infested. By 1932, the fly was also found in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties (Boyce 1933), and by 1954, it was found in Ventura, Riverside, and the San Diego Counties, in addition to the northern California county of Sonoma (Anonymous 1966). The spread of the fly in northern California was rapid. By 1958, WHF was found in San Joaquin County; in 1963, the fly was in Amador, Lake, Solano, Tulare and Yolo Counties; in 1964, it was found in Fresno, Mendocino

  13. Predictability of the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur J.; Chereskin, T.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Niiler, P. P.; Moisan, J. R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The physical and biological oceanography of the Southern California Bight (SCB), a highly productive subregion of the California Current System (CCS) that extends from Point Conception, California, south to Ensenada, Mexico, continues to be extensively studied. For example, the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has sampled this region for over 50 years, providing an unparalleled time series of physical and biological data. However, our understanding of what physical processes control the large-scale and mesoscale variations in these properties is incomplete. In particular, the non-synoptic and relatively coarse spatial sampling (70km) of the hydrographic grid does not completely resolve the mesoscale eddy field (Figure 1a). Moreover, these unresolved physical variations exert a dominant influence on the evolution of the ecosystem. In recent years, additional datasets that partially sample the SCB have become available. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements, which now sample upper-ocean velocity between stations, and sea level observations along TOPEX tracks give a more complete picture of the mesoscale variability. However, both TOPEX and ADCP are well-sampled only along the cruise or orbit tracks and coarsely sampled in time and between tracks. Surface Lagrangian drifters also sample the region, although irregularly in time and space. SeaWiFS provides estimates of upper-ocean chlorophyll-a (chl-alpha), usually giving nearly complete coverage for week-long intervals, depending on cloud coverage. Historical ocean color data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) has been used extensively to determine phytoplankton patterns and variability, characterize the primary production across the SCB coastal fronts, and describe the seasonal and interannual variability in pigment concentrations. As in CalCOFI, these studies described much of the observed structures and their variability over relatively large space and

  14. Collaboration in Action: Measuring and Improving Contracting Performance in the University of California Contracting Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tam; Bowman-Carpio, LeeAnna; Buscher, Nate; Davidson, Pamela; Ford, Jennifer J.; Jenkins, Erick; Kalay, Hillary Noll; Nakazono, Terry; Orescan, Helene; Sak, Rachael; Shin, Irene

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, the University of California, Biomedical Research, Acceleration, Integration, and Development (UC BRAID) convened a regional network of contracting directors from the five University of California (UC) health campuses to: (i) increase collaboration, (ii) operationalize and measure common metrics as a basis for performance improvement…

  15. Abre La Boca: A Component of the California Plan for the Education of Migrant Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levene, Carol

    A 1969 summer program under the Region III Migrant Education Project in Merced County, California, brought dental services to migrant children in the northern San Joaquin Valley. The goal was to screen and test as many children of migratory agricultural workers as possible in a set span of time. The University of California School of Dentistry was…

  16. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  17. Effects of Climate on the Zooplankton of the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaniegos, B. E.

    2007-05-01

    Almost six decades of sampling of the California Current system, carried out by the CalCOFI program (California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation) complemented by a decade of observations from the IMECOCAL program (Investigaciones Mexicanas de la Corriente de California), have revealed changing patterns in zooplankton abundances, species composition, and distributions over interannual through multidecadal time scales. Interannual changes associated with ENSO variability are manifested as strong but transitory perturbations in the mean annual cycle in seasonal abundances (and distributions) of particular species. An investigation of longer- term change, limited to the region off southern California, shows a persistent decline in zooplankton volumes (a proxy for overall biomass of macrozooplankton) between 1977 and 1998 that is considered to be a response to the well documented shift in basin-scale climate forcing that occurred in 1976-77. Further examination of this decline in zooplankton volumes indicates that it was due principally to the disappearance of several salp species after 1977. Other species and functional groups did not decline after the change in climate regime, while some species have followed persistent secular trends that appear to be associated more with the phenomenon of long-term global warming. Differences in the regional responses to climate change throughout the California Current system have also been observed recently in the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass and changes in latitudinal ranges of certain species. For example, zooplankton biomass in the Baja California region show typical values for the 1997-98 El Niño that were followed by a decrease during the sharp transition to the cool La Niña conditions in 1999. This contrasts with the nearby region off southern California that was characterized by reduced biomass during the El Niño period and the subsequent recovery during the La Niña. Another regional contrast in

  18. Climate change and the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris population in Baja California, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C García-Aguilar

    Full Text Available The Earth's climate is warming, especially in the mid- and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris breeds and haul-outs on islands and the mainland of Baja California, Mexico, and California, U.S.A. At the beginning of the 21st century, numbers of elephant seals in California are increasing, but the status of Baja California populations is unknown, and some data suggest they may be decreasing. We hypothesize that the elephant seal population of Baja California is experiencing a decline because the animals are not migrating as far south due to warming sea and air temperatures. Here we assessed population trends of the Baja California population, and climate change in the region. The numbers of northern elephant seals in Baja California colonies have been decreasing since the 1990s, and both the surface waters off Baja California and the local air temperatures have warmed during the last three decades. We propose that declining population sizes may be attributable to decreased migration towards the southern portions of the range in response to the observed temperature increases. Further research is needed to confirm our hypothesis; however, if true, it would imply that elephant seal colonies of Baja California and California are not demographically isolated which would pose challenges to environmental and management policies between Mexico and the United States.

  19. Conservation issues: California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Richard W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    California chaparral, a sclerophyllous shrub-dominated plant community shaped by a Mediterranean-type climate and infrequent, high-intensity fire, is one of the most biodiverse and threatened habitats on Earth. Distinct forms of chaparral, distinguished by differing species composition, geography, and edaphic characteristics, can cover thousands of hectares with dense vegetation or be restricted to smaller communities identified by the presence of endemic species. To maintain the biodiversity of chaparral, protective land management actions will be required to mitigate the loss due to the impacts of human population growth, development, climate change, and increased fire frequencies.

  20. California quake assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuethrich, Bernice

    On January 17, at 4:31 A.M., a 6.6 magnitude earthquake hit the Los Angeles area, crippling much of the local infrastructure and claiming 51 lives. Members of the Southern California Earthquake Network, a consortium of scientists at universities and the United States Geological Survey (USGS), entered a controlled crisis mode. Network scientists, including David Wald, Susan Hough, Kerry Sieh, and a half dozen others went into the field to gather information on the earthquake, which apparently ruptured an unmapped fault.

  1. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  2. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  3. Herpetofauna Surveys, Northern California - 2010 [ds694

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We recorded all incidental herpetofauna encountered during visual encounter and dipnet surveys in northern California. Surveys took place from April 2, 2010 to...

  4. Sensitivity of streamflow to climate change in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, T.; Carlisle, D.; Wolock, D.; McCabe, G. J.; Wieczorek, M.; Howard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Trends of decreasing snowpack and increasing risk of drought are looming challenges for California water resource management. Increasing vulnerability of the state's natural water supplies threatens California's social-economic vitality and the health of its freshwater ecosystems. Despite growing awareness of potential climate change impacts, robust management adaptation has been hindered by substantial uncertainty in future climate predictions for the region. Down-scaled global climate model (GCM) projections uniformly suggest future warming of the region, but projections are highly variable with respect to the direction and magnitude of change in regional precipitation. Here we examine the sensitivity of California surface water supplies to climate variation independently of GCMs. We use a statistical approach to construct predictive models of monthly streamflow based on historical climate and river basin features. We then propagate an ensemble of synthetic climate simulations through the models to assess potential streamflow responses to changes in temperature and precipitation in different months and regions of the state. We also consider the range of streamflow change predicted by bias-corrected downscaled GCMs. Our results indicate that the streamflow in the xeric and coastal mountain regions of California is more sensitive to changes in precipitation than temperature, whereas streamflow in the interior mountain region responds strongly to changes in both temperature and precipitation. Mean climate projections for 2025-2075 from GCM ensembles are highly variable, indicating streamflow changes of -50% to +150% relative to baseline (1980-2010) for most months and regions. By quantifying the sensitivity of streamflow to climate change, rather than attempting to predict future hydrologic conditions based on uncertain GCM projections, these results should be more informative to water managers seeking to assess, and potentially reduce, the vulnerability of surface

  5. Hydrogen energy system in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweig, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Results of experiences on the use of hydrogen as a clean burning fuel in California and results of the South Coast Air Quality Management district tests using hydrogen as a clean burning environmentally safe fuel are given. The results of Solar Hydrogen Projects in California and recent medical data documentation of human lung damage of patients living in air polluted urban areas are summarized

  6. Experts Question California's Algebra Edict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Business leaders from important sectors of the American economy have been urging schools to set higher standards in math and science--and California officials, in mandating that 8th graders be tested in introductory algebra, have responded with one of the highest such standards in the land. Still, many California educators and school…

  7. Effect of removing the common mode errors on linear regression analysis of noise amplitudes in position time series of a regional GPS network & a case study of GPS stations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Ma, Jun; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Zhou, Boye

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of the correlations between the noise in different components of GPS stations has positive significance to those trying to obtain more accurate uncertainty of velocity with respect to station motion. Previous research into noise in GPS position time series focused mainly on single component evaluation, which affects the acquisition of precise station positions, the velocity field, and its uncertainty. In this study, before and after removing the common-mode error (CME), we performed one-dimensional linear regression analysis of the noise amplitude vectors in different components of 126 GPS stations with a combination of white noise, flicker noise, and random walking noise in Southern California. The results show that, on the one hand, there are above-moderate degrees of correlation between the white noise amplitude vectors in all components of the stations before and after removal of the CME, while the correlations between flicker noise amplitude vectors in horizontal and vertical components are enhanced from un-correlated to moderately correlated by removing the CME. On the other hand, the significance tests show that, all of the obtained linear regression equations, which represent a unique function of the noise amplitude in any two components, are of practical value after removing the CME. According to the noise amplitude estimates in two components and the linear regression equations, more accurate noise amplitudes can be acquired in the two components.

  8. Regional Landscape System Protection in the Urbanising Desert Southwest: Lessons from the Phoenix Metropolitan Region, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musacchio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the lens of holistic landscape ecology, the authors present for public consideration a desert landscape typology and plan assessment criteria. As a case study, historical trends in open space planning and two contrasting examples of recent open space plans from the Phoenix metropolitan area were analysed and compared to the typology in order to understand how successfully the open space planning efforts had addressed protection of the regional landscape system in the Sonoran Desert. We also developed an approach for the analysis of the landscape ecological component of plans that was based on Baer's general plan assessment criteria (1997. Our results indicate the desert landscape typology is a valuable step as part of a plan assessment of two regional, open space plans, but more importantly, the assessment criteria presented in this paper could be used as the foundation for a more thorough assessment method of the landscape ecological component of plans. The desert landscape typology and plan assessment criteria presented in this paper can be used to increase understanding about how the decision making of planners and designers has influenced the temporal and spatial dimensions of landscape legacies, trajectories and transformations, such as connectivity and fragmentation of open space.

  9. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  10. Chromium carcinogenicity: California strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeff, G V; Satin, K; Painter, P; Zeise, L; Popejoy, C; Murchison, G

    1989-10-01

    Hexavalent chromium was identified by California as a toxic air contaminant (TAC) in January 1986. The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) concurred with the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer that there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the carcinogenicity of chromium in both animals and humans. CDHS did not find any compelling evidence demonstrating the existence of a threshold with respect to chromium carcinogenesis. Experimental data was judged inadequate to assess potential human reproductive risks from ambient exposures. Other health effects were not expected to occur at ambient levels. The theoretically increased lifetime carcinogenic risk from a continuous lifetime exposure to hexavalent chromium fell within the range 12-146 cancer cases per nanogram hexavalent chromium per cubic meter of air per million people exposed, depending on the potency estimate used. The primary sources found to contribute significantly to the risk of exposure were chrome platers, chromic acid anodizing facilities and cooling towers utilizing hexavalent chromium as a corrosion inhibitor. Evaluation of genotoxicity data, animal studies and epidemiological studies indicates that further consideration should be given to the potential carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium via the oral route.

  11. Copulation by California condors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, S.R.; Borneman, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    Koford (Res. Rept. No. 3, Natl. Audubon Soc., 1953) observed sexual display among California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) on more than 30 occasions, yet only once did he see what he thought was copulation. Some of the displays he watched were quite intricate, with considerable posturing and "male" aggression, but no such activity preceded this copulation. The birds sat several feet apart for over 1 hour, then one climbed onto the other's back, staying there 1/2 minute and flapping gently at the apparent moment of coition. Afterward they sat quietly 1/2 hour before flying away. This led Koford to state (p. 79) that "possibly in Gymnogyps copulation is not immediately preceded by display." We have records of 8 California Condor copulations, 5 of which are similar to that described above. The three other occasions began similarly, with the birds sitting quietly, but then the "male" displayed briefly before the "female" with wings half spread and head drooping forward. This elicited no apparent response, but the male immediately walked behind and mounted the female. The apparent moment of coition was accompanied by gentle wing flapping in all instances.

  12. Learning from California and the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tussing, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy oils are found in 10 of the 14 largest oilfields in Alaska and California. In the US west coast region, petroleum demand is dominated by light transport fuels, and there is a lack of a discrete and conspicuous heavy oil market. The structure and behavior of west coast petroleum markets, and their interactions with crude-oil and petroleum product markets elsewhere on the Pacific Rim are discussed with regard to how the market for growing volumes of western Canadian heavy oils might evolve. An analysis of crude oil prices versus API gravity demonstrates the price penalties on oil of low gravity, high sulfur, and high transport cost. Prices at the high gravity end tend to correlate closely with Asian light crude and unfinished gasoline prices. The heaviest crudes are priced in competition with other chemically similar residual oils for direct fuel use, blending, or refinery feedstock. The biggest component of the west coast heavy oil market is bunker fuel. The market value of heavy crudes in the west coast is thus determined by regional supply and demand for heavy hydrocarbon molecules, whatever the source. The west coast is not a promising market for Canadian heavy crudes, and exports to Asia would have to compete both with residual oils from Asia and the US west coast and with California heavy crudes. US west coast production peaked in 1989 and regional production can be expected to decline further in average gravity. New production from known but undeveloped heavy oil pools near Prudhoe Bay or in the California offshore could be expected to postpone the need for imports to the west coast and to depress prices. A removal of the Alaska crude oil export ban could improve the west coast heavy oil market. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Increasing climate whiplash in 21st century California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D. L.; Langenbrunner, B.; Neelin, J. D.; Hall, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Temperate "Mediterranean" climate regimes across the globe are particularly susceptible to wide swings between drought and flood—of which California's rapid transition from record multi-year dryness between 2012-2016 to extreme wetness during 2016-2017 provides a dramatic example. The wide-ranging human and environmental impacts of this recent "climate whiplash" event in a highly-populated, economically critical, and biodiverse region highlight the importance of understanding weather and climate extremes at both ends of the hydroclimatic spectrum. Previous studies have examined the potential contribution of anthropogenic warming to recent California extremes, but findings to date have been mixed and primarily drought-focused. Here, we use specific historical California flood and drought events as thresholds for quantifying long-term changes in precipitation extremes using a large ensemble of multi-decadal climate model simulations (CESM-LENS). We find that greenhouse gas emissions are already responsible for a detectable increase in both wet and dry extremes across portions of California, and that increasing 21st century "climate whiplash" will likely yield large increases in the frequency of both rapid "dry-to-wet" transitions and severe flood events over a wide range of timescales. This projected intensification of California's hydrological cycle would seriously challenge the region's existing water storage, conveyance, and flood control infrastructure—even absent large changes in mean precipitation.

  14. H2 fuelling infrastructure in Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasato, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) is the local air agency covering the majority of southern California, and the entity legislatively responsible for bringing the region into compliance with the federal Clean Air standards by 2010. One of the tools used by the SCAQMD to accelerate achieving cleaner air is the funding of research, development, and demonstration projects for advanced, clean air technologies. One major focus has been on hydrogen and fuel cells for both stationary and mobile applications. The presentation will discuss the SCAQMD strategy and deployment efforts regarding the development and expansion of hydrogen fueling infrastructure in the South Coast Air Basin. (author)

  15. Prevalence and incidence of postharvest diseases of blueberries in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent establishment of low-chill southern highbush blueberry cultivars in California’s warm climate has significantly increased the acreage of blueberry production in the Central Valley of California, which is now a major southern highbush blueberry production region in the United States. The vast ...

  16. Comparison of groundwater flow in Southern California coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Izbicki, John A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Edwards, Brian D.; Land, Michael; Martin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Development of the coastal aquifer systems of Southern California has resulted in overdraft, changes in streamflow, seawater intrusion, land subsidence, increased vertical flow between aquifers, and a redirection of regional flow toward pumping centers. These water-management challenges can be more effectively addressed by incorporating new understanding of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical setting of these aquifers.

  17. 76 FR 48742 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Change in Reporting Requirements and New Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Reporting Requirements and New Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathie M. Notoro, Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California... pertinent information, the marketing policy provides the basis for the recommendation of appropriate...

  18. ACTIVE AND SEMI-PASSIVE LIME TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE AT LEVIATHAN MINE, CALIFORNIA BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), in cooperation with EPA Region IX, the state of California, and the Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) evaluat...

  19. ACTIVE AND SEMI-PASSIVE LIME TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE AT LEVIATHAN MINE, CALIFORNIA ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Tecbnology Evaluation (SITE) program, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), in cooperation with EPA Region IX, the state of California, and the Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) evalua...

  20. ACTIVE AND SEMI-PASSIVE LIME TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE AT LEVIATHAN MINE, CALIFORNIA CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), in cooperation with EPA Region IX, the state of California, and the Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) evalua...

  1. CMS: CO2 Signals Estimated for Fossil Fuel Emissions and Biosphere Flux, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimated CO2 emission signals for 16 regions (air quality basins) in California, USA, during the individual months of November 2010 and May...

  2. Distribution, genetic structure, and conservation status of the rare microendemic species, Guaiacum unijugum (Zygophyllaceae in the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico Distribución, estructura genética y conservación de la especie microendémica Guaiacum unijugum (Zygophyllaceae en la región de los Cabos de Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A. McCauley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Guaiacum unijugum is a rare shrub endemic to a 70 km stretch of coastline extending east from San José del Cabo in Baja California and is the least well-known of the 4 species of Guaiacum in Mexico. To increase our knowledge of this species and assess its conservation status we surveyed the extent of occurrence using both herbarium material and field work, assessed levels of genetic diversity, determined its phylogenetic relationships, and completed an evaluation of risk of extinction (MER. Herbarium material identified 5 known localities of occurrence with field work verifying the continued persistence of 4 of these with an additional site discovered. Genetic analysis across the small range using 17 microsatellite loci showed very low levels of genetic diversity with a mean expected heterozygosity (H E of 0.162 over all polymorphic loci. Most loci were found to be monomorphic and genetic divergence was small, maintained by the presence of rare private alleles in widely-separated populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a sister group relationship to G. coulteri along the Pacific coast suggesting vicariance for the origin and occurrence of G. unijugum. The unique evolutionary history coupled with current small population sizes warrants increased conservation via listing as a critically endangered species.Guaiacum unijugum es un arbusto endémico en un área de aproximadamente 70 km en la región de Los Cabos, Baja California Sur, siendo la menos estudiada de las 4 especies de Guaiacum en México. Para incrementar nuestro conocimiento sobre esta especie y determinar su estatus de conservación se realizó un censo de sus poblaciones determinándose su estructura genética, su relación filogenética con otros miembros del género y se calculó su riesgo de extinción (MER. La revisión de material de herbario, confirmó la presencia de 4 poblaciones a las que se sumó el hallazgo de 1 más. Mediante el uso de 17 loci de microsatélites se

  3. Public Schools, California, 2009, California Department of Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This set of data represents the most current public schools in the State of California as of June, 2009. Information about each public school includes: school name,...

  4. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model for use with a steady-state numerical ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional flow system, Nevada and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcher, W.R.; Faunt, C.C.; D'Agnese, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Department of Energy and other Federal, State, and local agencies, is evaluating the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The ground-water flow system covers and area of about 100,000 square kilometers from latitude 35 degrees to 38 degrees 15 minutes North to longitude 115 degrees to 118 degrees West, with the flow system proper comprising about 45,000 square kilometers. The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system is one of the larger flow systems within the Southwestern United States and includes in its boundaries the Nevada Test Site, Yucca Mountain, and much of Death Valley. Part of this study includes the construction of a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model to serve as the foundation for the development of a steady-state regional ground-water flow model. The digital framework model provides a computer-based description of the geometry and composition of the hydro geologic units that control regional flow. The framework model of the region was constructed by merging two previous framework models constructed for the Yucca Mountain Project and the Environmental Restoration Program Underground Test Area studies at the Nevada Test Site. The hydrologic characteristics of the region result from a currently arid climate and complex geology. Interbasinal regional ground-water flow occurs through a thick carbonate-rock sequence of Paleozoic age, a locally thick volcanic-rock sequence of Tertiary age, and basin-fill alluvium of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Throughout the system, deep and shallow ground-water flow may be controlled by extensive and pervasive regional and local faults and fractures. The framework model was constructed using data from several sources to define the geometry of the regional hydrogeologic units. These data sources include (1) a 1:250,000-scale hydrogeologic-map compilation of the region; (2) regional-scale geologic cross

  5. Towards an improved understanding of hillslope runoff as a supply for groundwater recharge: Assessing hillslope runoff under regional deforestation and varying climate conditions in a drainage basin in central coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Beganskas, S.; Fisher, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    We use a hydrologic model to analyze hillslope runoff under a range of climate and land use conditions in the San Lorenzo River Basin (SLRB), central coastal California, including contemporary land use and incremental deforestation. The SLRB is a heavily forested watershed with chronically overdrafted aquifers; in some areas, groundwater levels have been lowered by >50 m in recent decades. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) can help mitigate declines in groundwater storage, routing excess surface flows to locations where they can infiltrate. We are especially interested in opportunities for collection of stormwater runoff, particularly where development and other changes in landuse have increased hill slope runoff. To assess hillslope runoff at the subwatershed scale (10-100 ha; 25-250 ac), we apply the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) to a high-resolution, digital elevation model and populate the simulation with area- and density-weighted vegetation and soil parameters calculated from high resolution input data. We also develop and apply a catalog of dry, normal, and wet climate scenarios from the historic record (1981-2014). In addition, we simulate conditions ranging from 0 to 100 percent of redwoods harvested (representing the mid-1800s to 1930s logging era) using a historical land use data set to alter soil and vegetation conditions. Results under contemporary land use suggest there are ample opportunities to establish MAR projects during all climate scenarios; hill slope runoff generation is spatially variable and on average exceeds 23,000 ac-ft/yr (3.2 in/yr) during the driest climate scenario. Preliminary results from the deforestation scenarios show notable increases in hillslope runoff with progressive redwood harvesting. Relative to pre-logging conditions, between 1.1 in (dry climates) and 1.5 in (wet climates) more runoff is generated under contemporary conditions, with most of the runoff increase occurring in urban areas. These modeling methods

  6. Tree-ring analysis of winter climate variability and ENSO in Mediterranean California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, C.A.; Univ. of Colorado, Boulder

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of using tree-ring data as a proxy for regional precipitation and ENSO events in the Mediterranean region of California is explored. A transect of moisture-sensitive tree-ring sites, extending from southwestern to north-central California, documents regional patterns of winter precipitation and replicates the regional response to ENSO events in the 20. century. Proxy records of ENSO were used with the tree-ring data to examine precipitation/ENSO patterns in the 18. and 19. centuries. Results suggest some temporal and spatial variability in the regional precipitation response to ENSO over the last three centuries

  7. Whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis to obtain molecular fingerprints in human and cattle isolates from Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Estrella Sandoval-Azuara

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: All isolates from humans had spoligotype patterns that matched those observed in the cattle isolates, and all human isolates shared common ancestors with cattle in Baja California based on SNP analysis. This suggests that most human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in Baja California is derived from M. bovis circulating in Baja California cattle. These results reinforce the importance of bovine tuberculosis surveillance and control in this region.

  8. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  9. The California Fuel Tax Swap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In early 2010, California faced another of its seemingly routine budget crises, this time mostly the result of outstanding debt due on state general obligation (GO) highway and rail bonds.2 For several years, the Legislature had been diverting ...

  10. NEXRAD Rainfall Data: Eureka, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 (WSR-88D) measurements were used to support AMSR-E rainfall validation efforts in Eureka, California,...

  11. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of many communities for increasing supplies. We find that using water bags to transport fresh water between northern and southern California is in some instances a low-cost alternative to desalination. The choice is constrained, however, by concerns about reliability and, thus, risk. Case-study results demonstrate the challenges of water supply augmentation in water-constrained regions.

  12. The California cogeneration success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiggemann, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter describes the involvement of Southern California Gas Company(SoCalGas) in the promotion and demonstration of the benefits of cogeneration in California. The topics covered in this chapter are market strategy, cogeneration program objectives, cogeneration program, incentive cofunding, special gas rate, special service priority, special gas pressure and main options, advertising, promotional brochures and handbooks, technical support, program accomplishments, cogeneration outlook, and reasons for success of the program

  13. Region 9 Tribal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas of Colorado, New Mexico and Utah). Reservation boundaries are compiled from multiple sources and are derived from several different source scales. Information such as reservation type, primary tribe name are included with the feature dataset. Public Domain Allotments are not included in this data set.

  14. California's population geography: lessons for a fourth grade class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdoony, H A

    1978-11-01

    Purpose of this paper is to present a model for teaching fourth grade children some aspects of the population geography of California from a nontextual approach. The objective is to interest and instruct children in the mobility of the people, and on the reasons why so many families have moved to California from other states. Students should be alerted not only to internal migration problems, but to the excess of births over deaths. Materials necessary for the lessons are transparencies, overhead projector, marking pencils, chalk and chalkboard. After showing the students that California population has approximately doubled every 20 years, the students should be encouraged to find reasons explaining why people have moved to the state, should be able to categorize those reasons under the terms industrial/manufacturing, agricultural, urban or recreational, should learn how to plot population distribution on a California regional outline map, and should attempt to explain why certain parts of California are more popular than others. The teaching model described in this paper may be replicated with modfications for any grade level and area of study.

  15. California Gnatcatcher Observations - 2004-2009 [ds457

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In southern California, the coastal California gnatcatcher (CAGN) has become both the flagship species and an umbrella species identified with conservation, where...

  16. Fire risk in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  17. Sustainability partnerships and viticulture management in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Vicken; Lubell, Mark; Hoffman, Matthew

    2018-07-01

    Agricultural regions in the United States are experimenting with sustainability partnerships that, among other goals, seek to improve growers' ability to manage their vineyards sustainably. In this paper, we analyze the association between winegrape grower participation in sustainability partnership activities and practice adoption in three winegrowing regions of California. Using data gathered from a survey of 822 winegrape growers, we find a positive association between participation and adoption of sustainable practices, which holds most strongly for practices in which the perceived private benefits outweigh the costs, and for growers with relatively dense social networks. We highlight the mechanisms by which partnerships may catalyze sustainable farm management, and discuss the implications of these findings for improving sustainability partnerships. Taken together, we provide one of the most comprehensive quantitative analyses to date regarding the effectiveness of agricultural sustainability partnerships for improving farm management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Gaviota, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2018-04-20

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The offshore part of the map area lies south of the steep south flank of the Santa Ynez Mountains. The crest of the range, which has a maximum elevation of about 760 m in the map area, lies about 4 km north of the shoreline.Gaviota is an unincorporated community that has a sparse population (less than 100), and the coastal zone is largely open space that is locally used for cattle grazing. The Union Pacific railroad tracks extend westward along the coast through the entire map area, within a few hundred meters of the shoreline. Highway 101 crosses the eastern part of the map area, also along the coast, then turns north (inland) and travels through Cañada de la Gaviota and Gaviota Pass en route to Buellton. Gaviota State Park lies at the mouth of Cañada de la Gaviota. West of Gaviota, the onland coastal zone is occupied by the Hollister Ranch, a privately owned

  19. Climate scenarios for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Maurer, Ed; Dettinger, Mike; Tyree, Mary; Hayhoe, Katharine; Bonfils, Celine; Duffy, Phil; Santer, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Possible future climate changes in California are investigated from a varied set of climate change model simulations. These simulations, conducted by three state-of-the-art global climate models, provide trajectories from three greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios. These scenarios and the resulting climate simulations are not “predictions,” but rather are a limited sample from among the many plausible pathways that may affect California’s climate. Future GHG concentrations are uncertain because they depend on future social, political, and technological pathways, and thus the IPCC has produced four “families” of emission scenarios. To explore some of these uncertainties, emissions scenarios A2 (a medium-high emissions) and B1 (low emissions) were selected from the current IPCC Fourth climate assessment, which provides several recent model simulations driven by A2 and B1 emissions. The global climate model simulations addressed here were from PCM1, the Parallel Climate Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) group, and CM2.1 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluids Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL).

  20. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer (km) south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2014 to December 2014. These append to long-term datasets extending back to 1974, and serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. 

  1. Biogenic sedimentation beneath the California Current system for the past 30 kyr and its paleoceanographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Dartnell, P.

    1997-01-01

    A north-south transect of 17 cores was constructed along the eastern boundary of the California Current system from 33?? to 42?? N to investigate the changes in biogenic sedimentation over the past 30 kyr. Percentages and mass accumulation rates of CaCO3, Corg, and biogenic opal were assembled at 500 to 1000 years/sample to provide relatively high resolution. Time-space maps reveal a complex pattern of changes that do not follow a simple glacial-interglacial two-mode model. Biogenic sedimentation shows responses that are sometimes time-transgressive and sometimes coeval, and most of the responses show more consistency within a limited geographic area than any temporal consistency. Reconstructed conditions during late oxygen isotope stage 3 were more like early Holocene conditions than any other time during the last 30 kyr. Coastal upwelling and productivity during oxygen isotope stage 3 were relatively strong along the central California margin but were weak along the northern California margin. Precipitation increased during the last glacial interval in the central California region, and the waters of the southern California margin had relatively low productivity. Productivity on the southern Oregon margin was relatively low at the beginning of the last glacial interval, but by about 20 ka, productivity in this area significantly increased. This change suggests that the center of the divergence of the West Wind Drift shifted south at this time. The end of the last glacial interval was characterized by increased productivity in the southern California margin and increased upwelling along the central California margin but upwelling remained weak along the northern California margin. A sudden (biosphere as the northern latitudes were reforested following retreat of the glaciers. The Holocene has been a period of relatively high productivity in the southern California margin, relatively strong coastal upwelling along the central California margin, relatively weak

  2. The 2008 California climate change assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G.

    2008-12-01

    In 2005, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Executive Order S-03-05, which laid the foundation for California's ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation reduction efforts. The 2020 goal is now codified in state law requiring bringing 2020 emissions to the 1990 levels. The Executive Order also mandates the preparation of biennial updates on the latest climate change science, potential impacts, and assessment of the state's efforts to manage its climate change risks through various adaptation options. In 2006, the first of these mandated scientific assessments (The Governor's Scenarios Report) was released. Based on new scientific studies conducted in the interim, the next assessment, the '2008 Governor's Scenarios Report' is currently in preparation. It has three principal goals: (1) to improve the assessment of climate changes for California and associated impacts on key physical and biological indicators; (2) to begin to translate these physical and biological impacts into sectoral economic impacts; and (3) to begin to develop and evaluate strategies for key sectors or regions for adapting to climate changes already underway. Contributors to this session will present some of this new research to the scientific community. Among the most exciting new insights are impacts assessments for the all-important water and agricultural sectors, coastal areas, public health and related air quality and environmental justice issues, the forestry and energy sectors. This presentation will give an overview of the overall effort which will result in about 35 scientific papers from different research institutions in California. All of the studies are interlinked in such a way as to produce a consistent overall assessment.

  3. Building the Southern California Earthquake Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.; Henyey, T.; McRaney, J. K.

    2004-12-01

    Kei Aki was the founding director of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a multi-institutional collaboration formed in 1991 as a Science and Technology Center (STC) under the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Aki and his colleagues articulated a system-level vision for the Center: investigations by disciplinary working groups would be woven together into a "Master Model" for Southern California. In this presentation, we will outline how the Master-Model concept has evolved and how SCEC's structure has adapted to meet scientific challenges of system-level earthquake science. In its first decade, SCEC conducted two regional imaging experiments (LARSE I & II); published the "Phase-N" reports on (1) the Landers earthquake, (2) a new earthquake rupture forecast for Southern California, and (3) new models for seismic attenuation and site effects; it developed two prototype "Community Models" (the Crustal Motion Map and Community Velocity Model) and, perhaps most important, sustained a long-term, multi-institutional, interdisciplinary collaboration. The latter fostered pioneering numerical simulations of earthquake ruptures, fault interactions, and wave propagation. These accomplishments provided the impetus for a successful proposal in 2000 to reestablish SCEC as a "stand alone" center under NSF/USGS auspices. SCEC remains consistent with the founders' vision: it continues to advance seismic hazard analysis through a system-level synthesis that is based on community models and an ever expanding array of information technology. SCEC now represents a fully articulated "collaboratory" for earthquake science, and many of its features are extensible to other active-fault systems and other system-level collaborations. We will discuss the implications of the SCEC experience for EarthScope, the USGS's program in seismic hazard analysis, NSF's nascent Cyberinfrastructure Initiative, and other large collaboratory programs.

  4. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Spokas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local GHG mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for landfill CH4 generation (methanogenesis, but does not explicitly consider climate or soil dependencies for emissions. Relying on a comprehensive California landfill database, a field-validated process-based model for landfill CH4 emissions (CALMIM, and select field measurements at 10 California sites with a variety of methods, we support the contrary position: Limited climate dependency for methanogenesis, but strong climate dependency for landfill CH4 emissions. Contrary to the historic IPCC empirical model for methanogenesis with kinetic constants related to climate, we demonstrate a simpler and more robust linear empirical relationship (r2 = 0.85; n=128 between waste mass and landfill biogas recovery [126 × 10-6 Nm3 CH4 hr-1 Mgwaste-1]. More interestingly, there are no statistically significant relationships with climate, site age, or status (open/closed for landfill biogas recovery. The current IPCC methodology does not consider soil or climate drivers for gaseous transport or seasonal methanotrophy in different cover soils. On the other hand, we illustrate strong climate and soil dependencies for landfill emissions—e.g., average intermediate cover emissions below 20 g CH4 m-2 d-1 when the site’s mean annual precipitation is >500 mm y-1. Thereby, for the California landfill CH4 inventory, the highest-emitting sites shift from landfills containing the largest mass of waste to sites dominated by intermediate cover types having a reduced rate of soil CH4 oxidation during the annual cycle. These differences have profound implications for developing more realistic, science-based urban and regional scale GHG inventories for landfill CH4 while reducing

  5. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 200 m) subsurface geology.

  6. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  7. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  8. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Pacifica, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Bretz, Carrie K.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Chinn, John L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Cochran, Susan A.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. 

  9. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2009-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2008 to December 2008 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2008, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980's, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, concentrations generally reach maximum in winter months (January-March) and decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments spiked to the highest observed level in January 2008. However, sedimentary concentrations for the rest of the year and concentrations of Hg in M. petalum for the entire year were consistent with data from previous years. Average selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment were the highest on record, but there is no evidence, yet, to suggest a temporal trend of increasing sedimentary Se. Selenium in M. petalum was not elevated relative to

  10. Teale Urband and rural areas of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  11. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  12. Teale California Office of Emergency Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  13. Teale California Office of Emergency Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  14. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  15. Structure of the Hat Creek graben region: Implications for the structure of the Hat Creek graben and transfer of right-lateral shear from the Walker Lane north of Lassen Peak, northern California, from gravity and magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, Victoria; Jachens, Robert C.; Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L. J. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of magnetic and new gravity data provides constraints on the geometry of the Hat Creek Fault, the amount of right-lateral offset in the area between Mt. Shasta and Lassen Peak, and confirmation of the influence of pre-existing structure on Quaternary faulting. Neogene volcanic rocks coincide with short-wavelength magnetic anomalies of both normal and reversed polarity, whereas a markedly smoother magnetic field occurs over the Klamath Mountains and its Paleogene cover. Although the magnetic field over the Neogene volcanic rocks is complex, the Hat Creek Fault, which is one of the most prominent normal faults in the region and forms the eastern margin of the Hat Creek Valley, is marked by the eastern edge of a north-trending magnetic and gravity high 20-30 km long. Modeling of these anomalies indicates that the fault is a steeply dipping (~75-85°) structure. The spatial relationship of the fault as modeled by the potential-field data, the youngest strand of the fault, and relocated seismicity suggests that deformation continues to step westward across the valley, consistent with a component of right-lateral slip in an extensional environment. Filtered aeromagnetic data highlight a concealed magnetic body of Mesozoic or older age north of Hat Creek Valley. The body’s northwest margin strikes northeast and is linear over a distance of ~40 km. Within the resolution of the aeromagnetic data (1-2 km), we discern no right-lateral offset of this body. Furthermore, Quaternary faults change strike or appear to end, as if to avoid this concealed magnetic body and to pass along its southeast edge, suggesting that pre-existing crustal structure influenced younger faulting, as previously proposed based on gravity data.

  16. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Parchaso, Francis; Pearson, Sarah; Stewart, Robin; Turner, Mathew; Barasch, David; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2017-10-30

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in south San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2014 to December 2016. These append to long-term datasets extending back to 1974. A major focus of the report is an integrated description of the 2016 data within the context of the longer, multi-decadal dataset. This dataset supports the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994.Significant reductions in silver and copper concentrations in sediment and M. petalum occurred at the site in the 1980s following the implementation by PARWQCP of advanced wastewater treatment and source control measures. Since the 1990s, concentrations of these elements appear to have stabilized at concentrations somewhat above (silver) or near (copper) regional background concentrations Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2016, concentrations of silver and copper in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. This record suggests that legacy contamination and regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of silver and copper, as well as other elements of

  17. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  18. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2011 to December 2011. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2011, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, and Zn, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2011, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 38-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community

  19. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2013 to December 2013. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2013, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In M. petalum, all observed elements showed annual maxima in January–February and minima in April, except for Zn, which was lowest in December. In sediments, annual maxima also occurred in January–February, and minima were measured in June and September. In 2013, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a

  20. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January to December 2012. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and in M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2012, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported for previous time periods. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2012, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 39-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area

  1. The California Seafloor Mapping Program — Providing science and geospatial data for California's State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. Y.; Cochrane, G. R.; Golden, N. E.; Dartnell, P.; Hartwell, S. R.; Cochran, S. A.; Watt, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP) is a collaborative effort to develop comprehensive bathymetric, geologic, and habitat maps and data for California's State Waters, which extend for 1,350 km from the shoreline to 5.6 km offshore. CSMP began in 2007 when the California Ocean Protection Council and NOAA allocated funding for high-resolution bathymetric mapping to support the California Marine Life Protection Act and update nautical charts. Collaboration and support from the USGS and other partners has led to development and dissemination of one of the world's largest seafloor-mapping datasets. CSMP data collection includes: (1) High-resolution bathymetric and backscatter mapping using swath sonar sensors; (2) "Ground-truth" imaging from a sled mounted with video and still cameras; (3) High-resolution seismic-reflection profiling at 1 km line spacing. Processed data are all publicly available. Additionally, 25 USGS map and datasets covering one third of California's coast have been published. Each publication contains 9 to 12 pdf map sheets (1:24,000 scale), an explanatory pamphlet, and a catalog of digital geospatial data layers (about 15 to 25 per map area) with web services. Map sheets display bathymetry, backscatter, perspective views, habitats, groundtruth imagery, seismic profiles, sediment distribution and thickness, and onshore-offshore geology. The CSMP goal is to serve a large constituency, ranging from senior GIS analysts in large agencies, to local governments with limited resources, to non-governmental organizations, the private sector, and concerned citizens. CSMP data and publications provide essential science and data for ocean and coastal management, stimulate and enable research, and raise public education and awareness of coastal and ocean issues. Specific applications include: Delineation and designation of marine protected areas Characterization and modeling of benthic habitats and ecosystems Updating nautical charts Earthquake hazard

  2. Geothermal Heat Flow in the Gulfs of California and Aden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Herzen, R P

    1963-06-14

    Eighteen measurements in and near the gulfs of California and Aden indicate the geothermal flux is several times the world-wide mean of 1.2 x 10(-6) cal/cm(2) sec in both regions. Both gulfs closely coincide with the intersection of oceanic rises with continents and have likely been formed under tensional forces, which suggests an association with mantle convection currents.

  3. Population analysis relative to geothermal energy development, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pick, J.B.; Jung, T.H.; Butler, E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical and current population characteristics of Imperial County, California, are examined. These include vital rates, urbanization, town sizes, labor force composition, income, utility usage, and ethnic composition. Inferences are drawn on some of the important social and economic processes. Multivariate statistical analysis is used to study present relationships between variables. Population projections for the County were performed under historical, standard, and geothermal projection assumptions. The transferability of methods and results to other geothermal regions anticipating energy development is shown. (MHR)

  4. Killing tanoak in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. F. Roy

    1956-01-01

    Residual tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Rehd.) trees and tanoak sprouts often are an important component of the vegetation which competes with conifer reproduction in northwestern California. Sometimes enough tanoak is present in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands to dominate the...

  5. Genetic variation in California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Diane L. Delany; Lawrence A. Riggs

    1990-01-01

    In forestry the importance of genetic variation for successful reproduction, survival and growth has been widely documented for commercial conifers; until recently, little genetic work has been done on the California oaks. Even before the nature of genetic variation was scientifically investigated, its importance was suspected in operational forestry. Many failures of...

  6. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  7. Revamping California's Education Finance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brett

    2003-01-01

    Describes reasons for California's budget deficits and their impact on school finance. Offers five possible solutions to the school funding crises: Restructure the state's tax and revenue system, restore school district revenue-sharing abilities, initiate a top-to-bottom mandate review, provide greater fiscal and program flexibility, and revamp…

  8. The California Baseline Methane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by California single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  10. California Amusement Rides and Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three-year-old Cristina Moreno traveled from Spain to California for her honeymoon in 2000. As part of her visit, she rode the Indiana Jones amusement ride at Disneyland with her new husband. On June 25, 2000, she suffered a brain injury, and she eventually died on September 1, 2000, as a result of injuries allegedly sustained while riding…

  11. Special Education Finance in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura; Warren, Paul; Murphy, Patrick; Ugo, Iwunze; Pathak, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    California's system of special education served about 718,000 students in 2014-15, or about 11.5 percent of the K-12 population. It is expensive, consuming some $12 billion in federal, state, and local dollars annually. Special education operates within a legal framework that sets it apart from the rest of the K-12 system. The state's enactment of…

  12. California Endangered Species Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.

    This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community…

  13. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Santa Cruz map area is located in central California, on the Pacific Coast about 98 km south of San Francisco. The city of Santa Cruz (population, about 63,000), the largest incorporated city in the map area and the county seat of Santa Cruz County, lies on uplifted marine terraces between the shoreline and the northwest-trending Santa Cruz Mountains, part of California’s Coast Ranges. All of California’s State Waters in the map area is part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.The map area is cut by an offshore section of the San Gregorio Fault Zone, and it lies about 20 kilometers southwest of the San Andreas Fault Zone. Regional folding and uplift along the coast has been attributed to a westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone and to right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault Zone. Most of the coastal zone is characterized by low, rocky cliffs and sparse, small pocket beaches backed by low, terraced hills. Point Santa Cruz, which forms the north edge of Monterey Bay, provides protection for the beaches in the easternmost part of the map area by sheltering them from the predominantly northwesterly waves.The shelf in the map area is underlain by variable amounts (0 to 25 m) of

  14. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  15. An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

    2005-10-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

  16. Atmospheric Inverse Estimates of Methane Emissions from Central California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hirsch, Adam; MacDonald, Clinton; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Fischer, Marc L.

    2008-11-21

    Methane mixing ratios measured at a tall-tower are compared to model predictions to estimate surface emissions of CH{sub 4} in Central California for October-December 2007 using an inverse technique. Predicted CH{sub 4} mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and simulated atmospheric trajectories. The atmospheric trajectories, along with surface footprints, are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated CH{sub 4} emissions. Three inverse model estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions are reported. First, linear regressions of modeled and measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios obtain slopes of 0.73 {+-} 0.11 and 1.09 {+-} 0.14 using California specific and Edgar 3.2 emission maps respectively, suggesting that actual CH{sub 4} emissions were about 37 {+-} 21% higher than California specific inventory estimates. Second, a Bayesian 'source' analysis suggests that livestock emissions are 63 {+-} 22% higher than the a priori estimates. Third, a Bayesian 'region' analysis is carried out for CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions, which shows that inventory CH{sub 4} emissions from the Central Valley are underestimated and uncertainties in CH{sub 4} emissions are reduced for sub-regions near the tower site, yielding best estimates of flux from those regions consistent with 'source' analysis results. The uncertainty reductions for regions near the tower indicate that a regional network of measurements will be necessary to provide accurate estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions.

  17. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    summarized MC1 outputs under the four climate change projections also by computing statistics by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. MC1 predicts the greatest shift of vegetation types for the drier biomes of California, including the Sonoran Desert and the Eastern Cascade Slopes and Foothills. Strong shifts are predicted for forest biomes, including the Sierra Nevada (42-74%), and the Coast Range (24-40%). The simulated shifts in vegetation types are mediated by simultaneous changes in live vegetation carbon, which in turn are driven by simulated net primary production (NPP) at a monthly time step. MC1's poor skill in reproducing seasonal variations of NPP when compared to MODIS monthly GPP values suggests that the resulting vegetation type shifts are likely inaccurately predicted by MC1. Improving MC1's algorithm for NPP to more closely track seasonal variations in MODIS GPP should result in more reliable predictions of vegetation response to climate change.

  18. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, Southern Coast Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    The Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit covers approximately 7,820 square kilometers (km2) in Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo Counties in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California. The study unit was divided into four study areas—Santa Cruz, Pajaro Valley, Salinas Valley, and Highlands. More than 75 percent of the water used for drinking-water supply in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California is groundwater, and there are more than 8,000 well driller’s logs for domestic wells (California Department of Water Resources, 2013).

  19. California cooperative oceanic fisheries investigations. Reports volume 37, January 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfe, J. [ed.

    1996-10-01

    Scientists from the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the Southwest Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego (UCSD), have collaborated for 46 years in the longest-running large-scale study ever undertaken in the ocean. This study was begun in order to understand the causes of changes in population, over time, of commercially important fishes in California`s coastal waters. When the study began, the Pacific sardine was by far the most significant species of economic concern to the State of California. Because its population changes were thought to be caused by a diversity of atmospheric, oceanic, and biological variables, a wide array of measurements in the California Current region were begun and have been continued to this day. This long time series of data allows not only a better understanding of the flux of fish populations, but also lays the foundation for understanding interdecadal and secular change in the seas. This document contains papers from symposium of the 1995 CalCOFI Conference related to interdecadal changes in the ecology of the California current.

  20. Multiple introductions of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, into California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Evlyn; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Evans, Benjamin R; Kramer, Vicki; Bolling, Bethany G; Tabachnick, Walter J; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2017-08-01

    The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti inhabits much of the tropical and subtropical world and is a primary vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Breeding populations of A. aegypti were first reported in California (CA) in 2013. Initial genetic analyses using 12 microsatellites on collections from Northern CA in 2013 indicated the South Central US region as the likely source of the introduction. We expanded genetic analyses of CA A. aegypti by: (a) examining additional Northern CA samples and including samples from Southern CA, (b) including more southern US populations for comparison, and (c) genotyping a subset of samples at 15,698 SNPs. Major results are: (1) Northern and Southern CA populations are distinct. (2) Northern populations are more genetically diverse than Southern CA populations. (3) Northern and Southern CA groups were likely founded by two independent introductions which came from the South Central US and Southwest US/northern Mexico regions respectively. (4) Our genetic data suggest that the founding events giving rise to the Northern CA and Southern CA populations likely occurred before the populations were first recognized in 2013 and 2014, respectively. (5) A Northern CA population analyzed at multiple time-points (two years apart) is genetically stable, consistent with permanent in situ breeding. These results expand previous work on the origin of California A. aegypti with the novel finding that this species entered California on multiple occasions, likely some years before its initial detection. This work has implications for mosquito surveillance and vector control activities not only in California but also in other regions where the distribution of this invasive mosquito is expanding.

  1. Multiple introductions of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, into California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evlyn Pless

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti inhabits much of the tropical and subtropical world and is a primary vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Breeding populations of A. aegypti were first reported in California (CA in 2013. Initial genetic analyses using 12 microsatellites on collections from Northern CA in 2013 indicated the South Central US region as the likely source of the introduction. We expanded genetic analyses of CA A. aegypti by: (a examining additional Northern CA samples and including samples from Southern CA, (b including more southern US populations for comparison, and (c genotyping a subset of samples at 15,698 SNPs. Major results are: (1 Northern and Southern CA populations are distinct. (2 Northern populations are more genetically diverse than Southern CA populations. (3 Northern and Southern CA groups were likely founded by two independent introductions which came from the South Central US and Southwest US/northern Mexico regions respectively. (4 Our genetic data suggest that the founding events giving rise to the Northern CA and Southern CA populations likely occurred before the populations were first recognized in 2013 and 2014, respectively. (5 A Northern CA population analyzed at multiple time-points (two years apart is genetically stable, consistent with permanent in situ breeding. These results expand previous work on the origin of California A. aegypti with the novel finding that this species entered California on multiple occasions, likely some years before its initial detection. This work has implications for mosquito surveillance and vector control activities not only in California but also in other regions where the distribution of this invasive mosquito is expanding.

  2. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in California Region 18 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  3. California Counties and San Francisco Bay Area Watershed Boundaries, California, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data layers represent CA counties and the Bay Area Watersheds. These data layers aid in identifying counties and watersheds where the grant projects occur.

  4. Financial viability of the Sonora-Baja California interconnection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, G.; Ortega, G.

    2017-09-01

    In the Development Program of the National Electricity Sector 2015-2029, an electric interconnection line between Sonora and Baja California (Mexico) is proposed, this study analyzes the financial viability of this interconnection line based on the maximum hourly and seasonal energy demand between both regions and proposes alternatives for the supply of electric power that supports the economic convenience of this interconnection line. The results show that additional capacity is required in Sonora to cover the maximum demands of both regions since in the current condition of the National Electric System the interconnection line is not justified. (Author)

  5. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  6. Western Pond Turtle Observations - Region 1 [ds313

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset was developed in an effort to compile Western Pond Turtle (Clemmys marmorata) observations in CDFG Region 1. Steve Burton (CDFG Staff Environmental...

  7. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  8. Pareto-optimal estimates that constrain mean California precipitation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbrunner, B.; Neelin, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Global climate model (GCM) projections of greenhouse gas-induced precipitation change can exhibit notable uncertainty at the regional scale, particularly in regions where the mean change is small compared to internal variability. This is especially true for California, which is located in a transition zone between robust precipitation increases to the north and decreases to the south, and where GCMs from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) archive show no consensus on mean change (in either magnitude or sign) across the central and southern parts of the state. With the goal of constraining this uncertainty, we apply a multiobjective approach to a large set of subensembles (subsets of models from the full CMIP5 ensemble). These constraints are based on subensemble performance in three fields important to California precipitation: tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, upper-level zonal winds in the midlatitude Pacific, and precipitation over the state. An evolutionary algorithm is used to sort through and identify the set of Pareto-optimal subensembles across these three measures in the historical climatology, and we use this information to constrain end-of-century California wet season precipitation change. This technique narrows the range of projections throughout the state and increases confidence in estimates of positive mean change. Furthermore, these methods complement and generalize emergent constraint approaches that aim to restrict uncertainty in end-of-century projections, and they have applications to even broader aspects of uncertainty quantification, including parameter sensitivity and model calibration.

  9. California Drought Recovery Assessment Using GRACE Satellite Gravimetry Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, C. A.; Aghakouchak, A.; Madadgar, S.; Tourian, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    California has been experiencing its most extreme drought in recent history due to a combination of record high temperatures and exceptionally low precipitation. An estimate for when the drought can be expected to end is needed for risk mitigation and water management. A crucial component of drought recovery assessments is the estimation of terrestrial water storage (TWS) deficit. Previous studies on drought recovery have been limited to surface water hydrology (precipitation and/or runoff) for estimating changes in TWS, neglecting the contribution of groundwater deficits to the recovery time of the system. Groundwater requires more time to recover than surface water storage; therefore, the inclusion of groundwater storage in drought recovery assessments is essential for understanding the long-term vulnerability of a region. Here we assess the probability, for varying timescales, of California's current TWS deficit returning to its long-term historical mean. Our method consists of deriving the region's fluctuations in TWS from changes in the gravity field observed by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. We estimate the probability that meteorological inputs, precipitation minus evaporation and runoff, over different timespans will balance the current GRACE-derived TWS deficit (e.g. in 3, 6, 12 months). This method improves upon previous techniques as the GRACE-derived water deficit comprises all hydrologic sources, including surface water, groundwater, and snow cover. With this empirical probability assessment we expect to improve current estimates of California's drought recovery time, thereby improving risk mitigation.

  10. Fire management of California shrubland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2002-01-01

    Fire management of California shrublands has been heavily influenced by policies designed for coniferous forests, however, fire suppression has not effectively excluded fire from chaparral and coastal sage scrub landscapes and catastrophic wildfires are not the result of unnatural fuel accumulation. There is no evidence that prescribed burning in these shrublands provides any resource benefit and in some areas may negatively impact shrublands by increasing fire frequency. Therefore, fire hazard reduction is the primary justification for prescription burning, but it is doubtful that rotational burning to create landscape age mosaics is a cost effective method of controlling catastrophic wildfires. There are problems with prescription burning in this crown-fire ecosystem that are not shared by forests with a natural surface-fire regime. Prescription weather conditions preclude burning at rotation intervals sufficient to effect the control of fires ignited under severe weather conditions. Fire management should focus on strategic placement of prescription burns to both insure the most efficient fire hazard reduction and to minimize the amount of landscape exposed to unnaturally high fire frequency. A major contributor to increased fire suppression costs and increased loss of property and lives is the continued urban sprawl into wildlands naturally subjected to high intensity crown fires. Differences in shrubland fire history suggest there may be a need for different fire management tactics between central coastal and southern California. Much less is known about shrubland fire history in the Sierra Nevada foothills and interior North Coast Ranges, and thus it would be prudent to not transfer these ideas too broadly across the range of chaparral until we have a clearer understanding of the extent of regional variation in shrubland fire regimes.

  11. Global climate change and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.; Scheuring, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    In the fall of 1988 the University of California organized a new public-service initiative on global climate change in response to inquiries and requests from members of Congress and the Department of Energy (DOE). This new systemwide initiative involved all of the University of California campuses and the University's three national laboratories at Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Livermore. The goal of this Greenhouse Initiative was to focus the multidisciplinary resources of the UC campuses and the team-oriented research capabilities of the laboratories on the prospect of global warming and its associated effects on the planet and its nations. In consultation with the DOE, the organizers proposed a series of workshops to focus University of California research resources on the issue of global warming, to contribute to the congressionally mandated DOE studies on options for the US to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20% by the year 2000, and to begin building a long-term research base contributing to an improved understanding of global change in all of its complexity and diverse discipline implications. This volume contains papers from the first of these workshops. Individual papers are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  12. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  13. From continental to oceanic rifting in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luca; Bonini, Marco; Martín, Arturo

    2017-11-01

    The continental margin of northwestern Mexico is the youngest example of the transition from a convergent plate boundary to an oblique divergent margin that formed the Gulf of California rift. Subduction of the Farallon oceanic plate during the Cenozoic progressively brought the East Pacific Rise (EPR) toward the North America trench. In this process increasingly younger and buoyant oceanic lithosphere entered the subduction zone until subduction ended just before most of the EPR could collide with the North America continental lithosphere. The EPR segments bounding the unsubducted parts of the Farallón plate remnants (Guadalupe and Magdalena microplates) also ceased spreading (Lonsdale, 1991) and a belt of the North American plate (California and Baja California Peninsula) became coupled with the Pacific Plate and started moving northwestward forming the modern Gulf of California oblique rift (Nicholson et al., 1994; Bohannon and Parsons, 1995). The timing of the change from plate convergence to oblique divergence off western Mexico has been constrained at the middle Miocene (15-12.5 Ma) by ocean floor morphology and magnetic anomalies as well as plate tectonic reconstructions (Atwater and Severinghaus, 1989; Stock and Hodges, 1989; Lonsdale, 1991), although the onset of transtensional deformation and the amount of right lateral displacement within the Gulf region are still being studied (Oskin et al., 2001; Fletcher et al., 2007; Bennett and Oskin, 2014). Other aspects of the formation of the Gulf of California remain not well understood. At present the Gulf of California straddles the transition from continental transtension in the north to oceanic spreading in the south. Seismic reflection-refraction data indicate asymmetric continent-ocean transition across conjugate margins of rift segments (González-Fernández et al., 2005; Lizarralde et al., 2007; Miller and Lizarralde, 2013; Martín-Barajas et al., 2013). The asymmetry may be related to crustal

  14. Media and nationalism in Baja California during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Gruel Sández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to explain some journalistic representations of the Northern Territory of Baja California. The body of documents that pertain this article, will document different versions of the past of the peninsula, from the nature of political discourse. Bajacalifornians will appear represented by journalists, struggling to eliminate an image of an isolated, uninhabited place filled with U.S. citizens. The editorial portrayal of the Tijuana, Mexicali and Mexico City press will be analyzed in context with the regional, national and international conflicts. Public opinion was a ground where the people of Baja California negotiated the nationalism, as the rest of the world collapsed with World War ii.

  15. THE CALIFORNIA MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, Joao F.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of wide-field infrared extinction maps of a region in Perseus just north of the Taurus-Auriga dark cloud complex. From this analysis we have identified a massive, nearby, but previously unrecognized, giant molecular cloud (GMC). Both a uniform foreground star density and measurements of the cloud's velocity field from CO observations indicate that this cloud is likely a coherent structure at a single distance. From comparison of foreground star counts with Galactic models, we derive a distance of 450 ± 23 pc to the cloud. At this distance the cloud extends over roughly 80 pc and has a mass of ∼ 10 5 M sun , rivaling the Orion (A) molecular cloud as the largest and most massive GMC in the solar neighborhood. Although surprisingly similar in mass and size to the more famous Orion molecular cloud (OMC) the newly recognized cloud displays significantly less star formation activity with more than an order of magnitude fewer young stellar objects than found in the OMC, suggesting that both the level of star formation and perhaps the star formation rate in this cloud are an order of magnitude or more lower than in the OMC. Analysis of extinction maps of both clouds shows that the new cloud contains only 10% the amount of high extinction (A K > 1.0 mag) material as is found in the OMC. This, in turn, suggests that the level of star formation activity and perhaps the star formation rate in these two clouds may be directly proportional to the total amount of high extinction material and presumably high density gas within them and that there might be a density threshold for star formation on the order of n(H 2 ) ∼ a few x 10 4 cm -3 .

  16. Characteristics of southern California atmospheric rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sarah M.; Carvalho, Leila M. V.

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are channels of high water vapor flux that transport moisture from low to higher latitudes on synoptic timescales. In areas of topographical variability, ARs may lead to high-intensity precipitation due to orographic forcing. ARs landfalling along North America's west coast are linked to extreme events including those leading to flooding and landslides. In southern California (SCA), proper AR forecasting is important for regional water resources as well as hazard mitigation and as the area's annual precipitation totals occur from relatively few storms per season, any changes to storm frequency and/or intensity may have dramatic consequences. Yet, as most regional AR studies focus on the Pacific Northwest, there is little information about SCA ARs. We develop an algorithm to identify ARs landfalling on North America's west coast between 1979 and 2013 within total precipitable water reanalysis fields. ARs are then categorized according to landfall region. To determine and differentiate the characteristics and spatial distributions of ARs affecting these areas, we examine lag composites of various atmospheric variables for each landfall region. SCA ARs differ from ARs landfalling farther north in the days prior to landfall with the position and amplitude of a trough offshore from the Asian continent and ridge over Alaska, as well as the displacement and eastward extension of the jet core that potentially guides AR moisture southwards. The relationships between AR landfalls and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and the Pacific/North American Teleconnection Pattern (PNA) are also investigated.

  17. Mapping Drought Impacts on Agricultural Production in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, F. S.; Guzman, A.; Johnson, L.; Rosevelt, C.; Verdin, J. P.; Dwyer, J. L.; Mueller, R.; Zakzeski, A.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Wallace, C.; Jones, J.; Windell, S.; Urness, J.; Teaby, A.; Hamblin, D.; Post, K. M.; Nemani, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing drought in California has substantially reduced surface water supplies for millions of acres of irrigated farmland in California's Central Valley. Rapid assessment of drought impacts on agricultural production can aid water managers in assessing mitigation options, and guide decision making with respect to requests for local water transfers, county drought disaster designations, and allocation of emergency funds to mitigate drought impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers an efficient way to provide quantitative assessments of drought impacts on agricultural production and increases in idle acreage associated with reductions in water supply. A key advantage of satellite-based assessments is that they can provide a measure of land fallowing that is consistent across both space and time. We describe an approach for monthly and seasonal mapping of uncultivated agricultural acreage developed as part of a joint effort by USGS, USDA, NASA, and the California Department of Water Resources to provide timely assessments of land fallowing during drought events. This effort has used the Central Valley of California as a pilot region for development and testing of an operational approach. To provide quantitative measures of uncultivated agricultural acreage from satellite data early in the season, we developed a decision tree algorithm and applied it to timeseries of data from Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI, and MODIS. Our effort has been focused on development of indicators of drought impacts in the March - August timeframe based on measures of crop development patterns relative to a reference period with average or above average rainfall. To assess the accuracy of the algorithms, monthly ground validation surveys were conducted across 640 fields from March - September, 2014. We present the algorithm along with updated results from the accuracy assessment, and discuss potential applications to other regions.

  18. California's experience with alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.

    1993-01-01

    California is often referred to as a nation-state, and in many aspects fits that description. The state represents the seventh largest economy in the world. Most of California does not have to worry about fuel to heat homes in the winter. What we do worry about is fuel for our motor vehicles, approximately 24 million of them. In fact, California accounts for ten percent of new vehicle sales in the United States each year, much of it used in the transportation sector. The state is the third largest consumer of gasoline in the world, only exceeded by the United States as a whole and the former Soviet Union. California is also a leader in air pollution. Of the nine worst ozone areas in the country cited in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, two areas the Los Angeles Basin and San Diego are located in California. Five of California's cities made the top 20 smoggiest cities in the United States. In reality, all of California's major metropolitan areas have air quality problems. This paper will discuss the beginnings of California's investigations of alternative fuels use in vehicles; the results of the state's demonstration programs; and future plans to improve California's air quality and energy security in the mobile sector

  19. California Attorney General opines: California's nuclear legislation unconstitutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabin, V.

    1979-01-01

    The California Attorney General found three sections of the state's nuclear regulation code to be in violation of Federal authority and the State Constitution. Legislation and court cases since 1946 are quoted to support the Attorney General's position. The Warren--Alquist Act, which requires a demonstrated technology for reprocessing fuel rods or disposing of high-level wastes before a nuclear plant can be licensed, is unconstitutional because it usurps Federal control and allows the state to permanently block nuclear facility construction and certification. States' rights in the area of radiological health and safety are supplanted by the Federal government

  20. California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) - Impaired Waterbodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset contains California's 2002 Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list which is submitted by the California State Water Resources Control Board. The layer has...

  1. Vegetation (MCV / NVCS) Mapping Projects - California [ds515

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This metadata layer shows the footprint of vegetation mapping projects completed in California that have used the Manual California of Vegetation ( MCV 1st edition)...

  2. SWFSC/MMTD/CCE: California Harbor Porpoise Survey (CAHPS) 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A ship-based marine mammal survey in California from Point Conception, California to the California-Oregon border, with the survey extent limited to waters from the...

  3. LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — LiDAR data for the Delta Area of California from the California Department of Water Resources. Bare earth grids from LiDAR.This data is in ESRI Grid format with 2...

  4. Molecular Diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi Detected in the Vector Triatoma protracta from California, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Shender

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease in humans and dogs, is a vector-borne zoonotic protozoan parasite that can cause fatal cardiac disease. While recognized as the most economically important parasitic infection in Latin America, the incidence of Chagas disease in the United States of America (US may be underreported and even increasing. The extensive genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Latin America is well-documented and likely influences disease progression, severity and treatment efficacy; however, little is known regarding T. cruzi strains endemic to the US. It is therefore important to expand our knowledge on US T. cruzi strains, to improve upon the recognition of and response to locally acquired infections.We conducted a study of T. cruzi molecular diversity in California, augmenting sparse genetic data from southern California and for the first time investigating genetic sequences from northern California. The vector Triatoma protracta was collected from southern (Escondido and Los Angeles and northern (Vallecito California regions. Samples were initially screened via sensitive nuclear repetitive DNA and kinetoplast minicircle DNA PCR assays, yielding an overall prevalence of approximately 28% and 55% for southern and northern California regions, respectively. Positive samples were further processed to identify discrete typing units (DTUs, revealing both TcI and TcIV lineages in southern California, but only TcI in northern California. Phylogenetic analyses (targeting COII-ND1, TR and RB19 genes were performed on a subset of positive samples to compare Californian T. cruzi samples to strains from other US regions and Latin America. Results indicated that within the TcI DTU, California sequences were similar to those from the southeastern US, as well as to several isolates from Latin America responsible for causing Chagas disease in humans.Triatoma protracta populations in California are frequently infected with T. cruzi

  5. Multiple Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Richard J.; Graymer, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    With the exception of Los Angeles, perhaps no urban area in the United States is more at risk from landsliding, triggered by either precipitation or earthquake, than the San Francisco Bay region of northern California. By January each year, seasonal winter storms usually bring moisture levels of San Francisco Bay region hillsides to the point of saturation, after which additional heavy rainfall may induce landslides of various types and levels of severity. In addition, movement at any time along one of several active faults in the area may generate an earthquake large enough to trigger landslides. The danger to life and property rises each year as local populations continue to expand and more hillsides are graded for development of residential housing and its supporting infrastructure. The chapters in the text consist of: *Introduction by Russell W. Graymer *Chapter 1 Rainfall Thresholds for Landslide Activity, San Francisco Bay Region, Northern California by Raymond C. Wilson *Chapter 2 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 3 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 4 Landslide Hazard Modeled for the Cities of Oakland, Piedmont, and Berkeley, Northern California, from a M=7.1 Scenario Earthquake on the Hayward Fault Zone by Scott B. Miles and David K. Keefer *Chapter 5 Synthesis of Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike The plates consist of: *Plate 1 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike, Russell W. Graymer, Sebastian Roberts, Naomi B. Kalman, and Steven Sobieszczyk *Plate 2 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven

  6. California energy flow in 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1995-04-01

    Energy consumption in the state of California decreased about 3% in 1993 reflecting continuation of the recession that was manifest in a moribund construction industry and a high state unemployment that ran counter to national recovery trends. Residential/commercial use decreased slightly reflecting a mild winter in the populous southern portion of the state, a decrease that was offset to some extent by an increase in the state population. Industrial consumption of purchased energy declined substantially as did production of self-generated electricity for in-house use. Consumption in the transportation sector decreased slightly. The amount of power transmitted by the utilities was at 1992 levels; however a smaller proportion was produced by the utilities themselves. Generation of electricity by nonutilities, primarily cogenerators and small power producers, was the largest of any state in the US. The growth in the number of private power producers combined with increased amounts of electricity sold to the public utilities set the stage for the sweeping proposals before the California Public Utility Commission to permit direct sales from the nonutilities to retail customers. California production of both oil and natural gas declined; however, to meet demand only the imports of natural gas increased. A break in the decade-long drought during the 1992--1993 season resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of hydroelectricity generated during the year. Geothermal energy`s contribution increased substantially because of the development of new resources by small power producers. Decline in steam production continued at The Geysers, the state`s largest field, principally owned and managed by a public utility. Increases in windpower constituted 1--1/2% of the total electric supply--up slightly from 1992. Several solar photo voltaic demonstration plants were in operation, but their contribution remained small.

  7. BENTON RANGE ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin H.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, two parts of the Benton Range Roadless Area, California are considered to have mineral-resource potential. The central and southern part of the roadless area, near several nonoperating mines, has a probable potential for tungsten and gold-silver mineralization in tactite zones. The central part of the area has a substantiated resource potential for gold and silver in quartz veins. Detailed mapping and geochemical sampling for tungsten, gold, and silver in the central and southern part of the roadless area might indicate targets for shallow drilling exploration.

  8. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  9. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  10. California Red-Legged Frog Range - CWHR [ds587

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  11. Sonoma Ecology Center Northern California Arundo Distribution Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from numerous sources, including Arundo...

  12. Twentieth-century shifts in forest structure in California: Denser forests, smaller trees, and increased dominance of oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Patrick J; Thorne, James H; Dolanc, Christopher R; Flint, Alan L; Flint, Lorraine E; Kelly, Maggi; Ackerly, David D

    2015-02-03

    We document changes in forest structure between historical (1930s) and contemporary (2000s) surveys of California vegetation through comparisons of tree abundance and size across the state and within several ecoregions. Across California, tree density in forested regions increased by 30% between the two time periods, whereas forest biomass in the same regions declined, as indicated by a 19% reduction in basal area. These changes reflect a demographic shift in forest structure: larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height) have declined, whereas smaller trees (Forest composition in California in the last century has also shifted toward increased dominance by oaks relative to pines, a pattern consistent with warming and increased water stress, and also with paleohistoric shifts in vegetation in California over the last 150,000 y.

  13. Case study : The California Digital Library

    OpenAIRE

    Ober, John

    2002-01-01

    The California Digital Library was founded in 1997 as a digital “co-library” of the 10 Universities of California campuses. Responses to crisis in scholarly communication and the opportunity presented by digital technologies and the Web. Charged to create a comprehensive system for the management of digital scholarly information.

  14. Outlook for California's electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes how the Southern California Edison Company deals with revolutionary change as the state's electricity industry reinvents itself. The topics of the article include how competition has make things better for SCEC's employees, customers, and shareholders, and an outline of the principal features of the electric utility industry in California

  15. Quercus kelloggii Newb., California black oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) exceeds all other California oaks in volume, distribution, and altitudinal range. Yet this deciduous hardwood has had little sustained commercial use and almost no management, even though its wood closely resembles that of its valuable, managed, and heavily used counterpart-northern red oak (...

  16. A Brief History of California School Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, the governor proposed a new funding model for California school districts called the Local Control Funding Formula. As the Legislature debates the proposed new funding model for schools, which is expected to start in the 2013-14 fiscal year, the author thought it would be a good time for a history lesson in California school…

  17. Inequalities in School Climate in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.; Huang, Kevin; Hanson, Thomas L.; Austin, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: School climate, or the physical and social conditions of the learning environment, has implications for academic achievement. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors examine how school climate varies by school-level characteristics in California using administrative data and the California School…

  18. California Indian ethnomycology and associated forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kat M. Anderson; Frank K. Lake

    2013-01-01

    Many California Indian tribes utilized mushrooms for food, medicine, and/or technological purposes. This paper summarizes which mushrooms were important to different California Indian tribes in historic and modern times and how they were harvested, prepared, and stored. Oral interviews were conducted and the ethnographic literature reviewed to detail the extent and...

  19. Home range characteristics of fishers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Zielinski; R. L. Truex; G. A. Schmidt; F. V. Schlexer; K. N. Schmidt; R. H. Barrett

    2004-01-01

    The fisher (Martes pennanti) is a forest mustelid that historically occurred in California from the mixed conifer forests of the north coast, east to the southern Cascades, and south throughout the Sierra Nevada. Today fishers in California occur only in 2 disjunct populations in the northwestern mountains and the...

  20. California Contradictions: Creating Your Own Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    California state policies and regulations that force teacher education programs to limit enrollment because of insufficient resources, and discourage immigration of out-of-state teachers contribute to California's critical shortage of teachers. In addition, the quality of elementary instruction is jeopardized by regulations that diminish…

  1. Collaborative monitoring in Walnut Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Ballard; Ralph Kraetsch; Lynn Huntsinger

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 and 2000, a monitoring program was designed and implemented to track oak regeneration and native grass populations in target management areas in the four Open Space Preserves of the City of Walnut Creek, California. The program resulted from a collaboration of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, a group of interested citizens known as the...

  2. Supporting Continuous Improvement in California's Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda; Plank, David N.

    2015-01-01

    California's new accountability system originated in the radical decentralization of power and authority from Sacramento to local schools and their communities brought about by the Legislature's adoption of the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) in 2013. Under California's previous accountability policies and the federal "No Child Left…

  3. California-Mexico gas exports eyed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that two California utilities have proposed providing natural gas transportation services to Mexico. The arrangement would provide a second U.S. export sales point at the U.S.-Mexico border and perhaps help alleviate an expected surplus of gas pipeline capacity available to California. Mexico currently imports about 200 MMcfd of U.S. gas via pipelines in Texas

  4. Tribal casinos in California: the last vestige of indoor smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background High levels of airborne particles from secondhand smoke have been reported in California Indian casinos. Yet, little is known regarding the smoking status of casino patrons, their avoidance of secondhand smoke while visiting, and their views on a hypothetical smoking ban. Methods Predictors of visiting an Indian casino were assessed among participants of the 2008 California Tobacco Survey (n = 10, 397). Exposure to and avoidance of secondhand smoke were subsequently analyzed among a subset of participants who had visited a casino in the year prior to the survey (n = 3, 361). Results Ethnic minorities, older individuals, current smokers and residents of sparsely populated regions of California were more likely than other demographic groups to visit a tribal casino. Avoidance of secondhand smoke was more frequent among the never smokers than former and current smokers, particularly those who last visited a casino lacking physical separation between non-smoking and smoking sections. The never smokers versus current smokers disproportionately expressed a willingness to extend their stay and visit again if smoking were prohibited. Conclusions If casinos became smoke free, then it is anticipated that they would be visited by a significantly larger number of Californians, including both patrons and those who otherwise would not have visited a casino. PMID:22364487

  5. Tribal casinos in California: the last vestige of indoor smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timberlake David S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of airborne particles from secondhand smoke have been reported in California Indian casinos. Yet, little is known regarding the smoking status of casino patrons, their avoidance of secondhand smoke while visiting, and their views on a hypothetical smoking ban. Methods Predictors of visiting an Indian casino were assessed among participants of the 2008 California Tobacco Survey (n = 10, 397. Exposure to and avoidance of secondhand smoke were subsequently analyzed among a subset of participants who had visited a casino in the year prior to the survey (n = 3, 361. Results Ethnic minorities, older individuals, current smokers and residents of sparsely populated regions of California were more likely than other demographic groups to visit a tribal casino. Avoidance of secondhand smoke was more frequent among the never smokers than former and current smokers, particularly those who last visited a casino lacking physical separation between non-smoking and smoking sections. The never smokers versus current smokers disproportionately expressed a willingness to extend their stay and visit again if smoking were prohibited. Conclusions If casinos became smoke free, then it is anticipated that they would be visited by a significantly larger number of Californians, including both patrons and those who otherwise would not have visited a casino.

  6. Multiscale Approach to Small River Plumes off California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdurak, N. B.; Largier, J. L.; Nidzieko, N.

    2012-12-01

    While larger scale plumes have received significant attention, the dynamics of plumes associated with small rivers typical of California are little studied. Since small streams are not dominated by a momentum flux, their plumes are more susceptible to conditions in the coastal ocean such as wind and waves. In order to correctly model water transport at smaller scales, there is a need to capture larger scale processes. To do this, one-way nested grids with varying grid resolution (1 km and 10 m for the parent and the child grid respectively) were constructed. CENCOOS (Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System) model results were used as boundary conditions to the parent grid. Semi-idealized model results for Santa Rosa Creek, California are presented from an implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v3.0), a three-dimensional, free-surface, terrain-following numerical model. In these preliminary results, the interaction between tides, winds, and buoyancy forcing in plume dynamics is explored for scenarios including different strengths of freshwater flow with different modes (steady and pulsed). Seasonal changes in transport dynamics and dispersion patterns are analyzed.

  7. California energy flow in 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. K.; Borg, I. Y.

    1981-03-01

    Energy use in California during 1979 differed significantly from 1978. Overall use of natural gas in the state increased substantially (14.3%) due principally to greater use for electrical power production; 4% more gas was used for electrical power generation in 1979 than in 1978 and 21% more than in 1977. Use of fuel oil for electrical generation remained at the 1978 level but below the high 1977 level, which reflected substitution of oil for hydroelectric power during the 1976 to 1977 drought. Together, oil and gas accounted for 80% of the fuels used to generate electricity. Crude-oil imports principally from Indonesia fell substantially; however, use of Alaskan North Slope oil increased so that the net increase in crude oil use was up about 4%. The transportation end-use sector consumed about as much as in 1978 despite shortages in early 1979 associated with the Iranian revolution. While sales fell slightly, sales of high-sulfur residual oils (Bunker C) increased markedly. Transportation represents 38% of total energy consumption in California.

  8. Transport woes threaten California production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    California oil producers face a loss of production this year because of constraints on pipeline and tanker transportation to Los Angeles area refineries. The potential bottleneck is occurring at a time when Outer Continental Shelf production is near capacity from Chevron Corp.'s Point Arguello project at the same time production is increasing from Exxon Corp.'s nearby Santa Ynex Unit (SYU) expansion. Both megaprojects must compete for pipeline space with onshore crude producers, notably in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Recent development limiting transportation options include: An indefinite shutdown of Four Corners Pipe Line Co.'s 50,000 b/d Line No. 1, damaged by the Jan. 17 earthquake; Loss of a tanker permit by Chevron and partners for offshore Point Arguello production; Permanent shutdown of Exxon's offshore storage and treatment (OST) facility, which since 1981 has used tankers to transport about 20,000 b/d of SYU production from the Santa Barbara Channel to Los Angeles. The OST, the first commercial floating production system in the US -- placed in the Santa Barbara Channel in 1981 after a decade of precedent setting legal and political battles -- was shut down Apr. 4. The paper discusses these production concerns, available options, the OST shutdown, and the troubled history of the OST

  9. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

    2013-10-10

    A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants

  10. Will southern California remain a premium market for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    Average yearly demand for natural gas in southern California totalled just over 3 billion ft 3 /d in 1991 and is projected to increase to just over 3.2 billion ft 3 /d in 2000 and 3.4 billion ft 3 /d in 2010. In the core residential market, demand is being driven by population growth and offset by conservation measures. In the core commercial and industrial market, demand is driven by employment growth and offset by conservation. In the noncore market, natural gas use is expected to fall from 262 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 223 million ft 3 /d in 2010. Demand for natural gas for cogeneration is expected to either remain stagnant or decrease. The largest potential for market growth in southern California is for utility electric generation. Demand in this sector is expected to increase from 468 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 1 billion ft 3 in 2010. Air quality concerns furnish a market opportunity for natural gas vehicles, and a substantial increase in natural gas demand might be obtained from even a modest market share of the region's 10 million vehicles. Existing pipeline capacity is sufficient to supply current average year requirements, and the need for new capacity hinges on the issues of satisfying high-year demand, meeting market growth, and accessing more desirable supply regions. Planned capacity additions of 2,150 million ft 3 /d, if completed, will bring substantial excess capacity to southern California in the late 1990s. The competitive advantages of various producing regions will then be greatly influenced by the rate designs used on the pipelines connecting them to the market. 4 tabs

  11. Estimating the distribution of lifetime cumulative radon exposures for California residents: a brief summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.-S.; Chang, Y.-L.; Hayward, S.B.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nero, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Data on residential radon concentrations in California, together with information on California residents' moving houses and time-activity patterns, have been used to estimate the distribution of lifetime cumulative exposures to 222 Rn. This distribution was constructed using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate the lifetime occupancy histories and associated radon exposures of 10,000 California residents. For standard male and female lifespans, the simulation sampled from transition probability matrices representing changes of residence within and between six regions of California, as well as into and out of the other United States, and then sampled from the appropriate regional (or national) distribution of indoor concentrations. The resulting distribution of lifetime cumulative exposures has a significantly narrower relative width than the distribution of California indoor concentrations, with only a small fraction (less than 0.2%) of the population having lifetime exposures equivalent to living their lifetimes in a single home with a radon concentration of 148 Bq.m -3 or more. (author)

  12. Federal Labs and Research Centers Benefiting California: 2017 Impact Report for State Leaders.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koning, Patricia Brady [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is the largest of the Department of Energy national laboratories with more than 13,000 staff spread across its two main campuses in New Mexico and California. For more than 60 years, the Sandia National Laboratories campus in Livermore, California has delivered cutting-edge science and technology solutions to resolve the nation’s most challenging and complex problems. As a multidisciplinary laboratory, Sandia draws from virtually every science and engineering discipline to address challenges in energy, homeland security, cybersecurity, climate, and biosecurity. Today, collaboration is vital to ensuring that the Lab stays at the forefront of science and technology innovation. Partnerships with industry, state, and local governments, and California universities help drive innovation and economic growth in the region. Sandia contributed to California’s regional and statewide economy with more than $145 million in contracts to California companies, $92 million of which goes to California small businesses. In addition, Sandia engages the community directly by running robust STEM education programs for local schools and administering community giving programs. Meanwhile, investments like the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC), an innovation hub supported by LLNL and Sandia, help catalyze the local economy.

  13. Naphthalene distributions and human exposure in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Turco, Richard P.; Winer, Arthur M.; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Lurmann, Fred W.; Miguel, Antonio H.; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu

    The regional distribution of, and human exposure to, naphthalene are investigated for Southern California. A comprehensive approach is taken in which advanced models are linked for the first time to quantify population exposure to the emissions of naphthalene throughout Southern California. Naphthalene is the simplest and most abundant of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in polluted urban environments, and has been detected in both outdoor and indoor air samples. Exposure to high concentrations of naphthalene may have adverse health effects, possibly causing cancer in humans. Among the significant emission sources are volatilization from naphthalene-containing products, petroleum refining, and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. Gasoline and diesel engine exhaust, with related vaporization from fuels, are found to contribute roughly half of the daily total naphthalene burden in Southern California. As part of this study, the emission inventory for naphthalene has been verified against new field measurements of the naphthalene-to-benzene ratio in a busy traffic tunnel in Los Angeles, supporting the modeling work carried out here. The Surface Meteorology and Ozone Generation (SMOG) airshed model is used to compute the spatial and temporal distributions of naphthalene and its photooxidation products in Southern California. The present simulations reveal a high degree of spatial variability in the concentrations of naphthalene-related species, with large diurnal and seasonal variations as well. Peak naphthalene concentrations are estimated to occur in the early morning hours in the winter season. The naphthalene concentration estimates obtained from the SMOG model are employed in the Regional Human Exposure (REHEX) model to calculate population exposure statistics. Results show average hourly naphthalene exposures in Southern California under summer and winter conditions of 270 and 430 ng m -3, respectively. Exposure to significantly higher concentrations

  14. Community exposure to tsunami hazards in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Ratliff, Jamie; Peters, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of past events and modeling of potential events suggest that tsunamis are significant threats to low-lying communities on the California coast. To reduce potential impacts of future tsunamis, officials need to understand how communities are vulnerable to tsunamis and where targeted outreach, preparedness, and mitigation efforts may be warranted. Although a maximum tsunami-inundation zone based on multiple sources has been developed for the California coast, the populations and businesses in this zone have not been documented in a comprehensive way. To support tsunami preparedness and risk-reduction planning in California, this study documents the variations among coastal communities in the amounts, types, and percentages of developed land, human populations, and businesses in the maximum tsunami-inundation zone. The tsunami-inundation zone includes land in 94 incorporated cities, 83 unincorporated communities, and 20 counties on the California coast. According to 2010 U.S. Census Bureau data, this tsunami-inundation zone contains 267,347 residents (1 percent of the 20-county resident population), of which 13 percent identify themselves as Hispanic or Latino, 14 percent identify themselves as Asian, 16 percent are more than 65 years in age, 12 percent live in unincorporated areas, and 51 percent of the households are renter occupied. Demographic attributes related to age, race, ethnicity, and household status of residents in tsunami-prone areas demonstrate substantial range among communities that exceed these regional averages. The tsunami-inundation zone in several communities also has high numbers of residents in institutionalized and noninstitutionalized group quarters (for example, correctional facilities and military housing, respectively). Communities with relatively high values in the various demographic categories are identified throughout the report. The tsunami-inundation zone contains significant nonresidential populations based on 2011 economic

  15. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Toro, Ligeia [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico); Heckel, Gisela [Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gheckel@cicese.mx; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Apdo. Postal 453, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico); Schramm, Yolanda [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. {sigma}DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 {mu}g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCBs, 2.96 {mu}g/g), chlordanes (0.12 {mu}g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 {mu}g/g). The {sigma}DDTs/{sigma}PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA.

  16. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Toro, Ligeia; Heckel, Gisela; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F.; Schramm, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. ΣDDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 μg/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs, 2.96 μg/g), chlordanes (0.12 μg/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 μg/g). The ΣDDTs/ΣPCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA

  17. Multiwavelength EDM measurements in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, L.E.; McGarr, A.; Langbein, J.O.; Linker, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    We installed a precise geodetic network along the San Andreas fault near Pearblossom, California in November, 1980. The network is within the region frequently referred to as the "Palmdale Uplift" and consists of 13 lines radiating from a central benchmark. The lines range in length from 3.2 to 8.1 km are generally measured several times each week. The multiwavelength distance measuring (MWDM) instrument is located at the central benchmark and is housed in a small protective shelter. The MWDM instrument has demonstrated a capability to make measurements to a precision of 1 part in 10 million. Using a coordinate system whose x-axis is parallel to the local trace of the San Andreas fault the following strain rates were observed during the first 10 months of this effort: {greater-than with dot}exx = -0.180 ?? 0.025 ??str/yr{greater-than with dot}eyy = -0.031 ?? 0.029 ??str/yr{greater-than with dot}exy = +0.077 ?? 0.024 ??str/yr?? = -0.213 ?? 0.039 ??str/yr. The observed strain rates do not appear to be constant in time, much of the deformation occurs in fairly well defined episodes. These changes in strain rate are particularly obvious in the \\ ??.geyy component. ?? 1983.

  18. Uranium occurence in California near Bucaramanga (Columbia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heider Polania, J.

    1980-01-01

    The mining district of California, Bucaramanga, is on the west side of the Cordillera Oriental in the Santander massif region. The oldest rocks of the area form a complex of metamorphites and migmatites of the predevonic age. Amphibolite various types of paragneiss and orthogneiss are represented. Several stages of metamorphism can be documented in some rocks, as well as double anatexis. Triassic to jurassic quarz diorites and leukogranites show wide distribution. Porphyric rocks of granodioritic to granitic composition, to which the uranium mineralization is mainly bonded, intruded into the sediments of the lower cretaceous. Atomic absorption spectral analyses were carried out for the elements Cu, Zn and Li, as well as the uranium contents of some samples using fluorimetry. Uranium is primarily bonded to pitch blende and coffinite. The latter mostly occur in fine distribution grown in quarz and belong to the most recent mineralization phase. Autunite, meta-autunite, torbernite, meta-torbernite, zeunerite, meta-zeunerite and meta uranocircite detected as secondary uranium minerals. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Channel Responses and Hydromodification in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R. J.; Dust, D. W.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    Hydromodification (changes in watershed hydrologic characteristics, and the resulting hydraulics and channel forms due to urbanization) is ubiquitous in Southern California. In this region, the effects of hydromodification are driven and compounded by the arid/semiarid climate, high relief, erodible soils, high urbanization rates, and relatively low frequency of retention/detention. We conducted a preliminary survey of over 50 stream reaches along a gradient from least disturbed to fully urbanized. All stages of the Channel Evolution Model (CEM) of Schumm et al. (1984) were observed, from stable to degrading, widening, aggrading, and quasi-equilibrium channels. Several sites have CEM stages II through V in close proximity due to headcutting, hardpoints, and infrastructure. We also observed channels in undeveloped watersheds impacted by downstream urbanization via headcutting. A range of intervention measures was observed, with the frequent evolutionary endpoint as a concrete engineered flood control channel. We also observed multiple channel evolution sequences that deviate from the CEM for single-thread, incising channels. An alternative channel response, particularly on smaller urbanized streams is a stabilized, vegetation encroached low-flow channel with regular baseflow supplied by residential irrigation runoff. The limited cases of unimpacted streams that remain tend to be high gradient, high energy systems that are naturally proximate to the transition between braided and meandering form for a given sediment size.

  20. Simulated behavior of drilling fluid discharges off Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandsma, M.G.; Kolpack, R.L.; Dickey, T.D.; Balcom, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on the computer-simulated short-term behavior of drilling-fluid solids from the time of release to initial deposition on the ocean bottom. The geographic areas of primary interest were the Santa Barbara Channel and Point Conception regions off southern California. Simulations (53) were conducted for water depths ranging from 30 to 750 m. Oceanographic parameters for several representative oceanic conditions were obtained from available field measurements in the area. Characteristics of representative drilling-fluid solids were formulated from information supplied by several offshore operators and by laboratory analyses of samples

  1. Refining Southern California Geotherms Using Seismologic, Geologic, and Petrologic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, W. R.; Chapman, D. S.; Allam, A. A.; Williams, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Lithospheric deformation in tectonically active regions depends on the 3D distribution of rheology, which is in turn critically controlled by temperature. Under the auspices of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) we are developing a 3D Community Thermal Model (CTM) to constrain rheology and so better understand deformation processes within this complex but densely monitored and relatively well-understood region. The San Andreas transform system has sliced southern California into distinct blocks, each with characteristic lithologies, seismic velocities and thermal structures. Guided by the geometry of these blocks we use more than 250 surface heat-flow measurements to define 13 geographically distinct heat flow regions (HFRs). Model geotherms within each HFR are constrained by averages and variances of surface heat flow q0 and the 1D depth distribution of thermal conductivity (k) and radiogenic heat production (A), which are strongly dependent on rock type. Crustal lithologies are not always well known and we turn to seismic imaging for help. We interrogate the SCEC Community Velocity Model (CVM) to determine averages and variances of Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs versus depth within each HFR. We bound (A, k) versus depth by relying on empirical relations between seismic wave speed and rock type and laboratory and modeling methods relating (A, k) to rock type. Many 1D conductive geotherms for each HFR are allowed by the variances in surface heat flow and subsurface (A, k). An additional constraint on the lithosphere temperature field is provided by comparing lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depths identified seismologically with those defined thermally as the depth of onset of partial melting. Receiver function studies in Southern California indicate LAB depths that range from 40 km to 90 km. Shallow LAB depths are correlated with high surface heat flow and deep LAB with low heat flow. The much-restricted families of geotherms that intersect peridotite

  2. Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, Brynie Kaplan; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Gulland, Frances M; Higgins, Ali; Holcomb, Jay B; Leger, Judy St; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    We reviewed medical records from select wildlife rehabilitation facilities in California to determine the prevalence of injury in California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), gulls (Larus spp.), and pinniped species (Zalophus californianus, Mirounga angustirostris, and Phoca vitulina) due to fishing gear entanglement and ingestion from 2001 to 2006. Of 9,668 Brown Pelican, gull, and pinniped cases described during the 6-yr study period (2001-06), 1,090 (11.3%) were fishing gear-related. Pelican injuries caused by fishing gear were most common in the Monterey Bay region, where 59.6% of the pelicans rescued in this area and admitted to a rehabilitation center were injured by fishing gear over the 6-yr period. The highest prevalence of fishing gear-related injury in gulls was documented in the Los Angeles/Orange County region (16.1%), whereas the highest prevalences in pinnipeds were seen in the San Diego region (3.7%). Despite these higher prevalences of gull and pinniped fishing gear-related injuries in these specific regions, there was no statistical significance in these trends. Juvenile gulls and pinnipeds were more commonly injured by fishing gear than adults (gulls: P = 0.03, odds ratio = 1.29; pinnipeds: P = 0.01, odds ratio = 2.07). Male pinnipeds were twice as likely to be injured by fishing gear as females (P gear-related injury cases that were successfully rehabilitated and released (percentage of cases successfully rehabilitated to the point of release out of the total number of fishing gear-related injury cases) was high in all three species groups (pelicans: 63%; gulls: 54%; pinnipeds: 70%). Fishing gear-related injuries in Brown Pelicans and gulls were highest in the fall, but there was only a significant difference between seasons for fishing gear-related injuries in pelicans. Fishing gear-related injuries in pinnipeds most commonly occurred in summer; however, a statistical difference was not detected between seasons for pinnipeds. Derelict

  3. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath bathymetry data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Monterey map area in central California is located on the Pacific Coast, about 120 km south of San Francisco. Incorporated cities in the map area include Seaside, Monterey, Marina, Pacific Grove, Carmel-by-the-Sea, and Sand City. The local economy receives significant resources from tourism, as well as from the Federal Government. Tourist attractions include the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman’s Wharf, and the many golf courses near Pebble Beach, and the area serves as a gateway to the spectacular scenery and outdoor activities along the Big Sur coast to the south. Federal facilities include the Army’s Defense Language Institute, the Naval Postgraduate School, and the Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (operated by the Navy). In 1994, Fort Ord army base, located between Seaside and Marina, was closed; much of former army base land now makes up the Fort Ord National Monument, managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. In addition, part of the old Fort Ord is now occupied by California State University, Monterey Bay.The offshore part of the map area lies entirely within the Monterey Bay National

  4. Passive monitoring techniques for evaluating atmospheric ozone and nitrogen exposure and deposition to California ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Susan L. Schilling

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the exposure of ecosystems to ecologically relevant pollutants is needed for evaluating ecosystem effects and to identify regions and resources at risk. In California, ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) pollutants are of greatest concern for ecological effects. "Passive" monitoring methods have been developed to obtain spatially...

  5. Goldspotted oak borer in California: Invasion history, biology, impact, management, and implications for Mediterranean forests worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Coleman; Steven Seybold

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was fi rst linked to elevated levels of oak mortality in southern California (CA), but it appears to have impacted oak woodlands and mixed conifer forests across all land ownerships in this region for nearly two decades. This unexpectedly damaging...

  6. Citizen scientists monitor a deadly fungus threatening amphibian communities in northern coastal California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen L. Pope; Greta M. Wengert; Janet E. Foley; Donald T. Ashton; Richard G. Botzler

    2016-01-01

    Ecoclub youth and supervising family members conducted citizen science to assess regional prevalence and distribution of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) among amphibians at Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) and Redwood National and State Parks (Parks), Humboldt County, California, US, May 2013 through December...

  7. 76 FR 48002 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of California; Interstate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... things, adequate measures prohibiting emissions of air pollutants in amounts which will interfere with...://www.regulations.gov and in hard copy at EPA Region IX, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, California... only at the hard copy location (e.g., copyrighted material) and some may not be available in either...

  8. 77 FR 65151 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for California State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... for submitting comments. Email: tax[email protected] . Mail or deliver: Wienke Tax, Air Planning Office... INFORMATION CONTACT: Wienke Tax, Air Planning Office, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9, Mail Code AIR-2, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, California 94105-3901, 415-947-4192, tax[email protected

  9. Behavioral ecology of American Pikas (Ochotona princeps) at Mono Craters, California: living on the edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Smith; John D. Nagy; Connie Millar

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral ecology of the American pika (Ochotona princeps) was investigated at a relatively hot south-facing, low-elevation site in the Mono Craters, California, a habitat quite different from the upper montane regions more typically inhabited by this species and where most prior investigations have been conducted. Mono Craters pikas exhibited...

  10. Using epiphytic macrolichen communities for biomonitoring ammonia in forests of the greater Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Jovan; Bruce. Mccune

    2006-01-01

    Chronic, excessive nitrogen deposition is potentially an important ecological threat to forests of the greater Sierra Nevada in California. We developed a model for ammonia bioindication, a major nitrogen pollutant in the region, using epiphytic macrolichens. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to extract gradients in lichen community composition from surveys...

  11. Wrestling the Devil in the Details: An Early Look at Restructuring in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Caitlin

    2006-01-01

    To learn more about district and school decision making for No Child Left Behind (NCLB) restructuring, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) turned to California, a state with a substantial number of schools in restructuring and several state and regional supports for making decisions about restructuring. In the summer and fall of 2005, CEP…

  12. Predatory leeches (Hirudinida) may contribute to amphibian declines in the Lassen, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead Jonathan; Karen Pope

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have documented precipitous declines in Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae) populations in the southern portion of the species' range, in the Lassen region of California. Reasons for the declines, however, have not been elucidated. In addition to common, widespread causes, an understanding of local community interactions may be necessary...

  13. Forecast skill of synoptic conditions associated with Santa Ana winds in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Jones; Francis Fujioka; Leila M.V. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Santa Ana winds (SAW) are synoptically driven mesoscale winds observed in Southern California usually during late fall and winter. Because of the complex topography of the region, SAW episodes can sometimes be extremely intense and pose significant environmental hazards, especially during wildfire incidents. A simple set of criteria was used to identify synoptic-scale...

  14. Assessing the Impact of GODAE Boundary Conditions on the Estimate and Prediction of the Monterey Bay and California Central Coast Circulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Christopher A; Moore, Andrew M; Wunsch, Carl; Doyle, James D; Schwing, Franklin B; Foley, David

    2006-01-01

    ... coastline of this region also leave it exposed to the energetic circulation of the California Current System offshore and more generally to the stratification and transports of the eastern Pacific ocean...

  15. The 2010 Southern California Ocean Bottom Seismometer Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, C. M.; Kohler, M. D.; Weeraratne, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    Subduction, mid-ocean ridge spreading, and transpressional deformation are all processes that played important roles in the evolution of the diffuse Pacific-North America plate boundary offshore Southern California. Existing seismic data for the boundary typically end at the coastline due to the fact that onshore data collection is easier and more feasible. As a result, current models for plate boundary deformation and mantle flow lack data from nearly half the plate boundary offshore. In August 2010, twenty-four broadband and ten short period ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed on a research cruise as part of a year-long passive OBS experiment off the coast of Southern California. The Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment (ALBACORE) will study local seismicity, and crustal and upper mantle seismic structure. Studies using onshore data have shown a high velocity anomaly that exists in the region of convergence under the Transverse Ranges. The Transverse Ranges belong to a large crustal block that experienced clockwise rotation of at least ninety degrees. Geologic studies indicate that the entire Channel Islands on the western end belongs to the region of convergence and have been a part of this rotation. In anticipation of OBS data analysis, a hypothetical velocity model is being developed for the crust and uppermost mantle for the region under the Channel Islands. P-wave arrival times are predicted by propagating teleseismic waves through the model. Different possible P-wave arrival patterns are explored by varying the lithospheric thickness. The long-term goal for developing this model will be to compare it with the actual OBS travel-time residual data to assess the best-fitting model. In preparation for the ALBACORE cruise, existing gravity data near the Channel Island region were examined for correlations with geologic features. Gravity data collected during the ALBACORE cruise will help

  16. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  17. Tracking lichen community composition changes due to declining air quality over the last century: the Nash legacy in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Riddell; Sarah Jovan; Pamela E. Padgett; Ken. Sweat

    2011-01-01

    Southern California's South Coast Air Basin includes the heavily urbanized Los Angeles and Orange counties, the inland urban and suburban areas, and the surrounding mountain ranges. Historically high air pollution makes the region a natural laboratory for investigating human impacts on natural systems. Regional lichen distribution records from the early 1900s...

  18. Regeneration of native California oaks in the forest zone [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1999-01-01

    The two native California oaks in the forest zone of California are California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.) and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus [Hook. and Arn.] Rehd.). Both are ancient species with many adaptations to withstand California's Mediterranean climate, but some weaknesses as well. Both sprout vigorously...

  19. Mortality among California highway workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, N; Beaumont, J; Singleton, J

    1988-01-01

    Standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMR) were computed for a population of highway workers. Hazards of highway maintenance work include exposure to solvents, herbicides, asphalt and welding fumes, diesel and auto exhaust, asbestos, abrasive dusts, hazardous material spills, and moving motor vehicles. Underlying cause of death was obtained for 1,570 workers who separated from the California Department of Transportation between 1970 and 1983, and who died in California between 1970 and 1983 (inclusive). Among 1,260 white males, the major findings were statistically significant excesses of cancers of digestive organs (PMR = 128), skin (PMR = 218), lymphopoietic cancer (PMR = 157), benign neoplasms (PMR = 343), motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 141), and suicide (PMR = 154). Black males (N = 66) experienced nonsignificant excesses of cancer of the digestive organs (PMR = 191) and arteriosclerotic heart disease (PMR = 143). Among 168 white females, deaths from lung cancer (PMR = 189) and suicide (PMR = 215) were elevated. White male retirees, a subgroup with 5 or more years of service, experienced excess mortality due to cancers of the colon (PMR = 245), skin (PMR = 738), brain (PMR = 556), and lymphosarcomas and reticulosarcomas (PMR = 514). Deaths from external causes (PMR = 135) and cirrhosis of the liver (PMR = 229) were elevated among white males with a last job in landscape maintenance. White males whose last job was highway maintenance experienced a deficit in mortality from circulatory diseases (PMR = 83) and excess mortality from emphysema (PMR = 250) and motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 196). Further epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies are needed to confirm the apparent excess mortality and to quantify occupational and nonoccupational exposures. However, reduction of recognized hazards among highway maintenance workers is a prudent precautionary measure.

  20. Atmospheric Wind Relaxations and the Oceanic Response in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewings, M. R.; Dorman, C. E.; Washburn, L.; Liu, W.

    2010-12-01

    On the West Coast of North America in summer, episodic relaxation of the upwelling-favorable winds causes warm water to propagate northward from southern to central California, against the prevailing currents [Harms and Winant 1998, Winant et al. 2003, Melton et al. 2009]. Similar wind relaxations are an important characteristic of coastal upwelling ecosystems worldwide. Although these wind relaxations have an important influence on coastal ocean dynamics, no description exists of the regional atmospheric patterns that lead to wind relaxations in southern California, or of the regional ocean response. We use QuikSCAT wind stress, North American Regional Reanalysis atmospheric pressure products, water temperature and velocity from coastal ocean moorings, surface ocean currents from high-frequency radars, and MODIS satellite sea-surface temperature and ocean color images to analyze wind relaxation events and the ocean response. We identify the events based on an empirical index calculated from NDBC buoy winds [Melton et al. 2009]. We describe the regional evolution of the atmosphere from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California over the few days leading up to wind relaxations, and the coastal ocean temperature, color, and current response off southern and central California. We analyze ~100 wind relaxation events in June-September during the QuikSCAT mission, 1999-2009. Our results indicate south-central California wind relaxations in summer are tied to mid-level atmospheric low-pressure systems that form in the Gulf of Alaska and propagate southeastward over 3-5 days. As the low-pressure systems reach southern California, the atmospheric pressure gradient along the coast weakens, causing the surface wind stress to relax to near zero. The weak wind signal appears first at San Diego and propagates northward. QuikSCAT data indicate the relaxed winds extend over the entire Southern California Bight and up to 200 km offshore of central California. Atmospheric dynamics in

  1. Mediterranean fruit fly preventative release programme in southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, Robert V.; Meyer, Fred; Siddiqu, Isi A.; Leon Spaugy, E.

    2000-01-01

    California employs several area-wide pest management programmes that use the release of sterile insects to protect its commercial and dooryard agriculture. The first was developed in response to the discovery of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Tijuana, Mexico and adjacent areas in San Diego County, California. Initially pesticide sprays of malathion and bait were applied to host plants around each fly find site. Additionally, soil sprays of diazion (0.05 kg per 93 m 2 ) were applied under every host plant around each fly find site. It soon became apparent that this approach was expensive and environmentally damaging. This led the interested parties, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the government of Mexico to develop a programme that utilises the release of sterile Mexican fruit flies over the city of Tijuana in order to prevent the establishment of a breeding population of this fly in the city. The belief is that preventing the Mexican fruit fly from breeding in Tijuana will help protect both that city and California. To date, no Mexican fruit fly larvae have been found in Tijuana or the adjacent areas of California. The second programme was developed in response to the discovery of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, in cotton in the Imperial Valley area of southern California. As the pink bollworm spread throughout the cotton growing region of southern California, it became a significant pest that threatened the 405,000 hectares of cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley to the north. To keep this pest out of the San Joaquin Valley, the CDFA/USDA and California cotton growers use the large-scale releases of sterile pink bollworms in areas in which wild pink bollworms are captured each year. Thus far, the pink bollworm has been prevented from establishing a permanent presence in the San Joaquin Valley and the cotton growers in southern California, Arizona and

  2. California Geothermal Forum: A Path to Increasing Geothermal Development in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Katherine R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The genesis of this report was a 2016 forum in Sacramento, California, titled 'California Geothermal Forum: A Path to Increasing Geothermal Development in California.' The forum was held at the California Energy Commission's (CEC) headquarters in Sacramento, California with the primary goal being to advance the dialogues for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) and CEC technical research and development (R&D) focuses for future consideration. The forum convened a diverse group of stakeholders from government, industry, and research to lay out pathways for new geothermal development in California while remaining consistent with critical Federal and State conservation planning efforts, particularly at the Salton Sea.

  3. Deregulation and natural gas trade relationships: lessons from the Alberta-California experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Patrick Impero

    1997-01-01

    In 1978 the US government moved to deregulate the American natural gas industry. The market changes that resulted from this initial step took time to ripple their way out to regional and subnational gas trading relationships. This ripple effect required subnational governments (state and provincial regulators) to rethink their gas regulatory policies. This article examines the restructuring of the Alberta-California gas trade. It explores how changes in US policy forced California and Alberta regulators to recast their policies. It concludes with several lessons that can be drawn from this case about the complex challenge of restructuring international gas trading relationships. (author)

  4. Coastal ocean transport patterns in the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, M.A.; Rosenberger, K.J.; Hamilton, P.; Xu, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, several large programs that monitor currents and transport patterns for periods from a few months to a few years were conducted by a consortium of university, federal, state, and municipal agencies in the central Southern California Bight, a heavily urbanized section of the coastal ocean off the west coast of the United States encompassing Santa Monica Bay, San Pedro Bay, and the Palos Verdes shelf. These programs were designed in part to determine how alongshelf and cross-shelf currents move sediments, pollutants, and suspended material through the region. Analysis of the data sets showed that the current patterns in this portion of the Bight have distinct changes in frequency and amplitude with location, in part because the topography of the shelf and upper slope varies rapidly over small spatial scales. However, because the mean, subtidal, and tidal-current patterns in any particular location were reasonably stable with time, one could determine a regional pattern for these current fields in the central Southern California Bight even though measurements at the various locations were obtained at different times. In particular, because the mean near-surface flows over the San Pedro and Palos Verdes shelves are divergent, near-surface waters from the upper slope tend to carry suspended material onto the shelf in the northwestern portion of San Pedro Bay. Water and suspended material are also carried off the shelf by the mean and subtidal flow fields in places where the orientation of the shelf break changes abruptly. The barotropic tidal currents in the central Southern California Bight flow primarily alongshore, but they have pronounced amplitude variations over relatively small changes in alongshelf location that are not totally predicted by numerical tidal models. Nonlinear internal tides and internal bores at tidal frequencies are oriented more across the shelf. They do not have a uniform transport direction, since they move fine sediment

  5. Contraceptive use and risk of unintended pregnancy in California

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Diana; Bley, Julia; Mikanda, John; Induni, Marta; Arons, Abigail; Baumrind, Nikki; Darney, Philip D.; Stewart, Felicia

    2004-01-01

    Abstract California is home to more than one out of eight American women of reproductive age. Because California has a large, diverse and growing population, national statistics do not necessarily describe the reproductive health of California women. This article presents risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among women in California based on the California Women’s Health Survey. Over 8900 women of reproductive age who participated in this survey between 1998 and 2001 pr...

  6. Spatial and intertemporal arbitrage in the California natural gas transportation and storage network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uria Martinez, Rocio

    Intertemporal and spatial price differentials should provide the necessary signals to allocate a commodity efficiently inside a network. This dissertation investigates the extent to which decisions in the California natural gas transportation and storage system are taken with an eye on arbitrage opportunities. Daily data about flows into and out of storage facilities in California over 2002-2006 and daily spreads on the NYMEX futures market are used to investigate whether the injection profile is consistent with the "supply-of-storage" curve first observed by Working for wheat. Spatial price differentials between California and producing regions fluctuate throughout the year, even though spot prices at trading hubs across North America are highly correlated. In an analysis of "residual supply", gas volumes directed to California are examined for the influence of those fluctuations in locational differentials. Daily storage decisions in California do seem to be influenced by a daily price signal that combines the intertemporal spread and the locational basis between California and the Henry Hub, in addition to strong seasonal and weekly cycles. The timing and magnitude of the response differs across storage facilities depending on the regulatory requirements they face and the type of customers they serve. In contrast, deviations in spatial price differentials from the levels dictated by relative seasonality in California versus competing regions do not trigger significant reallocations of flows into California. Available data for estimation of both the supply-of-storage and residual-supply curves aggregate the behavior of many individuals whose motivations and attentiveness to prices vary. The resulting inventory and flow profiles differ from those that a social planner would choose to minimize operating costs throughout the network. Such optimal allocation is deduced from a quadratic programming model, calibrated to 2004-2005, that acknowledges relative seasonality

  7. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  8. Pneumocystosis in wild small mammals from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Juha; Fisher, Robert N.; Case, Ted J.

    2001-01-01

    Cyst forms of the opportunistic fungal parasite Pneumocystis carinii were found in the lungs of 34% of the desert shrew, Notiosorex crawfordi (n = 59), 13% of the ornate shrew, Sorex ornatus (n = 55), 6% of the dusky-footed wood rat, Neotoma fuscipes (n = 16), 2.5% of the California meadow vole,Microtus californicus (n = 40), and 50% of the California pocket mouse, Chaetodipus californicus (n= 2) caught from southern California between February 1998 and February 2000. Cysts were not found in any of the harvest mouse, Reithrodontomys megalotis (n = 21), California mouse,Peromyscus californicus (n = 20), brush mouse, Peromyscus boylii (n = 7) or deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (n = 4) examined. All infections were mild; extrapulmonary infections were not observed. Other lung parasites detected were Hepatozoon sp./spp. from M. californicus andNotiosorex crawfordi, Chrysosporium sp. (Emmonsia) from M. californicus, and a nematode from S. ornatus.

  9. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  10. Humboldt, California 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second Humboldt, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  11. Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates, California, USA, 2011

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-26

    Dr. Charlotte Wheeler discusses Coccidioidomycosis among Prison Inmates in California.  Created: 2/26/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  12. Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) complex in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, F R; Tabachnick, W J

    1995-07-01

    Genetic relationships were examined among 24 collections, representing 23 populations of Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) using isozyme electrophoresis of 11 protein encoding loci. The populations were collected from alkaline or fresh water larval habitats in California. Distance analysis demonstrated that C. v. occidentalis Wirth and Jones and C. v. sonorensis Wirth and Jones are genetically distinct. All C. v. occidentalis were geographically isolated from each other in highly alkaline or saline larval habitats, whereas C. v. sonorensis populations were collected from artificial freshwater habitats that were polluted with organic wastes. Higher levels of gene flow were found between C. v. sonorensis populations than from C. v. sonorensis populations to nearby C. v. occidentalis populations, indicative of genetic isolation between subspecies. Northern California C. v. sonorensis were genetically distinguishable from southern California C. v. sonorensis. The relationship between this variation and bluetongue disease epidemiology in California is discussed.

  13. Programs that work : California case examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgrigues, G. [Southern California Edison, Rosemead, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Examples of programs that work in California with respect to greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. Specifically, Southern California Edison (SCE) was noted as one of the country's largest investor-owned utilities that has provided environmental leadership in this area. Energy, environment, economy, and community were mentioned as being the four value propositions for demand side management (DSM) programs. The environmental benefits of California investor-owned utilities programs were also discussed. Customer participation in SCE's energy efficiency programs was defined as an important measure of success. Other topics that were addressed in the presentation included energy efficiency in the long-term resource plan; ratcheting codes and standards; effective marketing and outreach; residential and non-residential programs; partnership programs; and competitively-selected programs. Measurement, verification and evaluation were noted as being real savings. Initiatives on the horizon such as the California solar initiative and Edison smartconnect were presented. tabs., figs.

  14. Northern California 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  15. Ecosystems past: prehistory of California vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.I. Millar; W.B. Woolfenden

    2016-01-01

    The history of California's vegetation, from origins in the Mesozoic through Quaternary is outlined. Climatic and geologic history and the processes driving changes in vegetation over time are also described. 

  16. Programs that work : California case examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgrigues, G.

    2007-01-01

    Examples of programs that work in California with respect to greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. Specifically, Southern California Edison (SCE) was noted as one of the country's largest investor-owned utilities that has provided environmental leadership in this area. Energy, environment, economy, and community were mentioned as being the four value propositions for demand side management (DSM) programs. The environmental benefits of California investor-owned utilities programs were also discussed. Customer participation in SCE's energy efficiency programs was defined as an important measure of success. Other topics that were addressed in the presentation included energy efficiency in the long-term resource plan; ratcheting codes and standards; effective marketing and outreach; residential and non-residential programs; partnership programs; and competitively-selected programs. Measurement, verification and evaluation were noted as being real savings. Initiatives on the horizon such as the California solar initiative and Edison smartconnect were presented. tabs., figs

  17. Northern California 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  18. Botaanikud Chamisso ja Eschscholtz Californias / Tiiu Speek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Speek, Tiiu, 1958-

    2012-01-01

    Loodusteadlaste A. von Chamisso ja J. Fr. Eschscholtzi osalemisest O. von Kotzebue ekspeditsioonidel (1815-1818 ning 1823-1826); reisidel kogutud ja kirjeldatud USA lääneosa ja California taimeliikidest ning neist koostatud herbaariumite saatusest

  19. Tobacco Use In California 1990-1991

    OpenAIRE

    University of California, San Diego; California Department of Health Services; Westat, Inc.; Los Angels County Department of Health Services

    1991-01-01

    Summary This report presents data from a survey of cigarette smoking behaviors and attitudes among Californians conducted between June, 1990 and July, 1991. The prevalence of current smoking among adults in California was 22.2%, with males (25.5%) smoking more than females (19.1%). This represents a sharp decline in smoking following the increase in the tobacco excise tax and implementation of a comprehensive tobacco control program by the State of California. The decline in preva...

  20. Southern California Coastal Processes Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    05/01/71 TITLE : Avalon Transportation Wharf CITATION : Journal of Waterways, Harbors and Coastal Engineering Division, ASCE, N. Y., Vol. 97, No. WW2 ...105, No. WW2 ; ASCE, N. Y., pp. 131-147 DESCRIPTION s Effect of various offshore structures as significant barriers to normal wave progress...California, 33 pp. DESCRIPTION Infrared satellite images are shown for each of two areas near +- the California coast, Cape Mendocino and Point