WorldWideScience

Sample records for sonic city-omiya tokyo

  1. Tokyo Jane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Minbaeva, Dana; Schafer, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Tokyo Jane is an accessible fashion jewelry company that makes and markets its products as “luxury for less” by designing, importing and selling fashion jewelry pieces that look luxurious but cost only a fraction of the high-priced items that inspired them. Finished products are air......-shipped to company headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark from factories in China, stocked in the head office and delivered to 400 retail partners —small fashion boutiques, big department stores and online shops — who then sell to consumers in Europe, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom and Canada. The two partners who...... founded the firm in 2005 are facing several problems: the brand definition is not well enough developed to support the next stage in the firm’s growth, certain challenges have outstripped available human resources — they have only three permanent employees and a revolving number of interns...

  2. Tokyo / Karin Thea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karin, Thea

    2013-01-01

    Tokyo vaatamisväärtused: Sky Tree teletorn, Takeshita Dori jalakäijate tänav, Asakusa linnaosa, The Gate Hotel, Tokyo metroo, Ryogoku Kokugikan, Nippon Kasgaku Miraikan ning Jaapani suurim kalaturg Tsukiji

  3. Sonic Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuki Tachibana

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Audio watermarking has been used mainly for digital sound. In this paper, we extend the range of its applications to live performances with a new composition method for real-time audio watermarking. Sonic watermarking mixes the sound of the watermark signal and the host sound in the air to detect illegal music recordings recorded from auditoriums. We propose an audio watermarking algorithm for sonic watermarking that increases the magnitudes of the host signal only in segmented areas pseudorandomly chosen in the time-frequency plane. The result of a MUSHRA subjective listening test assesses the acoustic quality of the method in the range of “excellent quality.” The robustness is dependent on the type of music samples. For popular and orchestral music, a watermark can be stably detected from music samples that have been sonic-watermarked and then once compressed in an MPEG 1 layer 3 file.

  4. The Tokyo axion helioscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, R.; Akimoto, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.; Mizumoto, T.; Moriyama, S.; Namba, T.; Takasu, Y.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Tokyo Axion Helioscope experiment aims to detect axions which are produced in the solar core. The helioscope uses a strong magnetic field in order to convert axions into X-ray photons and has a mounting to follow the sun very accurately. The photons are detected by an X-ray detector which is made of 16 PIN-photodiodes. In addition, a gas container and a gas regulation system are adopted for recovering the coherence between axions and photons in the conversion region giving sensitivity to axions with masses up to 2 eV. In this paper, we report on the technical detail of the Tokyo Axion Helioscope.

  5. Multi functionele gebouwcomplexen in Tokyo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijnsbergen, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation describes eight Multi Uses Complexes in Tokyo. All these buildings combine work, living, leisure and parking. In the first part of the study, there is a historical view of Tokyo concerning the infra-structure of the city. Important is that the city has still the same street pattern

  6. "Ruudi" võitis Tokyos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Lastefilm "Ruudi" (stsenaristid Katrin Laur, Aare Toikka, Aarne Mägi : režissöör Katrin Laur : nimiosas lapsnäitleja Paul Oskar Soe) sai Tokyo 14. lastefilmide festivalil Kodomotachino parima mängufilmi auhinna

  7. Sonic Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ) challenges these prevalent approaches by considering sound as an active medium that can enable novel sensory and social experiences through interactive technologies. This book offers an overview of the emerging SID research, discussing theories, methods, and practices, with a focus on the multisensory......Sound is an integral part of every user experience but a neglected medium in design disciplines. Design of an artifact’s sonic qualities is often limited to the shaping of functional, representational, and signaling roles of sound. The interdisciplinary field of sonic interaction design (SID...... aspects of sonic experience. Sonic Interaction Design gathers contributions from scholars, artists, and designers working at the intersections of fields ranging from electronic music to cognitive science. They offer both theoretical considerations of key themes and case studies of products and systems...

  8. India and the Tokyo round

    OpenAIRE

    André Sapir; Robert Baldwin

    1983-01-01

    The paper attempts to quantify the gains and the losses for India from the changes in import tariffs decided during the Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations. The study focuses on exports to the ECCC, Japan, and the US. It is conducted at the tariff line level and uses the actual tariffs resulting from the Tokyo Round. The evaluation is in terms of the static effect of the tariff changes. The results indicate that the gains for India from most-favoured nation tariff cuts far outweigh...

  9. Lithuanian trade mission visits Tokyo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Leedu välisministri Andronius Azubalise ja Jaapani välisministri Seiji Maehara kohtumisel räägiti riikidevahelisest koostööst. Tokyo visiidi ajal kohtus välisminister ka alamkoja väliskomitee esimehe Tadamasa Kodaira ja majandus- ja tööstusministri asetäitja Motohisa Ikedaga

  10. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  11. JCI Tokyo convention is held; JCI tokyo taikai wo kaisai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-10

    For 3 days on 15{approx}17 of Julies, Japan Concrete Inst. (Toyokazu Shiire chairman) held concrete technology annual meeting in the Tokyo big site in Tokyo and Ariake. Various events such as ready-mixed concrete seminar (participant: 562 person), joint seminar with the Korea concrete institute, observation were developed 20th concrete technology lecture (paper the report: 521 case participant real number: 1400 person), 12th concrete fair (exhibit: 95 case attendance number: 10150 person) center on present convention. The opinion in which the party of the first line of various quarters became heated on the direction in which the ready-mixed concrete will ought to advance based on performance definition and internationalization in the ready-mixed concrete seminar in this inside in future was exchanged. Whether it is the JIS ready-mixed concrete and whether quality audit system are necessary why. The severe order of more cheaply supplying the better concrete in the responsibility of the factory, also came out. Within the special lecture (participant: 548 person), it was an interest of the nation who obtained the time too, the fact of the president election that it does secret story especially and comes out happily heard it. In the new planning, 'the concrete which the primary school child makes' (it is introduced in this journal No. 614) was exhibited in the tip in the fair place. The figure of parent and child companion who gazed at the masterpiece which broke through the preliminary in each place was conspicuous. The still, schedule that the annual meeting in next time is held in the Sendai City on July 7{approx}9, 1999. (translated by NEDO)

  12. Paper mechanisms for sonic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delle Monache, Stefano; Rocchesso, Davide; Qi, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Introducing continuous sonic interaction in augmented pop-up books enhances the expressive and performative qualities of movables, making the whole narrative experience more engaging and personal. The SaMPL Spring School on Sounding Popables explored the specific topic of paper-driven sonic...

  13. The sonic borehole logging tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1990-09-01

    This report deals with the sonic borehole tool. First a review of the various elastic wave types is given and velocity values of compressional waves in various materials listed. Next follows a discussion of 3 models for the relation between transit time and porosity, and a comparison between the 3 models is made. The design of sonic tools is described including their geometry. The path of the sonic signals is discussed. Also the effect of environmental factors on the results of the tools are considered. Finally a number of applications are described. In two appendices the mechanics of deformable bodies and formulas for the velocity of sound are reviewed. (author)

  14. Tokyo Tower and Tokyo Skytree: History and Symbolism in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunuen Ysela Mandujano-Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tokyo Tower and the Tokyo Skytree are the two most recognizable landmarks on the skyline of Japan’s capital. By means of a documental revision, a textual interpretative analysis of media contents, participant observation and unstructured interviews, the objective of this article is to identify the development of these towers as symbols of Tokyo and Japan. It is found that, with more than half a century of existence, the Tokyo Tower represents the successful post-war Japanese society, while in just five years the Tokyo Skytree has become a symbol of Japanese national spirit and resilience in an era of multiple crises. Both broadcasting towers are regularly portrayed in Japanese media linked to narratives of romance, dreams, family and community. Also, enhanced by their special lightening at night, they stand as attractive backgrounds for locals and visitors in relevant events in their lives.

  15. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  16. Sonic journeys with the dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    This audio-paper is a site-specific investigation of relations between a gravesite at Vor Frelser Cemetery (Cemetery of Our Saviour), Copenhagen, Denmark, its cultural history and publicly co-constructed memories. The audio-paper follows a non-representational approach to sonic media and the meta...

  17. Comparison and flowering valuation of New Guinea Impatiens cultivars from Sonic and Super Sonic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmiła Startek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2002-2003 the flowering of four New Guinea Impatiens cultivars from Sonic and Super Sonic groups were compared. They were the following cultivars: 'Sonic Pink', 'Sonic Sweet Cherry', 'Super Sonic Cherry Cream' and 'Super Sonic Hot Pink'. The experiments were carried out from the middle of April till the middle of October. Neutralised sphagnum peat with slow release fertiliser Osmocote Plus 5/6 was used as medium. It was found that the cultivar 'Sonic Pink' began blooming 1-4 weeks earlier than the other cultivars. The cultivars 'Sonic Sweet Cherry' and 'Super Sonic Cherry Cream' had significantly more abundant flowering (105.3-113.3 flowers per plant than the cultivars 'Sonic Pink' and 'Super Sonic Hot Pink' (72.0-92.8 flowers per plant. All the cultivars had big flowers (6.3-7.8 cm in diameter. The most similar flowers were found in 'Sonic Sweet Cherry' and the least similar in 'Super Sonic Hot Pink'.

  18. Sonic Virtuality, Environment, and Presence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The article presents a brief introduction to the concept of sonic virtuality, a view of sound as a multi-modal, emergent perception that provides a framework that has since been used to provide an explanation of the formation of environments. Additionally, the article uses such concepts to explain...... the phenomenon of presence, not only in virtual worlds but also in actual worlds. The view put forward is that environment is an emergent perception, formed from the hypothetical modelling of salient worlds of sensory things, and it is in the environment that we feel present. The article ends with some thoughts...

  19. TOKYO criteria 2014 for transpapillary biliary stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayama, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Ichiro; Itoi, Takao; Ryozawa, Shomei; Nakai, Yousuke; Kogure, Hirofumi; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to carry out meta-analyses or to compare the results of different studies of biliary stents because there is no uniform evaluation method. Therefore, a standardized reporting system is required. We propose a new standardized system for reporting on biliary stents, the 'TOKYO criteria 2014', based on a consensus among Japanese pancreatobiliary endoscopists. Instead of stent occlusion, we use recurrent biliary obstruction, which includes occlusion and migration. The time to recurrent biliary obstruction was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test. We can evaluate both plastic and self-expandable metallic stents (uncovered and covered). We also propose specification of the cause of recurrent biliary obstruction, identification of complications other than recurrent biliary obstruction, indication of severity, measures of technical and clinical success, and a standard for clinical care. Most importantly, the TOKYO criteria 2014 allow comparison of biliary stent quality across studies. Because blocked stents can be drained not only using transpapillary techniques but also by an endoscopic ultrasonography-guided transmural procedure, we should devise an evaluation method that includes transmural stenting in the near future. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  20. Using homogenization, sonication and thermo-sonication to inactivate fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US), Thermo-sonication (TS) and High Pressure Homogenization (HPH) were studied as tools to inactivate the spores of Penicillium spp. and Mucor spp. inoculated in distilled water. For US, the power ranged from 40% to 100%, pulse from 2 to 10 s, and duration of the treatment from 2 to 10 min. TS was performed combining US (40–80% of power, for 8 min and pulse of 2 s) with a thermal treatment (50, 55 and 60°C at 4, 8 and 12 min). Homogenization was done at 30–150 MPa for 1, 2 and 3 times. Power was the most important factors to determine the antifungal effect of US and TS towards the conidia of Penicillium spp.; on the other hand, in US treatments Mucor spp. was also affected by pulse and time. HPH exerted a significant antifungal effect only if the highest pressures were applied for 2–3 times. PMID:27375964

  1. Tokyo XX videofestival ja kohtumine Suure Hiirega / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1998-01-01

    JVC Tokyo XX videofestivalist. Peapreemia Jon Alpertile dokumentaalse videoga "Life of Crime : Deleris's Sad Story". R. Kelomehe videost "Maja". Interaktiivse kunsti muuseumist ICC (Inter Communication Center) Tokyo Opera Citys. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 72-75

  2. Stakeholder acceptance analysis ResonantSonic drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning ResonantSonic Drilling (Sonic Drilling), derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. Sonic Drilling is an innovative method to reach contamination in soil and groundwater. The resonant sonic drill rig uses counter-rotating weights to generate energy, which causes the drill pipe to vibrate elastically along its entire length. In the resonant condition, forces of up to 200,000 pounds are transmitted to the drill bit face to create a cutting action. The resonant energy causes subsurface materials to move back into the adjacent formation, permitting the drill pipe to advance. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of sonic drilling to the remediation problems they face

  3. Nuclear Human Resource Development in Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satio, Masaki; Igashira, Masayuki; Obara, Toru; Kikura, Hironari; Kawahara, Akira; Ujita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear engineering education has been initiated in 1957 at the graduate school of Tokyo Institute of Technology. Higher Educational activities have been conducted for more than half century. More than 1000 Master students and 200 Doctoral students graduated from the Department of Nuclear Engineering in Tokyo Institute if Technology. Many of them are working in nuclear industries and institutes. International course of nuclear engineering was initiated in 1994, and 130 students from 20 overseas countries have graduated from Master and Doctoral Programs. In the present paper, the current nuclear educational activities in Tokyo Institute of Technology are summarized

  4. Solidarity and the city: The case of modern Tokyo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    is that of architecture. Architects have more than any other profession worked on, and with, the urban condition theoretically as well as practically and solution-oriented. Returning Japanese architects have been confronted with the art of rebuilding cities from the bottom, not least in the case of Tokyo . The second...... day’s Tokyo is marked by a non-visible hidden order of this historical era. It is an order that opens for methodological strategies to make possible the empirical understanding of urban society as emergent reality. They go for learning from Tokyo with a historical privilege to particular ideas...

  5. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Promotes Tumor Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bushman, Wade

    2007-01-01

    ... of the DOD New Investigator award indicate that Shh signaling promotes tumor growth. This proposal addresses the hypothesis that Sonic hedgehog signaling promotes tumor growth by activating stromal cell gene expression...

  6. Dispersion characteristics of negative refraction sonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L.-Y.; Chen, L.-W.; Wang, R.C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Dispersion characteristics of negative refraction sonic crystals are investigated. The plane wave expansion method is used to calculate the equifrequency surface; the dependences of refractive direction on frequencies and incident angles for triangular lattices are shown. There exist the positive and negative refractive waves which include k.V g ≥0 and k.V g ≤0 in the second band for the triangular system. We also use the finite element method to demonstrate that the relative intensity of the transmitted acoustic waves is dependent on incident frequencies and angles. The positions of the partial band gaps obtained by the plane wave expansion method are in good agreement with those obtained by the finite element method. The sonic crystals with negative effective index are shown to have higher transmission intensities. By using the negative refraction behavior, we can design a sonic crystal plane lens to focus a sonic wave

  7. Phase I ResonantSonic CRADA report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richterich, L.R.; Amos, L.O.; Fancher, J.D.; McLellan, G.W.; Setzer, W.V.; Tuttle, B.G.; Hockey, R.L.; Ferris, R.H.; Riechers, D.M.; Pitman, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    This test report describes the Phase 1 testing and results of the ResonantSonic drilling method. This effort was conducted as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the US Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Westinghouse Hanford Company and Water Development Corporation. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate the Water Development Corporation's ResonantSonic drilling system, modify components as necessary and determine compatible drilling applications for the ResonantSonic drilling method for use at facilities in the DOE complex and private industry. Initially, the ResonantSonic drill was used to drill several test holes at the Drilling Technology Test Site to assess the feasibility of drilling vertical and angle holes. After this initial phase, a 45 degree angle vapor extraction well was drilled to a depth of 168 feet at the 200 West Carbon Tetrachloride Site. This well was drilled and completed in nine days. Extensive geologic and vapor sampling were conducted while drilling this well. In addition, testing was also conducted at the test site to evaluated drilling with larger diameter casing (8 5/8 inch). Evaluation of the Resonant Sonic drilling method will be continued during the Phase 2 portion of testing to determine if improvements to the ResonantSonic system will make it a more viable method for drilling and sampling

  8. Field intercomparison of prevailing sonic anemometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauder, Matthias; Zeeman, Matthias J.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional sonic anemometers are the core component of eddy covariance systems, which are widely used for micrometeorological and ecological research. In order to characterize the measurement uncertainty of these instruments we present and analyse the results from a field intercomparison experiment of six commonly used sonic anemometer models from four major manufacturers. These models include Campbell CSAT3, Gill HS-50 and R3, METEK uSonic-3 Omni, R. M. Young 81000 and 81000RE. The experiment was conducted over a meadow at the TERENO/ICOS site DE-Fen in southern Germany over a period of 16 days in June of 2016 as part of the ScaleX campaign. The measurement height was 3 m for all sensors, which were separated by 9 m from each other, each on its own tripod, in order to limit contamination of the turbulence measurements by adjacent structures as much as possible. Moreover, the high-frequency data from all instruments were treated with the same post-processing algorithm. In this study, we compare the results for various turbulence statistics, which include mean horizontal wind speed, standard deviations of vertical wind velocity and sonic temperature, friction velocity, and the buoyancy flux. Quantitative measures of uncertainty, such as bias and comparability, are derived from these results. We find that biases are generally very small for all sensors and all computed variables, except for the sonic temperature measurements of the two Gill sonic anemometers (HS and R3), confirming a known transducer-temperature dependence of the sonic temperature measurement. The best overall agreement between the different instruments was found for the mean wind speed and the buoyancy flux.

  9. Production Well Performance Enhancement using Sonication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, Michael A; Ityokumbul, M Thaddeus; Watson, Robert W; Eltohami, Eltohami; Farias, Mario; Heckman, Glenn; Houlihan, Brendan; Karoor, Samata Prakash; Miller, Bruce G; Mohammed, Nazia; Olanrewaju, Johnson; Ozdemir, Mine; Rejepov, Dautmamed; Sadegh, Abdallah A; Quammie, Kevin E; Zaghloul, Jose; Hughes, W Jack; Montgomery, Thomas C

    2005-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a sonic well performance enhancement technology that focused on near wellbore formation damage. In order to successfully achieve this objective, a three-year project was defined. The entire project was broken into four tasks. The overall objective of all this was to foster a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in sonic energy interactions with fluid flow in porous media and adapt such knowledge for field applications. The fours tasks are: • Laboratory studies • Mathematical modeling • Sonic tool design and development • Field demonstration The project was designed to be completed in three years; however, due to budget cuts, support was only provided for the first year, and hence the full objective of the project could not be accomplished. This report summarizes what was accomplished with the support provided by the US Department of Energy. Experiments performed focused on determining the inception of cavitation, studying thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions, investigating sonic energy interactions with glass beads and oil, and studying the effects of sonication on crude oil properties. Our findings show that the voltage threshold for onset of cavitation is independent of transducer-hydrophone separation distance. In addition, thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions contributed to the mobilization of deposited paraffins and waxes. Our preliminary laboratory experiments suggest that waxes are mobilized when the fluid temperature approaches 40°C. Experiments were conducted that provided insights into the interactions between sonic wave and the fluid contained in the porous media. Most of these studies were carried out in a slim-tube apparatus. A numerical model was developed for simulating the effect of sonication in the nearwellbore region. The numerical model developed was validated using a number of standard testbed problems. However, actual application of the model for scale

  10. Quantification of Radicals Generated in a Sonicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim Badmus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydroxyl radical (OH• is a powerful oxidant produced as a consequence of cavitation in water. It can react nonspecifically in breaking down persistent organic pollutants in water into their mineral form. It can also recombine to form hydrogen peroxide which is very useful in water treatment. In this study, terephthalic acid (TA and potassium iodide dosimetry were used to quantify and investigate the behaviour of the generated OH radical in a laboratory scale sonicator. The 2-hydroxyl terephthalic acid (HTA formed during terephthalic acid dosimetry was determined by optical fibre spectrometer. The production rate of HTA served as a means of evaluating and characterizing the OH• generated over given time in a sonicator. The influence of sonicator power intensity, solution pH and irradiation time upon OH• generation were investigated. Approximately 2.2 ´ 10-9 M s-1 of OH radical was generated during the sonication process. The rate of generation of the OH radicals was established to be independent of the concentration of the initial reactant. Thus, the rate of generation of OH• can be predicted by zero order kinetics in a sonicator.

  11. Realism Assessment of Sonic Boom Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Davies, Patrica; Hodgdon, Kthleen K.; Salamone, Joseph A., III; Pilon, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Developments in small supersonic aircraft design are predicted to result in low-intensity sonic booms. Booms generated by current aircraft are similar to those that led to the ban on commercial supersonic fli ght over the US, so are unsuitable for parametric studies of psychoac oustic response to low-intensity booms. Therefore, simulators have be en used to study the impact of predicted low-intensity sonic booms. H owever, simulators have been criticized because, when simulating conv entional-level booms, the sounds were observed to be unrealistic by p eople experienced in listening to sonic booms. Thus, two studies were conducted to measure the perceived realism of three sonic boom simul ators. Experienced listeners rated the realism of conventional sonic boom signatures when played in these simulators. The effects on percei ved realism of factors such as duration of post-boom noise, exclusion of very low frequency components, inclusion of ground reflections, a nd type of simulator were examined. Duration of post-boom noise was f ound to have a strong effect on perceived realism, while type of simu lator had a weak effect. It was determined that post-boom noise had t o be at least 1.5 seconds long for the sound to be rated very realist ic. Loudness level did not affect realism for the range of sounds pla yed in the tests (80-93 dB ASEL).

  12. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  13. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-A041 400 DDC/BIB-77/06 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION SONIC BOOM A DDC BIBLIOGRAPHY DDC-TAS Cameron Station Alexandria, Va...rn7Sttio 658S-A041 400 4 TITLE xand r.VuhtlVlia) 2 TA i b- 1iblog ra ph y ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : --. Apr-l IM59-Jul, 7NOISE POLLUTION -SONIC BOOM. 1,976...BIBLIOGRAPHY SEARCH CONTROL NO. /2OM09 AD- 769 970 20/1 1/3 DEFENSE UOCUMENTATION CENTER ALEXANDRIA VA ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : NOISE POLLUTION

  14. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  15. Sonication assisted Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a protocol was developed to obtain stable lines of the Spring Dendrobium cultivar 'Sanya' via sonication assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs). Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 was used with the binary vector AG205 containing the chalcone ...

  16. Hydrogen storage in sonicated carbon materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirscher, M.; Becher, M.; Haluska, M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Quintel, A.; Duesberg, G.S.; Choi, Y.J.; Downes, P.; Hulman, M.; Roth, S.; Stepanek, I.; Bernier, P.

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogen storage in purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphite and diamond powder was investigated at room temperature and ambient pressure. The samples were sonicated in 5 M HNO3 for various periods of time using an ultrasonic probe of the alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The goal of this

  17. The Social and Sonic Semantics of Reggae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    This study breaks new ground into the emerging discipline of sonic semantics and the study of language ideologies in postcolonial contexts. The case in point is the reggae sociality in Port Vila, Vanuatu, where young Pacific Islanders are forming new ways of socializing on the fragments of kastom...

  18. The Sound of Stigmatization: Sonic Habitus, Sonic Styles, and Boundary Work in an Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ori

    2015-07-01

    Based on focus groups and interviews with student renters in an Israeli slum, the article explores the contributions of differences in sonic styles and sensibilities to boundary work, social categorization, and evaluation. Alongside visual cues such as broken windows, bad neighborhoods are characterized by sonic cues, such as shouts from windows. Students understand "being ghetto" as being loud in a particular way and use loudness as a central resource in their boundary work. Loudness is read as a performative index of class and ethnicity, and the performance of middle-class studentship entails being appalled by stigmatized sonic practices and participating in their exoticization. However, the sonic is not merely yet another resource of boundary work. Paying sociological attention to senses other than vision reveals complex interactions between structures anchored in the body, structures anchored in language, and actors' identification strategies, which may refine theorizations of the body and the senses in social theory.

  19. Enhanced Surveillance for the Sports Festival in Tokyo 2013: Preparation for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatani, Naotaka; Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Nakamura, Yuuki; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Yamagishi, Takuya; Matsui, Tamano; Kawano, Masashi; Watase, Hirotoshi; Morikawa, Yukiko; Oishi, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced surveillance was conducted during the Sports Festival in Tokyo 2013 (September 28-October 14, 2013) for early detection of outbreaks of infectious diseases and other health emergencies. Through this enhanced surveillance, 15 cases were found that required additional gathering of information outside the routine process of creating/evaluating the Daily Report. However, none of these was assessed as critical. Through the enhanced surveillance, we structured a framework that allows for earlier response when detecting aberrations. It includes the role of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in communications and contacts with relevant parties such as public health centers, as well as in monitoring of surveillance data. However, some issues need to be further considered toward the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games, such as establishing the criteria for additional response steps, increasing the number of participating bodies in syndromic surveillance, and strengthening of cooperation with related departments, including those for crisis management assuming potential biological/chemical terrorism.

  20. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  1. Energy system for Tokyo East 21. Tokyo East 21 energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuoka, N. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    The paper reports cogeneration of the Tokyo East 21 building, which is composed of a 21-story office building, a 20-story hotel, and a mall. The heat source system is a combined energy system; that is, midnight power utilization and the large-scale thermal stratification heat storage tank system as electric heat source, and the gas cogeneration system and the gas boiler/the double effect absorption refrigerator as gas heat source. The system is based on the large temperature-difference thermal stratification cooling water bed, supplying water directly to the low-story section, and supplying water to the high-story section through the water-water heat exchanger and by cooling water by the double effect absorption refrigerator and by the closed-loop inverter-control heat flow system. Moreover, for heat source for the water heat source heat pump package in the mall building, the cooling water which is used also for the cogeneration is utilized. It is a cascade-like utilization of low-temperature waste heat. This combined heat source system is found to be the most advantageous in comparison with the overall gas system and the electric heat pump system. 14 figs.

  2. Pariisi Tokyo palee taassünd / Merike Trubert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trubert, Merike

    2002-01-01

    21. I avati Pariisis taas Tokyo palee, nüüdsest kaasaegse kunsti eksponeerimiseks. Kunstikriitikutest direktorid Nicolas Bourriaud ja Jérõme Sans on seadnud eesmärgiks avastada uusi talente. Pakuti vaadata Alexander Györfi filmi "Ballaad õnnelikest inimestest", mida reaalsuses ei eksisteeri jm

  3. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: flowchart for the management of acute cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamoto, Kohji; Suzuki, Kenji; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Endo, Itaru; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Pitt, Henry A.; Umezawa, Akiko; Asai, Koji; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Mori, Yasuhisa; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; Yokoe, Masamichi; Kiriyama, Seiki; Itoi, Takao; Jagannath, Palepu; Garden, O. James; Miura, Fumihiko; Nakamura, Masafumi; Horiguchi, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Go; Cherqui, Daniel; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Ukai, Tomohiko; Higuchi, Ryota; Wada, Keita; Honda, Goro; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Gouma, Dirk J.; Deziel, Daniel J.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Chen, Miin-Fu; Shibao, Kazunori; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chan, Angus C. W.; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Choi, In-Seok; Jonas, Eduard; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new flowchart for the treatment of acute cholecystitis (AC) in the Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18). Grade III AC was not indicated for straightforward laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Lap-C). Following analysis of subsequent clinical investigations and drawing on Big Data in particular, TG18

  4. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: antimicrobial therapy for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomi, Harumi; Solomkin, Joseph S.; Schlossberg, David; Okamoto, Kohji; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Ukai, Tomohiko; Endo, Itaru; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Pitt, Henry A.; Matsunaga, Naohisa; Takamori, Yoriyuki; Umezawa, Akiko; Asai, Koji; Suzuki, Kenji; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Mori, Yasuhisa; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; Yokoe, Masamichi; Kiriyama, Seiki; Itoi, Takao; Jagannath, Palepu; Garden, O. James; Miura, Fumihiko; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Wada, Keita; Honda, Goro; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Gouma, Dirk J.; Deziel, Daniel J.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Chen, Miin-Fu; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chan, Angus C. W.; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Choi, In-Seok; Jonas, Eduard; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Mukai, Shuntaro; Higuchi, Ryota; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a mainstay of the management for patients with acute cholangitis and/or cholecystitis. The Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18) provides recommendations for the appropriate use of antimicrobials for community-acquired and healthcare-associated infections. The listed agents are for

  5. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: management bundles for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayumi, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Solomkin, Joseph S.; Schlossberg, David; Pitt, Henry A.; Yoshida, Masahiro; Gomi, Harumi; Miura, Fumihiko; Garden, O. James; Kiriyama, Seiki; Yokoe, Masamichi; Endo, Itaru; Asbun, Horacio J.; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Umezawa, Akiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Itoi, Takao; Hata, Jiro; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Dervenis, Christos; Asai, Koji; Mori, Yasuhisa; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Belli, Giulio; Mukai, Shuntaro; Jagannath, Palepu; Cherqui, Daniel; Kozaka, Kazuto; Baron, Todd H.; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Higuchi, Ryota; Wada, Keita; Gouma, Dirk J.; Deziel, Daniel J.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Wakabayashi, Go; Padbury, Robert; Jonas, Eduard; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Singh, Harjit; Gabata, Toshifumi; Chan, Angus C. W.; Lau, Wan Yee; Fan, Sheung Tat; Chen, Miin-Fu; Ker, Chen-Guo; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Management bundles that define items or procedures strongly recommended in clinical practice have been used in many guidelines in recent years. Application of these bundles facilitates the adaptation of guidelines and helps improve the prognosis of target diseases. In Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13),

  6. PRODUCTION WELL PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT USING SONICATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Adewumi; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Robert W. Watson; Mario Farias; Glenn Heckman; Johnson Olanrewaju; Eltohami Eltohami; Bruce G. Miller; W. Jack Hughes; Thomas C. Montgomery

    2003-12-17

    The objective of this project is to develop a sonic well performance enhancement technology that focuses on near wellbore formations. In order to successfully achieve this objective, a three-year project has been defined with each year consisting of four tasks. The first task is the laboratory-scale study whose goal is to determine the underlying principles of the technology. The second task will develop a scale-up mathematical model to serve as the design guide for tool development. The third task is to develop effective transducers that can operate with variable frequency so that the most effective frequencies can be applied in any given situation. The system, assembled as part of the production string, ensures delivery of sufficient sonic energy to penetrate the near-wellbore formation. The last task is the actual field testing of the tool. The first year of the project has been completed.

  7. Supermodernity, distraction, schizophrenia: walking in Tokyo & Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ho-Yin Fong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture in a supermodern city has no sense of the place where it is located. This paper discusses how schizophrenia and distraction, through walking, respond to supermodernity by referring to how three dislocated subjects, Fumiya Takemura, Aiichiro Fukuhara and Fai in Tokyo and Hong Kong, are respectively depicted in the novel, Adrift in Tokyo written by Fujita Yoshinaga in 1999, with a film adaptation by Satoshi Miki (2007, and the film To Live and Die in Mongkok directed by Wong Jing in 2009. It suggests that Hong Kong is more supermodern than Tokyo. After his release from prison, Fai in To Live and Die in Mongkok finds that Mongkok is a completely different place from the one in which he used to live. The living conditions are no better than those in the prison. He hallucinates about the past. Adrift in Tokyo can be read as a story about walking. Fukuhara, a debt collector, killed his wife; before surrendering to the police, he orders his debtor, Takemura, to walk with him in Tokyo in order to re-experience the walks he enjoyed with his wife. If Takemura agrees, the debt can be paid off. This paper discusses how the repressed heterogeneous time and place can be approached by walking in a way that the rhythm of life can be (re-experienced; in other words, when the body moves forward physically, the past appears as specter haunting the walker. This paper discusses how Adrift in Tokyo and To Live and Die in Mongkok read cities in distractive and schizophrenic ways. In the film version of Adrift in Tokyo, Takemura’s failed relationship with his father may unconsciously drive him to walk with Fukuhara. The novel may imply that the lost relationship with his mother drives him to walk. The film and the novel both address a kind of locality which should be inseparable from the birth parents. To Live and Die in Mongkok suggests that supermodernity kills mother and father. The Father-son relationship disappears at the very beginning of the

  8. Living Melodies - Coevolution Of Sonic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nordahl, Mats G.

    2001-01-01

    The authors have constructed an artificial world of coevolving communicating agents. The behavior of the agents is described in terms of a simple genetic programming framework, which allows the evolution of foraging behavior and movement in order to reproduce, as well as sonic communication....... The sound of the entire world is used as musical raw material for the work. Musically interesting and useful structures are found to emerge....

  9. Sonic Fiction as the Mapping of Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus; Stricker, Jan Høgh

    2015-01-01

    The here proposed audio paper/audio lecture performance is an iteration of a site-specific participatory performance piece by Danish artist, composer and musician, Andreas Führer. The piece, which has the title THE MAP IS NOT THE TERRITORY D’OR, is a scored sound walk, which shows a map designati......) as a discussion and contextualisation of sonic materialist (Cox, 2011) and signifying representationalist (Kim-Cohen, 2009) positions....

  10. Six propositions on the sonics of pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Mowlabocus, Sharif; Medhurst, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Pornography (and all its contentious pleasures, contested politics and attendant problematics) is enjoying a fresh wave of academic attention. The overwhelming majority of these studies, however, focus on the visual discourses of sexually explicit material. This risks the sonic dimensions of pornography being overlooked entirely. Yet porn is anything but silent. This speculative article maps out some of the ways in which the sounds of pornography (and the pornography of sound) might be approa...

  11. Asie : Asie de l'Est : Japon : Région de Kanto : Préfecture de Tokyo : Tokyo : Habitations récentes dans la banlieue Nord

    OpenAIRE

    Lubeigt , Guy

    1983-01-01

    Commentaire de l'auteur en 2015: Tokyo a été presque entièrement détruite par les bombardements US en 1945 - Toutes les maisons en bois ont flambé; Légende manuscrite sur le document original : "Tokyo, banlieue N. Nouveau lotissement, toits en tuiles. " Géolocalisation : Approximative centrée sur le Nord de Tokyo.

  12. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  13. The reliability and validity of the Tokyo Autistic Behaviour Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H; Miyake, Y

    1990-03-01

    The Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS) consisting of 39 items provisionally grouped in four areas--interpersonal-social relationship, language-communication, habit-mannerism and others--is an instrument used by a child's caretaker to rate the child's autistic behaviors on a 3-point scale. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory (i.e., an r for a total score was .94). Among six DSM-III diagnostic groups, infantile autism showed a significantly higher total TABS score than the other five groups, and a taxonomic validity coefficient was .54. An r between total scores of the TABS and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale--Tokyo Version was .59. The area scores showed a lower validity than the total score. The TABS appears to be a useful instrument to assess autistic behavior.

  14. [Phylogenetic analysis of rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Kaoru; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2011-05-01

    Molecular epidemiological analysis of 96 rabies viruses isolated from animals in Tokyo in the 1950s involves Japanese fixed virus, Komatsugawa, Takamen, and Nishigahara strains. Strains isolated in Tokyo were divided into Tokyo 1 and Tokyo 2, and grouped into a worldwide distribution cluster differing from Takamen and Nishigahara. Tokyo 1 was grouped into the same cluster as viruses isolated from United States west coast dogs in the 1930s and 1940s. Tokyo 2 was grouped into the same cluster as the Komatsugawa strain, also known as a cluster of viruses from the Khabarovsk raccoon dog, and the Lake Baikal stepped fox in Russia. These findings suggest that 1950s Tokyo rabies viruses were related to those in Russia and the USA.

  15. The Effect of Sonic Booms on Earthquake Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A, Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Several aerospace companies are designing quiet supersonic business jets for service over the United States. These aircraft have the potential to increase the occurrence of mild sonic booms across the country. This leads to interest among earthquake warning (EQW) developers and the general seismological community in characterizing the effect of sonic booms on seismic sensors in the field, their potential impact on EQW systems, and means of discriminating their signatures from those of earthquakes. The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. (SWS) and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on EQW sensors. The study consists of exposing high-sample-rate (1000 sps) triaxial accelerometers to sonic booms with overpressures ranging from 10 to 600 Pa in the free field and the built environment. The accelerometers record the coupling of the sonic boom to the ground and surrounding structures, while microphones record the acoustic wave above ground near the sensor. Sonic booms are broadband signals with more high-frequency content than earthquakes. Even a 1000 sps accelerometer will produce a significantly aliased record. Thus the observed peak ground velocity is strongly dependent on the sampling rate, and increases as the sampling rate is reduced. At 1000 sps we observe ground velocities that exceed those of P-waves from ML 3 earthquakes at local distances, suggesting that sonic booms are not negligible for EQW applications. We present the results of several experiments conducted under SonicBREWS showing the effects of typical-case low amplitude sonic booms and worst-case high amplitude booms. We show the effects of various sensor placements and sensor array geometries. Finally, we suggest possible avenues for discriminating sonic booms from earthquakes for the purposes of EQW.

  16. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  17. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  18. A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Kasahara, K.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo metropolitan region. Devastating M8-class earthquakes occurred on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate (SPS), examples of which are the Genroku earthquake of 1703 (magnitude M=8.0) and the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M=7.9), which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions although it is smaller than the megathrust type M8-class earthquakes. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. The M7+ earthquakes may occur either on the upper surface or intra slab of PSP. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo

  19. The detectability of cracks using sonic IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidini, Marco; Cawley, Peter

    2009-05-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to study the detectability of fatigue cracks in metals using sonic IR (also known as thermosonics). The method relies on the validation of simple finite-element thermal models of the cracks and specimens in which the thermal loads have been defined by means of a priori measurement of the additional damping introduced in the specimens by each crack. This estimate of crack damping is used in conjunction with a local measurement of the vibration strain during ultrasonic excitation to retrieve the power released at the crack; these functions are then input to the thermal model of the specimens to find the resulting temperature rises (sonic IR signals). The method was validated on mild steel beams with two-dimensional cracks obtained in the low-cycle fatigue regime as well as nickel-based superalloy beams with three-dimensional "thumbnail" cracks generated in the high-cycle fatigue regime. The equivalent 40kHz strain necessary to obtain a desired temperature rise was calculated for cracks in the nickel superalloy set, and the detectability of cracks as a function of length in the range of 1-5mm was discussed.

  20. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  1. From Ecological Sounding Artifacts Towards Sonic Artifact Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur; Serafin, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The discipline of sonic interaction design has been focused on the interaction between a single user and an artifact. This strongly limits one of the fundamental aspects of music as a social and interactive experience. In this paper we propose sonic artifact ecologies as a mean to examine interac...

  2. Radioactive fallout collected in Tokyo on November 26, 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Y; Kanazawa, T

    1956-01-01

    A large nuclear weapon test by Russia was reported November 23, 1955 as having occurred the previous day. Rain water and fallout samples taken in Tokyo before and after the 22nd indicated the test had produced a secondary fallout from some previous explosion. Rain water of the 21st and fallout of the 29th had radioactive content of 13 days half-life; fallout of the 26th, rain of the 27th 3 days half-life. Sample of the 26th consisted of 15 mg of sooty material giving nearly 2000 counts/min at that time.

  3. The sonic window: second generation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William F.; Fuller, Michael I.; Brush, Edward V.; Eames, Matthew D. C.; Owen, Kevin; Ranganathan, Karthik; Blalock, Travis N.; Hossack, John A.

    2006-03-01

    Medical Ultrasound Imaging is widely used clinically because of its relatively low cost, portability, lack of ionizing radiation, and real-time nature. However, even with these advantages ultrasound has failed to permeate the broad array of clinical applications where its use could be of value. A prime example of this untapped potential is the routine use of ultrasound to guide intravenous access. In this particular application existing systems lack the required portability, low cost, and ease-of-use required for widespread acceptance. Our team has been working for a number of years to develop an extremely low-cost, pocket-sized, and intuitive ultrasound imaging system that we refer to as the "Sonic Window." We have previously described the first generation Sonic Window prototype that was a bench-top device using a 1024 element, fully populated array operating at a center frequency of 3.3 MHz. Through a high degree of custom front-end integration combined with multiplexing down to a 2 channel PC based digitizer this system acquired a full set of RF data over a course of 512 transmit events. While initial results were encouraging, this system exhibited limitations resulting from low SNR, relatively coarse array sampling, and relatively slow data acquisition. We have recently begun assembling a second-generation Sonic Window system. This system uses a 3600 element fully sampled array operating at 5.0 MHz with a 300 micron element pitch. This system extends the integration of the first generation system to include front-end protection, pre-amplification, a programmable bandpass filter, four sample and holds, and four A/D converters for all 3600 channels in a set of custom integrated circuits with a combined area smaller than the 1.8 x 1.8 cm footprint of the transducer array. We present initial results from this front-end and present benchmark results from a software beamformer implemented on the Analog Devices BF-561 DSP. We discuss our immediate plans for further

  4. Health risks and precautions for visitors to the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sachiko; Wada, Koji; Yanagisawa, Naoki; Smith, Derek R

    2018-02-02

    In 2020, Japan will host the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2020 (Tokyo 2020) which will involve a large population influx from various countries to Tokyo, the most populated city in Japan. We summarize the potential health risks for visitors to Tokyo 2020, related to communicable disease risks and other health threats, based on recent national and local surveillance reports. We reviewed up-to-date surveillance reports published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Tokyo Metropolitan Infectious Disease Surveillance Center. Communicable disease risks for vaccine-preventable illnesses such as measles and rubella, as well as food and waterborne diseases represent the most likely risks. The risk of acquiring vector-borne diseases is considered low in Japan. On the other hand, however, heat-related illness represents a potential risk, as Tokyo 2020 is scheduled during the hottest season in Japan, with temperatures generally expected to exceed 30 °C. Maintaining an up-to-date routine vaccination schedule is highly recommended for visitors attending the Tokyo 2020 and appropriate hygiene measures for food and waterborne diseases as well as health promotion for heat-related illness. It may also be useful to increase the number of multilingual triage clinicians whom can be placed within emergency departments during the Tokyo 2020 to provide first contact services and coordination of emergency care among non-Japanese speaking visitors to Tokyo. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.

  6. Commercialization of residential fuel cell systems at Tokyo Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hisao; Kameyama, Hiromichi; Okamura, Kiyoshi; Nishizaki, Kunihiro

    2007-07-01

    Increased affluence at homes may inevitably bring about increased energy consumption with it and hence increased CO2 emission from the residential sector, which accounts for a substantial share in the overall CO2 emission. Technologies that can reduce CO2 emission without sacrificing comfort of living at home will be critically important to achieve economic prosperity and preservation of the global environment at the same time. The residential fuel cell system is one of those technologies. Tokyo Gas has been engaging in its development cooperating with the manufacturers and has been playing an important role in the design, development and promotion of fuel cell systems with its vast knowledge and experience of end users' energy consumption. The development, demonstration and promotion of fuel cell systems have been strongly supported by the Japanese Government. In 'the Large Scale Demonstration Project', more than 1000 units of polymer electrolyte fuel cells have been installed to existing homes and have demonstrated their energy saving and CO2 emission reduction potential. This paper reports the status of the development of residential fuel cell systems in Japan and the role Tokyo Gas plays in it.

  7. Urban warming and energy consumption in Tokyo metro area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, T.; Hisada, T.; Shimada, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the results of field observation and three-dimensional simulation of urban warming in Tokyo metropolitan area. The three-dimensional governing equations in an urban atmospheric boundary layer were formulated by virtue of vorticity-velocity vector potential method. Particular attention was focused on the representation of a buoyancy term in equation of motion in the vertical direction, thereby describing the crossover and stratification effects near the ground surface. The vorticity-velocity potential method is superior from the view point of numerical stability and suitable for the simulation of an urban heat island. The authors first made a survey on the energy consumption in Tokyo metropolitan area. Next, the three-dimensional simulations were carried out using these data. The simulation results were then compared with the data of field observation of the surface temperature by automobiles. Further future prediction of urban warming was performed when the energy consumption rate is increased five times as large as the present rate, which will correspond to the year 2030 if the present consumption rate were maintained until then

  8. The Tokyo subway sarin attack-lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, T.; Hisaoka, T.; Yamada, A.; Naito, T.; Isonuma, H.; Okumura, S.; Miura, K.; Sakurada, M.; Maekawa, H.; Ishimatsu, S.; Takasu, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2005-01-01

    The sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway system is reviewed from a clinical toxicology perspective. Based on the lessons learned from this attack, the following areas should be addressed on a global scale. First, an adequate supply of protective equipment is required, including level B protective equipment with a pressure demand breathing apparatus. In addition, a system should be established that enables a possible cause to be determined based on symptoms, physical findings, general laboratory tests, and a simple qualitative analysis for poisonous substances. If an antidote is needed, the system should enable it to be administered to the victims as quickly as possible. Preparation for a large-scale chemical attack by terrorists requires the prior establishment of a detailed decontamination plan that utilizes not only mass decontamination facilities but also public facilities in the area. A system should be established for summarizing, evaluating, and disseminating information on poisonous substances. Finally, a large-scale scientific investigation of the Tokyo sarin attack should be conducted to examine its long-term and subclinical effects and the effects of exposure to asymptomatic low levels of sarin

  9. Heterogeneous Structure and Seismicity beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kato, A.; Sakai, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2010-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes damaged mega-thrust earthquakes. Sato et al. (2005) revealed the geometry of upper surface of PSP, and Hagiwara et al. (2006) estimated the velocity structure beneath Boso peninsula. However, these results are not sufficient for the assessment of the entire picture of the seismic hazards beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area including those due to an intra-slab M7+ earthquake. So, we launched the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area (Hirata et al., 2009). Proving the more detailed geometry and physical properties (e.g. velocities, densities, attenuation) and stress field within PSP is very important to attain this issue. The core item of this project is a dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) for making observations in the metropolitan area (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We deployed the 249 seismic stations with a spacing of 5 km. Some parts of stations construct 5 linear arrays at interval of 2 km such as Tsukuba-Fujisawa (TF) array, etc. The TF array runs from northeast to southwest through the center of Tokyo. In this study, we applied the tomography method to image the heterogeneous structure under the Tokyo metropolitan area. We selected events from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) unified earthquake list. All data of MeSO-net were edited into event data by the selected JMA unified earthquake list. We picked the P and S wave arrival times. The total number of stations and events are 421 and 1,256, respectively. Then, we applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) to this dataset and estimated the fine-scale velocity structure. The grid nodes locate 10 km interval in parallel with the array, 20 km interval in perpendicular to the array; and on depth direction, 5 km interval to a depth of less than 50 km and 10 km interval at a depth of more

  10. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  11. State of the art of sonic boom modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    Based on fundamental theory developed through the 1950s and 1960s, sonic boom modeling has evolved into practical tools. Over the past decade, there have been requirements for design tools for an advanced supersonic transport, and for tools for environmental assessment of various military and aerospace activities. This has resulted in a number of advances in the understanding of the physics of sonic booms, including shock wave rise times, propagation through turbulence, and blending sonic boom theory with modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) aerodynamic design methods. This article reviews the early fundamental theory, recent advances in theory, and the application of these advances to practical models.

  12. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: diagnostic criteria and severity grading of acute cholecystitis (with videos)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoe, Masamichi; Hata, Jiro; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Wakabayashi, Go; Kozaka, Kazuto; Endo, Itaru; Deziel, Daniel J.; Miura, Fumihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Ker, Chen-Guo; Chen, Miin-Fu; Han, Ho-Seong; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Shikata, Satoru; Ukai, Tomohiko; Higuchi, Ryota; Gabata, Toshifumi; Mori, Yasuhisa; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Jagannath, Palepu; Jonas, Eduard; Liau, Kui-Hin; Dervenis, Christos; Gouma, Dirk J.; Cherqui, Daniel; Belli, Giulio; Garden, O. James; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Pitt, Henry A.; Singh, Harjit; Chan, Angus C. W.; Lau, Wan Yee; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Honda, Goro; Sugioka, Atsushi; Asai, Koji; Gomi, Harumi; Itoi, Takao; Kiriyama, Seiki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Matsumura, Naoki; Tokumura, Hiromi; Kitano, Seigo; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    The Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13) for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis were globally disseminated and various clinical studies about the management of acute cholecystitis were reported by many researchers and clinicians from all over the world. The 1st edition of the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07)

  13. Towards more stable operation of the Tokyo Tier2 center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Mashimo, T.; Matsui, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Ueda, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Tokyo Tier2 center, which is located at the International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP) in the University of Tokyo, was established as a regional analysis center in Japan for the ATLAS experiment. The official operation with WLCG was started in 2007 after the several years development since 2002. In December 2012, we have replaced almost all hardware as the third system upgrade to deal with analysis for further growing data of the ATLAS experiment. The number of CPU cores are increased by factor of two (9984 cores in total), and the performance of individual CPU core is improved by 20% according to the HEPSPEC06 benchmark test at 32bit compile mode. The score is estimated as 18.03 (SL6) per core by using Intel Xeon E5-2680 2.70 GHz. Since all worker nodes are made by 16 CPU cores configuration, we deployed 624 blade servers in total. They are connected to 6.7 PB of disk storage system with non-blocking 10 Gbps internal network backbone by using two center network switches (NetIron MLXe-32). The disk storage is made by 102 of RAID6 disk arrays (Infortrend DS S24F-G2840-4C16DO0) and served by equivalent number of 1U file servers with 8G-FC connection to maximize the file transfer throughput per storage capacity. As of February 2013, 2560 CPU cores and 2.00 PB of disk storage have already been deployed for WLCG. Currently, the remaining non-grid resources for both CPUs and disk storage are used as dedicated resources for the data analysis by the ATLAS Japan collaborators. Since all hardware in the non-grid resources are made by same architecture with Tier2 resource, they will be able to be migrated as the Tier2 extra resource on demand of the ATLAS experiment in the future. In addition to the upgrade of computing resources, we expect the improvement of connectivity on the wide area network. Thanks to the Japanese NREN (NII), another 10 Gbps trans-Pacific line from Japan to Washington will be available additionally with existing two 10 Gbps lines

  14. Current status and future of MALT, The University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, H.; Tsuchiya, Y.S.; Nakano, C.

    2013-01-01

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) is designed for highly sensitive and precise elemental and isotopic microanalysis system using ion beam generated by MC-SNICSTM solid state ion sources and Pelletron TM 5UD tandem accelerator. Currently multi-nuclide AMS ( 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 129 I) system and other beam analysis techniques (PIXE, NRA, ERDA) are available and show good performance. After the 2011 earthquake-disaster and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, investigation of 129 I distribution and behavior in the environment originated the accident has come to be an important mission at MALT as well as many collaborating scientific projects such as 'Study on natural and anthropogenic iodine isotope system', 'Application of in situ cosmogenic radio nuclides to the geomorphologic processes', and 'Analysis of cosmogenic radio nuclides in the Antarctic ice core', so on. (author)

  15. Tritiated water vapor in the surface air at Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hisayuki; Katsuragi, Yukio; Shigehara, Koji

    1984-01-01

    Tritium concentration in water vapor in the air near the surface and in the precipitation at Tokyo was measured during the period from 9 August to 20 November in 1974. From August to the middle of October, tritium mixing ratios in the surface air had relatively higher values except those in air masses which were associated with a typhoon. The mixing ratios of tritium in the air decreased abruptly at the middle of October, which indicates the decrease of tritium influx from aloft. These data exhibit the salient feature that variations in tritium concentration in TR are linear to the reciprocal of the content of water vapor during each period. Tritium concentrations in vapor and rain water collected simultaneously show nearly equal values. One of the reasons for the good correlation of tritium concentration between falling drops and ambient air is considered to be the result of the rapid isotopic exchange. (author)

  16. Towards more stable operation of the Tokyo Tier2 center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Mashimo, T; Matsui, N; Sakamoto, H; Ueda, I

    2014-01-01

    The Tokyo Tier2 center, which is located at the International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP) in the University of Tokyo, was established as a regional analysis center in Japan for the ATLAS experiment. The official operation with WLCG was started in 2007 after the several years development since 2002. In December 2012, we have replaced almost all hardware as the third system upgrade to deal with analysis for further growing data of the ATLAS experiment. The number of CPU cores are increased by factor of two (9984 cores in total), and the performance of individual CPU core is improved by 20% according to the HEPSPEC06 benchmark test at 32bit compile mode. The score is estimated as 18.03 (SL6) per core by using Intel Xeon E5-2680 2.70 GHz. Since all worker nodes are made by 16 CPU cores configuration, we deployed 624 blade servers in total. They are connected to 6.7 PB of disk storage system with non-blocking 10 Gbps internal network backbone by using two center network switches (NetIron MLXe-32). The disk storage is made by 102 of RAID6 disk arrays (Infortrend DS S24F-G2840-4C16DO0) and served by equivalent number of 1U file servers with 8G-FC connection to maximize the file transfer throughput per storage capacity. As of February 2013, 2560 CPU cores and 2.00 PB of disk storage have already been deployed for WLCG. Currently, the remaining non-grid resources for both CPUs and disk storage are used as dedicated resources for the data analysis by the ATLAS Japan collaborators. Since all hardware in the non-grid resources are made by same architecture with Tier2 resource, they will be able to be migrated as the Tier2 extra resource on demand of the ATLAS experiment in the future. In addition to the upgrade of computing resources, we expect the improvement of connectivity on the wide area network. Thanks to the Japanese NREN (NII), another 10 Gbps trans-Pacific line from Japan to Washington will be available additionally with existing two 10 Gbps lines

  17. Recent Progress on Sonic Boom Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubeau, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Sonic boom research conducted at NASA through the Supersonics Project of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program is oriented toward understanding the potential impact of sonic boom noise on communities from new low-boom supersonic aircraft designs. Encompassing research in atmospheric propagation, structural response, and human response, NASA research contributes to knowledge in key areas needed to support development of a new noise-based standard for supersonic aircraft certification. Partnerships with several industry, government, and academic institutions have enabled the recent execution of several acoustic field studies on sonic booms. An overview of recent activities funded by NASA includes: focus boom model development and experimental validation, field experiments of structural transmission of sonic booms into large buildings, and low boom community response testing.

  18. Subjective Response to Simulated Sonic Booms in Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, David A.; Brown, Sherilyn A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the environmental issues affecting the development of a second-generation supersonic commercial transport is the impact of sonic booms on people. Aircraft designers are attempting to design the transport to produce sonic boom signatures that will have minimum impact on the public. Current supersonic commercial aircraft produce an 'N-wave' sonic boom pressure signature that is considered unacceptable by the public. This has resulted in first-generation supersonic transports being banned from flying supersonic over land in the United States, a severe economic constraint. By tailoring aircraft volume and lift distributions, designers hope to produce sonic boom signatures having specific shapes other than 'N-wave' that may be more acceptable to the public. As part of the effort to develop a second-generation supersonic commercial transport, Langley Research Center is conducting research to study people's subjective response to sonic booms. As part of that research, a system was developed for performing studies of the subjective response of people to the occurrence of simulated sonic booms in their homes. The In-Home Noise Generation/Response System (IHONORS) provides a degree of situational realism not available in the laboratory and a degree of control over the noise exposure not found in community surveys. The computer-controlled audio system generates the simulated sonic booms, measures the noise levels, and records the subjects' ratings and can be placed and operated in individual homes for extended periods of time. The system was used to conduct an in-home study of subjective response to simulated sonic booms. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effect on annoyance of the number of sonic boom occurrences in a realistic environment. The effects on annoyance of several other parameters were also examined. Initially, data analyses were based on all the data collected. However, further analyser found that test subjects adapted to the sonic

  19. A Remotely Deployable Wind Sonic Anemometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication and computing shape up base for explosion of Internet of Things (IoT era. Humans can efficiently control the devices around their environment as per requirements because of IoT, the communication between different devices brings more flexibility in surrounding. Useful data is also gathered from some of these devices to create Big Data; where, further analysis assist in making life easier by developing good business models corresponding to user needs, enhance scientific research, formulating weather prediction or monitoring systems and contributing in other relative fields as well. Thus, in this research a remotely deployable IoT enabled Wind Sonic Anemometer has been designed and deployed to calculate average wind speed, direction, and gust. The proposed design is remotely deployable, user-friendly, power efficient and cost-effective because of opted modules i.e., ultrasonic sensors, GSM module, and solar panel. The testbed was also deployed at the roof of Computer & Information Systems Engineering (CIS department, NED UET. Further, its calibration has been carried out by using long short-term memory (LSTM, a deep learning technique; where ground truth data has been gathered from mechanical wind speed sensor (NRG-40 H deployed at top of Industrial & Manufacturing (IM department of NED UET. The obtained results are satisfactory and the performance of designed sensor is also good under various weather conditions.

  20. Epithelial trafficking of Sonic hedgehog by megalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carlos R; Zeng, Jibin; El Alfy, Mohamed; Barth, Jeremy L; Chintalapudi, Mastan Rao; McCarthy, Robert A; Incardona, John P; Argraves, W Scott

    2006-10-01

    We present here evidence of in vivo epithelial endocytosis and trafficking of non-lipid-modified Sonic hedgehog (ShhN) when infused into rat efferent ducts via microinjection. Initially, exogenous ShhN is detected in endocytic vesicles and early endosomes located near the apical plasma membrane of non-ciliated cells. Within 30-60 min following infusion, ShhN can be detected in lysosomes and at basolateral regions of non-ciliated cells. Basolaterally, ShhN was observed along the extracellular surfaces of interdigitated plasma membranes of adjacent cells and in the extracellular compartment underlying the efferent duct epithelium. Uptake and subcellular trafficking of infused ShhN by non-ciliated cells could be blocked by either anti-megalin IgG or the megalin antagonist, RAP. Ciliated cells, which do not express megalin, displayed little if any apical internalization of ShhN even though they were found to express Patched-1. However, ShhN was found in coated pits of lateral plasma membranes of ciliated cells as well as in underlying endocytic vesicles. We conclude that megalin-mediated endocytosis of ShhN can occur in megalin-expressing epithelia in vivo, and that the internalized ShhN can be targeted to the lysosome or transcytosed in the plane of the epithelium or across the epithelium. These findings highlight the multiple mechanisms by which megalin may influence Shh morphogen gradients in vivo.

  1. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulong Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The initiation of thyroid cancer is often triggered by a genetic mutation in the phosphortidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway, such as RAS and BRAF, or by the rearrangement of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase genes such as RET/PTC. The sonic hedgehog (Shh pathway is evolutionarily conserved and plays an important role in the embryonic development of normal tissues and organs. Gene mutations in the Shh pathway are involved in basal cell carcinomas (BCC. Activation of the Shh pathway due to overexpression of the genes encoding the components of this pathway stimulates the growth and spread of a wide range of cancer types. The Shh pathway also plays an important role in cancer stem cell (CSC self-renewal. GDC-0449 and LDE-225, two inhibitors of this pathway, have been approved for treating BCC and are being tested as a single agent or in combination with other drugs for treating various other cancers. Here, we review the recent findings on activation of the Shh pathway in thyroid cancer and its role in maintaining thyroid CSC self-renewal. We also summarize the recent developments on crosstalk of the Shh pathway with the MAPK and PI3K oncogenic pathways, and its implications for combination therapy.

  2. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiulong; Lu, Yurong; Li, Yi; Prinz, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The initiation of thyroid cancer is often triggered by a genetic mutation in the phosphortidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, such as RAS and BRAF, or by the rearrangement of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase genes such as RET/PTC. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway is evolutionarily conserved and plays an important role in the embryonic development of normal tissues and organs. Gene mutations in the Shh pathway are involved in basal cell carcinomas (BCC). Activation of the Shh pathway due to overexpression of the genes encoding the components of this pathway stimulates the growth and spread of a wide range of cancer types. The Shh pathway also plays an important role in cancer stem cell (CSC) self-renewal. GDC-0449 and LDE-225, two inhibitors of this pathway, have been approved for treating BCC and are being tested as a single agent or in combination with other drugs for treating various other cancers. Here, we review the recent findings on activation of the Shh pathway in thyroid cancer and its role in maintaining thyroid CSC self-renewal. We also summarize the recent developments on crosstalk of the Shh pathway with the MAPK and PI3K oncogenic pathways, and its implications for combination therapy. PMID:29163356

  3. Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose; Torrent, Daniel [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cai Liangwu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2009-01-15

    Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.

  4. Preventing heat illness in the anticipated hot climate of the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R; Endo, Shota; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-09-19

    Amid the effects of global warming, Tokyo has become an increasingly hot city, especially during the summertime. To prepare for the upcoming 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in Tokyo, all participants, including the athletes, staff, and spectators, will need to familiarize themselves with Tokyo's hot and humid summer conditions. This paper uses the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, which estimates the risk of heat illness, to compare climate conditions of sports events in Tokyo with the conditions of the past three Summer Olympics (held in Rio de Janeiro, London, and Beijing) and to subsequently detail the need for establishing appropriate countermeasures. We compared WBGT results from the past three Summer Olympics with the same time periods in Tokyo during 2016. There was almost no time zone where a low risk of heat illness could be expected during the time frame of the upcoming 2020 Tokyo Olympics. We also found that Tokyo had a higher WBGT than any of those previous host cities and is poorly suited for outdoor sporting events. Combined efforts by the official organizers, government, various related organizations, and the participants will be necessary to deal with these challenging conditions and to allow athletes to perform their best, as well as to prevent heat illnesses among staff and spectators. The sporting committees, as well as the Olympic organizing committee, should consider WBGT measurements in determining the venues and timing of the events to better avoid heat illness and facilitate maximum athletic performance.

  5. Room airflow studies using sonic anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, P.T.; Whicker, J.J.; Gong, H.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    To ensure prompt response by real-time air monitors to an accidental release of toxic aerosols in a workplace, safety professionals should understand airflow patterns. This understanding can be achieved with validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer simulations, or with experimental techniques, such as measurements with smoke, neutrally buoyant markers, trace gases, or trace aerosol particles. As a supplementary technique to quantify airflows, the use of a state-of-the-art, three-dimensional sonic anemometer was explored. This instrument allows for the precise measurements of the air-velocity vector components in the range of a few centimeters per second, which is common in many indoor work environments. Measurements of air velocities and directions at selected locations were made for the purpose of providing data for characterizing fundamental aspects of indoor air movement in two ventilated rooms and for comparison to CFD model predictions. One room was a mockup of a plutonium workroom, and the other was an actual functioning plutonium workroom. In the mockup room, air-velocity vector components were measured at 19 locations at three heights (60, 120 and 180 cm) with average velocities varying from 1.4 cm s -1 to 9.7 cm s -1 . There were complex flow patterns observed with turbulence intensities from 39% up to 108%. In the plutonium workroom, measurements were made at the breathing-zone height, recording average velocities ranging from 9.9 cm s -1 to 35.5 cm s -1 with turbulence intensities from 33% to 108%. (au)

  6. CALIBRATION AND TESTING OF SONIC STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Turpening; Wayne Pennington; Christopher Schmidt; Sean Trisch

    2005-03-01

    In conjunction with Baker Atlas Inc. Michigan Technological University devised a system capable of recording the earth motion and pressure due to downhole and surface seismic sources. The essential elements of the system are (1) a borehole test site that will remain constant and is available all the time and for any length of time, (2) a downhole sonde that will itself remain constant and, because of its downhole digitization feature, does not require the wireline or surface recording components to remain constant, and (3) a set of procedures that ensures that the amplitude and frequency parameters of a wide range of sources can be compared with confidence. This system was used to record four seismic sources, three downhole sources and one surface source. A single activation of each of the downhole sources was not seen on time traces above the ambient noise, however, one sweep of the surface source, a small vertical vibrator, was easily seen in a time trace. One of the downhole sources was seen by means of a spike in its spectrum and a second downhole source was clearly seen after correlation and stacking. The surface vibrator produced a peak to peak particle motion signal of approximately 4.5 x 10{sup -5} cm/sec and a peak to peak pressure of approx. 2.5 x 10{sup -7} microPascals at a depth of 1,485 ft. Theoretical advances were made with our partner, Dr. Igor Beresnev at Iowa State University. A theory has been developed to account for the behavior of oil ganglia trapped in pore throats, and their ultimate release through the additional incremental pressure associated with sonic stimulation.

  7. Calibration and Testing of Sonic Stimulation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger M. Turpening; Wayne D.Pennington

    2005-03-31

    In conjunction with Baker Atlas Inc. Michigan Technological University devised a system capable of recording the earth motion and pressure due to downhole and surface seismic sources. The essential elements of the system are 1) a borehole test site that will remain constant and is available all the time and for any length of time, 2) a downhole sonde that will itself remain constant and, because of its downhole digitization feature, does not require the wireline or surface recording components to remain constant, and 3) a set of procedures that ensures that the amplitude and frequency parameters of a wide range of sources can be compared with confidence. This system was used to record four seismic sources, three downhole sources and one surface source. A single activation of each of the downhole sources was not seen on time traces above the ambient noise, however, one sweep of the surface source, a small vertical vibrator, was easily seen in a time trace. One of the downhole sources was seen by means of a spike in its spectrum and a second downhole source was clearly seen after correlation and stacking. The surface vibrator produced a peak to peak particle motion signal of approximately 4.5 X 10-5 cm/sec and a peak to peak pressure of approx. 2.5 X 10-7 microPascals at a depth of 1,485 ft. Theoretical advances were made with our partner, Dr. I. Beresnev at Iowa State University. A theory has been developed to account for the behavior of oil ganglia trapped in pore throats, and their ultimate release through the additional incremental pressure associated with sonic stimulation.

  8. Room airflow studies using sonic anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiolek, P T; Whicker, J J; Gong, H; Rodgers, J C

    1999-06-01

    To ensure prompt response by real-time air monitors to an accidental release of toxic aerosols in a workplace, safety professionals should understand airflow patterns. This understanding can be achieved with validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer simulations, or with experimental techniques, such as measurements with smoke, neutrally buoyant markers, trace gases, or trace aerosol particles. As a supplementary technique to quantify airflows, the use of a state-of-the art, three-dimensional sonic anemometer was explored. This instrument allows for the precise measurements of the air-velocity vector components in the range of a few centimeters per second, which is common in many indoor work environments. Measurements of air velocities and directions at selected locations were made for the purpose of providing data for characterizing fundamental aspects of indoor air movement in two ventilated rooms and for comparison to CFD model predictions. One room was a mockup of a plutonium workroom, and the other was an actual functioning plutonium workroom. In the mockup room, air-velocity vector components were measured at 19 locations at three heights (60, 120 and 180 cm) with average velocities varying from 1.4 cm s-1 to 9.7 cm s-1. There were complex flow patterns observed with turbulence intensities from 39% up to 108%. In the plutonium workroom, measurements were made at the breathing-zone height, recording average velocities ranging from 9.9 cm s-1 to 35.5 cm s-1 with turbulence intensities from 33% to 108%.

  9. Room airflow studies using sonic anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P.T.; Whicker, J.J.; Gong, H.; Rodgers, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., Health Physics Measurements Group, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1999-10-01

    To ensure prompt response by real-time air monitors to an accidental release of toxic aerosols in a workplace, safety professionals should understand airflow patterns. This understanding can be achieved with validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer simulations, or with experimental techniques, such as measurements with smoke, neutrally buoyant markers, trace gases, or trace aerosol particles. As a supplementary technique to quantify airflows, the use of a state-of-the-art, three-dimensional sonic anemometer was explored. This instrument allows for the precise measurements of the air-velocity vector components in the range of a few centimeters per second, which is common in many indoor work environments. Measurements of air velocities and directions at selected locations were made for the purpose of providing data for characterizing fundamental aspects of indoor air movement in two ventilated rooms and for comparison to CFD model predictions. One room was a mockup of a plutonium workroom, and the other was an actual functioning plutonium workroom. In the mockup room, air-velocity vector components were measured at 19 locations at three heights (60, 120 and 180 cm) with average velocities varying from 1.4 cm s{sup -1} to 9.7 cm s{sup -1}. There were complex flow patterns observed with turbulence intensities from 39% up to 108%. In the plutonium workroom, measurements were made at the breathing-zone height, recording average velocities ranging from 9.9 cm s{sup -1} to 35.5 cm s{sup -1} with turbulence intensities from 33% to 108%. (au) 17 refs.

  10. A highly attennuative zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intensities of seismic waves observed at the dense seismic array of the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) inside the Kanto basin, display unusual distribution patterns. In several occasions, the highest intensities are not observed in the area above an earthquakes hypocenter but appear sifted more than 20 km away. In order to understand the source of this unusual intensity distribution pattern, it is crucial to understand how the waves attenuate before they reach the surface. The attenuation of seismic waves along their path is represented by the t∗ attenuation operator that can be obtained by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 model. In order to create a high quality dataset, only 1449 earthquakes that are recorded with intensity greater than 0 in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity scale are selected from the JMA unified earthquake list from April 1st 2008 to October 2nd 2013. A grid search method is applied to determine the t∗ values by matching the observed and theoretical spectra. The t∗ data where then inverted to estimate a 3D Q structure with grid points set at a 10 km spacing. We implemented the 3D velocity model estimated by Nakagawa et al., 2012 and in addition we set the initial Q values at 100 for the 0 km grids and to 400 for the grids below them. The obtained model suggests average Q values of 50˜100 inside the Kanto basin. Furthermore, a low Q zone is observed in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific sea plate. This area is located at approximately 40 km depth, beneath the north-east Tokyo and west Chiba prefectures and is represented by Q values Earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through this low Q area inside the Philippine sea plate and are attenuated significantly. The estimated attenuation distribution at the MeSO-net station for these earthquakes implementing our 3D Q model greatly coincides with the

  11. The Role of Sub-National Actors in Climate Change Policy. The Case of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roppongi, Hitomi

    2016-06-01

    Tokyo is known as a pioneer throughout the history of Japan's environmental policy, often being compared to California in the United States or Paris in France. Following the global trend of growing local initiatives tackling climate change, Tokyo introduced a cap-and-trade scheme in 2010 ahead of a national implementation. The Tokyo Cap-and-Trade Program is the first of its kind that regulates CO_2 emissions from all business sectors, where energy consumers are defined in terms of the business establishments they own. Tokyo's initiative is largely seen as a reaction to the modest national commitment, following the tradition of center-local rivalry. This study first explains the centre-local relationship in the history of Japan's environmental governance. It then analyzes the development of the Tokyo's flagship climate policy and its implications for national and other sub-national governments in Japan. The tactics used by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government to overcome business opposition typically seen in the introduction of GHG control, and future policy challenges are also discussed. The study finds that Tokyo's policy encourages behavioral changes and technological improvement in the business sector, going a step beyond the existing culture of energy conservation in Japan. An emission trading scheme is often associated with the collapse of carbon markets and the 'money game', rather than a practical tool to reduce CO_2 emissions, but the Tokyo Cap-and-Trade Program has demonstrated a policy impact that recasts such an image. A known case of policy diffusion to Saitama prefecture, an immediate neighbor of Tokyo with the fifth largest population in Japan, is also discussed to elaborate on the potential domestic diffusion of the policy. (author)

  12. Flight to Liquidity on the Tokyo Stock Exchange during the 2008 Share Market Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Brooke Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the existence of the flight-to-liquidity phenomenon for shares which are traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange during share market crashes. Using data from the First section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the existence of a flight-to-liquidity during the 2008 share market crashes is clearly documented. The Tokyo Stock Exchange differs from other major exchanges as price limit rules restrict the daily price movements of shares. It provides a unique setting to test if a flight-to...

  13. Lessons from Japan: Resilience after Tokyo and Fukushima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Spencer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 1995 Japan experienced the world’s first major terrorist attack using chemical weapons by a little-known religious cult called Aum Shinrikyo. The attack on the Tokyo subway, which killed 13 people, was the first lethal case of a non-state actor using a chemical agent against a civilian population. In March 2011, following a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactor experienced a full meltdown releasing radiation into the surrounding area. The seemingly unhurried government reaction provided conflicting information to Japanese citizens, slowing evacuation and protective actions. Government failure is cited as a significant factor in the severity of the nuclear disaster in three investigations conducted after the incident. This article defines resilience and raises the question of whether the U.S. government has the ability to address the issues raised by the two case studies. There are four primary lessons of these two case studies from Japan: Trust is essential; two-way communications are vital; someone or something will always unexpectedly fail to act appropriately, while others will provide surprising support and; finally, recovery is long-term.

  14. Analysis of Nozzle Jet Plume Effects on Sonic Boom Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong

    2010-01-01

    An axisymmetric full Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was conducted to examine nozzle exhaust jet plume effects on the sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft. A simplified axisymmetric nozzle geometry, representative of the nozzle on the NASA Dryden NF-15B Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock (LaNCETS) research airplane, was considered. The highly underexpanded nozzle flow is found to provide significantly more reduction in the tail shock strength in the sonic boom N-wave pressure signature than perfectly expanded and overexpanded nozzle flows. A tail shock train in the sonic boom signature, similar to what was observed in the LaNCETS flight data, is observed for the highly underexpanded nozzle flow. The CFD results provide a detailed description of the nozzle flow physics involved in the LaNCETS nozzle at different nozzle expansion conditions and help in interpreting LaNCETS flight data as well as in the eventual CFD analysis of a full LaNCETS aircraft. The current study also provided important information on proper modeling of the LaNCETS aircraft nozzle. The primary objective of the current CFD research effort was to support the LaNCETS flight research data analysis effort by studying the detailed nozzle exhaust jet plume s imperfect expansion effects on the sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft. Figure 1 illustrates the primary flow physics present in the interaction between the exhaust jet plume shock and the sonic boom coming off of an axisymmetric body in supersonic flight. The steeper tail shock from highly expanded jet plume reduces the dip of the sonic boom N-wave signature. A structured finite-volume compressible full Navier-Stokes CFD code was used in the current study. This approach is not limited by the simplifying assumptions inherent in previous sonic boom analysis efforts. Also, this study was the first known jet plume sonic boom CFD study in which the full viscous nozzle flow field was modeled, without

  15. An Intermediate in the evolution of superfast sonic muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mok Hin-Kiu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermediate forms in the evolution of new adaptations such as transitions from water to land and the evolution of flight are often poorly understood. Similarly, the evolution of superfast sonic muscles in fishes, often considered the fastest muscles in vertebrates, has been a mystery because slow bladder movement does not generate sound. Slow muscles that stretch the swimbladder and then produce sound during recoil have recently been discovered in ophidiiform fishes. Here we describe the disturbance call (produced when fish are held and sonic mechanism in an unrelated perciform pearl perch (Glaucosomatidae that represents an intermediate condition in the evolution of super-fast sonic muscles. Results The pearl perch disturbance call is a two-part sound produced by a fast sonic muscle that rapidly stretches the bladder and an antagonistic tendon-smooth muscle combination (part 1 causing the tendon and bladder to snap back (part 2 generating a higher-frequency and greater-amplitude pulse. The smooth muscle is confirmed by electron microscopy and protein analysis. To our knowledge smooth muscle attachment to a tendon is unknown in animals. Conclusion The pearl perch, an advanced perciform teleost unrelated to ophidiiform fishes, uses a slow type mechanism to produce the major portion of the sound pulse during recoil, but the swimbladder is stretched by a fast muscle. Similarities between the two unrelated lineages, suggest independent and convergent evolution of sonic muscles and indicate intermediate forms in the evolution of superfast muscles.

  16. Tod's & United Bamboo + Toyo Ito & Vito Acconci + Omotesando & Daikanyama = Tokyo / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Toyo Ito projekteeritud Itaalia jalatsi- ja kotifirmale kuuluvast Tod'si hoonest ning Vito Acconci kujundatud rõivakauplusest United Bamboo, mille interjöör meenutab kangast, Tokyos. Ill.: 8 värv. fotot, 9 korruste plaani

  17. Interaction between two subducting plates under Tokyo and its possible effects on seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Francis; Okaya, David; Sato, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2007-09-01

    Underneath metropolitan Tokyo the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts to the north on top of the westward subducting Pacific plate (PAC). New, relatively high-resolution tomography images the PHS as a well-defined subduction zone under western Kanto Plain. As PAC shoals under eastern Kanto, the PHS lithosphere is being thrusted into an increasingly tighter space of the PAC-Eurasian mantle wedge. As a result, zones of enhanced seismicity appear under eastern Kanto at the top of PHS, internal to PHS and also at its contact with PAC. These zones are located at depths greater than the causative fault of the disastrous 1923 Great Tokyo ``megathrust'' earthquake, in the vicinity of several well-located historical, damaging (M6 and M7) earthquakes. Thus a rather unique interaction between subducting plates under Tokyo may account for additional seismic hazards in metropolitan Tokyo.

  18. Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / Hiroshi Wakasugi. Denon CD CO-75 860 (54 minutes); Symphony - comparative version: SNO, Järvi" (8/93)(CHAN) CHAN 9166

  19. Muusikamaailm : Wien Modern 2000. Muusikateater Huddersfieldis. Sibeliuse konkurss Helsingis. Penderecki uus teos Tokyos / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Nüüdismuusikafestivalist "Wien Modern" 28. okt.-26. nov. Muusikalavastustest Huddersfieldi kaasaegse muusika festivalil. VIII Sibeliuse nim. rahvusvahelisest viiuldajate konkursist. 30. nov. toimus Tokyos K. Penderecki teose "Concerto grosso per tre violoncelli ed orchestra"

  20. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: management strategies for gallbladder drainage in patients with acute cholecystitis (with videos)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mori, Yasuhisa; Itoi, Takao; Baron, Todd H.; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Pitt, Henry A.; Ukai, Tomohiko; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Asbun, Horacio J.; Endo, Itaru; Yokoe, Masamichi; Miura, Fumihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Wakabayashi, Go; Han, Ho-Seong; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Chen, Miin-Fu; Garden, O. James; Singh, Harjit; Liau, Kui-Hin; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Gouma, Dirk J.; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Windsor, John A.; Lau, Wan Yee; Cherqui, Daniel; Jagannath, Palepu; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Deziel, Daniel J.; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Jonas, Eduard; Padbury, Robert; Mukai, Shuntaro; Honda, Goro; Sugioka, Atsushi; Asai, Koji; Higuchi, Ryota; Wada, Keita; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Hirata, Koichi; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Since the publication of the Tokyo Guidelines in 2007 and their revision in 2013, appropriate management for acute cholecystitis has been more clearly established. Since the last revision, several manuscripts, especially for alternative endoscopic techniques, have been reported; therefore,

  1. Tokyo tähtsus üleilmse finantskeskusena väheneb / Kaja Koovit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koovit, Kaja, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    Tokyo positsioon rahvusvahelise finantskeskusena sai riiki tabanud maavärina, tsunami ja radiatsiooni tõttu hoobi. Suured välispangad, investeerimisfondid ja maaklerfirmad toovad oma töötajaid Tokyost ära

  2. Overview of the CTR blanket engineering research program at the University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Masaharu; Madarame, Haruki; Takahashi, Yoichi; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    1989-01-01

    A small overview has been given on the fusion reactor blanket engineering research program at the University of Tokyo as an introduction to the following articles, especially in its history, organization, experimental facilities and ten years research activity. (orig.)

  3. Redefining The U.S.-Japan Alliance: Tokyo’s National Defense Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    affairs to a member of the National Diet , a Fulbright Fellow at Tokyo University, a reporter for Defense News and the Iwate Nippo, and Tokyo...process of introducing electoral reform in the Diet has already split the LDP and led to the recent series of coalitions. The process of implementing this...what Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad told Japanese Prime Minister Murayama in August 1994. See "Mahathir to Japan: ’Drop War Apologies, Join

  4. Shuttle sonic boom - Technology and predictions. [environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, P. F.; Wilhold, G. A.; Jones, J. H.; Garcia, F., Jr.; Hicks, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Because the shuttle differs significantly in both geometric and operational characteristics from conventional supersonic aircraft, estimation of sonic boom characteristics required a new technology base. The prediction procedures thus developed are reviewed. Flight measurements obtained for both the ascent and entry phases of the Apollo 15 and 16 and for the ascent phase only of the Apollo 17 missions are presented which verify the techniques established for application to shuttle. Results of extensive analysis of the sonic boom overpressure characteristics completed to date are presented which indicate that this factor of the shuttle's environmental impact is predictable, localized, of short duration and acceptable. Efforts are continuing to define the shuttle sonic boom characteristics to a fine level of detail based on the final system design.

  5. Evaluation of the IRAD flexible probe sonic extensometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, H.D.; Patrick, W.C.; Rector, N.L.; Butler, L.S.

    1986-08-01

    Evaluation of the IRAD sonic extensometer was initiated with an electronic-circuit analysis which indicated an accuracy of +-0.001 in. (0.025 mm). Readings from two sonic probes consistently were low by 2% for distances between magnetic anchors, but were accurate to +-0.002 and +-0.003 in. (0.051 and 0.076 mm) for small displacements. Although a series of high explosive tests subjected magnetic anchors to peak accelerations of from 2100 g to 32,000 g the anchors generally did not experience detectable damage. Sonic probe readings exhibited a sensitivity to temperature changes with two of the four segments monitored exceeding the correction factor cited by the manufacturer

  6. Effect of sonication on technological properties of beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Dolatowski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound treatment during rigor mortis period led to an acceleration of aging processes. No significant influence of sonication on acidity during ageing was observed. Ultrasound treatment did not influence the lightness, but according to the shear force measurements, improve meat tenderness. Differentiated technological properties of examined samples may result from influence of ultrasound on protein structures of meat. As a result of ultrasound treatment an increase of free calcium ions concentration occurred. Obtained results pointed out that sonication may be an effective method of formation of technological properties of beef during ageing.

  7. Defatting and Sonication Enhances Protein Extraction from Edible Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung Deug; Wong, Nathan A K; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    Edible insects are attracting growing interest as a sustainable source of protein for addition to processed meat and dairy products. The current study investigated the optimal method for protein extraction from mealworm larvae ( Tenebrio molitor ), cricket adults ( Gryllus bimaculatus ), and silkworm pupae ( Bombyx mori ), for use in further applications. After defatting with n-hexane for up to 48 h, sonication was applied for 1-20 min and the protein yield was measured. All samples showed a total residual fat percentage below 1.36%, and a 35% to 94% improvement in protein yield (%). In conclusion, defatting with n-hexane combined with sonication improves the protein yield from insect samples.

  8. New tomographic images of P- , S- wave velocity and Q on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo: Implication to seismotectonics and seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Keiji; Kimura, Hisanor; Honda, Ryou

    2013-04-01

    The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake in the Tokyo metropolitan region will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) and Q tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo region. Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we interpreted the tomographic images as petrologic images. Tomographic images revealed the presence of two stepwise velocity increase of the top layer of the subducting PSP slab. Rock velocity data reveals that subducting PSP crust transforms from blueschists to amphibolites at depth of 30km and amphibolites to eclogites at depth of 50km, which suggest that dehydration reactions occurs in subducting crust of basaltic compositions during prograde metamorphism and water is released from the subducting PSP crust. Tomograms show evidence for a low-velocity zone (LVZ) beneath the area just north of Tokyo bay. A Q tomogram show a low Q zone in PSP slab. We interpret the LVZ as a

  9. ResonantSonic drilling. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The technology of ResonantSonic drilling is described. This technique has been demonstrated and deployed as an innovative tool to access the subsurface for installation of monitoring and/or remediation wells and for collection of subsurface materials for environmental restoration applications. The technology uses no drilling fluids, is safe and can be used to drill slant holes

  10. Research on Test-bench for Sonic Logging Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianping Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the test-bench for sonic logging tool is proposed and designed to realize automatic calibration and testing of the sonic logging tool. The test-bench System consists of Host Computer, Embedded Controlling Board, and functional boards. The Host Computer serves as the Human Machine Interface (HMI and processes uploaded data. The software running on Host Computer is designed on VC++, which is developed based on multithreading, Dynamic Linkable Library (DLL and Multiple Document Interface (MDI techniques. The Embedded Controlling Board uses ARM7 as the microcontroller and communicates with Host Computer via Ethernet. The Embedded Controlling Board software is realized based on embedded uclinux operating system with a layered architecture. The functional boards are designed based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and provide test interfaces for the logging tool. The functional board software is divided into independent sub-modules that can repeatedly be used by various functional boards and then integrated those sub-modules in the top layer. With the layered architecture and modularized design, the software system is highly reliable and extensible. With the help of designed system, a test has been conducted quickly and successfully on the electronic receiving cabin of the sonic logging tool. It demonstrated that the system could greatly improve the production efficiency of the sonic logging tool.

  11. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  12. Interdisciplinarity in Medialogy with applications to Sonic Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Serafin, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Medialogy is a novel education developed in Denmark since 2002, whose goal is to combine technology and creativity in the design, contextualization and evaluation of media technology. In this paper we describe the progression of the sonic interaction design curriculum in the Medialogy education, ......, stressing the importance of a transdisciplinary training for engineers working on interactive sound....

  13. Intensification of transesterification via sonication numerical simulation and sensitivity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janajreh, Isam; ElSamad, Tala; Noorul Hussain, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D numerical simulation of transesterification is accomplished. • A non-isothermal, reactive Navier–stokes was carried out. • Conventional and sonicated process was compared as far as reaction kinetics and yield. • Higher kinetic rates are achieved at lower molar ratios in sonicated process. • It validates feasibility of numerical simulation for transesterification assessment. - Abstract: Transesterification is known as slow reaction that can take over several hours to complete. The process involves two immiscible reactants to produce the biodiesel and the byproduct glycerol. Biodiesel commercialization has always been hindered by the long process times of the transesterification reaction. Catalyzing the process and increasing the agitation rate is the mode of intensifying the process additional to the increase of the molar ratio, temperature, circulation that all penalize the overall process metrics. Finding shorter path by reducing the reaction into a few minutes and ensures high quality biodiesel, in economically viable way is coming along with sonication. This drastic reduction moves the technology from the slow batch process into the high throughput continuous process. In a practical sense this means a huge optimization for the biodiesel production process which opens pathways for faster, voluminous and cheaper production. The mechanism of sonication assisted reaction is explained by the creation of microbubbles which increases the interfacial surface reaction areas and the presence of high localized temperature and turbulence as these microbubbles implode. As a result the reaction kinetics of sonicated transesterification as inferred by several authors is much faster. The aim of this work is to implement the inferred rates in a high fidelity numerical reactive flow simulation model while considering the reactor geometry. It is based on Navier–Stokes equations coupled with energy equation for non-isothermal flow and the transport

  14. Fifty years experiences in nuclear engineering education at Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yasuhiko; Saito, Masaki; Aritomi, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear engineering education has been initiated in 1957 at the graduate school of Tokyo Institute of Technology. Educational activities have been conducted for fifty years under the support of the Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors. In the past fifty years, about 1000 Master students and 200 Doctoral students and 200 Doctoral students graduated from our Nuclear Engineering Department at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Many of them found their jobs in nuclear industries and institutes. International course of nuclear engineering was initiated in 1994, and so far about 90 students from 15 overseas countries have graduated from our Master and Doctoral Programs. In 2003, our proposal of 'Innovative Nuclear Energy System for the Sustainable World' was adopted as the Center of Excellent Program sponsored by Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. Recently a collaborative education network has been developed among Kanazawa University, Fukui University, Ibaraki University, Okayama University, Tokyo Institute of Technology and Japan Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  15. Potential for air quality improvement in the Tokyo metropolitan area from use of hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Paul; Murdock, Mork

    1998-01-01

    A revised estimation has been made of the local air quality improvement that can be achieved in Tokyo as a byproduct of a word-wide hydrogen energy economy based on global reduction of CO2 emission from fossil fuels. The study for the WE-NET Project in Japan examined the potential for reduction in nitrogen oxide emission with hydrogen fuel in the Tokyo metropolitan area where sufficient data exist on trends in population, vehicle registrations, traffic activity, and exhaust emissions. A dynamic model was developed to extrapolate the trends in these data to estimate future NOx emission rates in comparison to regulatory scenarios based on policy and technical decisions of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government for improvement of air quality in the metropolitan area. The results of the model show significant potential for reduction of NOx emission by the year 2020 with a concomitant reduction in mean roadside NOx concentration. (author)

  16. Researches at the University of Tokyo fast neutron sources reactor, YAYOI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshizuka, S.; Oka, Y.; Saito, I.

    1992-01-01

    The Fast neutron source reactor YAYOI was critical in 1971 at the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, the Faculty of Engineering, the University of Tokyo (UTNL). The core is fueled with the enriched uranium surrounded by the depleted uranium. YAYOI is the first fast reactor in Japan. Many types of studies have been carried out by the researchers of the University of Tokyo in these 20 years. It also contributed to the Japan's national project of developing fast breeder reactors. The reactor is opened to the visiting researchers from universities and research institutes. YAYOI has also been utilized for education of undergraduate and graduate students of the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Tokyo. The present paper briefly summerizes past and present researchers. (author)

  17. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

  18. Self-collimated slow sound in sonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Olgun Adem; Cicek, Ahmet; Ulug, Bulent

    2012-01-01

    Self-collimated slow-sound propagation in a two-dimensional rectangular sonic crystal composed of elliptical scatterers in air is numerically demonstrated. The group velocity at the centre and the edges of the fourth acoustic band is reduced to 45 m s -1 and 30 m s -1 , corresponding to 1/8 and 1/12 of the speed of sound in air, respectively. Elimination of omni-directional reflections encountered in linear waveguides and the reduction of group-velocity dispersion at the mid-band frequencies lead to preservation of pulse shape and amplitude upon traversal of the sonic crystal. Wave transmission is increased from approximately -20 to -2.5 dB, with almost an order of magnitude enhancement, via injector layers optimized through a pattern search algorithm. Self-collimating performance of the system is not degraded under oblique incidence, except for pulse broadening due to increased effective source width.

  19. Stability of sonicated aqueous suspensions of phospholipids under air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, R; Forward, R; Samsonoff, C

    1991-12-01

    The stability of phospholipids in liposomal aqueous suspension against oxidative degradation in air was investigated using spectrophotometric indices, glutathione peroxidase reactivity and thin layer chromatography. Zwitterionic phospholipid was found to be susceptible to degradation via oxidation of polyunsaturated hydrocarbon chains and ester hydrolysis, producing oxidized lysophosphatide and free fatty acid derivatives. These products were characterized as hydroperoxides based on their reactivity with the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase isolated from human erythrocytes. Lecithin in Tris buffer was more resistant to hydrolysis than in water. The sonication of 8.0 mM of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SB-PC) suspension in 0.1 M Tris (pH 7.5) in the presence of air produced relatively high concentration of conjugated diene hydroperoxide, but a small amount of hydrolyzed products. Anionic phospholipids, such as egg-phosphatidylglycerol (egg-PG), demonstrated higher resistance to air oxidation than the zwitterionic lecithin, but its oxidation was promoted by sonication.

  20. Mixing volume determination in batch transfers through sonic detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Renan Martins [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: renan@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Rachid, Felipe Bastos de Freitas [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: rachid@mec.uff.br; Araujo, Jose Henrique Carneiro de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao]. E-mail: jhca@dcc.ic.uff.br

    2000-07-01

    An experimental methodology to evaluate mixing volumes in batch transfers by means of sonic detectors has been reported in this paper. Mixing volumes have then been computed in a transfer of diesel/gasoline carried out through a pipeline operated by Petrobras for different interface points. It has been shown that an adequate choice of the interface points is crucial for keeping the mixing volume uncertainty within acceptable limits. (author)

  1. Synthesis of PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite through sonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitompul, Johnner; Setyawan, Daru; Kim, Daniel Young Joon; Lee, Hyung Woo

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns the synthesis of poly(D,L-lactic acid)/poly(L-lactic acid) bentonite nanocomposites. Poly (D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) was synthesized using lactic acid through the ZnO-catalyzed direct polycondensation method at vacuum pressure and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized with L-lactide by ring-opening polymerization method. The PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were synthesized using the solvent casting method. The nanoclay, bentonite, was prepared using the solution-intercalation method by dissolving the nanoparticles into chloroform before sonication. In this study, PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were produced using variable amounts of nanoclay and sonication times during the mixing of PDLLA/PLLA and bentonite. The properties of the PDLLA/PLLA nanocomposites were then characterized using the X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Universal Testing Machine (UTM), Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) tests, and the enzymatic biodegradability test. The XRD test was used to measure the intercalation of nanoclay layers in the PDLLA/PLLA matrix and the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite intercalated nanocomposite films. It was found through these various tests that adding bentonite to the PDLLA/PLLA increases tensile strength to 56.76 MP. Furthermore, the biodegradability increases as well as the barrier properties of the polymers The different sonication time used during the mixing of the polymer solution with bentonite also affected the properties of the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films.

  2. Chalk porosity and sonic velocity versus burial depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Gommesen, Lars; Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Seventy chalk samples from four formations in the overpressured Danish central North Sea have been analyzed to investigate how correlations of porosity and sonic velocity with burial depth are affected by varying mineralogy, fluid pressure, and early introduction of petroleum. The results show th...... for fluid pressure because the cementing ions originate from stylolites, which are mechanically similar to fractures. We find that cementation occurs over a relatively short depth interval.......Seventy chalk samples from four formations in the overpressured Danish central North Sea have been analyzed to investigate how correlations of porosity and sonic velocity with burial depth are affected by varying mineralogy, fluid pressure, and early introduction of petroleum. The results show...... that porosity and sonic velocity follow the most consistent depth trends when fluid pressure and pore-volume compressibility are considered. Quartz content up to 10% has no marked effect, but more than 5% clay causes lower porosity and velocity. The mineralogical effect differs between P-wave and shear velocity...

  3. Personality Traits Bias the Perceived Quality of Sonic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PerMagnus Lindborg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been few empirical investigations of how individual differences influence the perception of the sonic environment. The present study included the Big Five traits and noise sensitivity as personality factors in two listening experiments (n = 43, n = 45. Recordings of urban and restaurant soundscapes that had been selected based on their type were rated for Pleasantness and Eventfulness using the Swedish Soundscape Quality Protocol. Multivariate multiple regression analysis showed that ratings depended on the type and loudness of both kinds of sonic environments and that the personality factors made a small yet significant contribution. Univariate models explained 48% (cross-validated adjusted R2 of the variation in Pleasantness ratings of urban soundscapes, and 35% of Eventfulness. For restaurant soundscapes the percentages explained were 22% and 21%, respectively. Emotional stability and noise sensitivity were notable predictors whose contribution to explaining the variation in quality ratings was between one-tenth and nearly half of the soundscape indicators, as measured by squared semipartial correlation. Further analysis revealed that 36% of noise sensitivity could be predicted by broad personality dimensions, replicating previous research. Our study lends empirical support to the hypothesis that personality traits have a significant though comparatively small influence on the perceived quality of sonic environments.

  4. Synthesis of PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite through sonication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitompul, Johnner, E-mail: sitompul@che.itb.ac.id; Setyawan, Daru, E-mail: daru.setyawan@gmail.com; Kim, Daniel Young Joon, E-mail: daniel.kim12321@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung, West Java, 40132 (Indonesia); Lee, Hyung Woo, E-mail: leehw@che.itb.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung, West Java, 40132 (Indonesia); Research and Business Foundation, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-19

    This paper concerns the synthesis of poly(D,L-lactic acid)/poly(L-lactic acid) bentonite nanocomposites. Poly (D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) was synthesized using lactic acid through the ZnO-catalyzed direct polycondensation method at vacuum pressure and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was synthesized with L-lactide by ring-opening polymerization method. The PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were synthesized using the solvent casting method. The nanoclay, bentonite, was prepared using the solution-intercalation method by dissolving the nanoparticles into chloroform before sonication. In this study, PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films were produced using variable amounts of nanoclay and sonication times during the mixing of PDLLA/PLLA and bentonite. The properties of the PDLLA/PLLA nanocomposites were then characterized using the X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Universal Testing Machine (UTM), Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) tests, and the enzymatic biodegradability test. The XRD test was used to measure the intercalation of nanoclay layers in the PDLLA/PLLA matrix and the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite intercalated nanocomposite films. It was found through these various tests that adding bentonite to the PDLLA/PLLA increases tensile strength to 56.76 MP. Furthermore, the biodegradability increases as well as the barrier properties of the polymers The different sonication time used during the mixing of the polymer solution with bentonite also affected the properties of the PDLLA/PLLA-bentonite nanocomposite films.

  5. Influence of Chair Vibrations on Indoor Sonic Boom Annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob; Loubeau, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    One goal of NASA’s Commercial Supersonic Technology Project is to identify candidate noise metrics suitable for regulating quiet sonic boom aircraft. A suitable metric must consider the short duration and pronounced low frequency content of sonic booms. For indoor listeners, rattle and creaking sounds and floor and chair vibrations may also be important. The current study examined the effect of such vibrations on the annoyance of test subjects seated indoors. The study involved two chairs exposed to nearly identical acoustic levels: one placed directly on the floor, and the other isolated from floor vibrations by pneumatic elastomeric mounts. All subjects experienced both chairs, sitting in one chair for the first half of the experiment and the other chair for the remaining half. Each half of the experiment consisted of 80 impulsive noises played at the exterior of the sonic boom simulator. When all annoyance ratings were analyzed together there appeared to be no difference in mean annoyance with isolation condition. When the apparent effect of transfer bias was removed, a subtle but measurable effect of vibration on annoyance was identified.

  6. Uranium carbide dissolution in nitric solution: Sonication vs. silent conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virot, Matthieu; Szenknect, Stéphanie; Chave, Tony; Dacheux, Nicolas; Moisy, Philippe; Nikitenko, Sergey I.

    2013-01-01

    The dissolution of uranium carbide (UC) in nitric acid media is considered by means of power ultrasound (sonication) or magnetic stirring. The induction period required to initiate UC dissolution was found to be dramatically shortened when sonicating a 3 M nitric solution (Ar, 20 kHz, 18 W cm −2 , 20 °C). At higher acidity, magnetic stirring offers faster dissolution kinetics compared to sonication. Ultrasound-assisted UC dissolution is found to be passivated after ∼60% dissolution and remains incomplete whatever the acidity which is confirmed by ICP–AES, LECO and SEM–EDX analyses. In general, the kinetics of UC dissolution is linked to the in situ generation of nitrous acid in agreement with the general mechanism of UC dissolution; the nitrous acid formation is reported to be faster under ultrasound at low acidity due to the nitric acid sonolysis. The carbon balance shared between the gaseous, liquid, and solid phases is strongly influenced by the applied dissolution procedure and HNO 3 concentration

  7. Uranium carbide dissolution in nitric solution: Sonication vs. silent conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Matthieu; Szenknect, Stéphanie; Chave, Tony; Dacheux, Nicolas; Moisy, Philippe; Nikitenko, Sergey I.

    2013-10-01

    The dissolution of uranium carbide (UC) in nitric acid media is considered by means of power ultrasound (sonication) or magnetic stirring. The induction period required to initiate UC dissolution was found to be dramatically shortened when sonicating a 3 M nitric solution (Ar, 20 kHz, 18 W cm-2, 20 °C). At higher acidity, magnetic stirring offers faster dissolution kinetics compared to sonication. Ultrasound-assisted UC dissolution is found to be passivated after ∼60% dissolution and remains incomplete whatever the acidity which is confirmed by ICP-AES, LECO and SEM-EDX analyses. In general, the kinetics of UC dissolution is linked to the in situ generation of nitrous acid in agreement with the general mechanism of UC dissolution; the nitrous acid formation is reported to be faster under ultrasound at low acidity due to the nitric acid sonolysis. The carbon balance shared between the gaseous, liquid, and solid phases is strongly influenced by the applied dissolution procedure and HNO3 concentration.

  8. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  9. Seasonal variations and sources of sedimentary organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Kanda, Jota

    2017-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) contents, their stable C and N isotope ratio (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), and chlorophyll a ([Chl a] sed ) of surface sediments were investigated monthly to identify the seasonal variations and sources of organic matter in Tokyo Bay. The sedimentary TOC (TOC sed ) and TN (TN sed ) contents, and the sedimentary δ 13 C and δ 15 N (δ 13 C sed and δ 15 N sed ) values were higher in summer than other seasons. The seasonal variations were controlled by high primary production in the water column and hypoxic water in the bottom water during summer. The fraction of terrestrial and marine derived organic matter was estimated by Bayesian mixing model using stable isotope data and TOC/TN ratio. Surface sediments in Tokyo Bay are dominated by marine derived organic matter, which accounts for about 69 ± 5% of TOC sed . - Highlights: • High values of sedimentary organic carbon and nitrogen were observed in summer. • Surface sediments in Tokyo Bay were dominated by marine derived organic matter which was estimated by Bayesian mixing model. • The most amount of terrestrial POC was deposited and degraded in Tokyo Bay before being discharged to the open ocean.

  10. Construction, characteristics and present status of high-fluence irradiation facility at University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Yoneho; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Kouchi, Noriyuki.

    1989-01-01

    New ion accelerator facility (HIT Facility) was constructed at Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Tokyo. This facility, which was equipped with some special apparatus, has been mainly dedicated to the study of radiation effects of ion beams on materials. In this report, the construction, the characteristics and the present status of this facility are described. (author)

  11. Tokyo Halloween on the Street : Japanese Dressing Up Between Bricolage and Authenticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.H.; Takagi, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on perspectives related to fashion and consumerist cultures on the one hand and anthropology and appropriation on the other hand, this paper addresses dressing up on the streets during the celebration of Halloween in Tokyo, Japan. By relating commercially marketed Halloween fun-dress to

  12. Development of a Distributed Modeling Framework to Estimate Thermal Comfort along 2020 Tokyo Olympic Marathon Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hirabayashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is an issue for marathon races in the summer, such as the one planned for the 2020 Tokyo Summer Olympic games. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government is planning to grow existing street trees’ canopies to enlarge their shade to reduce air temperature and solar radiation. To formulate a baseline to assess the effect of street trees and buildings on human thermal comfort, Distributed-COMfort FormulA (D-COMFA, a prototype of a distributed computer model using a geographic information system (GIS was developed. D-COMFA calculates the energy budget of a human body on a 1 m cell basis, using readily available datasets such as weather measurements and polygon data for street structures. D-COMFA was applied to a street segment along the marathon course in Tokyo on an hourly-basis on 9 August 2016, the hottest day in Tokyo in 2016. Our case study showed that the energy budget was positively related to the sky view factor, air temperature, and solar radiation. The energy budget was reduced on average by 26–62% in the shade throughout the day.

  13. Present situation of unused uranium fuel in Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, T.; Ogawa, M.

    2008-01-01

    Present situation of unused enriched uranium fuel in Tokyo Institute of Technology is described. The fuels were for sub-critical experiments. There is no special facility for transportation in the site. But there is no technical problem for it. One of the important issues to be done is a duty by national regulation against nuclear disaster. (author)

  14. Tokyo elanikud pagevad linnast. Poed kaubast tühjad / Katre Pilvinski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2011-01-01

    Tokyo poole liigub radiatsioon, mitmed elanikud lahkuvad linnast. Peaminister Naoto Kani sõnul edasise radioaktiivsuse lekke võimalus kasvab ning tehakse kõik, et vältida lekke levikut. Fukushima Daiichi tuumajaama ümbrusest on inimesed evakueeritud

  15. JURISDICTION OVER CRIMES COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT UNDER THE TOKYO CONVENTION 1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sopilko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main aim of this paper is to clarify several issues of conflicting jurisdiction over crimes committed on board aircraft in flight. The study will examine the way in which the Tokyo Convention attempts to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and discuss its effectiveness in preventing such offences in the future. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction over crimes and other offences committed on board aircraft in flight. Results: it follows from the study that although the Tokyo Convention has contributed considerably to the establishing of clearer rules of jurisdiction over offences committed on board aircraft, considerable deficiencies of this treaty remain. The results have important implications for international policy-making. Discussion: the results of the study reveal several weaknesses of the Tokyo Convention. Firstly, it does not provide any definition or list of offences to which it applies, instead it relies on national penal laws to do so. In addition, the ‘freedom fighter exception’ and the lack of a strong enforcement mechanism may prove to impede the effective attainment of the Tokyo Convention’s main objectives – that is, to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and prevent such offences in the future. Therefore, further improvement in aviation security legislation is necessary to ensure that it is effective and adequate in the challenges faced today.

  16. Applications of antireflection coatings in sonic crystal-based acoustic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun; Deng Ke; Xu Shengjun; Qiu Chunyin; Yang Hai; Liu Zhengyou

    2011-01-01

    The unwanted reflection seriously baffles the practical applications of sonic crystals, such as for various acoustic lenses designed by utilizing the in-band properties of sonic crystals. Herein we introduce the concept of the antireflection coating into the sonic crystal-based devices. The efficiency of such accessorial structures is demonstrated well by an originally high reflection system. Promising perspectives can be anticipated in extending the antireflection coating layers into more general acoustic applications through a flexible design process.

  17. Dog-Bone Horns for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic/Sonic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    A shape reminiscent of a dog bone has been found to be superior to other shapes for mechanical-amplification horns that are components of piezoelectrically driven actuators used in a series of related devices denoted generally as ultrasonic/sonic drill/corers (USDCs). The first of these devices was reported in Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38. The dog-bone shape was conceived especially for use in a more recent device in the series, denoted an ultrasonic/ sonic gopher, that was described in Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The figure shows an example of a dog-bone-shaped horn and other components of an ultrasonic gopher. Prerequisite to a meaningful description of this development is an unavoidably lengthy recapitulation of the principle of operation of a USDC and, more specifically, of the ultrasonic/sonic gopher as described previously in NASA Tech Briefs. The ultrasonic actuator includes a stack of piezoelectric rings, the horn, a metal backing, and a bolt that connects the aforementioned parts and provides compressive pre-strain to the piezoelectric stack to prevent breakage of the rings during extension. The stack of piezoelectric rings is excited at the resonance frequency of the overall ultrasonic actuator. Through mechanical amplification by the horn, the displacement in the ultrasonic vibration reaches tens of microns at the tip of the horn. The horn hammers an object that is denoted the free mass because it is free to move longitudinally over a limited distance between hard stops: The free mass bounces back and forth between the ultrasonic horn and a tool bit (a drill bit or a corer). Because the longitudinal speed of the free mass is smaller than the longitudinal speed of vibration of the tip of the horn, contact between the free mass and the horn tip usually occurs at a

  18. Sonic boom predictions using a modified Euler code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, Michael J.

    1992-04-01

    The environmental impact of a next generation fleet of high-speed civil transports (HSCT) is of great concern in the evaluation of the commercial development of such a transport. One of the potential environmental impacts of a high speed civilian transport is the sonic boom generated by the aircraft and its effects on the population, wildlife, and structures in the vicinity of its flight path. If an HSCT aircraft is restricted from flying overland routes due to excessive booms, the commercial feasibility of such a venture may be questionable. NASA has taken the lead in evaluating and resolving the issues surrounding the development of a high speed civilian transport through its High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). The present paper discusses the usage of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) nonlinear code in predicting the pressure signature and ultimately the sonic boom generated by a high speed civilian transport. NASA had designed, built, and wind tunnel tested two low boom configurations for flight at Mach 2 and Mach 3. Experimental data was taken at several distances from these models up to a body length from the axis of the aircraft. The near field experimental data serves as a test bed for computational fluid dynamic codes in evaluating their accuracy and reliability for predicting the behavior of future HSCT designs. Sonic boom prediction methodology exists which is based on modified linear theory. These methods can be used reliably if near field signatures are available at distances from the aircraft where nonlinear and three dimensional effects have diminished in importance. Up to the present time, the only reliable method to obtain this data was via the wind tunnel with costly model construction and testing. It is the intent of the present paper to apply a modified three dimensional Euler code to predict the near field signatures of the two low boom configurations recently tested by NASA.

  19. Evanescent waves and deaf bands in sonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romero-García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of sonic crystals (SC are theoretically investigated in this work by solving the inverse problem k(ω using the extended plane wave expansion (EPWE. The solution of the resulting eigenvalue problem gives the complex band structure which takes into account both the propagating and the evanescent modes. In this work we show the complete mathematical formulation of the EPWE for SC and the supercell approximation for its use in both a complete SC and a SC with defects. As an example we show a novel interpretation of the deaf bands in a complete SC in good agreement with multiple scattering simulations.

  20. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 1: Sonic anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

    2010-01-01

    distortion and vertical alignment, it was only possible to a limited extent to relate sonic anemometer flow tilt angles to upwind forest edges, but the results by the lidar indicated that an internal boundary layer affect flow tilt angles at 21m above the forest. This is in accordance with earlier studies......-flow angles were assumed for neutral flow, the data was interpreted in relation to upstream and downstream forest edges. Uncertainties caused by flow distortion, vertical misalignment and limited sampling time (statistical uncertainty) were evaluated and found to be highly significant. Since the attack angle...... balance, unless all terms in the carbon dioxide conservation equation can be precisely estimated....

  1. Evanescent waves and deaf bands in sonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, V.; Garcia-Raffi, L. M.; Sánchez-Pérez, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    The properties of sonic crystals (SC) are theoretically investigated in this work by solving the inverse problem k(ω) using the extended plane wave expansion (EPWE). The solution of the resulting eigenvalue problem gives the complex band structure which takes into account both the propagating and the evanescent modes. In this work we show the complete mathematical formulation of the EPWE for SC and the supercell approximation for its use in both a complete SC and a SC with defects. As an example we show a novel interpretation of the deaf bands in a complete SC in good agreement with multiple scattering simulations.

  2. Empirical Musicology Review: Serialist Claims versus Sonic Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Thomson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the descriptive mores of Serialism, as found in writings of leading American academics of the past half-century. A serious gap is revealed, especially between claims made for structural conditions rooted in dodecaphonic procedures and the actual kinetics of music as heard. Curious (and debilitating ambiguities and dead ends are noted in terms used to define critical perceptual conditions in such music; some claims of significance for features of 12- tone rows in certain works are revealed as wholly irrelevant to music as sonic event. Most prominent of the writings discussed are those of Milton Babbitt, Allen Forte and David Lewin.

  3. Sonic Kayaks: Environmental monitoring and experimental music by citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Amber G F; Kemp, Kirsty M; Matthews, Kaffe; Garrett, Joanne K; Griffiths, David J

    2017-11-01

    The Sonic Kayak is a musical instrument used to investigate nature and developed during open hacklab events. The kayaks are rigged with underwater environmental sensors, which allow paddlers to hear real-time water temperature sonifications and underwater sounds, generating live music from the marine world. Sensor data is also logged every second with location, time and date, which allows for fine-scale mapping of water temperatures and underwater noise that was previously unattainable using standard research equipment. The system can be used as a citizen science data collection device, research equipment for professional scientists, or a sound art installation in its own right.

  4. Sonic Kayaks: Environmental monitoring and experimental music by citizens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber G F Griffiths

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sonic Kayak is a musical instrument used to investigate nature and developed during open hacklab events. The kayaks are rigged with underwater environmental sensors, which allow paddlers to hear real-time water temperature sonifications and underwater sounds, generating live music from the marine world. Sensor data is also logged every second with location, time and date, which allows for fine-scale mapping of water temperatures and underwater noise that was previously unattainable using standard research equipment. The system can be used as a citizen science data collection device, research equipment for professional scientists, or a sound art installation in its own right.

  5. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the 210 Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8∼10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940∼50, which agreed with the time, 1943∼45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  6. Sacchi, Livio (2004. Tokyo: City and Architecture. 249 p. ISBN: 0-7893-1212-3. Nueva York: Universe Publishing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Ernesto Flores Quiroz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The book by the Italian author Livio Sacchi, focuses on the analysis on the spatial development of the city of Tokyo and the way in which the socioeconomic processes of the 19th and 20th centuries influenced the conformation of the urban structure on which millions of Tokyo citizens develop their daily life. During the text, the author underlines the impact of the modern architectural movement on the urban landscape of Tokyo. Furthermore, it is important to mention that this work serves as a translator for the western readers, because it deciphers the social and spatial characteristics that constitute the most populous city in the world.

  7. Optimizing sonication parameters for dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haibo [Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (Fraunhofer ENAS), 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016 Shenyang (China); Hermann, Sascha, E-mail: sascha.hermann@zfm.tu-chemnitz.de [Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Chemnitz University of Technology, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Schulz, Stefan E.; Gessner, Thomas [Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (Fraunhofer ENAS), 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Chemnitz University of Technology, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Dong, Zaili [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016 Shenyang (China); Li, Wen J., E-mail: wenjungli@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 110016 Shenyang (China); Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2012-10-26

    Graphical abstract: We study the dispersing behavior of SWCNTs based on the surfactant and the optimization of sonication parameters including the sonication power and running time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the optimization of sonication for the surfactant-based dispersion of SWCNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The absorption spectrum of SWCNT solution strongly depend on the sonication conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sonication process has an important influence on the average length and diameters of SWCNTs in solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Centrifugation mainly contributes to the decrease of nonresonant absorption background. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under the same sonication parameters, the large-diameter tip performs dispersion of SWCNTs better than the small-diameter tip. -- Abstract: Non-covalent functionalization based on surfactants has become one of the most common methods for dispersing of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Previously, efforts have mainly been focused on experimenting with different surfactant systems, varying their concentrations and solvents. However sonication plays a very important role during the surfactant-based dispersion process for SWCNTs. The sonication treatment enables the surfactant molecules to adsorb onto the surface of SWCNTs by overcoming the interactions induced by the hydrophobic, electrostatic and van der Waals forces. This work describes a systematic study of the influence of the sonication power and time on the dispersion of SWCNTs. UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra is used to analyze and to evaluate the dispersion of SWCNTs in an aqueous solution of 1 w/v% sodium deoxycholate (DOC) showing that the resonant and nonresonant background absorption strongly depends on the sonication conditions. Furthermore, the diameter and length of SWCNTs under different sonication parameters are investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  8. Continuous and pulse sonication effects on transesterification of used vegetable oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied continuous and pulse sonication effects on transesterification reaction. • Pulse sonication appears to have superior effects on transesterification reaction. • Effects of various process parameters on FAMEs yield were discussed in detail. • Effects of ultrasonic intensity and power density were compared for both conditions. • Continuous sonication may be beneficial for short time and plug-flow conditions. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct application of continuous and pulse sonication on transesterification reaction of used vegetable oil. Specific to this research, thermal effects of ultrasonics in transesterification reaction without external conventional heating along with the effects of different ultrasonic intensities and power densities were reported. Two process parametric evaluation studies were conducted to compare the effects of continuous and pulse sonication. These included methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time effects on the transesterification reaction. For continuous sonication, a catalyst amount of 0.5% (wt/wt), methanol to oil ratio of 9:1 was sufficient to complete the transesterification reaction in 1–2 min at a power output of 150 W with a biodiesel yield of 93.5%. For pulse sonication, a maximum biodiesel yield of 98% was achieved at 2.5 min of reaction time, 9:1 methanol to oil ratio, and 1.25% catalyst. Generally, higher biodiesel yields were observed for pulse sonication compared to continuous sonication under any given process condition. Power density and ultrasonic intensity tests revealed that biodiesel yields were more sensitive to continuous sonication due to intense mixing. A plug-flow or contact-type reactor design may improve overall ultrasonic utilization in the transesterification reaction under continuous sonication

  9. Sonic anemometry to measure natural ventilation in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Valera, Diego Luis; Molina-Aiz, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The present work has developed a methodology for studying natural ventilation in Mediterranean greenhouses by means of sonic anemometry. In addition, specific calculation programmes have been designed to enable processing and analysis of the data recorded during the experiments. Sonic anemometry allows us to study the direction of the airflow at all the greenhouse vents. Knowing through which vents the air enters and leaves the greenhouse enables us to establish the airflow pattern of the greenhouse under natural ventilation conditions. In the greenhouse analysed in this work for Poniente wind (from the southwest), a roof vent designed to open towards the North (leeward) could allow a positive interaction between the wind and stack effects, improving the ventilation capacity of the greenhouse. The cooling effect produced by the mass of turbulent air oscillating between inside and outside the greenhouse at the side vents was limited to 2% (for high wind speed, u(o) ≥ 4 m s(-1)) reaching 36.3% when wind speed was lower (u(o) = 2 m s(-1)).

  10. Inversion of Supramolecular Chirality by Sonication-Induced Organogelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Sibaprasad; Das, Priyadip; Reches, Meital

    2015-01-01

    Natural helical structures have inspired the formation of well-ordered peptide-based chiral nanostructures in vitro. These structures have drawn much attention owing to their diverse applications in the area of asymmetric catalysts, chiral photonic materials, and nanoplasmonics. The self-assembly of two enantiomeric fluorinated aromatic dipeptides into ordered chiral fibrillar nanostructures upon sonication is described. These fibrils form organogels. Our results clearly indicate that fluorine-fluorine interactions play an important role in self-assembly. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that both peptides (peptides 1 and 2), containing two fluorines, depicted opposite cotton effects in their monomeric form compared with their aggregated form. This shows that supramolecular chirality inversion took place during the stimuli-responsive self-aggregation process. Conversely, peptide 3, containing one fluorine, did not exhibit chirality inversion in sonication-induced organogelation. Therefore, our results clearly indicate that fluorination plays an important role in the organogelation process of these aromatic dipeptides. Our findings may have broad implications regarding the design of chiral nanostructures for possible applications such as chiroptical switches, asymmetric catalysis, and chiral recognitions. PMID:26553508

  11. MRI monitoring of focused ultrasound sonications near metallic hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hans; Ghanouni, Pejman; Pascal-Tenorio, Aurea; Pauly, Kim Butts; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2018-07-01

    To explore the temperature-induced signal change in two-dimensional multi-spectral imaging (2DMSI) for fast thermometry near metallic hardware to enable MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) in patients with implanted metallic hardware. 2DMSI was optimized for temperature sensitivity and applied to monitor focus ultrasound surgery (FUS) sonications near metallic hardware in phantoms and ex vivo porcine muscle tissue. Further, we evaluated its temperature sensitivity for in vivo muscle in patients without metallic hardware. In addition, we performed a comparison of temperature sensitivity between 2DMSI and conventional proton-resonance-frequency-shift (PRFS) thermometry at different distances from metal devices and different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). 2DMSI thermometry enabled visualization of short ultrasound sonications near metallic hardware. Calibration using in vivo muscle yielded a constant temperature sensitivity for temperatures below 43 °C. For an off-resonance coverage of ± 6 kHz, we achieved a temperature sensitivity of 1.45%/K, resulting in a minimum detectable temperature change of ∼2.5 K for an SNR of 100 with a temporal resolution of 6 s per frame. The proposed 2DMSI thermometry has the potential to allow MR-guided FUS treatments of patients with metallic hardware and therefore expand its reach to a larger patient population. Magn Reson Med 80:259-271, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Biodiesel from waste cooking oils via direct sonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Grant, Georgene Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal effects of direct sonication on transesterification reaction were studied. • Ultrasonics may effectively transesterify waste oils without external heating. • Intense mixing with temperature rise completes transesterification instantly. • Plug flow process reactor design with ultrasound may prove energy efficient. • Process optimization and biodiesel conversion analysis was presented. - Abstract: This study investigates the effect of direct sonication in conversion of waste cooking oil into biodiesel. Waste cooking oils may cause environmental hazards if not disposed properly. However, waste cooking oils can serve as low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Ultrasonics, a non-conventional process technique, was applied to directly convert waste cooking oil into biodiesel in a single step. Ultrasonics transesterify waste cooking oils very efficiently due to increased mass/heat transfer phenomena and specific thermal/athermal effects at molecular levels. Thus, energy and chemical consumption in the overall process is greatly reduced compared to conventional biodiesel processes. Specific to this research, thermal effects of ultrasonics in transesterification reaction without external conventional heating along with effects of different ultrasonic, energy intensities and energy density are reported. Optimization of process parameters such as methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time are also presented. It was observed that small reactor design such as plug-flow or contact-type reactor design may improve overall ultrasonic utilization in the transesterification reaction due to increased energy density and ultrasonic intensity

  13. Cellular and molecular effects of electromagnetic radiation and sonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Froes Meyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic radiation (in the form of pulsed magnetic fields, radiofrequency and intense pulsed light and mechanical agents (such as sonic waves have been used in physical therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity magnetic fields, sonic and radiofrequency waves, and intense pulsed light on the survival of Escherichia coli cultures and on the electrophoretic mobility of plasmid DNA. Exponentially growing E. coli AB1157 cultures and plasmid DNA samples were exposed to these physical agents and 0.9% NaCl (negative control and SnCl2 (positive control solutions. Aliquots of the cultures were diluted and spread onto a solidified rich medium. The colony-forming units were counted after overnight incubation and the survival fraction was calculated. Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed to visualise and quantify the plasmid topological forms. The results suggest that these agents do not alter the survival of E. coli cells or plasmid DNA electrophoresis mobility. Moreover, they do not protect against the lesive action of SnCl2. These physical agents therefore had no cytotoxic or genotoxic effects under the conditions studied.

  14. Morphology and crystallinity of sisal nanocellulose after sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosiati, H.; Wijayanti, D. A.; Triyana, K.; Kamiel, B.

    2017-09-01

    Different preparation methods on the natural fibers resulted in different morphology. However, the relationships between type of natural fibers, preparation methods and the morphology of produced nanocellulose could not be exactly defined. The sisal nanocellulose was presently prepared by alkalization and bleaching followed by sonication to verify changes in the morphology and crystallinity of nanocellulose related to the formation mechanism. The extracted microcellulose was subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The isolated cellulose nanospheres were examined with respect to morphology by SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and, to crystallinity by electron diffraction analysis. Bleaching after alkalization made the microfibrils clearly separated from each other to the individual fiber whose width of the single fiber was ranging from 6 to 13 µm. The XRD crystallinity index (CI) of microcellulose gradually increased after the chemical treatments; 83.12% for raw sisal fiber, 88.57% for alkali treated fiber and 94.03% for bleached fibers. The ultrasonic agitation after bleaching that was carried out at 750 Watt, 20 kHz and amplitude of 39% for 2 h produces homogeneous cellulose nanospheres less than 50 nm in diameter with relatively low crystallinity. The electron diffraction analysis confirmed that the low crystallinity of produced nnocellulose is related to the effect of chemical treatment done before sonication.

  15. Nuclear engineering experiments at experimental facilities of JNC in graduate course of Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Takahashi, Minoru; Aoyama, Takafumi; Onose, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear engineering experiments using outside facilities of the campus have been offered for graduate students in the nuclear engineering course in Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech.). The experiments are managed with the collaboration of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KUR). This report presents the new curriculum of the nuclear engineering experiments at JNC since 2002. The change is due to the shutdown of Deuterium Criticality Assembly Facility (DCA) that was used as an experimental facility until 2001. Reactor physics experiment using the training simulator of the experimental fast reactor JOYO is continued from the previous curriculum with the addition of the criticality approach experiment and control rods calibration. A new experimental subject is an irradiated material experiment at the Material Monitoring Facility (MMF). As a result, both are acceptable as the student experiments on the fast reactor. (author)

  16. Prevalence and contamination levels of listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Yukako; Ida, Miki; Nakama, Akiko; Nishino, Yukari; Fukui, Rie; Kuroda, Sumiyo; Hirai, Akihiko; Kai, Akemi; Sadamasu, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We surveyed prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods between 2000 and 2012 in Tokyo. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 52 (1.7%) out of 2,980 samples. Comparing the prevalence in the study period, 2.2% were positive in the former period (2000-2005) and 1.2% in the latter (2006-2012). Using the most probable number (MPN) technique, 32 samples were contaminated with fewer than 0.3 L. monocytogenes/g, 10 samples with 0.3-1.0/g and 4 samples with more than 1.0/g (the maximum was 2.3/g). The most common serovar was 1/2a, followed by 1/2b, 4b and 1/2c. We revealed that ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, although the contamination levels were low.

  17. Gamma-ray dose rate in air on the subway lines in Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masayuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Ogashiwa, Susumu; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of gamma-ray dose rates in air were performed on 12 subway lines in Tokyo from the perspective of health physics, because the subways are commonly used for commuting in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The results showed that the maximum dose rate (36.5 nGy/h) was 1.6 times higher than that of the minimum one (23.3 nGy/h), and that the dose rate in the subway car was 33% lower than the outside. Also the results strongly suggested that the dose rates depend on the concentration of natural radionuclide around the subway lines and the platform structures rather than the depth. (author)

  18. Keterpaduan Pasar Tuna Segar Benoa/Bali, Indonesia Dan Pasar Sentral Tuna Tokyo, Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    SITORUS, EDYANTO

    2007-01-01

    Tuna fish is which forming life and horde in tropical territorial water until subtropics. Tuna type which important in commerce is Yellowfin, Bigeye, Poor Southern Bluefin, Northern Bluefin, Albacore and of Skipjack (Cakalang). Objective of this research is analyze integrity of market that happened between local market (Market of Benoa, Bali) with reference market (Tuna Central Market of Tokyo, Japan), It is seen from the research that in Benoa there are 3 system of selling fresh tu...

  19. A Study of the Tuition of Middle Schools in Prwear Tokyo Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Karasuda, Naoya

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarifying the tuition in middle schools at the prewar Tokyo prefecture. The tuition differed between the public schools and the private schools. In the 1890s, most expenses required for management of middle schools was provided with tuition in both private amd public schools. At this time, the tuition of public schools was higher than the private schools. After 1900 tuition of public schools became cheaper than private schools. As expenses of public schools, i...

  20. Antibacterial Therapy of Acute Cholecystitis and Cholangitis (According to Tokyo Guidelines2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotics should be used wisely in antimicrobial therapy in each institution, region and country. The recent global spread of antibiotic resistance gives us a warning in the modern practice. Tokyo Guidelines 2013 provide practical guidance for physicians and surgeons involved in the treatment of community-acquired and hospital acute biliary infection. Much remains uncertain in this view. Continuous monitoring of local resistance to antibiotics and further studies in acute cholecystitis and cholangitis should be justified.

  1. Tokyo filmifestival näitas Aasia tippe / Pille-Riin Pregel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pregel, Pille-Riin

    2001-01-01

    Tokyo filmifestivalist. Lähemalt Tai mängufilmist "Ohtlik Bangkok" ("Bangkok Dangerous") : režissöörid vennad Oxide ja Danny Pang ning Iraani "Kuupaiste all" ("Under the Moonlight" : režissöör Reza Mir-Karimi. Peaauhinna sai Albaania mängufilm "Loosungid2 ("Slogans"), mille režissöör Gjergj Xhuavani sai ka parima režissööri auhinna. Lisatud võitjate nimekiri

  2. Three-dimensional distributions of sewage markers in Tokyo Bay water-fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managaki, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige; Kim, Dong-Myung; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional distributions of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs: more specifically, DSBP and DAS1), which are sewage-derived water-soluble markers, were observed in Tokyo Bay water through multi-layer sampling of water at 20 locations. In summer, FWAs predominated in the surface layers, with trace but significant concentration of FWAs in bottom water due to stratification of seawater. In winter, on the other hand, FWAs were extensively mixed into the bottom layers because of the vertical mixing of seawater. In the surface layer, FWA concentrations and the DSBP/DAS1 ratio (the concentration ratio of DSBP to DAS1) were lower in summer than in winter, suggesting more efficient photodegradation of FWAs in euphotic zones during the summer due to stronger solar radiation. Horizontally, FWAs were widely distributed over the surface layer of Tokyo Bay. Surface water with DSBP concentrations above 50 ng/L, corresponding to <200 times dilution of sewage effluent, was found to have spread up to 10 km from the coastline. In addition, an offshore decline in FWA concentrations was observed, showing a half-distance of 10-20 km. The decrease was caused by dilution by seawater of fresh water containing FWAs. The eastern part of the bay was different with respect to surface layers, with higher concentrations seen in northeastern parts. Furthermore, dispersion of combined sewer overflow (CSO)-derived water mass was observed in Tokyo Bay after heavy rain

  3. Inventory of the Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) in Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, a highly urbanized area in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masayuki U.; Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kato, Toshihide; Kurashima, Osamu; Ito, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Heteroptera, or true bugs, forms one of the major insect groups with respect to the very diverse habitat preferences, including both aquatic and terrestrial species, as well as a variety of feeding types. The first comprehensive inventory of the Heteroptera at Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, or an urban green space in the center of the Tokyo Metropolis, Japan, was conducted. New information A total of 115 species in 29 families of the suborder Heteroptera were identified. The area had a high species richness compared with other urbanized and suburbanized localities in Tokyo. The campus is found to show a substantial difference in heteropteran species compositions, despite being close to the other localities surrounded by highly urbanized zones in central Tokyo. PMID:25941455

  4. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International Trade... Japan-United States Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum (``Fukushima Recovery Forum...

  5. The Tokyo Trial and the Question of Colonial Responsibility: Korean Reactions to Allied Justice in Occupied Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-hwan Chong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the zainichi Korean media and organizations responded to the Tokyo Trial and its pursuit of war responsibility. Their critiques of the Tokyo Trial often presented a critical insight from the perspective of anti-colonialism. Zainichi Koreans correctly questioned the absence of colonial responsibility in the pursuit of justice and war responsibility in the trial. In this sense, the problems and limits of the Tokyo Trial that scholars started to “discover” in the 1970s had already been discussed by some zainichi Koreans in the late 1940s. By delving into previously under-explored historical sources, particularly the numerous newspapers published by zainichi Korean groups during the occupation period, this article demonstrates how zainichi Korean critics understood the limits of the Tokyo Trial beyond the binary of “victors' justice” and “the judgment of civilization.”

  6. 77 FR 56909 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Tokyo 1955-70: A New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... the Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, from on or about November 18, 2012, until on or about February... ``Tokyo 1955-70: A New Avant-Garde,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United...

  7. The Impact of Sonication on the Surface Quality of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Byumseok; Cheng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Sonication process is regularly adopted for dispersing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an aqueous medium. This can be achieved by either covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with strong acid or by noncovalent functionalization using dispersants that adsorb onto the surface of SWCNTs during dispersion. Because the dispersion process is usually performed using sonication, unintentional free radical formation during sonication process may induce covalent modification of SWCNT surface. Herein, we have systematically investigated the status of SWCNT surface modification under various sonication conditions using Raman spectroscopy. Comparing ID /IG (Raman intensities between D and G bands) ratio of SWCNTs under various sonication conditions suggests that typical sonication conditions (1-6 h bath sonication with sonication power between 3 and 80 W) in aqueous media do not induce covalent modification of SWCNT surface. In addition, we confirm that SWCNT dispersion with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) involves noncovalent adsorption of ssDNA onto the surface of SWCNTs, but not covalent linkage between ssDNA and SWCNT surface. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics Held at Tokyo (Japan) on October 6-10 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    sciences, material sciences, and ocean University of Tokyo, and his many able and science and technology . dedicated co-workers, in organizing this meeting...occasion. Since our Symposia concerning hydro- us to ease this section and gastronomy such as this dynamics or naval science took place in Tokyo, I buffet...Houten, R.J., Unpublished, 1978. 6. Van Oossanen, P., "Theoretical 6. CONCLUSION Prediction of Cavitation of Propellers,"Marine Technology , Vol. 14, No

  9. Evaluation of Rheological Properties and Swelling Behaviour of Sonicated Scleroglucan Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique Akber Ansari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Scleroglucan is a natural polysaccharide that has been proposed for various applications. However there is no investigation on its property variations when the molecular weight of this polymer is reduced. Scleroglucan was sonicated at two different polymer concentrations for different periods of time and the effect of sonication was investigated with respect to molecular weight variations and rheological properties. Molar mass, estimated by viscometric measurements, was drastically reduced already after a sonication for a few min. Sonicated samples were used for the preparation of gels in the presence of borate ions. The effect of borax on the new samples was investigated by recording the mechanical spectra and the flow curves. A comparison with the system prepared with the dialysed polymer was also carried out. The anisotropic elongation, observed with tablets of scleroglucan and borax, was remarkably reduced when the sonicated samples were used for the preparation of the gels.

  10. Corroborating a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo from historical intensity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, S.; Stein, R.; Toda, S.

    2006-12-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past observations of shaking. For this we analyzed 10,000 intensity observations recorded during AD 1600-2000 in a 350 x 350 km area centered on Tokyo in a Geographic Information System. A frequency-intensity curve is found for each 5 x 5 km cell, and from this the probability of exceeding any intensity level can be estimated. The principal benefits of this approach is that it builds the fewest possible assumptions into a probabilistic seismic forecast, it includes site and source effects without imposing this behavior, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake or the location and slip rate of any fault. The cost is that we must abandon any attempt to make a time-dependent forecast, which could be quite different. We believe the method is suitable to many applications of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, and to other regions. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA>=6 shaking (roughly equivalent to PGA>=0.9 g or MMI=IX-X) is 30-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10-15% in Chiba and Tsukuba, the range reflecting spatial variability and curve-fitting alternatives. The strongest shaking is forecast along the margins of Tokyo Bay, within the river sediments extending northwest from Tokyo, and at coastal sites near the plate boundary faults. We also produce long- term exceedance maps of peak ground acceleration for building code regulations, and short-term hazard maps associated with hypothetical catastrophe bonds. Our results for greater Tokyo resemble our independent Poisson probability developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis, as well as

  11. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  12. Sub-sonic thermal explosions investigated by radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Asay, Blaine W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the past 5 years of experiments utilizing radiographic techniques to study defiagration in thermal explosions in HMX based formulations. Details of triggering and timing synchronization are given. Radiographic images collected using both protons and x-rays are presented. Comparisons of experiments with varying size, case confinement, binder, and synchronization are presented. Techniques for quantifying the data in the images are presented and a mechanism for post-ignition burn propagation in a thermal explosion is discussed. From these experiments, we have observed a mechanism for sub-sonic defiagration with both gas phase convective and solid phase conductive burning. The convective front velocity is directly measured from the radiographic images and consumes only a small fraction of the HE. It lights the HE as it passes beginning the slower solid state conductive burn process. This mechanism is used to create a model to simulate the radiographic results and a comparison will be shown.

  13. Music, Mechanism, and the "Sonic Turn" in Physical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesic, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The sonic diagnostic techniques of percussion and mediate auscultation advocated by Leopold von Auenbrugger and R. T. H. Laennec developed within larger musical contexts of practice, notation, and epistemology. Earlier, François-Nicolas Marquet proposed a musical notation of pulse that connected felt pulsation with heard music. Though contemporary vitalists rejected Marquet's work, mechanists such as Albrecht von Haller included it into the larger discourse about the physiological manifestations of bodily fluids and fibers. Educated in that mechanistic physiology, Auenbrugger used musical vocabulary to present his work on thoracic percussion; Laennec's musical experience shaped his exploration of the new timbres involved in mediate auscultation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Sonic Detection and Ranging (SODAR) Wind Profiler Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, Richard L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The SODAR (Sonic Detection and Ranging) wind profiler measures wind profiles and backscattered signal strength between (nominally) 15 meters (m) and 500 m. It operates by transmitting acoustic energy into the atmosphere and measuring the strength and frequency of backscattered energy. The strength of the backscattered signal is determined by the strength of temperature inhomogeneities with size on the order of 10 centimeters (cm). Assuming the scattering elements in the atmosphere are moving with the mean wind, the horizontal wind field can be derived. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mobile Facility (AMF) has a system developed by Scintec, Inc. that transmits a sequence of frequencies to enhance signal determination.

  15. Dynamics of micro-bubble sonication inside a phantom vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan; Samtaney, Ravi; Bull, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    A model for sonicated micro-bubble oscillations inside a phantom vessel is proposed. The model is not a variant of conventional Rayleigh-Plesset equation and is obtained from reduced Navier-Stokes equations. The model relates the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics with geometric and acoustic parameters in a consistent manner. It predicts micro-bubble oscillation dynamics as well as micro-bubble fragmentation when compared to the experimental data. For large micro-bubble radius to vessel diameter ratios, predictions are damped, suggesting breakdown of inherent modeling assumptions for these cases. Micro-bubble response with acoustic parameters is consistent with experiments and provides physical insight to the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics.

  16. Boundary layer height estimation by sodar and sonic anemometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contini, D; Cava, D; Martano, P; Donateo, A; Grasso, F M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an analysis of different methods for the calculation of the boundary layer height (BLH) using sodar and ultrasonic anemometer measurements is presented. All the methods used are based on single point surface measurements. In particular the automatic spectral routine developed for Remtech sodar is compared with the results obtained with the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance, with the calculation of a prognostic model and with a parameterization based on horizontal velocity spectra. Results indicate that in unstable conditions the different methods provide similar pattern, with BLH relatively low, even if the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance is affected by a large scatter that limits its efficiency in evaluating the BLH. In stable nocturnal conditions the performances of the Remtech routine are lower with respect to the ones in unstable conditions. The spectral method, applied to sodar or sonic anemometer data, seems to be the most promising in order to develop an efficient routine for BLH determination

  17. Trial of prestressed concrete cable testing by sonic integrity tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masanobu

    1997-01-01

    Highway road network of Japan is in good condition. Those roads were constructed as social infrastructures. But some damages were occurred and propagated in concrete structure which passed more than 20 years after construction. As for the damages load caring capacity of bridge was decreased due to fatigue of increasing traffics and bridge vibration. Recently many troubles happened in PC structure as cut off of the main cables by corrosion and flying the non-grouting PC-bar to roadside. Some case can be checked by hammering testing method and X-ray photo cut or not and condition of cement grouting. But another case has not checking method. Now we are testing for the PC cables by sonic integrity tester which is modified from FPDS(Foundation Pile Diagnosis System). We report in this paper on this result and scope of the future of this method.

  18. Merging Metallic Catalysts and Sonication: A Periodic Table Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E. Domini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This account summarizes and discusses recent examples in which the combination of ultrasonic waves and metal-based reagents, including metal nanoparticles, has proven to be a useful choice in synthetic planning. Not only does sonication often enhance the activity of the metal catalyst/reagent, but it also greatly enhances the synthetic transformation that can be conducted under milder conditions relative to conventional protocols. For the sake of clarity, we have adopted a structure according to the periodic-table elements or families, distinguishing between bulk metal reagents and nanoparticles, as well as the supported variations, thus illustrating the characteristics of the method under consideration in target synthesis. The coverage focuses essentially on the last decade, although the discussion also strikes a comparative balance between the more recent advancements and past literature.

  19. Dynamics of micro-bubble sonication inside a phantom vessel

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2013-01-10

    A model for sonicated micro-bubble oscillations inside a phantom vessel is proposed. The model is not a variant of conventional Rayleigh-Plesset equation and is obtained from reduced Navier-Stokes equations. The model relates the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics with geometric and acoustic parameters in a consistent manner. It predicts micro-bubble oscillation dynamics as well as micro-bubble fragmentation when compared to the experimental data. For large micro-bubble radius to vessel diameter ratios, predictions are damped, suggesting breakdown of inherent modeling assumptions for these cases. Micro-bubble response with acoustic parameters is consistent with experiments and provides physical insight to the micro-bubble oscillation dynamics.

  20. Acoustic resonances in two-dimensional radial sonic crystal shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose, E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.e [Wave Phenomena Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, C/Camino de Vera s.n., E-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Radial sonic crystals (RSC) are fluidlike structures infinitely periodic along the radial direction that verify the Bloch theorem and are possible only if certain specially designed acoustic metamaterials with mass density anisotropy can be engineered (see Torrent and Sanchez-Dehesa 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 064301). A comprehensive analysis of two-dimensional (2D) RSC shells is reported here. A given shell is in fact a circular slab with a central cavity. These finite crystal structures contain Fabry-Perot-like resonances and modes strongly localized at the central cavity. Semi-analytical expressions are developed to obtain the quality factors of the different resonances, their symmetry features and their excitation properties. The results reported here are completely general and can be extended to equivalent 3D spherical shells and to their photonic counterparts.

  1. Acoustic metamaterials for new two-dimensional sonic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/Camino de Vera sn, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    It has been shown that two-dimensional arrays of rigid or fluidlike cylinders in a fluid or a gas define, in the limit of large wavelengths, a class of acoustic metamaterials whose effective parameters (sound velocity and density) can be tailored up to a certain limit. This work goes a step further by considering arrays of solid cylinders in which the elastic properties of cylinders are taken into account. We have also treated mixtures of two different elastic cylinders. It is shown that both effects broaden the range of acoustic parameters available for designing metamaterials. For example, it is predicted that metamaterials with perfect matching of impedance with air are now possible by using aerogel and rigid cylinders equally distributed in a square lattice. As a potential application of the proposed metamaterial, we present a gradient index lens for airborne sound (i.e. a sonic Wood lens) whose functionality is demonstrated by multiple scattering simulations.

  2. Local regularity analysis of strata heterogeneities from sonic logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gaci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Borehole logs provide geological information about the rocks crossed by the wells. Several properties of rocks can be interpreted in terms of lithology, type and quantity of the fluid filling the pores and fractures.

    Here, the logs are assumed to be nonhomogeneous Brownian motions (nhBms which are generalized fractional Brownian motions (fBms indexed by depth-dependent Hurst parameters H(z. Three techniques, the local wavelet approach (LWA, the average-local wavelet approach (ALWA, and Peltier Algorithm (PA, are suggested to estimate the Hurst functions (or the regularity profiles from the logs.

    First, two synthetic sonic logs with different parameters, shaped by the successive random additions (SRA algorithm, are used to demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods. The obtained Hurst functions are close to the theoretical Hurst functions. Besides, the transitions between the modeled layers are marked by Hurst values discontinuities. It is also shown that PA leads to the best Hurst value estimations.

    Second, we investigate the multifractional property of sonic logs data recorded at two scientific deep boreholes: the pilot hole VB and the ultra deep main hole HB, drilled for the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB. All the regularity profiles independently obtained for the logs provide a clear correlation with lithology, and from each regularity profile, we derive a similar segmentation in terms of lithological units. The lithological discontinuities (strata' bounds and faults contacts are located at the local extrema of the Hurst functions. Moreover, the regularity profiles are compared with the KTB estimated porosity logs, showing a significant relation between the local extrema of the Hurst functions and the fluid-filled fractures. The Hurst function may then constitute a tool to characterize underground heterogeneities.

  3. YAP regulates neuronal differentiation through Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Ding, Jing-Ya; Li, Ming-Yang; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Yu, Jenn-Yah

    2012-01-01

    Tight regulation of cell numbers by controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis is important during development. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been shown to regulate tissue growth and organ size in Drosophila. In mammalian cells, it also affects cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, including the nervous system. Interplay of several signaling cascades, such as Notch, Wnt, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways, control cell proliferation during neuronal differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether the Hippo pathway coordinates with other signaling cascades in regulating neuronal differentiation. Here, we used P19 cells, a mouse embryonic carcinoma cell line, as a model to study roles of YAP, a core component of the Hippo pathway, in neuronal differentiation. P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons by expressing a neural bHLH transcription factor gene Ascl1. Our results showed that YAP promoted cell proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation. Expression of Yap activated Shh but not Wnt or Notch signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, expression of Yap increased the expression of Patched homolog 1 (Ptch1), a downstream target of the Shh signaling. Knockdown of Gli2, a transcription factor of the Shh pathway, promoted neuronal differentiation even when Yap was over-expressed. We further demonstrated that over-expression of Yap inhibited neuronal differentiation in primary mouse cortical progenitors and Gli2 knockdown rescued the differentiation defect in Yap over-expressing cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that Shh signaling acts downstream of YAP in regulating neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: ► YAP promotes cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation in P19 cells. ► YAP promotes Sonic hedgehog signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. ► Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the Yap-overexpression phenotype in P19 cells. ► Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the Yap

  4. YAP regulates neuronal differentiation through Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Ding, Jing-Ya [Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Yang [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Tien-Shun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsu-Wei [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jenn-Yah [Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Brain Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-10

    Tight regulation of cell numbers by controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis is important during development. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been shown to regulate tissue growth and organ size in Drosophila. In mammalian cells, it also affects cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, including the nervous system. Interplay of several signaling cascades, such as Notch, Wnt, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways, control cell proliferation during neuronal differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether the Hippo pathway coordinates with other signaling cascades in regulating neuronal differentiation. Here, we used P19 cells, a mouse embryonic carcinoma cell line, as a model to study roles of YAP, a core component of the Hippo pathway, in neuronal differentiation. P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons by expressing a neural bHLH transcription factor gene Ascl1. Our results showed that YAP promoted cell proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation. Expression of Yap activated Shh but not Wnt or Notch signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, expression of Yap increased the expression of Patched homolog 1 (Ptch1), a downstream target of the Shh signaling. Knockdown of Gli2, a transcription factor of the Shh pathway, promoted neuronal differentiation even when Yap was over-expressed. We further demonstrated that over-expression of Yap inhibited neuronal differentiation in primary mouse cortical progenitors and Gli2 knockdown rescued the differentiation defect in Yap over-expressing cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that Shh signaling acts downstream of YAP in regulating neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation in P19 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes Sonic hedgehog signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the Yap

  5. Ecoacoustic Music for Geoscience: Sonic Physiographies and Sound Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtner, M.

    2017-12-01

    The author describes specific ecoacoustic applications in his original compositions, Sonic Physiography of a Time-Stretched Glacier (2015), Catalog of Roughness (2017), Sound Cast of Matanuska Glacier (2016) and Ecoacoustic Concerto (Eagle Rock) (2014). Ecoacoustic music uses technology to map systems from nature into music through techniques such as sonification, material amplification, and field recording. The author aspires for this music to be descriptive of the data (as one would expect from a visualization) and also to function as engaging and expressive music/sound art on its own. In this way, ecoacoustic music might provide a fitting accompaniment to a scientific presentation (such as music for a science video) while also offering an exemplary concert hall presentation for a dedicated listening public. The music can at once support the communication of scientific research, and help science make inroads into culture. The author discusses how music created using the data, sounds and methods derived from earth science can recast this research into a sonic art modality. Such music can amplify the communication and dissemination of scientific knowledge by broadening the diversity of methods and formats we use to bring excellent scientific research to the public. Music can also open the public's imagination to science, inspiring curiosity and emotional resonance. Hearing geoscience as music may help a non-scientist access scientific knowledge in new ways, and it can greatly expand the types of venues in which this work can appear. Anywhere music is played - concert halls, festivals, galleries, radio, etc - become a venue for scientific discovery.

  6. Dendrosomatic Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Hippocampal Neurons Regulates Axon Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Ronald S.; Ott, Carolyn; Wang, Ya-Xian; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and its signaling components in the neurons of the hippocampus raises a question about what role the Shh signaling pathway may play in these neurons. We show here that activation of the Shh signaling pathway stimulates axon elongation in rat hippocampal neurons. This Shh-induced effect depends on the pathway transducer Smoothened (Smo) and the transcription factor Gli1. The axon itself does not respond directly to Shh; instead, the Shh signal transduction originates from the somatodendritic region of the neurons and occurs in neurons with and without detectable primary cilia. Upon Shh stimulation, Smo localization to dendrites increases significantly. Shh pathway activation results in increased levels of profilin1 (Pfn1), an actin-binding protein. Mutations in Pfn1's actin-binding sites or reduction of Pfn1 eliminate the Shh-induced axon elongation. These findings indicate that Shh can regulate axon growth, which may be critical for development of hippocampal neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although numerous signaling mechanisms have been identified that act directly on axons to regulate their outgrowth, it is not known whether signals transduced in dendrites may also affect axon outgrowth. We describe here a transcellular signaling pathway in embryonic hippocampal neurons in which activation of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) receptors in dendrites stimulates axon growth. The pathway involves the dendritic-membrane-associated Shh signal transducer Smoothened (Smo) and the transcription factor Gli, which induces the expression of the gene encoding the actin-binding protein profilin 1. Our findings suggest scenarios in which stimulation of Shh in dendrites results in accelerated outgrowth of the axon, which therefore reaches its presumptive postsynaptic target cell more quickly. By this mechanism, Shh may play critical roles in the development of hippocampal neuronal circuits. PMID:26658865

  7. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanata

    Full Text Available Enuresis (9% at age 9.5 negatively affects children's psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems.Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS, a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children's enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention.The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD = 3.8 (2.3, non-enuretic: M (SD = 3.0 (2.1, Hedge's g = 0.39, p < .001. This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ, low birth weight and parents' education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028-.080], p < .001.Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention.

  8. Production of talc nano sheets via fine grinding and sonication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samayamutthirian Palaniandy; Noorina Hidayu Jamil Khairun Azizi Mohd Azizli; Syed Fuad Saiyid Hashim; Hashim Hussin

    2009-01-01

    Fine grinding of high purity talc in jet mill at low grinding pressure was carried out by varying the feed rate and classifier rotational speed. These ground particles were sonicated in laboratory ultrasonic bath by varying the soniction period at five levels. The ground and sonicated particles were characterized in terms of particle size and particle size distribution. Mechanochemical and sonochemical effect of talc was determine via X-ray diffraction. Particle shape and surface texture of the ground and sonicated product was determined via scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The ground particle size exhibited particle size below 10 μm with narrow size distribution. The reduction of peak intensity in (002) plane indicated the layered structure has been distorted. The sonicated talc shows that the thickness of the talc particles after the sonication process is 20 nm but the lateral particle size still remains in micron range. The reduction of the XRD peak intensity for (002) plane and thickness of sonicated talc as shown in SEM and TEM micrographs proves that fine grinding and sonication process produces talc nano sheets. (author)

  9. High Precision UTDR Measurements by Sonic Velocity Compensation with Reference Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Stade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasonic sensor design with sonic velocity compensation is developed to improve the accuracy of distance measurement in membrane modules. High accuracy real-time distance measurements are needed in membrane fouling and compaction studies. The benefits of the sonic velocity compensation with a reference transducer are compared to the sonic velocity calculated with the measured temperature and pressure using the model by Belogol’skii, Sekoyan et al. In the experiments the temperature was changed from 25 to 60 °C at pressures of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 MPa. The set measurement distance was 17.8 mm. Distance measurements with sonic velocity compensation were over ten times more accurate than the ones calculated based on the model. Using the reference transducer measured sonic velocity, the standard deviations for the distance measurements varied from 0.6 to 2.0 µm, while using the calculated sonic velocity the standard deviations were 21–39 µm. In industrial liquors, not only the temperature and the pressure, which were studied in this paper, but also the properties of the filtered solution, such as solute concentration, density, viscosity, etc., may vary greatly, leading to inaccuracy in the use of the Belogol’skii, Sekoyan et al. model. Therefore, calibration of the sonic velocity with reference transducers is needed for accurate distance measurements.

  10. Forecasting probabilistic seismic shaking for greater Tokyo from 400 years of intensity observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, S.; Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.

    2009-12-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past shaking. We calculate the time-averaged (Poisson) probability of severe shaking by using more than 10,000 intensity observations recorded since AD 1600 in a 350-km-wide box centered on Tokyo. Unlike other hazard assessment methods, source and site effects are included without modeling, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake or the location and slip rate of any fault. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same; and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct here suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA≥6 shaking (~PGA≥0.9 g or MMI≥IX) is 30-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10-15% in Chiba and Tsukuba. This result means that there is a 30% chance that 4 million people would be subjected to IJMA≥6 shaking during an average 30-year period. We also produce exceedance maps of peak ground acceleration for building code regulations, and calculate short-term hazard associated with a hypothetical catastrophe bond. Our results resemble an independent assessment developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis for greater Tokyo. Over 10000 intensity observations stored and analyzed using geostatistical tools of GIS. Distribution of historical data is shown on this figure.

  11. Theory of elementary excitations in unstable Bose-Einstein condensates and the instability of sonic horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, U.; Kiss, T.; Oehberg, P.

    2003-01-01

    Like classical fluids, quantum gases may suffer from hydrodynamic instabilities. Our paper develops a quantum version of the classical stability analysis in fluids, the Bogoliubov theory of elementary excitations in unstable Bose-Einstein condensates. In unstable condensates the excitation modes have complex frequencies. We derive the normalization conditions for unstable modes such that they can serve in a mode decomposition of the noncondensed component. Furthermore, we develop approximative techniques to determine the spectrum and the mode functions. Finally, we apply our theory to sonic horizons - sonic black and white holes. For sonic white holes the spectrum of unstable modes turns out to be intrinsically discrete, whereas black holes may be stable

  12. Acoustic energy harvesting by piezoelectric curved beams in the cavity of a sonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Chung; Wu, Liang-Yu; Chen, Lien-Wen; Liu, Chia-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic energy harvesting by piezoelectric curved beams in the cavity of a sonic crystal is investigated. A resonant cavity of the sonic crystal is used to localize the acoustic wave as the acoustic waves are incident into the sonic crystal at the resonant frequency. The piezoelectric curved beam is placed in the resonant cavity and vibrated by the acoustic wave. The energy harvesting can be achieved as the acoustic waves are incident at the resonant frequency. A model for energy harvesting of the piezoelectric curved beam is also developed to predict the output voltage and power of the energy harvesting. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical

  13. Annual report of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo in fiscal 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report summerizes the research and educational activities at the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo. The Laboratory holds four main facilities, which are Yayoi reactor, an electron accelerator, fusion blanket research facility, and heavy ion irradiation research facility. And they are open to the researchers both inside and outside the University. The application of the facilities are described. The activities and achievements of the Laboratory staffs, and theses for graduate, master, and doctor degrees are also summerized. (J.P.N.)

  14. A new apparatus at hyper irradiation research facility at the Atomic Research Center, University of Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Hiromi; Iwai, Takeo; Narui, Makoto; Omata, Takao [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    1996-12-01

    In the hyper irradiation research facility at the Atomic Research Center, the University of Tokyo, following apparatuses were newly installed for accelerator relating apparatus on 1995 fiscal year; (1) Hyper ion microbeam analysis apparatus, (2) Fourier conversion infrared microscopy, (3) Pico second two-dimensional fluorescence measuring apparatus, (4) Femto second wave-length reversible pulse laser radiation apparatus, and others. In addition to double irradiation, pulse beam irradiation experiment and so forth characteristic in conventional hyper irradiation research apparatus, upgrading of material irradiation experiments using these new apparatuses are intended. (G.K.)

  15. A new apparatus at hyper irradiation research facility at the Atomic Research Center, University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Hiromi; Iwai, Takeo; Narui, Makoto; Omata, Takao

    1996-01-01

    In the hyper irradiation research facility at the Atomic Research Center, the University of Tokyo, following apparatuses were newly installed for accelerator relating apparatus on 1995 fiscal year; 1) Hyper ion microbeam analysis apparatus, 2) Fourier conversion infrared microscopy, 3) Pico second two-dimensional fluorescence measuring apparatus, 4) Femto second wave-length reversible pulse laser radiation apparatus, and others. In addition to double irradiation, pulse beam irradiation experiment and so forth characteristic in conventional hyper irradiation research apparatus, upgrading of material irradiation experiments using these new apparatuses are intended. (G.K.)

  16. Medical Education in Japan and Introduction of Medical Education at Tokyo Women’s Medical University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumiko Okubo

    2014-01-01

    Medical education in Japan changed rapidly in the last decade of the 20th century with the introduction of new education methods and implementation of the core curriculum and common achievement testing such as CBT and OSCE.Recently, there have been other movements in medical education in Japan that have introduced 'outcome(competency) based education(OBE)' and created a system for accreditation of medical education programs. This report provides an overview of current medical education in Japan. Moreover, it introduces medical education at Tokyo Women’s Medical University.

  17. Thermal comfort along the marathon course of the 2020 Tokyo Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Tsuyoshi; Seo, Yuhwan; Yamasaki, Yudai; Tsunematsu, Nobumitsu; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Yamato, Hiroaki; Mikami, Takehiko

    2018-04-01

    The Olympic Games will be held in Tokyo in 2020 and the period will be the hottest period of the year in Japan. Marathon is a sport with a large heat load, and it is said that the risk of heat stroke rises more than other sports activities. The thermal environment of the 2020 Tokyo Olympic marathon course is analyzed by using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) map of the center area of Tokyo. The change due to the place, the effect of the shadow of the building, and the position on the course was analyzed from the distribution of WBGT and UTCI in the short-term analysis of sunny day from August 2 to August 6, 2014. To make the distribution map, we calculated distributions of sky view factor and mean radiant temperature of the 10 km × 7.5 km analyzed area in the center of Tokyo. Distributions of air temperature and humidity are calculated from Metropolitan Environmental Temperature and Rainfall Observation System data, which is a high-resolution measurement network. It was possible to incorporate the local variation of temperature and humidity of the analyzed area. In the result, the WBGT is about 1 °C lower and the UTCI is about 4-8 °C lower in the shadow of buildings from 9:00 to 10:00 than in the sunny side. As a cooling method, making a shadow is a relatively effective method. The variation along the course considering the distribution of meteorological data within the area is about 0.5 °C WBGT and 1 °C UTCI range. If we allow the error of this range, one-point meteorological data can be applied for the estimation along the course. Passing the right side (left side in the case of return) of the course could keep the accumulated value slightly lower along the course in the morning because the marathon course roughly runs from west to east and buildings' shadow is on the relatively right side (south side). But practically, the effect of changing the position on the course was small. The long-term analysis on the

  18. Cognition of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) produced by nuclear power generation is an urgent issue. Recently, some questionnaire surveys were conducted. Especially the surveys in the Tokyo metropolitan area which were conducted by AESJ include the fulfilling questions concerning HLW relatively. In this paper, the author shows the results of surveys by AESJ. These results show that the issue concerning HLW is not so much concern for the respondents by comparison with many kinds of issues in the society. They also show that female respondents have less understanding about HLW disposal and have more degree of anxiety against HLW and disposal than male respondents. (author)

  19. Market-wide price co-movement around crashes in the Tokyo Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-ichi Maskawa; Joshin Murai; Koji Kuroda

    2013-01-01

    As described in this paper, we study market-wide price co-movements around crashes by analyzing a dataset of high-frequency stock returns of the constituent issues of Nikkei 225 Index listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange for the three years during 2007--2009. Results of day-to-day principal component analysis of the time series sampled at the 1 min time interval during the continuous auction of the daytime reveal the long range up to a couple of months significant auto-correlation of the maximu...

  20. Social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Yoshifumi; Kawakami, Norito; Miyamoto, Yuki; Chiba, Rie; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2013-04-01

    Living in a community with high social capital might lead to lower stigma towards people with mental illness. We examined the association between social capital and stigma toward people with mental illness in the community of Tokyo, Japan. A random sample of 2,000 community residents was selected and surveyed. Data from 516 respondents were analyzed. In this study, two individual-based social capital variables were significantly and negatively associated with the stigma score, while area-based social capital was not significantly associated with the stigma score. Social capital, particularly reciprocity/norm of cooperation and trust in the community, may be associated with lower stigma.

  1. Performance of automated multiplex PCR using sonication fluid for diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection: a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Nora; Feihl, Susanne; Cabric, Sabrina; Trampuz, Andrej

    2017-12-01

    Sonication of explanted prostheses improved the microbiological diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). We evaluated the performance of automated multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using sonication fluid for the microbiological diagnosis of PJI. In a prospective cohort using uniform definition criteria for PJI, explanted joint prostheses were investigated by sonication and the resulting sonication fluid was analyzed by culture and multiplex PCR. McNemar's Chi-squared test was used to compare the performance of diagnostic tests. Among 111 patients, PJI was diagnosed in 78 (70%) and aseptic failure in 33 (30%). For the diagnosis of PJI, the sensitivity and specificity of periprosthetic tissue culture was 51 and 100%, of sonication fluid culture 58 and 100%, and of sonication fluid PCR 51 and 94%, respectively. Among 70 microorganisms, periprosthetic tissue culture grew 52 (74%), sonication fluid culture grew 50 (71%) and sonication fluid PCR detected 37 pathogens (53%). If only organisms are considered, for which primers are included in the test panel, PCR detected 37 of 58 pathogens (64%). The sonication fluid PCR missed 19 pathogens (predominantly oral streptococci and anaerobes), whereas 7 additional microorganisms were detected only by PCR (including Cutibacterium spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci). The performance of multiplex PCR using sonication fluid is comparable to culture of periprosthetic tissue or sonication fluid. The advantages of PCR are short processing time (PCR, especially of low-virulent organisms.

  2. ResonantSonic drilling: History, progress and advances in environmental restoration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, B.W.; McLellan, G.W.; Moak, D.J.; Lerch, R.E.; Thompson, K.M.; Barrow, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    ResonantSonic SM drilling is being used in the environmental industry to drill faster, cheaper, and safer than conventional drilling methodologies. ResonantSonic is a registered service mark of the Water Development Corporation, Woodland, California. The ResonantSonic drilling method, requires no mud, air or water for rapid penetration through geologic materials ranging from rock and clay to sand and boulders. The specialized drill head imparts high frequency vibrations into a steel drill pipe creating a drilling action which allows the retrieval of continuous, undisturbed cores. An added benefit is that the method can be used for angle drilling. The ReasonantSonic method has been used in the past for projects ranging from pile driving to horizontal drilling. Current programs are utilizing the technique as a valuable tool for obtaining in situ, pristine environmental samples. In the future, this drilling technology could be used for remote, automated sampling at hazardous waste sites

  3. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Cummiskey: Red king crab sonic tagging and dive database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is data from a long-term monitoring project which utilized sonic tags to follow aggregations of red king crab in Womens Bay near Kodiak Alaska. The database...

  4. Influence of borehole-eccentred tools on wireline and logging-while-drilling sonic logging measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David; Matuszyk, Paweł Jerzy; Torres-Verdí n, Carlos; Mora Cordova, Angel; Muga, Ignacio; Calo, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a numerical study to quantify the influence of tool-eccentricity on wireline (WL) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) sonic logging measurements. Simulations are performed with a height-polynomial-adaptive (hp) Fourier finite-element method

  5. Improve the Recovery of Fermentable Sugar from Rice Straw by Sonication and Its Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Dutta, Somenath; Datta, Sidhartha; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2012-08-01

    Rice straw is waste renewable agricultural biomass, which contains sufficient amount of fermentable sugars like glucose, galactose fructose, xylose etc. These sugars can be treated with fermentation pathway to produce ethanol. Hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw in dilute sulfuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.25-0.75 % w/v), and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction. The current work examines the effect of sonication on extraction of total reducing sugar (TRS) and an empirical mathematical model has been established to predict it. Effects of various operating variables of sonication, including amplitude (60-100 %), cycle (0.6-1.0), treatment time (0-15 min) have been analyzed for each acid concentration. Observation shows that on optimization of the sonication conditions (100 % amplitude, 0.8 cycle and 10 min) around 90 % improvement of TRS extraction occurs at 0.5 % (w/v) acid concentration.

  6. Mental Health Problems among Undergraduates in Fukushima, Tokyo, and Kyoto after the March 11 Tohoku Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Motoya, Ryo; Sasagawa, Satoko; Takahashi, Takahito; Okajima, Isa; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Essau, Cecilia A

    2015-06-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake devastated the Tohoku region, which led to a tsunami and a nuclear disaster. While these three disasters caused tremendous physical damage, their psychological impact remains unclear. The present study evaluated traumatic responses, internalizing (i.e., anxiety and depression), and externalizing (i.e., anger) symptoms among Japanese young people in the immediate aftermath and 2.5 years later. A total of 435 undergraduates were recruited from universities in three differentially exposed regions: Fukushima, Tokyo, and Kyoto. They completed a set of questionnaires retrospectively (i.e., September to December 2013) to measure their traumatic responses, anxiety and depressive symptoms, functional impairment, and anger immediately after the disaster and 2.5 years later. Participants in Tokyo had the highest level of traumatic response and internalizing symptoms immediately after the earthquake, whereas those in Fukushima had significantly higher levels of trait anger, anger-in (holding one's anger in), and anger-out (expressing one's anger externally). In Kyoto, the levels of anxiety and depression after 2.5 years were significantly higher than they were immediately after the disasters. In conclusion, anger symptoms were high among young people who lived at or near the center of the disasters, while anxiety and depression were high among those who lived far away from the disasters. These findings suggest the importance of providing mental health services to young people who did not live near the disaster area as well as to those living in the directly affected area.

  7. Annual report of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo, fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This is an annual report prepared on research education action, operation state of research instruments and others in FY 1995 at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo. The laboratory has four large instruments such as high speed neutron source reactor, 'Yayoi', electron linac, fundamentally experimental equipment for blanket design of nuclear fusion reactor, and heavy radiation research equipment (HIT), of which former two are used for cooperative research with universities in Japan, and the next blanket and the last HIT are also presented for cooperative researches in Faculty of Engineering and in University of Tokyo, respectively. FY 1995 was the beginning year of earnest discussion on future planning of this facility with concentrated effort. These four large research instruments are all in their active use. And, their further improvement is under preparation. In this report, the progress in FY 1995 on operation and management of the four large instruments are described at first, and on next, research actions, contents of theses for degree and graduation of students as well as research results of laboratory stuffs are summarized. These researches are constituted mainly using these large instruments in the facility, aiming at development of advanced and new field of atomic energy engineering and relates to nuclear reactor first wall engineering, nuclear reactor fuel cycle engineering, electromagnetic structure engineering, thermal-liquid engineering, mathematical information engineering, quantum beam engineering, new type reactor design and so on. (G.K.)

  8. Annual report of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo, fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This report summarizes research and educational activities, operation status of the research facilities of the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo on fiscal year 1996. This facility has four major research facilities such as fast neutron source reactor 'Yayoi', electron Linac, fundamental experiment facility for nuclear fusion reactor blanket design and high fluence irradiation facility(HIT). Education and research activities are conducted in a wide fields of nuclear engineering using these facilities. The former two facilities are available for various studies by universities all over Japan, facility for nuclear fusion reactor blanket design is utilized for research within the Faculty of Engineering and HIT is used for the research within the University of Tokyo. The facility established a plan to reorganized into a nation wide research collaboration center in fiscal year 1995 and after further discussion of a future program it is decided to hold 'Nuclear energy symposium' periodically after fiscal year 1997 as a part of the activity for appealing the research results to the public. (G.K.)

  9. Resilience with Mixed Agricultural and Urban Land Uses in Tokyo, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Bruno Sioen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture can enhance the resilience of neighborhoods by providing fresh food in times of natural disasters; however, there is little empirical evidence to support this. Therefore, this study proposes a methodology to identify patterns of agricultural production in urban areas by quantifying self-sufficiency rates in vegetable weight and key nutrients. A spatial grid cell analysis using a geographic information system (GIS identifies the current and potential self-sufficiency of each land use pattern in Tokyo. In a total of 1479 grid cells, the dominant land use and locations of 49,263 agricultural plots led to the categorization of six distinguishable land use patterns. The results showed that Tokyo has a fruit and vegetable self-sufficiency of 4.27% and a potential of 11.73%. The nutritional self-sufficiency of selected nutrients was the highest in vitamin K (6.54%, followed by vitamin C (3.84% and vitamin A (1.92%. Peri-urban areas showed the highest resilience in relation to aggregated risks and population density because of the mixture in agricultural and urban land uses.

  10. Impact of energy consumption on urban warming and air pollution in Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, T.S.; Hoshi, H.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid progress of industrialization and urbanization due to economic growth and concentration of social function in the urban areas in Japan have had an adverse effect on the urban environment. In most cities, it has become evident that the increase in energy consumption is causing environmental problems, including a temperature rise in the urban atmosphere (urban heat island) and air pollution. This paper reports the results of field observations and three dimensional simulations of the urban heat island using a three-dimensional modelling vorticity-velocity vector potential formation, in the Tokyo metropolitan area. According to the simulation for urban warming in the study area for the year 2031, the maximum temperature of a summer evening (18:00) would exceed 43 degrees celsius, indicating that Tokyo would no longer be comfortable for its inhabitants. It is concluded that in the near future, the problem of the urban heat island will become a more important issue than that of global warming because the rate of urban warming is greater. For this reason, the urban heat island could be fatal to humans unless resolved in the near future. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 18 refs

  11. Urban warming in Tokyo area and counterplan to improve future environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, T.S.; Hoshi, H.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid progress in industrialization and concentration of economic and social functions in urban areas has stimulated a consistent increase in population and energy consumption. The sudden urbanization in modern cities has caused environmental problems including alternation of the local climate. This is a phenomenon peculiar to the urban areas, and is characterized by a consistent rise in the temperature of the urban atmosphere, an increase in air pollutants, a decrease in relative humidity, and so on. The phenomenon characterized by a noticeable temperature rise in the urban atmosphere has been called the urban heat island and analyzed by both observational and numerical approaches. The numerical model can be classified into two ways: the mechanical model and energy balance model. Since Howard reported on the urban heat island in London, there have been a number of observational studies and numerical studies based on the two-dimensional modeling. Recently, three-dimensional studies have been reported simultaneously with great the advancement of the supercomputer. The present paper reports the results of the field observation by automobiles in the Tokyo metropolitan area and also the results of the three-dimensional simulation for urban warming in Tokyo at present and in the future around 2030. Further, the authors also present the results of a simulation for the effect of tree planting and vegetation

  12. Microclimate Variation and Estimated Heat Stress of Runners in the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Marathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichi Kosaka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games will be held in July and August. As these are the hottest months in Tokyo, the risk of heat stress to athletes and spectators in outdoor sporting events is a serious concern. This study focuses on the marathon races, which are held outside for a prolonged time, and evaluates the potential heat stress of marathon runners using the COMFA (COMfort FormulA Human Heat Balance (HBB Model. The study applies a four-step procedure: (a measure the thermal environment along the marathon course; (b estimate heat stress on runners by applying COMFA; (c identify locations where runners may be exposed to extreme heat stress; and (d discuss measures to mitigate the heat stress on runners. On clear sunny days, the entire course is rated as ‘dangerous’ or ‘extremely dangerous’, and within the latter half of the course, there is a 10-km portion where values continuously exceed the extremely dangerous level. Findings illustrate which stretches have the highest need for mitigation measures, such as starting the race one hour earlier, allowing runners to run in the shade of buildings or making use of urban greenery including expanding the tree canopy.

  13. Annual report of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo, fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This is an annual report prepared on research education action, operation state of research instruments and others in FY 1995 at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo. The laboratory has four large instruments such as high speed neutron source reactor, `Yayoi`, electron linac, fundamentally experimental equipment for blanket design of nuclear fusion reactor, and heavy radiation research equipment (HIT), of which former two are used for cooperative research with universities in Japan, and the next blanket and the last HIT are also presented for cooperative researches in Faculty of Engineering and in University of Tokyo, respectively. FY 1995 was the beginning year of earnest discussion on future planning of this facility with concentrated effort. These four large research instruments are all in their active use. And, their further improvement is under preparation. In this report, the progress in FY 1995 on operation and management of the four large instruments are described at first, and on next, research actions, contents of theses for degree and graduation of students as well as research results of laboratory stuffs are summarized. These researches are constituted mainly using these large instruments in the facility, aiming at development of advanced and new field of atomic energy engineering and relates to nuclear reactor first wall engineering, nuclear reactor fuel cycle engineering, electromagnetic structure engineering, thermal-liquid engineering, mathematical information engineering, quantum beam engineering, new type reactor design and so on. (G.K.)

  14. History of ancient megathrust earthquakes beneath metropolitan Tokyo inferred from coastal lowland deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannen, Kazutaka; Yoong, Kim Haeng; Suzuki, Shigeru; Matsushima, Yoshiaki; Ota, Yuki; Kain, Claire L.; Goff, James

    2018-02-01

    Metropolitan Tokyo is located directly above a subduction zone that has generated two megathrust earthquakes in the past 300 years. However, the timing of older megathrusts on this margin is poorly understood. In this study, we aim to constrain the timings of past megathrust earthquakes, using coastal stratigraphy, paleoecology, radiocarbon dating and archaeological records from coastal lowlands. An investigation of 13 boreholes in the southern coastal area of metropolitan Tokyo found evidence for 4 m of uplift in a 6000-year period. However, we found that net vertical displacement in the last 1000 years is approximately zero. Results suggest that preservation of usually ephemeral lagoon sediments occurred on three occasions in the past 1000 years, and radiocarbon dating results show that the timings of these preservation episodes are close to that of major historical earthquakes. We thus attribute the intermittent preservation of the ephemeral lagoon deposits to coseismic uplift caused by the megathrust earthquakes. The candidates of the megathrust earthquakes are events that took place in 1703 CE, the 13th century, and 878 CE. Since these events produced no net vertical displacement due to inter-seismic subsidence, we propose that earthquakes responsible for long-term uplift of this region took place prior to the 9th century. This research also demonstrates the value of preserved intertidal sediments as paleoseismological archives where net tectonic displacement is neutral.

  15. The introduction of hydrogen in London and Tokyo: costs and strategic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, David; Hutchinson, David

    1998-01-01

    While the proposals made in this work are no more than tentative at this stage, especially in the light of unfinished analysis of the situation in Tokyo, they represent an initial perspective on some strategies and policies affecting the potential introduction of hydrogen into the energy system of an urban area. It has been shown that given certain assumptions the introduction of hydrogen into an urban energy infrastructure could be both environmentally beneficial and economically viable. In order to achieve this introduction several possible strategies have been proposed, although none of these has been tested in detail. These strategies are highly likely to vary between different urban areas depending on the prevailing conditions. Specific analysis on the conditions in Tokyo will be carried out in the near future. This should enable the qualitative evaluation of some of the proposals already made, and suggestion of new ones. At the same time, the transferability both of the methodology used for analysing London and the strategies suggested for the early introduction of hydrogen will be examined. (author)

  16. Time trends of perfluorinated compounds from the sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan (1950s-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Tamada, Masafumi; Kanai, Yutaka; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were detected in sediment core samples collected in Tokyo Bay to reveal their time trends. The core sample deposited during 1950s-2004 was divided into two- to three-year intervals and the concentrations of 24 types of PFCs were determined. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) decreased gradually from the early 1990s and its precursor decreased rapidly in the late 1990s, whereas perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased rapidly. The observed trends were regarded as a reflection of the shift from perfluorooctyl sulfonyl fluoride (PFOSF)-based products to telomer-based products after the phaseout of PFOSF-based products in 2001. The branched isomers of perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were detected in the sample with its ratio of linear-isomer/branched-isomer concentrations decreasing. In this study, we revealed that the sediment core can serve as a tool for reconstructing the past pollution trend of PFCs and can provide interesting evidence concerning their environmental dynamics and time trend. - This study reports the time trends of the concentrations of 24 species of PFCs, including FTCA, FTUCA and FOSAA, in a sediment core of Tokyo Bay, Japan.

  17. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E.; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A.; Madrigal, M. Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral (BL) domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the BL domain and demonstrated that the development of the BL domain highly depends on Shh. PMID:25741244

  18. Megalin functions as an endocytic sonic hedgehog receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Robert A; Barth, Jeremy L; Chintalapudi, Mastan R; Knaak, Christian; Argraves, W Scott

    2002-07-12

    Embryos deficient in the morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh) or the endocytic receptor megalin exhibit common neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Therefore, we have investigated the possibility that a functional relationship exists between the two proteins. During embryonic development, megalin was found to be expressed along the apical surfaces of neuroepithelial cells and was coexpressed with Shh in the ventral floor plate of the neural tube. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, homologous ligand displacement, and surface plasmon resonance techniques, it was found that the amino-terminal fragment of Shh (N-Shh) bound to megalin with high affinity. Megalin-expressing cells internalized N-Shh through a mechanism that was inhibited by antagonists of megalin, viz. anti-receptor-associated protein and anti-megalin antibodies. Heparin also inhibited N-Shh endocytosis, implicating proteoglycans in the internalization process, as has been described for other megalin ligands. Use of chloroquine to inhibit lysosomal proteinase activity showed that N-Shh endocytosed via megalin was not efficiently targeted to the lysosomes for degradation. The ability of megalin-internalized N-Shh to bypass lysosomes may relate to the finding that the interaction between N-Shh and megalin was resistant to dissociation with low pH. Together, these findings show that megalin is an efficient endocytic receptor for N-Shh. Furthermore, they implicate megalin as a new regulatory component of the Shh signaling pathway.

  19. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus E. Martinez-Lopez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the basolateral domain and demonstrated that the development of the basolateral domain highly depends on Shh.

  20. Sonic hedgehog signaling in the development of the mouse hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBlaess

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression pattern of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh in the developing hypothalamus changes over time. Shh is initially expressed in the prechordal mesoderm and later in the hypothalamic neuroepithelium-- first medially, and then in two off-medial domains. This dynamic expression suggests that Shh might regulate several aspects of hypothalamic development. To gain insight into them, lineage tracing, (conditional gene inactivation in mouse, in ovo loss- and gain-of-function approaches in chick and analysis of Shh expression regulation have been employed. We will focus on mouse studies and refer to chick and fish when appropriate to clarify. These studies show that Shh-expressing neuroepithelial cells serve as a signaling center for neighboring precursors, and give rise to most of the basal hypothalamus (tuberal and mammillary regions. Shh signaling is initially essential for hypothalamic induction. Later, Shh signaling from the neuroepithelium controls specification of the lateral hypothalamic area and growth-patterning coordination in the basal hypothalamus. To further elucidate the role of Shh in hypothalamic development, it will be essential to understand how Shh regulates the downstream Gli transcription factors.

  1. Ontogenetic expression of Sonic Hedgehog in the chicken subpallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia M Bardet

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sonic hedgehog (SHH is a secreted signaling factor that is implicated in the molecular patterning of the central nervous system (CNS, somites and limbs in vertebrates. SHH has a crucial role in the generation of ventral cell types along the entire rostrocaudal axis of the neural tube. It is secreted early in development by the axial mesoderm (prechordal plate and notochord and the overlying ventral neural tube. Recent studies clarified the impact of SHH signaling mechanisms on dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord, but the corresponding phenomena in the rostral forebrain are slightly different and more complex. This notably involves separate Shh expression in the preoptic part of the forebrain alar plate, as well as in the hypothalamic floor and basal plates. The present work includes a detailed spatio-temporal description of the singular alar Shh expression pattern in the rostral preoptic forebrain of chick embryos, comparing it with FoxG1, Dlx5, Nkx2.1 and Nkx2.2 mRNA expression at diverse stages of development. As a result of this mapping, we report a subdivision of the preoptic region in dorsal and ventral zones; only the dorsal part shows Shh expression. The positive area impinges as well upon a median septocommissural preoptic domain. Our study strongly suggests tangential migration of Shh positive cells from the preoptic region into other subpallial domains, particularly into the pallidal mantle and the intermediate septum.

  2. Foretinib is effective therapy for metastatic sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Claudia C; Golbourn, Brian J; Dubuc, Adrian M; Remke, Marc; Diaz, Roberto J; Agnihotri, Sameer; Luck, Amanda; Sabha, Nesrin; Olsen, Samantha; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen C; Wang, Xin; Leadley, Michael; Reynaud, Denis; Ermini, Leonardo; Post, Martin; Northcott, Paul A; Pfister, Stefan M; Croul, Sidney E; Kool, Marcel; Korshunov, Andrey; Smith, Christian A; Taylor, Michael D; Rutka, James T

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor, with metastases present at diagnosis conferring a poor prognosis. Mechanisms of dissemination are poorly understood and metastatic lesions are genetically divergent from the matched primary tumor. Effective and less toxic therapies that target both compartments have yet to be identified. Here, we report that the analysis of several large nonoverlapping cohorts of patients with medulloblastoma reveals MET kinase as a marker of sonic hedgehog (SHH)-driven medulloblastoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated, active MET kinase in an independent patient cohort confirmed its correlation with increased tumor relapse and poor survival, suggesting that patients with SHH medulloblastoma may benefit from MET-targeted therapy. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the approved MET inhibitor foretinib could suppress MET activation, decrease tumor cell proliferation, and induce apoptosis in SHH medulloblastomas in vitro and in vivo. Foretinib penetrated the blood-brain barrier and was effective in both the primary and metastatic tumor compartments. In established mouse xenograft or transgenic models of metastatic SHH medulloblastoma, foretinib administration reduced the growth of the primary tumor, decreased the incidence of metastases, and increased host survival. Taken together, our results provide a strong rationale to clinically evaluate foretinib as an effective therapy for patients with SHH-driven medulloblastoma. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Effect of sonic driving on maximal aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilla, L.R.; Hatcher, Stefanie

    2000-07-01

    The study purpose was to evaluate antecedent binaural stimulation (ABS) on maximal aerobic physical performance. Twenty-two healthy, physically active subjects, 21-34 years, randomly received one of two preparations for each session: 15 min of quiet (BLANK) or percussive sonic driving at 200+ beats per minute (bpm) using a recorded compact disc (FSS, Mill Valley, CA) with headphones (ABS). Baseline HR, blood pressure (BP), and breathing frequency (f(br)) were obtained. During each condition, HR and f(br) were recorded at 3-min intervals. The graded maximal treadmill testing was administered immediately postpreparation session on separate days, with at least 48 h rest between sessions. There were significant differences in the antecedent period means between the two conditions, ABS (HR: 70.2 +/- 10.7 bpm; f(br): 18.5 +/- 3.3 br min(-1); BP: 134.5/87.9 +/- 13.6/9.2 mm Hg) and BLANK (HR: 64.6 +/- 7.9; f(br): 14.3 +/- 2.9; BP: 126.7/80.3 +/- 12.1/8.6). Differences were noted for each 3-min interval and pre- postantecedent period. The maximal graded exercise test (GXT) results showed that there was a small but significant (P 0.05). There may be a latency to ABS related to entrainment or imagery-enhanced warm-up. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:558-565, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Generation of toxic degradation products by sonication of Pluronic® dispersants: implications for nanotoxicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruhung; Hughes, Tyler; Beck, Simon; Vakil, Samee; Li, Synyoung; Pantano, Paul; Draper, Rockford K.

    2012-01-01

    Poloxamers (known by the trade name Pluronic®) are triblock copolymer surfactants that contain two polyethylene glycol blocks and one polypropylene glycol block of various sizes. Poloxamers are widely used as nanoparticle dispersants for nanotoxicity studies wherein nanoparticles are sonicated with a dispersant to prepare suspensions. It is known that poloxamers can be degraded during sonication and that reactive oxygen species contribute to the degradation process. However, the possibility t...

  5. Mechanism of inhibition of the tumor suppressor Patched by Sonic Hedgehog

    OpenAIRE

    Tukachinsky, Hanna; Petrov, Kostadin; Watanabe, Miyako; Salic, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The Hedgehog-signaling pathway plays key roles in animal development and physiology. Insufficient Hedgehog signaling causes birth defects, whereas uncontrolled signaling is implicated in cancer. Signaling is triggered by the secreted protein, Sonic Hedgehog, which inhibits the membrane protein Patched1, leading to pathway activation. Despite its fundamental importance, we do not understand how Sonic Hedgehog inhibits Patched1. Here, we uncover a critical interaction between the fatty-acid?mod...

  6. [Clinical use of the Sonic Air MM 1500 and the Meca Sonic 1400 in canal preparation in endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaye, F; Ba, I; Kane, A W; Mbaye, M; Ndoye Diop, A; Agboton-Johnson, C A

    1991-03-01

    The preparation for canalisation has remained manual for a long time, technically constrictive and lasting for a long time. The application of ultrasound in Endontony allows us to tackle more calmly the canal course of the teath. The aim of this work is to make a qualitative comparison of the endosonic technique and the manual technique with reference to cases treated in the Dentisterie Opératoire clinic in Dakar. 40 teeth of a complex canal anatomy and or in the posterior position in the buccal cavity were submitted to either a manual canalisation preparation or endosconic followed by monconic canal filling with a paste: 3 inc oxyde eugenol and iodoform. OPERATING FORMULA: Preparatory X rays: Allow us to evaluate the length of the work or the operating length after catheterisation: LO--length PRO, APEX RADIO-IMM LO--operating length PRO - occlusive point of reference The parietal support technique: The "synergetic" effect of ultrasonic oscillations of cavitation and of micro-acoustic currents associated with the action of the irrigation solution allow us to obtain canal incision. the pneumatic Sonic Air MM 1500; the Meca Sonic MMR 1400 coupled to a standard ISO motor; SHAPERS and Meca Shapers. Activated by shaper or Méca Shaper. Classic monoconic canal filling: Wadding paste + zinc oxyde paste-iodoform eugenol. X rays for orthocentric monitoring. RESULTS--DISCUSSION: In 60% of the cases treated, the patients presented with a complete dentition. The third inferior molar was in almost all the cases, the cause of the patient seeking a dental consultation. By endosonic treatment-conservation of teeth which would otherwise have been destined for extraction; biopulectomy or instituted pulpectomy for cases of desdodontite, endosconic amplication and canal sealing after the cooling of the inflammation. Duration of treatment: 2 sessions for gangrenous cases or desmodondite and one session for biopulpectomy or pulpectomy, with 4 sessions in 10% of the cases. Operation

  7. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H; Itokawa, K [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Activity of environmental, safety and hygiene on Dainippon Ink and Chemicals, Inc., Tokyo plant; Dainippon Ink Kagaku Kogyo (kabu) Tokyo kojo no kankyo hoan katsudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, T. [Dainippon Ink and Chemicals, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-15

    This plant exists along Route 17 in Itabashi-ku, Tokyo adjacent to Saitama prefecture, and started operation in Nov. 1937 to produce printing ink, varnish for ink, paint for cans, paint for PCM and paint for incombustible building materials. Five hundred employees and more than 100 stationed workers from cooperative companies work in the plant. Disasters of the plant are drastically on the decrease. The plant achieved a non-disaster duration of nearly 9.7 million hours, and no accidents and disasters for nearly 10 years at the end of Feb. 1997. Safety and quality control are in promotion by top-down system through the organization and bottom-up activity by small groups. The experience meetings of safety and QC circle activities are held in spring and autumn every year to spread the results among employees. In addition, selective activities are made by top-down system at marked points to prevent accident and disaster, and a mannerism in circle activity. Environmental ISO was also introduced for further improvement of an environmental protection control system. 1 fig.

  9. High-resolution proton and carbon-13 NMR of membranes: why sonicate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, E.; Bowers, J.L.; Forbes, J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have obtained high-field (11.7-T) proton and carbon-13 Fourier transform (FT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of egg lecithin and egg lecithin-chloresterol (1:1) multibilayers, using magic-angle sample spinning (MASS) techniques, and sonicated egg lecithin and egg lecithin-cholesterol (1:1) vesicles, using conventional FT NMR methods. Resolution of the proton and carbon-13 MASS NMR spectra of the pure egg lecithin samples is essentially identical with that of sonicated samples, but spectra of the unsonicated lipid, using MASS, can be obtained very much faster than with the more dilute, sonicated systems. With the 1:1 lecithin-cholesterol system, proton MASS NMR spectra are virtually identical with conventional FT spectra of sonicated samples, while the 13 C NMR, the authors demonstrate that most 13 C nuclei in the cholesterol moiety can be monitored, even though these same nuclei are essentially invisible, i.e., are severely broadened, in the corresponding sonicated systems. In addition, 13 C MASS NMR spectra can again be recorded much faster than with sonicated samples, due to concentration effects. Taken together, these results strongly suggest there will seldom be need in the future to resort to ultransonic disruption of lipid bilayer membranes in order to obtain high-resolution proton or carbon-13 NMR spectra

  10. Sonication technique improves microbiological diagnosis in patients treated with antibiotics before surgery for prosthetic joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzolini, Laura; Lichtner, Miriam; Iannetta, Marco; Mengoni, Fabio; Russo, Gianluca; Panni, Alfredo Schiavone; Vasso, Michele; Vasto, Michele; Bove, Marco; Villani, Ciro; Mastroianni, Claudio M; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    Microbiological diagnosis is crucial for the appropriate management of implant-associated orthopedic infections (IAOIs). Sonication of biomaterials for microbiological diagnosis has not yet been introduced in routine clinical practice. Aim of this study was to describe the advantages and feasibility of this procedure in the clinical setting. We prospectively studied 56 consecutive patients undergoing revision because of IAOI and compared the sensitivity of sonication of explanted orthopedic implants with standard cultures. Patients were divided into two groups: those with foreign body infection (FBI, 15 patients) and those with prosthetic joint infection (PJI, 41 patients). Clinical, radiological and microbiological features were recorded. In the PJI group the sensitivity of sonication in detecting bacterial growth was higher than conventional culture (77% vs 34.1% respectively, p0.05). Coagulase-negative Staphylococci accounted for 90% of the bacteria detected by sonication. Moreover, we found that in the PJI group the sensitivity of sonication was not affected by the timing of antibiotic interruption before surgery. Sonication remains an important tool to improve microbiological diagnosis in PJIs, especially in patients who received previous antimicrobial treatment.

  11. Numerical Predictions of Sonic Boom Signatures for a Straight Line Segmented Leading Edge Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Wilcox, Floyd J.; Cliff, Susan; Thomas, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A sonic boom wind tunnel test was conducted on a straight-line segmented leading edge (SLSLE) model in the NASA Langley 4- by 4- Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The purpose of the test was to determine whether accurate sonic boom measurements could be obtained while continuously moving the SLSLE model past a conical pressure probe. Sonic boom signatures were also obtained using the conventional move-pause data acquisition method for comparison. The continuous data acquisition approach allows for accurate signatures approximately 15 times faster than a move-pause technique. These successful results provide an incentive for future testing with greatly increased efficiency using the continuous model translation technique with the single probe to measure sonic boom signatures. Two widely used NASA codes, USM3D (Navier-Stokes) and CART3D-AERO (Euler, adjoint-based adaptive mesh), were used to compute off-body sonic boom pressure signatures of the SLSLE model at several different altitudes below the model at Mach 2.0. The computed pressure signatures compared well with wind tunnel data. The effect of the different altitude for signature extraction was evaluated by extrapolating the near field signatures to the ground and comparing pressure signatures and sonic boom loudness levels.

  12. Loss of Sonic hedgehog leads to alterations in intestinal secretory cell maturation and autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Gagné-Sansfaçon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial cells express the Sonic and Indian hedgehog ligands. Despite the strong interest in gut hedgehog signaling in GI diseases, no studies have specifically addressed the singular role of intestinal epithelial cell Sonic hedgehog signaling. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific role of Sonic hedgehog in adult ileal epithelial homeostasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Sonic hedgehog intestinal epithelial conditional knockout mouse model was generated. Assessment of ileal histological abnormalities, crypt epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial cell fate, junctional proteins, signaling pathways, as well as ultrastructural analysis of intracellular organelles were performed in control and mutant mice. Mice lacking intestinal epithelial Sonic Hedgehog displayed decreased ileal crypt/villus length, decreased crypt proliferation as well as a decrease in the number of ileal mucin-secreting goblet cells and antimicrobial peptide-secreting Paneth cells during adult life. These secretory cells also exhibited disruption of their secretory products in mutant mice. Ultrastructural microscopy analysis revealed a dilated ER lumen in secretory cells. This phenotype was also associated with a decrease in autophagy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, these findings indicate that the loss of Sonic hedgehog can lead to ileal secretory cell modifications indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress, accompanied by a significant reduction in autophagy.

  13. Effect of sonication on particle dispersion, administered dose and metal release of non-functionalized, non-inert metal nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Sulena; Hedberg, Jonas, E-mail: jhed@kth.se; Blomberg, Eva [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Department of Chemistry (Sweden); Wold, Susanna [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Applied Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry (Sweden); Odnevall Wallinder, Inger [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Department of Chemistry (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    In this study, we elucidate the effect of different sonication techniques to efficiently prepare particle dispersions from selected non-functionalized NPs (Cu, Al, Mn, ZnO), and corresponding consequences on the particle dose, surface charge and release of metals. Probe sonication was shown to be the preferred method for dispersing non-inert, non-functionalized metal NPs (Cu, Mn, Al). However, rapid sedimentation during sonication resulted in differences between the real and the administered doses in the order of 30–80 % when sonicating in 1 and 2.56 g/L NP stock solutions. After sonication, extensive agglomeration of the metal NPs resulted in rapid sedimentation of all particles. DLVO calculations supported these findings, showing the strong van der Waals forces of the metal NPs to result in significant NP agglomeration. Metal release from the metal NPs was slightly increased by increased sonication. The addition of a stabilizing agent (bovine serum albumin) had an accelerating effect on the release of metals in sonicated solutions. For Cu and Mn NPs, the extent of particle dissolution increased from <1.6 to ~5 % after sonication for 15 min. A prolonged sonication time (3–15 min) had negligible effects on the zeta potential of the studied NPs. In all, it is shown that it is of utmost importance to carefully investigate how sonication influences the physico-chemical properties of dispersed metal NPs. This should be considered in nanotoxicology investigations of metal NPs.Graphical Abstract.

  14. Distribution characteristics of volatile methylsiloxanes in Tokyo Bay watershed in Japan: Analysis of surface waters by purge and trap method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yuichi; Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Motegi, Mamoru; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-05-15

    Surface waters including river water and effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) were collected from Tokyo Bay watershed, Japan, and analyzed for seven cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs), i.e., D3, D4, D5, D6, L3, L4, and L5 by an optimized purge and trap extraction method. The total concentrations of seven VMSs (ΣVMS) in river water ranged from watershed was estimated at 2300kg. Our results indicate widespread distribution of VMSs in Tokyo Bay watershed and the influence of domestic wastewater discharges as a source of VMSs in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of nuclear and radiological events. Textbook for lecture in graduate school of engineering in the University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio

    2007-02-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is carrying out the cooperative activity by providing specialized educational and training staff and making our facilities available for the graduate school of engineering in The University of Tokyo as part of developing human resources in nuclear technology. This report is prepared as a textbook for the lecture in the graduate school of engineering in The University of Tokyo and provides the outlines of activities on the analysis of nuclear and radiological events and analysis methods as well as the summaries of major incidents and accidents that occurred. (author)

  16. A Flight Research Overview of WSPR, a Pilot Project for Sonic Boom Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry J., II; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Jones, Thomas P.; Waggoner, Erin R.; Flattery, Ashley K.; Wiley, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to identify the methods, tools, and best practices for a large-scale quiet (or low) sonic boom community human response test. The name of the effort was Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR). Such tests will be applied to building a dataset that governing agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization will use to establish regulations for acceptable sound levels of overland sonic booms. The WSPR test was the first such effort that studied responses to non-traditional low sonic booms while the subject persons were in their own homes and performing daily activities.The WSPR test was a NASA collaborative effort with several industry partners, in response to a NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Aeronautics. The primary contractor was Wyle (El Segundo, California). Other partners included Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (Savannah, Georgia); Pennsylvania State University (University Park, Pennsylvania); Tetra Tech, Inc. (Pasadena, California); and Fidell Associates, Inc. (Woodland Hills, California).A major objective of the effort included exposing a community to the sonic boom magnitudes and occurrences that would be expected to occur in high-air traffic regions having a network of supersonic commercial aircraft in place. Low-level sonic booms designed to simulate those produced by the next generation of commercial supersonic aircraft were generated over a small residential community. The sonic boom footprint was recorded with an autonomous wireless microphone array that spanned the entire community. Human response data were collected using multiple

  17. A Flight Research Overview of WSPR, a Pilot Project for Sonic Boom Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry James; Haering, Ed; Jones, Thomas P.; Waggoner, Erin R.; Flattery, Ashley K.; Wiley, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    In support of NASAs ongoing effort to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to identify the methods, tools, and best practices for a large-scale quiet (or low) sonic boom community human response test. The name of the effort was Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response. Such tests will go towards building a dataset that governing agencies like the Federal Aviation Administration and International Civil Aviation Organization will use to establish regulations for acceptable sound levels of overland sonic booms. Until WSPR, there had never been an effort that studied the response of people in their own homes and performing daily activities to non-traditional, low sonic booms.WSPR was a NASA collaborative effort with several industry partners, in response to a NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Research Opportunities in Aeronautics. The primary contractor was Wyle. Other partners included Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Pennsylvania State University, Tetra Tech, and Fidell Associates, Inc.A major objective of the effort included exposing a community with the sonic boom magnitudes and occurrences expected in high-air traffic regions with a network of supersonic commercial aircraft in place. Low-level sonic booms designed to simulate those produced by the next generation of commercial supersonic aircraft were generated over a small residential community. The sonic boom footprint was recorded with an autonomous wireless microphone array that spanned the entire community. Human response data was collected using multiple survey methods. The research focused on essential elements of community response testing including subject recruitment, survey methods, instrumentation systems, flight planning and operations, and data analysis methods.This paper focuses on NASAs role in the efforts

  18. Fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels in Tokyo caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Akira; Ishihara, Shigeyuki; Amaguchi, Hideo; Takasaki, Tadakatsu

    2016-04-01

    The hourly groundwater levels have been observed at 42 sites in Tokyo Metropolis since 1952. The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 14:46 JST on March 11, 2011. It was the strongest earthquake on record with a magnitude of 9.0 (Mw) and large fluctuations of unconfined and confined groundwater levels were observed at 102 observation wells in Tokyo, around 400 km away from the epicenter. Abrupt rises and sharp drawdowns of groundwater levels were observed right after the earthquake for most of the wells, although some did not show a change. In this study, taking full advantage of the unique rare case data from the dense groundwater monitoring network in Tokyo, we investigate the fluctuation patterns of unconfined and confined groundwater levels caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The groundwater level data used in this study consist of one month time series in March 2011 with one-hour interval. The fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels caused by the earthquake were identified using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM, developed by Kohonen, can project high-dimensional, complex target data onto a two-dimensional regularly arranged map in proportion to the degree of properties. In general, the objective of the SOM application is to obtain useful and informative reference vectors. These vectors can be acquired after iterative updates through the training of the SOM. Design of the SOM structure, selection of a proper initialization method, and data transformation methods were carried out in the SOM application process. The reference vectors obtained from the SOM application were fine-tuned using cluster analysis methods. The optimal number of clusters was selected by the Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) using the k-means algorithm. Using the optimal number of cluster, a final fine-tuning cluster analysis was carried out by Ward's method. As a result, the fluctuation patterns of the confined and unconfined groundwater level were classified into eight clusters

  19. Improvement of the High Fluence Irradiation Facility at the University of Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Kenta, E-mail: murakami@tokai.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Iwai, Takeo, E-mail: iwai@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata, Yamagata-shi 990-9585 (Japan); Abe, Hiroaki, E-mail: abe.hiroaki@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Sekimura, Naoto, E-mail: sekimura@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the modification of the High Fluence Irradiation Facility at the University of Tokyo (HIT). The HIT facility was severely damaged during the 2011 earthquake, which occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku. A damaged 1.0 MV tandem Cockcroft-Walton accelerator was replaced with a 1.7 MV accelerator, which was formerly used in another campus of the university. A decision was made to maintain dual-beam irradiation capability by repairing the 3.75 MV single-ended Van de Graaff accelerator and reconstructing the related beamlines. A new beamline was connected with a 200 kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) to perform in-situ TEM observation under ion irradiation.

  20. Retrospect over past 25 years at Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigebumi

    1983-01-01

    Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, was established on April 1, 1956, with the aims of the investigation on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and of the education of scientists and engineers in this field. This report reviews the history of the Laboratory during 25 years and traces the process of growth concerning research divisions, buildings, large-scale experimental facilities and the education in the graduate course for nuclear engineering. In addition, considering what the Laboratory has to be and what the future plan will be, it is mentioned that the research interest should be extended to the field of nuclear fusion reactor, especially the blanket engineering, as a long-term future project of the Research Laboratory. (author)

  1. Legionella thermalis sp. nov., isolated from hot spring water in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Hiroaki; Agata, Kunio; Edagawa, Akiko; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Masafumi; Furuhata, Katsunori

    2016-03-01

    Strain L-47(T) of a novel bacterial species belonging to the genus Legionella was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from Tokyo, Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequences (1477 bp) of this strain (accession number AB899895) had less than 95.0% identity with other Legionella species. The dominant fatty acids of strain L-47(T) were a15:0 (29.6%) and the major ubiquinone was Q-12 (71.1%). It had a guanine-plus-cytosine content of 41.5 mol%. The taxonomic description of Legionella thermalis sp. nov. is proposed to be type strain L-47(T) (JCM 30970(T)  = KCTC 42799(T)). © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Annual report of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo in fiscal 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    In this annual report, the activities of research and education, the state of operation of research facilities and others in fiscal year 1993 are summarized. Four main research facilities are the fast neutron source reactor 'Yayoi', the electron linear accelerator, the basic experiment facility for nuclear fusion reactor blanket design and the heavy irradiation research facility. The reactor and the accelerator are for the joint utilization by all universities in Japan, the blanket is used by the Faculty of Engineering, and the HIT is for the joint utilization in University of Tokyo. In fiscal year 1993, the installation of the fast neutron science research facility was approved. In this annual report, the management and operation of the above research facilities are described, and the research activities, the theses for doctorate and graduation theses of teachers, are summarized. (K.I.)

  3. Analisis Kinerja Kontrak Berjangka Komoditi pada Tokyo Grain Exchange – Jepang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy G. Soemapradja

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Futures contract is one of derivative instruments in which its value depends on underlying asset’s price fluctuation in the future. At the beginning, the futures contracts were traded with hedging motive, but now they are traded with speculative motive also. As an agricultural nation, finally, Indonesia has a commodity futures exchange (BBJ by the end of 2000. Low volume of transactions and less futures alternative on BBJ made Tokyo Grain Exchange (TGE as the object of this research. The statistical test concluded: The average rate of return of futures portfolio model is greater than average of forex trading of USD, and the risk of futures portfolio model is greater than forex trading of USD.

  4. Minutes of the IFMIF technical meetings, May 17-20, 2005, Tokyo, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Mizuho; Nakamura, Hiroo; Yutani, Toshiaki; Maebara, Sunao; Umetsu, Tomotake; Sugimoto, Masayoshi

    2005-08-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) Technical Meetings were held on May 17-20, 2005 at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) Tokyo. The main objectives were 1) to review technical status of the subsystems; accelerator, target and test facilities, 2) to technically discuss interface issues between target and test facilities, 3) to review results of peer-reviews performed in the EU and Japan, 4) to harmonize design/experimental activities among the subsystems, 5) to review and discuss the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity (EVEDA) tasks, and 6) to make a report of 1) - 5) to the IFMIF Executive Subcommittee. This report presents a brief summary of the Target Technical, Meeting, Test Facilities Technical Meeting, Target/Test Facilities Interface Meeting, Accelerator Technical Meeting and the Technical Integration Meeting. (author)

  5. Development of the real-time control (RTC) system for Tokyo sewage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M; Mizushima, H; Ito, K

    2005-01-01

    Tokyo Metropolitan government has decided to make the maximum possible use of the existing facilities while ensuring safety against inundation and to promote measures also from a software approach by introducing a system capable of minimizing combined sewer overflow, the real-time control system (RTC). A pilot RTC system was installed in August 2002 for the Shinozaki Pumping Station. The RTC system monitors the precipitation volume and the water level in the pipe. Simulations were carried out on the basis of these data. From the results, it was found that with the use of the RTC it is possible to reduce CSO by roughly 50% for small rainfalls with a total precipitation level of 20 mm or less by strong rainwater in the pipe routes at the beginning of the rain. It has also been shown that CSO can be reduced by about 80% through the use of rainfall forecasting.

  6. Creating the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Medals from Electronic Scrap: Sustainability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Alexandra M.; Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle

    2017-09-01

    For the upcoming 2020 Olympic Games, which are to be held in Tokyo, Japan, it has been proposed that recycled metal from electronic waste should be used to create the gold, silver, and bronze medals that will be awarded to athletes from around the world. This work is aimed at exploring the feasibility of this goal, quantifying the required electronic waste, identifying the limiting material constraints, and addressing a selection of sustainability metrics. The results show that 2.5-13.8% of Japan's available electronic waste would be required to create the medals, depending on the composition of the collected electronics and the processing yields. The environmental benefits from this venture are identified as being a savings of approximately 4.5-5.1 TJ of energy, which is equivalent to CO2 emissions reductions of approximately 420 metric tons. Additionally, qualitative potential benefits to environment, human health, economic recovery of valuable materials, and supply stability are considered.

  7. Kawasaki steam power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Co. and an example of geothermal power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-01-01

    The first part of this discussion is devoted to a description of the Kawasaki steam power plant, installed by Tokyo Electric Co. to supply electricity to the Keihin industrial area. The output is 700 MW and it possesses a thermal efficiency of 36.9%. The plant is operated automatically by remote control. The latter section describes the status of a geothermal power station in Hakone. It outlines the steam distribution piping, the steam itself, the turbine and vapor/water separation equipment. With regard to technical problems, it is suggested that old wells having weak pressure can be restored by self-cleaning and that further improvement can be brought about by dynamiting the base of the borehole.

  8. Annual report of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo in fiscal 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    In this annual report, the activities of education and research, the state of operation of research facilities and others in Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo in fiscal year 1992 are summarized. In this Laboratory, there are four large research facilities, that are, the fast neutron source reactor 'Yayoi', the electron beam linac, the nuclear fusion reactor blanket experiment facility and the heavy irradiation research facility. Those are used for carrying out education and research in the wide fields of nuclear engineering, and are offered also for joint utilization. The results of research by using respective research facilities have been summarized in separate reports. The course of the management and operation of each research facility is described, and the research activities, the theses for doctorate and graduation these of teachers, personnel and graduate students in the Laboratory are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  9. Tokyo et les campagnes: la progression de la banlieue à Toride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Desbois

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available L'espace périurbain japonais se distingue de ce que l'on observe en Europe ou aux États-Unis. La ville progresse en conservant dans son tissu même des éléments agro-ruraux. Nous utilisons ici un SIG réalisé pour deux quartiers de la commune de Toride, située dans la lointaine banlieue de Tokyo ; il permet de quantifier l'extension urbaine et de mieux en saisir le rythme depuis 1945. Il permet aussi de mettre en évidence le paysage très bigarré et, à certains égards, désordonné des grandes banlieues japonaises contemporaines.

  10. Biomagnification and debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a coastal ecosystem in Tokyo Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Yamada, Toshiko [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Matsuo, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Ichiro [Department of Life Environment Conservation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kotaro [Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Konan 4-5-7, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Takada, Hideshige, E-mail: shige@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2013-04-01

    By field sampling and laboratory experiments we compared the mechanisms by which polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are biomagnified. We measured PBDEs and PCBs, together with stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as an index of trophic level, in low-trophic-level organisms collected from a coastal area in Tokyo Bay. PBDEs were biomagnified to a lesser degree than PCBs. The more hydrophobic congeners of each were biomagnified more. However, the depletion of BDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. To study congener-specific biotransformation of halogenated compounds, we conducted an in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of two species of fish and five BDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 100, 153, and 154) and five CB congeners with the same substitution positions as the PBDEs. BDE99 and 153 were partially debrominated, but BDE47 and 154 were not debrominated. This congener-specific debromination is consistent with the field results. Both in vitro and field results suggested selective debromination at the meta position. The CB congeners were not transformed in vitro. This result is also consistent with the field results, that PCBs were more biomagnified than PBDEs. We conclude that metabolizability is an important factor in the biomagnification of chemicals, but other factors must be responsible for the lower biomagnification of PBDEs in natural ecosystems. Highlights: ► PBDEs were less biomagnified than PCBs in low-trophic-level organisms in Tokyo Bay. ► Depletion of PBDE congeners BDE99 and BDE153 from fish was suggested. ► BDE99 and 153 were debrominated in in vitro experiment using hepatic microsomes of fish. ► BDE47, 100, and 154 as well as PCB congeners were not transformed in vitro. ► Both in vitro and field results suggested selective meta-protonation of PBDEs.

  11. IAEA to Cooperate with Japan on Nuclear Security at 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Government of Japan signed an agreement today aimed at enhancing nuclear security measures for the summer Olympic Games and Paralympic Games in Tokyo in 2020. The agreement follows previous IAEA support to major public events, including the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the 2012 European soccer championship in Poland and Ukraine. IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano and Japanese Foreign Minister Taro Kono presided over the signing ceremony at the Agency’s headquarters in Vienna. Practical Arrangements outlining the planned cooperation were signed by IAEA Deputy Director General Juan Carlos Lentijo, head of the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, and H.E. Mitsuru Kitano, Japan’s Ambassador to the International Organizations in Vienna. “The IAEA has extensive experience in supporting Member States on nuclear security for major public events,” Amano said at the ceremony. “The Agency welcomes the cooperation to support the Olympic and Paralympic Games in Tokyo, and is already cooperating with Japan by sharing the experiences of Member States which previously hosted the Olympics.” The details of the cooperation will be decided in due course, but the possible areas of cooperation include the IAEA offering Japanese authorities training courses, workshops, technical visits and exercises related to nuclear security, hosting preparatory technical meetings and lending supplementary radiation detection equipment. The IAEA and Japan may also exchange information related to nuclear security events as appropriate and through the cooperation, the IAEA will also benefit from Japan’s good practices on nuclear security.

  12. Sonic branding: a framework for understanding sound branding and an overview of its most noticeable practices across industries

    OpenAIRE

    Bollue, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents the importance and relevance of sound in branding, as very few studies on sonic branding have been conducted so far. The aim of this thesis is to lay out a framework for understanding sonic branding as a phenomenon and for getting an overview of the most notable practices of sonic branding across various industries. The study is commissioned by the advertising agency Wondergarden for who a workshop was also created. Additionally this thesis hopefully can inspire other...

  13. Tracing cohesive sediment transportation at river mouths around Tokyo, Japan by Cesium originated from Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    koibuchi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment transport at river mouths, which consists of suspended-load and bed-load, has not been fully understood, since bed-load transport of cohesive sand is difficult to observe. Especially, the impact of sediment transport on the total amount of fine-grained cohesive sediment has not been elucidated. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 were spread from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) after the earthquake of March 11 of 2011, and attached to the fine-grained sand on the land. The contaminated sand flowed into the river mouths through the rivers possibly due to the complex physical processes in estuarine areas. To evaluate the fine-grained sediment transport around Tokyo and Tokyo Bay, field observations were carried out utilizing radionuclide originated from FDNPP as an effective tracer. The cohesive sediment transport at three different river mouths around Tokyo was successfully quantified. The cohesive sediment transport deposited in the estuary was found to be greatly dependent on the land use, geometry, river discharge and salinity. In addition,the transport driven by the rainfall was minute, and its behavior was quite different from suspended solids. Although further field observations of radionuclide are necessary, it is clear that fine-grained sediment in the bay from rivers already settled on the river mouth by aggregation. The settled sand will not move even in rainfall events. Consequently, the transport of radionuclide to the Pacific Ocean may not occur.; Cesium distribution around Tokyo Bay ; Cesium Concentration in Edogawa river

  14. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: surgical management of acute cholecystitis: safe steps in laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (with videos)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakabayashi, Go; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Endo, Itaru; Umezawa, Akiko; Asai, Koji; Suzuki, Kenji; Mori, Yasuhisa; Okamoto, Kohji; Pitt, Henry A.; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Choi, In-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Garden, O. James; Gouma, Dirk J.; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; Jagannath, Palepu; Chan, Angus C. W.; Lau, Wan Yee; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Misawa, Takeyuki; Nakamura, Masafumi; Horiguchi, Akihiko; Tagaya, Nobumi; Fujioka, Shuichi; Higuchi, Ryota; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Ukai, Tomohiko; Yokoe, Masamichi; Cherqui, Daniel; Honda, Goro; Sugioka, Atsushi; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Tokumura, Hiromi; Kimura, Taizo; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Hirata, Koichi; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    In some cases, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) may be difficult to perform in patients with acute cholecystitis (AC) with severe inflammation and fibrosis. The Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18) expand the indications for LC under difficult conditions for each level of severity of AC. As a result of

  15. Prevalence of insomnia among residents of Tokyo and osaka after the great East Japan earthquake: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Hiroaki; Akahane, Manabu; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Sano, Tomomi; Jojima, Noriko; Bando, Harumi; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2013-01-18

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. Tokyo and Osaka, which are located 375 km and 750 km, respectively, from the epicenter, experienced tremors of 5.0 lower and 3.0 seismic intensity on the Japan Meteorological Agency scale. The Great East Japan Earthquake was the fourth largest earthquake in the world and was accompanied by a radioactive leak at a nuclear power plant and a tsunami. In the aftermath of a disaster, some affected individuals presented to mental health facilities with acute stress disorder (ASD) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few studies have addressed mental stress problems other than ASD or PTSD among the general public immediately after a disaster. Further, the effects of such a disaster on residents living at considerable distances from the most severely affected area have not been examined. This study aimed to prospectively analyze the effect of a major earthquake on the prevalence of insomnia among residents of Tokyo and Osaka. A prospective online questionnaire study was conducted in Tokyo and Osaka from January 20 to April 30, 2011. An Internet-based questionnaire, intended to be completed daily for a period of 101 days, was used to collect the data. All of the study participants lived in Tokyo or Osaka and were Consumers' Co-operative Union (CO-OP) members who used an Internet-based food-ordering system. The presence or absence of insomnia was determined before and after the earthquake. These data were compared after stratification for the region and participants' age. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression and a generalized estimating equation. This study was conducted with the assistance of the Japanese CO-OP. The prevalence of insomnia among adults and minors in Tokyo and adults in Osaka increased significantly after the earthquake. No such increase was observed among minors in Osaka. The overall adjusted odds ratios for the risk of insomnia post-earthquake versus pre

  16. Improving the sludge disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinkaya, S; Sevimli, M F; Aygün, A

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious problems encountered in biological wastewater treatment processes is the production of waste activated sludge (WAS). Sonication, which is an energy-intensive process, is the most powerful sludge pre-treatment method. Due to lack of information about the combined pre-treatment methods of sonication, the combined pre-treatment methods were investigated and it was aimed to improve the disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining sonication with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods in this study. The process performances were evaluated based on the quantities of increases in soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), protein and carbohydrate. The releases of soluble COD, carbohydrate and protein by the combined methods were higher than those by sonication, alkalization and thermal pre-treatment alone. Degrees of sludge disintegration in various options of sonication were in the following descending order: sono-alkalization > sono-thermal pre-treatment > sonication. Therefore, it was determined that combining sonication with alkalization significantly improved the sludge disintegration and decreased the required energy to reach the same yield by sonication. In addition, effects on sludge settleability and dewaterability and kinetic mathematical modelling of pre-treatment performances of these methods were investigated. It was proven that the proposed model accurately predicted the efficiencies of ultrasonic pre-treatment methods.

  17. The Effect of Sonic Bloom Fertilizing Technology on The Seed Germination and Growth of Acacia mangium Willd Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyadi A T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium Willd is one of the promising wood species, it is a fast growing species and can be used as raw materials for pulp, furniture and wood working. Musi Hutan Persada Company has planted Acacia mangium Willd in large scale for pulp processing raw materials and for wood working industry. The faculty of forestry of the Nusa Bangsa University in collaboration with the Musi Hutan Persada have examined  the effect of “Sonic Bloom” to the Acacia mangium Willd germination and seedling growth. The results of the research are the following : (1 The seed germination with “Sonic Bloom” provided percented of germination of 82%, better than those without “Sonic Bloom”, i.e. only 34%; (2 With Sonic Bloom,  the height of 80-days old seedling is 129.6 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom”of only 90.7 cm  ; (3 the diameter of 80-days old seedling with “Sonic Bloom” is 0,24 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom” harving diameters of only 0.19 cm.The study concludes that sonic bloom treatment is very useful for the seed germination and the growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedling Key Words : Sonic Bloom, persemaian, Acacia mangium, perkecambahan, bibit   Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  18. USAF Flight Test Investigation of Focused Sonic Booms: Project Have Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Micah; Zamot, Noel; Moss, Chris; Morin, Daniel; Wolski, Ed; Chung, Sukhwan; Plotkin, Kenneth; Maglieri, Domenic

    1996-01-01

    Supersonic operations from military aircraft generate sonic booms that can affect people, animals and structures. A substantial experimental data base exists on sonic booms for aircraft in steady flight and confidence in the predictive techniques has been established. All the focus sonic boom data that are in existence today were collected during the 60's and 70's as part of the information base to the US Supersonic Transport program and the French Jericho studies for the Concorde. These experiments formed the data base to develop sonic boom propagation and prediction theories for focusing. There is a renewed interest in high-speed transports for civilian application. Moreover, today's fighter aircraft have better performance capabilities, and supersonic flights ars more common during air combat maneuvers. Most of the existing data on focus booms are related to high-speed civil operations such as transitional linear accelerations and mild turns. However, military aircraft operating in training areas perform more drastic maneuvers such as dives and high-g turns. An update and confirmation of USAF prediction capabilities is required to demonstrate the ability to predict and control sonic boom impacts, especially those produced by air combat maneuvers.

  19. Synthesis of biodiesel from castor oil: Silent versus sonicated methylation and energy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sáez-Bastante, J.; Pinzi, S.; Jiménez-Romero, F.J.; Luque de Castro, M.D.; Priego-Capote, F.; Dorado, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sonicated transesterification leads to higher conversion than conventional one. • Energy consumption required by conventional and ultrasound-assisted transesterification was compared. • Ultrasound-assisted methylation is more competitive in terms of energy than conventional one. - Abstract: In recent years, biodiesel is evolving to be one of the most employed biofuels for partial replacement of petrodiesel. The most widely used feedstocks for biodiesel production are vegetable oils. Among them, castor oil presents two interesting features as biodiesel raw material; on one hand, it does not compete with edible oils; on the other, the cultivar does not require high inputs. In this research, a comparison between conventional and ultrasound-assisted transesterification was carried out in terms of castor oil methyl ester (COME) yield and energy efficiency. Results show that sonicated transesterification leads to higher COME yields under lower methanol-to-oil molar ratio, lower amount of catalyst, shorter reaction time and lower amount of energy required. Ultrasound-assisted transesterification parameters were optimized resulting in the following optimum conditions: 20 kHz fixed frequency, 70% duty cycle, 40% sonication amplitude, 4.87 methanol-to-oil molar ratio, 1.4% w/w amount of catalyst and 3 sonication cycles (3 min 48 s) that provided 86.57% w/w COME yield. The energy required along each type of transesterification was measured leading to the conclusion that sonicated transesterification consumes a significant lower amount of energy than conventional one, thus achieving higher COME yield

  20. In Situ Monitoring of Dispersion Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes during Sonication Using Electrical Conductivity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sadiq Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in the fabrication of carbon nanotube- (CNT- based composite materials is the optimization of the sonication time in order to obtain homogenous and uniform dispersion of CNTs. Past studies mostly relied on postprocessing characterization techniques to address this issue. In the present, however, in situ monitoring of dispersion dynamics of CNTs in distilled water is carried out using instantaneous conductivity measurements. Using a computer controlled data acquisition system, the time evolution of the solution conductivity was carefully recorded. The data were then used to evaluate the intensity of turbulent fluctuations, which clearly highlighted the existence of three distinct sonication phases. During the first phase, the conductivity fluctuations initially increased attaining ultimately a maximum, thus indicating the occurrence of large agglomerates of CNTs. During the second phase of sonication, the solution conductivity showed a rather steep increase while fluctuations steadily declined. This phenomenon can be attributed to the breakdown of large CNT agglomerates, resulting in greater dispersion homogeneity of CNTs. During the third phase, after almost 650 kJ/L of sonication energy, the conductivity increase was almost negligible. The fluctuation intensity also remained constant during this phase signifying that the further sonication was no longer required.

  1. Effects of thermal treatment and sonication on quality attributes of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhirasegaram, Vicknesha; Razali, Zuliana; Somasundram, Chandran

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. Freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °C for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °C, 40 kHz frequency, 130 W) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. After sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Sonication for 15 and 30 min showed significant improvement in selected quality parameters except color and ascorbic acid content, when compared to freshly squeezed juice (control). A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (4-9%) and polyphenols (30-35%) was observed for juice subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 15 and 30 min, when compared to the control. In addition, enhancement of radical scavenging activity and reducing power was observed in all sonicated juice samples regardless of treatment time. Thermal and ultrasonic treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial count of the juice. The results obtained support the use of sonication to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standard as an alternative to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Left cardiac isomerism in the Sonic hedgehog null mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Victoria; Webb, Sandra; Chaudhry, Bill; Peat, Jonathan D; Phillips, Helen M; Brown, Nigel; Anderson, Robert H; Henderson, Deborah J

    2009-06-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a secreted morphogen necessary for the production of sidedness in the developing embryo. In this study, we describe the morphology of the atrial chambers and atrioventricular junctions of the Shh null mouse heart. We demonstrate that the essential phenotypic feature is isomerism of the left atrial appendages, in combination with an atrioventricular septal defect and a common atrioventricular junction. These malformations are known to be frequent in humans with left isomerism. To confirm the presence of left isomerism, we show that Pitx2c, a recognized determinant of morphological leftness, is expressed in the Shh null mutants on both the right and left sides of the inflow region, and on both sides of the solitary arterial trunk exiting from the heart. It has been established that derivatives of the second heart field expressing Isl1 are asymmetrically distributed in the developing normal heart. We now show that this population is reduced in the hearts from the Shh null mutants, likely contributing to the defects. To distinguish the consequences of reduced contributions from the second heart field from those of left-right patterning disturbance, we disrupted the movement of second heart field cells into the heart by expressing dominant-negative Rho kinase in the population of cells expressing Isl1. This resulted in absence of the vestibular spine, and presence of atrioventricular septal defects closely resembling those seen in the hearts from the Shh null mutants. The primary atrial septum, however, was well formed, and there was no evidence of isomerism of the atrial appendages, suggesting that these features do not relate to disruption of the contributions made by the second heart field. We demonstrate, therefore, that the Shh null mouse is a model of isomerism of the left atrial appendages, and show that the recognized associated malformations found at the venous pole of the heart in the setting of left isomerism are likely to arise from

  3. Characterization of sonicated natural zeolite/ferric chloride hexahydrate by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, T. A. B.; Soegijono, B.

    2018-03-01

    The characteristics of sonicated Bayah natural zeolite with and without ferric chloride hexahydrate solution using infrared method has been studied. High intensity ultrasonic waves were exposed to the samples for 40 min, 80 min and 120 min. Infra red spectra analysis was conducted to evaluate zeolite vibrational spectrum contributions, namely, the vibrations from the framework of the zeolite, from the charge-balancing cations, and from the relatively isolated groups, such as the surface OH groups and their behavior after sonication process. An addition of FeCl3.6H2O and sonication process on natural zeolite improved secondary building units link by forming oxygen bridges and also close relationship with duration of applied high intensity ultrasonic process. Longer ultrasonic process resulted in more increment of O-H absorbance.

  4. Generation of toxic degradation products by sonication of Pluronic® dispersants: implications for nanotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruhung; Hughes, Tyler; Beck, Simon; Vakil, Samee; Li, Synyoung; Pantano, Paul; Draper, Rockford K

    2013-11-01

    Poloxamers (known by the trade name Pluronic®) are triblock copolymer surfactants that contain two polyethylene glycol blocks and one polypropylene glycol block of various sizes. Poloxamers are widely used as nanoparticle dispersants for nanotoxicity studies wherein nanoparticles are sonicated with a dispersant to prepare suspensions. It is known that poloxamers can be degraded during sonication and that reactive oxygen species contribute to the degradation process. However, the possibility that poloxamer degradation products are toxic to mammalian cells has not been well studied. We report here that aqueous solutions of poloxamer 188 (Pluronic® F-68) and poloxamer 407 (Pluronic® F-127) sonicated in the presence or absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can became highly toxic to cultured cells. Moreover, toxicity correlated with the sonolytic degradation of the polymers. These findings suggest that caution should be used in interpreting the results of nanotoxicity studies where the potential sonolytic degradation of dispersants was not controlled.

  5. ResonantSonic drilling: History, progress, and advances in environmental restoration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    ResonantSonic drilling is being used in the environmental industry to drill faster, cheaper, and safer than conventional drilling methodologies. The ResonantSonic drilling method requires no mud, air, or water for rapid penetration through geologic materials ranging from rock and clay to sand and boulders. A specialized drill head imparts high frequency vibrations into steel drill pipe and creates a drilling action which allows the retrieval of continuous, undisturbed cores. An added benefit is that the method can be used for angle drilling. The ResonantSonic method has been used in the past for projects ranging from pile driving to horizontal drilling. Current programs utilize the technique as a valuable tool for obtaining in situ, pristine environmental samples. In the future, this drilling technology could be used for remote, automated sampling at hazardous waste sites

  6. Sound absorption enhancement of nonwoven felt by using coupled membrane - sonic crystal inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, M. C.; Yahya, I.; Harjana; Ubaidillah; Aditya, F.; Siregar, Y.; Moeliono, M.; Sulaksono, S.

    2016-11-01

    The experimental results from laboratory test on the sound absorption performance of nonwoven felt with an array thin tubes and sonic crystal inclusions reported in this paper. The nonwoven felt sample was produced by a local company with 15 mm in its thickness and 900 gsm. The 6.4 mm diameter plastic straw was used to construct the thin tubes array while the sonic crystal is arranged in a 4 × 4 lattice crystal formation. It made from a PVC cylinder with 17 mm and 50 mm in diameter and length respectively. All cylinders have two holes positioned on 10 mm and 25 mm from the base. The results show that both treatments, array of thin tube and sonic crystal inclusions are effectively increased the sound absorption coefficient of the nonwoven felt significantly especially in the low frequency range starting from 200Hz.

  7. Extraction of glutathione from EFB fermentation waste using methanol with sonication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Alvin, Nurdin, Muhammad; Hanifah, Ummu; Sudiyani, Yanni

    2017-11-01

    Glutathione is important compound on the human body. Glutathione have a widely use at pharmacy and cosmetics as detoxification, skin whitening agent, antioxidant and many other. This study aims to obtain glutathione from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentation waste of second generation bioethanol. The remaining yeast in the empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermentation was separated from the fermentation solution use centrifugation process and then extracted using a methanol-water solution. The extraction process was done by maceration which was assisted by sonication process. Solvent concentration and time of sonication were varied to see its effect on glutathione concentration. The concentration of glutathione from the extraction process was analyzed using alloxan method with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the highest glutathione concentration was approximately 1.32 g/L obtained with methanol solvent at 90 minutes of maceration following with 15 minutes sonication.

  8. Pilot Test of a Novel Method for Assessing Community Response to Low-Amplitude Sonic Booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, Sanford; Horonjeff, Richard D.; Harris, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A pilot test of a novel method for assessing residents annoyance to sonic booms was performed. During a two-week period, residents of the base housing area at Edwards Air Force Base provided data on their reactions to sonic booms using Smartphone-based interviews. Noise measurements were conducted at the same time. The report presents information about data collection methods and about test participants reactions to low-amplitude sonic booms. The latter information should not be viewed as definitive for several reasons. It may not be reliably generalized to the wider U.S. residential population (because it was not derived from a representative random sample) and the sample itself was not large.

  9. Photoluminescence of MoS2 Prepared by Effective Grinding-Assisted Sonication Exfoliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliation of bulk molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 using sonication in appropriate solvent is a promising route to large-scale preparation of few-layered or monolayered crystals. Grinding-assisted sonication exfoliation was used for preparing monolayered MoS2 nanosheets from natural mineral molybdenite. By controlling the sonication time, larger crystallites could be further exfoliated to smaller as well as thinner nanosheets without damaging their structures. The concentration of 1.6 mg mL−1 of final solution could be achieved. Several microscopic techniques like scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to evaluate the exfoliation results. Strong photoluminescence with the peak centered at 440 nm was also observed in the resulting dispersion which included several small lateral-sized (~3 nm nanostructures.

  10. Increasing low frequency sound attenuation using compounded single layer of sonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Preeti; Gupta, Arpan

    2018-05-01

    Sonic crystals (SC) are man-made periodic structures where sound hard scatterers are arranged in a crystalline manner. SC reduces noise in a particular range of frequencies called as band gap. Sonic crystals have a promising application in noise shielding; however, the application is limited due to the size of structure. Particularly for low frequencies, the structure becomes quite bulky, restricting its practical application. This paper presents a compounded model of SC, which has the same overall area and filling fraction but with increased low frequency sound attenuation. Two cases have been considered, a three layer SC and a compounded single layer SC. Both models have been analyzed using finite element simulation and plane wave expansion method. Band gaps for periodic structures have been obtained using both methods which are in good agreement. Further, sound transmission loss has been evaluated using finite element method. The results demonstrate the use of compounded model of Sonic Crystal for low frequency sound attenuation.

  11. Acoustic pressure in cavity of variously sized two-dimensional sonic crystals with various filling fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liangyu; Chen Lienwen; Liu Chiaming

    2009-01-01

    This study theoretically and experimentally investigates the acoustic pressure in the cavity of a 2D sonic crystal. Such crystals are composed of polymethyl methacrylate cylinders with a square array embedded in air background. The plane wave expansion method and the supercell calculation are employed to calculate the band structure and obtain the defect band. The finite element method is adopted to simulate the pressure field in the sonic crystal and calculate the pressure in the middle of the cavity as a function of frequency. The effects of sizes and filling fractions are investigated, and the quality factor of the cavity is discussed. The measured spectra and pressures in the defect of the sonic crystal demonstrate that the acoustic waves can be localized in the defect at the resonant frequency

  12. Synergic effect of tungstophosphoric acid and sonication for rapid synthesis of crystalline nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Zain, Siti Khadijah; Das, Rasel; Centi, Gabriele

    2016-03-15

    The utilization of sonication in combination with tungstophosphoric acid (PWA) catalyst reduces dramatically the time of operations from 30h to 10min by using an optimum sonication power of 225W. The basic cellulosic structure is maintained, allowing preparing high-quality nanocellulose. The size of the nanocellulose obtained was in the range from 15 to 35nm in diameter and several hundred nanometers in length, with a high crystallinity of about 88%. The nanocellulose shows a surface charge of -38.2mV which allows to obtaina stable colloidal suspension. The surface tension of the stable, swollen aqueous nanocellulose was close to that of water. These characteristics, together with the fast procedure allowed from the synergic combination of PWA and sonication, evidence the high potential of the proposed method for the industrial production of nanocellulose having the properties required in many applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Development of ClearPEM-Sonic, a multimodal mammography system for PET and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciati, G.; Auffray, E.; Bugalho, R.; Cao, L.; Di Vara, N.; Farina, F.; Felix, N.; Frisch, B.; Ghezzi, A.; Juhan, V.; Jun, D.; Lasaygues, P.; Lecoq, P.; Mensah, S.; Mundler, O.; Neves, J.; Paganoni, M.; Peter, J.; Pizzichemi, M.; Siles, P.; Silva, J. C.; Silva, R.; Tavernier, S.; Tessonnier, L.; Varela, J.

    2014-03-01

    ClearPEM-Sonic is an innovative imaging device specifically developed for breast cancer. The possibility to work in PEM-Ultrasound multimodality allows to obtain metabolic and morphological information increasing the specificity of the exam. The ClearPEM detector is developed to maximize the sensitivity and the spatial resolution as compared to Whole-Body PET scanners. It is coupled with a 3D ultrasound system, the SuperSonic Imagine Aixplorer that improves the specificity of the exam by providing a tissue elasticity map. This work describes the ClearPEM-Sonic project focusing on the technological developments it has required, the technical merits (and limits) and the first multimodal images acquired on a dedicated phantom. It finally presents selected clinical case studies that confirm the value of PEM information.

  14. Development of ClearPEM-Sonic, a multimodal mammography system for PET and Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucciati, G; Vara, N Di; Ghezzi, A; Paganoni, M; Pizzichemi, M; Auffray, E; Frisch, B; Lecoq, P; Bugalho, R; Neves, J; Cao, L; Peter, J; Farina, F; Felix, N; Juhan, V; Mundler, O; Siles, P; Jun, D; Lasaygues, P; Mensah, S

    2014-01-01

    ClearPEM-Sonic is an innovative imaging device specifically developed for breast cancer. The possibility to work in PEM-Ultrasound multimodality allows to obtain metabolic and morphological information increasing the specificity of the exam. The ClearPEM detector is developed to maximize the sensitivity and the spatial resolution as compared to Whole-Body PET scanners. It is coupled with a 3D ultrasound system, the SuperSonic Imagine Aixplorer that improves the specificity of the exam by providing a tissue elasticity map. This work describes the ClearPEM-Sonic project focusing on the technological developments it has required, the technical merits (and limits) and the first multimodal images acquired on a dedicated phantom. It finally presents selected clinical case studies that confirm the value of PEM information

  15. Design methodology for a community response questionnaire on sonic boom exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbry, John E., Jr.; Fields, James M.; Molino, John A.; Demiranda, Gwendolyn A.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary draft questionnaire concerning community response to sonic booms was developed. Interviews were conducted in two communities that had experienced supersonic overflights of the SR-71 airplane for several years. Even though the overflights had ceased about 6 months prior to the interviews, people clearly remembered hearing sonic booms. A total of 22 people living in central Utah and 23 people living along Idaho/Washington state border took part in these interviews. The draft questionnaire was constantly modified during the study in order to evaluate different versions. Questions were developed which related to annoyance, startle, sleep disturbance, building vibration, and building damage. Based on the data collected, a proposed community response survey response instrument was developed for application in a full-scale sonic boom study.

  16. A brief argument for, and summary of, the concept of Sonic Virtuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sonic virtuality is a conceptualization of sound devised with several purposes in mind. First, it provides a holistic definition of sound that takes account of factors beyond the bare physics of sound waves and their propagation. Second, in providing such a definition, it attempts to explain...... a number of sonic anomalies that existing definitions of sound, of which there are several, do not satisfactorily explain. Third, in its concept of sound as an emergent perception sited within the mind, it provides the conceptual framework to work with sound in the context of new and developing...... technologies. The essay begins with an enumeration of several existing definitions of sound and problems with them, focussing in particular upon the western world’s dominant definition of sound as a sound wave, and then provides a brief exposition of sonic virtuality before concluding with a speculative...

  17. Comparison of 3D turbulence measurements using three staring wind lidars and a sonic anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Cariou, J.-P.; Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Three pulsed lidars were used in staring, non-scanning mode, placed so that their beams crossed close to a 3D sonic anemometer. The goal is to compare lidar volume averaged wind measurement with point measurement reference sensors and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing 3D turbulence mea...... measurements with lidars. The results show a very good correlation between the lidar and the sonic times series. The variance of the velocity measured by the Mar is attenuated due to spatial filtering, and the amount of attenuation can be predicted theoretically.......Three pulsed lidars were used in staring, non-scanning mode, placed so that their beams crossed close to a 3D sonic anemometer. The goal is to compare lidar volume averaged wind measurement with point measurement reference sensors and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing 3D turbulence...

  18. ACCUWIND - Accurate wind speed measurements in wind energy - Summary report[Cup and sonic anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.; Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Cuerva, A.; Mouzakis, F.; Busche, P.; Eecen, P.; Sanz-Andres, A.; Franchini, S.; Markkilde Petersen, S.

    2006-07-15

    The cup anemometer is at present the standard instrument used for mean wind speed measurement in wind energy. It is being applied in high numbers around the world for wind energy assessments. It is also applied exclusively for accredited power performance measurements for certification and verification purposes, and for purposes of optimisation in research and development. The revised IEC standard on power performance measurements has now included requirements for classification of cup anemometers. The basis for setting up such requirements of cup anemometers is two EU projects SITEPARIDEN and CLASSCUP from which the proposed classification method for cup anemometers was developed for the IEC standard. While cup anemometers at present are the standard anemometer being used for average wind speed measurements, sonic anemometers have been developed significantly over the last years, and prices have come down. The application of sonic anemometers may increase in wind energy if they prove to have comparable or better operational characteristics compared to cup anemometers, and if similar requirements to sonic anemometers are established as for cup anemometers. Sonic anemometers have historically been used by meteorologists for turbulence measurements, but have also found a role on wind turbine nacelles for wind speed and yaw control purposes. The report on cup and sonic anemometry deals with establishment of robustness in assessment and classification by focus on methods and procedures for analysis of characteristics of cup and sonic anemometers. The methods and procedures provide a platform, hopefully for use in meeting the requirements of the IEC standard on power performance measurements, as well as for development of improved instruments. (au)

  19. Enhanced Harnessing of the Graviola Bioactive Components Using a Neoteric Sonication Cum Microwave Coadjuvant Extraction Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Chul Chun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graviola is one of the most accomplished natural anticancer therapists gaining popularity in recent times. Harnessing the full benefit from tapping all of its rich bioactive reservoirs is absolutely worthy and mandatory. It is in this regard that a well optimized extraction methodology gains paramount importance. In case of Graviola, no sophistication in terms of extraction methods is reported. A neoteric sonication cum microwave combined extraction technology was introduced that maximized the extraction process and minimized (7 min the extraction time. The extraction efficiency was validated based on the significant enrichment of bioactive ingredients in Graviola extracts following the sonication cum microwave combined protocol.

  20. Comparison of 3D turbulence measurements using three staring wind lidars and a sonic anemometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, J; Courtney, M S; Mikkelsen, T; Wagner, R; Lindeloew, P; Sjoeholm, M; Enevoldsen, K; Cariou, J-P; Parmentier, R

    2008-01-01

    Three pulsed lidars were used in staring, non-scanning mode, placed so that their beams crossed close to a 3D sonic anemometer. The goal is to compare lidar volume averaged wind measurement with point measurement reference sensors and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing 3D turbulence measurements with lidars. The results show a very good correlation between the lidar and the sonic times series. The variance of the velocity measured by the lidar is attenuated due to spatial filtering, and the amount of attenuation can be predicted theoretically

  1. Multiple refraction switches realized by stretching elastomeric scatterers in sonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of out-of-plane pre-stretch on the 2D sonic crystal with stretchable elastomeric scatterers is explored. The hyperelastic scatterers are characterized by a compressible neo-Hookean model. The Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN map is adopted to obtain the band structure and equi-frequency contours. We focus on the first passband and find that a variety of switching functionalities for refraction behaviors can be realized in selected frequencies under a specific pre-stretch range. These refraction switches enable an active control of wave propagation and are applicable in advanced technologies where switchable and multifunctional sonic crystals are required.

  2. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis–multiple linear regression (PCA–MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA–MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (< 50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50–500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems. - Highlights: • Aquifers in Tokyo had high levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (up to 1800 ng/L). • PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage

  3. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Keisuke, E-mail: keisukekr@gmail.com [Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Murakami, Michio [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Oguma, Kumiko [Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takada, Hideshige [Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry (LOG), Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Takizawa, Satoshi [Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis–multiple linear regression (PCA–MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA–MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (< 50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50–500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems. - Highlights: • Aquifers in Tokyo had high levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (up to 1800 ng/L). • PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage

  4. Radioactive contamination in the Tokyo metropolitan area in the early stage of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident and its fluctuation over five years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Ishida

    Full Text Available Radioactive contamination in the Tokyo metropolitan area in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident was analyzed via surface soil sampled during a two-month period after the accident. 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were detected in these soil samples. The activity and inventory of radioactive material in the eastern part of Tokyo tended to be high. The 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio in soil was 0.978 ± 0.053. The 131I/137Cs ratio fluctuated widely, and was 19.7 ± 9.0 (weighted average 18.71 ± 0.13, n = 14 in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The radioactive plume with high 131I activity spread into the Tokyo metropolitan area and was higher than the weighted average of 6.07 ± 0.04 (n = 26 in other areas. The radiocesium activity and inventory surveyed in soil from a garden in Chiyoda Ward in the center of Tokyo, fell approximately 85% in the four months after the accident, and subsequently tended to rise slightly while fluctuating widely. It is possible that migration and redistribution of radiocesium occurred. The behavior of radiocesium in Tokyo was analyzed via monitoring of radiocesium in sludge incineration ash. The radiocesium activity in the incineration ash was high at wastewater treatment centers that had catchment areas in eastern Tokyo and low at those with catchment areas in western Tokyo. Similar to the case of the garden soil, even in incineration ash, the radiocesium activity dropped rapidly immediately after the accident. The radiocesium activity in the incineration ash fell steadily from the tenth month after the accident until December 2016, and its half-life was about 500 days. According to frequency analysis, in central Tokyo, the cycles of fluctuation of radiocesium activity in incineration ash and rainfall conformed, clearly showing that radiocesium deposited in urban areas was resuspended and transported by rainfall run-off.

  5. 1995 NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop. Volume 2; Configuration Design, Analysis, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop on September 12-13, 1995. The workshop was designed to bring together NASAs scientists and engineers and their counterparts in industry, other Government agencies, and academia working together in the sonic boom element of NASAs High-Speed Research Program. Specific objectives of this workshop were to: (1) report the progress and status of research in sonic boom propagation, acceptability, and design; (2) promote and disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; (3) help promote synergy among the scientists working in the Program; and (4) identify technology pacing, the development C, of viable reduced-boom High-Speed Civil Transport concepts. The Workshop was organized in four sessions: Sessions 1 Sonic Boom Propagation (Theoretical); Session 2 Sonic Boom Propagation (Experimental); Session 3 Acceptability Studies-Human and Animal; and Session 4 - Configuration Design, Analysis, and Testing.

  6. Annual report of the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubono, Shigeru; Mori, Yoshiharu; Niki, Kazuaki; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Outa, Haruhiko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tsutsui, Izumi; Itagaki, Toshiko

    1996-01-01

    This report is an annual report from April, 1995 to March 1996 at Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. In this fiscal year 1995, both the SF cyclotron and the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron operated smoothly for users from universities. A new radioactive nuclear facility was completed. The research programs at the TARN II cooler ring further made progress in the field of atomic physics. The superconducting large solid-angle kaon spectrometer (SKS) installed at the 12 GeV PS of KEK has continued to produce interesting results concerning hypernuclei. In order to preform a long-baseline neutrino-oscillation experiment, a new collaboration has been formed among INS, KEK and ICRR. And, internal collaborations are progressing, and much effort was concentrated on realizing the future project. This report contains the following thema: Nuclear physics division, Intermediate-energy physics division, High-energy physics division, Theoretical physics division, Accelerator research division, Interdisciplinary research laboratory, Research and development for Japanese Hadron Project, Supporting division, Meetings and Appendices. (G.K.)

  7. Present status of tandem accelerator research facility (MALT) in University of Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Hatori, Satoshi; Nakano, Chuichiro; Sunohara, Yoko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    1996-12-01

    The tandem accelerator in University of Tokyo, which was renewed from 1991 to March, 1994 started the joint utilization within the University since April, 1995 after about one year of the period of adjustment. The time of operation exceeding 3500 hours in one year was recorded. This facility is that for carrying out the minute analysis such as AMS, PIXE, NRA and others and the research of atomic and molecular physics, and called microanalysis laboratory-tandem accelerator (MALT). Support has been done by placing emphasis on the development of AMS measurement which enables the microanalysis of {sup 14}C,{sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al, but the accuracy of {sup 14}C AMS did not attain the practical level. {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al AMS reached almost the practical level, and the measurement of actual samples has been carried out. The state of operation and utilization of the MALT is reported. As to the recent troubles and the countermeasures in the MALT, the voltage instability of the accelerator, the unstable ion source support mechanism and the poor transmissivity of beam in the accelerator are described. (K.I.)

  8. Genotoxic action of sunlight upon Bacillus subtilis spores: monitoring studies at Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, N

    1989-12-01

    Samples of Bacillus subtilis spores dried on membrane filter were exposed to natural sunlight from solar-noon time at Tokyo. The survival and mutation induction of wild-type (UVR) and repair-deficient (UVS) spores were determined on 66 occasions since 1979. Two of the values were considered to be useful in monitoring solar UV intensity; the inverse of the time (in minutes) of exposure to kill 63% of the UVS spores ("sporocidal index") and the induced mutation frequency at 60 minutes of exposure of the UVR spores ("mutagenic index"). Both values were varied greatly due to time of a year, weather and other conditions. Estimates of year-round changes under clear skies were obtained by connecting the maximum values attained in these years. In these curves, there are more than 7-fold differences in the genotoxicity between winter and summer months, with major increases observed in early spring and decreases through autumn. Using a series of UV cut-off filters, the wavelengths most effective for the sporocidal actions were estimated to be in the range of 308-325 nm, shorter wavelengths being effective when the genotoxicity was higher. Sunburn meter of Robertson-Berger type seems to respond to slightly longer wavelength components of the solar spectrum. However, a reasonable correlation was obtained between the reading of the meter and the sporocidal index.

  9. Periodical public opinion survey on nuclear energy. Inhabitants living in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Tsutida, Shouji; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (Fukushima accident) has brought about a great change in many people's perceptions about nuclear power plant safety. When discussing future energy options for Japan, it is important to have a full grasp of the attitude of a large number of people towards nuclear energy. The Atomic Energy Society of Japan has conducted annual questionnaire survey of 500 adults who live within 30 kilometers of Tokyo Station. The aim of this survey is to assess trends in public attitude towards nuclear energy. The authors that designed the questionnaire entries of this survey have been managing questionnaire data as members of the Data Management Working Group under the Social and Environmental Division of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan. We confirmed the change in public attitude towards nuclear energy through this periodical survey after the Fukushima accident. In particular, public concerns about the use of nuclear energy increased after the Fukushima accident, and many people have raised doubts over the use of nuclear energy in the future. (author)

  10. A survey of indoor pollution by volatile organo halogen compounds in Katsushika, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amagai, T.; Olansandan; Matsushita, H. [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Ono, M. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakai, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Tamura, K. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Maeda, K. [Tokyo Kasel University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    A survey of indoor and outdoor pollution by 10 volatile organo halogen compounds (VOHCs) was performed in Katsushika Ward, Tokyo, Japan. Thirteen houses in February and 30 houses in July were sampled. Four consecutive 24-hour samples were collected by passive sampling from living room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom and outdoors in February and July 1995. Indoor concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene were at nearly the same as outdoor concentrations; therefore, it was concluded that indoor pollution by these compounds was primarily due to penetration of outdoor pollutants. Indoor concentrations of some VOHCs were considerably higher than outdoor concentrations and they varied widely between households. The list included: p-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and tri halomethanes, for which emission sources were insect repellents, dry-cleaned clothes, and tap water, showers and bathtub water, respectively. Indoor concentrations of these compounds were higher in reinforced concrete houses than in wooden houses or wooden houses with mortar walls. This suggests that airtightness of the rooms is responsible for high indoor VOHC concentrations. (author)

  11. Leaving the street and reconstructing lives: impact of DOTS in empowering homeless people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsu, L; Sato, N; Ngamvithayapong-Yanai, J; Ishikawa, N

    2013-07-01

    Since 2000, the Public Health Centre (PHC) in Shinjuku, an area of Tokyo with one of the largest homeless populations in Japan, has been implementing PHC-based DOTS treatment for homeless tuberculosis (TB) patients, with much epidemiological success. Anecdotal evidence indicates that homeless patients treated under DOTS have experienced various positive changes. However, this experience has not yet been systematically analysed. To explore the changes experienced by homeless TB patients, and to discuss the possible role of PHC-based DOTS treatment in effecting these changes. A qualitative study via in-depth interviews with 18 ex-homeless patients who completed DOTS-based treatment at Shinjuku City PHC. The data were analysed using the interpretive content analysis method. The various changes experienced by the participants were categorised into five sub-categories of empowerment, including improved mental health and interpersonal relationships. Some of these changes were attributable to the participants undergoing PHC-based DOTS, which, by addressing their various emotional needs, helped to trigger patient empowerment. Based on our findings, a model of empowerment using PHC-based DOTS was constructed. PHC-based DOTS not only successfully controlled TB, it also empowered homeless patients by addressing their emotional needs. The interpersonal skills of the nurses played a critical role in this process.

  12. Spatiotemporal Simulation of Future Land Use/Cover Change Scenarios in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruci Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulating future land use/cover changes is of great importance for urban planners and decision-makers, especially in metropolitan areas, to maintain a sustainable environment. This study examines the changes in land use/cover in the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA from 2007 to 2017 as a first step in using supervised classification. Second, based on the map results, we predicted the expected patterns of change in 2027 and 2037 by employing a hybrid model composed of cellular automata and the Markov model. The next step was to decide the model inputs consisting of the modeling variables affecting the distribution of land use/cover in the study area, for instance distance to central business district (CBD and distance to railways, in addition to the classified maps of 2007 and 2017. Finally, we considered three scenarios for simulating land use/cover changes: spontaneous, sub-region development, and green space improvement. Simulation results show varied patterns of change according to the different scenarios. The sub-region development scenario is the most promising because it balances between urban areas, resources, and green spaces. This study provides significant insight for planners about change trends in the TMA and future challenges that might be encountered to maintain a sustainable region.

  13. Systematic Education of Self-Medication at Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narui, Koji; Samizo, Kazuo; Inoue, Michiko; Watanabe, Kinzo

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of self-medication by pharmacies, with the aim of encouraging a patient's self-selection of proper OTC drug, is written about in the national action plan "Japan is Back". The subject of self-medication has been improved in the 2013 revised edition of "Model Core Curriculum for Pharmaceutical Education". At Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, the systematic education of self-medication was started from the onset of the six-year course in the third, fourth and fifth grade. We introduce here a new approach in our systematic education of self-medication. In the practice of the fourth grade, groups of around 5-6 students are formed. The pharmacy students assume various roles-of pharmacist, rater, observer, and chairman-and perform role-playing. We prepared a standardized patient (SP) showing various symptoms. The student of the role of pharmacist asks about the SP's symptoms, chooses an OTC drug suitable for the SP, and explains the OTC drug to the SP. After the role-playing, those in the roles of rater, observer, SP, and faculty give feedback to the student who played the role of pharmacist. Because we conduct this role-playing using SPs with a variety of symptoms, we can create a situation similar to a real drugstore.

  14. Radiation therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, Takeshi; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Toshihide; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Akagi, Kumiko; Masuda, Gota

    2000-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is frequently found in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on radiotherapy for patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. Between April 1991 and May 1997, radiotherapy was given to 11 lesions in eight men with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma to relieve their symptoms. The lesions involved the head and neck region, the legs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Radiotherapy was carried out with 4-MV photon through parallel opposed field or high energy electrons. Total doses ranged from 20 to 38 Gy, with a median of 30 Gy, delivered in 2- to 3-Gy fractions. Four patients were given other treatments prior to the radiotherapy. Acute reaction was evaluated according to the modified acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiotherapy had relieved the symptoms in all patients at completion of this therapy. Lesions that involved the hard palate and vocal cords had completely disappeared. The lesions that received radiotherapy were controlled without symptoms until the patients died. Patients who had the head and neck region treated exhibited severe acute mucosal reaction (at a dose of 30 Gy, there was grade 2 morbidity by modified RTOG criteria, in two patients, and grade 3 in three patients) although the radiation therapy was completed for these patients. Radiotherapy promises a favorable outcome for symptom relief in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (author)

  15. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediment of Tama River in Tokyo urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Akiko; Hosomi, Masaaki; Murakami, Akihiko; Sakakibara, Koji

    1997-01-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons, i.e., hexadecane (HEX), phenanthrene (PHE), and anthracene (ANT), were determined in estuarine sediment of the Tama River in urban Tokyo, followed by estimating their respective degradation potential. While in a sediment slurry, the aerobic biodegradation rates of these petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 40 to 70 μg.g -1 dry sediment:day -1 . The anaerobic biodegradation rate of HEX was found to be 5 -8 μg.g -1 dry sediment.day -1 , whereas that of PHE and ANT could not be detected following a 2-month incubation. Aerobic degradation of HEX was not affected by coexistence with either PHE or ANT, nor by the salinity level. The number of HEX-, PHE-, or ANT-utilizing bacteria ranged from 5 - 10% of the total number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. We calculated their biodegradation potentials using the biomass of naturally existing petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria present in the sampled sediment, with results for HEX, PHE, and ANT being 1.0 -3.5, 4.2 x 10 -2 , and 1.2 x 10 -2 -9.4 x 10 -1 μg.g -1 dry sediment day -1 , respectively. In the aerobic tidal sediment of the Tama River, the purification potentials of HEX, PHE, and ANT were assessed to be approximately equal to their accumulation potentials occurring at the normal water level. (Author)

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green spaces and human-wildlife conflicts in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Tetsuro; Numata, Shinya

    2016-08-01

    Although urban green spaces are increasingly important both for humans and wildlife, an increase in urban green spaces may also increase human-wildlife conflicts in urban areas. However, few studies have examined the relationship between the size of green spaces and the level of conflicts with wildlife in multiple taxa, including invertebrates and vertebrates. To better understand current pest statistics and predict changes that will occur as the area of green spaces increases, we analysed a dataset compiling the number of pest consultations in 53 metropolitan districts in Tokyo over a 20-year period and its relationships with the area of green space. Stinging insects (e.g., wasps) made up over 50% of pest consultations, followed (in order) by rats and other nuisance animals (e.g., snakes). The number of consultations per unit population did not correlate, or was even negatively correlated, with the proportions of green spaces (mainly forest) for many indoor pests, but did positively correlate for some outdoor pests, such as wasps and snakes. Therefore, wasps and snakes can increase when urban green spaces increase. Because even minor nuisances are relevant for urban lifestyles, considerations of ways to minimise conflicts with wildlife are critical for urban green space management.

  17. Comparison of two editions of Tokyo guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Han, Lu; Yang, Yunsheng; Linghu, Enqiang; Li, Wen; Cai, Fengchun; Kong, Jinyan; Wang, Xiangdong; Meng, Jiangyun; Du, Hong; Wang, Hongbin; Huang, Qiyang; Hyder, Quratulain; Zhang, Xiuli

    2014-02-01

    The Tokyo guidelines from 2007 (TG07) and 2013 (TG13) were compared for the management of acute cholangitis (AC). We reviewed patients with clinically-proven AC by detecting purulent biles during biliary drainage. TG07 and TG13 were compared regarding diagnosis, severity grading and prognostic values. New risk factors for 30-day mortality were investigated. Definite diagnosis for 120 eligible patients was made in 104 (86.7%) and 101 (84.2%) cases by TG07 and TG13, respectively (P = 0.36), higher than 61 (50.8%) by Charcot's triad (P < 0.001). Diagnostic overlap and concordance (κ) are 90.8% (109/120) and 0.63 (P < 0.0001). Patients classified into mild and moderate grades by TG07 and TG13 differed significantly (P = 0.043). Both guidelines could not predict clinical outcomes except the needs for multi ERCP session by TG13. Intrahepatic obstruction (OR = 11.2, 95% CI: 1.55-226.9) and hypoalbuminemia (≤ 25.0 g/l; OR = 17.3, 95% CI: 3.5-313.6) were independent risk factors for 30-day mortality in multivariate model. Two guidelines are reproducible and reliable in AC diagnosis but different in severity grading. TG13 are more practical for immediate severity grading, enabling planning treatment upon admission. Intrahepatic obstruction is a new candidate predictor of 30-day mortality for further assessment. © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  18. Toxic evaluations of sediments in Tokyo Bay, Japan, using Japanese medaka embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Kawano, Machi; McElroy, Anne E; Koyama, Jiro

    2017-12-01

    Toxic risks of sediments collected from seven sites in Tokyo Bay were evaluated using Japanese medaka embryos. Those sediments with slight pore water were placed in grass petri dishes without overlying water. The most remarkable effect in the field sediment was to cause hatching delay in embryos, and the longest time until hatching took was 12.5 ± 1.6 days post-fertilization (dpf), although that in control group was 10.1 ± 0.7 dpf. A significant delay in hatching was observed at four sites. Because total carbon concentrations were relatively high in sediments at three of these four sites, several chemicals were expected to be residues in these sites and could cause their delay. Although extreme mortality was not observed at all sites, sediments collected from the site close to Kawasaki city induced 10 % mortality. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were remarkably high at this site compared with other sites, and thus PAH toxicities could be causing the mortality. Concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in sediments were also determined, but no clear relationship was found between toxicities to embryos and the distribution of their concentrations.

  19. Condensate demineralizer system for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Shigeki; Ikeda, Yukio; Kuramoto, Kenji; Omori, Yoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroyoshi

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the condensate demineralizing equipment recently supplied to the second, third, and fifth power units of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of the Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. The output of this equipment is rated as 4,900 m 3 /h each, which is currently the largest capacity for this type of equipment in Japan. The purpose of this equipment is to remove any ion components and suspended solids contained in condensate to improve its water purity. By doing so, decreasing the corrosion rate of materials used in the plant and, at the same time, decreasing the radioactivity of the condensate, thus easing the whole plant operation can be achieved. The same kind of equipment is also employed at the conventional thermal power stations, but the required functioning and operating mode are quite different. In the case of the nuclear power plant, extremely severe requirements specific with nuclear technology must be met which arise solely from dealing with radioactive substances. Not only the water treatment method, but also layout and arrangement, operation and liquid waste processing methods differ from those for the conventional power plants. The equipment for the sixth unit at Fukushima is now under designing and that for the Tokai No.2 unit of the Japan Atomic Power Company is already under shop fabrication. Both have the rated capacity of 7,300 m 3 /h each, which exceeds far up the capacity of the previously mentioned equipment. (auth.)

  20. Investigation of radon and thoron concentrations in a landmark skyscraper in Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazumasa Inoue; Masahiro Fukushi

    2013-01-01

    The temporal variation of the radon concentration, and the radon and thoron concentrations every 3 months for a year were measured using two types of devices in a landmark skyscraper, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Daiichi Building. In the measurement of temporal variation of the radon concentration using a pulse type ionization chamber, the average radon concentration was 21 ± 13 Bq m -3 (2-68 Bq m -3 ). The measured indoor radon concentration had a strong relationship with the operation of the mechanical ventilation system and the activities of the office workers. The radon concentration also increased together with temperature. Other environmental parameters, such as air pressure and relative humidity, were not related to the radon concentration. In the long-term measurements using a passive radon and thoron discriminative monitor, no seasonal variation was observed. The annual average concentrations of radon and thoron were 16 ± 8 and 16 ± 7 Bq m -3 , respectively. There was also no relationship between the two concentrations. The annual average effective dose for office workers in this skyscraper was estimated to be 0.08 mSv y -1 for 2000 working hours per year. When considering the indoor radon exposure received from their residential dwellings using the annual mean radon concentration indoors in Japan (15.5 Bq m -3 ), the annual average effective dose was estimated to be 0.37 mSv y -1 . This value was 31 % of the worldwide average annual effective dose. (author)

  1. Scaling behavior in urban development process of Tokyo City and hierarchical dynamical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuba, Ikuo; Namatame, Masanori

    2003-01-01

    We study a geometric structure of urban development process which pays particular attention to scaling properties in the settlement area and inhabitant population through changes in the scaling exponents. Both the degree to which the space is fulfilled and the rate at which it is filled are obtained for the residential development in Tokyo. For distances larger than the city boundary, there is a sharp cross-over to a suburban region with a quite intriguing variation with a distance from the center of the city. The population densities in this region are found to collapse into a single scaling function with the scaling exponent 0.678 in the early 1990s in which the growth of the population attenuates. We propose a cellular automata model using the simulated annealing method that succeeds in reproducing the qualitative similar structural complexity of the actual city by taking into account the transportation system, especially railroad network. Finally, a possible theoretical consideration is given in analogous with fluid dynamics. Scaling of the population density is obtained assuming that there is a dynamical hierarchical structure in the scaling region where the stationarity is fulfilled. The theoretically obtained exponent 2/3 agrees well with the observed one

  2. Contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs from sandpits in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuhova, K; Akao, N; Fujinami, Y; Kumagai, T; Ohta, N

    2013-09-01

    The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host.

  3. Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations and semen quality of male partners of subfertile couples in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Toshima, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi; Hatakeyama, Shota; Tokuoka, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been known as a testicular toxicant in experimental rodents. Possible association between iAs exposure and semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, and sperm motility) was explored in male partners of couples (n = 42) who visited a gynecology clinic in Tokyo for infertility consultation. Semen parameters were measured according to WHO guideline at the clinic, and urinary iAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-hydride generation-ICP mass spectrometry. Biological attributes, dietary habits, and exposure levels to other chemicals with known effects on semen parameters were taken into consideration as covariates. Multiple regression analyses and logistic regression analyses did not find iAs exposure as significant contributor to semen parameters. Lower exposure level of subjects (estimated to be 0.5 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) was considered a reason of the absence of adverse effects on semen parameters, which were seen in rodents dosed with 4-7.5 mg kg(-1).

  4. Annual report of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo in fiscal 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    In this annual report, the activities of education and research, the state of operation of research facilities and others in Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo in fiscal year 1991 are summarized. In this Laboratory, there are four large research facilities, that is, the fast neutron source reactor 'Yayoi', the electron beam linac, the nuclear fusion reactor blanket experiment facility and the heavy irradiation research facility. Those are used for carrying out education and research in the wide fields of nuclear engineering, and are offered also for joint utilization. The results of the research by using respective research facilities were summarized in separate reports. In this annual report, the course of the management and operation of respective research facilities is described, and the research activities, the theses for doctorate and graduation theses of the teachers, personnel and graduate students in the Laboratory are summarized. In the research, those on first wall engineering for fusion reactors, fuel cycle engineering, electromagnetic structure engineering, AI and robotics, quantum beam engineering, new type reactor design and so on are included. (K.I.)

  5. Teaching of severe accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shinzo

    2011-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and accompanied tsunami brought about the severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. For 'No more Fukushima', twelve teaching of the accident was pointed out as follows: 1) natural disasters and external events shall be taken into consideration, 2) severe accident shall be included into safety regulation, 3) all possibility of hydrogen explosion shall be excluded, 4) diversity of safety important component and equipment shall be added with sufficient period of outage, 5) siting of multiple units at the same site shall be avoided at quake-prone country like Japan, 6) accident response environment for operators shall be improved, 7) accident convergence termination system shall be established so as to concentrate technical experience and knowledge, 8) off-site center shall be improved, 9) resident evacuation, consumption limit of food, radiation exposure and soil contamination limit shall be decided openly, 10) nuclear regulation and prevention of disaster shall be conducted by unitary organization to gain public trust, 11) fostering of safety culture among relevant enterprises shall be more encouraged and 12) nuclear industry shall develop reactor such as with no core meltdown or no evacuation and environmental contamination even if reactor core would be meltdown. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Bias correction in the realized stochastic volatility model for daily volatility on the Tokyo Stock Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Tetsuya

    2018-06-01

    The realized stochastic volatility model has been introduced to estimate more accurate volatility by using both daily returns and realized volatility. The main advantage of the model is that no special bias-correction factor for the realized volatility is required a priori. Instead, the model introduces a bias-correction parameter responsible for the bias hidden in realized volatility. We empirically investigate the bias-correction parameter for realized volatilities calculated at various sampling frequencies for six stocks on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and then show that the dynamic behavior of the bias-correction parameter as a function of sampling frequency is qualitatively similar to that of the Hansen-Lunde bias-correction factor although their values are substantially different. Under the stochastic diffusion assumption of the return dynamics, we investigate the accuracy of estimated volatilities by examining the standardized returns. We find that while the moments of the standardized returns from low-frequency realized volatilities are consistent with the expectation from the Gaussian variables, the deviation from the expectation becomes considerably large at high frequencies. This indicates that the realized stochastic volatility model itself cannot completely remove bias at high frequencies.

  7. Seasonal Analysis of Microbial Communities in Precipitation in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hiraoka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of microbes in the atmosphere and their transport over long distances across the Earth's surface was recently shown. Precipitation is likely a major path by which aerial microbes fall to the ground surface, affecting its microbial ecosystems and introducing pathogenic microbes. Understanding microbial communities in precipitation is of multidisciplinary interest from the perspectives of microbial ecology and public health; however, community-wide and seasonal analyses have not been conducted. Here, we carried out 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 30 precipitation samples that were aseptically collected over 1 year in the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. The precipitation microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria and were overall consistent with those previously reported in atmospheric aerosols and cloud water. Seasonal variations in composition were observed; specifically, Proteobacteria abundance significantly decreased from summer to winter. Notably, estimated ordinary habitats of precipitation microbes were dominated by animal-associated, soil-related, and marine-related environments, and reasonably consistent with estimated air mass backward trajectories. To our knowledge, this is the first amplicon-sequencing study investigating precipitation microbial communities involving sampling over the duration of a year.

  8. Removal of sulfur dioxide and formation of sulfate aerosol in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.

    2007-07-01

    Ground-based in situ measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and submicron sulfate aerosol (SO42-) together with carbon monoxide (CO) were conducted at an urban site in Tokyo, Japan from spring 2003 to winter 2004. The observed concentrations of SO2 were affected dominantly by anthropogenic emissions (for example, manufacturing industries) in source areas, while small fraction of the data (sulfur compounds (SOx = SO2 + SO42-) and the remaining fraction of SOx, which is derived as the ratio of the linear regression slope of the SOx-CO correlation, is used as measures for the formation of SO42- and removal of SOx, respectively. Using these parameters, the average formation efficiency of SO42- (i.e., amount of SO42- produced per SO2 emitted from emission sources) are estimated to be 0.18 and 0.03 in the summer and winter periods, respectively. A simple box model was developed to estimate the lifetime of SOx. The lifetime of SOx for the summer period (26 h) is estimated to be about two times longer than that for the winter period (14 h). The seasonal variations of the remaining fraction of SOx, estimated formation efficiency of SO42-, and lifetime of SOx are likely due to those of the boundary layer height and photochemical activity (i.e., hydroxyl radical). These results provide useful insights into the formation and removal processes of sulfur compounds exported from an urban area.

  9. Spatiotemporal distribution of radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in the sediment of Tokyo Bay, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Ryota; Ishida, Masanobu; Baba, Daisuke; Tanimoto, Satomi; Okamoto, Yuichi; Yamazaki, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in the Tokyo Bay sediments were investigated. The total radioactivity of "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs detected in the Tokyo Bay sediment ranged from 240 to 870 Bq/kg-dry in the estuary of Arakawa River, but the activities detected in other sites were about 90 Bq/kg-dry or less. These results suggested that radioactive cesium, which precipitated to the ground, was carried to the river along with clay particles by rainfall and transported to the estuary. The vertical distribution of radioactive cesium showed that it invaded deeper than estimated based on the accumulation rate of the sediment. It was described that the vertical distribution of radioactive cesium was affected by physical mixing of sediments by tidal current, flood, and bioturbation of benthos. (author)

  10. APPLICATION OF STEEL PIPE PILE LOADING TESTS TO DESIGN VERIFICATION OF FOUNDATION OF THE TOKYO GATE BRIDGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Osamu; Kiyomiya, Osamu; Yoneyama, Haruo; Kawakami, Taiji

    Steel sheet pipe pile foundations with large diameter steel pipe sheet pile were used for the foundation of the main pier of the Tokyo Gateway bridge. However, as for the large diameter steel pipe pile, the bearing mechanism including a pile tip plugging effect is still unclear due to lack of the practical examinations even though loading tests are performed on Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway. In the light of the foregoing problems, static pile loading tests both vertical and horizontal directions, a dynamic loading test, and cone penetration tests we re conducted for determining proper design parameters of the ground for the foundations. Design parameters were determined rationally based on the tests results. Rational design verification was obtained from this research.

  11. Book of presentations. Tokyo Tech COE-INES. Indonesia international symposium 2005. 'Prospect of nuclear energy in Indonesia'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The symposium of the title was organized by the 21st Century COE Program, Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for Sustainable Development of the World, the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech COE-INES), the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), and the National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN). The symposium included presentations of 21 from Japan 24 from Indonesia and discussions on innovative nuclear energy systems and on a number of topics related to nuclear energy, including long-term policies and regulation for its development. Students from Japan and Indonesia played an important role in the symposium, presenting excellent work and discussion on their research topics as well as participating in very fruitful panel discussions on 'Education in Nuclear Field' and 'Attractiveness of Jobs in the Nuclear Field'. (J.P.N.)

  12. Recreating of rurality around the totoro forest in the outer fringe of tokyo metropolitan area : the spirituality of rurality

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Toshio; Obara, Norihiro

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we made a point of rural land use and its conservation as the reflection of rurality in outer fringes, and discussed about recreating of rurality with utilising its conservation activities and the spirituality. In Sayama hill region of Tokyo metropolitan area, restructuring of rural land use and recreating rurality have been practised with conservation and maintenance activities in the Totoro forest. Although rural and urban residents think about those activities and their parti...

  13. A summary of waste disposal operator and office abolition of the Radioisotope Center in the University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higaki, Shogo; Kosaka, Naoki; Nogawa, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Radioisotope center in the University of Tokyo had approval of waste disposal operator only in the universities of Japan since 1983. However, the radioisotope center abolished the waste disposal office in December 2013. In this paper, we summarize the history of the waste disposal operator in the radioisotope center, and report the procedure of office abolition under the Japanese law and regulations concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radio-isotopes, etc. revised after April 2012. (author)

  14. Beats, Flesh, and Grain : Sonic Tactility and Affect in Electronic Dance Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, Luis-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This essay sets out to explore the tactilization of sound in electronic dance music (EDM), which offers an important sensory-affective bridge between touch, sonic experience, and an expansive sense of connection in dancing crowds. EDM events tend to engender spaces of heightened tactility and

  15. Negative refractions by triangular lattice sonic crystals in partial band gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagoz, S.; Sahin, A.; Alagoz, B. B.; Nur, S.

    2015-01-01

    This study numerically demonstrates the effects of partial band gaps on the negative refraction properties of sonic crystal. The partial band gap appearing at the second band edge leads to the efficient transmissions of scattered wave envelopes in the transverse directions inside triangular lattice sonic crystal, and therefore enhances the refraction property of sonic crystal. Numerical simulation results indicate a diagonal guidance of coupled scattered wave envelopes inside crystal structure at the partial band gap frequencies and then output waves are restored in the vicinity of the output interface of sonic crystal by combining phase coherent scattered waves according to Huygens’ principles. This mechanism leads to two operations for wavefront engineering: one is spatial wavefront shifting operation and the other is convex–concave wavefront inversion operation. The effects of this mechanism on the negative refraction and wave focalization are investigated by using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. This study contributes to a better understanding of negative refraction and wave focusing mechanisms at the band edge frequencies, and shows the applications of the slab corner beam splitting and SC-air multilayer acoustic system. (paper)

  16. Geophysical borehole logging in Lavia borehole - results and interpretation of sonic and tube wave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.; Stenberg, L.

    1985-02-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB has been contracted by Industrial Power Company LTD, TVO to perform geophysical logging in a borehole at Lavia in Western Finland. The logging has been conducted by Swedish Geological Co, SGAB in accordance with an agreement for cooperation with SKB. The depth of the borehole is 1001 m, diameter 56 mm and inclination 10-20 degrees to the vertical. The aim of the logging was to determine the various geophysical parameters in the borehole in order to interpret and understand the rock mass properties in the vicinity of the borehole. According to the contract the report covers the following main objectives: a technical description of the field work and the equipment used; a review of the theoretical base for the sonic and tube wave methods; an interpretation and presentation of the results obtained by sonic and tube wave mesurements. The evaluation of the sonic and tube wave measurements shows good correlation. On a qualitative basis there seems to be a correlation between tube wave generating points, the relative tube wave amplitudes and the hydraulic conductivity measurements performed as hydraulical tests between packers in the borehole. The low velocity anamalies in the sonic log are mainly caused by tectonic features like fractures and fracture zones but to some extent also by contacts between granite and diorite. The estimation of elastic properties of the rock mass from observation of tube wave velocity are in accordance with laboratory determinations made on core samples. (author)

  17. Microbial investigation of biofilms recovered from endotracheal tubes using sonication in intensive care unit pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Oliveira Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that sonication technique can be applied to ET biofilms to identify microorganisms attached to their surface with a great variety of species identified. However, we did not find significant differences in comparison with the traditional tracheal aspirate culture approach.

  18. Digitally controlled measurement of sonic elastic moduli and internal friction by phase analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.H.; Hunter, O. Jr.; Rasmussen, M.D.; Skank, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    An automated system is described for measuring internal friction and elastic moduli using sonic resonance techniques. This mirocomputer-controlled device does phase angle analysis in addition to traditional decay and peak-width internal friction measurement. The apparatus may be programmed to make measurements at any sequence of temperatures between room temperature and 1600 0 C

  19. CERN, World's largest particle physics lab, selects Progress SonicMQ

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "Progress Software Corporation (NADAQ: PRGS), a global supplier of application insfrastructure software used to develop, deploy, integrate and manage business applications, today announced that CERN the world's largest physis laboratory and particle accelerator, has chosen Progress® SonicMQ® for mission-critical message delivery." (1 page)

  20. Prediction of sonic boom from experimental near-field overpressure data. Volume 2: Data base construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt, C. R.; Reiners, S. J.; Hague, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized method for storing, updating and augmenting experimentally determined overpressure signatures has been developed. A data base of pressure signatures for a shuttle type vehicle has been stored. The data base has been used for the prediction of sonic boom with the program described in Volume I.

  1. Sonic hedgehog expression correlates with fundic gland differentiation in the adult gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, G. R.; Hardwick, J. C. H.; Nielsen, C.; Xu, C.; ten Kate, F. J.; Glickman, J.; van Deventer, S. J. H.; Roberts, D. J.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is an important endodermal morphogenetic signal during the development of the vertebrate gut. It controls gastrointestinal patterning in general, and gastric gland formation in particular. We have previously shown that Shh regulates gastric gland proliferation in the

  2. Low frequency sonic waves assisted cloud point extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoate from Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Sivananth; Iyyaswami, Regupathi

    2017-08-15

    Low frequency sonic waves, less than 10kHz were introduced to assist cloud point extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoate from Cupriavidus necator present within the crude broth. Process parameters including surfactant system variables and sonication parameters were studied for their effect on extraction efficiency. Introduction of low frequency sonic waves assists in the dissolution of microbial cell wall by the surfactant micelles and release of cellular content, polyhydroxyalkanoate granules released were encapsulated by the micelle core which was confirmed by crotonic acid assay. In addition, sonic waves resulted in the separation of homogeneous surfactant and broth mixture into two distinct phases, top aqueous phase and polyhydroxyalkanoate enriched bottom surfactant rich phase. Mixed surfactant systems showed higher extraction efficiency compared to that of individual Triton X-100 concentrations, owing to increase in the hydrophobicity of the micellar core and its interaction with polyhydroxyalkanoate. Addition of salts to the mixed surfactant system induces screening of charged surfactant head groups and reduces inter-micellar repulsion, presence of ammonium ions lead to electrostatic repulsion and weaker cation sodium enhances the formation of micellar network. Addition of polyethylene glycol 8000 resulted in increasing interaction with the surfactant tails of the micelle core there by reducing the purity of polyhydroxyalkanoate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mathematical modeling and optimization of sonication remediation of soil polluted with 2-methylpropane-2-thiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pejman roohi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Existence of 2-methylpropane-2-thiol as an organosulfur and odorant compound in the soil could causes environmental problem and social dissatisfaction. In this study, remediation of this type of thiol using ultrasound is investigated. Central Composite Design (CCD based on Response Surface Model (RSM was used to obtain effects of the main factor (Power, sonication time and amount of water and their interactions. Analysis of variance and Pareto analysis shows that all main factors are effective (the percentage effects of 43.30%, 30.35% and 9.62% on removal efficiency for power, sonication time and amount of water respectively. Moreover, interaction between water content and power, and sonication time and power are effective interaction (with P-values of 0.025 and 0.007 respectively. Base on experiment results and analysis of variance effects of the daylight is not significant (P-value=0.825. P-value of lack of fit (0.176 suggested model assessed as a good model and adequately fits data. Highest levels of power and sonication time (86 watt and 38 minute respectively and water content in lower level (27 ml in studied interval lead to maximum removal efficiency (82.83%.

  4. Microbial diversity in biofilm infections of the urinary tract with the use of sonication techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holá, V.; Růžička, F.; Horká, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2010), s. 525-528 ISSN 0928-8244 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS9678 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : biofilm * sonication * urinary tract infection * catheter Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.494, year: 2010

  5. A Phase-Locked Loop Continuous Wave Sonic Anemometer-Thermometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Weller, F. W.; Busings, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A continuous wake sonic anemometer-thermometer has been developed for simultaneous measurements of vertical velocity and temperature. The phase angle fluctuations are detected by means of a monolithic integrated phase-locked loop, the latter feature providing for inexpensive and accurate...

  6. protective and therapeutic effects of anaerobic bacteria sonicate on experimentally induced intestinal inflammation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Dan; Rossmann, Pavel; Jelen, P.; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Horáková, Dana; Jelínková, Lenka; Tučková, Ludmila; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2003), s. 87 ISSN 0165-2478. [European Immunology Congress /15./. Rhodes, 08.06.2003-12.06.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : anacrobic * bacteria * sonicate Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2003

  7. Stimulation of lymphocytes in vitro by Bacteroides intermedius and Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) gingivalis sonicates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J. E.; Zeijlemaker, W. P.; Meinesz, A. A.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess whether the in vitro stimulation of lymphocytes by sonicates of Bacteroides intermedius and Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) gingivalis is antigen specific or non-specific. In addition, the role of T and B lymphocytes in these responses was assessed. Peripheral

  8. Test plan for sonic drilling at the Hanford Site in FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLellan, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    This test plan describes the field demonstration of the sonic drilling system being conducted as a coordinated effort between the VOC-Arid ID (Integrated Demonstration) and the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride ERA (Expedited Response Action) programs at Hanford. The purpose of this test is to evaluate the Water Development Corporation's drilling system, modify components as necessary and determine compatible drilling applications for the sonic drilling method for use at facilities in the DOE complex. The sonic demonstration is being conducted as the first field test under the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) which involves the US Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Westinghouse Hanford Company and Water Development Corporation. The sonic drilling system will be used to drill a 45 degree vadose zone well, two vertical wells at the VOC-Arid ID site, and several test holes at the Drilling Technology Test Site north of the 200 Area fire station. Testing at other locations will depend on the performance of the drilling method. Performance of this technology will be compared to the baseline drilling method (cable-tool)

  9. Flow tilt angles near forest edges – Part 1: Sonic anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dellwik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of flow tilt angles from a fetch-limited beech forest site with clearings is presented in the context of vertical advection of carbon dioxide. Flow angles and vertical velocities from two sonic anemometers by different manufacturers were analyzed. Instead of using rotations, where zero-flow angles were assumed for neutral flow, the data was interpreted in relation to upstream and downstream forest edges.

    Uncertainties caused by flow distortion, vertical misalignment and limited sampling time (statistical uncertainty were evaluated and found to be highly significant. Since the attack angle distribution of the wind on the sonic anemometer is a function of atmospheric stratification, an instrumental error caused by imperfect flow distortion correction is also a function of the atmospheric stratification. In addition, it is discussed that the sonic anemometers have temperature dependent off-sets. These features of the investigated sonic anemometers make them unsuitable for measuring vertical velocities over highly turbulent forested terrain. By comparing the sonic anemometer results to that of a conically scanning Doppler lidar (Dellwik et al., 2010b, sonic anemometer accuracy for measuring mean flow tilt angles was estimated to between 2° and 3°. Use of planar fit algorithms, where the mean vertical velocity is calculated as the difference between the neutral and non-neutral flow, does not solve this problem of low accuracy and is not recommended.

    Because of the large uncertainties caused by flow distortion and vertical alignment, it was only possible to a limited extent to relate sonic anemometer flow tilt angles to upwind forest edges, but the results by the lidar indicated that an internal boundary layer affect flow tilt angles at 21m above the forest. This is in accordance with earlier studies at the site.

    Since the mean flow tilt angles do not follow the terrain, an estimate of the vertical advection

  10. Mechanism of inhibition of the tumor suppressor Patched by Sonic Hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukachinsky, Hanna; Petrov, Kostadin; Watanabe, Miyako; Salic, Adrian

    2016-10-04

    The Hedgehog cell-cell signaling pathway is crucial for animal development, and its misregulation is implicated in numerous birth defects and cancers. In unstimulated cells, pathway activity is inhibited by the tumor suppressor membrane protein, Patched. Hedgehog signaling is triggered by the secreted Hedgehog ligand, which binds and inhibits Patched, thus setting in motion the downstream events in signal transduction. Despite its critical importance, the mechanism by which Hedgehog antagonizes Patched has remained unknown. Here, we show that vertebrate Patched1 inhibition is caused by direct, palmitate-dependent interaction with the Sonic Hedgehog ligand. We find that a short palmitoylated N-terminal fragment of Sonic Hedgehog binds Patched1 and, strikingly, is sufficient to inhibit it and to activate signaling. The rest of Sonic Hedgehog confers high-affinity Patched1 binding and internalization through a distinct binding site, but, surprisingly, it is not absolutely required for signaling. The palmitate-dependent interaction with Patched1 is specifically impaired in a Sonic Hedgehog mutant causing human holoprosencephaly, the most frequent congenital brain malformation, explaining its drastically reduced potency. The palmitate-dependent interaction is also abolished in constitutively inhibited Patched1 point mutants causing the Gorlin cancer syndrome, suggesting that they might adopt a conformation distinct from the wild type. Our data demonstrate that Sonic Hedgehog signals via the palmitate-dependent arm of a two-pronged contact with Patched1. Furthermore, our results suggest that, during Hedgehog signaling, ligand binding inhibits Patched by trapping it in an inactive conformation, a mechanism that explains the dramatically reduced activity of oncogenic Patched1 mutants.

  11. Service hall in Number 1 Fukushima Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, Shigesuke

    1979-01-01

    There are six BWR type nuclear power plants in the Number 1 Fukushima Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. The service hall of the station is located near the entrance of the station. In the center of this service hall, there is the model of a nuclear reactor of full scale. This mock-up shows the core region in the reactor pressure vessel for the number one plant. The diameter and the thickness of the pressure vessel are about 5 m and 16 cm, respectively. The fuel assemblies and control rods are set just like the actual reactor, and the start-up operation of the reactor is shown colorfully and dynamically by pushing a button. When the control rods are pulled out, the boiling of water is demonstrated. The 1/50 scale model of the sixth plant with the power generating capacity of 1100 MWe is set, and this model is linked to the mock-up of reactor written above. The operations of a recirculating loop, a turbine and a condenser are shown by switching on and off lamps. The other exhibitions are shielding concrete wall, ECCS model, and many kinds of panels and models. This service hall is incorporated in the course of study and observation of civics. The good environmental effects to fishes and shells are explained in this service hall. Official buildings and schools are built near the service hall utilizing the tax and grant concerning power generation. This service hall contributes to give much freedom from anxiety to the public by the tour. (Nakai, Y.)

  12. Characteristics of caffeine intoxication-related death in Tokyo, Japan, between 2008 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Masako; Kato, Yukihisa; Shibata, Mikiyoshi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2014-10-01

    Caffeine is widely available in beverages and over-the-counter products; however, in large doses, it can lead to lethal arrhythmia. This study aims to clarify the characteristics of caffeine intoxication-related deaths in Tokyo, Japan. Among the 4754 forensic autopsy cases between 2008 and 2013 in which a toxicological investigation was performed, cases in which the blood concentration of caffeine exceeded toxic levels (15 μg/ml) were selected (N = 22). We examined subjects' ages, medical histories, direct/underlying causes of death, and manner of death. We also assessed concurrent drug substance detection and identified the origin of the caffeine. More than 60% of the subjects were between the ages of 20 and 49 years (n = 14, 63.6%). Sixteen cases (72.7%) showed a history of psychiatric diseases such as depression and sleep disorders. The underlying cause of death for all cases except two was caffeine intoxication, and manner of death was classified as undetermined (n = 11), accidental (n = 7), suicide (n = 2), or others (n = 2). Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of ingredients common to analgesics/cold remedies in 12 cases (54.5%). The origin of the caffeine was identified in 11 cases (50.0%); the proportion of identification was significantly lower among the cases in which analgesic/cold remedy ingredients were not detected (20.0%). Caffeine intoxication-related deaths mainly occurred in young and middle-aged persons with common psychiatric diseases. Psychiatrists should take note of caffeine dependence while diagnosing common psychiatric symptoms. In half of the cases, the origin of the caffeine was unidentified; nevertheless, dietary sources or over-the-counter drugs containing caffeine were suspected. As it becomes easier to obtain caffeinated products, continuous monitoring of the number of deaths from caffeine intoxication, in addition to detailed investigations of the caffeine's origin, will be necessary.

  13. Characteristics of sudden bath-related death investigated by medical examiners in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-01-01

    Sudden bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. However, the precise mechanism of bath-related death remains uncertain, and effective prevention strategies have not been established. Cases of bath-related deaths (n = 3289) were selected from all cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 2009 to 2011 (N = 41 336). The ages and occurrence dates were examined, and major autopsy findings, including toxicological analysis, were evaluated for the autopsied cases (n = 550). Most cases occurred in individuals older than 60 years of age during winter. Analysis of autopsy findings revealed water inhalation signs in many cases (n = 435, 79.1%). Circulatory system diseases constituted more than half of the pathological findings regarding factors that may have contributed significantly to death (n = 300, 54.5%), and cardiac lesions were the most common pathological finding (n = 250, 45.5%). However, approximately one-third of the cases exhibited no remarkable pathological findings (n = 198, 36.0%). A quarter of all cases involved blood ethanol levels that exceeded 0.5 mg/mL (n = 140). The results suggested that drowning plays an important role in the final process of bath-related death. Circulatory system diseases may be the primary underlying pathology; however, there were variations in the medical histories and pathologies of cases of bath-related death. From a preventive perspective, family members should pay attention to elderly people with circulatory system diseases during bathing, particularly in winter. Additionally, the notion that ill or inebriated individuals should not take baths should be reinforced.

  14. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in retailed meat in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yoshitsugu; Yamada, Fumiya; Batmunkh, Otgonchimeg; Mochizuki, Mariko; Takano, Takashi; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in retailed meats, comprising beef, chicken, and pork, in the Tokyo metropolitan area. A total of 379 samples of retailed meat were collected from 1998 to 2003, most of which were obtained by simultaneously purchasing the three classes of meat from a shop and then making another simultaneous purchase of meat from the same shop a few weeks later. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was 28.0%, and the serotypes isolated were mainly 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b. Comparison of the prevalence of each serotype among the classes of meat showed a predominant distribution of serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b in chicken, while serotype 1/2c was dominant in pork. A total of nine cases considered to be due to persistence and/or cross-contamination were found. Most of the strains involved in persistence and/or cross-contamination were of serotypes 1/2c or 4b. These results suggest that contamination in retailed meat in Japan is at almost the same level as in other countries and that chicken has the highest potential as a source of contamination and infection. In addition, we suggest that the ecological niche of serotype 1/2c is distinct from those of 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b, which may explain why human hosts have less opportunity to be exposed to serotype 1/2c and why there is a lower rate of isolation of this serotype from cases of human listeriosis.

  15. Measurements and statistical analyses of indoor radon concentrations in Tokyo and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Shiroharu; Suzuki, Takashi; Inokoshi, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    Since the UNSCEAR report published in 1982, radiation exposure to the respiratory tract due to radon and its progeny has been regarded as the single largest contributor to the natural radiation exposure of the general public. In Japan, the measurement of radon gas concentrations in many types of buildings have been surveyed by national and private institutes. We also carried out the measurement of radon gas concentrations in different types of residential buildings in Tokyo and its adjoining prefectures from October 1988 to September 1991, to evaluate the potential radiation risk of the people living there. One or two simplified passive radon monitors were set up in each of the 34 residential buildings located in the above-mentioned area for an exposure period of 3 months each. Comparing the average concentrations in the buildings of different materials and structures, those in the concrete steel buildings were always higher than those in the wooden and the prefabricated mortared buildings. The radon concentrations were proved to become higher in autumn and winter, and lower in spring and summer. Radon concentrations in an underground room of a concrete steel building showed the highest value throughout our investigation, and statistically significant seasonal variation was detected by the X-11 method developed by the U.S. Bureau of Census. The values measured in a room at the first floor of the same concrete steel building also showed seasonal variation, but the phase of variation was different. Another multivariate analysis suggested that the building material and structure are the most important factors concerning the levels of radon concentration among other factors such as the age of the building and the use of ventilators. (author)

  16. Interim report on the accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    The Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations (the Investigation Committee) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) was established by the Cabinet decision on May 24, 2011. Its objectives are: to conduct investigation for finding out the causes of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS) and Fukushima Dai-ni Nuclear Power Station (Fukushima Dai-ni NPS) of TEPCO as well as the causes of accident damage; and to make policy recommendations for limiting the expansion of damage and preventing reoccurrence of similar accidents. The Investigation Committee has conducted its investigation and evaluation since its first meeting on June 7, 2011. Its activities included: site visits to the Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni NPSs, as well as to other facilities; hearing of heads of local governments around the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS; and hearing of people concerned through interviews mainly arranged by the Secretariat. As of December 16, 2011, the number of interviewees reached 456. The investigation and evaluation by the Investigation Committee are still ongoing and the Interim Report does not cover every item that the Committee aims at investigating and evaluating. Fact-finding of even some of those items discussed in the Interim Report are not yet completed. The Investigation Committee continues to conduct its investigation and evaluation and will issue its Final Report in the summer of 2012. This brief executive summary covers mainly considerations and evaluation of the issues in Chapter VII of the Interim Report, with brief reference to Chapters I to VI. The Investigation Committee recommendations are printed in bold. (author)

  17. Human resource development program for nuclear safety and security in Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chi Young; Sagara, Hiroshi; Nagasaka, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The Academy for Global Nuclear Safety and Security Agent was established at Tokyo Institute of Technology in 2011, to develop global nuclear human resources in the field of 3S (Safety, Security, and Safeguards) as a Program for Leading Graduate Schools supported by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). New courses of nuclear safety and security were developed in addition to the existing nuclear engineering program; 1) Environmental Dynamics of Radioactive Nuclides; Numerical simulation of the environmental dispersion of radioactive materials released from hypothetical nuclear accidents and evaluation of the public exposure are performed, by using a computer-based emergency response system, to have students predict the environmental dispersion of radionuclides and radiological consequence by nuclear accidents. 2) Measurement of Environmental Radiation; Students acquire hands-on experiences measuring environmental radiation contamination caused by the nuclear accident in Fukushima with multiple types of radiation detectors. Environmental samples are collected and analyzed for isotope identification and its spatial distribution. 3) Simulation of Severe Nuclear Accidents; The evaluation results of Fukushima accident progression are discussed as well as typical sever accidents that threaten the integrity of reactor vessel. Students simulate BWR (Boiling Water Cooled Reactor) transients, design basis accidents, and severe accidents by using simulators. 4) Nuclear Security Training; Design of physical protection systems, its fundamental physics, and regulatory frameworks are covered and students gain the practical experiences by use of intrusion detection systems at JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), and by numerical simulation of hydro-dynamics of structure material and nuclear material criticality at the university. (author)

  18. Medicolegal death of homeless persons in Tokyo Metropolis over 12 years (1999-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2013-05-01

    Recently, the number of homeless persons in Japan has steadily decreased. However, it is not certain whether unexpected death of the homeless have actually decreased in proportion to decrease in total number of cases. The documentation of medicolegal deaths among homeless persons handled in the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office during 1999-2010 were reviewed, and we compared the number and manner/cause of death between cases occurring before 2004 and those occurring after 2004. In addition, we compared manner/cause of death between homeless and non-homeless persons. The number of medicolegal deaths of homeless persons remained almost the same during the study period in spite of a marked decrease in the total number of homeless persons after 2004. Age distribution shifted to older after 2004, and a higher proportion of the deceased had longer postmortem periods after 2004. Comparison between the manners/causes of death of the cases occurring before 2004 and those occurring after 2004 showed little difference. Disease constituted about 70% of all cases, and causes of death from disease were more various than those of non-homeless persons. Certain specific patterns included a higher proportion of death from circulatory disease in elderly homeless persons and a higher proportion of death from alcohol-related digestive disease and tuberculosis among younger homeless persons. Regarding accidental death, hypothermia was a leading cause of death irrespective of age group. Aging and isolation among homeless persons might contribute to an unchanged number of medicolegal death of them. In addition to measures to address frequent causes of death in each age group, better intervention for isolated homeless persons might be a key factor to prevent unexpected deaths of homeless persons in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proceedings of JAERI-JNC joint conference on nuclear safety research. March 7, 2003, Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun; Anoda, Yoshinari; Araya, Fumimasa; Yamaguchi, Toshio

    2003-08-01

    The JAERI-JNC Joint Conference on Nuclear Safety Research was held on March 7, 2003 in Tokyo with 188 participants, ahead of planned unification of JAERI and JNC in 2005. The objectives of the conference are to present recent results of safety research conducted in both institutes in accordance with the Five-Year Safety Research Plan by the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC), and to reflect suggestions from the participants for future research program. Prof. Matsubara, Vice Chairperson of NSC, first presented a special lecture entitled 'Expectation on Future Nuclear Safety Research in Japan'. Twelve papers were then presented on the overview of research results and those of individual research activities in the fields of nuclear facilities, radioactive waste and environmental radioactivity. In the final session, a panel discussion was conducted with a title of 'Expectation on Future Nuclear Safety Research' chaired by Prof. Kimura, Chairperson of Special Committee on Nuclear Safety Research under NSC. Through the presentations and discussions, consensus has almost been obtained among participants for several key issues on safety research to be conducted by a unified new organization, such as giving priority to safety research as one of major missions, assurance of independence of safety research with the governmental funds, assurance of transparency of the planning process of safety research, separation and harmonization between safety research and developmental research, importance of maintaining fundamental research and research facilities, promotion of cooperation with relevant organizations considering the needs from industries, and importance of dissemination of research results and personnel training. The present report compiles the summaries of special lecture, papers, questions and comments, panel discussions, and OHPs presented in the conference. (author)

  20. Establishment and current status of patient community at Tokyo Dental College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Hirata, Soichiro; Sugihara, Naoki; Mochizuki, Riuji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kawada, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    The "Dental students training to address the needs of each individual patient: enhancement of ability to make a comprehensive diagnosis and treatment plans with high ethical standards and good communication skills", project launched at Tokyo Dental College was adopted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology as part of its "Program for Promoting University Education and Student Support, Theme A: Program for Promoting University Education Reform" in 2009. One of the main goals of this subject is "the establishment of Patient Community". Patient Community members allowed students to gain a more realistic experience of clinical practice than simulated patients. The Patient Community consists of patients and members of the parents' association who have agreed to cooperate for the advancement of dental education, becoming involved in dental student education through Communication Studies, which are held for first- to fourth-year students. Patient Community members were recruited at the open lectures (15 times, between July 10, 2010 and November 30, 2011). The Patient Community comprised 24 members, including 8 men and 16 women by November 30, 2011. The cumulative number of attendees in Communication Studies (I-IV, 6 times) was 35, including 13 men and 22 women. Fourteen people applied for admission on the day of the open lecture. Seven people signed up between 1 and 7 days after the open lecture. On the other hand, only 3 people applied within 8 to 9 days after the open lecture. However, interestingly, the ratio of the attendance for Communication Studies by Patient Community members who applied 8 to 9 days after the open lecture was higher than that of members who applied for admission on the day of the open lecture. Since the number of Patient Community members is insufficient for the purposes of the Patient Community, it is necessary to think about how recruitment methods can be made more effective and how such open lectures should be

  1. [Two Outbreaks of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Infections in Tokyo and the Characterization of Isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Noriko; Ishitsuka, Rie; Yokoyama, Keiko; Saiki, Dai; Akase, Satoru; Monma, Chie; Hirai, Akihiko; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Although the number of outbreaks caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been very small in Japan, 4 outbreaks were occurred during the 2 years between 2012 and 2013. We describe herein 2 outbreaks which were examined in Tokyo in the present study. Outbreak 1: A total of 39 people (37 high school students and 2 staff) stayed at a hotel in mountain area in Japan had experienced abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever in August, 2012. The Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:8 was isolated from 18 (64.3%) out of 28 fecal specimens of 28 patients. The infection roots could not be revealed because Y. enterocolitica was not detected from any meals at the hotel or its environment. Outbreak 2: A total of 52 students at a dormitory had diarrhea and fever in April, 2013. The results of the bacteriological and virological examinations of fecal specimens of patients showed that the Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:8 was isolated from 24 fecal specimens of 21 patients and 3 kitchen staff. We performed bacteriological and virological examination of the stored and preserved foods at the kitchen of the dormitory to reveal the suspect food. For the detection of Y. enterocolitica, food samples. together with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were incubated at 4 degrees C for 21 days. Then, a screening test for Y. enterocolitica using realtime-PCR targeting the ail gene was performed against the PBS culture. One sample (fresh vegetable salad) tested was positive on realtime-PCR. No Y. enterocolitica was isolated on CIN agar from the PBS culture because many bacteria colonies other than Y. enterocolitica appeared on the CIN agar. After the alkaline-treatments of the culture broth or the immunomagnetic beads concentration method using anti-Y. enterocolitica O:8 antibodies, Y. enterocolitica O:8 which was the same serogroup as the patients' isolates was successfully isolated from the PBS culture. The fresh vegetable salad was confirmed as the incrimination food of this outbreak.

  2. Bacterial recovery using sonication versus swabbing of titanium and stainless steel implants inoculated with Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshen, Thomas; Case, J Brad; Wellehan, James F; Dujowich, Mauricio

    2017-09-12

    To evaluate the use of sonication to improve recovery of bacteria from metal discs infected with bacteria commonly associated with implant infections in veterinary medicine. In vitro study in which sterile titanium (Ti6Al4V) and stainless steel (AIS1316-L) discs were incubated with either Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or Pseudomonas aeruginosa for 24 hours. The following three groups were compared: 1) the sonication group involved immersing the discs in sterile saline and sonicating for five minutes; 2) the sham group was considered a negative control in which the discs were immersed in saline for five minutes without sonication; and 3) the swab group involved systematically swabbing the implant with a sterile culturette. All samples were plated on blood agar and incubated for 24 hours. Colonies were then counted and compared. For both species of bacteria, there was a significant increase in bacterial colonies isolated using sonication compared to the other two study groups (p = 0.0001). No differences in bacterial growth were found between the two types of metal implants. There was a significant increase in bacterial colony counts for S. pseudintermedius when comparing the swab group versus the sham group, but this was not significant for P. aeruginosa. Sonication significantly improves recovery of bacteria commonly associated with veterinary implant-associated surgical site infections compared to swabbing of implants in vitro. A prospective clinical evaluation is indicated to determine the in vivo efficacy of sonication in veterinary patients.

  3. A Simple Sonication Improves Protein Signal in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-En; Su, Pin-Rui; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Cheng-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Proper matrix application is crucial in obtaining high quality matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Solvent-free sublimation was essentially introduced as an approach of homogeneous coating that gives small crystal size of the organic matrix. However, sublimation has lower extraction efficiency of analytes. Here, we present that a simple sonication step after the hydration in standard sublimation protocol significantly enhances the sensitivity of MALDI MSI. This modified procedure uses a common laboratory ultrasonicator to immobilize the analytes from tissue sections without noticeable delocalization. Improved imaging quality with additional peaks above 10 kDa in the spectra was thus obtained upon sonication treatment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Effect of sonication treatment on fibrilating snake fruit (Sallaca) frond fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanto, Seno; Rochardjo, Heru S. B.; Jamasri, Widyorini, Ragil

    2018-02-01

    Aim of this research is to investigate influence of chemical and sonication treatment on fibrillating and mechanical properties of snake fruit frond fiber. The presence of surface impurities and the large amount of hydroxyl groups in natural fibers make less attractive for polymeric materials reinforcement. Effort to remove the impurities can be done by few treatments that consist of physical, chemical and mechanical treatment. Snake fruit frond bundle fiber were firstly subjected to chemical treatments with alkali solution, steaming at 2 bar and steam explosion at 6 bar by 40 times releasing of steam. Advanced treatment is done by flowing ultrasonic wave at 20 kHz by 90 - 210 watt. The output of fibrillation can reach fiber in range 10 - 25 nm compared with 10.72 µm in diameter for sonication and 6 bar in pressure of steam with 40x of rapidly steam release respectively.

  5. Effect of Legionella pneumophila sonicate on killing of Listeria monocytogenes by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechnitzer, C; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Shand, G H

    1993-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila shares with other intracellular pathogens the ability to resist intracellular killing within phagocytes. An increasing number of cellular components of L. pneumophila are proposed as pathogenic factors of the organism. At the site of infection, the phagocytic cells will be ......Legionella pneumophila shares with other intracellular pathogens the ability to resist intracellular killing within phagocytes. An increasing number of cellular components of L. pneumophila are proposed as pathogenic factors of the organism. At the site of infection, the phagocytic cells...... are most likely to represent the inhibitory factors. The inhibitory activity of L. pneumophila sonic extract appears to be related to inhibition of killing mechanisms since uptake of Listeria was not affected by the sonicate. Our observations indicate that as Legionella infection progresses, bacterial...

  6. Use of sonic tomography to detect and quantify wood decay in living trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregory S; Ballesteros, Javier O; Barrios-Rodriguez, Cesar A; Bonadies, Ernesto F; Cedeño-Sánchez, Marjorie L; Fossatti-Caballero, Nohely J; Trejos-Rodríguez, Mariam M; Pérez-Suñiga, José Moises; Holub-Young, Katharine S; Henn, Laura A W; Thompson, Jennifer B; García-López, Cesar G; Romo, Amanda C; Johnston, Daniel C; Barrick, Pablo P; Jordan, Fulvia A; Hershcovich, Shiran; Russo, Natalie; Sánchez, Juan David; Fábrega, Juan Pablo; Lumpkin, Raleigh; McWilliams, Hunter A; Chester, Kathleen N; Burgos, Alana C; Wong, E Beatriz; Diab, Jonathan H; Renteria, Sonia A; Harrower, Jennifer T; Hooton, Douglas A; Glenn, Travis C; Faircloth, Brant C; Hubbell, Stephen P

    2016-12-01

    Field methodology and image analysis protocols using acoustic tomography were developed and evaluated as a tool to estimate the amount of internal decay and damage of living trees, with special attention to tropical rainforest trees with irregular trunk shapes. Living trunks of a diversity of tree species in tropical rainforests in the Republic of Panama were scanned using an Argus Electronic PiCUS 3 Sonic Tomograph and evaluated for the amount and patterns of internal decay. A protocol using ImageJ analysis software was used to quantify the proportions of intact and compromised wood. The protocols provide replicable estimates of internal decay and cavities for trees of varying shapes, wood density, and bark thickness. Sonic tomography, coupled with image analysis, provides an efficient, noninvasive approach to evaluate decay patterns and structural integrity of even irregularly shaped living trees.

  7. Use of sonic tomography to detect and quantify wood decay in living trees1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregory S.; Ballesteros, Javier O.; Barrios-Rodriguez, Cesar A.; Bonadies, Ernesto F.; Cedeño-Sánchez, Marjorie L.; Fossatti-Caballero, Nohely J.; Trejos-Rodríguez, Mariam M.; Pérez-Suñiga, José Moises; Holub-Young, Katharine S.; Henn, Laura A. W.; Thompson, Jennifer B.; García-López, Cesar G.; Romo, Amanda C.; Johnston, Daniel C.; Barrick, Pablo P.; Jordan, Fulvia A.; Hershcovich, Shiran; Russo, Natalie; Sánchez, Juan David; Fábrega, Juan Pablo; Lumpkin, Raleigh; McWilliams, Hunter A.; Chester, Kathleen N.; Burgos, Alana C.; Wong, E. Beatriz; Diab, Jonathan H.; Renteria, Sonia A.; Harrower, Jennifer T.; Hooton, Douglas A.; Glenn, Travis C.; Faircloth, Brant C.; Hubbell, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Field methodology and image analysis protocols using acoustic tomography were developed and evaluated as a tool to estimate the amount of internal decay and damage of living trees, with special attention to tropical rainforest trees with irregular trunk shapes. Methods and Results: Living trunks of a diversity of tree species in tropical rainforests in the Republic of Panama were scanned using an Argus Electronic PiCUS 3 Sonic Tomograph and evaluated for the amount and patterns of internal decay. A protocol using ImageJ analysis software was used to quantify the proportions of intact and compromised wood. The protocols provide replicable estimates of internal decay and cavities for trees of varying shapes, wood density, and bark thickness. Conclusions: Sonic tomography, coupled with image analysis, provides an efficient, noninvasive approach to evaluate decay patterns and structural integrity of even irregularly shaped living trees. PMID:28101433

  8. Synthesis and characterization of PMMA/clay nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization assisted by sonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Bruna R.; Bartoli, Julio R.; Ito, Edson N.

    2015-01-01

    In this work is presented the synthesis of nanocomposites of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, with organically montmorillonite (OMMT) modified clays by in situ polymerization assisted by sonication. A statistically designed experiment was used, central composing design (CCD), to study the effect of synthesis variables on the dispersion of nanoparticles in PMMA matrix. The processing and formulation factors studied were: energy of sonication and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter between PMMA and organoclay. The structural (XRD) and morphological (TEM) characterizations of the PMMA/OMMT nanocomposites are compared with the literature. It was observed significant exfoliation of OMMT modified with hydroxyl groups in the nanocomposites of PMMA, mainly at the low ultrasonic energy level (90 and 105 kJ) studied. (author)

  9. [Maggie's Tokyo's Human Support the Meaning of Where Now ? And Cancer Journey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yoshie

    2017-08-01

    The landscape architect Maggie Jencks felt that she wanted a place to "get herself back" when her breast cancer recurred and was told that she only had a few months remaining. Mr. Charles Jencks, her husband who fulfilled her wishes, opened the first "Maggie's Cancer Caring Centre" in Edinburgh in 1996. Masako Akiyama, the chief of Maggie's Tokyo found out about Maggie's Centre when she listened to a presentation from Andrew Anderson, the director of Maggie's Edinburgh, at an International Nursing Seminar in 2008. Masako Akiyama realized that support to "get back ones own power" is one of the important things. In addition, she felt that providing a "place" and "support" to patients and their families were predominant elements. When someone is diagnosed with cancer, the person gets a great shock and feels loneliness. Suddenly the person feels tomorrow will not come, every day becomes uncertain. These feelings affect their whole life such as enrollment, employment, loss of role, and change. They also affect people such as family, friends, colleagues, besides the person. Due to changes in treatment, the existential troubles that have been prolonged after the completion of the initial treatment appear. Cancer survivorship is called "Cancer journey"in the Maggie's flow. The cancer journey suddenly starts, when a person is diagnosed with cancer", without direction or a plan. Additionally, the "heart"is often left behind. To undertake the cancer journey, there are a lot of forks in the road that cannot turn back and they are urged to choose their path. "Where now ?"is a phrase in a pamphlet from Maggie's Centre, and the phrase shows that staff of Maggie's Centre can help cancer patient to recognize where they are in their Cancer journey. The Maggie's Centre has 2 important pillars: "building/environment"and "human support". As a "homely place" between hospital and my house, the building is "a healing space". Human support is provided free of charge and patients and

  10. Major to ultra trace elements in rainfall collected in suburban Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Tadashi; Iwashita, Masato; Iijima, Satoe; Shintani, Megumi; Takaku, Yuichi

    Major to ultra trace elements such as rare earth elements (REEs), platinum group elements (PGEs) in 20 rainfall events from suburban Tokyo were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Anion species were also determined by an ion chromatography (IC). The concentrations of PGEs were so low that only Pt was detected in some rainfall events. Enrichment factors (EFs), refer to soil and sea salt components, were calculated for the measured elements (with Al and Na as references). Be, (Na), Mg, (Al), Si, Cl, K, Fe, Rb, Sr, REEs (except La, Gd), Ta, and U were mostly originated from natural materials (soil and sea salt). For Li, B, Ca, Mn, Sr, Ba, and Cs, the contribution of natural materials was significant. EFs for Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, Cd, Pb, Bi, Ag, Te, Au, Pt, SO 4-S and NO 3-N exceeded 100 indicating non-crustal, non-sea salt origin, presumably anthropogenic; however, contribution of volcanic gases could not be excluded for As, Se, Te and Bi. Pt seemed to be uniformly distributed worldwide and a catalyst for automobile emission control may be the main source. Au also showed uniform distribution. On the other hand, EFs for Zr, Nb, Hf and Th were less than unity. Probably these elements resided in acid resistant refractory fine minerals that did not decompose with acid treatment, and did not evaporate and ionize in the ICP. An alternative explanation is that the concentration of these elements was lower in the soil of the sampling area than the average crust. In the crust normalized REE pattern plot, La, Eu and Gd showed clear positive anomalies. La and Gd could have anthropogenic components. A possible source of La and Gd is cracking catalyst for petrol refining, but this source does not fully explain the anomaly. The source of Gd may also be Gd-DTPA (Gadolinium (III) diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid) used for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents. The Eu origin may be soil with higher concentration than the crust average.

  11. Atmospheric stability and turbulence fluxes at Horns Rev—an intercomparison of sonic, bulk and WRF model data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2012-01-01

    anemometer at 15 m height and potential temperature differences between the water and the air above. Surface flux estimations from the advanced weather research and forecast (WRF) model are also validated against the sonic and bulk data. The correlation between the sonic and bulk estimates of friction...... to the surface, not only from a systematic bulk and WRF under‐prediction of the friction velocity when compared with the sonic value but also because of the lower magnitude of the sonic heat flux compared with that from the WRF simulations. Although they are not measured but parameterized or estimated, the bulk......–WRF comparisons of friction velocity and 10 m wind speed show good agreement. It is also shown that on a long‐term basis, the WRF and bulk estimates of stability are nearly equal and that a correction towards a slightly stable atmospheric condition has to be applied to the long‐term wind profile at Horns Rev...

  12. Auscultation of concrete hydraulic dams by sonic tomography; Auscultation des structures hydrauliques en beton par tomographie sonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharrat, Y.; Rhazi, J.; Ballivy, G. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Civil; Cote, P. [Centre de Nantes, Bouguenais (France)

    1995-12-31

    Sonic tomography, a new nondestructive testing method, was described to document the aging and internal degradation of concrete structures. The method is based on the transmission of sonic waves through concrete structures. New tomographic methodology similar to that used in medical or geophysical imaging was applied to existing sonic auscultation techniques used in civil engineering. In the process the speed of propagation of sonic waves in structures is measured with arrays of detectors. Fissures or zones of degradation can be spatially localized and an internal image of the structure can be constructed. Case studies of two hydraulic dams, one from France, the other in Quebec were presented as illustrations. . The theory and experimental procedures involved were described. 16 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  13. The influence of sonication of poly(ethylene oxide) solutions to the quality of resulting electrospun nanofibrous mats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peer, Petra; Filip, Petr; Polášková, M.; Kucharczyk, P.; Pavlínek, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 126, April (2016), s. 101-106 ISSN 0141-3910 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : electrospinning * nanofibres * poly(ethylene oxide) * sonication * degradation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.386, year: 2016

  14. Sonic hedgehog promotes somitic chondrogenesis by altering the cellular response to BMP signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaugh, L. Charles; Chyung, Jay H.; Lassar, Andrew B.

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that signals from the floor plate and notochord promote chondrogenesis of the somitic mesoderm. These tissues, acting through the secreted signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh), appear to be critical for the formation of the sclerotome. Later steps in the differentiation of sclerotome into cartilage may be independent of the influence of these axial tissues. Although the signals involved in these later steps have not yet been pinpointed, there is substantial evid...

  15. Cloud Computing for Pharmacometrics: Using AWS, NONMEM, PsN, Grid Engine, and Sonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanduja, S; Jewell, P; Aron, E; Pharai, N

    2015-09-01

    Cloud computing allows pharmacometricians to access advanced hardware, network, and security resources available to expedite analysis and reporting. Cloud-based computing environments are available at a fraction of the time and effort when compared to traditional local datacenter-based solutions. This tutorial explains how to get started with building your own personal cloud computer cluster using Amazon Web Services (AWS), NONMEM, PsN, Grid Engine, and Sonic.

  16. Chemical effects of ionizing radiation and sonic energy in the context of chemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron Mendoza, A.; Albarran, G.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and sonic energy are considered as sources for chemical evolution processes. These sources have still a modest place in the interdisciplinary approach for the prebiological synthesis of organic compounds. Studies in Radiation Chemistry and Sonochemistry can provide a deeper insight into the chemical processes that may have importance for prebiotic chemistry. The present work concerns the analysis of some chemical reactions induced by ionizing radiation or cavitation in aqueous media that may be relevant to chemical evolution studies. (author)

  17. Immunohistochemical analysis of Sonic hedgehog signalling in normal human urinary tract development

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Dagan; Winyard, Paul J D; Woolf, Adrian S.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of mouse mutants have demonstrated that Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signalling has a functional role in morphogenesis and differentiation at multiple sites within the forming urinary tract, and urinary tract malformations have been reported in humans with mutations that disrupt SHH signalling. However, there is only strikingly sparse and fragmentary information about the expression of SHH and associated signalling genes in normal human urinary tract development. We used immunohistochemistry ...

  18. Subcellular Localization of Patched and Smoothened, the Receptors for Sonic Hedgehog Signaling, in the Hippocampal Neuron

    OpenAIRE

    Petralia, Ronald S.; Schwartz, Catherine M.; Wang, Ya-Xian; Mattson, Mark P.; Yao, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative evidence suggests that, aside from patterning the embryonic neural tube, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays important roles in the mature nervous system. In this study, we investigate the expression and localization of the Shh signaling receptors, Patched (Ptch) and Smoothened (Smo), in the hippocampal neurons of young and mature rats. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses show that the expression of Ptch and Smo remains at a moderate level i...

  19. Computer method to detect and correct cycle skipping on sonic logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but effective computer method has been developed to detect cycle skipping on sonic logs and to replace cycle skips with estimates of correct traveltimes. The method can be used to correct observed traveltime pairs from the transmitter to both receivers. The basis of the method is the linearity of a plot of theoretical traveltime from the transmitter to the first receiver versus theoretical traveltime from the transmitter to the second receiver. Theoretical traveltime pairs are calculated assuming that the sonic logging tool is centered in the borehole, that the borehole diameter is constant, that the borehole fluid velocity is constant, and that the formation is homogeneous. The plot is linear for the full range of possible formation-rock velocity. Plots of observed traveltime pairs from a sonic logging tool are also linear but have a large degree of scatter due to borehole rugosity, sharp boundaries exhibiting large velocity contrasts, and system measurement uncertainties. However, this scatter can be reduced to a level that is less than scatter due to cycle skipping, so that cycle skips may be detected and discarded or replaced with estimated values of traveltime. Advantages of the method are that it can be applied in real time, that it can be used with data collected by existing tools, that it only affects data that exhibit cycle skipping and leaves other data unchanged, and that a correction trace can be generated which shows where cycle skipping occurs and the amount of correction applied. The method has been successfully tested on sonic log data taken in two holes drilled at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

  20. Turbulence fluxes and variances measured with a sonic anemometer mounted on a tethered balloon

    OpenAIRE

    Canut, Guylaine; Couvreux, Fleur; Lothon, Marie; Legain, Dominique; Piguet, Bruno; Lampert, Astrid; Maurel, William; Moulin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first deployment in field campaigns of a balloon-borne turbulence probe, developed with a sonic anemometer and an inertial motion sensor suspended below a tethered balloon. This system measures temperature and horizontal and vertical wind at high frequency and allows the estimation of heat and momentum fluxes as well as turbulent kinetic energy in the lower part of the boundary layer. The system was validated during three field experiments with differ...

  1. G-Protein Gαs controls medulloblastoma initiation by suppressing sonic hedgehog signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuelian; Lu, Q Richard

    2015-01-01

    We identify Gαs as a novel tumor suppressor in medulloblastoma that functions principally by inhibition of sonic hedgehog signaling. Gαs not only stimulates cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling but also inhibits ciliary trafficking of hedgehog components. Elevation of cAMP inhibits medulloblastoma growth and augments inhibition of smoothened to decrease tumor cell proliferation, thus highlighting Gαs as a potential therapeutic target.

  2. Effect of water temperature on survival of early-life stages of marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kodama, Keita; Oyama, Masaaki; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2017-07-01

    We investigated factors that might have disturbed the stock recovery of marbled flounder in Tokyo Bay by focusing on the early life stages. Field surveys in Tokyo Bay from 2006 to 2011 revealed that mature adult biomass increased from 2006 to 2008 and decreased thereafter. Meanwhile, larval and juvenile densities were high in 2006 and 2008 but low in other years. Discrepancies in the yearly trends of these parameters suggest that mortality during life stages between spawning and early larval phases might have affected the abundance of the subsequent life stages. Monthly mean water temperature between January and February, in which hatching and pelagic larvae occur in the bay, was lower in 2006 (8.6 °C) and 2008 (9.6 °C) than was observed in other years (10.4-11.4 °C). Significant negative correlation between water temperature and larval density implies that mortality during pre- and post-larval stages would be higher in warmer winter years (>10 °C). To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of water temperature on mortality and development in egg and larval stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Hatching rate was high in a water temperature range of 9.2-12.7 °C (66.6-82.5%), whereas it decreased in cooler (3.7% at 5.9 °C) or warmer (33.9% at 14.8 °C) conditions. Meanwhile, days from fertilization to hatching, size of larvae at hatching and survival rate of larvae after 18 d from hatching were monotonically and significantly decreased as water temperature was elevated. Combined evidence of the field and laboratory studies suggests that a warmer reproductive season (>10 °C) might induce mortalities of marbled flounder larvae in Tokyo Bay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of the Great East Japan earthquake on mandatory psychiatric emergency hospitalizations in Tokyo: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, A; Aoki, Y; Harima, H

    2012-10-09

    On 11 March 2011, the eastern part of Japan was struck by a magnitude 9.0 quake. About 20 000 people were killed or were missing, and a nuclear crisis followed. In Tokyo, people were indirectly exposed to the earthquake and nuclear crisis by TV broadcast. The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential effect of the series of catastrophes on psychiatric emergency hospitalizations in Tokyo. Clinical records of patients who were mandatorily admitted to Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital by law because of urgent risk to self or others were reviewed. Records regarding the 2 years of investigation, which include the 6 months after the earthquake, were reviewed. The six months after the earthquake were compared with the eighteen months before the earthquake in clinical and demographic data using independent t-tests or χ(2) tests. During the 6 months before and after the earthquake, 97 and 127 people were mandatorily admitted. χ(2) Tests demonstrated a significant increase in the number of patients after the earthquake (P = 0.045), attributable to the significant increase in the number of patients with schizophrenia after the earthquake (P = 0.011, 32 vs 56), whereas there were no significant differences in the number of patients with other diagnoses between those two periods. Independent t-tests revealed that patients admitted after the earthquake had marginally significantly shorter periods of education compared with those admitted before the earthquake (13.78 vs 12.82 years, P = 0.084). This work suggests that patients with schizophrenia were more sensitive to indirect exposure to the earthquake and that a shorter period of education was a potential risk factor.

  4. [Serial Food Poisoning Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus-Contaminated Shredded Dried Laver Seaweed Provided at School Lunch, Tokyo, 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somura, Yoshiko; Kimoto, Kana; Oda, Mayuko; Okutsu, Yuta; Kato, Rei; Suzuki, Yasunori; Siki, Dai; Hirai, Akihiko; Akiba, Tetsuya; Shinkai, Takayuki; Sadamasu, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, four food poisoning outbreaks occurred in Tokyo, involving ten schools. Shredded dried laver seaweed processed by a single food manufacturer in December 2016 was provided in common for the school meals that caused all four outbreaks. Of 4,209 persons exposed, 1,193 (28.3%) had symptoms of gastroenteritis. Norovirus (NoV) GII was detected in 207 (78.1%) of 265 cases by real-time RT-PCR. Thirty-one shredded dried laver seaweed samples were examined and seven (22.6%) of them were positive for NoV GII. PCR fragments of NoV ORF1/2 junction region (302 bp) from seven shredded dried laver seaweed samples and 20 clinical samples derived from the four outbreaks were sequenced. All of them displayed complete homology, and the genotype was classified as GII.17. A nearly full-length sequence (7,420 bp) of NoV RNA derived from a case was obtained by next-generation sequencer analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to the same cluster as Hu/GII/JP/2015/GII.P17_GII.17/Kawasaki308. Thus, our investigation elucidated that the causative agent of these four serial food poisoning outbreaks was NoV GII.17 and the infectious source was a single batch of shredded dried laver seaweed. The water activity of the shredded dried laver seaweed was found to be 0.119 to 0.129. It was epidemiologically clarified that NoV does not lose infectivity for about two months even in the dry state. We conclude that a large diffuse outbreak of food poisoning caused by NoV GII.17 contamination of shredded dried laver seaweed had occurred in Tokyo. Our elucidation of the causative agent indicated that the food poisoning outbreaks in multiple areas of Japan, including Tokyo, during January to February 2017 were caused by the same contaminated food.

  5. The development of Sonic Pi and its use in educational partnerships: Co-creating pedagogies for learning computer programming

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron, S; Blackwell, Alan Frank; Burnard, Pamela Anne

    2017-01-01

    Sonic Pi is a new open source software tool and platform originally developed for the Raspberry Pi computer, designed to enable school children to learn programming by creating music. In this article we share insights from a scoping study on the development of Sonic Pi and its use in educational partnerships. Our findings draw attention to the importance of collaborative relationships between teacher and computer scientist and the value of creative pedagogies for learning computer programming...

  6. High-Speed Research: 1994 Sonic Boom Workshop. Configuration, Design, Analysis and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, David A. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The third High-Speed Research Sonic Boom Workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center on June 1-3, 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for Government, industry, and university participants to present and discuss progress in their research. The workshop was organized into sessions dealing with atmospheric propagation; acceptability studies; and configuration design, and testing. Attendance at the workshop was by invitation only. The workshop proceedings include papers on design, analysis, and testing of low-boom high-speed civil transport configurations and experimental techniques for measuring sonic booms. Significant progress is noted in these areas in the time since the previous workshop a year earlier. The papers include preliminary results of sonic boom wind tunnel tests conducted during 1993 and 1994 on several low-boom designs. Results of a mission performance analysis of all low-boom designs are also included. Two experimental methods for measuring near-field signatures of airplanes in flight are reported.

  7. I cristalli sonici come barriere antirumore - Sonic crystals as tunable noise barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Morandi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Il presente contributo riporta un'introduzione al tema della propagazione del suono nei cristalli sonici e un excursus sulla letteratura scientifica più recente. Si discutono i risultati di alcune indagini sperimentali condotte presso l’Università di Bologna inerenti misure di Insertion Loss, misure effettuate all’interno del reticolo e misure di intensimetria. Infine i valori di Sound Insulation misurati per un cristallo sonico sono confrontati con valori misurati su barriere tradizionali, evidenziando come il cristallo sonico permetta di raggiungere un isolamento confrontabile con il valore soglia di Insertion Loss raggiungibile a causa della diffrazione del bordo superiore della barriera. ------ This work reports an introduction to the topic of wave propagation in sonic crystals and a review of the recent scientific literature. The paper presents the results of some experimental investigations carried out at the University of Bologna by discussing Insertion Loss measurements, measurements performed inside the lattice and sound intensity measurements. Finally, the Sound Insulation Index measured for a sonic crystal is compared to the values measured for common noise barriers, pointing out that sonic crystals reach insulation values comparable to the maximum Insertion Loss achievable due to the top edge diffraction.

  8. Effect of sonic agitation, manual dynamic agitation on removal of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshekhar Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare manual dynamic agitation with sonic agitation on removal of intra radicular Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis biofilm. Material and Methods: Extracted mandibular premolars for orthodontic purpose were sectioned at cervical level and divided into three groups (n = 30. The root canals were instrumented using Protaper rotary instruments up to apical file F4. Roots were sterilized and E. faecalis bacteria were incubated within their root canal space for four weeks. Confirmation of biofilm was done using scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining. All groups were irrigated with side vented needle by using three percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl for 60 seconds. Two experimental groups were agitated with manual dynamic agitation (with master gutta-percha cone and sonic agitation (EndoActivator. Remaining bacteria were collected using sterile paper point, which were incubated inside brain-heart infusion (BHI broth to check turbidity. The turbid broth was streaked on blood agar plate for colony counts. Result: Both experimental groups showed highly significant difference in their mean colony count when compared with control group; with P < 0.001. Conclusion: Passive sonic agitation with EndoActivator has proven to be the best irrigating system followed by manual dynamic agitation and conventional needle irrigation.

  9. Effects of rust in the crack face on crack detection based on Sonic-IR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harai, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Tanabe, H.; Takamatsu, T.; Sakagami, T.

    2015-01-01

    Sonic-IR, which is based on the thermographic detection of the temperature rise due to frictional heating at the defect faces under ultrasonic excitation, has an advantage in the detection of closed and small defects. However, this method has a lot of nuclear factors relating to heat generation. In this study, effects of rust in the crack faces on the crack detection based on the sonic-IR method is experimentally investigated by using crack specimens. The heat generation by ultrasonic excitation was observed regularly during rust accelerated test using original device. The distribution of temperature change around the crack was changed with the progress of rust. This change in heat generation, it believed to be due to change in the contact state of the crack surface due to rust. As a result, it was found that heat generation by ultrasonic excitation is affected by rust in the crack faces. And it was also found that crack detection can be conducted by sonic-IR even if rust was generated in the crack faces. (author)

  10. Reconfigurable origami sonic barriers with tunable bandgaps for traffic noise mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, M.; Wang, K. W.

    2017-10-01

    An origami sonic barrier composed of cylindrical inclusions attached onto an origami sheet is proposed. The idea allows for tunable sound blocking properties for application in attenuating complex traffic noise spectra. Folding of the underlying origami sheet transforms the periodicity of the inclusions between different Bravais lattices, viz. between a square and a hexagonal lattice, and such significant lattice re-configuration leads to drastic tuning of dispersion characteristics. The wave tuning capabilities are corroborated via performing theoretical and numerical investigations using a plane wave expansion method and an acoustic simulation package of COMSOL, while experiments are performed on a one-seventh scaled-down model of origami sonic barrier to demonstrate the lattice re-configuration between different Bravais lattices and the associated bandgap adaptability. Good sound blocking performance in the frequency range of traffic noise spectra combined with less efforts, required for actuating one-degree of freedom folding mechanism, makes the origami sonic barrier a potential candidate for mitigating complex traffic noise.

  11. High Tensile Strength of Engineered β-Solenoid Fibrils via Sonication and Pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zeyu; Parker, Amanda S; Peralta, Maria D R; Ravikumar, Krishnakumar M; Cox, Daniel L; Toney, Michael D

    2017-11-07

    We present estimates of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for two engineered β-solenoid protein mutant fibril structures (spruce budworm and Rhagium inquisitor antifreeze proteins) derived from sonication-based measurements and from force pulling molecular dynamics simulations, both in water. Sonication experiments generate limiting scissioned fibrils with a well-defined length-to-width correlation for the mutant spruce budworm protein and the resultant UTS estimate is 0.66 ± 0.08 GPa. For fibrils formed from engineered R. inquisitor antifreeze protein, depending upon geometry, we estimate UTSs of 3.5 ± 3.2-5.5 ± 5.1 GPa for proteins with interfacial disulfide bonds, and 1.6 ± 1.5-2.5 ± 2.3 GPa for the reduced form. The large error bars for the R. inquisitor structures are intrinsic to the broad distribution of limiting scission lengths. Simulations provide pulling velocity-dependent UTSs increasing from 0.2 to 1 GPa in the available speed range, and 1.5 GPa extrapolated to the speeds expected in the sonication experiments. Simulations yield low-velocity values for the Young's modulus of 6.0 GPa. Without protein optimization, these mechanical parameters are similar to those of spider silk and Kevlar, but in contrast to spider silk, these proteins have a precisely known sequence-structure relationship. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Passenger Spaceplanes and Airplanes that Have Variable Configuration for Sonic Boom Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SANDU

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last time, the interest for passenger space plane, supersonic passenger aircraft and supersonic business jets is increasing. For reducing sonic boom effects at ground level, some companies proposed airplanes having fuselage with small traversal section or having curved fuselage. This paper presents a new practical method for exciting vibrations in the leading edge of wing, tail and airplane's nose surfaces in order to scatter the shock wave and to reduce the sonic boom impact at ground level. The leading edges of wing, tail and airplane nose are covered with thin elastic fairings made of carbon fiber composite material which are separated through small gaps by the adjacent surfaces of wing, tail and nose. When the aircraft flies over populated areas, compressed air bleed from the engine compressors excites the vibration of carbon fiber fairings. The air is released through calibrated nozzles and directly impinges on the fairing surface generating their vibration. Thus, the shock waves are scattered and the impact of sonic boom on ground is much reduced.

  13. Prediction of sonic flow conditions at drill bit nozzles to minimize complications in UBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, B.; Ghalambor, A. [Louisiana Univ., Lafayette, LA (United States); Al-Bemani, A.S. [Sultan Qaboos Univ. (Oman)

    2002-06-01

    Sonic flow at drill bit nozzles can complicate underbalanced drilling (UBD) operations, and should be considered when choosing bit nozzles and fluid injection rates. The complications stem from pressure discontinuity and temperature drop at the nozzle. UBD refers to drilling operations where the drilling fluid pressures in the borehole are maintained at less than the pore pressure in the formation rock in the open-hole section. UBD has become a popular drilling method because it offers minimal lost circulation and reduces formation damage. This paper presents an analytical model for calculating the critical pressure ratio where two-phase sonic flow occurs. In particular, it describes how Sachdeva's two-phase choke model can be used to estimate the critical pressure ratio at nozzles that cause sonic flow. The critical pressure ratio charts can be coded in spreadsheets. The critical pressure ratio depends on the in-situ volumetric gas content, or gas-liquid ratio, which depends on gas injection and pressure. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Novel quantitative autophagy analysis by organelle flow cytometry after cell sonication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Degtyarev

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a dynamic process of bulk degradation of cellular proteins and organelles in lysosomes. Current methods of autophagy measurement include microscopy-based counting of autophagic vacuoles (AVs in cells. We have developed a novel method to quantitatively analyze individual AVs using flow cytometry. This method, OFACS (organelle flow after cell sonication, takes advantage of efficient cell disruption with a brief sonication, generating cell homogenates with fluorescently labeled AVs that retain their integrity as confirmed with light and electron microscopy analysis. These AVs could be detected directly in the sonicated cell homogenates on a flow cytometer as a distinct population of expected organelle size on a cytometry plot. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of autophagic flux, such as chloroquine or lysosomal protease inhibitors, increased the number of particles in this population under autophagy inducing conditions, while inhibition of autophagy induction with 3-methyladenine or knockdown of ATG proteins prevented this accumulation. This assay can be easily performed in a high-throughput format and opens up previously unexplored avenues for autophagy analysis.

  15. 101-SY waste sample speed of sound/rheology testing for sonic probe program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    One problem faced in the clean-up operation at Hanford is that a number of radioactive waste storage tanks are experiencing a periodic buildup and release of potentially explosive gases. The best known example is Tank 241-SY-101 (commonly referred to as 101-SY) in which hydrogen gas periodically built up within the waste to the point that increased buoyancy caused a roll-over event, in which the gas was suddenly released in potentially explosive concentrations (if an ignition source were present). The sonic probe concept is to generate acoustic vibrations in the 101-SY tank waste at nominally 100 Hz, with sufficient amplitude to cause the controlled release of hydrogen bubbles trapped in the waste. The sonic probe may provide a potentially cost-effective alternative to large mixer pumps now used for hydrogen mitigation purposes. Two important parameters needed to determine sonic probe effectiveness and design are the speed of sound and yield stress of the tank waste. Tests to determine these parameters in a 240 ml sample of 101-SY waste (obtained near the tank bottom) were performed, and the results are reported

  16. Structure and dynamics of highly charged heavy ions studied with the electron beam ion trap in Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Hu, Zhimin; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Li, Yueming; Kato, Daiji; Currell, Fred J.; Tong Xiaomin; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the structure and the dynamics of highly charged heavy ions studied through dielectronic recombination (DR) observations performed with the Tokyo electron beam ion trap. By measuring the energy dependence of the ion abundance ratio in the trap at equilibrium, we have observed DR processes for open shell systems very clearly. Remarkable relativistic effects due to the generalized Breit interaction have been clearly shown in DR for highly charged heavy ions. We also present the first result for the coincidence measurement of two photons emitted from a single DR event.

  17. Abstracts from 17. Japan conference on radiation and radioisotopes, September 2-4, 1985, Sankei Kaikan, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    At the 17th Japan Conference on Radiation and Radioisotopes held in Tokyo in September 1985, the basic theme was Expanding Uses of Radiation in Daily Life and Industry. Abstracts compiled covered the following fields of study; prospects and problems for development of radiation uses, food irradiation, medical applications, non-destructive testing, low-level waste management, high energy physics, new materials, and robotics and lasers. There were also four special lectures on radioisotopes, prospects for radiation processing in China, radiobiological studies of Pions in TRIUMF, and ICRU and ICRP recommendations on determination of dose equivalents.

  18. Report of the research results with University of Tokyo, Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory's Facilities in fiscal 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the joint utilization of the research 'Yayoi' and the electron beam accelerator in the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, in the fiscal year 1992. The Yayoi was operated smoothly through the year, and the number of research themes, for which the reactor Yayoi was jointly utilized and the related themes reached 23 cases. The research themes of the linac count up to 17, after its reconstruction to be twin-linac. In this publication, in addition to the utilization reports, also the 16 reports of Yayoi Study Meetings held in fiscal year 1992 are collected. (J.P.N.)

  19. Transformation of the Housing Market in Tokyo since the Late 1990s: Housing Purchases by Single-person Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kubo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to clarify the correlation between the transformation of the Japanese housing market and the increasing number of single-person households in Japan, with a special focus on the supply of compact condominiums. In order to achieve the abovementioned purpose, the changes in the Japanese housing market and diversification of the Japanese household structure are described. Finally, the features of the supply strategies of condominium suppliers, which reflect the diversification of the household structure and increasing need for condominiums by single-person households in central Tokyo, are examined.

  20. Study on combined effects of acidification and sonication on selected quality attributes of carrot juice during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, S.; Hu, B.; Ali, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the combined effects of acid blanching and sonication treatments on selected quality parameters of carrot juice stored at 4 degree C for 18 days. Carrots were blanched in acidified water (40g/L citric acid) at 100 degree C for 4 min and the juice was then extracted. Sonication of the juice was done at an amplitude level of 70% and a frequency of 20 kHz for 2 min at 15 degree C, keeping the pulse duration of 5 Sec on and 5 Sec off. As results, the combined treatment of acidification and sonication of carrot juice showed a significant decrease in pH and increase (P < 0.05) in acidity which remained stable during storage period. No significant changes were observed in Brix. Color values (L, a, b) and non enzymatic browning (NEB) influenced significantly in acidified and sonicated carrot juice during storage period. Maximum stability of total phenol, total antioxidant capacity, cloud value and ascorbic acid were also observed in the combined treatment of acidification and sonication. The findings of this study indicated that the combined treatments of acidification and sonication may successfully be utilized for the production of high quality carrot juice with improved stability of total phenol, total antioxidant capacity, cloud value and ascorbic acid during 18 days of storage. (author)

  1. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumani, Aysin; Guvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p irrigation systems with Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl)2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth. PMID:27218106

  2. Earthquake resistant countermeasures for pipelines in Tokyo gas F.T.R.L.; Etude menee par l'institut de recherches de Tokyo gas et portant sur les mesures antisismiques applicables aux canalisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Hosokawa, N.; Watanabe, T. [Tokyo Gas Fundamental Technology Research Lab. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Taking 'damage factor', 'ground response', 'soil pipe interaction', and 'deformability of pipes' as its four key concerns, Tokyo Gas F.T.R.L. is working to clarify the behavior of pipelines during strong earthquakes and improve their earthquake resistance to increase safety levels. In specific terms, Tokyo Gas F.T.R.L. has sought to contribute to earthquake resistance by, for example, conducting pipeline damage forecasts, FEM dynamic response analyses to quantify ground amplification, empirical and analytic studies of forces acting on pipelines, various vibration tests, and tests to determine the deforming behavior of pipes. A further important concern given the limited resources available is the prioritization of the pipes to be made more earthquake resistant. Ultimately, these studies should contribute to more rational and effective seismic design of pipelines and improvement of earthquake resistance both in the case of existing and new facilities and equipment. (authors)

  3. [Civil engineering education at the Imperial College of Engineering in Tokyo: an analysis based on Ayahiko Ishibashi's memoirs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    The Imperial College of Engineering (ICE or Kobu-Daigakko) in Tokyo, founded in 1873 under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Works, was one of the most prominent modern institutions of engineering education in early Meiji Japan. Previous studies have revealed that the ICE offered large scale practical training programs at enterprises of the Ministry, which sometimes lasted several months, and praised their ideal combination of theory and practice. In reality, it has been difficult to evaluate the quality of education at the ICE mainly because of scarcity of sources. ICE students published a collection of memoirs for alumni members, commemorating the fiftieth-year of the history of the Tokyo Imperial University. Drawing on the previously neglected collection of students' memoires, this paper appraises the education of civil engineering offered by the ICE. The paper also compares this collection with other official records of the college, and confirms it as a reliable source, even though it contains some minor errors. The author particularly uses the memoirs by Ayahiko Ishibashi, one of the first graduates from its civil engineering course, who left sufficient reminiscences on education that he received. This paper, as a result, illustrates that the main practical training for the students of civil engineering was limited to designing process, including surveying. Furthermore, practical training that Ishibashi received at those enterprises often lacked a plan, and its effectiveness was questionable.

  4. Geographically explicit urban land use change scenarios for Mega cities: a case study in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Y.; Bagan, H.; Seya, H.; Nakamichi, K.

    2010-12-01

    In preparation for the IPCC 5th assessment report, the international modeling community is developing four Representative Concentration Paths employing the scenarios developed by four different Integrated Assessment Models. These RCPs will be employed as an input to climate models, such as Earth System Models. In these days, the importance of assessment of not only global but also local (city/zone level) impacts of global change has gradually been recognized, thereby downscaling climate models are one of the urgent problems to be solved. Needless to say, reliable downscaling requires spatially high resolution land use change scenarios. So far, there has been proposed a lot of methods for constructing land use change scenarios with considering economic behavior of human, such as agent-based model (e.g., Parker et al., 2001), and land use transport (LUT) model (e.g., Anas and Liu, 2007). The latter approach in particular has widely been applied to actual urban/transport policy; hence modeling the interaction between them is very important for creating reliable land use change scenarios. However, the LUT models are usually built based on the zones of cities/municipalities whose spatial resolutions are too low to derive sensible parameters of the climate models. Moreover, almost all of the works which attempt to build spatially high resolution LUT model employs very small regions as the study area. The objective of this research is deriving various input parameters to climate models such as population density, fractional green vegetation cover, and anthropogenic heat emission with spatially high resolution land use change scenarios constructed with LUT model. The study area of this research is Tokyo metropolitan area, which is the largest urban area in the world (United Nations., 2010). Firstly, this study employs very high ground resolution zones composed of micro districts around 1km2. Secondly, the research attempt to combine remote sensing techniques and LUT models

  5. Diagnosis Of Persistent Infection In Prosthetic Two-Stage Exchange: PCR analysis of Sonication fluid From Bone Cement Spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariaux, Sandrine; Tafin, Ulrika Furustrand; Borens, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: When treating periprosthetic joint infections with a two-stage procedure, antibiotic-impregnated spacers are used in the interval between removal of prosthesis and reimplantation. According to our experience, cultures of sonicated spacers are most often negative. The objective of our study was to investigate whether PCR analysis would improve the detection of bacteria in the spacer sonication fluid. Methods: A prospective monocentric study was performed from September 2014 to January 2016. Inclusion criteria were two-stage procedure for prosthetic infection and agreement of the patient to participate in the study. Beside tissues samples and sonication, broad range bacterial PCRs, specific S. aureus PCRs and Unyvero-multiplex PCRs were performed on the sonicated spacer fluid. Results: 30 patients were identified (15 hip, 14 knee and 1 ankle replacements). At reimplantation, cultures of tissue samples and spacer sonication fluid were all negative. Broad range PCRs were all negative. Specific S. aureus PCRs were positive in 5 cases. We had two persistent infections and four cases of infection recurrence were observed, with bacteria different than for the initial infection in three cases. Conclusion: The three different types of PCRs did not detect any bacteria in spacer sonication fluid that was culture-negative. In our study, PCR did not improve the bacterial detection and did not help to predict whether the patient will present a persistent or recurrent infection. Prosthetic 2-stage exchange with short interval and antibiotic-impregnated spacer is an efficient treatment to eradicate infection as both culture- and molecular-based methods were unable to detect bacteria in spacer sonication fluid after reimplantation.

  6. COMPARISON OF CULTURE OF SYNOVIAL FLUID, PERIPROSTHETIC TISSUE AND PROSTHESIS SONICATE FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF KNEE PROSTHESIS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Trampuž

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Synovial fluid and periprosthetic tissue specimens are the standard specimens cultured for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI. We hypothesize that ultrasonication of the explanted prosthesis may improve diagnosis of PJI by dislodging biofilm bacteria from the prosthesis surface and improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis of PJI.Methods. Included were patients undergoing knee prosthesis exchange for septic or biomechanical failure and have not received antimicrobial therapy in the last 2 weeks prior specimen collection. Cultures of synovial fluid and periprosthetic tissue specimens were performed per the usual clinical practice. Additionally, explanted joint components were sonicated for 5 minutes at frequency 40 kHz in sterile Ringer’s solution; aliquots of 0.5 ml sonicate were plated onto five aerobic and five anaerobic blood agar plates, and incubated at 37 °C and examined for the next seven days. The number and identity of each colony morphology was recorded.Results. 35 patients undergoing knee replacement have been studied (24 for aseptic biomechanical failure and 11 for suspected PJI. In patients with PJI, coagulase-negative staphylococci (7 cases, Corynebacterium spp. (2 cases, Staphylococcus aureus (1 case, and viridans group streptococcus (1 case were recovered. Culture sensitivity and specificity were for synovial fluid 88% and 100%, for periprosthetic tissue 83% and 81%, and for explant sonicate 91% and 100%, respectively. In sonicate cultures higher numbers of microorganisms than in periprosthetic tissue cultures were consistently detected.Conclusions. Using synovial fluid, periprosthetic tissue, and explant sonicate cultures, 12%, 17% and 9% of PJI were missed, respectively. Explant sonicate cultures were the most sensitive with respect to the diagnosis of PJI, indicating that explant ultrasonication may improve bacterial recovery. In sonicate cultures, infecting organisms were detected in

  7. Focused ultrasound-mediated noninvasive blood-brain barrier modulation: preclinical examination of efficacy and safety in various sonication parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaewoo; Kong, Chanho; Cho, Jae Sung; Lee, Jihyeon; Koh, Chin Su; Yoon, Min-Sik; Na, Young Cheol; Chang, Won Seok; Chang, Jin Woo

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The application of pharmacological therapeutics in neurological disorders is limited by the ability of these agents to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Focused ultrasound (FUS) has recently gained attention for its potential application as a method for locally opening the BBB and thereby facilitating drug delivery into the brain parenchyma. However, this method still requires optimization to maximize its safety and efficacy for clinical use. In the present study, the authors examined several sonication parameters of FUS influencing BBB opening in small animals. METHODS Changes in BBB permeability were observed during transcranial sonication using low-intensity FUS in 20 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The authors examined the effects of FUS sonication with different sonication parameters, varying acoustic pressure, center frequency, burst duration, microbubble (MB) type, MB dose, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and total exposure time. The focal region of BBB opening was identified by Evans blue dye. Additionally, H & E staining was used to identify blood vessel damage. RESULTS Acoustic pressure amplitude and burst duration were closely associated with enhancement of BBB opening efficiency, but these parameters were also highly correlated with tissue damage in the sonicated region. In contrast, MB types, MB dose, total exposure time, and PRF had an influence on BBB opening without conspicuous tissue damage after FUS sonication. CONCLUSIONS The study aimed to identify these influential conditions and provide safety and efficacy values for further studies. Future work based on the current results is anticipated to facilitate the implementation of FUS sonication for drug delivery in various CNS disease states in the near future.

  8. Special course for global nuclear human resource development in cooperation with Hitachi-GE nuclear energy in Tokyo institute of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.; Futami, T.; Saito, M.; Murata, F.; Shimizu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Many Asian countries are willing to learn Japanese nuclear power plants experiences, and are interested in introducing nuclear power generation to meet their future energy demand. Special course for Global Nuclear Human Resource Development was established in April, 2011 in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Graduate School of Tokyo Institute of Technology in cooperation with Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy. Purpose of the special course is to develop global nuclear engineers and researchers not only in the Tokyo Institute of Technology but also in the educational institutes of Southeast Asian countries

  9. Block survey of wall covered with plant in the city of Tokyo [Japan] and evaluation of thermal environment of wall greening system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, K.; Soh, Y.; Satoh, S.

    2007-01-01

    There were 384 (8877 square m) walls which covered with plant on 10 square km in the city of Tokyo, and the green wall rate in the city of Tokyo was 0.88%. Vines, for example Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix, were widely used. The factor of thinking better of the landscape in urban area was one of the easily management of plants. The three wall greening systems, a wall covered with hanging climbers and two types of self-contained living wall, mitigated the thermal environment. However its degree can be depended on the greening method and the greenery occupancy rate of wall

  10. Enhancement of the Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Sonic Logging Waveforms by Seismic Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali

    2012-04-01

    Sonic logs are essential tools for reliably identifying interval velocities which, in turn, are used in many seismic processes. One problem that arises, while logging, is irregularities due to washout zones along the borehole surfaces that scatters the transmitted energy and hence weakens the signal recorded at the receivers. To alleviate this problem, I have extended the theory of super-virtual refraction interferometry to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) sonic waveforms. Tests on synthetic and real data show noticeable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancements of refracted P-wave arrivals in the sonic waveforms. The theory of super-virtual interferometric stacking is composed of two redatuming steps followed by a stacking procedure. The first redatuming procedure is of correlation type, where traces are correlated together to get virtual traces with the sources datumed to the refractor. The second datuming step is of convolution type, where traces are convolved together to dedatum the sources back to their original positions. The stacking procedure following each step enhances the signal to noise ratio of the refracted P-wave first arrivals. Datuming with correlation and convolution of traces introduces severe artifacts denoted as correlation artifacts in super-virtual data. To overcome this problem, I replace the datuming with correlation step by datuming with deconvolution. Although the former datuming method is more robust, the latter one reduces the artifacts significantly. Moreover, deconvolution can be a noise amplifier which is why a regularization term is utilized, rendering the datuming with deconvolution more stable. Tests of datuming with deconvolution instead of correlation with synthetic and real data examples show significant reduction of these artifacts. This is especially true when compared with the conventional way of applying the super-virtual refraction interferometry method.

  11. Quantification of Net Erosion and Uplift Experienced by the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan Using Sonic Log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, K.; Schulz, S.; Sarkar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Barmer Basin of Rajasthan, Western India is a hydrocarbon rich sedimentary basin currently being explored by Cairn India Limited. The hydrocarbon bearing Fatehgarh Formation is being found at different depths in different oil fields (e.g. From south to north: Guda, Vijaya & Vandana, Air field High) of the basin. The net uplift and erosion in the Barmer Basin has been quantified using compaction methodology. The sonic log, which is strongly controlled by porosity, is an appropriate indicator of compaction, and hence used for quantification of net uplift and erosion from compaction. The compaction methodology has been applied to the shale rich Dharvi Dungar Formation of Barmer Basin of Late Paleocene age. The net uplift and erosion is also being checked with the help of AFTA-VR and seismic sections. The results show relatively no uplift in the southernmost part of the basin and a Guda field well is thus taken to be the reference well with respect to which the uplifts in different parts of the basin have been calculated. The northern part of the basin i.e. Air Field High wells experienced maximum uplift (~2150m). Interestingly, a few wells further south of the reference well show evidence for uplift. The study was able to point out errors in the report produced with the help of AFTA-VR which found out less uplift in Vijaya & Vandana oil fields as opposed to sonic log data. The process of finding out uplift using sonic log has a standard deviation of 200m as compared to about 500m error in AFTA-VR method. This study has major implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Maturation of source rock will be higher for any given geothermal history if net uplift and erosion is incorporated in maturation modeling. They can also be used for porosity predictions of reservoir units in undrilled targets.

  12. Effects of a power shortage in the Tokyo metropolitan area on awareness of nuclear power generation and power savings behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2004-01-01

    The shutdown of a number of nuclear power stations of the Tokyo Electric Power Company in the summer of 2003 caused a power shortage problem in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. To examine the effects of the power shortage, in September 2003 a survey was conducted in the service areas of the Kansai Electric Power Company (Kansai region) and the Tokyo Electric Power Company (Kanto region). This survey was part of a wider opinion survey begun in 1993 concerning nuclear power generation. The results of the September 2003 survey are as follows: The degree of recognition of the power shortage problem in the Metropolitan area was high, with 40% of respondents in the Kansai region and nearly 70% in the Kanto region understanding that the shortage was caused by the shutdown of several nuclear power station. The overall awareness of nuclear power generation was little affected in both the Kansai and Kanto regions, though the sense of a shortage of the generating capacity had been raised slightly. Once respondents knew about the power shortage problem, they estimated the likelihood of an occurrence of large-scale service interruption to be low, nearly at an even chance, and they had been only slightly worried about it, essentially viewing the problem optimistically. In the Kanto region, where public relations activities for power savings had been actively pursued, the frequency of experiencing exposure to such public relations activities was remarkably higher than in the Kansai region. The relation between exposure to public relations activities for power savings and power savings behavior was analyzed using quantification method II. Analysis results suggest that public relations activities for power savings in the Kanto region had the effect of urging power savings behavior. However, the difference in the rate of putting power savings behavior into practice was small between the Kanto and Kansai regions, indicating that public relation activities for power savings in the Kanto

  13. Methodology on quantification of sonication duration for safe application of MR guided focused ultrasound for liver tumour ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihcin, Senay; Karakitsios, Ioannis; Le, Nhan; Strehlow, Jan; Demedts, Daniel; Schwenke, Michael; Haase, Sabrina; Preusser, Tobias; Melzer, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic Resonance Guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) for liver tumour ablation is a challenging task due to motion caused by breathing and occlusion due the ribcage between the transducer and the tumour. To overcome these challenges, a novel system for liver tumour ablation during free breathing has been designed. The novel TRANS-FUSIMO Treatment System (TTS, EUFP7) interacts with a Magnetic Resonance (MR) scanner and a focused ultrasound transducer to sonicate to a moving target in liver. To meet the requirements of ISO 13485; a quality management system for medical device design, the system needs to be tested for certain process parameters. The duration of sonication and, the delay after the sonication button is activated, are among the parameters that need to be quantified for efficient and safe ablation of tumour tissue. A novel methodology is developed to quantify these process parameters. A computerised scope is programmed in LabVIEW to collect data via hydrophone; where the coordinates of fiber-optic sensor assembly was fed into the TRANS-FUSIMO treatment software via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to sonicate to the tip of the sensor, which is synchronised with the clock of the scope, embedded in a degassed water tank via sensor assembly holder. The sonications were executed for 50 W, 100 W, 150 W for 10 s to quantify the actual sonication duration and the delay after the emergency stop by two independent operators for thirty times. The deviation of the system from the predefined specs was calculated. Student's-T test was used to investigate the user dependency. The duration of sonication and the delay after the sonication were quantified successfully with the developed method. TTS can sonicate with a maximum deviation of 0.16 s (Std 0.32) from the planned duration and with a delay of 14 ms (Std 0.14) for the emergency stop. Student's T tests indicate that the results do not depend on operators (p > .05). The evidence obtained via this

  14. 3D turbulence measurements using three intersecting Doppler LiDAR beams: validation against sonic anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays communities of researchers and industry in the wind engineering and meteorology sectors demand extensive and accurate measurements of atmospheric boundary layer turbulence for a better understanding of its role in a wide range of onshore and offshore applications: wind resource evaluation, wind turbine wakes, meteorology forecast, pollution and urban climate studies, etc. Atmospheric turbulence has been traditionally investigated through sonic anemometers installed on meteorological masts. However, the setup and maintenance of instrumented masts is generally very costly and the available location for the measurements is limited by the fixed position and height of the facility. In order to overcome the above-mentioned shortcomings, a measurement technique is proposed, based on the reconstruction of the three-dimensional velocity vector from simultaneous measurements of three intersecting Doppler wind LiDARs. This measuring technique presents the main advantage of being able to measure the wind velocity at any point in space inside a very large volume, which can be set and optimized for each test. Furthermore, it is very flexible regarding its transportation, installation and operation in any type of terrain. On the other hand, LiDAR measurements are strongly affected by the aerosol concentration in the air, precipitation, and the spatial and temporal resolution is poorer than that of a sonic anemometer. All this makes the comparison between these two kinds of measurements a complex task. The accuracy of the technique has been assessed by this study against sonic anemometer measurements carried out at different heights on the KNMI's meteorological mast at Cabauw's experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. An early uncertainty analysis shows that one of the most important parameters to be taken into account is the relative angles between the intersecting laser beams, i.e., the position of each LiDAR on the terrain and their

  15. Acoustic beam splitting in a sonic crystal around a directional band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek Ahmet; Kaya Olgun Adem; Ulug Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Beam splitting upon refraction in a triangular sonic crystal composed of aluminum cylinders in air is experimentally and numerically demonstrated to occur due to finite source size, which facilitates circumvention of a directional band gap. Experiments reveal that two distinct beams emerge at crystal output, in agreement with the numerical results obtained through the finite-element method. Beam splitting occurs at sufficiently-small source sizes comparable to lattice periodicity determined by the spatial gap width in reciprocal space. Split beams propagate in equal amplitude, whereas beam splitting is destructed for oblique incidence above a critical incidence angle

  16. Momentum correlations as signature of sonic Hawking radiation in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fabbri, N. Pavloff

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the two-body momentum correlation signal in a quasi one dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of a sonic horizon. We identify the relevant correlation lines in momentum space and compute the intensity of the corresponding signal. We consider a set of different experimental procedures and identify the specific issues of each measuring process. We show that some inter-channel correlations, in particular the Hawking quantum-partner one, are particularly well adapted for witnessing quantum non-separability, being resilient to the effects of temperature and/or quantum quenches.

  17. Ultrasound sonication with microbubbles disrupts blood vessels and enhances tumor treatments of anticancer nanodrug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin CY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chung-Yin Lin1*, Hsiao-Ching Tseng1*, Heng-Ruei Shiu1, Ming-Fang Wu2, Cheng-Ying Chou3, Win-Li Lin1,41Institute of Biomedical Engineering, 2Laboratory Animal Center, 3Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Division of Medical Engineering Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Ultrasound (US sonication with microbubbles (MBs has the potential to disrupt blood vessels and enhance the delivery of drugs into the sonicated tissues. In this study, mouse ear tumors were employed to investigate the therapeutic effects of US, MBs, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD on tumors. Tumors started to receive treatments when they grew up to about 15 mm3 (early stage with injection of PLD 10 mg/kg, or up to 50 mm3 (medium stage with PLD 6 (or 4 mg/kg. Experiments included the control, PLD alone, PLD + MBs + US, US alone, and MBs + US groups. The procedure for the PLD + MBs + US group was that PLD was injected first, MB (SonoVue injection followed, and then US was immediately sonicated on the tumor. The results showed that: (1 US sonication with MBs was always able to produce a further hindrance to tumor growth for both early and medium-stage tumors; (2 for the medium-stage tumors, 6 mg/kg PLD alone was able to inhibit their growth, while it did not work for 4 mg/kg PLD alone; (3 with the application of MBs + US, 4 mg/kg PLD was able to inhibit the growth of medium-stage tumors; (4 for early stage tumors after the first treatment with a high dose of PLD alone (10 mg/kg, the tumor size still increased for several days and then decreased (a biphasic pattern; (5 MBs + US alone was able to hinder the growth of early stage tumors, but unable to hinder that of medium stage tumors. The results of histological examinations and blood perfusion measurements indicated that the application of MBs + US disrupts the tumor blood

  18. Experimental observation of both negative and positive phase velocities in a two-dimensional sonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ming-Hui; Feng, Liang; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Kang; Chen, Yan-Feng; Zhu, Yong-Yuan; Mao, Yi-Wei; Zi, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Both negative and positive phase velocities for acoustic waves have been experimentally established in a two-dimensional triangular sonic crystal (SC) consisting of steel cylinders embedded in air at first. With the increase of the SCs thickness layer by layer in the experiments, phase shifts decrease in the second band but increase in the first band, showing the negative and the positive phase velocities, respectively. Moreover, the dispersion relation of the SC is constructed by the phase information, which is consistent well with the theoretical results. These abundant characteristics of acoustic wave propagation in the SC might be useful for the device applications

  19. Realtime Interaction Analysis of Social Interplay in a Multimodal Musical-Sonic Interaction Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the analysis of social interplay among users in a multimodal interaction and musical performance situation. The approach consists of a combined method of realtime sensor data analysis for the description and interpretation of player gestures and video micro......-analysis methods used to describe the interaction situation and the context in which the social interplay takes place. This combined method is used in an iterative process, where the design of interactive games with musical-sonic feedback is improved according to newly discovered understandings and interpretations...

  20. Using sonic anemometer temperature to measure sensible heat flux in strong winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Burns

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sonic anemometers simultaneously measure the turbulent fluctuations of vertical wind (w' and sonic temperature (Ts', and are commonly used to measure sensible heat flux (H. Our study examines 30-min heat fluxes measured with a Campbell Scientific CSAT3 sonic anemometer above a subalpine forest. We compared H calculated with Ts to H calculated with a co-located thermocouple and found that, for horizontal wind speed (U less than 8 m s−1, the agreement was around ±30 W m−2. However, for U ≈ 8 m s−1, the CSAT H had a generally positive deviation from H calculated with the thermocouple, reaching a maximum difference of ≈250 W m−2 at U ≈ 18 m s−1. With version 4 of the CSAT firmware, we found significant underestimation of the speed of sound and thus Ts in high winds (due to a delayed detection of the sonic pulse, which resulted in the large CSAT heat flux errors. Although this Ts error is qualitatively similar to the well-known fundamental correction for the crosswind component, it is quantitatively different and directly related to the firmware estimation of the pulse arrival time. For a CSAT running version 3 of the firmware, there does not appear to be a significant underestimation of Ts; however, a Ts error similar to that of version 4 may occur if the CSAT is sufficiently out of calibration. An empirical correction to the CSAT heat flux that is consistent with our conceptual understanding of the Ts error is presented. Within a broader context, the surface energy balance is used to evaluate the heat flux measurements, and the usefulness of side-by-side instrument comparisons is discussed.

  1. Dispersion of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes by in situ Polymerization Under Sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Watson, Kent A.; Crooks, Roy E.; Smith, Joseph, Jr.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; St.Clair, Terry L.

    2002-01-01

    Single wall nanotube reinforced polyimide nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ polymerization of monomers of interest in the presence of sonication. This process enabled uniform dispersion of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles in the polymer matrix. The resultant SWNT-polyimide nanocomposite films were electrically conductive (antistatic) and optically transparent with significant conductivity enhancement (10 orders of magnitude) at a very low loading (0.1 vol%). Mechanical properties as well as thermal stability were also improved with the incorporation of the SWNT.

  2. Turbulence fluxes and variances measured with a sonic anemometer mounted on a tethered balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut, Guylaine; Couvreux, Fleur; Lothon, Marie; Legain, Dominique; Piguet, Bruno; Lampert, Astrid; Maurel, William; Moulin, Eric

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the first deployment in field campaigns of a balloon-borne turbulence probe, developed with a sonic anemometer and an inertial motion sensor suspended below a tethered balloon. This system measures temperature and horizontal and vertical wind at high frequency and allows the estimation of heat and momentum fluxes as well as turbulent kinetic energy in the lower part of the boundary layer. The system was validated during three field experiments with different convective boundary-layer conditions, based on turbulent measurements from instrumented towers and aircraft.

  3. Particle formation induced by sonication during yogurt fermentation - Impact of exopolysaccharide-producing starter cultures on physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körzendörfer, Adrian; Nöbel, Stefan; Hinrichs, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    Two major quality defects of yogurt are syneresis and the presence of large particles, and several reasons have been extensively discussed. Vibrations during fermentation, particularly generated by pumps, must be considered as a further cause as latest research showed that both ultrasound and low frequencies induced visible particles. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of sonication during fermentation with starter cultures differing in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis on the physical properties of set (syneresis, firmness) and stirred yogurt (large particles, laser diffraction, rheology). Skim milk was fermented with starter cultures YC-471 (low EPS) or YF-L 901 (high EPS) (Chr. Hansen) and sonicated for 5min at pH5.2. Sonicated set gels exhibited syneresis and were softer than respective controls. The mechanical treatment was adjusted to quantify visible particles (d≥0.9mm) in stirred yogurts properly. Sonication significantly increased particle numbers, however, the effect was less pronounced when YF-L 901 was used, indicating EPS as a tool to reduce syneresis and particle formation due to vibrations. Rheological parameters and size of microgel particles were rather influenced by starter cultures than by sonication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Binding Mode of the Sonic Hedgehog Inhibitor Robotnikinin, a Combined Docking and QM/MM MD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Hitzenberger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Erroneous activation of the Hedgehog pathway has been linked to a great amount of cancerous diseases and therefore a large number of studies aiming at its inhibition have been carried out. One leverage point for novel therapeutic strategies targeting the proteins involved, is the prevention of complex formation between the extracellular signaling protein Sonic Hedgehog and the transmembrane protein Patched 1. In 2009 robotnikinin, a small molecule capable of binding to and inhibiting the activity of Sonic Hedgehog has been identified, however in the absence of X-ray structures of the Sonic Hedgehog-robotnikinin complex, the binding mode of this inhibitor remains unknown. In order to aid with the identification of novel Sonic Hedgehog inhibitors, the presented investigation elucidates the binding mode of robotnikinin by performing an extensive docking study, including subsequent molecular mechanical as well as quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulations. The attained configurations enabled the identification of a number of key protein-ligand interactions, aiding complex formation and providing stabilizing contributions to the binding of the ligand. The predicted structure of the Sonic Hedgehog-robotnikinin complex is provided via a PDB file as Supplementary Material and can be used for further reference.

  5. Physico-chemical parameters, bioactive compounds and microbial quality of thermo-sonicated carrot juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Flores, Héctor E; Garnica-Romo, Ma Guadalupe; Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Pokhrel, Prashant Raj; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2015-04-01

    Thermosonication has been successfully tested in food for microbial inactivation; however, changes in bioactive compounds and shelf-life of treated products have not been thoroughly investigated. Carrot juice was thermo-sonicated (24 kHz, 120 μm amplitude) at 50 °C, 54 °C and 58 °C for 10 min (acoustic power 2204.40, 2155.72, 2181.68 mW/mL, respectively). Quality parameters and microbial growth were evaluated after processing and during storage at 4 °C. Control and sonicated treatments at 50 °C and 54 °C had 10, 12 and 14 d of shelf-life, respectively. Samples sonicated at 58 °C had the best quality; microbial growth remained low at around 3-log for mesophiles, 4.5-log for yeasts and molds and 2-log for enterobacteria after 20 d of storage. Furthermore, thermo-sonicated juice at 58 °C retained >98% of carotenoids and 100% of ascorbic acid. Phenolic compounds increased in all stored, treated juices. Thermo-sonication is therefore a promising technology for preserving the quality of carrot juice by minimising the physicochemical changes during storage, retarding microbial growth and retaining the bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Floral Sonication is an Innate Behaviour in Bumblebees that can be Fine-Tuned with Experience in Manipulating Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Tan; Whitehorn, Penelope; Lye, Gillian C; Vallejo-Marín, Mario

    Bumblebees demonstrate an extensive capacity for learning complex motor skills to maximise exploitation of floral rewards. This ability is well studied in nectar collection but its role in pollen foraging is less well understood. Floral sonication is used by bees to extract pollen from some plant species with anthers which must be vibrated (buzzed) to release pollen. Pollen removal is determined by sonication characteristics including frequency and amplitude, and thus the ability to optimise sonication should allow bees to maximise the pollen collection. We investigated the ability of the buff-tailed bumblebee ( Bombus terrestris ) to modify the frequency and amplitude of their buzzes with increasing experience manipulating flowers of the buzz-pollinated plant Solanum rostratum . We analysed flight and feeding vibrations generated by naïve workers across feeding bouts. Feeding buzzes were of a higher frequency and a lower amplitude than flight buzzes. Both flight and feeding buzzes had reduced amplitudes with increasing number of foraging trips. However, the frequency of their feeding buzzes was reduced significantly more than their flight buzzes as bumblebee workers gained experience manipulating flowers. These results suggest that bumblebees are able to modify the characteristics of their buzzes with experience manipulating buzz-pollinated flowers. We discuss our findings in the context of bumblebee learning, and the current understanding of the optimal sonication characteristics for releasing pollen in buzz-pollinated species. Our results present a tantalising insight into the potential role of learning in floral sonication, paving the way for future research in this area.

  7. Sonic Tennis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldan, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    their movements in order to keep the ball into play. The device can be swung freely and act as a full-fledged motion- based controller, as the game does not rely at all on visual feedback and the device display can thus be ignored. The game aims to be entertaining but also effective for educa- tional purposes......This paper presents an audio-based tennis simulation game for mobile devices, which uses motion input and non-verbal audio feedback as exclusive means of interaction. Players have to listen carefully to the provided auditory clues, like racquet hits and ball bounces, rhythmically synchronizing...

  8. Temporary suspension of acute facial paralysis using the S-S Cable Suture (Medical U&A, Tokyo, Japan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Mine; Takushima, Akihiko; Momosawa, Akira; Kurita, Masakazu; Harii, Kiyonori

    2008-07-01

    For a treatment of facial paralysis, suture suspension of soft tissue is considered effective due to its less invasiveness and relatively simple technique, with minimal bruising and rapid recovery. However, suture suspension effect may not last for a long period of time. We obtained good outcome with temporary static suture suspension in 5 cases of severe facial paralysis in the intervening period between the onset of paralysis and expected spontaneous recovery. We used the S-S Cable Suture (Medical U&A, Tokyo, Japan), which was based on the modification of previously established method using the Gore-Tex cable suture originally reported by Sasaki et al in 2002. Because of the ease of technique and relatively strong lifting capability of the malar pad, we recommend it as a useful procedure for a patient suffering acute facial paralysis with possible spontaneous recovery for an improved quality of life by the quick elimination of facial distortion.

  9. Lecture notes of the technical training curriculum of the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report is a transcript of lectures for the technical staff, held in the Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, from November 1990 to April 1992. Following themes are included in this report. (1) Cyclotron technology, (2) measuring technology of the peripheral devices for cyclotron, (3) heavy ion cyclotron technology, (4) beam cooling technology, (5) proton linac technology, (6) heavy ion linac technology, (7) measuring technology of electron and its equipments, (8) the latest high energy large experimental device and its measurement (HERA, ZENS experiment), (9) superconducting kaon spectrometer (SKS) and large superconducting magnet, (10) present status of the precision technology for accelerators, (11) the computer as basic technology of elementary particle and nuclear experiments, (12) present status of radiation management and measurement technology, (13) handling and processing method of the hazardous materials, (14) analog technology of the equipments for accelerators, and the summary of NIRS-Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). (T.F.)

  10. Report of the research results with University of Tokyo, Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory's facilities in fiscal 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the joint utilization of the research 'Yayoi' and the electron beam accelerator in the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, in the fiscal year 1993. In this report, the gists of 15 researches which were carried out on pile of the Yayoi, 9 researches off pile of the Yayoi and 14 researches by using the linear accelerator are collected. In addition, the 13 reports of Yayoi Study Meeting held in fiscal year 1993 are collected. Moreover, the list of the events carried out in the facility in fiscal year 1993, the registers of names of various committees, and the register of the names of persons who were in charge of joint utilization experiments in fiscal year 1993 are attached. (K.I.)

  11. Report of the research results with University of Tokyo, Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory's Facilities in fiscal 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the joint utilization of the nuclear reactor 'Yayoi' and the electron beam accelerator in the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, in fiscal year 1991. The Yayoi was operated smoothly throughout the year, and the number of research themes, for which the reactor Yayoi was jointly utilized, and the related themes reached 21 cases. After the linear accelerator was reconstructed as the twin linac, the joint utilization was resumed in October, 1989, and the number of research themes, was 15 cases. In this publication, in addition to the utilization reports, also the reports of 15 cases of Yayoi Study Meetings held in fiscal year 1991 are collected. (K.I.)

  12. Tokyo Tech–Hitotsubashi Interdisciplinary Conference : New Approaches to the Analysis of Large-Scale Business and Economic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Takayasu, Misako; Takayasu, Hideki; Econophysics Approaches to Large-Scale Business Data and Financial Crisis

    2010-01-01

    The new science of econophysics has arisen out of the information age. As large-scale economic data are being increasingly generated by industries and enterprises worldwide, researchers from fields such as physics, mathematics, and information sciences are becoming involved. The vast number of transactions taking place, both in the financial markets and in the retail sector, is usually studied by economists and management and now by econophysicists. Using cutting-edge tools of computational analysis while searching for regularities and “laws” such as those found in the natural sciences, econophysicists have come up with intriguing results. The ultimate aim is to establish fundamental data collection and analysis techniques that embrace the expertise of a variety of academic disciplines. This book comprises selected papers from the international conference on novel analytical approaches to economic data held in Tokyo in March 2009. The papers include detailed reports on the market behavior during the finan...

  13. The Japanese mind in disaster 3.11. Web survey in Tohoku, Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyushu (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Shoji; Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Shiotani, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The Tohoku Disaster 3.11 with earthquake M9.0, tsunami, and the Fukushima accident brought the inhabitants horrible damages. Tohoku area people [N=1,000], Tokyo people [N=500], Osaka people [N=500], and Kyushu people [N=500] (Total N=2,500) were targeted at Online survey which was designed to figure out the people's responses to the disaster and their psychological factors. The results showed that the Tohoku area people were in relatively solid local communities and bonded intimately each other. They thought it proper to cope with the disaster through community. They had more negative attitudes to Nuclear Power, and their trust toward the TEPCO and the government was more negative in dealing with the Fukushima accident. (author)

  14. Disturbance of recruitment success of mantis shrimp in Tokyo Bay associated with effects of hypoxia on the early life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Keita; Tajima, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Takamichi; Ohata, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro

    2014-08-30

    We investigated effects of severe hypoxia (dissolved oxygen shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in Tokyo Bay. Ten-year field surveys were conducted to examine quantitative relationships in annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, and spatial distribution of juveniles and severe hypoxia. There was no significant correlation between annual mean densities of larvae and juveniles, suggesting that mortality during larval or juvenile stages varies among years, which might have regulated abundance of young-of-the-year juveniles. Juvenile density was low in the severely hypoxic area, implying that hypoxia could affect survivals and spatial distribution of juveniles. Meanwhile, there are yearly fluctuations in juvenile density in normoxic areas of both northern and southern part of the bay. This evidence suggests that abundance of post-settled juveniles might have been determined by not only effects of hypoxia, but also other factors influencing mortality during the early life stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Technological solution for the protection of the environment (in the Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamochanin, Vlastimir

    1997-01-01

    As we approach the 21 century, the world finds itself confronting challenges regarding global-scale issues: economic development, the use of energy and natural resources, and environmental preservation. Moreover, these issues do not exist in a vacuum; they are all interrelated. They exert delicate effects on each other and can not be considered separately. If we continue as we have in the past, the earth will face an unprecedented crisis in the middle of coming century, in conjunction with the population explosion. (Susumu Yoda, President of the Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo, Japan). This paper presents a brief review of the research policy of the Japan Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, regarding environmental preservation

  16. Risk perception and risk attitudes in Tokyo: A report of the first administration of DOSPERT+M in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Schwartz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Domain-Specific Risk Taking scale (DOSPERT has been used to measure risk perceptions and attitudes in several nations and cultures. Takahashi translated DOSPERT to Japanese but DOSPERT responses from Japan have never been reported. Butler et al. (2012 developed an additional medical risk domain subscale to be added to DOSPERT to form DOSPERT+M. Objective: To describe the translation of the medical risk domain subscale to Japanese and to characterize domain-specific risk attitudes in Tokyo. Methods: Members of a probability-weighted online panel representative of the Tokyo metro area were randomized to complete pairs of DOSPERT+M tasks (risk attitude, risk perception, benefit perception. We explored relationships among domains through correlational and factor analysis; we tested the hypothesis that the medical risk domain and DOSPERT's health/safety domains were uncorrelated. Participants: One hundred eighty panelists. Results: Six of the original DOSPERT items (two each in the ethics, health/safety, and financial domains are not useable in Japan according to the Japanese Marketing Research Association code because they ask about participation in illegal activities; we thus used abbreviated versions of those domains leaving out these items. The DOSPERT+M items generally did not cluster cleanly into the expected domains, although items within the same domain usually were intercorrelated. Participants demonstrated domain-specific conventional risk attitudes, although nearly half of those assessed were perceived-risk neutral in all domains. Unlike our recently reported findings in the U.S. population, DOSPERT+M medical domain scores were associated with health/safety domain scores, although they were often more strongly associated with scores in other domains, such as recreational activities. Conclusion: The DOSPERT (and DOSPERT+M instruments are problematic in Japan but Japanese citizens may also differ from those of other nations

  17. Associations of acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have reported adverse health effects of short-term exposure to coarse particles independent of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), but evidence in Asian countries is limited. We therefore evaluated associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Study participants included 664,509 older people (≥65 years old) in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, who died between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMPM7-2.5 by subtracting PM2.5 from SPM to account for coarse particles. We then used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 confidence intervals (CIs). Same-day PM2.5 and PM7-2.5 were independently associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality related to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases; for example, both pollutants were positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality even after simultaneous adjustment for each pollutant: OR of 1.006 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.009) for PM2.5 and 1.016 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.022) for PM7-2.5. Even below concentrations stipulated by the Japanese air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and SPM (PM7), we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles is associated with increased risk of mortality among older people. Rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles should be continued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cultural differences in clinical leadership: a qualitative study comparing the attitudes of general dental practitioners from Greater Manchester and Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, P; Nomura, M; Ozaki, T; Ferguson, J; Matsuda, R

    2013-11-01

    Leadership has been argued to be a key component in the transformation of services in the United Kingdom and in Japan. In the UK, local professional networks have developed to provide clinician led care in dentistry; working to develop local plans to deliver improvements in the quality of care for patients. In Japan, the remuneration model for dental care has been revised with the aim to improve the service and tackle the current challenges of population health there. The aim of this study was to use semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis to explore general dental practitioners' (GDPs) understanding of the term 'leadership' and determine whether its meaning is culturally bound. Twelve participants were sampled purposively by the research team; identifying GDPs involved in leadership roles from across Greater Manchester and Tokyo. A set of open-ended questions was developed for semi-structured interviews a priori and the interviews continued until saturation. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and codes were developed into a coding frame for thematic analysis. Representative quotations are provided in the results. Fourteen codes were identified according to the aims of the study and organised into five overarching themes. 'Leadership as the relationship' was more pronounced among Japanese GDPs, while 'leadership as the individual' was common in GDPs from Greater Manchester. Differences were also found in respect of education and training in leadership. Training was also considered to be important by the GDPs from Japan, while UK GDPs felt leaders were more likely to be influenced by innate qualities. The interdependence of leadership and entrepreneurship was raised by both sets of GDPs. The concept of leadership was considered to be important by GDPs from both Greater Manchester and Tokyo; leadership was seen as providing strategy and direction for a clinical team. However, cultural influences were evident in how this was conceptualised.

  19. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  20. Influence of a passive sonic irrigation system on the elimination of bacteria from root canal systems: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, S Kirk; Safavi, Kamran; Spangberg, Larz S W; Kaufman, Blythe

    2010-08-01

    The present investigation evaluated the ability of a new passive sonic irrigation (sonic group) system (EndoActivator) to eliminate cultivable bacteria from root canals in vivo and compared it with that of standard syringe irrigation (control group). Data were obtained by using bacteriologic sampling of root canals treated by endodontic residents. Sampling results from 1 session of treatment were then compared with results obtained after intervisit calcium hydroxide disinfection and a second session of treatment. There was no significant difference in the ability of sonic group and control group to eliminate cultivable bacteria from root canals (P > .05). A second session and intervisit calcium hydroxide disinfection were able to eliminate cultivable bacteria from significantly more teeth than a single session of treatment (P treatment of apical periodontitis. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Background Pressure Profiles for Sonic Boom Vehicle Testing in the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Shaw, Stephen; Adamson, Eric; Simerly, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to identify test facilities that offer sonic boom measurement capabilities, an exploratory test program was initiated using wind tunnels at NASA research centers. The subject of this report is the sonic boom pressure rail data collected in the Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The purpose is to summarize the lessons learned based on the test activity, specifically relating to collecting sonic boom data which has a large amount of spatial pressure variation. The wind tunnel background pressure profiles are presented as well as data which demonstrated how both wind tunnel Mach number and model support-strut position affected the wind tunnel background pressure profile. Techniques were developed to mitigate these effects and are presented.

  2. Sonication-Based Improvement of the Physicochemical Properties of Guar Gum as a Potential Substrate for Modified Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique Akber Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guar Gum is a natural polysaccharide that, due to its physicochemical properties, is extensively investigated for biomedical applications as a matrix for modified drug delivery, but it is also used in the food industry as well as in cosmetics. A commercial sample of Guar Gum was sonicated for different periods of time, and the reduction in the average molecular weight was monitored by means of viscometric measurements. At the same time, the rheological behaviour was also followed, in terms of viscoelasticity range, flow curves, and mechanical spectra. Sonicated samples were used for the preparation of gels in the presence of borate ions. The effect of borax on the new samples was investigated by recording mechanical spectra, flow curves, and visible absorption spectra of complexes with Congo Red. The anisotropic elongation, observed in previous studies with tablets of Guar Gum and borax, was remarkably reduced when the sonicated samples were used for the preparation of the gels.

  3. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Shelter Cats and Dogs during 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Souichi; Maruyama, Soichi; Nogami, Sadao

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important human health concern with respect to abortion, congenital hydrocephalus, and encephalitis in immunocompromised people. Cats and dogs both are potential sources of T. gondii because they have close contact with humans. However, no epidemiological surveys have been conducted in Tokyo over the past decade. Therefore, the present study investigated and compared the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in shelter cats and dogs during 1999-2001 and 2009-2011 in Tokyo, Japan. Serum samples were collected from 337 shelter cats and 325 shelter dogs in urban and suburban areas of Tokyo, during 1999-2001 (233 cats and 219 dogs) and 2009-2011 (104 cats and 106 dogs). T. gondii antibodies were measured in the serum samples using a commercial latex agglutination test. Data were compared using the Fisher's exact test, and significance was indicated at P cats was 5.6% (13 of 233) in 1999-2001 and 6.7% (7 of 104) in 2009-2011, and that in dogs was 1.8% (4 of 219) and 1.9% (2 of 106), respectively. Significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in cats from suburban areas compared with cats in urban areas during both periods (P cats and dogs in Tokyo is considerably low as the seroprevalence has reached a steady state.

  4. Diagnosis of Persistent Infection in Prosthetic Two-Stage Exchange: Evaluation of the Effect of Sonication on Antibiotic Release from Bone Cement Spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariaux, Sandrine; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Borens, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Introduction : When treating periprosthetic joint infection with a two-stage procedure, antibiotic-impregnated spacers can be used in the interval between prosthetic removal and reimplantation. In our experience, cultures of sonicated spacers are most often negative. The objective of the study was to assess whether that sonication causes an elution of antibiotics, leading to elevated antibiotic concentrations in the sonication fluid inhibiting bacterial growth and thus causing false-negative cultures. Methods : A prospective monocentric study was performed from September 2014 to March 2016. Inclusion criteria were a two-stage procedure for prosthetic infection and agreement of the patient to participate in the study. Spacers were made of gentamicin-containing cement to which tobramycin and vancomycin were added. Antibiotic concentrations in the sonication fluid were determined by mass-spectometry (LC-MS). Results : 30 patients were identified (15 hip and 14 knee and 1 ankle arthroplasties). No cases of culture positive sonicated spacer fluid were observed in our serie. In the sonication fluid median concentrations of 13.2µg/ml, 392 µg/ml and 16.6 µg/ml were detected for vancomycin, tobramycin and gentamicin, respectively. According to the European Committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (EUCAST), these concentrations released from cement spacer during sonication are higher than the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for most bacteria relevant in prosthetic joint infections. Conclusion: Spacer sonication cultures remained sterile in all of our cases. Elevated concentrations of antibiotics released during sonication could explain partly negative-cultured sonicated spacers. Indeed, the absence of antibiotic free interval during the two-stages can also contribute to false-negative spacers sonicated cultures.

  5. Optimization of phycocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis by sonication as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Indraputri, Claudia Maya; Taurina, Zarahmaida

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is known as an epidemic disease which has high casualty in the world. One of its trigger factors is the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside the body. In order to regulate its amount, antioxidant ingestion is compulsory. Microalgae can be adopted as a source of antioxidant. Spirulina platensis is one of the consistently produced microalgae. It contains phycocyanin, a blue pigment, which is known as a nutritious food agent. Phycocyanin could be assumed as an antioxidant and has been clinically validated both in vitro and in vivo. This research is proposed to determine the optimum extraction time. The experiment was conducted by sonication at 37 kHz using phosphate buffer as the solvent. The result exhibited that increasing the sonication time would increase the yield until it achieved the optimum yield. Based on the experiment, the optimum extraction time was 25 minutes with yield of 8.25 mg/g dry biomass and purity of 0.6. It can be summarized that extraction time also affected the extraction efficiency and its antioxidant activity. This paper shows a prospect on future development in cultivating micro flora in Indonesia, particularly in Depok.

  6. Sound production to electric discharge: sonic muscle evolution in progress in Synodontis spp. catfishes (Mochokidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Kelly S; Colleye, Orphal; Parmentier, Eric

    2014-09-22

    Elucidating the origins of complex biological structures has been one of the major challenges of evolutionary studies. Within vertebrates, the capacity to produce regular coordinated electric organ discharges (EODs) has evolved independently in different fish lineages. Intermediate stages, however, are not known. We show that, within a single catfish genus, some species are able to produce sounds, electric discharges or both signals (though not simultaneously). We highlight that both acoustic and electric communication result from actions of the same muscle. In parallel to their abilities, the studied species show different degrees of myofibril development in the sonic and electric muscle. The lowest myofibril density was observed in Synodontis nigriventris, which produced EODs but no swim bladder sounds, whereas the greatest myofibril density was observed in Synodontis grandiops, the species that produced the longest sound trains but did not emit EODs. Additionally, S. grandiops exhibited the lowest auditory thresholds. Swim bladder sounds were similar among species, while EODs were distinctive at the species level. We hypothesize that communication with conspecifics favoured the development of species-specific EOD signals and suggest an evolutionary explanation for the transition from a fast sonic muscle to electrocytes. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Sonication-based isolation and enrichment of Chlorella protothecoides chloroplasts for illumina genome sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelova, Angelina [University of Arizona; Park, Sang-Hycuk [University of Arizona; Kyndt, John [Bellevue University; Fitzsimmons, Kevin [University of Arizona; Brown, Judith K [University of Arizona

    2013-09-01

    With the increasing world demand for biofuel, a number of oleaginous algal species are being considered as renewable sources of oil. Chlorella protothecoides Krüger synthesizes triacylglycerols (TAGs) as storage compounds that can be converted into renewable fuel utilizing an anabolic pathway that is poorly understood. The paucity of algal chloroplast genome sequences has been an important constraint to chloroplast transformation and for studying gene expression in TAGs pathways. In this study, the intact chloroplasts were released from algal cells using sonication followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, resulting in a 2.36-fold enrichment of chloroplasts from C. protothecoides, based on qPCR analysis. The C. protothecoides chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and found to be 84,576 Kb in size (8.57 Kb) in size, with a GC content of 30.8 %. This is the first report of an optimized protocol that uses a sonication step, followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, to release and enrich intact chloroplasts from a microalga (C. prototheocoides) of sufficient quality to permit chloroplast genome sequencing with high coverage, while minimizing nuclear genome contamination. The approach is expected to guide chloroplast isolation from other oleaginous algal species for a variety of uses that benefit from enrichment of chloroplasts, ranging from biochemical analysis to genomics studies.

  8. Assessment of extrusion-sonication process on flame retardant polypropylene by rheological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Sanchez-Olivares

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the rheological behavior of flame retardant polypropylene composites produced by two methods: 1 twin-screw extrusion and 2 ultrasound application combined with a static mixer die single-screw extrusion is analyzed in detail; results are related to the morphology of the composites. The flame retardant polymer composites are composed of a polypropylene matrix, an intumescent flame retardant system and functionalized clay. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the combination of the static mixer die and on-line sonication reduced particle size and improved the dispersion and distribution of the intumescent additives in the polypropylene matrix at the micrometric level. From linear viscoelastic properties, the Han, Cole-Cole and van Gurp-Palmen diagrams characterized the improved particle dispersion of the flame retardant additives. Two well-defined rheological behaviors were observed in these diagrams. These behaviors are independent on clay presence and concentration. In fact, the ultrasound device generates a 3D highly interconnected structure similar to a co-continuous pattern observed in polymer blends as evidenced by rheological measurements. This improvement in the dispersion and distribution of the additives is attributed to the combined effect of the static mixer die and on-line sonication that allowed reducing the additive content while achieving the optimum classification UL94-V0.

  9. Improvement of vertical velocity statistics measured by a Doppler lidar through comparison with sonic anemometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Timothy A.; Newman, Jennifer F.; Klein, Petra M.; Chilson, Phillip B.; Wharton, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    Since turbulence measurements from Doppler lidars are being increasingly used within wind energy and boundary-layer meteorology, it is important to assess and improve the accuracy of these observations. While turbulent quantities are measured by Doppler lidars in several different ways, the simplest and most frequently used statistic is vertical velocity variance (w'2) from zenith stares. However, the competing effects of signal noise and resolution volume limitations, which respectively increase and decrease w'2, reduce the accuracy of these measurements. Herein, an established method that utilises the autocovariance of the signal to remove noise is evaluated and its skill in correcting for volume-averaging effects in the calculation of w'2 is also assessed. Additionally, this autocovariance technique is further refined by defining the amount of lag time to use for the most accurate estimates of w'2. Through comparison of observations from two Doppler lidars and sonic anemometers on a 300 m tower, the autocovariance technique is shown to generally improve estimates of w'2. After the autocovariance technique is applied, values of w'2 from the Doppler lidars are generally in close agreement (R2 ≈ 0.95 - 0.98) with those calculated from sonic anemometer measurements.

  10. Measurement of mechanical properties of metallic glass at elevated temperature using sonic resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluvan, Suresh; Zhang, Haifeng; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2017-04-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are fully amorphous multi-component alloys with homogeneous and isotropic structure down to the atomic scale. Some attractive attributes of bulk metallic glasses include high strength and hardness as well as excellent corrosion and wear resistance. However, there are few reports and limited understanding of their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. We used a nondestructive sonic resonance method to measure the Young's modulus and Shear modulus of a bulk metallic glass, Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5, at elevated temperatures. The measurement system was designed using a laser displacement sensor to detect the sonic vibration produced by a speaker on the specimen in high-temperature furnace. The OMICRON Bode-100 Vector Network Analyzer was used to sweep the frequency and its output was connected to the speaker which vibrated the material in its flexural mode and torsional modes. A Polytec OFV-505 laser vibrometer sensor was used to capture the vibration of the material at various frequencies. The flexural and torsional mode frequency shift due to the temperature variation was used to determine the Young's modulus and Shear modulus. The temperature range of measurement was from 50°C to 350°C. The Young's modulus was found to reduce from 100GPa to 94GPa for the 300°C temperature span. Similarly, the Shear modulus decreased from 38.5GPa at 50°C to 36GPa at 350°C.

  11. Improvement of ore recovery efficiency in a flotation column cell using ultra-sonic enhanced bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, L. O.; Royer, J. J.; Filippova, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    The ore process flotation technique is enhanced by using external ultra-sonic waves. Compared to the classical flotation method, the application of ultrasounds to flotation fluids generates micro-bubbles by hydrodynamic cavitation. Flotation performances increase was modelled as a result of increased probabilities of the particle-bubble attachment and reduced detachment probability under sonication. A simplified analytical Navier-Stokes model is used to predict the effect of ultrasonic waves on bubble behavior. If the theory is verified by experimentation, it predicts that the ultrasonic waves would create cavitation micro-bubbles, smaller than the flotation bubble added by the gas sparger. This effect leads to increasing the number of small bubbles in the liquid which promote particle-bubble attachment through coalescence between bubbles and micro-bubbles. The decrease in the radius of the flotation bubbles under external vibration forces has an additional effect by enhancing the bubble-particle collision. Preliminary results performed on a potash ore seem to confirm the theory.

  12. Sonic Boom Pressure Signature Uncertainty Calculation and Propagation to Ground Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas K., IV; Bretl, Katherine N.; Walker, Eric L.; Pinier, Jeremy T.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to outline an approach for the quantification of uncertainty in sonic boom measurements and to investigate the effect of various near-field uncertainty representation approaches on ground noise predictions. These approaches included a symmetric versus asymmetric uncertainty band representation and a dispersion technique based on a partial sum Fourier series that allows for the inclusion of random error sources in the uncertainty. The near-field uncertainty was propagated to the ground level, along with additional uncertainty in the propagation modeling. Estimates of perceived loudness were obtained for the various types of uncertainty representation in the near-field. Analyses were performed on three configurations of interest to the sonic boom community: the SEEB-ALR, the 69o DeltaWing, and the LM 1021-01. Results showed that representation of the near-field uncertainty plays a key role in ground noise predictions. Using a Fourier series based dispersion approach can double the amount of uncertainty in the ground noise compared to a pure bias representation. Compared to previous computational fluid dynamics results, uncertainty in ground noise predictions were greater when considering the near-field experimental uncertainty.

  13. PROGRESS ON DEVELOPING SONIC INFRARED IMAGING FOR DEFECT DETECTION IN COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xiaoyan; He Qi; Li Wei; Newaz, Golam; Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    At last year's QNDE conference, we presented our development of Sonic IR imaging technology in metal structures, with results from both experimental studies and theoretical computing. In the latest aircraft designs, such as the B787 from Boeing, composites have become the major materials in structures such as the fuselage and wings. This is in contrast to composites' use only in auxiliary components such as flaps and spoilers in the past. With today's advanced technology of fabrication, it is expected the new materials can be put in use in even more aircraft structures due to its light weight and high strength (high strength-to-weight ratio), high specific stiffness, tailorability of properties, design flexibility etc. Especially, with increases in fuel cost, reducing the aircraft's body weight becomes more and more appealing. In this presentation, we describe the progress on our development of Sonic IR imaging for aircraft composite structures. In particular, we describe the some unexpected results discovered while modeling delaminations. These results were later experimentally verified with an engineered delamination.

  14. Effect of sonication on the colloidal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (NOR) Lab, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Aziz, Azlan Abdul [Nano-Biotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Colloidal stability of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles’ (SPION) suspensions, ultrasonically irradiated at various pH was studied. Electrophoresis measurement of the sonicated SPION showed that the shock waves and other unique conditions generated from the acoustic cavitation process (formation, growth and collapse of bubbles) affect the zeta potential value of the suspension. In this work, stabled colloidal suspensions of SPION were prepared and their pH is varied between 3 and 5. Prior to ultrasonic irradiation of the suspensions, their initial zeta potential values were determined. After ultrasonic irradiation of the suspensions, we observed that the sonication process interacts with colloidal stability of the nanoparticles. The results demonstrated that only suspensions with pH less 4 were found stable and able to retain more than 90% of its initial zeta potential value. However, at pH greater than 4, the suspensions were found unstable. The result implies that good zeta potential value of SPION can be sustained in sonochemical process as long as the pH of the mixture is kept below 4.

  15. Thermography and Sonic Anemometry to Analyze Air Heaters in Mediterranean Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Peña

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work has developed a methodology based on thermography and sonic anemometry for studying the microclimate in Mediterranean greenhouses equipped with air heaters and polyethylene distribution ducts to distribute the warm air. Sonic anemometry allows us to identify the airflow pattern generated by the heaters and to analyze the temperature distribution inside the greenhouse, while thermography provides accurate crop temperature data. Air distribution by means of perforated polyethylene ducts at ground level, widely used in Mediterranean-type greenhouses, can generate heterogeneous temperature distributions inside the greenhouse when the system is not correctly designed. The system analyzed in this work used a polyethylene duct with a row of hot air outlet holes (all of equal diameter that expel warm air toward the ground to avoid plant damage. We have observed that this design (the most widely used in Almería’s greenhouses produces stagnation of hot air in the highest part of the structure, reducing the heating of the crop zone. Using 88 kW heating power (146.7 W∙m−2 the temperature inside the greenhouse is maintained 7.2 to 11.2 °C above the outside temperature. The crop temperature (17.6 to 19.9 °C was maintained above the minimum recommended value of 10 °C.

  16. Thermography and sonic anemometry to analyze air heaters in Mediterranean greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Valera, Diego L; Molina-Aiz, Francisco; Peña, Araceli

    2012-10-16

    The present work has developed a methodology based on thermography and sonic anemometry for studying the microclimate in Mediterranean greenhouses equipped with air heaters and polyethylene distribution ducts to distribute the warm air. Sonic anemometry allows us to identify the airflow pattern generated by the heaters and to analyze the temperature distribution inside the greenhouse, while thermography provides accurate crop temperature data. Air distribution by means of perforated polyethylene ducts at ground level, widely used in Mediterranean-type greenhouses, can generate heterogeneous temperature distributions inside the greenhouse when the system is not correctly designed. The system analyzed in this work used a polyethylene duct with a row of hot air outlet holes (all of equal diameter) that expel warm air toward the ground to avoid plant damage. We have observed that this design (the most widely used in Almería's greenhouses) produces stagnation of hot air in the highest part of the structure, reducing the heating of the crop zone. Using 88 kW heating power (146.7 W ∙ m(-2)) the temperature inside the greenhouse is maintained 7.2 to 11.2 °C above the outside temperature. The crop temperature (17.6 to 19.9 °C) was maintained above the minimum recommended value of 10 °C.

  17. The Untidy Playground: An Irish Congolese Case Study in Sonic Encounters with the Sacred Stranger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Phelan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the proposal that music, and particularly singing, has unique properties that render it amenable to encounters with “the other” or the sacred stranger. Drawing on the deconstructionist works of Kristeva and Derrida, as well as the postmodern hermeneutics of Kearney and Caputo, it explores current debate concerning the nature of “the sacred” in contemporary life and the erosion of the theistic/atheistic divide, while proposing a deepening of the debate through the inclusion of the performative. As philosophical and theological discourses embrace this aporia, it does so against the backdrop of unprecedented human migration. The concomitant cultural and social disruption throws up new questions around the nature and experience of religion, spirituality and the sacred. This paper explores these questions in the context of a Congolese choir called Elikya, which was established by a group of asylum seekers in Limerick city, Ireland, in 2001. In tracking the musical life of this choir over the last decade and a half, including two musical recordings and numerous liturgical, religious and secular performances, it suggests that the sonic world of the choir both performs and transcends these descriptors. Using a three-fold model of context, content and intent, the paper concludes that musical experiences such as those created by Elikya erode any easy divisions between the religious and the secular or the liturgical and the non-liturgical and provide sonic opportunities to encounter the sacred stranger in the untidy playground of creative chaos.

  18. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar, E-mail: gude@cee.msstate.edu

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  19. Clearly Transparent Nanopaper from Highly Concentrated Cellulose Nanofiber Dispersion Using Dilution and Sonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kasuga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanopaper prepared from holocellulose pulp is one of the best substrates for flexible electronics because of its high thermal resistance and high clear transparency. However, the clearness of nanopaper decreases with increasing concentration of the starting cellulose nanofiber dispersion—with the use of a 2.2 wt % dispersion, for example—resulting in translucent nanopaper with a high haze of 44%. To overcome this problem, we show that the dilution of this high-concentration dispersion with water followed by sonication for 10 s reduces the haze to less than 10% while maintaining the high thermal resistance of the nanopaper. Furthermore, the combination of water dilution and a short sonication treatment improves the clearness of the nanopaper, which would translate into cost savings for the transportation and storage of this highly concentrated cellulose nanofiber dispersion. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement of the electrical conductivity of clear transparent nanopaper prepared from an initially high-concentration dispersion by dropping and heating silver nanowire ink on the nanopaper. These achievements will pave the way toward the realization of the mass production of nanofiber-based flexible devices.

  20. Suppression of the sonic heat transfer limit in high-temperature heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobran, Flavio

    1989-08-01

    The design of high-performance heat pipes requires optimization of heat transfer surfaces and liquid and vapor flow channels to suppress the heat transfer operating limits. In the paper an analytical model of the vapor flow in high-temperature heat pipes is presented, showing that the axial heat transport capacity limited by the sonic heat transfer limit depends on the working fluid, vapor flow area, manner of liquid evaporation into the vapor core of the evaporator, and lengths of the evaporator and adiabatic regions. Limited comparisons of the model predictions with data of the sonic heat transfer limits are shown to be very reasonable, giving credibility to the proposed analytical approach to determine the effect of various parameters on the axial heat transport capacity. Large axial heat transfer rates can be achieved with large vapor flow cross-sectional areas, small lengths of evaporator and adiabatic regions or a vapor flow area increase in these regions, and liquid evaporation in the evaporator normal to the main flow.

  1. The Use of Structural-Acoustic Techniques to Assess Potential Structural Damage From Sonic Booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrelick, Joel; Martini, Kyle

    1996-01-01

    The potential impact of supersonic operations includes structural damage from the sonic boom overpressure. This paper describes a study of how structural-acoustic modeling and testing techniques may be used to assess the potential for such damage in the absence of actual flyovers. Procedures are described whereby transfer functions relating structural response to sonic boom signature may be obtained with a stationary acoustic source and appropriate data processing. Further, by invoking structural-acoustic reciprocity, these transfer functions may also be acquired by measuring the radiated sound from the structure under a mechanical drive. The approach is based on the fundamental assumption of linearity, both with regard to the (acoustic) propagation of the boom in the vicinity of the structure and to the structure's response. Practical issues revolve around acoustic far field and source directivity requirements. The technique was implemented on a specially fabricated test structure at Edwards AFB, CA with the support of Wyle Laboratories, Inc. Blank shots from a cannon served as our acoustic source and taps from an instrumented hammer generated the mechanical drive. Simulated response functions were constructed. Results of comparisons with corresponding measurements recorded during dedicated supersonic flyovers with F-15 aircraft are presented for a number of sensor placements.

  2. Value of PCR in sonication fluid for the diagnosis of orthopedic hardware-associated infections: Has the molecular era arrived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Nora; Cabric, Sabrina; Morgenstern, Christian; Schuetz, Michael A; Trampuz, Andrej

    2018-04-01

    Bone healing disturbance following fracture fixation represents a continuing challenge. We evaluated a novel fully automated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using sonication fluid from retrieved orthopedic hardware to diagnose infection. In this prospective diagnostic cohort study, explanted orthopedic hardware materials from consecutive patients were investigated by sonication and the resulting sonication fluid was analyzed by culture (standard procedure) and multiplex PCR (investigational procedure). Hardware-associated infection was defined as visible purulence, presence of a sinus tract, implant on view, inflammation in peri-implant tissue or positive culture. McNemar's chi-squared test was used to compare the performance of diagnostic tests. For the clinical performance all pathogens were considered, whereas for analytical performance only microorganisms were considered for which primers are included in the PCR assay. Among 51 patients, hardware-associated infection was diagnosed in 38 cases (75%) and non-infectious causes in 13 patients (25%). The sensitivity for diagnosing infection was 66% for peri-implant tissue culture, 84% for sonication fluid culture, 71% (clinical performance) and 77% (analytical performance) for sonication fluid PCR, the specificity of all tests was >90%. The analytical sensitivity of PCR was higher for gram-negative bacilli (100%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (89%) and Staphylococcus aureus (75%) than for Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes (57%), enterococci (50%) and Candida spp. (25%). The performance of sonication fluid PCR for diagnosis of orthopedic hardware-associated infection was comparable to culture tests. The additional advantage of PCR was short processing time (PCR has the potential to complement conventional cultures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. OPACITY BROADENING OF {sup 13}CO LINEWIDTHS AND ITS EFFECT ON THE VARIANCE-SONIC MACH NUMBER RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, C.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 (Brazil); Burkhart, B.; Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 North Charter Street, WI 53711 (United States); Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J. [Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Kainulainen, J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kowal, G., E-mail: caioftc@dfte.ufrn.br [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2014-04-10

    We study how the estimation of the sonic Mach number (M{sub s} ) from {sup 13}CO linewidths relates to the actual three-dimensional sonic Mach number. For this purpose we analyze MHD simulations that include post-processing to take radiative transfer effects into account. As expected, we find very good agreement between the linewidth estimated sonic Mach number and the actual sonic Mach number of the simulations for optically thin tracers. However, we find that opacity broadening causes M{sub s} to be overestimated by a factor of ≈1.16-1.3 when calculated from optically thick {sup 13}CO lines. We also find that there is a dependence on the magnetic field: super-Alfvénic turbulence shows increased line broadening compared with sub-Alfvénic turbulence for all values of optical depth for supersonic turbulence. Our results have implications for the observationally derived sonic Mach number-density standard deviation (σ{sub ρ/(ρ)}) relationship, σ{sub ρ/〈ρ〉}{sup 2}=b{sup 2}M{sub s}{sup 2}, and the related column density standard deviation (σ {sub N/(N)}) sonic Mach number relationship. In particular, we find that the parameter b, as an indicator of solenoidal versus compressive driving, will be underestimated as a result of opacity broadening. We compare the σ {sub N/(N)}-M{sub s} relation derived from synthetic dust extinction maps and {sup 13}CO linewidths with recent observational studies and find that solenoidally driven MHD turbulence simulations have values of σ {sub N/(N)}which are lower than real molecular clouds. This may be due to the influence of self-gravity which should be included in simulations of molecular cloud dynamics.

  4. A study of sonic boom overpressure trends with respect to weight, altitude, Mach number, and vehicle shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Kathy E.; Mack, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses trends in nose shock overpressure generated by two conceptual Mach 2.0 configurations. One configuration was designed for high aerodynamic efficiency, while the other was designed to produce a low boom, shaped-overpressure signature. Aerodynamic lift, sonic boom minimization, and Mach-sliced/area-rule codes were used to analyze and compute the sonic boom characteristics of both configurations with respect to cruise Mach number, weight, and altitude. The influence of these parameters on the overpressure and the overpressure trends are discussed and conclusions are given.

  5. Waveforms and Sonic Boom Perception and Response (WSPR): Low-Boom Community Response Program Pilot Test Design, Execution, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Krecker, Peg; Cowart, Robbie; Hobbs, Chris; Wilmer, Clif; Koening, Carrie; Holmes, Theresa; Gaugler, Trent; Shumway, Durland L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR) Program was designed to test and demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of techniques to gather data relating human subjective response to multiple low-amplitude sonic booms. It was in essence a practice session for future wider scale testing on naive communities, using a purpose built low-boom demonstrator aircraft. The low-boom community response pilot experiment was conducted in California in November 2011. The WSPR team acquired sufficient data to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the various physical and psychological data gathering techniques and analysis methods.

  6. “Mood-modules”: Interconnected Wireless Toy Units for Studies of Social Play through Musical and Sonic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    This paper outlines the research background, focus and methods that will be used in the study of musical and sonic games that are embedded in interconnected wireless toy modules. Seen in the light of the idea: “The ensemble as a musical and social experience”, an approach for designing electronic...... toys for children will be discussed. Five electronic toy units function as test objects. These sensor devices will contain musical and sonic games. Children manipulate sound parameters, when they interact with each sensor, or rather, combinations of sensors. When two or more children interact...

  7. Sonication reduces the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells to bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models and cut plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Michelle S F; Rahman, Sadequr; Dykes, Gary A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the removal of bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, using sonication, and examined its effect on the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells to plant cell walls. S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells were subjected to sonication at 20 kHz to remove surface structures without affecting cell viability. Effective removal of flagella was determined by staining flagella of sonicated cells with Ryu's stain and enumerating the flagella remaining by direct microscopic counting. The attachment of sonicated S. Typhimurium cells to bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models and cut plant material (potato, apple, lettuce) was then evaluated. Varying concentrations of pectin and/or xyloglucan were used to produce a range of bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models. As compared to the non-sonicated controls, sonicated S. Typhimurium cells attached in significantly lower numbers (between 0.5 and 1.0 log CFU/cm 2 ) to all surfaces except to the bacterial cellulose-only composite without pectin and xyloglucan. Since attachment of S. Typhimurium to the bacterial cellulose-only composite was not affected by sonication, this suggests that bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, could have specific interactions with pectin and xyloglucan. This study indicates that sonication may have potential applications for reducing Salmonella attachment during the processing of fresh produce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of the 2001 Tohoku-oki earthquake to Tokyo Metropolitan area observed by the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Hayashi, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kasahara, K.; Obara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake brought a great impact to the Tokyo metropolitan area in both seismological aspect and seismic risk management although Tokyo is located 340 km from the epicenter. The event generated very strong ground motion even in the metropolitan area and resulted severe requifaction in many places of Kanto district. National and local governments have started to discuss counter measurement for possible seismic risks in the area taking account for what they learned from the Tohoku-oki event which is much larger than ever experienced in Japan Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. We will discuss the main results that are obtained in the respective fields which have been integrated to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area; the project has been much improved after the Tohoku event. In order to image seismic structure beneath the Metropolitan Tokyo area we have developed Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net; Hirata et al., 2009). We have installed 296 seismic stations every few km (Kasahara et al., 2011). We conducted seismic

  9. Environmental radiation status of the University of Tokyo after the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Nogawa, Norio; Mitani, Hiroshi; Kamiko, Masao; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takahiko

    2013-01-01

    The University of Tokyo campuses are primarily located in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. The three main university campuses are the Hongo campus and the Komaba campus, located in the mideastern part of Tokyo prefecture, and the Kashiwa campus, located in the north western part of Chiba prefecture. The distance between the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and these three campuses ranges from ∼200 to ∼250 km. Immediately after the nuclear disaster, the university organized a special correspondence team to survey the environmental radiation status for the university. The team consists of about 20 members, including mostly radiation protection specialists or technical experts of the university specialized in radiation measurements. This project is not research-oriented; rather, the purpose is to provide, in the absence of related information, the actual data on environmental radiation immediately after the accident. This information is provided both to the members of the university community and to the public. The two primary measured quantities are (1) the ambient radiation dose (microsieverts per hour) and (2) the specific radioactivity (becquerels per kilogram) of soil around the surface of a ground, which is used to indicate the level of contamination. The ambient dose data were reported every day on the web site and the portal site magazine of the university, and soil contamination data were reported occasionally. This report provides the background status and technical information on the related activities. In addition, it documents the measured environmental radiation data. Temporal variation of the ambient radiation dose rate had been officially surveyed since the morning of March 15, 2011, at the selected representative locations on the campus sites. In addition, maps were drawn that showed the distribution area of the ambient dose rate of three campuses. The first peak dose of 0.72 μSv h"-"1 was observed at ∼2:30 pm on May 15, 2011, in

  10. Integrated test plan ResonantSonic drilling system technology demonstration-1995, at the Hanford Site: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLellan, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    This integrated test plan describes the demonstration test of the ResonantSonic drilling system. This demonstration is part of the Office of Technology Development's Volatile Organic Compound Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). Two main purposes of this demonstration are (1) to continue testing the ResonantSonic drilling system compatibility with the Hanford Site waste characterization programs, and (2) to transfer this method for use at the Hanford Site, other government sites, and the private sector. The ResonantSonic method is a dry drilling technique. Field testing of this method began in July 1993. During the next four months, nine holes were drilled, and continuous core samples were retrieved. Penetration rates were 2 to 3 times the baseline, and the operational downtime rate was less than 10%. Successfully demonstrated equipment refinements included a prototype 300 series ResonantSonic head, a new drill rod design for 18-centimeter diameter pipe, and an automated pipe handling system. Various configurations of sampling equipment and drill bits were tested, depending on geologic conditions. The principal objective of the VOC-Arid ID is to determine the viability of emerging technologies that can be used to characterize, remediate, and/or monitor arid or semiarid sites containing VOCs (e.g., carbon tetrachloride) with or without associated metal and radionuclide contamination

  11. Attenuation of hedgehog acyltransferase-catalyzed sonic Hedgehog palmitoylation causes reduced signaling, proliferation and invasiveness of human carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konitsiotis, Antonios D; Chang, Shu-Chun; Jovanović, Biljana

    2014-01-01

    ) cell line PANC-1 and transfected HEK293a cells Hhat localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. siRNA knockdown showed that Hhat is required for Sonic hedgehog (Shh) palmitoylation, for its assembly into high molecular weight extracellular complexes and for functional activity. Hhat knockdown inhibited Hh...

  12. Art and Sonic Mining in the Archives: Methods for Investigating the Wartime History of Birmingham School of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Sian

    2018-01-01

    "Absconditi Viscus" (or "Hidden Entries") is a series of sound compositions based on the history of Birmingham School of Art during the First World War. Sound artist Justin Wiggan explored the concept of historical sonic information that although lost could still potentially permeate the archival record and the fabric of the…

  13. Application of nano technology using molecular sonic arrangers for the improvement of the maintenance, operation and efficiency of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Aranda Lopera, J.; Verdu Rios, M. F.; Sala, A.; Fabre, A.

    2012-01-01

    The sonic molecular arrangers, emitters are of nanofrecuency with some intensity and certain wave lengths that allow you to alter the links existing in the water molecules hydrogen Covalent; What gives these molecules properties more reactive, causing changes in the physical features of water such as viscosity, density, surface tension, capillary action, and thermal permeability.

  14. (Re)Educating the Senses to Multicultural Communities: Prospective Teachers Using Digital Media and Sonic Cartography to Listen for Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Cassie J.; Wargo, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    Attuning to the acoustic ecologies of multicultural education, this critical qualitative project interrogated how elementary prospective teachers (PST) used digital media to write community through and with sound. Examining PST produced soundscapes and the practice of sonic cartography, this study inquired how "hearing" difference and…

  15. Development and sexual dimorphism of the sonic system in deep sea neobythitine fishes: The upper continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Heba A.; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Fine, Michael L.

    2016-09-01

    The anatomy of sound production in continental-slope fishes has been ignored since the work of NB Marshall in the 1960s. Due to food scarcity at great depths, we hypothesize that sonic muscles will be reduced in deep-water neobythitine cusk-eels (family Ophidiidae). Here we describe and quantify dimensions of the swimbladder and sonic muscles of three species from the upper slope. They have four pairs of well-developed sonic muscles (two medial and two lateral) with origins on the skull and insertions on the medial swimbladder (medial pair) or on modified epineural ribs that attach to the lateral swimbladder (lateral pair). Despite minor differences, relatively similar swimbladder dimensions, muscle length and external morphology suggest a conservative body plan. However, there are major differences in sonic muscle mass: medial muscles are heavier in males and made of relatively small fibers (ca 10 μm in diameter). Lateral muscles are generally larger in females and consist of larger fibers, as in epaxial trunk muscle. Muscle weight varies between species, and we suggest males produce advertisement calls that vary in amplitude and duration in different species. Due to differences in fiber size, we hypothesize that lateral muscles with larger fibers remain contracted during sound production, and medial muscles with smaller fibers will oscillate to drive swimbladder sound production.

  16. Effect of sonic application mode on the resin-dentin bond strength and dentin permeability of self-etching systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Serrano, Alexandra; Costa, Thays Regina Ferreira da; Patzlaff, Rafael Tiago; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Reis, Alessandra

    2014-10-01

    To compare manual and sonic adhesive application modes in terms of the permeability and microtensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive applied in the one-step or two-step protocol. Self-etching All Bond SE (Bisco) was applied as a one- or a two-step adhesive under manual or sonic vibration modes on flat occlusal dentin surfaces of 64 human molars. Half of the teeth were used to measure the hydraulic conductance of dentin at 200 cm H₂O hydrostatic pressure for 5 min immediately after the adhesive application. In the other half, composite buildups (Opallis) were constructed incrementally to create resin-dentin sticks with a cross-sectional area of 0.8 mm² to be tested in tension (0.5 mm/min) immediately after restoration placement. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The fluid conductance of dentin was significantly reduced by the sonic vibration mode for both adhesives, but no effect on the bond strength values was observed for either adhesive. The sonic application mode at an oscillating frequency of 170 Hz can reduce the fluid conductance of the one- and two-step All Bond SE adhesive when applied on dentin.

  17. Duplication of 7q36.3 encompassing the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) gene is associated with congenital muscular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lone Krøldrup; Kjaergaard, S; Kirchhoff, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    with muscular hypertrophy and mildly retarded psychomotor development. Array-CGH identified a small duplication of 7q36.3 including the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) gene in both the aborted foetus and the live born male sib. Neither of the parents carried the 7q36.3 duplication. The consequences of overexpression...

  18. Hess Tower field study: sonic measurements at a former building-integrated wind farm site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Built in 2010, Hess Tower is a 29-story office building located in the heart of downtown Houston, TX. Unique to the building is a roof structure that was specifically engineered to house ten vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) to partially offset the energy demands of the building. Despite extensive atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel tests to predict the flow conditions on the roof before the building was constructed, the Hess VAWTs were eventually removed after allegedly one of the turbines failed and fell to the ground. This talk presents in-situ sonic anemometry measurements taken on the roof of Hess Tower at the former turbine locations. We compare this wind field characterization to the ABL wind tunnel data to draw conclusions about building-integrated wind farm performance and prediction capability.

  19. Effects of Sonic Booms on Marine Mammals: Problem Review and Recommended Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ann E.

    1996-01-01

    By flying the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exclusively over uninhabited areas and mo over water, human annoyance will be reduced to acceptable levels. However, this strategy will for HSCT proponents to contend with the potential effects of sonic booms on animals, particularly ma mammals. What follows is a summary of the environmental regulations that must be addressed, the scientific community's concerns about the potential effects of the HSCT, and recommendations fox research to address the most important concerns. The recommendations included herein are based both on existing scientific evidence and regulatory needs. One cannot over-emphasize the importance of obtaining the appropriate information prior to substantial public exposure. Recent controversies over other human-made acoustic sources in the ocean suggest that the HSCT will receive intense scrutiny. It seems certain that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) or its equivalent will be necessary.

  20. Direct characterization of commercial lecithins by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gabriel D; Alberici, Rosana M; Pereira, Gustavo G; Cabral, Elaine C; Eberlin, Marcos N; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Commercial lecithins are composed mainly of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. The analysis of the commercial lecithins, including their fraction of phospholipids, normally involves laborious and expensive protocols. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to be an efficient technique for the analysis of lipids. Samples of commercial lecithins including standards, refined, deoiled and modified soy lecithin were tested. Characteristic profiles of phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerols are detected by EASI(+)-MS, whereas EASI(-)-MS provided phosphatidylethanolamines, glycophospholipids and free fatty acids profiles. Acetylated lecithins also displayed characteristic acetylated derivatives. EASI-MS data was also compared to MALDI-MS, and found to display richer compositional information. The industrial process applied to lecithin fabrication was also characterised via typical EASI-MS profiles. EASI-MS both in its positive and negative ion modes offers a direct, fast and efficient technique able to characterise commercial lecithin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The De-Noising of Sonic Echo Test Data through Wavelet Transform Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Watson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of feasibility study into the application of the wavelet transform signal processing method to sonic based non-destructive testing techniques. Finite element generated data from cast in situ foundation piles were collated and processed using both continuous and discrete wavelet transform techniques. Results were compared with conventional Fourier based methods. The discrete Daubechies wavelets and the continuous Mexican hat wavelet were used and their relative merits investigated. It was found that both the continuous Mexican hat and discrete Daubechies D8 wavelets were significantly better at locating the pile toe compared than the Fourier filtered case. The wavelet transform method was then applied to field test data and found to be successful in facilitating the detection of the pile toe.

  2. A novel method for soil aggregate stability measurement by laser granulometry with sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, B. G.; Lark, R. M.; Wragg, J.

    2012-04-01

    Regulatory authorities need to establish rapid, cost-effective methods to measure soil physical indicators - such as aggregate stability - which can be applied to large numbers of soil samples to detect changes of soil quality through monitoring. Limitations of sieve-based methods to measure the stability of soil macro-aggregates include: i) the mass of stable aggregates is measured, only for a few, discrete sieve/size fractions, ii) no account is taken of the fundamental particle size distribution of the sub-sampled material, and iii) they are labour intensive. These limitations could be overcome by measurements with a Laser Granulometer (LG) instrument, but this technology has not been widely applied to the quantification of aggregate stability of soils. We present a novel method to quantify macro-aggregate (1-2 mm) stability. We measure the difference between the mean weight diameter (MWD; μm) of aggregates that are stable in circulating water of low ionic strength, and the MWD of the fundamental particles of the soil to which these aggregates are reduced by sonication. The suspension is circulated rapidly through a LG analytical cell from a connected vessel for ten seconds; during this period hydrodynamic forces associated with the circulating water lead to the destruction of unstable aggregates. The MWD of stable aggregates is then measured by LG. In the next step, the aggregates - which are kept in the vessel at a minimal water circulation speed - are subject to sonication (18W for ten minutes) so the vast majority of the sample is broken down into its fundamental particles. The suspension is then recirculated rapidly through the LG and the MWD measured again. We refer to the difference between these two measurements as disaggregation reduction (DR) - the reduction in MWD on disaggregation by sonication. Soil types with more stable aggregates have larger values of DR. The stable aggregates - which are resistant to both slaking and mechanical breakdown by the

  3. Transesterification of rubber seed oil by sonication technique for the production of methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragavan, S.N.; Roy, D.V. [Scott Christian College (Autonomous), Department of Chemistry, Research Centre, Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-07-15

    The ever-increasing concern due to the fast-depleting energy sources and the environmental impact of the fossil fuel burning has provoked the researchers to turn out for an environmentally benign fuel source. Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) being renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and eco-friendly, is now gaining momentum. Added carbon sequestration ability of rubber trees has made it one of the best sources for biodiesel in developing countries. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from high acid content (23%) rubber seed oil by sonication technique at room temperature (32 C) is of good yield (80%). The FAMEs produced have acceptable fuel standards as specified by ASTM D 6751. This study deals with the utilisation of FAMEs as an alternate fuel for petrodiesel. (orig.)

  4. Exploring sonic interaction design and presence: Natural Interactive Walking in Porto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Serafin, Stefania; Fontana, Frederico

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the results of a three days workshop whose goal was to combine interactive sounds and soundscape design to simulate the sensation of walking in a specific location of Porto. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of the different solutions proposed in terms of the tech......In this paper we report on the results of a three days workshop whose goal was to combine interactive sounds and soundscape design to simulate the sensation of walking in a specific location of Porto. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of the different solutions proposed in terms...... of the technology used, and issues of how sonic interaction combined with soundscape design affects presence in virtual environments....

  5. Physical properties of a new sonically placed composite resin restorative material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Emily T; Lien, Wen; Casey, Jeffery; Dixon, Sara A; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    A new nanohybrid composite activated by sonic energy has been recently introduced as a single-step, bulk-fill restorative material. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical properties of this new composite to various other composite restorative materials marketed for posterior or bulk-fill placement. The following physical properties were examined: depth of cure, volumetric shrinkage, flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, and percent porosity. A mean and standard deviation were determined per group. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests were performed per property (α = 0.05). Percent porosity was evaluated with a Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney test (α = 0.005). Significant differences were found between groups (P composite restorative materials, the new nanohybrid composite showed low shrinkage and percent porosity, moderate fracture toughness and flexural modulus, and high flexural strength. However, it also demonstrated a relatively reduced depth of cure compared to the other composites.

  6. Research on axial total pressure distributions of sonic steam jet in subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xinzhuang; Li Wenjun; Yan Junjie

    2012-01-01

    The axial total pressure distributions of sonic steam jet in subcooled water were experimentally investigated for three different nozzle diameters (6.0 mm, 8.0 mm and 10.0 mm). The inlet steam pressure, and pool subcooling subcooled water temperature were in the range of 0.2-0.6 MPa and 420-860 ℃, respectively. The effect of steam pressure, subcooling water temperature and nozzle size on the axial pressure distributions were obtained, and also the characteristics of the maximum pressure and its position were studied. The results indicated that the characteristics of the maximum pressure were influenced by the nozzle size for low steam pressure, but the influence could be ignored for high steam pressure. Moreover, a correlation was given to correlate the position of the maximum pressure based on steam pressure and subcooling water temperature, and the discrepancies of predictions and experiments are within ±15%. (authors)

  7. Acoustic band gaps of the woodpile sonic crystal with the simple cubic lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Liang-Yu; Chen, Lien-Wen, E-mail: chenlw@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-02

    This study theoretically and experimentally investigates the acoustic band gap of a three-dimensional woodpile sonic crystal. Such crystals are built by blocks or rods that are orthogonally stacked together. The adjacent layers are perpendicular to each other. The woodpile structure is embedded in air background. Their band structures and transmission spectra are calculated using the finite element method with a periodic boundary condition. The dependence of the band gap on the width of the stacked rods is discussed. The deaf bands in the band structure are observed by comparing with the calculated transmission spectra. The experimental transmission spectra for the {Gamma}-X and {Gamma}-X' directions are also presented. The calculated results are compared with the experimental results.

  8. Sonic Interactions in Virtual Reality: State of the Art, Current Challenges, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stefania; Geronazzo, Michele; Erkut, Cumhur; Nilsson, Niels C; Nordahl, Rolf

    2018-03-01

    A high-fidelity but efficient sound simulation is an essential element of any VR experience. Many of the techniques used in virtual acoustics are graphical rendering techniques suitably modified to account for sound generation and propagation. In recent years, several advances in hardware and software technologies have been facilitating the development of immersive interactive sound-rendering experiences. In this article, we present a review of the state of the art of such simulations, with a focus on the different elements that, combined, provide a complete interactive sonic experience. This includes physics-based simulation of sound effects and their propagation in space together with binaural rendering to simulate the position of sound sources. We present how these different elements of the sound design pipeline have been addressed in the literature, trying to find the trade-off between accuracy and plausibility. Recent applications and current challenges are also presented.

  9. Novel Sonic Hedgehog Mutation in a Couple with Variable Expression of Holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aguinaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Holoprosencephaly (HPE is the most common developmental defect of the forebrain and midface in humans. sporadic and inherited mutations in the human sonic hedgehog (SHH gene cause 37% of familial HPE. A couple was referred to our unit with a family history of two spontaneous first trimester miscarriages and a daughter with HPE who presented early neonatal death. The father had a repaired median cleft lip, absence of central incisors, facial medial hypoplasia, and cleft palate. Intelligence and a brain CT scan were normal. Direct paternal sequencing analysis showed a novel nonsense mutation (W127X. Facial characteristics are considered as HPE microforms, and the pedigree suggested autosomal dominant inheritance with a variable expression of the phenotype. This study reinforces the importance of an exhaustive evaluation of couples with a history of miscarriages and neonatal deaths with structural defects.

  10. Effect of deregulation of Sonic Hedgehog pathway on responses to DNA damage and cancer predisposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charazac, Aurelie

    2015-01-01

    The Gorlin syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by several developmental abnormalities. Due to mutations in PTCH1, a key player of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway, clinical manifestations also includes hyper-radiosensitivity and an increased predisposition to the development of basal cell carcinomas. Given the implication of DNA repair system defects in hyper-radiosensitivity pathologies, we decided to study the effect of PTCH1 mutations on the DNA damage response in order to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to Gorlin's phenotype.This study demonstrate a global failure of the DNA damage repair systems in Gorlin fibroblasts with respect to controls. It highlights in particular the collapse of the base excision repair pathway (BER) responsible for the repair of oxidative DNA damage. (author) [fr

  11. Sonic hedgehog promotes stem-cell potential of Mueller glia in the mammalian retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Jin; Zheng Hua; Xiao Honglei; She Zhenjue; Zhou Guomin

    2007-01-01

    Mueller glia have been demonstrated to display stem-cell properties after retinal damage. Here, we report this potential can be regulated by Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Shh can stimulate proliferation of Mueller glia through its receptor and target gene expressed on them, furthermore, Shh-treated Mueller glia are induced to dedifferentiate by expressing progenitor-specific markers, and then adopt cell fate of rod photoreceptor. Inhibition of signaling by cyclopamine inhibits proliferation and dedifferentiation. Intraocular injection of Shh promotes Mueller glia activation in the photoreceptor-damaged retina, Shh also enhances neurogenic potential by producing more rhodopsin-positive photoreceptors from Mueller glia-derived cells. Together, these results provide evidences that Mueller glia act as potential stem cells in mammalian retina, Shh may have therapeutic effects on these cells for promoting the regeneration of retinal neurons

  12. Sonic hedgehog promotes stem-cell potential of Mueller glia in the mammalian retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Wan; Hua, Zheng; Honglei, Xiao; Zhenjue, She [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China); Zhou Guomin [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 200032 Shanghai (China)], E-mail: gmzhou185@yahoo.com.cn

    2007-11-16

    Mueller glia have been demonstrated to display stem-cell properties after retinal damage. Here, we report this potential can be regulated by Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Shh can stimulate proliferation of Mueller glia through its receptor and target gene expressed on them, furthermore, Shh-treated Mueller glia are induced to dedifferentiate by expressing progenitor-specific markers, and then adopt cell fate of rod photoreceptor. Inhibition of signaling by cyclopamine inhibits proliferation and dedifferentiation. Intraocular injection of Shh promotes Mueller glia activation in the photoreceptor-damaged retina, Shh also enhances neurogenic potential by producing more rhodopsin-positive photoreceptors from Mueller glia-derived cells. Together, these results provide evidences that Mueller glia act as potential stem cells in mammalian retina, Shh may have therapeutic effects on these cells for promoting the regeneration of retinal neurons.

  13. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates actin cytoskeleton via Tiam1-Rac1 cascade during spine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobunari; Kurisu, Junko; Kengaku, Mineko

    2010-12-01

    The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway has essential roles in several processes during development of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Here, we report that Shh regulates dendritic spine formation in hippocampal pyramidal neurons via a novel pathway that directly regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Shh signaling molecules Patched (Ptc) and Smoothened (Smo) are expressed in several types of postmitotic neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Knockdown of Smo induces dendritic spine formation in cultured hippocampal neurons independently of Gli-mediated transcriptional activity. Smo interacts with Tiam1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, via its cytoplasmic C-terminal region. Inhibition of Tiam1 or Rac1 activity suppresses spine induction by Smo knockdown. Shh induces remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton independently of transcriptional activation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate a novel Shh pathway that regulates the actin cytoskeleton via Tiam1-Rac1 activation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced inertia from lossy effective fluids using multi-scale sonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Guild

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a recent theoretically predicted phenomenon of enhanced permittivity with electromagnetic waves using lossy materials is investigated for the analogous case of mass density and acoustic waves, which represents inertial enhancement. Starting from fundamental relationships for the homogenized quasi-static effective density of a fluid host with fluid inclusions, theoretical expressions are developed for the conditions on the real and imaginary parts of the constitutive fluids to have inertial enhancement, which are verified with numerical simulations. Realizable structures are designed to demonstrate this phenomenon using multi-scale sonic crystals, which are fabricated using a 3D printer and tested in an acoustic impedance tube, yielding good agreement with the theoretical predictions and demonstrating enhanced inertia.

  15. The Role of Sonic Hedgehog in Craniofacial Patterning, Morphogenesis and Cranial Neural Crest Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Sebastian; Boglev, Yeliz; Owens, Harley; Goldie, Stephen J

    2016-08-03

    Craniofacial defects (CFD) are a significant healthcare problem worldwide. Understanding both the morphogenetic movements which underpin normal facial development, as well as the molecular factors which regulate these processes, forms the cornerstone of future diagnostic, and ultimately, preventative therapies. The soluble morphogen Sonic hedgehog ( Shh ), a vertebrate orthologue of Drosophila hedgehog , is a key signalling factor in the regulation of craniofacial skeleton development in vertebrates, operating within numerous tissue types in the craniofacial primordia to spatiotemporally regulate the formation of the face and jaws. This review will provide an overview of normal craniofacial skeleton development, and focus specifically on the known roles of Shh in regulating the development and progression of the first pharyngeal arch, which in turn gives rise to both the upper jaw (maxilla) and lower jaw (mandible).

  16. The Role of Sonic Hedgehog in Craniofacial Patterning, Morphogenesis and Cranial Neural Crest Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Dworkin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial defects (CFD are a significant healthcare problem worldwide. Understanding both the morphogenetic movements which underpin normal facial development, as well as the molecular factors which regulate these processes, forms the cornerstone of future diagnostic, and ultimately, preventative therapies. The soluble morphogen Sonic hedgehog (Shh, a vertebrate orthologue of Drosophila hedgehog, is a key signalling factor in the regulation of craniofacial skeleton development in vertebrates, operating within numerous tissue types in the craniofacial primordia to spatiotemporally regulate the formation of the face and jaws. This review will provide an overview of normal craniofacial skeleton development, and focus specifically on the known roles of Shh in regulating the development and progression of the first pharyngeal arch, which in turn gives rise to both the upper jaw (maxilla and lower jaw (mandible.

  17. Aluminium Electrodeposition from Ionic Liquid: Effect of Deposition Temperature and Sonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Berretti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, ionic liquids (ILs have attracted a wide interest for their potential use as a medium for many chemical processes, in particular electrochemistry. As electrochemical media they allow the electrodeposition of elements that are impossible to reduce in aqueous media. We have investigated the electrodeposition of aluminium from 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ((BmimCl/AlCl3 (40/60 mol % as concerns the effect of deposition parameters on the quality of the deposits. Thick (20 μm aluminium coatings were electrodeposited on brass substrates at different temperatures and mixing conditions (mechanical stirring and sonication. These coatings were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, roughness measurements, and X-ray diffraction to assess the morphology and the phase composition. Finally, electrochemical corrosion tests were carried out with the intent to correlate the deposition parameters to the anti-corrosion properties.

  18. Discharge coefficient correlations for circular-arc venturi flowmeters at critical /sonic/ flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, B. T.; Britton, C. L.; Seidl, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental data are analyzed to support theoretical predictions for discharge coefficients in circular-arc venturi flow meters operating in the critical sonic flow regime at throat Reynolds numbers above 150 thousand. The data tend to verify the predicted 0.25% decrease in the discharge coefficient during transition from a laminar to turbulent boundary layer. Four different test gases and three flow measurement facilities were used in the experiments with 17 venturis with throat sizes from 0.15 to 1.37 in. and Beta ratios ranging from 0.014 to 0.25. Recommendations are given as to how the effectiveness of future studies in the field could be improved.

  19. Heavy metals uptake by sonicated activated sludge: Relation with floc surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Julien; Casellas, Magali; Dagot, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The effects of sonication of activated sludge on heavy metal uptake were in a first time investigated in respect with potential modifications of floc surface properties. The treatment led to the simultaneous increase of specific surface area and of the availability of negative and/or hydrophilic sites. In parallel, organic matter was released in the soluble fraction. Sorption isotherms of cadmium and copper showed that uptake characteristics and mechanisms were highly dependent on both heavy metal species and specific energy supplied. The increase of both specific surface area and fixation sites availability led to the increase of Cd(II) uptake. For Cu(II), organic matter released in soluble phase during the treatment seemed to act as a ligand and to limit adsorption on flocs surface. Three different heavy metals uptake mechanisms have been identified: proton exchange, ion exchange and (co)precipitation

  20. Acoustic one-way mode conversion and transmission by sonic crystal waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Shiliang; He, Hailong; He, Zhaojian; Deng, Ke; Zhao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    We proposed a scheme to achieve one-way acoustic propagation and even-odd mode switching in two mutually perpendicular sonic crystal waveguides connected by a resonant cavity. The even mode in the entrance waveguide is able to switch to the odd mode in the exit waveguide through a symmetry match between the cavity resonant modes and the waveguide modes. Conversely, the odd mode in the exit waveguide is unable to be converted into the even mode in the entrance waveguide as incident waves and eigenmodes are mismatched in their symmetries at the waveguide exit. This one-way mechanism can be applied to design an acoustic diode for acoustic integration devices and can be used as a convertor of the acoustic waveguide modes.

  1. Penetration Characteristics of Air, Carbon Dioxide and Helium Transverse Sonic Jets in Mach 5 Cross Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinc Erdem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation of sonic air, CO2 and Helium transverse jets in Mach 5 cross flow was carried out over a flat plate. The jet to freestream momentum flux ratio, J, was kept the same for all gases. The unsteady flow topology was examined using high speed schlieren visualisation and PIV. Schlieren visualisation provided information regarding oscillating jet shear layer structures and bow shock, Mach disc and barrel shocks. Two-component PIV measurements at the centreline, provided information regarding jet penetration trajectories. Barrel shocks and Mach disc forming the jet boundary were visualised/quantified also jet penetration boundaries were determined. Even though J is kept the same for all gases, the penetration patterns were found to be remarkably different both at the nearfield and the farfield. Air and CO2 jet resulted similar nearfield and farfield penetration pattern whereas Helium jet spread minimal in the nearfield.

  2. Numerical Analysis of Storm Surge and Seiche at Tokyo Bay caused by the 2 Similar Typhoons, Typhoon Phanphon and Vongfong in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, T.; Takagawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    A long period damped oscillation, or seiche, sometimes happens inside a harbor after passing typhoon. For some cases, a maximum sea level is observed due to the superposition of astronomical tide and seiche rather than a peak of storm surge. Hence to clarify seiche factors for reducing disaster potential is important, a long-period seiche with a fundamental period of 5.46 hours in Tokyo Bay (Konishi, 2008) was investigated through numerical simulations and analyses. We examined the case of Typhoon Phanphon and Vongfong in 2014 (Hereafter Case P and V). The intensity and moving velocity were similar and the best-tracks were an arc-shaped, typical one approaching to Tokyo Bay. The track of Case V was about 1.5 degree higher latitude than that of Case P, only Typhoon Phanphon caused significant seiche.Firstly, numerical simulations for the 2 storm surges at Tokyo Bay were conducted by Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and Meso-Scale Model Grid Point Values (MSM-GPV). MSM-GPV gave the 10m wind speed and Sea Level Pressure (SLP), especially the Mean Error (ME) and Root Mean Squire Error (RMSE) of SLP were low compared to the 12 JMA observation points data (Case P: ME -0.303hPa, RMSE 1.87hPa, Case V: ME -0.285hPa, RMSE 0.74hPa). The computational results showed that the maximum of storm surge was underestimated but the difference was less than 20cm at 5 observation points in Tokyo Bay(Fig.1, 2).Then, power spectrals, coherences and phase differences of storm surges at the 5 observation points were obtained by spectral analysis of observed and simulated waveforms. For Case P, the phase-difference between the bay mouth and innermost part of Tokyo Bay was little, and coherence was almost 1(Fig.3, 4). However, for Case V, coherence was small around the fundamental period of 5.46 hours. Furthermore, Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of storm surge, SLP and sea surface stress were conducted. The contributions of EOF1 were above 90% for the all variables, the

  3. Evaluation of Probe-Induced Flow Distortion of Campbell CSAT3 Sonic Anemometers by Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Sadiq; De Roo, Frederik; Foken, Thomas; Mauder, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    The Campbell CSAT3 sonic anemometer is one of the most popular instruments for turbulence measurements in basic micrometeorological research and ecological applications. While measurement uncertainty has been characterized by field experiments and wind-tunnel studies in the past, there are conflicting estimates, which motivated us to conduct a numerical experiment using large-eddy simulation to evaluate the probe-induced flow distortion of the CSAT3 anemometer under controlled conditions, and with exact knowledge of the undisturbed flow. As opposed to wind-tunnel studies, we imposed oscillations in both the vertical and horizontal velocity components at the distinct frequencies and amplitudes found in typical turbulence spectra in the surface layer. The resulting flow-distortion errors for the standard deviations of the vertical velocity component range from 3 to 7%, and from 1 to 3% for the horizontal velocity component, depending on the azimuth angle. The magnitude of these errors is almost independent of the frequency of wind speed fluctuations, provided the amplitude is typical for surface-layer turbulence. A comparison of the corrections for transducer shadowing proposed by both Kaimal et al. (Proc Dyn Flow Conf, 551-565, 1978) and Horst et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 155:371-395, 2015) show that both methods compensate for a larger part of the observed error, but do not sufficiently account for the azimuth dependency. Further numerical simulations could be conducted in the future to characterize the flow distortion induced by other existing types of sonic anemometers for the purposes of optimizing their geometry.

  4. The role of the sonic hedgehog signalling pathway in patients with midline defects and congenital hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, L C; Gaston-Massuet, C; Andoniadou, C L; Carreno, G; Webb, E A; Kelberman, D; McCabe, M J; Panagiotakopoulos, L; Saldanha, J W; Spoudeas, H A; Torpiano, J; Rossi, M; Raine, J; Canham, N; Martinez-Barbera, J P; Dattani, M T

    2015-05-01

    The Gli family of zinc finger (GLI) transcription factors mediates the sonic hedgehog signalling pathway (HH) essential for CNS, early pituitary and ventral forebrain development in mice. Human mutations in this pathway have been described in patients with holoprosencephaly (HPE), isolated congenital hypopituitarism (CH) and cranial/midline facial abnormalities. Mutations in Sonic hedgehog (SHH) have been associated with HPE but not CH, despite murine studies indicating involvement in pituitary development. We aimed to establish the role of the HH pathway in the aetiology of hypothalamo-pituitary disorders by screening our cohort of patients with midline defects and/or CH for mutations in SHH, GLI2, Shh brain enhancer 2 (SBE2) and growth-arrest specific 1 (GAS1). Two variants and a deletion of GLI2 were identified in three patients. A novel variant at a highly conserved residue in the zinc finger DNA-binding domain, c.1552G > A [pE518K], was identified in a patient with growth hormone deficiency and low normal free T4. A nonsynonymous variant, c.2159G > A [p.R720H], was identified in a patient with a short neck, cleft palate and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. A 26·6 Mb deletion, 2q12·3-q21·3, encompassing GLI2 and 77 other genes, was identified in a patient with short stature and impaired growth. Human embryonic expression studies and molecular characterisation of the GLI2 mutant p.E518K support the potential pathogenicity of GLI2 mutations. No mutations were identified in GAS1 or SBE2. A novel SHH variant, c.1295T>A [p.I432N], was identified in two siblings with variable midline defects but normal pituitary function. Our data suggest that mutations in SHH, GAS1 and SBE2 are not associated with hypopituitarism, although GLI2 is an important candidate for CH. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Efficacy of sonic and ultrasonic activation for removal of calcium hydroxide from mesial canals of mandibular molars: a microtomographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Anne; Cox, Timothy C; Paranjpe, Avina; Flake, Natasha M; Cohenca, Nestor; Johnson, James D

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to use micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning to evaluate the efficacy of sonic and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) on calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH](2)) removal and to measure the volume and percentage of Ca(OH)(2) remaining in the root canal system. The root canals of 46 extracted human mandibular molar teeth were prepared with rotary instruments and randomly assigned to two experimental groups (n = 40) as well as positive and negative controls (n = 6). In each experimental group, 20 teeth were assigned to each irrigation protocol, sonic or passive ultrasonic irrigation. All experimental teeth and the positive controls were filled with Ca(OH)(2), whereas the negative control teeth did not receive Ca(OH)(2). All teeth were scanned using micro-CT scanning to determine the dressing volume. After 7 days, the Ca(OH)(2) was removed in the experimental groups using rotary instrumentation only, and the teeth were again scanned using micro-CT scanning to calculate volume and percentage of Ca(OH)(2) removed. Positive control teeth were not subjected to rotary instrumentation. Experimental samples were then irrigated using either sonic or passive ultrasonic and the volume of remaining Ca(OH)(2) was calculated using micro-CT. Remnants of Ca(OH)(2) were found in all experimental groups. No Ca(OH)(2) was found in the negative controls, whereas a mean of 8.7 mm(3) of Ca(OH)(2) was recorded in the positive controls. Rotary plus passive ultrasonic irrigation removed significantly more Ca(OH)(2) (85.7%) than rotary plus sonic irrigation (71.5%) (p < 0.001). The combination of rotary instrumentation and passive ultrasonic activation for 3 periods of 20 seconds results in significantly lower amounts of Ca(OH)(2) remnants in the canal compared with sonic irrigation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Development on power distribution technologies of four electric power companies in Japan. The Tokyo Electric Power Co. , Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Electric power companies have been needed to cope with various needs in accordance with the progress of highly information-oriented society, the improvement of industrial technology, and the advancement and diversification of the living environment. In such situation, the power distribution section of Tokyo Electric Power has promoted technical development, setting up following priority items to put into operation: to reduce power failure caused by works and accidents, to improve reliability in supply, to reduce costs of construction and all over business management, to serve customers to answer various needs, to develop new technology and new methods based on the medium- and long-term prospect, and so forth. Several examples of recent technical development are introduced here. They are as follows; compact equipment and materials for electric poles to match the circumstances of cities and to simplify the construction method for power distribution, a 750kVA large high-voltage power-generation truck to make provision against an emergency such as a disaster by a typhoon, a compact transformer used on the ground, a high-voltage automatic cabinet, and a detector to find the failure of indoor power distribution works in resistances in a short time. 8 figs.

  7. Identification of subjects for social responsibility education at universities and the present activity at the university of Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karima, Risuke; Oshima, Yoshito; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The management of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has recently become a critical concern for companies in advanced countries. For universities, there is a requirement to contribute to the promotion of CSR, resulting in graduates who have sufficient cognition of and a good attitude towards CSR. In addition, universities have social responsibilities, which can be called "University Social Responsibility (USR)." On the basis of the concepts of the guidelines for CSR in the "Green Paper," which was presented by the European Committee (EC) in 2001, we provide a perspective here on what factors dictate the establishment of education programs for social responsibilities at universities. These factors include an outline of the concepts and the significance of CSR, social ethics and the morals of higher education and research, compliances, human resource management, human rights, safety and health in academic settings, and various concerns regarding environmental safety and preservation. Additionally, through the concept postulated here for social responsible education, in this paper, we introduce the present activity at the University of Tokyo (UT) in terms of the education program for CSR and USR, proposing that the future establishment of university-wide education programs based on the concept of CSR and the value of sustainability is required at UT.

  8. Report of the research results with University of Tokyo, Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory's Facilities in fiscal 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This book contains a large number of reports of studies made in 1986 through joint utilization of the nuclear reactor 'Yayoi' and electron beam type accelerator which are installed in the Nuclear engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokyo. The reports presented deal with 'Behaviors of Neutrons in Fast Reactor Blanket Shield', 'Effect of Fast Neutron Radiation on Organic Materials', 'Production and Recovery of Tritium in Nuclear Fusion Reactor Blanket System', 'Bench Mark Experiment of Effect of Atmospheric Scattering of Neutron', 'Experimental Evaluation of Nuclear Heat Rate', 'Fast Neutron Shielding Experiment', 'Effect of Fast Neutron Radiation on Hot Water', 'Neutron Shielding Experiment', 'Biological and Medical Application of 'Yayoi' Neutron', 'Effect of Fission-Fusion Correlation Radiation on Semiconductors (Si, GaAs)', 'Application of Fast Neutron to Radiography Technology', 'Streaming in Offset Slit', 'Design and Evaluation of New Reactor', 'LET Effect on Organic Material', 'Handling, Separation and Recovery of Transuranium Elements', 'Reactor Operation Support System Using Knowledge Engineering Technique', 'Application of Shape Memory Alloys to Nuclear Reactor Devices', 'Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Hear Transfer', and many other studies. (Nogami, K.)

  9. Growing electricity demand and role of nuclear power in Asia. WANO Tokyo Center summarizes Asian Nuclear Power Atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Present status of the activities of World Association of Nuclear Operations (WANO) in Asia was briefly summarized here. The WANO Tokyo Center is the hub for WANO's activities having a member ship of 17 operators from six countries and territories. The center conducts a variety of activities designed to enhance the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Asia. Asian economy is expanding now in spite of the stagnation of recent world economy. The economic development has been paralleled by population growth in Asia and the 21st century may become the 'age of Asia'. Despite this remarkable economic growth, some parts of Asia are still at the developing stage in terms of electric power infrastructure. Demand for electric power is expected to increase dramatically from now on, making the development of electric power plants an urgent priority. Nuclear power has thus become the focus of increasing interest in Asia. At present, 17 operators in six countries of Asia operate 79 units at 32 power stations with a total capacity of approximately 60 GW, or equivalent to around 17% of the total capacity of all WANO members. China's massive NPP construction program and Indonesia's nuclear power program are expected to boost total capacity in future. (M.N.)

  10. Report from investigation committee on the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2012-01-01

    Government's Investigation Committee on the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company published its final report on July 23, 2012. Results of investigation combined final report and interim report published on December 26, 2011. The author was head of accident accuse investigation team mostly in charge of site response, prior measure and plant behavior. This article reported author related technical investigation results focusing on site response and prior measures against tsunamis of units 1-3 of Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations. Misunderstanding of working state of isolation condenser of unit 1, unsuitability of alternative water injection at manual stop of high-pressure coolant injection (HPCI) system of unit 3 and improper prior measure against tsunami and severe accident were pointed out in interim report. Improper monitoring of suppression chamber of unit 2 and again unsuitable work for HPCI system of unit 3 were reported in final report. Thorough technical investigation was more encouraged to update safety measures of nuclear power stations. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities of trace metals in the Tokyo metropolitan area measured with a water surface sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Marumoto, Kohji

    2004-04-01

    Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities (=deposition flux/atmospheric concentration) for trace metals including Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the Tokyo metropolitan area were measured using an improved water surface sampler. Mercury is deposited on the water surface in both gaseous (reactive gaseous mercury, RGM) and particulate (particulate mercury, Hg(p)) forms. The results based on 1 yr observations found that dry deposition plays a significant if not dominant role in trace metal deposition in this urban area, contributing fluxes ranging from 0.46 (Cd) to 3.0 (Zn) times those of concurrent wet deposition fluxes. The deposition velocities were found to be dependent on the deposition of coarse particles larger than approximately 5 microm in diameter on the basis of model calculations. Our analysis suggests that the 84.13% diameter is a more appropriate index for each deposited metal than the 50% diameter in the assumed undersize log-normal distribution, because larger particles are responsible for the flux. The deposition velocities for trace metals other than mercury increased exponentially with an increase in their 84.13% diameters. Using this regression equation, the deposition velocities for Hg(p) were estimated from its 84.13% diameter. The deposition fluxes for Hg(p) calculated from the estimated velocities tended to be close to the mercury fluxes measured with the water surface sampler during the study periods except during summer.

  12. Nontarget approach for environmental monitoring by GC × GC-HRTOFMS in the Tokyo Bay basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Shunji; Tanabe, Kiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we developed an approach for sequential nontarget and target screening for the rapid and efficient analysis of multiple samples as an environmental monitoring using a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograph coupled to a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-HRTOFMS). A key feature of the approach was the construction of an accurate mass spectral database learned from the sample via nontarget screening. To enhance the detection power in the nontarget screening, a global spectral deconvolution procedure based on non-negative matrix factorization was applied. The approach was applied to the monitoring of rivers in the Tokyo Bay basin. The majority of the compounds detected by the nontarget screening were alkyl chain-based compounds (55%). In the quantitative target screening based on the output from the nontarget screening, particularly high levels of organophosphorus flame retardants (median concentrations of 31, 116 and 141 ng l(-1) for TDCPP, TCIPP and TBEP, respectively) were observed among the target compounds. Flame retardants used for household furniture and building materials were detected in river basins where buildings and arterial traffic were dominated. The developed GC × GC-HRTOFMS approach was efficient and effective for environmental monitoring and provided valuable new information on various aspects of monitoring in the context of environmental management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. isolated from a biofilm sample obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Edagawa, Akiko; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Strain K-20(T), a Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming and strictly aerobic coccobacillus, which produces a pale pink pigment (R2A agar medium, 30℃, seven days) was isolated from a sample of biofilm obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA partial gene sequences (1,439 bp) showed that the strain (accession number: AB297501) was related to Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) and Roseomonas stagni HS-69(T) with 97.4% and 96.9% sequence similarity, respectively. Strain K-20(T) formed a distinct cluster with Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) in the phylogenetic tree at a high bootstrap value (93%); however, distance was recognized between the strains. In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridization level between strain K-20(T) and Roseomonas frigidaquae JCM 15073(T) was 33%. The taxonomic data indicate that K-20(T) (=JCM 14634(T) =KCTC 32152(T)) should be classified in the genus Roseomonas as the type strain of a novel species, Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov.

  14. Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric OH reactivity and trace species within a suburban forest near Tokyo during AQUAS-TAMA campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Sathiyamurthi; Nagai, Yoshihide; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Yamasaki, Shohei; Shoji, Koki; Ida, Akira; Jones, Charlotte; Tsurumaru, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yuhi; Yoshino, Ayako; Shimada, Kojiro; Nakashima, Yoshihiro; Kato, Shungo; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2018-07-01

    Total OH reactivity, which gives the instantaneous loss rate of OH radicals due to reactive species, is an invaluable technique to understand regional air quality, as it gives the overall reactivity of the air mass, the fraction of each trace species reactive to OH, the fraction of missing sinks, O3 formation potential, etc. Total OH reactivity measurement was conducted in a small suburban forest located ∼30 km from Tokyo during the air quality study at field museum TAMA (AQUAS-TAMA) campaign in early autumn 2012 and summer 2013. The average measured OH reactivities during that autumn and summer were 7.4 s-1 and 11.4 s-1, respectively. In summer, isoprene was the major contributor, accounting for 28.2% of the OH reactivity, as a result of enhanced light-dependent biogenic emission, whereas NO2 was major contributor in autumn, accounting for 19.6%, due to the diminished contribution from isoprene as a result of lower solar strength. Higher missing OH reactivity 34% was determined in summer, and linear regression analysis showed that oxygenated VOCs could be the potential candidates for missing OH reactivity. Lower missing OH reactivity 25% was determined in autumn and it was significantly reduced (11%) if the interference of peroxy radicals to the measured OH reactivity were considered.

  15. Two long-term slow slip events around Tokyo Bay found by GNSS observation during 1996-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Yabe, Suguru

    2017-03-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) with durations ranging from days to more than a decade have been observed in plate subduction zones around the world. In the Kanto district in Japan, several SSEs have been identified based on geodetic observations. However, none of these events have had durations largely exceeding a year. In this study, we show that long-term SSEs with durations longer than 3 years occurred before the year 2000 and after 2007 on the upper interface of the Philippine Sea Plate at depths of 30-40 km. The fault model determined by inversion of global navigation satellite system data is located northeast of Tokyo Bay, where a seismic gap and low seismic wave velocities were detected by seismological observations. Moreover, the acceleration periods of the fault slip corresponded well with increases in the background seismicity for shallower earthquakes. The slip history was also temporally correlated with the long-term shear stress changes governed mainly by non-tidal variations in the ocean bottom pressure. However, the predicted slip from the long-term stress change was too small to reproduce the observed slow slips. To prove the causal relationship between the SSEs and the external stress change, more advanced modeling is necessary to confirm whether such a small slip can trigger an SSE.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Report of the second joint Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Materials. July 12, 2002, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Joint research committees in purpose of the discussion on DEMO blanket in view point of the both of reactor technology and materials were held by the Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Fusion Materials. The joint research committee was held in Tokyo on July 12, 2002. In the committee, the present status of development of solid and liquid breeding blanket, the present status of development of reduced activation structure materials, and IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) program were discussed based on the discussions of the development programs of the blanket and materials at the first joint research committee. As a result, it was confirmed that high electric efficiency with 41% would be obtained in the solid breeding blanket system, that neutron radiation data of reduced activation ferritic steel was obtained by HFIR collaboration, and that KEP (key element technology phase) of IFMIF would be finished at the end of 2002 and the data base for the next step, i.e. EVEDA (engineering validation/engineering design activity) was obtained. In addition, the present status of ITER CTA, which was a transient phase for the construction, and the outline of ITER Fast Track, which was an accelerated plan for the performance of the power plants, were reported. This report consists of the summary of the discussion and the viewgraphs which were used at the second joint research committee, and these are very useful for the researchers of the fusion area in Japan. (author)

  17. Manufacturing process of ion source cone for SF cyclotron of Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The manufacturing process of the complicated structural cone elements for the low energy ion source of the SF cyclotron of Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, is reported. The drawing for manufacture is shown. This cone has a cylindrical part with 16 mm diameter and 60 mm length, a conical part with 50 mm large diameter and 62 deg conical angle, and many holes and notches, and is made of copper. The manufacturing process of the cone elements is as follows: providing the material by sawing a bar, cutting both end surfaces and drilling centering holes on a lathe, machining multiple outer surface utilizing an index on a milling machine, marking work on end and side surfaces, drilling centering holes for gas passage, water passage and bolt holes utilizing a circular table on a milling machine, spot facing and drilling centering holes for oblique gas and water passages on the outer surface utilizing an angle gauge on a milling machine, drilling gas and water passages on a drilling machine, brazing of plugs, machining of inner and outer surfaces on a lathe, machining of outer surface on a milling machine, finishing by hand work and so on. These process steps are shown in photographs. (Nakai, Y.)

  18. Radiation therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebara, Takeshi [Municipal Kanbara General Hospital, Fujikawa, Shizuoka (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Toshihide; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Akagi, Kumiko; Masuda, Gota

    2000-12-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is frequently found in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on radiotherapy for patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. Between April 1991 and May 1997, radiotherapy was given to 11 lesions in eight men with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma to relieve their symptoms. The lesions involved the head and neck region, the legs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Radiotherapy was carried out with 4-MV photon through parallel opposed field or high energy electrons. Total doses ranged from 20 to 38 Gy, with a median of 30 Gy, delivered in 2- to 3-Gy fractions. Four patients were given other treatments prior to the radiotherapy. Acute reaction was evaluated according to the modified acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiotherapy had relieved the symptoms in all patients at completion of this therapy. Lesions that involved the hard palate and vocal cords had completely disappeared. The lesions that received radiotherapy were controlled without symptoms until the patients died. Patients who had the head and neck region treated exhibited severe acute mucosal reaction (at a dose of 30 Gy, there was grade 2 morbidity by modified RTOG criteria, in two patients, and grade 3 in three patients) although the radiation therapy was completed for these patients. Radiotherapy promises a favorable outcome for symptom relief in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (author)

  19. A Japanese-American Sam Spade: The Metaphysical Detective in Death in Little Tokyo, by Dale Furutani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portilho Carla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to discuss the legacy of the roman noir in contemporary detective fiction produced outside the hegemonic center of power, here represented by the novel Death in Little Tokyo (1996, written by Japanese-American author Dale Furutani. Starting from the concept of the metaphysical detective (Haycraft 76; Holquist 153-156, characterized by deep questioning about narrative, interpretation, subjectivity, the nature of reality and the limits of knowledge, this article proposes a discussion about how these literary works, which at first sight represent a traditionally Anglo-American genre, constitute narratives that aim to rescue the memory, history and culture of marginalized communities. Typical of late modernity detective fiction, the metaphysical detective has none of the positivistic detective’s certainties, as he does not share in his Cartesian notion of totality, being presented instead as a successor of the hardboiled detective of the roman noir. In this article I intend to analyze the paths chosen by the author and discuss how his re-reading of the roman noir dialogues with the texts of hegemonic noire detective fiction, inscribing them in literary tradition and subverting them at the same time.

  20. Characteristics of a pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Goto, Keiichi; Kato, Yuko; Saitou, Keiko; Sugiyama, Jun-ichi; Hara, Motonobu; Yoshida, Shin-ichi; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    Strain K-20, a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and strictly aerobic rod, which produces a pale pink pigment, was isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. The taxonomic feature of the strain was studied using phenotypic tests and phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was related to Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea, Roseomonas gilardii subsp. gilardii, Roseomonas cervicalis and Roseomonas mucosa at 94.3-94.6 sequence similarities. Growth occurred at 25-40 C and pH 5.0-10.0, optimal at 35 C and pH 7.0. Growth did not occur in the presence of >or=2% NaCl. The API 20NE identification system gave a positive result for urease, L-arabinose, potassium gluconate, adipic acid, malic acid and trisodium citrate (API code number 0201465). The predominant fatty acids of strain K-20 were C18:1Delta11 (50.8%) and C16:1 (17.2%). Cells contained ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) as the major quinone and the G+C content was 72.0 mol%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was assumed that strain K-20 (=JCM 14634) is a novel species of the genus Roseomonas.