Full Text Available Abstract The Notch signaling pathway has multifarious functions in the organization of the developing vertebrate embryo. One of its most fundamental roles is in the emergence of the regular pattern of somites that will give rise to the musculoskeletal structures of the trunk. The parts it plays in the early operation of the segmentation clock and the later definition and differentiation of the somites are beginning to be understood.
McGrew Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Somitogenesis is the earliest sign of segmentation in the developing vertebrate embryo. This process starts very early, soon after gastrulation has initiated and proceeds in an anterior-to-posterior direction during body axis elongation. It is widely accepted that somitogenesis is controlled by a molecular oscillator with the same periodicity as somite formation. This periodic mechanism is repeated a specific number of times until the embryo acquires a defined specie-specific final number of somites at the end of the process of axis elongation. This final number of somites varies widely between vertebrate species. How termination of the process of somitogenesis is determined is still unknown. Results Here we show that during development there is an imbalance between the speed of somite formation and growth of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM/tail bud. This decrease in the PSM size of the chick embryo is not due to an acceleration of the speed of somite formation because it remains constant until the last stages of somitogenesis, when it slows down. When the chick embryo reaches its final number of somites at stage HH 24-25 there is still some remaining unsegmented PSM in which expression of components of the somitogenesis oscillator is no longer dynamic. Finally, we identify a change in expression of retinoic acid regulating factors in the tail bud at late stages of somitogenesis, such that in the chick embryo there is a pronounced onset of Raldh2 expression while in the mouse embryo the expression of the RA inhibitor Cyp26A1 is downregulated. Conclusions Our results show that the chick somitogenesis oscillator is arrested before all paraxial mesoderm is segmented into somites. In addition, endogenous retinoic acid is probably also involved in the termination of the process of segmentation, and in tail growth in general.
Susan D Hester
Full Text Available Somitogenesis, the formation of the body's primary segmental structure common to all vertebrate development, requires coordination between biological mechanisms at several scales. Explaining how these mechanisms interact across scales and how events are coordinated in space and time is necessary for a complete understanding of somitogenesis and its evolutionary flexibility. So far, mechanisms of somitogenesis have been studied independently. To test the consistency, integrability and combined explanatory power of current prevailing hypotheses, we built an integrated clock-and-wavefront model including submodels of the intracellular segmentation clock, intercellular segmentation-clock coupling via Delta/Notch signaling, an FGF8 determination front, delayed differentiation, clock-wavefront readout, and differential-cell-cell-adhesion-driven cell sorting. We identify inconsistencies between existing submodels and gaps in the current understanding of somitogenesis mechanisms, and propose novel submodels and extensions of existing submodels where necessary. For reasonable initial conditions, 2D simulations of our model robustly generate spatially and temporally regular somites, realistic dynamic morphologies and spontaneous emergence of anterior-traveling stripes of Lfng. We show that these traveling stripes are pseudo-waves rather than true propagating waves. Our model is flexible enough to generate interspecies-like variation in somite size in response to changes in the PSM growth rate and segmentation-clock period, and in the number and width of Lfng stripes in response to changes in the PSM growth rate, segmentation-clock period and PSM length.
Hamblet, Natasha S; Lijam, Nardos; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Wang, Jianbo; Yang, Yasheng; Luo, Zhenge; Mei, Lin; Chien, Kenneth R; Sussman, Daniel J; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony
The murine dishevelled 2 (Dvl2) gene is an ortholog of the Drosophila segment polarity gene Dishevelled, a member of the highly conserved Wingless/Wnt developmental pathway. Dvl2-deficient mice were produced to determine the role of Dvl2 in mammalian development. Mice containing null mutations in Dvl2 present with 50% lethality in both inbred 129S6 and in a hybrid 129S6-NIH Black Swiss background because of severe cardiovascular outflow tract defects, including double outlet right ventricle, transposition of the great arteries and persistent truncus arteriosis. The majority of the surviving Dvl2(-/-) mice were female, suggesting that penetrance was influenced by sex. Expression of Pitx2 and plexin A2 was attenuated in Dvl2 null mutants, suggesting a defect in cardiac neural crest development during outflow tract formation. In addition, approximately 90% of Dvl2(-/-) mice have vertebral and rib malformations that affect the proximal as well as the distal parts of the ribs. These skeletal abnormalities were more pronounced in mice deficient for both Dvl1 and Dvl2. Somite differentiation markers used to analyze Dvl2(-/-) and Dvl1(-/-);Dvl2(-/-) mutant embryos revealed mildly aberrant expression of Uncx4.1, delta 1 and myogenin, suggesting defects in somite segmentation. Finally, 2-3% of Dvl2(-/-) embryos displayed thoracic spina bifida, while virtually all Dvl1/2 double mutant embryos displayed craniorachishisis, a completely open neural tube from the midbrain to the tail. Thus, Dvl2 is essential for normal cardiac morphogenesis, somite segmentation and neural tube closure, and there is functional redundancy between Dvl1 and Dvl2 in some phenotypes.
Keynes Roger J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The polarization of somite-derived sclerotomes into anterior and posterior halves underlies vertebral morphogenesis and spinal nerve segmentation. To characterize the full extent of molecular differences that underlie this polarity, we have undertaken a systematic comparison of gene expression between the two sclerotome halves in the mouse embryo. Results Several hundred genes are differentially-expressed between the two sclerotome halves, showing that a marked degree of molecular heterogeneity underpins the development of somite polarity. Conclusion We have identified a set of genes that warrant further investigation as regulators of somite polarity and vertebral morphogenesis, as well as repellents of spinal axon growth. Moreover the results indicate that, unlike the posterior half-sclerotome, the central region of the anterior-half-sclerotome does not contribute bone and cartilage to the vertebral column, being associated instead with the development of the segmented spinal nerves.
Bellairs, R; Veini, M
A new theory of control of somite segmentation in chick embryos is proposed. This supposses that tiny clusters of already programmed cells are present throughout the presumptive somite area at stage 4, but that in order to fulfill their destiny they probably depend on the addition of further cells from the primitive streak. Evidence is based on the two groups of experiments: a) Experiments involving transection across the primitive streak at various stages, (which results in a 'tail' which possesses mesodermal derivatives) and across the segmental plate (which results in a 'tail' lacking mesodermal derivatives). b) Experiments in which parts of embryos have been explanted with or without their primitive streak. It is suggested that the initial clusters of pre-programmed cells move further and further posteriorly, developing into somitomeres (the precursors of true somites) only as they receive re-inforcements from the primitive streak or, ultimately, from the tail bud.
Full Text Available From third week of gestation, notochord and the neural folds begin to gather at the center of the embryo to form the paraxial mesoderm. Paraxial mesoderm separates into blocks of cells called somitomers at the lateral sides of the neural tube of the head region. At the beginning of the third week somitomeres take ring shapes and form blocks of somites from occipital region to caudal region. Although somites are transient structures, they are extremely important in organizing the segmental pattern of vertebrate embryos. Somites give rise to the cells that form the vertebrae and ribs, the dermis of the dorsal skin, the skeletal muscles of the back, and the skeletal muscles of the body wall and limbs. Somitogenesis are formed by a genetic mechanism that is regulated by cyclical expression of genes in the Notch, Wnt and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways. The prevailing model of the mechanism governing somitogenesis is the clock and wave front. Somitogenesis has components of periodicity, separation, epithelialization and axial specification. According to this model, the clock causes cells to undergo repeated oscillations, with a particular phase of each oscillation defining the competency of cells in the presomitic mesoderm to form a somite. Any disruption in this mechanism can be cause of severe segmentation defects of the vertebrae and congenital anomalies. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the somitogenesis which is an important part of morphogenesis. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 362-376
Bessho, Yasumasa; Hirata, Hiromi; Masamizu, Yoshito; Kageyama, Ryoichiro
Hes7, a bHLH gene essential for somitogenesis, displays cyclic expression of mRNA in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Here, we show that Hes7 protein is also expressed in a dynamic manner, which depends on proteasome-mediated degradation. Spatial comparison revealed that Hes7 and Lunatic fringe (Lfng) transcription occurs in the Hes7 protein-negative domains. Furthermore, Hes7 and Lfng transcription is constitutively up-regulated in the absence of Hes7 protein and down-regulated by stabilization of Hes7 protein. Thus, periodic repression by Hes7 protein is critical for the cyclic transcription of Hes7 and Lfng, and this negative feedback represents a molecular basis for the segmentation clock. PMID:12783854
Ohata, Emi; Takahashi, Yoshiko
The somite is a transient structure present in early vertebrate embryos, giving rise to a variety of essential tissues including skeletal muscles, dermis, axial bones and blood vessels. The term “somite” refers to a tissue of spherical structure that forms by pinching off from the continuous tissue called presomitic mesoderm (PSM, also called segmental plate in avian embryos). The PSM is recognized as a pair of longitudinal stripes along the midline of the body. Thus, each somite forms at the anterior end of PSM, and this process recurs periodically in time and space, gener ating the segmented pattern of the body along the antero-posterior axis.
Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Imai, Terukuni; Okuda, Bungo.
We reported on seven cases of brainstem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla, the sensory deficit manifested over the trunk or the leg namely segmental sensory disturbances. All patients showed dissociated sensory disturbance of pain and temperature with retained deep sensations except two cases in which touch was also slightly impaired. The sensory distribution was classified into two types. The first ''crossed type'', ipsilatral face and contralateral trunk and leg below the level was involved in 4 cases, and the second ''unilateral type'' contralateral face and trunk above the level in 3 cases. Clinico-anatomical evaluation was executed by MRI. Lesions were detected in the lateral lower pons in two cases and in the lateral medulla in one case. The location of lesions by MRI revealed more lateral lesions showed ''crossed type'' of segmental sensory disturbance and more medial lesions ''unilateral type''. It was shown that the segmental sensory disturbance could be explained by the partial involvement of the lateral spinothalamic tract, which is arranged with the fibers from the sacral segments most lateral. We considered it very important to differentiate the segmental sensory disturbance by brainstem lesion in practical clinical diagnosis. We also emphasize the type of segmental sensory disturbance could be a localizing sign in the lateral brainstem as such, ''crossed type'' indicating the lesion of the lateral portion and ''unilateral type'' the medial portion of the lateral lower brainstem. (author)
Nowicki, Julie L; Takimoto, Ryoko; Burke, Ann Campbell
Patterning events along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis of vertebrate embryos result in the distribution of muscle and bone forming a highly effective functional system. A key aspect of regionalized AP patterning results from variation in the migratory pattern of somite cells along the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis of the body. This occurs as somite cell populations expand around the axis or migrate away from the dorsal midline and cross into the lateral plate. The fate of somitic cells has been intensely studied and many details have been reported about inductive signaling from other tissues that influence somite cell fate and behavior. We are interested in understanding the specific differences between somites in particular AP regions and how these differences contribute to the global pattern of the organism. Using orthotopic transplants of segmental plate between quail and chick embryos, we have mapped the interface of the somitic and lateral plate mesoderm during the formation of the body wall in cervical and thoracic regions. This interface does not change dramatically in the mid-cervical region, but undergoes extensive changes in the thoracic region. Based on this regional mapping and consistent with the extensive literature, we suggest a revised method of classifying regions of the body wall that relies on embryonic cell lineages rather than adult functional criteria.
Full Text Available During vertebrate embryonic development, early skin, muscle, and bone progenitor populations organize into segments known as somites. Defects in this conserved process of segmentation lead to skeletal and muscular deformities, such as congenital scoliosis, a curvature of the spine caused by vertebral defects. Environmental stresses such as hypoxia or heat shock produce segmentation defects, and significantly increase the penetrance and severity of vertebral defects in genetically susceptible individuals. Here we show that a brief exposure to a high osmolarity solution causes reproducible segmentation defects in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos. Both osmotic shock and heat shock produce border defects in a dose-dependent manner, with an increase in both frequency and severity of defects. We also show that osmotic treatment has a delayed effect on somite development, similar to that observed in heat shocked embryos. Our results establish osmotic shock as an alternate experimental model for stress, affecting segmentation in a manner comparable to other known environmental stressors. The similar effects of these two distinct environmental stressors support a model in which a variety of cellular stresses act through a related response pathway that leads to disturbances in the segmentation process.
... them. It was found that, contrary to the previously analyzed two degree-of-freedom segment model, the muzzle-end segment could be stabilized by the proper choice of transfer functions and elevation driveline response...
Vasan, Nagaswamistri; Lamb, K.M.; Heick, A.E.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels have been shown to have a positive influence on chondrogenesis in limb buds and pelvic cartilage. In the present study the level of cAMP was measured during somite chondrogenesis in vitro and found to decrease from 1.38 pmol/μg DNA on day 0 to 0.9 pmol/μg DNA on day 6. Inclusion of notochord with somites caused a marked recution, with levels decreasing from 1.41 pmol/μg DNA on day 0 to 0.36 pmol/μg DNA on day 6. Concurrently, the incorporation of radioactive sulfate into sulfated glycosaminoglycans increased from day 3 to day 6 by 38% in somite and 77% in somite-notochord explants. The aggregation of proteoglycans was analyzed by gel chromatography and found to increase with a corresponding decrease in cAMP levels. The result indicate that a decrease in cAMP levels may be necessary for chondrogenic expression in somites. (author)
Bellairs, R; Sanders, E J; Portch, P A
Tissue culture, time-lapse cinematographic and electron microscopic techniques have been used to study the properties of chick mesoderm at several stages of differentiation. Lateral plate, unsegmented mesoderm (segmental plate), and newly formed somites were dissected from stage-12 embryos, whilst dermo-myotomes and sclerotomes were dissected from stage-18 embryos. Each type of mesoderm was found to exhibit a characteristic pattern of behaviour. The explants from the unsegmented mesoderm from the newly formed somites and from the older embryos could be placed in a developmental sequence; with increasing differentiation they settled and spread on the substrate more readily, whether explanted as pieces of tissue or as individual cells, and it was concluded that this implied an increased adhesion to the substrate. Similarly, with increasing differentiation, the cells segmented at a faster rate. No significant differences could be discerned in the internal structure of the different types of cells, although differences in the general shape were apparent. The lateral plate mesoderm cells, which bear some resemblances to the unsegmented mesoderm cells in the embryo, also show some morphological resemblances to them in vitro. However, the lateral plate cells had a much greater success in attaching to glass or platic substrates. They were also found to have the highest speed of locomotion of all the tissues studied, whereas the unsegmented had the lowest. It is concluded therefore, that although cells may look similar to one another morphologically, their behaviour may differ greatly, probably because they are already partially determined.
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Full Text Available Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a central process during embryonic development that affects selected progenitor cells of all three germ layers. In addition to driving the onset of cellular migrations and subsequent tissue morphogenesis, the dynamic conversions of epithelium into mesenchyme and vice-versa are intimately associated with the segregation of homogeneous precursors into distinct fates. The neural crest and somites, progenitors of the peripheral nervous system and of skeletal tissues, respectively, beautifully illustrate the significance of EMT to the above processes. Ongoing studies progressively elucidate the gene networks underlying EMT in each system, highlighting the similarities and differences between them. Knowledge of the mechanistic logic of this normal ontogenetic process should provide important insights to the understanding of pathological conditions such as cancer metastasis, which shares some common molecular themes.
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Full Text Available Somites form during embryonic development and give rise to unique cell and tissue types, such as skeletal muscles and bones and cartilage of the vertebrae. Using somitogenesis-stage human embryos, we performed transcriptomic profiling of human presomitic mesoderm as well as nascent and developed somites. In addition to conserved pathways such as WNT-β-catenin, we also identified BMP and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling as major regulators unique to human somitogenesis. This information enabled us to develop an efficient protocol to derive somite cells in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs. Importantly, the in-vitro-differentiating cells progressively expressed markers of the distinct developmental stages that are known to occur during in vivo somitogenesis. Furthermore, when subjected to lineage-specific differentiation conditions, the hPSC-derived somite cells were multipotent in generating somite derivatives, including skeletal myocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. This work improves our understanding of human somitogenesis and may enhance our ability to treat diseases affecting somite derivatives.
Robert E. Kennedy; Zhiqiang Yang; Warren B. Cohen
We introduce and test LandTrendr (Landsat-based detection of Trends in Disturbance and Recovery), a new approach to extract spectral trajectories of land surface change from yearly Landsat time-series stacks (LTS). The method brings together two themes in time-series analysis of LTS: capture of short-duration events and smoothing of long-term trends. Our strategy is...
Resende, Tatiana P.; Andrade, Raquel P.; Palmeirim, Isabel
All vertebrate species present a segmented body, easily observed in the vertebrate column and its associated components, which provides a high degree of motility to the adult body and efficient protection of the internal organs. The sequential formation of the segmented precursors of the vertebral column during embryonic development, the somites, is governed by an oscillating genetic network, the somitogenesis molecular clock. Herein, we provide an overview of the molecular clock operating during somite formation and its underlying molecular regulatory mechanisms. Human congenital vertebral malformations have been associated with perturbations in these oscillatory mechanisms. Thus, a better comprehension of the molecular mechanisms regulating somite formation is required in order to fully understand the origin of human skeletal malformations. PMID:24895605
Piekarski, Nadine; Olsson, Lennart
The fate of single somites has not been analyzed from a comparative perspective with modern cell-marking methods. Most of what we know is based on work using quail-chick chimeras. Consequently, to what degree cell fate has been conserved despite the anatomical differences among vertebrates is unknown. We have analyzed the cell fate of the cranialmost somites, with the focus on somite two, in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Somite cells were marked by injection of dextran-fluorescein and detected using immunofluorescence after 2 months of development in paraffin sections. Our data confirm and extend earlier studies based on classical histology in salamanders. We show that somite two contributes to different muscles, skeletal elements, and connective tissues of the head and cranial trunk region. Cells from somites two and three migrate latero-ventrally and contribute to the hypobranchial muscles mm. geniohyoideus and rectus cervicis. We provide evidence that the specific formation of the hypobranchial musculature from ventral processes of the somites might be variable in different classes of vertebrates. We further demonstrate that mm. cucullaris and dilatator laryngis, which were earlier thought to have a branchial origin, arise from somitic material in a manner very similar to the findings in quail-chick chimeras. Our findings indicate that the pattern of somitic derivatives is highly conserved within tetrapods.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of the mouse Delta-like 1 (Dll1 gene in the presomitic mesoderm and in the caudal halves of somites of the developing embryo is required for the formation of epithelial somites and for the maintenance of caudal somite identity, respectively. The rostro-caudal polarity of somites is initiated early on within the presomitic mesoderm in nascent somites. Here we have investigated the requirement of restricted Dll1 expression in caudal somite compartments for the maintenance of rostro-caudal somite polarity and the morphogenesis of the axial skeleton. We did this by overexpressing a functional copy of the Dll1 gene throughout the paraxial mesoderm, in particular in anterior somite compartments, during somitogenesis in transgenic mice. Results Epithelial somites were generated normally and appeared histologically normal in embryos of two independent Dll1 over-expressing transgenic lines. Gene expression analyses of rostro-caudal marker genes suggested that over-expression of Dll1 without restriction to caudal compartments was not sufficient to confer caudal identity to rostral somite halves in transgenic embryos. Nevertheless, Dll1 over-expression caused dysmorphologies of the axial skeleton, in particular, in morphological structures that derive from the articular joint forming compartment of vertebrae. Accordingly, transgenic animals exhibited missing or reduced intervertebral discs, rostral and caudal articular processes as well as costal heads of ribs. In addition, the midline of the vertebral column did not develop normally. Transgenic mice had open neural arches and split vertebral bodies with ectopic pseudo-growth plates. Endochondral bone formation and ossification in the developing vertebrae were delayed. Conclusion The mice overexpressing Dll1 exhibit skeletal dysmorphologies that are also evident in several mutant mice with defects in somite compartmentalisation. The Dll1 transgenic mice demonstrate that
Kristen L Curran
Full Text Available We have been investigating whether xBmal1 and xNocturnin play a role in somitogenesis, a cyclic developmental process with an ultradian period. Previous work from our lab shows that circadian genes (xPeriod1, xPeriod2, xBmal1, and xNocturnin are expressed in developing somites. Somites eventually form the vertebrae, muscles of the back, and dermis. In Xenopus, a pair of somites is formed about every 50 minutes from anterior to posterior. We were intrigued by the co-localization of circadian genes in an embryonic tissue known to be regulated by an ultradian clock. Cyclic expression of genes involved in Notch signaling has been implicated in the somite clock. Disruption of Notch signaling in humans has been linked to skeletal defects in the vertebral column. We found that both depletion (morpholino and overexpression (mRNA of xBMAL1 protein (bHLH transcription factor or xNOCTURNIN protein (deadenylase on one side of the developing embryo led to a significant decrease in somite number with respect to the untreated side (p<0.001. These manipulations also significantly affect expression of a somite clock component (xESR9; p<0.05. We observed opposing effects on somite size. Depletion of xBMAL1 or xNOCTURNIN caused a statistically significant decrease in somite area (quantified using NIH ImageJ; p<0.002, while overexpression of these proteins caused a significant dose dependent increase in somite area (p<0.02; p<0.001, respectively. We speculate that circadian genes may play two separate roles during somitogenesis. Depletion and overexpression of xBMAL1 and NOCTURNIN both decrease somite number and influence expression of a somite clock component, suggesting that these proteins may modulate the timing of the somite clock in the undifferentiated presomitic mesoderm. The dosage dependent effects on somite area suggest that xBMAL1 and xNOCTURNIN may also act during somite differentiation to promote myogenesis.
Murtaugh, L. Charles; Chyung, Jay H.; Lassar, Andrew B.
Previous work has indicated that signals from the floor plate and notochord promote chondrogenesis of the somitic mesoderm. These tissues, acting through the secreted signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh), appear to be critical for the formation of the sclerotome. Later steps in the differentiation of sclerotome into cartilage may be independent of the influence of these axial tissues. Although the signals involved in these later steps have not yet been pinpointed, there is substantial evid...
Kuratani, Shigeru; Adachi, Noritaka
Motivated by the discovery of segmental epithelial coeloms, or "head cavities," in elasmobranch embryos toward the end of the 19th century, the debate over the presence of mesodermal segments in the vertebrate head became a central problem in comparative embryology. The classical segmental view assumed only one type of metamerism in the vertebrate head, in which each metamere was thought to contain one head somite and one pharyngeal arch, innervated by a set of cranial nerves serially homologous to dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves. The non-segmental view, on the other hand, rejected the somite-like properties of head cavities. A series of small mesodermal cysts in early Torpedo embryos, which were thought to represent true somite homologs, provided a third possible view on the nature of the vertebrate head. Recent molecular developmental data have shed new light on the vertebrate head problem, explaining that head mesoderm evolved, not by the modification of rostral somites of an amphioxus-like ancestor, but through the polarization of unspecified paraxial mesoderm into head mesoderm anteriorly and trunk somites posteriorly.
Laura M Pillay
Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are multipotent progenitors that generate all vertebrate adult blood lineages. Recent analyses have highlighted the importance of somite-derived signaling factors in regulating HSC specification and emergence from dorsal aorta hemogenic endothelium. However, these factors remain largely uncharacterized. We provide evidence that the vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA functions as an essential regulator of zebrafish HSC formation. Temporal analyses indicate that RA is required for HSC gene expression prior to dorsal aorta formation, at a time when the predominant RA synthesis enzyme, aldh1a2, is strongly expressed within the paraxial mesoderm and somites. Previous research implicated the Cxcl12 chemokine and Notch signaling pathways in HSC formation. Consequently, to understand how RA regulates HSC gene expression, we surveyed the expression of components of these pathways in RA-depleted zebrafish embryos. During somitogenesis, RA-depleted embryos exhibit altered expression of jam1a and jam2a, which potentiate Notch signaling within nascent endothelial cells. RA-depleted embryos also exhibit a severe reduction in the expression of cxcr4a, the predominant Cxcl12b receptor. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibitors of RA synthesis and Cxcr4 signaling act in concert to reduce HSC formation. Our analyses demonstrate that somite-derived RA functions to regulate components of the Notch and Cxcl12 chemokine signaling pathways during HSC formation.
Ward, Lizzy; Pang, Angel S W; Evans, Susan E; Stern, Claudio D
The vertebral column is segmented, comprising an alternating series of vertebrae and intervertebral discs along the head-tail axis. The vertebrae and outer portion (annulus fibrosus) of the disc are derived from the sclerotome part of the somites, whereas the inner nucleus pulposus of the disc is derived from the notochord. Here we investigate the role of the notochord in vertebral patterning through a series of microsurgical experiments in chick embryos. Ablation of the notochord causes loss of segmentation of vertebral bodies and discs. However, the notochord cannot segment in the absence of the surrounding sclerotome. To test whether the notochord dictates sclerotome segmentation, we grafted an ectopic notochord. We find that the intrinsic segmentation of the sclerotome is dominant over any segmental information the notochord may possess, and no evidence that the chick notochord is intrinsically segmented. We propose that the segmental pattern of vertebral bodies and discs in chick is dictated by the sclerotome, which first signals to the notochord to ensure that the nucleus pulposus develops in register with the somite-derived annulus fibrosus. Later, the notochord is required for maintenance of sclerotome segmentation as the mature vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs form. These results highlight differences in vertebral development between amniotes and teleosts including zebrafish, where the notochord dictates the segmental pattern. The relative importance of the sclerotome and notochord in vertebral patterning has changed significantly during evolution. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Volney, W.J.A.; Hirsch, K.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)
This paper described the role that disturbances play in maintaining the ecological integrity of Canadian boreal forests. Potential adaptation options to address the challenges that these disturbances present were also examined. Many forest ecosystems need fire for regeneration, while other forests rely on a cool, wet disintegration process driven by insects and commensal fungi feeding on trees to effect renewal. While there are characteristic natural, temporal and spatial patterns to these disturbances, recent work has demonstrated that the disturbances are being perturbed by climatic change that has been compounded by anthropogenic disturbances in forests. Fire influences species composition and age structure, regulates forest insects and diseases, affects nutrient cycling and energy fluxes, and maintains the productivity of different habitats. Longer fire seasons as a result of climatic change will lead to higher intensity fires that may more easily evade initial attacks and become problematic. Fire regimes elevated beyond the range of natural variation will have a dramatic effect on the regional distribution and functioning of forest ecosystems and pose a threat to the safety and prosperity of people. While it was acknowledged that if insect outbreaks were to be controlled on the entire forest estate, the productivity represented by dead wood would be lost, it was suggested that insects such as the forest tent caterpillar and the spruce bud worm may also pose a greater threat as the climate gets warmer and drier. Together with fungal associates, saproxylic arthropods are active in nutrient cycling and ultimately determine the fertility of forest sites. It was suggested that the production of an age class structure and forest mosaic would render the forest landscape less vulnerable to the more negative aspects of climate change on vegetation response. It was concluded that novel management design paradigms are needed to successfully reduce the risk from threats
Bessho, Yasumasa; Hirata, Hiromi; Masamizu, Yoshito; Kageyama, Ryoichiro
Hes7, a bHLH gene essential for somitogenesis, displays cyclic expression of mRNA in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Here, we show that Hes7 protein is also expressed in a dynamic manner, which depends on proteasome-mediated degradation. Spatial comparison revealed that Hes7 and Lunatic fringe (Lfng) transcription occurs in the Hes7 protein-negative domains. Furthermore, Hes7 and Lfng transcription is constitutively up-regulated in the absence of Hes7 protein and down-regulated by stabi...
Takahashi, Yu; Yasuhiko, Yukuto; Takahashi, Jun; Takada, Shinji; Johnson, Randy L; Saga, Yumiko; Kanno, Jun
The vertebrae are derived from the sclerotome of somites. Formation of the vertebral body involves a process called resegmentation, by which the caudal half of a sclerotome is combined with the rostral half of the next sclerotome. To elucidate the relationship between resegmentation and rostro-caudal patterning of somite, we used the Uncx4.1-LacZ transgene to characterize the resegmentation process. Our observations suggested that in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, the Uncx4.1-expressing caudal sclerotome gave rise to the intervertebral disc (IVD) and rostral portion of the vertebral body (VB). In the cervical vertebrae, the Uncx4.1-expressing caudal sclerotome appeared to contribute to the IVD and both caudal and rostral ends of the VB. This finding suggests that the rostro-caudal gene expression boundary does not necessarily coincide with the resegmentation boundary. This conclusion was supported by analyses of Mesp2 KO and Ripply1/2 double KO embryos lacking rostral and caudal properties, respectively. Resegmentation was not observed in Mesp2 KO embryos, but both the IVD and whole VB were formed from the caudalized sclerotome. Expression analysis of IVD marker genes including Pax1 in the wild-type, Mesp2 KO, and Ripply1/2 DKO embryos also supported the idea that a metameric pattern of IVD/VB is generated independently of Mesp2/Ripply-mediated rostro-caudal patterning of somite. However, in the lumbar region, IVD differentiation appeared to be stimulated by the caudal property and suppressed by the rostral property. Therefore, we propose that rostro-caudal patterning of somites is not a prerequisite for metameric patterning of the IVD and VB, but instead required to stimulate IVD differentiation in the caudal half of the sclerotome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis
The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.
It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...
van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart
Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Jiangang; Li, Songhui; Trilok, Suprita; Tanaka, Makoto; Jokubaitis-Jameson, Vanta; Wang, Bei; Niwa, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Naoki
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generate rostral paraxial mesoderm-like progeny in 5-6 days of differentiation induced by Wnt3a and Noggin (Nog). We report that canonical Wnt signaling introduced either by forced expression of activated β-catenin, or the small-molecule inhibitor of Gsk3, CHIR99021, satisfied the need for Wnt3a signaling, and that the small-molecule inhibitor of BMP type I receptors, LDN193189, was able to replace Nog. Mesodermal progeny generated using such small molecules were chondrogenic in vitro, and expressed trunk paraxial mesoderm markers such as Tcf15 and Meox1, and somite markers such as Uncx, but failed to express sclerotome markers such as Pax1. Induction of the osteochondrogenically committed sclerotome from somite requires sonic hedgehog and Nog. Consistently, Pax1 and Bapx1 expression was induced when the isolated paraxial mesodermal progeny were treated with SAG1 (a hedgehog receptor agonist) and LDN193189, then Sox9 expression was induced, leading to cartilaginous nodules and particles in the presence of BMP, indicative of chondrogenesis via sclerotome specification. By contrast, treatment with TGFβ also supported chondrogenesis and stimulated Sox9 expression, but failed to induce the expression of Pax1 and Bapx1. On ectopic transplantation to immunocompromised mice, the cartilage particles developed under either condition became similarly mineralized and formed pieces of bone with marrow. Thus, the use of small molecules led to the effective generation from ESCs of paraxial mesodermal progeny, and to their further differentiation in vitro through sclerotome specification into growth plate-like chondrocytes, a mechanism resembling in vivo somitic chondrogenesis that is not recapitulated with TGFβ. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Hansen, Allan Grutt; Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten
content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits...
Morse, W.M.; Benenson, G.; Leipuner, L.B.
We have performed a high energy physics experiment using a multisegment Brookhaven FASTBUS system. The system was composed of three crate segments and two cable segments. We discuss the segment interconnect module which permits communication between the various segments
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) are caused by solar flare enhanced X-rays in the 1 to 10 angstrom range. Solar flares can produce large increases of ionization...
The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.
Ciala-Wein, H.; Stegmaier, W.
The analyses of disturbances are the supposition for the development of processes and plants. They are very important in the field of nuclear testing plants. In this report are described the possibilities to register the circumstances of the disturbance in a pilot waste processing facility and a computer programme to interpret them. This is a first scheme and it will be necessary to complete it. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development of DBA/2J mouse strain embryos is nearly 12 h - or 6 somite pairs - delayed as compared to the outbred NMRI mouse embryos of the same age on gestation days (GD 8-12. To evaluate inter-strain differences in susceptibility to teratogens, dams were treated with methylnitrosourea (MNU, 5 mg/kg body weight i.p. on defined gestation days (NMRI: GD 9, 91/2 or 10; DBA/2J: GD 10 or 101/2. Skeletal anomalies produced by MNU on both mouse strains varied with the GD of treatment. The pattern of anomalies produced by MNU on a given GD markedly differed between the two mouse strains, yet they were similar -with a few exceptions- when exposures at equivalent embryonic stages are compared. Findings from this study indicated that strain-dependent differences in the developmental stage of mouse embryos of the same gestational age occur, a possibility that has been often neglected when inter-strain differences in susceptibility to developmental toxicants are interpreted.
Miller, S.A.; Runner, M.N.
Radioautograms from 10- to 12-somite mouse embryos labelled for 30 min in vitro with [ 3 H]thymidine were examined for frequency and intensity of incorporation. Results from ten tissues showed that values ranged from 82% of nuclei with a mean of 16.6 grains for visceral yolk sac to 17% of nuclei labelled with a mean of 4.4 grains for epithelium of the anterior gut tube. Labelling in the ten tissues indicated (1) a tissue-specific spectrum of incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine, (2) close correlation between frequency and intensity of labelling within a tissue and (3) asymmetrical quantities of incorporation between right and left somatopleure. Treatment with hydroxyurea in vitro reduced the frequency of labelled nuclei by 85% to 17% of control values. Mean numbers of grains over treated nuclei, 3.3 to 4.6 grains, were well above background but were clustered below the low end of the control range. Tissues exposed to hydroxyurea showed (1) labelling of significant numbers of nuclei, (2) inhibition of labelling in selected tissues and (3) equalization of bilateral asymmetry in quantity (frequency and intensity) of incorporation in somatopleure. The selective reduction of thymidine incorporation and equalization of asymmetrical rates of proliferation may constitute mechanisms by which hydroxyurea causes abnormal morphogenesis. (author)
Chandra, A.K.; Deshpande, S.V.; Mayya, A.; Vaidya, U.W.; Premraj, M.K.; Patil, N.B.
A computerized system for disturbance monitoring, recording and display has been developed for use in nuclear power plants and is versatile enough to be used where ever a large number of parameters need to be recorded, e.g. conventional power plants, chemical industry etc. The Disturbance Recording System (DRS) has been designed to continuously monitor a process plant and record crucial parameters. The DRS provides a centralized facility to monitor and continuously record 64 process parameters scanned every 1 sec for 5 days. The system also provides facility for storage of 64 parameters scanned every 200 msec during 2 minutes prior to and 3 minutes after a disturbance. In addition the system can initiate, on demand, the recording of 8 parameters at a fast rate of every 5 msec for a period of 5 sec. and thus act as a visicorder. All this data is recorded in non-volatile memory and can be displayed, printed/plotted and used for subsequent analysis. Since data can be stored densely on floppy disks, the volume of space required for archival storage is also low. As a disturbance recorder, the DRS allows the operator to view the state of the plant prior to occurrence of the disturbance and helps in identifying the root cause. (author). 10 refs., 7 figs
Askenasy, J J M
The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment
The nutritional disturbances are frequent by adolescents. That is a psychological defense against dependance toward the mother but also a middle to remain in a childish position i.e. either as a fat baby - in the fall of obesity- or as the ideal pre- or bisexual great child - in the case of anorexia.
) in urine the first night after both minor and major surgery. This delay after major surgery was correlated to the duration of surgery. The amplitude in the melatonin rhythm was unchanged the first night but increased in the second night after major surgery. The amplitude in AMT6s was reduced the first...... night after minimally invasive surgery. The core body temperature rhythm was disturbed after both major and minor surgery. There was a change in the sleep wake cycle with a significantly increased duration of REM-sleep in the day and evening time after major surgery compared with preoperatively....... There was also a shift in the autonomic nervous balance after major surgery with a significantly increased number of myocardial ischaemic episodes during the nighttime period. The circadian activity rhythm was also disturbed after both minor and major surgery. The daytime AMT6s excretion in urine after major...
LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret
The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic
Bell, L.C. [Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)
This chapter discusses the objectives of rehabilitation of lands in Australian disturbed by mining. It gives advice on rehabilitation planning and outlines the factors influencing post-mining land use and rehabilitation strategies, including climate, topography, hydrology, properties of soils, overburden and mineral processing wastes, flora and fauna and social considerations. Finally, the key elements of a rehabilitation plan are discussed, namely: landscape reconstruction; selective handling of overburden; and establishment and maintenance of a vegetative cover. 12 figs., 1 tab.
Virginia H. Dale; Linda A. Joyce; Steve McNulty; Ronald P. Neilson; Matthew P. Ayres; Michael D. Flannigan; Paul J. Hanson; Lloyd C. Irland; Ariel E. Lugo; Chris J. Peterson; Daniel Simberloff; Frederick J. Swanson; Brian J. Stocks; Michael Wotton
This article examines how eight disturbances influence forest structure, composition, and function, and how climate change may influence the severity, frequency, and magnitude of disturbances to forests. We focus on examples from the United States, although these influences occur worldwide. We also consider options for coping with disturbance under changing climate....
Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)
An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.
Dividing roads into "homogeneous" segments has been a major problem for all areas of highway engineering. SDDOT uses Deighton Associates Limited software, dTIMS, to analyze life-cycle costs for various rehabilitation strategies on each segment of roa...
Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko
We discuss the disturbance by measurements which unambiguously discriminate between given candidate states. We prove that such an optimal measurement necessarily changes distinguishable states indistinguishable when the inconclusive outcome is obtained. The result was previously shown by Chefles [Phys. Lett. A 239, 339 (1998), 10.1016/S0375-9601(98)00064-4] under restrictions on the class of quantum measurements and on the definition of optimality. Our theorems remove these restrictions and are also applicable to infinitely many candidate states. Combining with our previous results, one can obtain concrete mathematical conditions for the resulting states. The method may have a wide variety of applications in contexts other than state discrimination.
Kotti, M; Moschou, V; Kotropoulos, C
07.08.13 KB. Ok to add the accepted version to Spiral, Elsevier says ok whlile mandate not enforced. This survey focuses on two challenging speech processing topics, namely: speaker segmentation and speaker clustering. Speaker segmentation aims at finding speaker change points in an audio stream, whereas speaker clustering aims at grouping speech segments based on speaker characteristics. Model-based, metric-based, and hybrid speaker segmentation algorithms are reviewed. Concerning speaker...
Full Text Available Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality , seen in neonates and infants in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally . The condition is segmental with normal vertebrae above and below the malformation. This condition is commonly associated with various abnormalities that affect the heart, genitourinary, gastrointestinal tract and skeletal system. We report two cases of spinal segmental dysgenesis and the associated abnormalities.
Robinson-Shelton, Althea; Malow, Beth A
Sleep disturbances are extremely prevalent in children with neurodevelopmental disorders compared to typically developing children. The diagnostic criteria for many neurodevelopmental disorders include sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbance in this population is often multifactorial and caused by the interplay of genetic, neurobiological and environmental overlap. These disturbances often present either as insomnia or hypersomnia. Different sleep disorders present with these complaints and based on the clinical history and findings from diagnostic tests, an appropriate diagnosis can be made. This review aims to provide an overview of causes, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep disturbances in neurodevelopmental disorders that present primarily with symptoms of hypersomnia and/or insomnia.
Plante, Craig J
Disturbance can profoundly modify the structure of natural communities. However, microbial ecologists' concept of "disturbance" has often deviated from conventional practice. Definitions (or implicit usage) have frequently included climate change and other forms of chronic environmental stress, which contradict the macrobiologist's notion of disturbance as a discrete event that removes biomass. Physical constraints and disparate biological characteristics were compared to ask whether disturbances fundamentally differ in microbial and macroorganismal communities. A definition of "disturbance" for microbial ecologists is proposed that distinguishes from "stress" and other competing terms, and that is in accord with definitions accepted by plant and animal ecologists.
Rodríguez López, Marcelo
The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation
Sasaki, Yudai; Uchida, Iwami; Sakakibara, Jun
We experimentally investigated the influence of flow control of the wake behind a circular cylinder excited by temporal periodic disturbances with spanwise phase variations using plasma actuators, motivated by reducing drag forces by suppressing development of large scale vortices. Plasma actuators were segmented in the spanwise direction, phase differences were given to adjacent electrodes. This experiment was conducted at Re =8000 and the wake was visualized by PIV. Compared to without forcing, when the phase difference is 180° and non-dimensional forcing frequency is higher than approximately 1.0, small vortices induced by periodic disturbance emerged in the free shear layer and the drag forces decreased.
Mirus, Benjamin B.; Ebel, Brian A.; Mohr, Christian H.; Zegre, Nicolas
This special issue is the result of several fruitful conference sessions on disturbance hydrology, which started at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco and have continued every year since. The stimulating presentations and discussions surrounding those sessions have focused on understanding both the disruption of hydrologic functioning following discrete disturbances, as well as the subsequent recovery or change within the affected watershed system. Whereas some hydrologic disturbances are directly linked to anthropogenic activities, such as resource extraction, the contributions to this special issue focus primarily on those with indirect or less pronounced human involvement, such as bark-beetle infestation, wildfire, and other natural hazards. However, human activities are enhancing the severity and frequency of these seemingly natural disturbances, thereby contributing to acute hydrologic problems and hazards. Major research challenges for our increasingly disturbed planet include the lack of continuous pre- and post-disturbance monitoring, hydrologic impacts that vary spatially and temporally based on environmental and hydroclimatic conditions, and the preponderance of overlapping or compounding disturbance sequences. In addition, a conceptual framework for characterizing commonalities and differences among hydrologic disturbances is still in its infancy. In this introduction to the special issue, we advance the fusion of concepts and terminology from ecology and hydrology to begin filling this gap. We briefly explore some preliminary approaches for comparing different disturbances and their hydrologic impacts, which provides a starting point for further dialogue and research progress.
Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M
The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mirus, Benjamin B.; Ebel, Brian A.; Mohr, Christian H.; Zegre, Nicolas
This special issue is the result of several fruitful conference sessions on disturbance hydrology, which started at the 2013 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco and have continued every year since. The stimulating presentations and discussions surrounding those sessions have focused on understanding both the disruption of hydrologic functioning following discrete disturbances, as well as the subsequent recovery or change within the affected watershed system. Whereas some hydrologic disturbances are directly linked to anthropogenic activities, such as resource extraction, the contributions to this special issue focus primarily on those with indirect or less pronounced human involvement, such as bark-beetle infestation, wildfire, and other natural hazards. However, human activities are enhancing the severity and frequency of these seemingly natural disturbances, thereby contributing to acute hydrologic problems and hazards. Major research challenges for our increasingly disturbed planet include the lack of continuous pre and postdisturbance monitoring, hydrologic impacts that vary spatially and temporally based on environmental and hydroclimatic conditions, and the preponderance of overlapping or compounding disturbance sequences. In addition, a conceptual framework for characterizing commonalities and differences among hydrologic disturbances is still in its infancy. In this introduction to the special issue, we advance the fusion of concepts and terminology from ecology and hydrology to begin filling this gap. We briefly explore some preliminary approaches for comparing different disturbances and their hydrologic impacts, which provides a starting point for further dialogue and research progress.
Horder, Tim J; Presley, Robert; Slípka, Jaroslav
This review argues for the segmental basis of chordate head organization which, like somite-based segmental organization in the trunk, takes its origin from early mesodermal development. The review builds on, and brings up to date, Goodrich's well-known scheme of head organization. It surveys recent data in support of this scheme and shows how evidence and arguments supposedly in conflict with it can be accommodated. Many of the arguments revolve around matters of methodology; the limitations of older LM, SEM (on which the concept of "somitomeres" is based) and recent molecular evidence (which has sometimes been seen as allocating the central role in head organization to the CNS and the neural crest) are highlighted and shown to explain a number of claims contrary to Goodrich's. We provide (in Part 2) a new, comparative survey of the best available evidence most directly relevant to the Goodrich Bauplan, with a special emphasis on stem chordates. The postotic region has commonly been seen as segmentally organized: the critical issues concern the preotic region. There are many reasons why Goodrich's three preotic segments may become specialized during evolution and why the underlying initial segmental organization may be overridden in later stages during embryonic development; we refer to a number of these. We conclude that the preotic segmental Bauplan is remarkably conserved and most explicitly demonstrated among stem forms, but we also suggest that the concept of the prechordal plate requires careful reexamination. Central to our overall analysis is the importance of the epigenetic nature of embryogenesis; its implications are made clear. Finally we speculate on evolutionary implications for the origin of the head and its specialized features. The review is intended to serve as a resource giving access to references to a wealth of now neglected, older data on anamniote embryology.
Blanc, M.; Richmond, A.D.
A numerical simulation study of the thermospheric winds produced by auroral heating during magnetic storms, and of their global dynamo effects, establishes the main features of the ionospheric disturbanc dynamo. Driven by auroral heating, a Hadley cell is created with equatorward winds blowing above about 120 km at mid-latitudes. The transport of angular momentum by these winds produces a subrotation of the midlatitude thermosphere, or westward motion with respect to the earth. The westward winds in turn drive equatorward Pedersen currents which accumulate charge toward the equator, resulting in the generation of a poleward electric field, a westward E x B drift, and an eastward current. When realistic local time conductivity variations are simulated, the eastward mid-latitude current is found to close partly via lower latitudes, resulting in an 'anti-Sq' type of current vortex. Both electric field and current at low latitudes thus vary in opposition to their normal quiet-day behavior. This total pattern of distrubance winds, electric fields, and currents is superimposed upon the background quiet-day pattern. When the neutral winds are artificially confined on the nightside, the basic pattern of predominantly westward E x B plasma drifts still prevails on the nightside but no longer extends into the dayside. Considerable observational evidence exists, suggesting that the ionospheric disturbance dynamo has an appreciable influence on storm-time ionospheric electric fields at middle and low latitudes
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of inducing rhythm disturbances of the heart during colonoscopy.Patients and methods used: 80 patients had undergone colonoscopyper formed by two experienced specialists of endoscopy for the period from March to December 2011. The endoscopies were performed without premedication and sedation. Holter was placed on each patient one hour before the endoscopic examination, and the record continued one hour after the manipulation. The blood pressure was measured before, during and after the procedure.Results: During colonoscopy 25 patients (31,25% manifested rhythm disorders. In 15 patients (18,75% sinus tachycardia occurred. In 7 patients (8,75% suptraventricular extra systoles were observed and in 3 patients (3,75% - ventricular extra systoles. No ST-T changes were found. Highest values of the blood pressure were measured before and during the endoscopy, but the values did not exceed 160/105 mmHg. In 10 patients (12,5% a hypotensive reaction was observed, bur the values were not lower than 80/ 50. In 2 patients there was a short bradycardia with a heart frequency 50-55 /min.Conclusions: Our results showed that the rhythm disorders during lower colonoscopy occur in approximately 1/3 of the examined patients, there is an increase or decrease of the blood pressure in some patients, but that doesn’t require physician’s aid and the examination can be carried out safely without monitoring.
Barf, R. Paulien; Scheurink, Anton J.W.
Sleep disturbances, induced by either lifestyle, shift work or sleeping disorders, have become more prevalent in our 24/7 Western society. Sleep disturbances are associated with impaired health including metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The question remains whether there is a
Assyov, Yavor S; Velikova, Tsvetelina V; Kamenov, Zdravko A
Purpose/aim of the study: Myostatin is a myokine that has been shown to inhibit muscle growth and to have potentially deleterious effects on metabolism. The aim of the current study was to compare its circulating serum levels in subjects from the whole spectrum of carbohydrate disturbances leading to diabetes. A total of 159 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched subjects participated in the study - 50 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 60 had prediabetes (PreDM), and 49 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Oral glucose tolerance testing was used to determine glucose tolerance. Serum myostatin was quantified by means of ELISA. Circulating serum myostatin levels were highest in patients with T2D, lower in subjects with prediabetes, and lowest in subjects with normoglycemia (all p Myostatin was shown to be positively associated with fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, hepatic enzymes, uric acid, and FINDRISC questionnaire scores in both sexes. ROC analyses determined circulating myostatin levels to be of value for differentiating subjects with T2D (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.002 in men; AUC = 0.70, p = 0.004 in women) in the study population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in a multiple binary logistic regression model, serum myostatin added further information to traditional risk estimates in distinguishing subjects with T2D. Serum myostatin levels are higher with deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Furthermore, circulating myostatin is positively associated with traditional biochemical estimates of poor metabolic health. These data add to evidence of the involvement of this myokine in the pathogenesis of T2D.
Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga González, José
This paper explores the implications of market segmentation on firm competitiveness. In contrast to earlier work, here market segmentation is minimal in the sense that it is based on consumer attributes that are completely unrelated to tastes. We show that when the market is comprised by two
Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora
mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral...
Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie
Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.
The goal of this bachelor thesis was to explain a possibly segmentation of consumer´s markets for a chosen company, and to present a suitable goods offer, so it would be suitable to the needs of selected segments. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. First part describes marketing, segmentation, segmentation of consumer's markets, consumer's market, market's segments a other terms. Second part describes an evaluation of questionnaire survey, discovering of market's segment...
Full Text Available A case of segmental Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis is reported in 10 year old boy. The condition was resembling the ascending lymphangitic type of sporotrichosis. The lesions cleared on treatment with INH 150 mg daily for 6 months.
Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr
The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner
The lecture addressed the following topics: 'Interpreting' the fluence map; The sequencer; Reasons for difference between desired and actual fluence map; Principle of 'Step and Shoot' segmentation; Large number of solutions for given fluence map; Optimizing 'step and shoot' segmentation; The interdigitation constraint; Main algorithms; Conclusions on segmentation algorithms (static mode); Optimizing intensity levels and monitor units; Sliding window sequencing; Synchronization to avoid the tongue-and-groove effect; Accounting for physical characteristics of MLC; Importance of corrections for leaf transmission and offset; Accounting for MLC mechanical constraints; The 'complexity' factor; Incorporating the sequencing into optimization algorithm; Data transfer to the treatment machine; Interface between R and V and accelerator; and Conclusions on fluence map segmentation (Segmentation is part of the overall inverse planning procedure; 'Step and Shoot' and 'Dynamic' options are available for most TPS (depending on accelerator model; The segmentation phase tends to come into the optimization loop; The physical characteristics of the MLC have a large influence on final dose distribution; The IMRT plans (MU and relative dose distribution) must be carefully validated). (P.A.)
Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela
Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.
Maričić Branko R.
Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.
Araichimani, A.; Gaymans, R.J.
Segmented block copolymers were synthesized using monodisperse diaramide (TT) as hard segments and PTMO with a molecular weight of 2 900 g · mol-1 as soft segments. The aramide: PTMO segment ratio was increased from 1:1 to 2:1 thereby changing the structure from a high molecular weight multi-block
Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David
In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.
Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.
Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.
Baldeweg, F.; Lindner, A.
Computer aided analysis of disturbances and the prevention of failures (diagnosis and therapy control) in technological plants belong to the most important tasks of process control. Research in this field is very intensive due to increasing requirements to security and economy of process control and due to a remarkable increase of the efficiency of digital electronics. This publication concerns with analysis of disturbances in complex technological plants, especially in so called high risk processes. The presentation emphasizes theoretical concept of diagnosis and therapy control, modelling of the disturbance behaviour of the technological process and the man-machine-communication integrating artificial intelligence methods, e.g., expert system approach. Application is given for nuclear power plants. (author)
Full Text Available Sleep disturbances, particularly daytime sleepiness and insomnia, are common problems reported by patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Poor sleep negatively impacts patients’ quality of life and cognitive functions and increases mortality. Although sleep disturbances can be an early sign of hepatic encephalopathy (HE, many patients without HE still complain of poor quality sleep. The pathophysiology of these disturbances is not fully understood but is believed to be linked to impaired hepatic melatonin metabolism. This paper provides an overview for the clinician of common comorbidities contributing to poor sleep in patients with liver disease, mainly restless leg syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. It discusses nondrug and pharmacologic treatment options in these patients, such as the use of light therapy and histamine (H1 blockers.
Ragle, John D.; Paine, Gage E.
The Assessment-Intervention of Student Problems (AISP) model is a useful tool for preparing student affairs professionals to assess the problems of disturbed, disturbing, or disturbed/disturbing students and to make appropriate referrals. It is particularly useful because it emphasizes the necessity of developing an integrated system for this…
Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.
history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader...
Seidl, R.; Thom, D.; Kautz, M.; Martin-Benito, D.; Peltoniemi, M.; Vacchiano, G.; Wild, Jan; Ascoli, D.; Petr, M.; Honkaniemi, J.; Lexer, M. J.; Trotsiuk, V.; Mairota, P.; Svoboda, M.; Fabrika, M.; Nagel, T.A.; Reyer, C. P. O.
Roč. 7, č. 6 (2017), s. 395-402 ISSN 1758-678X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15158 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : climate change * disturbance * forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 19.304, year: 2016
Riddoch, C; Trinick, T
The purpose of this survey was to investigate the prevalence of running-induced gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances in marathon runners. A questionnaire was completed by 471 of the estimated 1,750 competitors in the 1986 Belfast City Marathon. Eighty-three per cent of respondents indicated that they occasionally or frequently suffered one or more GI disturbances during or immediately after running. The urge to have a bowel movement (53%) and diarrhoea (38%) were the most common symptoms, especially among female runners (74% and 68% respectively). Upper GI tract symptoms were experienced more by women than men (p less than 0.05) and more by younger runners than older runners (p less than 0.01). Women also suffered more lower GI tract symptoms than men (p less than 0.05) with younger runners showing a similar trend. Both upper and lower tract symptoms were more common during a "hard" run than an "easy" run (p less than 0.01) and were equally as common both during and after running. Of those runners who suffered GI disturbances, 72% thought that running was the cause and 29% believed their performance to be adversely affected. There was no consensus among sufferers as to the causes of symptoms and a wide variety of "remedies" were suggested. GI disturbances are common amongst long-distance runners and their aetiology is unknown. Medical practitioners should be aware of this when dealing with patients who run.
Carroll, J M; Bever, T G
Viewers perceptually segment moving picture sequences into their cinematically defined units: excerpts that follow short film sequences are recognized faster when the excerpt originally came after a structural cinematic break (a cut or change in the action) than when it originally came before the break.
Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen
We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...
Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav
Roč. 36, č. 4 (2014), s. 23-23 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : unsupervised image segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/haindl-0434412.pdf
Rees, Gareth; Greenway, Phil; Morray, Denise
An important challenge in mapping image-processing techniques onto applications is the lack of quantitative performance measures. From a systems engineering perspective these are essential if system level requirements are to be decomposed into sub-system requirements which can be understood in terms of algorithm selection and performance optimization. Nowhere in computer vision is this more evident than in the area of image segmentation. This is a vigorous and innovative research activity, but even after nearly two decades of progress, it remains almost impossible to answer the question 'what would the performance of this segmentation algorithm be under these new conditions?' To begin to address this shortcoming, we have devised a well-principled metric for assessing the relative performance of two segmentation algorithms. This allows meaningful objective comparisons to be made between their outputs. It also estimates the absolute performance of an algorithm given ground truth. Our approach is an information theoretic one. In this paper, we describe the theory and motivation of our method, and present practical results obtained from a range of state of the art segmentation methods. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the objective performance of these algorithms, and to use the information so gained to provide clues about how their performance might be improved.
Full Text Available In order to identify various kinds of combined power quality disturbances, the singular value decomposition (SVD and the improved total least squares-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (TLS-ESPRIT are combined as the basis of disturbance identification in this paper. SVD is applied to identify the catastrophe points of disturbance intervals, based on which the disturbance intervals are segmented. Then the improved TLS-ESPRIT optimized by singular value norm method is used to analyze each data segment, and extract the amplitude, frequency, attenuation coefficient and initial phase of various kinds of disturbances. Multi-group combined disturbance test signals are constructed by MATLAB and the proposed method is also tested by the measured data of IEEE Power and Energy Society (PES Database. The test results show that the new method proposed has a relatively higher accuracy than conventional TLS-ESPRIT, which could be used in the identification of measured data.
Full Text Available Magnetic and inertial sensors have been widely used to estimate the orientation of human segments due to their low cost, compact size and light weight. However, the accuracy of the estimated orientation is easily affected by external factors, especially when the sensor is used in an environment with magnetic disturbances. In this paper, we propose an adaptive method to improve the accuracy of orientation estimations in the presence of magnetic disturbances. The method is based on existing gradient descent algorithms, and it is performed prior to sensor fusion algorithms. The proposed method includes stationary state detection and magnetic disturbance severity determination. The stationary state detection makes this method immune to magnetic disturbances in stationary state, while the magnetic disturbance severity determination helps to determine the credibility of magnetometer data under dynamic conditions, so as to mitigate the negative effect of the magnetic disturbances. The proposed method was validated through experiments performed on a customized three-axis instrumented gimbal with known orientations. The error of the proposed method and the original gradient descent algorithms were calculated and compared. Experimental results demonstrate that in stationary state, the proposed method is completely immune to magnetic disturbances, and in dynamic conditions, the error caused by magnetic disturbance is reduced by 51.2% compared with original MIMU gradient descent algorithm.
Swoboda, C.; Barsotti, E.; Chappa, S.; Downing, R.; Goeransson, G.; Lensy, D.; Moore, G.; Rotolo, C.; Urish, J.
The FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. In particular, the Segment Interconnect links a backplane crate segment to a cable segment. All standard FASTBUS address and data transactions can be passed through the SI or any number of SIs and segments in a path. Thus systems of arbitrary connection complexity can be formed, allowing simultaneous independent processing, yet still permitting devices associated with one segment to be accessed from others. The model S1 Segment Interconnect and the Cable Segment Ancillary Logic covered in this report comply with all the mandatory features stated in the FASTBUS specification document DOE/ER-0189. A block diagram of the SI is shown
Warner, S.; Tullos, D. D.
This study examines how river network structure affects the propagation of geomorphic and anthropogenic disturbances through streams. Geomorphic processes such as debris flows can alter channel morphology and modify habitat for aquatic biota. Anthropogenic disturbances such as road construction can interact with the geomorphology and hydrology of forested watersheds to change sediment and water inputs to streams. It was hypothesized that the network structure of streams within forested watersheds would influence the location and magnitude of the impacts of debris flows and road construction on sediment size and channel width. Longitudinal surveys were conducted every 50 meters for 11 kilometers of third-to-fifth order streams in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the Western Cascade Range of Oregon. Particle counts and channel geometry measurements were collected to characterize the geomorphic impacts of road crossings and debris flows as disturbances. Sediment size distributions and width measurements were plotted against the distance of survey locations through the network to identify variations in longitudinal trends of channel characteristics. Thresholds for the background variation in sediment size and channel width, based on the standard deviations of sample points, were developed for sampled stream segments characterized by location as well as geomorphic and land use history. Survey locations were classified as "disturbed" when they deviated beyond the reference thresholds in expected sediment sizes and channel widths, as well as flow-connected proximity to debris flows and road crossings. River network structure was quantified by drainage density and centrality of nodes upstream of survey locations. Drainage density and node centrality were compared between survey locations with similar channel characteristic classifications. Cluster analysis was used to assess the significance of survey location, proximity of survey location to debris flows and road
Cryopreservation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled primordial germ cells with GFP fused to the 3' untranslated region of the nanos gene by vitrification of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) somite stage embryos.
Kawakami, Y; Ishihara, M; Saito, T; Fujimoto, T; Adachi, S; Arai, K; Yamaha, E
Primordial germ cells (PGC) are the only cell type in developing embryos with the potential to transmit genetic information to the next generation. In this study, PGC of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) were visualized by injection of mRNA synthesized from a construct carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fused to the 3' untranslated region of the Japanese eel nanos gene. We investigated the feasibility of cryopreserving Japanese eel PGC by vitrification of dechorionated whole somite stage embryos. The GFP-labeled PGC were rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen after exposure to a pretreatment solution containing 1.5 M cryoprotectant (methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and glycerol for 10 min and ethylene glycol for 10, 20, and 30 min) and a vitrification solution containing 3 M cryoprotectant and 0.5 M sucrose for 1, 5, and 10 min. Ethylene glycerol is an effective cryoprotectant for embryonic cells and shows no evidence of ice formation after thawing. Vitrified and thawed PGC were transplanted into blastula stage embryos from zebrafish (Danio rerio). The GFP-labeled PGC migrated toward the host gonadal ridge, suggesting maintenance of their normal migration motility. These techniques may assist in achieving inter- and intraspecies germ-line chimers using donor Japanese eel PGC.
Quigley, E M
Recently, the small intestine has become the focus of investigation as a potential site of dysmotility in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number of motor abnormalities have been defined in some studies, and include \\'clustered\\' contractions, exaggerated post-prandial motor response and disturbances in intestinal transit. The significance of these findings remains unclear. The interpretation of available studies is complicated by differences in subject selection, the direct influence of certain symptoms, such as diarrhoea and constipation, and the interference of compounding factors, such as stress and psychopathology. Dysmotility could also reflect autonomic dysfunction, disturbed CNS control and the response to heightened visceral sensation or central perception. While motor abnormalities may not explain all symptoms in IBS, sensorimotor interactions may be important in symptom pathogenesis and deserve further study.
Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.
Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.
A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)
Analysis of data on the disturbances induced by ionizing irradiation in endocrine organs is given on the basis of experimental material. Mechanism and dynamics of the radiation pathology of such organs of endocrine system as hypothalamus, hypophysis, adrenal glands, thyroid, gonads are considered. Necessity of the determination of criteria of injury significance and study of delayed effects of ionizing radiation in perspective investigation of the problems of endocrine radiation pathology is pointed out
The stress distribution in a small epoxy-impregnated Nb 3 Sn coil was calculated by the finite element method. Mechanical disturbances due to the electromagnetic force in the magnet are discussed. The coil stability in relation with the stress distribution is also discussed by using the experimental results. To evaluate such stresses, a calculation model was investigated. It was found that the model, which removed the internal bore element in the model magnet, gave a reasonable condition to estimate to stress. A quench mechanism due to mechanical disturbances in superconducting magnets is discussed. According to this mechanism, an internal slit was assumed as the reason for the mechanical disturbance. The internal slit is generated at the boundary between the superconductor and the bore element by the thermally induced stress. When charging a magnet, the induced electromagnetic force results in a stress concentration at the slit, and hence to an enlargement of it. During the enlargement of the internal slit, heat is generated at the top of it. Such heat generation from a mechanical disturbance can induce a quench. Through these investigations, the following coil manufacturing method can be proposed to reduce such stresses: the magnet should be manufactured to separate the bore element from the superconductor and this separation technique can reduce the boundary stress during cool-down. Actually, a thin teflon film at the boundary between the superconductor and the bore element can be used as a separator. Another separation technique is a teflon coating on the internal bore element. The separation technique should result in a stable epoxy-impregnated superconducting magnet. (J.P.N.)
Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas
Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...
Newman, Louise K; Harris, Melissa; Allen, Joanne
It has been proposed that early attachment relationships shape the structure and reactivity of social brain structures that underlie later social capacities. We provide a review of the literature surrounding the development of neurological regulatory systems during infancy and outline recent research suggesting these systems go on to underlie adaptive parental responses. We review evidence in the peer-reviewed psychiatric literature including (i) observational human literature on the neurobiological and social sequelae of early parenting experiences, (ii) experimental animal literature on the effects of early maternal care on neurological development, (iii) experimental animal literature on the neurobiological underpinnings of parenting behaviours, (iv) observational and fMRI evidence on the neurobiological correlates of parenting behaviours, (v) functional and volumetric imaging studies on adults affected by borderline personality disorder. The development of infant regulatory systems is influenced by early parenting experiences. These frontolimbic regulatory systems are also heavily implicated in normal parental responses to infant cues. These frontolimbic disturbances are also observed in studies of borderline personality disorder; a disorder associated with poor emotional regulation, early trauma and disturbed parenting. While the current literature is limited to animal models of abnormal care giving, existing disorders associated with deficits in regulatory capacity and abnormal frontolimbic functioning may yet provide a human model of the neurobiology of parenting disturbance.
Ton-That, Vinh; Vong, Chi-Tai; Nguyen-Dao, Xuan-Truong; Tran, Minh-Triet
At DAVIS-2016 Challenge, many state-of-art video segmentation methods achieve potential results, but they still much depend on annotated frames to distinguish between background and foreground. It takes a lot of time and efforts to create these frames exactly. In this paper, we introduce a method to segment objects from video based on keywords given by user. First, we use a real-time object detection system - YOLOv2 to identify regions containing objects that have labels match with the given keywords in the first frame. Then, for each region identified from the previous step, we use Pyramid Scene Parsing Network to assign each pixel as foreground or background. These frames can be used as input frames for Object Flow algorithm to perform segmentation on entire video. We conduct experiments on a subset of DAVIS-2016 dataset in half the size of its original size, which shows that our method can handle many popular classes in PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset with acceptable accuracy, about 75.03%. We suggest widely testing by combining other methods to improve this result in the future.
Wells, V.K.; Chang, S.W.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; Pallister, J.
A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...
Michels, Gregory J.; Genberg, Victor L.; Bisson, Gary R.
The employment of actively controlled segmented mirror architectures has become increasingly common in the development of current astronomical telescopes. Optomechanical analysis of such hardware presents unique issues compared to that of monolithic mirror designs. The work presented here is a review of current capabilities and improvements in the methodology of the analysis of mechanically induced surface deformation of such systems. The recent improvements include capability to differentiate surface deformation at the array and segment level. This differentiation allowing surface deformation analysis at each individual segment level offers useful insight into the mechanical behavior of the segments that is unavailable by analysis solely at the parent array level. In addition, capability to characterize the full displacement vector deformation of collections of points allows analysis of mechanical disturbance predictions of assembly interfaces relative to other assembly interfaces. This capability, called racking analysis, allows engineers to develop designs for segment-to-segment phasing performance in assembly integration, 0g release, and thermal stability of operation. The performance predicted by racking has the advantage of being comparable to the measurements used in assembly of hardware. Approaches to all of the above issues are presented and demonstrated by example with SigFit, a commercially available tool integrating mechanical analysis with optical analysis.
Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)
Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…
We present a simple information-disturbance tradeoff relation valid for any general measurement apparatus: The disturbance between input and output states is lower bounded by the information the apparatus provides in distinguishing these two states
Yurtseven, E.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Camlibel, M.K.
In this paper we consider disturbance decoupling problems for switched linear systems. We will provide necessary and sufficient conditions for three different versions of disturbance decoupling, which differ based on which signals are considered to be the disturbance. In the first version the
Lumpkin, F. E., III; Stewart, B. S.
The primary attitude control system on the International Space Station (ISS) is part of the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and uses Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMG). The secondary system is part of the Russian On orbit Segment (RSOS) and uses a combination of gyroscopes and thrusters. Historically, events with significant disturbances such as the airlock depressurizations associated with extra-vehicular activity (EVA) have been performed using the RSOS attitude control system. This avoids excessive propulsive "de-saturations" of the CMGs. However, transfer of attitude control is labor intensive and requires significant propellant. Predictions employing NASA's DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) of the disturbance torque to the ISS for depressurization of the Pirs airlock on the RSOS will be presented . These predictions were performed to assess the feasibility of using USOS control during these events. The ISS Pirs airlock is vented using a device known as a "T-vent" as shown in the inset in figure 1. By orienting two equal streams of gas in opposite directions, this device is intended to have no propulsive effect. However, disturbance force and torque to the ISS do occur due to plume impingement. The disturbance torque resulting from the Pirs depressurization during EVAs is estimated by using a loosely coupled CFD/DSMC technique . CFD is used to simulate the flow field in the nozzle and the near field plume. DSMC is used to simulate the remaining flow field using the CFD results to create an in flow boundary to the DSMC simulation. Due to the highly continuum nature of flow field near the T-vent, two loosely coupled DSMC domains are employed. An 88.2 cubic meter inner domain contains the Pirs airlock and the T-vent. Inner domain results are used to create an in flow boundary for an outer domain containing the remaining portions of the ISS. Several orientations of the ISS solar arrays and radiators have been investigated to find cases that result in minimal
Lee, C H; Rosenfeld, A
Standard methods of image segmentation do not take into account the three-dimensional nature of the underlying scene. For example, histogram-based segmentation tacitly assumes that the image intensity is piecewise constant, and this is not true when the scene contains curved surfaces. This paper introduces a method of taking 3d information into account in the segmentation process. The image intensities are adjusted to compensate for the effects of estimated surface orientation; the adjusted intensities can be regarded as reflectivity estimates. When histogram-based segmentation is applied to these new values, the image is segmented into parts corresponding to surfaces of constant reflectivity in the scene. 7 references.
Full Text Available The notion of a ‘Best’ segmentation does not exist. A segmentation algorithm is chosen based on the features it yields, the properties of the segments (point sets it generates, and the complexity of its algorithm. The segmentation is then assessed based on a variety of metrics such as homogeneity, heterogeneity, fragmentation, etc. Even after an algorithm is chosen its performance is still uncertain because the landscape/scenarios represented in a point cloud have a strong influence on the eventual segmentation. Thus selecting an appropriate segmentation algorithm is a process of trial and error. Automating the selection of segmentation algorithms and their parameters first requires methods to evaluate segmentations. Three common approaches for evaluating segmentation algorithms are ‘goodness methods’, ‘discrepancy methods’ and ‘benchmarks’. Benchmarks are considered the most comprehensive method of evaluation. This paper shortcomings in current benchmark methods are identified and a framework is proposed that permits both a visual and numerical evaluation of segmentations for different algorithms, algorithm parameters and evaluation metrics. The concept of the framework is demonstrated on a real point cloud. Current results are promising and suggest that it can be used to predict the performance of segmentation algorithms.
Li, Jing; Zipper, Carl E; Donovan, Patricia F; Wynne, Randolph H; Oliphant, Adam J
Surface mining disturbances have attracted attention globally due to extensive influence on topography, land use, ecosystems, and human populations in mineral-rich regions. We analyzed a time series of Landsat satellite imagery to produce a 28-year disturbance history for surface coal mining in a segment of eastern USA's central Appalachian coalfield, southwestern Virginia. The method was developed and applied as a three-step sequence: vegetation index selection, persistent vegetation identification, and mined-land delineation by year of disturbance. The overall classification accuracy and kappa coefficient were 0.9350 and 0.9252, respectively. Most surface coal mines were identified correctly by location and by time of initial disturbance. More than 8 % of southwestern Virginia's >4000-km(2) coalfield area was disturbed by surface coal mining over the 28-year period. Approximately 19.5 % of the Appalachian coalfield surface within the most intensively mined county (Wise County) has been disturbed by mining. Mining disturbances expanded steadily and progressively over the study period. Information generated can be applied to gain further insight concerning mining influences on ecosystems and other essential environmental features.
Davies, Ian D; Cary, Geoffrey J; Landguth, Erin L; Lindenmayer, David B; Banks, Sam C
Exploring interactions between ecological disturbance, species' abundances and community composition provides critical insights for ecological dynamics. While disturbance is also potentially an important driver of landscape genetic patterns, the mechanisms by which these patterns may arise by selective and neutral processes are not well-understood. We used simulation to evaluate the relative importance of disturbance regime components, and their interaction with demographic and dispersal processes, on the distribution of genetic diversity across landscapes. We investigated genetic impacts of variation in key components of disturbance regimes and spatial patterns that are likely to respond to climate change and land management, including disturbance size, frequency, and severity. The influence of disturbance was mediated by dispersal distance and, to a limited extent, by birth rate. Nevertheless, all three disturbance regime components strongly influenced spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity within subpopulations, and were associated with changes in genetic structure. Furthermore, disturbance-induced changes in temporal population dynamics and the spatial distribution of populations across the landscape resulted in disrupted isolation by distance patterns among populations. Our results show that forecast changes in disturbance regimes have the potential to cause major changes to the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations. We highlight likely scenarios under which future changes to disturbance size, severity, or frequency will have the strongest impacts on population genetic patterns. In addition, our results have implications for the inference of biological processes from genetic data, because the effects of dispersal on genetic patterns were strongly mediated by disturbance regimes.
Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus
We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... is not available.We will illustrate the results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as electric motors/generators (as the example in the picture), beam focusing for particle accelerators and magnetic refrigeration devices.......We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... magnets. However, the powerful rare-earth magnets are generally expensive, so both the scientific and industrial communities have devoted a lot of effort into developing suitable design methods. Even so, many magnet optimization algorithms either are based on heuristic approaches[3...
The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...
Lu Liang,; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Zhu, Zhiliang; Xuecao Li,; Peng Gong,
The pine forests in the southern portion of the Rocky Mountains are a heterogeneous mosaic of disturbance and recovery. The most extensive and intensive stress and mortality are received from human activity, fire, and mountain pine beetles (MPB;Dendroctonus ponderosae). Understanding disturbance interactions and disturbance-succession pathways are crucial for adapting management strategies to mitigate their impacts and anticipate future ecosystem change. Driven by this goal, we assessed the forest disturbance and recovery history in the Southern Rocky Mountains Ecoregion using a 13-year time series of Landsat image stacks. An automated classification workflow that integrates temporal segmentation techniques and a random forest classifier was used to examine disturbance patterns. To enhance efficiency in selecting representative samples at the ecoregion scale, a new sampling strategy that takes advantage of the scene-overlap among adjacent Landsat images was designed. The segment-based assessment revealed that the overall accuracy for all 14 scenes varied from 73.6% to 92.5%, with a mean of 83.1%. A design-based inference indicated the average producer’s and user’s accuracies for MPB mortality were 85.4% and 82.5% respectively. We found that burn severity was largely unrelated to the severity of pre-fire beetle outbreaks in this region, where the severity of post-fire beetle outbreaks generally decreased in relation to burn severity. Approximately half the clear-cut and burned areas were in various stages of recovery, but the regeneration rate was much slower for MPB-disturbed sites. Pre-fire beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire produced positive compound effects on seedling reestablishment in this ecoregion. Taken together, these results emphasize that although multiple disturbances do play a role in the resilience mechanism of the serotinous lodgepole pine, the overall recovery could be slow due to the vast area of beetle mortality.
Chavanne, J.; Elleaume, P.; Vaerenbergh, P. Van
An important issue in the manufacture of multi-segment undulators as a source of synchrotron radiation or as a free-electron laser (FEL) is the phasing between successive segments. The state of the art is briefly reviewed, after which a novel pure permanent magnet phasing section that is passive and does not require any current is presented. The phasing section allows the introduction of a 6 mm longitudinal gap between each segment, resulting in complete mechanical independence and reduced magnetic interaction between segments. The tolerance of the longitudinal positioning of one segment with respect to the next is found to be 2.8 times lower than that of conventional phasing. The spectrum at all gaps and useful harmonics is almost unchanged when compared with a single-segment undulator of the same total length. (au) 3 refs
Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.
targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...
Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann
A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.
The purpose of the Market Segment of the EUREKA model is to simultaneously project uranium market prices, uranium supply and purchasing activities. The regional demands are extrinsic. However, annual forward contracting activities to meet these demands as well as inventory requirements are calculated. The annual price forecast is based on relatively short term, forward balances between available supply and desired purchases. The forecasted prices and extrapolated price trends determine decisions related to exploration and development, new production operations, and the operation of existing capacity. Purchasing and inventory requirements are also adjusted based on anticipated prices. The calculation proceeds one year at a time. Conditions calculated at the end of one year become the starting conditions for the calculation in the subsequent year
Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady
Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.
Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.
A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.
Full Text Available Normally, the status of land cover is inherently dynamic and changing continuously on temporal scale. However, disturbances or abnormal changes of land cover — caused by such as forest fire, flood, deforestation, and plant diseases — occur worldwide at unknown times and locations. Timely detection and characterization of these disturbances is of importance for land cover monitoring. Recently, many time-series-analysis methods have been developed for near real-time or online disturbance detection, using satellite image time series. However, the detection results were only labelled with “Change/ No change” by most of the present methods, while few methods focus on estimating reliability (or confidence level of the detected disturbances in image time series. To this end, this paper propose a statistical analysis method for estimating reliability of disturbances in new available remote sensing image time series, through analysis of full temporal information laid in time series data. The method consists of three main steps. (1 Segmenting and modelling of historical time series data based on Breaks for Additive Seasonal and Trend (BFAST. (2 Forecasting and detecting disturbances in new time series data. (3 Estimating reliability of each detected disturbance using statistical analysis based on Confidence Interval (CI and Confidence Levels (CL. The method was validated by estimating reliability of disturbance regions caused by a recent severe flooding occurred around the border of Russia and China. Results demonstrated that the method can estimate reliability of disturbances detected in satellite image with estimation error less than 5% and overall accuracy up to 90%.
Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G
Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Tappin, S.J.; Hewish, A.; Gapper, G.R.
The severe geomagnetic storm which occurred during 27-29 August 1978 was remarkable because it arrived unexpectedly and was not related to a solar flare or long-lived coronal hole. Observations on 900 celestial radio sources show that the storm was associated with a large-scale region causing enhanced interplanetary scintillation which enveloped the Earth at the same time. The disturbance was first detected on 26 August, when the outer boundary had reached a distance of about 0.8 a.u. from the Sun and it was tracked until 30 August. The enhancement was followed by a fast solar wind stream and its shape suggests that it was a compression zone caused by the birth of the stream. (author)
Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas
such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction......The tomographic reconstruction problem is concerned with creating a model of the interior of an object from some measured data, typically projections of the object. After reconstructing an object it is often desired to segment it, either automatically or manually. For computed tomography (CT...
Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.
Full Text Available This paper presents efficient and portable implementations of a useful image segmentation technique which makes use of the faster and a variant of the conventional connected components algorithm which we call parallel Components. In the Modern world majority of the doctors are need image segmentation as the service for various purposes and also they expect this system is run faster and secure. Usually Image segmentation Algorithms are not working faster. In spite of several ongoing researches in Conventional Segmentation and its Algorithms might not be able to run faster. So we propose a cluster computing environment for parallel image Segmentation to provide faster result. This paper is the real time implementation of Distributed Image Segmentation in Clustering of Nodes. We demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of our method on a set of Medical CT Scan Images. Our general framework is a single address space, distributed memory programming model. We use efficient techniques for distributing and coalescing data as well as efficient combinations of task and data parallelism. The image segmentation algorithm makes use of an efficient cluster process which uses a novel approach for parallel merging. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and practical results. It provides the faster execution time for segmentation, when compared with Conventional method. Our test data is different CT scan images from the Medical database. More efficient implementations of Image Segmentation will likely result in even faster execution times.
Schnoor, Tim; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Olsson, Pål Axel
Soil disturbance is recognized as an important driver of biodiversity in dry grasslands, and can therefore be implemented as a restoration measure. However, because community re-assembly following disturbance includes stochastic processes, a focus only on species richness or establishment success...... to experimental disturbance treatments (ploughing or rotavation), and the vegetation was surveyed during four subsequent years of succession. Treated plots were compared with control plots representing untreated grassland, as well as nearby plots characterized by plant communities representing the restoration...
Peters, Emily B.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Bradford, John B.; Reich, Peter B.
Climate, tree species traits, and soil fertility are key controls on forest productivity. However, in most forest ecosystems, natural and human disturbances, such as wind throw, fire, and harvest, can also exert important and lasting direct and indirect influence over productivity. We used an ecosystem model, PnET-CN, to examine how disturbance type, intensity, and frequency influence net primary production (NPP) across a range of forest types from Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. We assessed the importance of past disturbances on NPP, net N mineralization, foliar N, and leaf area index at 107 forest stands of differing types (aspen, jack pine, northern hardwood, black spruce) and disturbance history (fire, harvest) by comparing model simulations with observations. The model reasonably predicted differences among forest types in productivity, foliar N, leaf area index, and net N mineralization. Model simulations that included past disturbances minimally improved predictions compared to simulations without disturbance, suggesting the legacy of past disturbances played a minor role in influencing current forest productivity rates. Modeled NPP was more sensitive to the intensity of soil removal during a disturbance than the fraction of stand mortality or wood removal. Increasing crown fire frequency resulted in lower NPP, particularly for conifer forest types with longer leaf life spans and longer recovery times. These findings suggest that, over long time periods, moderate frequency disturbances are a relatively less important control on productivity than climate, soil, and species traits.
Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.
A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs
Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen
We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...
Wright, Peter H.
A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…
Full Text Available Segment reporting in accordance with IFRS 8 will be mandatory for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The standards replaces IAS 14, Segment Reporting, from that date. The objective of IFRS 8 is to require
Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora
This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…
The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…
Hofstede, ter F.
The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of
The power quality concerns all the actors in the energy domains, that they are network administrators, suppliers, producers, or consumers of electricity. The research work presented in this PhD thesis is situated in the field of the power quality monitoring. Its objective is to introduce new techniques for analysis of power quality problems. There are different methods designed for the analysis of the power quality disturbances. This method reaches very good performances in the voltage dips analysis, as it allows segmenting, classifying and characterising these power quality disturbances. The periodic systems method allows the theoretical study of the generation and the propagation of harmonic disturbances in the network. Finally, the statistical matrix method has the objective to represent statistically electrical signals without loss of important information. (author)
Full Text Available An 18-year old girl with segmental vitiligo involving the left side of the trunk and left upper limb with segmental morphea involving the right side of trunk and right upper limb without any deeper involvement is illustrated. There was no history of preceding drug intake, vaccination, trauma, radiation therapy, infection, or hormonal therapy. Family history of stable vitiligo in her brother and a history of type II diabetes mellitus in the father were elicited. Screening for autoimmune diseases and antithyroid antibody was negative. An autoimmune link explaining the co-occurrence has been proposed. Cutaneous mosiacism could explain the presence of both the pathologies in a segmental distribution.
Ye, G.; Xiang, Y.; Cuk, V.; Cobben, J.F.G.
Harmonic pollution is one of the most important power quality issues in electric power systems. Correct location of the main harmonic disturbance source is a key step to solve the problem. This paper presents a method to detect the location of harmonic disturbance source in low voltage network
Le, M.P.; Ellenbroek, Marcellinus Hermannus Maria; Seiler, R; van Put, P.; Cottaar, E.J.E.
Reaction wheels are rotating devices used for the attitude control of spacecraft. However, reaction wheels also generate undesired disturbances in the form of vibrations, which may have an adverse effect on the pointing accuracy and stability of spacecraft (optical) payloads. A disturbance model for
Sabuncu, Metin; Mišta, L.; Fiurášek, J.
We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimal nonunity gain Gaussian scheme for partial measurement of an unknown coherent state that causes minimal disturbance of the state. The information gain and the state disturbance are quantified by the noise added to the measurement outcomes...
Galgan, Richard J.; And Others
Examined personality variables in 75 male and 75 female college students. Found two dimensions underlying body image disturbance variables, one loading on body image dissatisfaction and one loading on body image disturbance. Low negative correlation between two factors suggests that distortion and dissatisfaction are fairly distinct and that body…
In this paper, the level of instrumentation for power system disturbance monitoring, data acquisition and control in Nigerian Electric Power System; National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) is presented. The need for accurate power system disturbance monitoring is highlighted. A feature of an adequate monitoring, data ...
Singer, Alexander; Johst, Karin
After a disturbance event, population recovery becomes an important species response that drives ecosystem dynamics. Yet, it is unclear how interspecific interactions impact species recovery from a disturbance and which role the disturbance duration (pulse or press) plays. Here, we analytically derive conditions that govern the transient recovery dynamics from disturbance of a host and its obligately dependent partner in a two-species metapopulation model. We find that, after disturbance, species recovery dynamics depend on the species' role (i.e. host or obligately dependent species) as well as the duration of disturbance. Host recovery starts immediately after the disturbance. In contrast, for obligate species, recovery depends on disturbance duration. After press disturbance, which allows dynamics to equilibrate during disturbance, obligate species immediately start to recover. Yet, after pulse disturbance, obligate species continue declining although their hosts have already begun to increase. Effectively, obligate species recovery is delayed until a necessary host threshold occupancy is reached. Obligates' delayed recovery arises solely from interspecific interactions independent of dispersal limitations, which contests previous explanations. Delayed recovery exerts a two-fold negative effect, because populations continue declining to even smaller population sizes and the phase of increased risk from demographic stochastic extinction in small populations is prolonged. We argue that delayed recovery and its determinants -species interactions and disturbance duration - have to be considered in biodiversity management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wood, Frank H., Ed.; Lakin, K. Charlie, Ed.
The book contains five papers presented at a 1979 topical conference on the definition of emotional disturbance and behavioral disorders in educational settings. The first paper, by F. Wood, is titled "Defining Disturbing, Disordered, and Disturbed Behavior." Topics covered include ambivalence about defining deviant behavior by special educators,…
Disturbance analysis is any systematic procedure that helps an operator determine what has failed. This paper describes the typical information currently provided in CANDU power plants to help the operator respond to a disturbance. It presents a simplified model of how an operator could get into trouble, and briefly reviews development work on computerized disturbance analysis systems for nuclear power plants being done in various countries including Canada. Disturbance analysis systems promise to be useful tools in helping operators improve their response to complex situations. However, the originality and complexity of the work for a disturbance analysis system and the need to develop operator confidence and management support require a 'walk before you run' approach
This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic experiments as well as computational methods. However, despite strong empirical evidence, the explicit use of predictability of basic sub-lexical units in models of segmentation is underexplored. This paper presents an incremental computational model of lexical segmentation for exploring the usefulness of predictability for lexical segmentation. We show that the predictability cue is a strong cue for segmentation. Contrary to earlier reports in the literature, the strategy yields state-of-the-art segmentation performance with an incremental computational model that uses only this particular cue in a cognitively plausible setting. The paper also reports an in-depth analysis of the model, investigating the conditions affecting the usefulness of the strategy. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Wallace, J. Bruce
Ecosystem disturbances produce changes in macrobenthic community structure (abundances, biomass, and production) that persist for a few weeks to many decades. Examples of disturbances with extremely long-term effects on benthic communities include contamination by persistent toxic agents, physical changes in habitats, and altered energy inputs. Stream size, retention, and local geomorphology may ameliorate the influence of disturbances on invertebrates. Disturbances can alter food webs and may select for favorable genotypes (e.g., insecticidal resistance). Introductions of pesticides into lotic ecosystems, which do not result in major physical changes within habitats, illustrate several factors that influence invertebrate recovery time from disturbance. These include: (1) magnitude of original contamination, toxicity, and extent of continued use; (2) spatial scale of the disturbance; (3) persistence of the pesticide; (4) timing of the contamination in relation to the life history stages of the organisms; (5) vagility of populations influenced by pesticides; and (6) position within the drainage network. The ability of macroinvertebrates to recolonize denuded stream habitats may vary greatly depending on regional life histories, dispersal abilities, and position within the stream network (e.g., headwaters vs larger rivers). Although downstream drift is the most frequently cited mechanism of invertebrate recolonization following disturbance in middle- and larger-order streams, evidence is presented that shows aerial recolonization to be potentially important in headwater streams. There is an apparent stochastic element operating for aerial recolonization, depending on the timing of disturbance and flight periods of various taxa. Available evidence indicates that recolonization of invertebrate taxa without an aerial adult stage requires longer periods of time than for those that possess winged, terrestrial adult stages (i.e., most insects). Innovative, manipulative
Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to find the connection between reports created for managers responsible for different business segments. With this purpose, the hierarchy of the business reporting segments is proposed. This can lead to better understanding of the expenses under common responsibility of more than one manager since these expenses should be in more than one report. The structure of cost defined per business segment hierarchy with the aim of new, unusual but relevant cost structure for management can be established. Both could potentially bring new information benefits for management in the context of profit reporting.
Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was sent to the emergency department with the chief problem of abdominal pain for 1 day. He was just discharged from the pediatric ward with the diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia and paralytic ileus. After initial examinations and radiographic investigations, midgut volvulus was impressed. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Segmental dilatation of the ileum with volvulus was found. The operative procedure was resection of the dilated ileal segment with anastomosis. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The unique abnormality of gastrointestinal tract – segmental dilatation of the ileum, is described in details and the literature is reviewed.
Sheppard, G.A.; Prettyman, T.H.; Piquette, E.C.
In a typical segmented gamma-ray scanner (SGS), the detector's field of view is collimated so that a complete horizontal slice or segment of the desired thickness is visible. Ordinarily, the collimator is not deep enough to exclude gamma rays emitted from sample volumes above and below the segment aligned with the collimator. This can lead to assay biases, particularly for certain radioactive-material distributions. Another consequence of the collimator's low aspect ratio is that segment assays at the top and bottom of the sample are biased low because the detector's field of view is not filled. This effect is ordinarily countered by placing the sample on a low-Z pedestal and scanning one or more segment thicknesses below and above the sample. This takes extra time, however, We have investigated a number of techniques that both account for correlated segments and correct for end effects in SGS assays. Also, we have developed an algorithm that facilitates estimates of assay precision. Six calculation methods have been compared by evaluating the results of thousands of simulated, assays for three types of gamma-ray source distribution and ten masses. We will report on these computational studies and their experimental verification
Segments find all sessions that meet a specific condition. You can then apply this segment to any report in Google Analytics (GA). Segments are a way of identifying sessions and users while filters identify specific events, like pageviews.
Deshmukh, Prasanna Gajanan; Mandal, Amaresh; Parihar, Padmakar S.; Nayak, Dayananda; Mishra, Deepta Sundar
Segmented mirror telescopes (SMT) are built using several small hexagonal mirrors positioned and aligned by the three actuators and six edge sensors per segment to maintain the shape of the primary mirror. The actuators are responsible for maintaining and tracking the mirror segments to the desired position, in the presence of external disturbances introduced by wind, vibration, gravity, and temperature. The present paper describes our effort to develop a soft actuator and the actuator controller for prototype SMT at Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. The actuator designed, developed, and validated is a soft actuator based on the voice coil motor and flexural elements. It is designed for the range of travel of ±1.5 mm and the force range of 25 N along with an offloading mechanism to reduce the power consumption. A precision controller using a programmable system on chip (PSoC 5Lp) and a customized drive board has also been developed for this actuator. The close loop proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller implemented in the PSoC gets position feedback from a high-resolution linear optical encoder. The optimum PID gains are derived using relay tuning method. In the laboratory, we have conducted several experiments to test the performance of the prototype soft actuator as well as the controller. We could achieve 5.73- and 10.15-nm RMS position errors in the steady state as well as tracking with a constant speed of 350 nm/s, respectively. We also present the outcome of various performance tests carried out when off-loader is in action as well as the actuator is subjected to dynamic wind loading.
Christo Ananth; S.Santhana Priya; S.Manisha; T.Ezhil Jothi; M.S.Ramasubhaeswari
This paper proposes an automatic segmentation method which effectively combines Active Contour Model, Live Wire method and Graph Cut approach (CLG). The aim of Live wire method is to provide control to the user on segmentation process during execution. Active Contour Model provides a statistical model of object shape and appearance to a new image which are built during a training phase. In the graph cut technique, each pixel is represented as a node and the distance between those nodes is rep...
Camilleri, Mark Anthony
Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on ...
Dorn, Nathan J; Cook, Mark I
Effects of predators on prey populations can be especially strong in aquatic ecosystems, but disturbances may mediate the strength of predator limitation and even allow outbreaks of some prey populations. In a two-year study we investigated the numerical responses of crayfish (Procambarus fallax) and small fishes (Poeciliidae and Fundulidae) to a brief hydrological disturbance in replicated freshwater wetlands with an experimental drying and large predatory fish reduction. The experiment and an in situ predation assay tested the component of the consumer stress model positing that disturbances release prey from predator limitation. In the disturbed wetlands, abundances of large predatory fish were seasonally reduced, similar to dynamics in the Everglades (southern Florida). Densities of small fish were unaffected by the disturbance, but crayfish densities, which were similar across all wetlands before drying, increased almost threefold in the year after the disturbance. Upon re-flooding, juvenile crayfish survival was inversely related to the abundance of large fish across wetlands, but we found no evidence for enhanced algal food quality. At a larger landscape scale (500 km2 of the Everglades), crayfish densities over eight years were positively correlated with the severity of local dry disturbances (up to 99 days dry) during the preceding dry season. In contrast, densities of small-bodied fishes in the same wetlands were seasonally depressed by dry disturbances. The results from our experimental wetland drought and the observations of crayfish densities in the Everglades represent a large-scale example of prey population release following a hydrological disturbance in a freshwater ecosystem. The conditions producing crayfish pulses in the Everglades appear consistent with the mechanics of the consumer stress model, and we suggest crayfish pulses may influence the number of nesting wading birds in the Everglades.
Kimball, Owen; Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, Robin
.... We describe an approach to connected word recognition that allows the use of segmental information through an explicit decomposition of the recognition criterion into classification and segmentation scoring...
Full Text Available Despite the well-known facts discerned from interesting cases of speech and language disturbances over thousands of years, the scientific background and the limitless discussions for nearly 150 years, this field has been considered one of the least important subjects in neurological sciences. In this review, we first analyze the possible causes for this “stepchild” attitude towards this subject and we then summarize the practical aspects concerning speech and language disturbances. Our underlying expectation with this review is to explain the facts concerning those disturbances that might offer us opportunities to better understand the nervous system and the affected patients
Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of nonlinear atmospheric disturbances on wind power prediction. A Lorenz system is introduced as an atmospheric disturbance model. Three new improved wind forecasting models combined with a Lorenz comprehensive disturbance are put forward in this study. Firstly, we define the form of the Lorenz disturbance variable and the wind speed perturbation formula. Then, different artificial neural network models are used to verify the new idea and obtain better wind speed predictions. Finally we separately use the original and improved wind speed series to predict the related wind power. This proves that the corrected wind speed provides higher precision wind power predictions. This research presents a totally new direction in the wind prediction field and has profound theoretical research value and practical guiding significance.
landscape in Tanzania that has been severely affected by anthropogenic disturbance ... Fragmentation of habitats formed patches that have reduced plant species population sizes, and ... by the movement of the Inter-Tropical ..... of pollinators.
. The sleep disturbances seem to be related to the magnitude of trauma and thereby to the surgical stress response and/or post-operative opioid administration. Post-operative sleep disturbances may contribute to the development of early post-operative fatigue, episodic hypoxaemia, haemodynamic instability......After major non-cardiac surgery sleep pattern is usually disturbed with initial suppression of rapid eye movement sleep with a subsequent rebound during the first post-operative week. Deep sleep is also suppressed for several days after the operation and subjective sleep quality is impaired...... and altered mental status, all with a potential negative effect on post-operative outcome. Minimizing surgical trauma and avoiding or minimizing use of opioids for pain relief may prevent or reduce post-operative sleep disturbances. Post-operative sleep pattern represents an important research field, since...
Lee, Kie Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)
Seismological, geological, and geophysical studies were made for reasonable segmentation of the Ulsan fault and the results are as follows. One- and two- dimensional electrical surveys revealed clearly the fault fracture zone enlarges systematically northward and southward from the vicinity of Mohwa-ri, indicating Mohwa-ri is at the seismic segment boundary. Field Geological survey and microscope observation of fault gouge indicates that the Quaternary faults in the area are reactivated products of the preexisting faults. Trench survey of the Chonbuk fault Galgok-ri revealed thrust faults and cumulative vertical displacement due to faulting during the late Quaternary with about 1.1-1.9 m displacement per event; the latest event occurred from 14000 to 25000 yrs. BP. The seismic survey showed the basement surface os cut by numerous reverse faults and indicated the possibility that the boundary between Kyeongsangbukdo and Kyeongsannamdo may be segment boundary.
Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus
a microscope and we show how the method can handle transparent particles with significant glare point. The method generalizes to other problems. THis is illustrated by applying the method to camera calibration images and MRI of the midsagittal plane for gray and white matter separation and segmentation......We propose a novel and efficient way of performing local image segmentation. For many applications a threshold of pixel intensities is sufficient but determine the appropriate threshold value can be difficult. In cases with large global intensity variation the threshold value has to be adapted...... locally. We propose a method based on large scale hypothesis testing with a consistent method for selecting an appropriate threshold for the given data. By estimating the background distribution we characterize the segment of interest as a set of outliers with a certain probability based on the estimated...
Lee, Kie Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok
Seismological, geological, and geophysical studies were made for reasonable segmentation of the Ulsan fault and the results are as follows. One- and two- dimensional electrical surveys revealed clearly the fault fracture zone enlarges systematically northward and southward from the vicinity of Mohwa-ri, indicating Mohwa-ri is at the seismic segment boundary. Field Geological survey and microscope observation of fault gouge indicates that the Quaternary faults in the area are reactivated products of the preexisting faults. Trench survey of the Chonbuk fault Galgok-ri revealed thrust faults and cumulative vertical displacement due to faulting during the late Quaternary with about 1.1-1.9 m displacement per event; the latest event occurred from 14000 to 25000 yrs. BP. The seismic survey showed the basement surface os cut by numerous reverse faults and indicated the possibility that the boundary between Kyeongsangbukdo and Kyeongsannamdo may be segment boundary
Full Text Available Background: Sleep is necessary in life and approximately 1/3 of human life is devoted to sleep. One of the most common problems in menopausal women is sleep disturbance. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of sleep disorders and its related factors in 50 – 60 years old women Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on 200 eligible women who referred to selected health centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. Demographic form, ten-point slide to review sexual satisfaction and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index Questioner (PSQI were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, t-test, and Pearson correlation tests.Results: The mean age of women was 53.6±3.6 year, menopause age 47.8±4, number of children 4.76±2 and partner age was 57.99±6.6. 34.5% of women were satisfied from their sexual relationship and their score was 8-10. Rate of sleep disturbances in this group was about 70%. The results showed that between four variables: economical status, occupation, partner occupation and educational status were significantly associated with sleep disturbance (P=0.002. There was not significant difference between other demographic information and sleep disturbance.Conclusion: The results show high prevalence of sleep disturbance symptoms among menopausal women. According to the relationship between some personal characters and sleep disturbance, health care providers need to consider these variables.
Ebel, B. A.; Mirus, B. B.
Landscape disturbances are increasing, often promoted and enhanced by climate shifts and human activities. Insect infestations, wildfires, earthquakes, urban development, forest harvest, mineral and petroleum resource extraction, and hurricanes are common landscape disturbances that can have profound hydrologic consequences. These cause relatively abrupt changes in the landscape, which alter local processes on plots and hillslopes in addition to coarser-scale processes across watersheds through cross-scale interactions. Shifts in soil properties and cover of vegetation and leaf litter change the water storage or buffering capacity as well as the hydrologic functional connectivity across multiple scales. These changes increase the risk of catastrophic flooding, erosion, and mass movements that degrade water resources, ecosystem services, and protection from hydrologically driven natural hazards. Although it is imperative that we understand the hydrologic effects of these disturbances, several major barriers exist. Four challenges are: (i) overlapping disturbances in space and time with unknown recovery trajectories, (ii) a paucity of long-term recovery records (>5 years duration), (iii) inefficacy of traditional modeling and parameterization approaches, and (iv) lack of pre-disturbance characterization. Examples of these challenges will be presented along with proposed opportunities for improved mechanistic understanding of processes and thresholds in disturbance hydrology.
Bongers, Frans; Poorter, Lourens; Hawthorne, William D; Sheil, Douglas
The intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) predicts local species diversity to be maximal at an intermediate level of disturbance. Developed to explain species maintenance and diversity patterns in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, tests of IDH in tropical forest remain scarce, small-scale and contentious. We use an unprecedented large-scale dataset (2504 one-hectare plots and 331,567 trees) to examine whether IDH explains tree diversity variation within wet, moist and dry tropical forests, and we analyse the underlying mechanism by determining responses within functional species groups. We find that disturbance explains more variation in diversity of dry than wet tropical forests. Pioneer species numbers increase with disturbance, shade-tolerant species decrease and intermediate species are indifferent. While diversity indeed peaks at intermediate disturbance levels little variation is explained outside dry forests, and disturbance is less important for species richness patterns in wet tropical rain forests than previously thought.
Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang
The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.
Erica R. Gross
Full Text Available Skip segment Hirschsprung disease describes a segment of ganglionated bowel between two segments of aganglionated bowel. It is a rare phenomenon that is difficult to diagnose. We describe a recent case of skip segment Hirschsprung disease in a neonate with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome and the genetic profile that was identified.
segmentation is individual or intergroup differences in response to marketing - mix variables. Presumptions about segments: •different demands in a...product or service category, •respond differently to changes in the marketing mix Criteria for segments: •The segments must exist in the environment
Gross, Erica R.; Geddes, Gabrielle C.; McCarrier, Julie A.; Jarzembowski, Jason A.; Arca, Marjorie J.
Skip segment Hirschsprung disease describes a segment of ganglionated bowel between two segments of aganglionated bowel. It is a rare phenomenon that is difficult to diagnose. We describe a recent case of skip segment Hirschsprung disease in a neonate with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome and the genetic profile that was identified.
Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.
Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....
Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.
Cohen, Warren B.; Yang, Zhiqiang; Stehman, Stephen; Schroeder, Todd; Bell, David M.; Masek, Jeffrey; Huang, Chengquan; Meigs, Garrett W.
-related disturbance rates reached as high as 8% per year in the western regions during the early-2000s. Although low compared to harvest and decline, fire disturbance rates also increased in the early- to mid-2000s. We segmented annual decline-related disturbance rates to distinguish between newly impacted areas and areas undergoing gradual but consistent decline over multiple years. We also translated Landsat reflectance change into tree canopy cover change information for greater relevance to ecosystem modelers and forest managers, who can derive better understanding of forest-climate interactions and better adapt management strategies to changing climate regimes. Similar studies could be carried out for other countries where there are sufficient Landsat data and historic temporal snapshots of high-resolution imagery.
Selwyn, A.P.; Forse, G.; Fox, K.; Jonathan, A.; Steiner, R.
Fifty patients who presented with angina pectoris were studied to examine the disturbances of regional myocardial perfusion during stress. Each patient underwent 16-point precordial mapping of the ECG during an exercise test, and coronary and left ventricular angiography. Regional myocardial perfusion was assessed using an atrial pacing test and a short-lived radionuclide, krypton-81m. Eleven patients had negative exercise tests and uniform increases in myocardial activity of krypton-81m of 98 +/- 18.0% during pacing. Ten patients performed 30,000-43,000 J in positive exercise tests. These patients showed abnormal coronary anatomy and increases in myocardial activity of krypton-81m to remote and jeopardized myocardium at the onset of pacing. However, further pacing produced a decrease in activity in the affected segment of 68.0 +/- 9.0% accompanied by ST-segment depression and angina. Twelve patients achieved 26,000-32,000 J in positive exercise tests and had significant coronary artery disease. Atrial pacing produced increased activity of krypton-81m to remote myocardium. The jeopardized segment at first showed no change and then a decrease in regional activity of krypton-81m (89.0 +/- 17%) accompanied by ST-segment depression and chest pain. Seventeen patients achieved only 7000-22,000 J in positive exercise tests. These patients showed abnormal coronary anatomy and developed decreases in regional activity of krypton-81m to the affected segment of myocardium starting at the onset of atrial pacing and decreasing by 88 +/- 0 7.0% below control. We conclude that different patterns of disturbed myocardial distribution of krypton-81m are present during stress-induced ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. There was a close temporal relationship between these disturbances and ST-segment depression
Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra
This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.
Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders
We present an optimization approach which can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector......, with respect to a linear objective functional. We illustrate the approach with results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as a permanent magnet electric motor, a beam focusing quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators and a rotary device for magnetic refrigeration....
Iqbal, A.; Amin, M.S.
Objective: To evaluate the results and complications of intercalary bone segment transport in the treatment of segmental tibial defects. Design: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with segmental tibial defects who were treated with intercalary bone segment transport method. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from September 1997 to April 2001. Subjects and methods: Thirteen patients were included in the study who had developed tibial defects either due to open fractures with bone loss or subsequent to bone debridement of infected non unions. The mean bone defect was 6.4 cms and there were eight associated soft tissue defects. Locally made unilateral 'Naseer-Awais' (NA) fixator was used for bone segment transport. The distraction was done at the rate of 1mm/day after 7-10 days of osteotomy. The patients were followed-up fortnightly during distraction and monthly thereafter. The mean follow-up duration was 18 months. Results: The mean time in external fixation was 9.4 months. The m ean healing index' was 1.47 months/cm. Satisfactory union was achieved in all cases. Six cases (46.2%) required bone grafting at target site and in one of them grafting was required at the level of regeneration as well. All the wounds healed well with no residual infection. There was no residual leg length discrepancy of more than 20 mm nd one angular deformity of more than 5 degrees. The commonest complication encountered was pin track infection seen in 38% of Shanz Screws applied. Loosening occurred in 6.8% of Shanz screws, requiring re-adjustment. Ankle joint contracture with equinus deformity and peroneal nerve paresis occurred in one case each. The functional results were graded as 'good' in seven, 'fair' in four, and 'poor' in two patients. Overall, thirteen patients had 31 (minor/major) complications with a ratio of 2.38 complications per patient. To treat the bone defects and associated complications, a mean of
Husken, D.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.
Segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) flexible segments and monodisperse crystallizable bisester tetra-amide segments were made via a polycondensation reaction. The molecular weight of the PEO segments varied from 600 to 4600 g/mol and a bisester tetra-amide segment (T6T6T)
Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I.
In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method
Both, Roxana; Dulf, Eva H.; Muresan, Cristina I., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)
In the petrochemical industry, the synthesis of 2 ethyl-hexanol-oxo-alcohols (plasticizers alcohol) is of high importance, being achieved through hydrogenation of 2 ethyl-hexenal inside catalytic trickle bed three-phase reactors. For this type of processes the use of advanced control strategies is suitable due to their nonlinear behavior and extreme sensitivity to load changes and other disturbances. Due to the complexity of the mathematical model an approach was to use a simple linear model of the process in combination with an advanced control algorithm which takes into account the model uncertainties, the disturbances and command signal limitations like robust control. However the resulting controller is complex, involving cost effective hardware. This paper proposes a simple integer-order control scheme using a linear model of the process, based on active disturbance rejection method. By treating the model dynamics as a common disturbance and actively rejecting it, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) can achieve the desired response. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley
Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....
Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred
We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...
Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.
Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt
Guido Ma Van Rosendaal
Full Text Available Two cases of idiopathic colitis affecting the sigmoid colon in elderly patients with underlying diverticulosis are presented. Segmental resection has permitted close review of the histopathology in this syndrome which demonstrates considerable similarity to changes seen in idiopathic ulcerative colitis. The reported experience with this syndrome and its clinical features are reviewed.
Scharr, Hanno; Minervini, Massimo; French, Andrew P.; Klukas, Christian; Kramer, David M.; Liu, Xiaoming; Luengo, Imanol; Pape, Jean Michel; Polder, Gerrit; Vukadinovic, Danijela; Yin, Xi; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.
Image-based plant phenotyping is a growing application area of computer vision in agriculture. A key task is the segmentation of all individual leaves in images. Here we focus on the most common rosette model plants, Arabidopsis and young tobacco. Although leaves do share appearance and shape
Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.; Hawthorne, W.D.; Sheil, D.
The intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) predicts local species diversity to be maximal at an intermediate level of disturbance. Developed to explain species maintenance and diversity patterns in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, tests of IDH in tropical forest remain scarce,
W. Michael Aust; James A. Burger; Emily A. Carter; David P. Preston; Steven C. Patterson
Visual estimates of soil and site disturbances are used by foresters, soil scientists, logging supervisors. and machinery operators to minimize harvest disturbances to forest sites, to evaluate compliance with forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs), and to determine the need for ameliorative practices such as tnechanical site preparation. Although estimates are...
Lazzarino, L.G.; Nicolai, A.; Valassi, F.; Biasizzo, E.
The authors report the cases of two patients with CT-documented paramedian mesencephalo-thalamic infarcts, showing language disturbances. The first patient showed a non fluent, transcortical motor-like aphasia, the other had a fluent but severely paraphasic language disorder. The CT study disclosed that it was the dorso-median thalamic nucleus that was mostly involved in both cases. These findings agree with a few previous pathological studies suggesting that the paramedian thalamic nuclei, particlularly the dorso-median nucleus may play some role in language disturbances. However the anatomical basis for thalamic aphasia remains speculative, taking into account the importantce of cortical connections in the origin of subcortical neuropsychological disturbances. (orig.)
Sten, T; Bodsberg, L; Ingstad, O; Ulleberg, T
Factors of importance in successful handling of major disturbances and crisis situations in petroleum production are discussed. Case studies based on interviews, questionnaires and systematic observations have been undertaken to identify critical factors in human computer design, in operator competence and attitudes and in work organization. It is shown that certain features of the humancomputer interaction become critical when serious disturbances are encountered. Likewise focusing on requirements during disturbances in particular has highlighted some new aspects of operator competence and of the work organization. The results are considered to be useful input to safety management in petroleum process plants, in formation of design specifications and in identifying need for further research regarding safety in offshore production.
Hukki, K.; Norros, L.
The object of the study is diagnostic judgement in the control of dynamic processes. The starting point was the known difficulty process operators have in utilizing knowledge of process dynamics in disturbance situations that require both diagnostic and prognostic actions. A model of the diagnostic judgement process as a construction of coherent interpretation of the situation is outlined, and comprehensive data from simulated disturbance handling by 6 crews of a PWR type nuclear power plant was analysed. The phase of analysis included evaluation of the adequacy of task performance, utilization of available process information, and evaluation of the interpretation of disturbance situations. The results suggest that a functional orientation towards task performance allows a more coherent and comprehensive interpretation of the situation and more adequate task performance. Coherence of interpretation seems to be reflected in a higher subjective certainty compared with crews with an incoherent interpretation. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs
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Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED.
Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied multivariate regression models.
Results: Our results highlight a statistically significant relation between LH, FSH and prolactin decreased levels, mood and thought disturbances (subscales 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of SCL-90r which are associated to Body Attitude ( BAT total scale and Dissociative Experiences (DES II total scale.
Conclusions: Decreased sexual hormones levels could have a role in ED psychological disturbances, not inquired yet
Borchevkina, O. P.; Karpov, I. V.
The results of observations of the total electron content (TEC) in periods of storm disturbances of meteorological situation are presented in the paper. The observational results have shown that a passage of a meteorological storm is accompanied by a substantial decrease in values of TEC and critical frequencies of the ionospheric F2 region. The decreases in values of these ionospheric parameters reach 50% and up to 30% in TEC and critical frequency of the F2 layer, respectively, as compared to meteorologically quiet days. Based on qualitative analysis, it is found that the processes related to formation of local regions of thermospheric heating due to a dissipation of AGW coming into the upper atmosphere from the region of the meteorological disturbance in the lower atmosphere are a possible cause of these ionospheric disturbances.
German, U.; Weinstein, M.; Ben-Shachar, B.
One of the major sources of uncertainty in the measurement of low radiation doses by means of thermoluminescence dosemeters is the presence of disturbing thermoluminescence signals, especially luminescence caused by visible light, and by materials attached to the heated areas. Glow curves of thermoluminescence dosemeters contain useful information that can improve the accuracy and the reliability of the thermoluminescent measurements. The influence of the various disturbing effects can be recognised in the shape of the glow curves and can sometimes be separated from the exposure. Some examples are presented of signals arising from the two disturbing effects mentioned above, the signal contributed by Teflon used in the TLD-100 cards of Bicron/Harshaw and some abnormal glow curves due to dirt attached to the cards. Subtraction of the contributions due to these effects is suggested to obtain the net exposure signal. (author)
Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej
OBJECTIVES: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances...... in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. METHODS: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis....... RESULTS: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high...
We present an approach to segmenting shapes in a heterogenous shape database. Our approach segments the shapes jointly, utilizing features from multiple shapes to improve the segmentation of each. The approach is entirely unsupervised and is based on an integer quadratic programming formulation of the joint segmentation problem. The program optimizes over possible segmentations of individual shapes as well as over possible correspondences between segments from multiple shapes. The integer quadratic program is solved via a linear programming relaxation, using a block coordinate descent procedure that makes the optimization feasible for large databases. We evaluate the presented approach on the Princeton segmentation benchmark and show that joint shape segmentation significantly outperforms single-shape segmentation techniques. © 2011 ACM.
Jeffrey G. Masek; Chengquan Huang; Robert Wolfe; Warren Cohen; Forrest Hall; Jonathan Kutler; Peder. Nelson
Forest disturbance and recovery are critical ecosystem processes, but the spatial pattern of disturbance has never been mapped across North America. The LEDAPS (Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System) project has assembled a wall-to-wall record of stand-clearing disturbance (clearcut harvest, fire) for the United States and Canada for the period 1990-...
Y. Pan; J.M. Chen; R. Birdsey; K. McCullough; L. He; F. Deng
Most forests of the world are recovering from a past disturbance. It is well known that forest disturbances profoundly affect carbon stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems, yet it has been a great challenge to assess disturbance impacts in estimates of forest carbon budgets. Net sequestration or loss of CO2 by forests after disturbance follows a...
This review of the disturbance ecology literature, and how it pertains to forest management, is a resource for forest managers and researchers interested in disturbance theory, specific disturbance agents, their interactions, and appropriate methods of inquiry for specific geographic regions. Implications for the future of disturbance ecology-based management are...
Courtney G. F1int
Forest disturbances caused by insects can lead to other disturbances, risks, and changes across landscapes. Evaluating the human dimensions of such disturbances furthers understanding of integrated changes in natural and social systems. This article examines the effects of changing forest disturbance regimes on local risk perceptions and attitudes in Homer, Alaska....
Virginia H. Dale; Linda A. Joyce; Steve McNulty; Ronald P. Neilson
Climate change affects forests both directly and indirectly through disturbances. Disturbances are a natural and integral part of forest ecosystems, and climate change can alter these natural interactions. When disturbances exceed their natural range of variation, the change in forest structure and function may be extreme. Each disturbance affects forests differently....
The application of deregulation policies in electric power systems has resulted in the necessity to quantify the quality of electric power. This fact highlights the need for a new monitoring strategy which is capable of tracking, detecting, classifying power quality disturbances, and then identifying the source of the disturbance. The objective of this work is to design an efficient and reliable power quality monitoring strategy that uses the advances in signal processing and pattern recognition to overcome the deficiencies that exist in power quality monitoring devices. The purposed monitoring strategy has two stages. The first stage is to detect, track, and classify any power quality violation by the use of on-line measurements. In the second stage, the source of the classified power quality disturbance must be identified. In the first stage, an adaptive linear combiner is used to detect power quality disturbances. Then, the Teager Energy Operator and Hilbert Transform are utilized for power quality event tracking. After the Fourier, Wavelet, and Walsh Transforms are employed for the feature extraction, two approaches are then exploited to classify the different power quality disturbances. The first approach depends on comparing the disturbance to be classified with a stored set of signatures for different power quality disturbances. The comparison is developed by using Hidden Markov Models and Dynamic Time Warping. The second approach depends on employing an inductive inference to generate the classification rules directly from the data. In the second stage of the new monitoring strategy, only the problem of identifying the location of the switched capacitor which initiates the transients is investigated. The Total Least Square-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique is adopted to estimate the amplitudes and frequencies of the various modes contained in the voltage signal measured at the facility entrance. After extracting the
Kawai, Fukiko; Vinther, Kasper; Andersen, Palle
Disturbance Feedback Control (DFC) is a technique, originally proposed by Fuji Electric, for augmenting existing control systems with an extra feedback for attenuation of disturbances and model errors. In this work, we analyze the robustness and performance of a PID-based control system with DFC...... and performance (if such gains exist). Finally, two different simulation case studies are evaluated and compared. Our numerical studies indicate that better performance can be achieved with the proposed method compared with a conservatively tuned PID controller and comparable performance can be achieved when...... compared with an H-infinity controller....
Seidl, Rupert; Fernandes, Paulo M.; Fonseca, Teresa F.; Gillet, François; Jönsson, Anna Maria; Merganičová, Katarína; Netherer, Sigrid; Arpaci, Alexander; Bontemps, Jean-Daniel; Bugmann, Harald
Natural disturbances play a key role in ecosystem dynamics and are important factors for sustainable forest ecosystem management. Quantitative models are frequently employed to tackle the complexities associated with disturbance processes. Here we review the wide variety of approaches to modelling natural disturbances in forest ecosystems, addressing the full spectrum of disturbance modelling from single events to integrated disturbance regimes. We applied a general, process-based framework f...
Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Deniz, Furkan Nur; Keles, Cemal; Tan, Nusret
This study investigates disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems by means of reference to disturbance ratio (RDR). The RDR analysis calculates the ratio of reference signal energy to disturbance signal energy at the system output and provides a quantitative evaluation of disturbance rejection performance of control systems on the bases of communication channel limitations. Essentially, RDR provides a straightforward analytical method for the comparison and improvement of implicit disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems. Theoretical analyses demonstrate us that RDR of the negative feedback closed loop control systems are determined by energy spectral density of controller transfer function. In this manner, authors derived design criteria for specifications of disturbance rejection performances of PID and fractional order PID (FOPID) controller structures. RDR spectra are calculated for investigation of frequency dependence of disturbance rejection capacity and spectral RDR analyses are carried out for PID and FOPID controllers. For the validation of theoretical results, simulation examples are presented. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2010
The mental health of our children is a natural and important concern for us all. The fact is, many mental disorders have their beginnings in childhood or adolescence, yet may go undiagnosed and untreated for years. "Umbrella" terms such as emotional disturbance, behavioral disorders, or mental illness are used to refer to mental…
Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Courtney [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Land classified as contaminated and disturbed across the United States has the potential to host developments of utility-scale solar power. This report examines the prospect of developing utility- and commercial-scale concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar photovoltaics (PV) technologies on degraded and environmentally contaminated lands. The potential for solar development on contaminated anddisturbed lands was assessed, and for the largest and highest solar resource sites, the economic impacts and feasibility were evaluated. Developing solar power on contaminated and disturbed lands can help create jobs and revitalize local and state economies, and selecting these sites over greenfield sites can potentially have permitting and environmental mitigation advantages. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot goals call for 632 GW of PV and 83 GW of CSP to be deployed by 2050. Conservative land-use estimates of this study (10 acres per megawatt) show that there are disturbed and environmentally contaminated lands throughout the country that could be suitable for utility-scale solar power, and, that there is sufficient land area to meet SunShot solar deployment goals. The purpose of this assessment is to improve the understanding of these sites and facilitate solar developers' selection of contaminated and disturbed sites for development.
De Moura, Maria Clara Drummond Soares; do Valle, Luiz Eduardo Ribeiro; Resende, Maria Bernadete Dutra; Pinto, Katia Osternack
Aim: The cognitive deficits present in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are not yet well characterized. Attention, considered to be the brain mechanism responsible for the selection of sensory stimuli, could be disturbed in DMD, contributing, at least partially, to the observed global cognitive deficit. The aim of this study was to…
Yasukawa, Keiko; Brown, Tony; Black, Stephen
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibilities for expansive learning during organisational change. It considers the introduction of "lean production" as a disturbance to the existing work practices. Design/methodology/approach: The paper considers two case studies of "lean production" training with…
Hamilton, Gloria J.
This article provides an overview of pediatric sleep disturbances with emphases on types and treatments. Relationships between sleep disorders and comorbid conditions function to exacerbate and maintain both disorders. An estimated 20% of teenagers experience chronic partial sleep deprivation, resulting in problems with memory, attention, and…
Lennings, C. J.
Assessed 238 university students and 159 high school students on temporal and personality measures. Found that temporal extension, temporal attitude, and impulsivity had comparatively little effect on suicide ideation after controlling effects of mood disturbance. However, negative temporal attitudes appeared to have significant impact on suicide…
One of the main symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disturbed experience of body size and shape. Although patients are underweight, they experience their body as bigger than it in reality is. Previous studies were mainly conducted by (clinical) psychologists and psychiatrists, and almost
A novel combined material is introduced, which is hard against electromagnetic pulse disturbance, The attenuation characteristics and the penetration probability of the combine material is discussed in detail. The penetration probability of electromagnetic wave is calculated approximately and the characteristic curve is measured for this material. (authors)
Gunn-Moore, D.A.; Hagard, G.; Turner, C.; Duncan, A.W.; Barr, F.J.
This report describes the presenting features, radiographic changes, biochemical alterations and clinical progress of two kittens, from separate litters, which were found to have a growth plate disturbance initially diagnosed and treated as vitamin D3-dependent rickets, but subsequently suspected to be a metaphyseal chondrodysplasia
We aimed to assess the effect of well known antioxidant carnosine on disturbed plasma and intraerythrocytes electrolytes and Na+-K+-ATPase activity by cisplatin. 24 male albino Wistar rats were selected and divided into 4 groups: Group I = untreated control; Group II = cisplatin control (received cisplatin at a dose of 3 mg/ ...
Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley
We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...
Arya, Anil; Frimor, Hans; Mittendorf, Brian
Regulatory oversight of capital markets has intensified in recent years, with a particular emphasis on expanding financial transparency. A notable instance is efforts by the Financial Accounting Standards Board that push firms to identify and report performance of individual business units...... (segments). This paper seeks to address short-run and long-run consequences of stringent enforcement of and uniform compliance with these segment disclosure standards. To do so, we develop a parsimonious model wherein a regulatory agency promulgates disclosure standards and either permits voluntary...... by increasing transparency and leveling the playing field. However, our analysis also demonstrates that in the long run, if firms are unable to use discretion in reporting to maintain their competitive edge, they may seek more destructive alternatives. Accounting for such concerns, in the long run, voluntary...
Rosen, H M
Multiple segment Le Fort I osteotomies provide the maxillofacial surgeon with the capabilities to treat complex dentofacial deformities existing in all three planes of space. Sagittal, vertical, and transverse maxillomandibular discrepancies as well as three-dimensional abnormalities within the maxillary arch can be corrected simultaneously. Accordingly, optimal aesthetic enhancement of the facial skeleton and a functional, healthy occlusion can be realized. What may be perceived as elaborate treatment plans are in reality conservative in terms of osseous stability and treatment time required. The close cooperation of an orthodontist well-versed in segmental orthodontics and orthognathic surgery is critical to the success of such surgery. With close attention to surgical detail, the complication rate inherent in such surgery can be minimized and the treatment goals achieved in a timely and predictable fashion.
Full Text Available Torsional vibration responses of a nonlinear shafting system are studied by a modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix combining with the Newmark-β method. Firstly, the system is modeled as a chain consisting of an elastic spring with concentrated mass points, from which a multi-segment lumped mass model is established. Secondly, accumulated errors are eliminated from the eigenfrequencies and responses of the system's torsional vibration by this newly developed procedure. The incremental transfer matrix method, combining the modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix with Newmark-β method, is further applied to solve the dynamical equations for the torsional vibration of the nonlinear shafting system. Lastly, the shafting system of a turbine-generator is employed as an illustrating example, and simulation analysis has been performed on the transient responses of the shaft's torsional vibrations during typical power network disturbances, such as three-phase short circuit, two-phase short circuit and asynchronous juxtaposition. The results validate the present method and are instructive for the design of a turbo-generator shaft.
This patent describes a continuous segmented fuel and moderator rod for use with a water cooled and moderated nuclear fuel assembly. The rod comprises: a lower fuel region containing a column of nuclear fuel; a moderator region, disposed axially above the fuel region. The moderator region has means for admitting and passing the water moderator therethrough for moderating an upper portion of the nuclear fuel assembly. The moderator region is separated from the fuel region by a water tight separator
Tu, Gang Jun; Karstoft, Henrik; Pedersen, Lene Juul
The correct segmentation of a foreground object in video recordings is an important task for many surveillance systems. The development of an effective and practical algorithm to segment sows in grayscale video recordings captured under commercial production conditions is described...
Charles, Christopher A D; McLean, Shua-Kym
This study looks at body image disturbance among Jamaicans who bleach their skin. The hypothesis states that there is a positive relationship between skin bleaching and body image disturbance. The study used a convenience sample of 160 participants with a skin bleaching group (n = 80) and a non-bleaching comparison group (n = 80). The instrument included demographic questions, the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ), and questions about skin bleaching. The results of a t-test revealed that the skin bleaching group (M = 1.5255, SD = 0.42169) was not significantly different from the non-bleaching group (M = 1.4938, SD = 0.74217) in terms of body image disturbance, t(158) = 0.333, p = .740. The participants who bleached did not suffer from body image disturbance. Self-reports revealed that they bleached to acquire beauty, attract a partner, elude the police, and market skin bleaching products. The practice was fashionable and popular and it made some participants feel good, while others were fans of a popular musical artiste who bleached his skin. The majority of participants bleached because of the perceived personal, social, and entrepreneurial benefits of the practice and not because they suffered emotional distress, anxiety, and functional impairment because of their skin colour. However, there was some level of BID among the minority of participants who argued that they bleached because they wanted to be pretty so they were emotionally distressed about there body image and experienced functional impairment. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available This paper presents the two main types of classification methods for power quality disturbances based on underlying causes: deterministic classification, giving an expert system as an example, and statistical classification, with support vector machines (a novel method as an example. An expert system is suitable when one has limited amount of data and sufficient power system expert knowledge; however, its application requires a set of threshold values. Statistical methods are suitable when large amount of data is available for training. Two important issues to guarantee the effectiveness of a classifier, data segmentation, and feature extraction are discussed. Segmentation of a sequence of data recording is preprocessing to partition the data into segments each representing a duration containing either an event or a transition between two events. Extraction of features is applied to each segment individually. Some useful features and their effectiveness are then discussed. Some experimental results are included for demonstrating the effectiveness of both systems. Finally, conclusions are given together with the discussion of some future research directions.
Dranove, D; White, W D; Wu, L
This study examines evidence of market segmentation on the basis of patients' insurance status, demographic characteristics, and medical condition in selected local markets in California in the years 1983 and 1989. Substantial differences exist in the probability patients may be admitted to particular hospitals based on insurance coverage, particularly Medicaid, and race. Segmentation based on insurance and race is related to hospital characteristics, but not the characteristics of the hospital's community. Medicaid patients are more likely to go to hospitals with lower costs and fewer service offerings. Privately insured patients go to hospitals offering more services, although cost concerns are increasing. Hispanic patients also go to low-cost hospitals, ceteris paribus. Results indicate little evidence of segmentation based on medical condition in either 1983 or 1989, suggesting that "centers of excellence" have yet to play an important role in patient choice of hospital. The authors found that distance matters, and that patients prefer nearby hospitals, moreso for some medical conditions than others, in ways consistent with economic theories of consumer choice.
Gurevich, L.A.; Fedchenko, G.G.
Basing on an analysis of the results of clinicoroentgenological examination of 268 patments roentgenological semiotics of segmental lung cancer is presented. Some peculiarities of the X-ray picture of cancer of different segments of the lungs were revealed depending on tumor site and growth type. For the syndrome of segmental darkening the comprehensive X-ray methods where the chief method is tomography of the segmental bronchi are proposed
Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step...
Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John
A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…
Zhuge, Ying; Cao, Yong; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Miller, Robert W.
Purpose: Image segmentation techniques using fuzzy connectedness (FC) principles have shown their effectiveness in segmenting a variety of objects in several large applications. However, one challenge in these algorithms has been their excessive computational requirements when processing large image datasets. Nowadays, commodity graphics hardware provides a highly parallel computing environment. In this paper, the authors present a parallel fuzzy connected image segmentation algorithm impleme...
KAMAKURA, WA; WEDEL, M
The authors present a tailored interviewing procedure for life-style segmentation. The procedure assumes that a life-style measurement instrument has been designed. A classification of a sample of consumers into life-style segments is obtained using a latent-class model. With these segments, the
The process of marketing segmentation strategy selection represents the essence of strategical marketing. We present hereinafter the main forms of the marketing statategy segmentation: undifferentiated marketing, differentiated marketing, concentrated marketing and personalized marketing. In practice, the companies use a mix of these marketing segmentation methods in order to maximize the proffit and to satisfy the consumers’ needs.
Zhang, Ruilong; Liu, Libo; Le, Huijun; Chen, Yiding; Kuai, Jiawei
In this paper, we use the C/NOFS and ROCSAT-1 satellites observations to analyze the storm time evolution of the disturbance plasma drifts in a 24 h local time scale during three magnetic storms driven by long-lasting southward IMF Bz. The disturbance plasma drifts during the three storms present some common features in the periods dominated by the disturbance dynamo. The newly formed disturbance plasma drifts are upward and westward at night, and downward and eastward during daytime. Further, the disturbance plasma drifts are gradually evolved to present significant local time shifts. The westward disturbance plasma drifts gradually migrate from nightside to dayside. Meanwhile, the dayside downward disturbance plasma drifts become enhanced and shift to later local time. The local time shifts in disturbance plasma drifts are suggested to be mainly attributed to the evolution of the disturbance winds. The strong disturbance winds arisen around midnight can constantly corotate to later local time. At dayside the westward and equatorward disturbance winds can drive the F region dynamo to produce the poleward and westward polarization electric fields (or the westward and downward disturbance drifts). The present results indicate that the disturbance winds corotated to later local time can affect the local time features of the disturbance dynamo electric field.
Davies, K W; Svejcar, T J; Bates, J D
Historical disturbance regimes are often considered a critical element in maintaining native plant communities. However, the response of plant communities to disturbance may be fundamentally altered as a consequence of invasive plants, climate change, or prior disturbances. The appropriateness of historical disturbance patterns under modern conditions and the interactions among disturbances are issues that ecologists must address to protect and restore native plant communities. We evaluated the response of Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh plant communities to their historical disturbance regime compared to other disturbance regimes. The historical disturbance regime of these plant communities was periodic fires with minimal grazing by large herbivores. We also investigated the influence of prior disturbance (grazing) on the response of these communities to subsequent disturbance (burning). Treatments were: (1) ungrazed (livestock grazing excluded since 1936) and unburned, (2) grazed and unburned, (3) ungrazed and burned (burned in 1993), and (4) grazed and burned. The ungrazed-burned treatment emulated the historical disturbance regime. Vegetation cover, density, and biomass production were measured the 12th, 13th, and 14th year post-burning. Prior to burning the presence of Bromus tectorum L., an exotic annual grass, was minimal (resilience to more severe disturbances. Modern deviations from historical conditions can alter ecosystem response to disturbances, thus restoring the historical disturbance regime may not be an appropriate strategy for all ecosystems.
Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Rodrigues, N.
The probable impact of nodule mining on benthic biota was studied by creating a benthic disturbance. During the predisturbance study in the Central Indian Basin, box core samples were analyzed for the distribution, composition and abundance...
Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic disease in which gastroduodenal contents reflux into the esophagus. The clinical picture of gastroesophageal reflux disease is usually composed by heartburn and regurgitation (typical manifestations. Atypical manifestations (vocal disturbances and asthma may also be complaint. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical, endoscopic, manometric and pHmetric aspects of patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with vocal disturbances. METHODS: Fifty patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied, including 25 with vocal disturbances (group 1 - G1 and 25 without these symptoms (group 2 - G2. All patients were submitted to endoscopy, manometry and esophageal pHmetry (2 probes. The group 1 patients were submitted to videolaryngoscopy. RESULTS: Endoscopic findings: non-erosive reflux disease was observed in 95% of G1 patients and 88% of G2. Videolaryngoscopy: vocal fold congestion, asymmetry, nodules and polyps were observed in G1 patients. Manometric findings: pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 11.6 ± 5.2 in G1 and 14.0 ± 6.2 in G2 (P = 0.14; pressure in the upper esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 58.4 ± 15.9 in G1 and 69.5 ± 30.7 in the controls. pHmetric findings: De Meester index: 34.0 ± 20.9 in G1 and 15.4 ± 9.4 in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in distal probe: 43.0 ± 20.4 in G1 and 26.4 ± 17.2 in G2 (P = 0.003; percentage of time with esophageal pH value lower than 4 units (distal sensor: 9.0% ± 6.4% in G1 and 3.4% ± 2.1% in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in proximal probe: 7.5 ± 10.9 in G1 and 5.3 ± 5.7 in G2 (P = 0.38; percentage of time with esophageal pH values lower than 4 units (Proximal probe: 1.2 ± 2.7 in G1 and 0.5 ± 0.7 in G2 (P = 0.21. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The clinical, endoscopic, and manometric findings observed in patients with vocal disturbance do not differ from those without these symptoms; 2 gastroesophageal
K. Z. Zaka
Full Text Available During magnetic storms, the auroral electrojets intensification affects the thermospheric circulation on a global scale. This process which leads to electric field and current disturbance at middle and low latitudes, on the quiet day after the end of a storm, has been attributed to the ionospheric disturbance dynamo (Ddyn. The magnetic field disturbance observed as a result of this process is the reduction of the H component amplitude in the equatorial region which constitutes the main characteristic of the ionospheric disturbance dynamo process, associated with a westward electric current flow. The latitudinal profile of the Ddyn disturbance dynamo magnetic signature exhibits an eastward current at mid latitudes and a westward one at low latitudes with a substantial amplification at the magnetic equator. Such current flow reveals an "anti-Sq" system established between the mid latitudes and the equatorial region and opposes the normal Sq current vortex. However, the localization of the eastward current and consequently the position and the extent of the "anti-Sq" current vortex changes from one storm to another. Indeed, for a strong magnetic storm, the eastward current is well established at mid latitudes about 45° N and for a weak magnetic storm, the eastward current is established toward the high latitudes (about 60° N, near the Joule heating region, resulting in a large "anti-Sq" current cell. The latitudinal profile of the Ddyn disturbance as well as the magnetic disturbance DP2 generated by the mechanism of prompt penetration of the magnetospheric convection electric field in general, show a weak disturbance at the low latitudes with a substantial amplification at the magnetic equator. Due to the intensity of the storm, the magnitude of the DP2 appears higher than the Ddyn over the American and Asian sector contrary to the African sector.
Mysling, Peter; Petersen, Peter Kersten; Nielsen, Mads
Segmentation of vertebral contours is an essential task in the design of automatic tools for vertebral fracture assessment. In this paper, we propose a novel segmentation technique which does not require operator interaction. The proposed technique solves the segmentation problem in a hierarchical...... is constrained by a conditional shape model, based on the variability of the coarse spine location estimates. The technique is evaluated on a data set of manually annotated lumbar radiographs. The results compare favorably to the previous work in automatic vertebra segmentation, in terms of both segmentation...
Harrabi, R.; Ben Braiek, E.
In this paper, entropy and between-class variance based thresholding methods for color images segmentation are studied. The maximization of the between-class variance (MVI) and the entropy (ME) have been used as a criterion functions to determine an optimal threshold to segment images into nearly homogenous regions. Segmentation results from the two methods are validated and the segmentation sensitivity for the test data available is evaluated, and a comparative study between these methods in different color spaces is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the MVI method for color image segmentation.
Full Text Available As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first component segments points within a window shifting over the point cloud. The second component stitches the segments within the windows together. In this fashion a point cloud can be streamed through these two components in sequence, thus producing a segmentation. The algorithm has been tested on airborne lidar point cloud and some results of the performance of the framework are presented.
The RWDMES is a tool for modeling the disturbances imparted on spacecraft by spinning reaction wheels. Reaction wheels are usually the largest disturbance source on a precision pointing spacecraft, and can be the dominating source of pointing error. Accurate knowledge of the disturbance environment is critical to accurate prediction of the pointing performance. In the past, it has been difficult to extract an accurate wheel disturbance model since the forcing mechanisms are difficult to model physically, and the forcing amplitudes are filtered by the dynamics of the reaction wheel. RWDMES captures the wheel-induced disturbances using a hybrid physical/empirical model that is extracted directly from measured forcing data. The empirical models capture the tonal forces that occur at harmonics of the spin rate, and the broadband forces that arise from random effects. The empirical forcing functions are filtered by a physical model of the wheel structure that includes spin-rate-dependent moments (gyroscopic terms). The resulting hybrid model creates a highly accurate prediction of wheel-induced forces. It accounts for variation in disturbance frequency, as well as the shifts in structural amplification by the whirl modes, as the spin rate changes. This software provides a point-and-click environment for producing accurate models with minimal user effort. Where conventional approaches may take weeks to produce a model of variable quality, RWDMES can create a demonstrably high accuracy model in two hours. The software consists of a graphical user interface (GUI) that enables the user to specify all analysis parameters, to evaluate analysis results and to iteratively refine the model. Underlying algorithms automatically extract disturbance harmonics, initialize and tune harmonic models, and initialize and tune broadband noise models. The component steps are described in the RWDMES user s guide and include: converting time domain data to waterfall PSDs (power spectral
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals......, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian......-rhythm sleep disorders). Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms. Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime. Current...
Fiedler, U.; Lindner, A.; Baldeweg, F.; Klebau, J.
Scale and degree of sophistication of technological plants, e.g. nuclear power plants, have been essentially increased during the last decades. Conventional disturbance analysis systems have proved to work successfully in well-known situations. But in cases of emergencies, the operator needs more advanced assistance in realizing diagnosis and therapy control. The significance of introducing artificial intelligence (AI) methods in nuclear power technology is emphasized. Main features of the on-line disturbance analysis system SAAP-2 are reported about. It is being developed for application to nuclear power plants. Problems related to man-machine communication will be gone into more detail, because their solution will influence end-user acceptance considerably. (author)
Todd J. Swick
Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD has traditionally been characterized by its cardinal motor symptoms of bradykinesia, rigidity, resting tremor, and postural instability. However, PD is increasingly being recognized as a multidimensional disease associated with myriad nonmotor symptoms including autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, pain, gastrointestinal disturbance, impaired olfaction, psychosis, and sleep disorders. Sleep disturbances, which include sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome (RLS, nightmares, and rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, are estimated to occur in 60% to 98% of patients with PD. For years nonmotor symptoms received little attention from clinicians and researchers, but now these symptoms are known to be significant predictors of morbidity in determining quality of life, costs of disease, and rates of institutionalization. A discussion of the clinical aspects, pathophysiology, evaluation techniques, and treatment options for the sleep disorders that are encountered with PD is presented.
Izquierdo, Guillermo; Mir, Jordi; Gonzalez, Manuel; Martinez-Parra, Carlos; Campoy, Francisco Jr
Thirty-five patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) were studied. They underwent neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI findings at different brain areas levels were compared with the neuropsychological findings. A quantitative system was used to measure MRI-MS lesions. In this series, a positive correlation was established between memory and learning disturbances measured by Battery 144, and the lesions measured by MRI (total, hemispheric and , particularly, periventricular lesions). MRI can detect MS lesions, and this study shows that a correlation between MRI and neuropsychological findings is possible if quantitative methods are used to distinguish different MS involvement areas in relation to neuropsychological tasks. These findings suggest that hemispheric lesions in MS produce cognitive disturbances and MRI could be a useful tool in predicting memory and learning impairment. (author). 20 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs
Bodatsch, M; Kuhn, J
Alienation, i. e. disorders of the inner experience of integrity, continuity, and agency, represents a feature of both psychotic and non-psychotic disorders. Thereby, ego disturbances are thought to be specific for schizophrenia. Depersonalisation, in contrast, has been reported in schizophrenia as well as a neurotic, probably distinct syndrome. The differentiation of psychotic vs. non-psychotic alienation is often all but trivial. The present paper provides an overview of the historical roots and the psychopathological conceptualizations of alienation. Clinically relevant features of psychotic alienation are highlighted. Experience of passivity, loss of authenticity and disturbances of striving and volition appear as psychotic characteristics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C
The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....
Shepard, Paul; Lam, Erek M.; St. Louis, Erik K.; Dominik, Jacob
Sleep disorders in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) are common and include sleep disordered breathing (SDB), hypersomnia, and fatigue. Little is known regarding the occurrence of sleep disturbance in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2). We hypothesized that DM2 patients may frequently harbor sleep disorders. We reviewed medical records of all genetically confirmed cases of DM2 seen at our sleep center between 1997 and 2010 for demographic, laboratory, overnight oximetry, and polysomnography (PSG) ...
Cozza, Paola; Marino, Alessandra; Lagana, Giuseppina
The aim of the present report is to describe a case of a patient with eruption disturbances of an ankylosed lower primary second molar, delayed development of a maxillary permanent canine associated with an odontoma and a class III dental malocclusion. In such a case the objectives of treatment are: to prevent impaction of the lower second premolar and tipping of the lower first molar; to establish correct anterior overbite and overjet and to control the development of the permanent upper canine.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Resteless legs syndrome (RLS is chronical neurological disorder characterized by urge to move legs that is usually accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the lower extremities. Sleep disturbance is one of the main accompanying symptoms of RLS which exists in approximatelly 90% of patients. Impairment of sleep is related to daily sleepiness, depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to detect frequency and characterisitics of sleep-related symptoms in patients with RLS, and its impairrment to daily sleepiness, fatique, anxiety and depression. Methods. We have examinated 94 patients with RLS. The diagnose of RLS was based on questionnaire with 4 specific questions according to the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG criteria updated in 2003. Severity of symptoms was astimated with IRLSSG Rating Scale, depression and anxiety with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS and sleepiness with Epworth Sleepiness scale (ESS. We astimated sleep characteristics and disturbances with specific questionnaire. Results. In our study 79.9% of patients had sleep-related symptoms. Average sleep duration was 6.50 ± 1.42 hours, with average frequency of awakening 2.34 ± 1.69 times per night. Average ESS score was 5.12 ± 4.08 (0–17. Patients with more severe symptoms had higher degree of sleepiness (p = 0.005. Patients with higher symptoms frequency, significantly more often had sleep disturbance (p = 0.016, tiredness and daily sleepiness (p = 0.001. Daily sleepiness (ESS also significantly correlates with depression (p < 0.05 and anxiety (p = 0.012. Conclusion. Our results confirm that sleep disturbances are one of the key accompanying symptoms of RLS which cause daily sleepiness, tiredness, depression and anxiety. Therefore, their early recognition and appropriate treatment must be a priority in RLS patients.
YAHYA KOOCH; KATAYOUN HAGHVERDI
In temperate forests, formation of canopy gaps by windthrow is a characteristic natural disturbance event. Little work has been done on the effects of canopy gaps on soil properties and fauna, especially earthworms as ecosystem engineers. We conducted a study to examine the reaction of earthworms (density/biomass) and different soil properties (i.e., soil moisture, pH, organic matter, total N, and available Ca) to different canopy gap areas in 25-ha areas of Liresar district beech forest loca...
Full Text Available We present in this paper a study of unsupervised evaluation criteria that enable the quantification of the quality of an image segmentation result. These evaluation criteria compute some statistics for each region or class in a segmentation result. Such an evaluation criterion can be useful for different applications: the comparison of segmentation results, the automatic choice of the best fitted parameters of a segmentation method for a given image, or the definition of new segmentation methods by optimization. We first present the state of art of unsupervised evaluation, and then, we compare six unsupervised evaluation criteria. For this comparative study, we use a database composed of 8400 synthetic gray-level images segmented in four different ways. Vinet's measure (correct classification rate is used as an objective criterion to compare the behavior of the different criteria. Finally, we present the experimental results on the segmentation evaluation of a few gray-level natural images.
Kim, Joonsoo; Parra, Albert; Li, He; Delp, Edward J.
Law enforcement is interested in exploiting tattoos as an information source to identify, track and prevent gang-related crimes. Many tattoo image retrieval systems have been described. In a retrieval system tattoo segmentation is an important step for retrieval accuracy since segmentation removes background information in a tattoo image. Existing segmentation methods do not extract the tattoo very well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin tones. In this paper we describe a tattoo segmentation approach by determining skin pixels in regions near the tattoo. In these regions graph-cut segmentation using a skin color model and a visual saliency map is used to find skin pixels. After segmentation we determine which set of skin pixels are connected with each other that form a closed contour including a tattoo. The regions surrounded by the closed contours are considered tattoo regions. Our method segments tattoos well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin.
Bue, Brian D.; Thompson, David R.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Castano, Rebecca
We present a metric learning approach to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. Unsupervised spatial segmentation can assist both user visualization and automatic recognition of surface features. Analysts can use spatially-continuous segments to decrease noise levels and/or localize feature boundaries. However, existing segmentation methods use tasks-agnostic measures of similarity. Here we learn task-specific similarity measures from training data, improving segment fidelity to classes of interest. Multiclass Linear Discriminate Analysis produces a linear transform that optimally separates a labeled set of training classes. The defines a distance metric that generalized to a new scenes, enabling graph-based segmentation that emphasizes key spectral features. We describe tests based on data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) in which learned metrics improve segment homogeneity with respect to mineralogical classes.
Stewart, Abbie; Komers, Petr E
Progressive anthropogenic disturbance can alter ecosystem organization potentially causing shifts from one stable state to another. This potential for ecosystem shifts must be considered when establishing targets and objectives for conservation. We ask whether a predator-prey system response to incremental anthropogenic disturbance might shift along a disturbance gradient and, if it does, whether any disturbance thresholds are evident for this system. Development of linear corridors in forested areas increases wolf predation effectiveness, while high density of development provides a safe-haven for their prey. If wolves limit moose population growth, then wolves and moose should respond inversely to land cover disturbance. Using general linear model analysis, we test how the rate of change in moose ( Alces alces ) density and wolf ( Canis lupus ) harvest density are influenced by the rate of change in land cover and proportion of land cover disturbed within a 300,000 km 2 area in the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada. Using logistic regression, we test how the direction of change in moose density is influenced by measures of land cover change. In response to incremental land cover disturbance, moose declines occurred where 43% of land cover was disturbed and wolf density declined. Wolves and moose appeared to respond inversely to incremental disturbance with the balance between moose decline and wolf increase shifting at about 43% of land cover disturbed. Conservation decisions require quantification of disturbance rates and their relationships to predator-prey systems because ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance shift across disturbance gradients.
Shepard, Paul; Lam, Erek M; St Louis, Erik K; Dominik, Jacob
Sleep disorders in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) are common and include sleep-disordered breathing, hypersomnia, and fatigue. Little is known regarding the occurrence of sleep disturbance in myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2). We hypothesized that DM2 patients may frequently harbor sleep disorders. We reviewed medical records of all genetically confirmed cases of DM2 seen at our sleep center between 1997 and 2010 for demographic, laboratory, overnight oximetry, and polysomnography (PSG) data. Eight patients (5 women, 3 men) with DM2 were identified. Excessive daytime sleepiness was seen in 6 patients (75%), insomnia in 5 (62.5%), and excessive fatigue in 4 (50%). Obstructive sleep apnea was diagnosed in 3 of 5 patients (60%) studied with PSG. Respiratory muscle weakness was present in all 6 patients (100%) who received pulmonary function testing. Four of 8 (50%) met criteria for diagnosis of restless legs syndrome. The clinical spectrum of DM2 may include a wide range of sleep disturbances. Although respiratory muscle weakness was frequent, sustained sleep-related hypoxia suggestive of hypoventilation was not seen in our patients. Further prospective studies are needed to examine the frequency and scope of sleep disturbances in DM2. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Roxanne Sterniczuk,1–3 Benjamin Rusak,1,2 Kenneth Rockwood31Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, 2Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, 3Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, CanadaAbstract: Maintaining a stable and adequate sleeping pattern is associated with good health and disease prevention. As a restorative process, sleep is important for supporting immune function and aiding the body in healing and recovery. Aging is associated with characteristic changes to sleep quantity and quality, which make it more difficult to adjust sleep–wake rhythms to changing environmental conditions. Sleep disturbance and abnormal sleep–wake cycles are commonly reported in seriously ill older patients in the intensive care unit (ICU. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors appears to contribute to these disruptions. Little is known regarding the effect that sleep disturbance has on health status in the oldest of old (80+, a group, who with diminishing physiological reserve and increasing prevalence of frailty, is at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes, such as cognitive decline and mortality. Here we review how sleep is altered in the ICU, with particular attention to older patients, especially those aged ≥80 years. Further work is required to understand what impact sleep disturbance has on frailty levels and poor outcomes in older critically ill patients.Keywords: intensive care unit, sleep–wake rhythm, aging, frailty
Middleton, Beth A.
While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms
Full Text Available In temperate forests, formation of canopy gaps by windthrow is a characteristic natural disturbance event. Little work has been done on the effects of canopy gaps on soil properties and fauna, especially earthworms as ecosystem engineers. We conducted a study to examine the reaction of earthworms (density/biomass and different soil properties (i.e., soil moisture, pH, organic matter, total N, and available Ca to different canopy gap areas in 25-ha areas of Liresar district beech forest located in a temperate forest of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. Soil samples were taken at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm depths from gap center, gap edge and closed canopy using core soil sampler with 81 cm2 cross section. The earthworms were collected simultaneously with the soil sampling by hand sorting method. Our study supports that the canopy gap will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. Earthworm's density and biomass tended to be higher in small canopy gaps compared with the other canopy gap areas. Earthworm's population showed decreasing trend from closed canopy to disturbed sites (gap edge and gap center. The top soil was more appropriate to presence of earthworms although ecological groups have occupied different soil layers. As a conclusion, earthworms can be introduced as good bio-indicator of environmental changes that occur by disturbance.
Full Text Available Behçet’s disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet’s disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon.
von Gioi, Rafael Grompone
The reliable detection of low-level image structures is an old and still challenging problem in computer vision. This?book leads a detailed tour through the LSD algorithm, a line segment detector designed to be fully automatic. Based on the a contrario framework, the algorithm works efficiently without the need of any parameter tuning. The design criteria are thoroughly explained and the algorithm's good and bad results are illustrated on real and synthetic images. The issues involved, as well as the strategies used, are common to many geometrical structure detection problems and some possible
Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Enflo, Kerstin Sofia
Economic historians have stressed that income convergence was a key feature of the 'OECD-club' and that globalization was among the accelerating forces of this process in the long-run. This view has however been challenged, since it suffers from an ad hoc selection of countries. In the paper......, a mixture model is applied to a sample of 64 countries to endogenously analyze the cross-country growth behavior over the period 1870-2003. Results show that growth patterns were segmented in two worldwide regimes, the first one being characterized by convergence, and the other one denoted by divergence...
Sleep Disturbances in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. ... that insomnia, pain and disease intensity were the most important factors that ... that sleep disturbances are frequent in patients with RA and may contribute to disease severity.
Cash, Thomas F.; And Others
The physical attractiveness stereotype was examined as it pertains to the attribution of psychological disturbance among peers. Consistent with the stereotype, attractive interviewees were judged as less disturbed with better prognosis than unattractive interviewees. (Author)
Timmer, Jorik Rudolf
Prevalence of glycometabolic disturbances in patients with a suspected acute coronary syndrome is high. One in three patients has signs of disturbed glucose metabolism and this condition is associated with previous or newly diagnosed coronary artery disease. Zie: Summary
Beom Jin Lim
Full Text Available Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS. FSGS may also be caused by genetic alterations. These genes are mainly those regulating slit diaphragm structure, actin cytoskeleton of podocytes, and foot process structure. The mode of inheritance and age of onset are different according to the gene involved. Recently, the role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs has been highlighted. Podocytes and PECs have common mesenchymal progenitors, therefore, PECs could be a source of podocyte repopulation after podocyte injury. Activated PECs migrate along adhesion to the glomerular tuft and may also contribute to the progression of sclerosis. Markers of activated PECs, including CD44, could be used to distinguish FSGS from minimal change disease. The pathogenesis of FSGS is very complex; however, understanding basic mechanisms of podocyte injury is important not only for basic research, but also for daily diagnostic pathology practice.
Full Text Available Flocking motion of multiagent systems is influenced by various external disturbances in complex environment. By applying disturbance observer, flocking of multiagent systems with exogenous disturbances is studied. Based on the robust features of impulsive control, a distributed impulsive control protocol is presented with disturbance observer, and flocking motion of multiagent systems is analyzed. Moreover, a sufficient condition is obtained to ensure the flocking motion of multiagent systems following a leader. Finally, simulation results show the validity of the theoretical conclusion.
Peni Agustin Tjahyaningtijas, Hapsari
Brain tumor segmentation plays an important role in medical image processing. Treatment of patients with brain tumors is highly dependent on early detection of these tumors. Early detection of brain tumors will improve the patient’s life chances. Diagnosis of brain tumors by experts usually use a manual segmentation that is difficult and time consuming because of the necessary automatic segmentation. Nowadays automatic segmentation is very populer and can be a solution to the problem of tumor brain segmentation with better performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods. There are number of existing review papers, focusing on traditional methods for MRI-based brain tumor image segmentation. this paper, we focus on the recent trend of automatic segmentation in this field. First, an introduction to brain tumors and methods for brain tumor segmentation is given. Then, the state-of-the-art algorithms with a focus on recent trend of full automatic segmentaion are discussed. Finally, an assessment of the current state is presented and future developments to standardize MRI-based brain tumor segmentation methods into daily clinical routine are addressed.
Ashraf, M.; Sarim, M.; Shaikh, A.B.
Image segmentation has become a widely studied research problem in image processing. There exist different graph based solutions for interactive image segmentation but the domain of image segmentation still needs persistent improvements. The segmentation quality of existing techniques generally depends on the manual input provided in beginning, therefore, these algorithms may not produce quality segmentation with initial seed labels provided by a novice user. In this work we investigated the use of cellular automata in image segmentation and proposed a new algorithm that follows a cellular automaton in label propagation. It incorporates both the pixel's local and global information in the segmentation process. We introduced the novel global constraints in automata evolution rules; hence proposed scheme of automata evolution is more effective than the automata based earlier evolution schemes. Global constraints are also effective in deceasing the sensitivity towards small changes made in manual input; therefore proposed approach is less dependent on label seed marks. It can produce the quality segmentation with modest user efforts. Segmentation results indicate that the proposed algorithm performs better than the earlier segmentation techniques. (author)
James D. Garner; Mark D. Nelson; Brian G. Tavernia; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ian W. Housman
A map of forest canopy disturbance was generated for Michigan, Wisconsin, and most of Minnesota using 42 Landsat time series stacks (LTSS) and a vegetation change tracker (VCTw) algorithm. Corresponding winter imagery was used to reduce commission errors of forest disturbance by identifying areas of persistent snow cover. The resulting disturbance age map was classed...
William C. Hunter; David A. Buehler; Ronald A. Canterbury; John L. Confer; Paul B. Hamel
Populations of most bird species associated with grassland, shrub-scrub habitats, and disturbed areas in forested habitats (hereafter all referred to as disturbance-dependent species) have declined steeply. However, a widespread perception exists that disturbance-dependent species are merely returning to population levels likely found by the first European explorers...
Cho, Hyunjun; Kim, Mincheol; Tripathi, Binu; Adams, Jonathan
Although disturbance is thought to be important in many ecological processes, responses of fungal communities to soil disturbance have been little studied experimentally. We subjected a soil microcosm to physical disturbance, at a range of frequencies designed to simulate ecological disturbance events. We analyzed the fungal community structure using Illumina HiSeq sequencing of the ITS1 region. Fungal diversity was found to decline with the increasing disturbance frequencies, with no sign of the "humpback" pattern found in many studies of larger sedentary organisms. There is thus no evidence of an effect of release from competition resulting from moderate disturbance-which suggests that competition and niche overlap may not be important in limiting soil fungal diversity. Changing disturbance frequency also led to consistent differences in community composition. There were clear differences in OTU-level composition, with different disturbance treatments each having distinct fungal communities. The functional profile of fungal groups (guilds) was changed by the level of disturbance frequency. These predictable differences in community composition suggest that soil fungi can possess different niches in relation to disturbance frequency, or time since last disturbance. Fungi appear to be most abundant relative to bacteria at intermediate disturbance frequencies, on the time scale we studied here.
Epstein, Michael H.; Cullinan, Douglas; Ryser, Gail; Pearson, Nils
This study reports on the standardization of the Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance. Data collected on 2,266 typical students (ages 5- 18) and 1,371 students with emotional disturbances led to the identification of six behavioral problem factors that correspond to the federal definition of emotional disturbance and were highly internally…
Danielle M. Malesky; Barbara J. Bentz; Gary R. Brown; Andrea R. Brunelle; John M. Buffington; Linda M. Chappell; R. Justin DeRose; John C. Guyon; Carl L. Jorgensen; Rachel A. Loehman; Laura L. Lowrey; Ann M. Lynch; Marek Matyjasik; Joel D. McMillin; Javier E. Mercado; Jesse L. Morris; Jose F. Negron; Wayne G. Padgett; Robert A. Progar; Carol B. Randall
This chapter describes disturbance regimes in the Intermountain Adaptation Partnership (IAP) region, and potential shifts in these regimes as a consequence of observed and projected climate change. The term "disturbance regime" describes the general temporal and spatial characteristics of a disturbance agent (e.g., insects, disease, fire, weather, human...
Tousain, R.L.; Boissy, J.C.; Norg, M.L.; Steinbuch, M.; Bosgra, O.H.
Non-periodically repeating (NPR) disturbances are fixed-shape disturbances that occur randomly in time. We can provide a control system with the capability to suppress this type of disturbance by adding in parallel to the input of the nominal feedback controller a learning look-up-table based
The ionosphere was monitored during the fourth space shuttle (STS 4) launch in June 1982 by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar. A long-lived, large-amplitude, traveling ionospheric disturbance with dominant wave moles of ∼ 15 and 75 min was observed shortly after the launch. The disturbance wave train is likely the product of a variety of wave modes. The disturbance front traveled with an average group speed of >628 m/s. Such speeds are typical of fast moving shock waves and ducted gravity waves. Either one or both could be responsible for the signatures observed near the leading edge of the STS 4 wave train. Later arriving waves, with their inherently lower propagation speeds, are attributed to additional gravity wave modes. These waves, however, were not explicitly identified in this study. Although atmospheric waves are excited along the entire flight path, the most intense region of excitation is located along a relatively short flight segment (∼70 km) near the launch site where all primary thrusters are firing and over 70% of the propellants are expended. Not since the nuclear bomb tests of the late 1950s and early 1960s has an artificial source of atmospheric gravity waves been more available for upper atmospheric studies. The routine launching of high thrust vehicles provides an excellent opportunity to observe the propagation characteristics of atmospheric waves under controlled conditions and to acquire information on the nature of the upper atmosphere
Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.; Li, Nan [TEMPLE UNIV.
The proposed segmentation approach naturally combines experience based and image based information. The experience based information is obtained by training a classifier for each object class. For a given test image, the result of each classifier is represented as a probability map. The final segmentation is obtained with a hierarchial image segmentation algorithm that considers both the probability maps and the image features such as color and edge strength. We also utilize image region hierarchy to obtain not only local but also semi-global features as input to the classifiers. Moreover, to get robust probability maps, we take into account the region context information by averaging the probability maps over different levels of the hierarchical segmentation algorithm. The obtained segmentation results are superior to the state-of-the-art supervised image segmentation algorithms.
Dewi, M. P.; Armiati, A.; Alvini, S.
This research aim to segmented the digital image. The process of segmentation is to separate the object from the background. So the main object can be processed for the other purposes. Along with the development of technology in digital image processing application, the segmentation process becomes increasingly necessary. The segmented image which is the result of the segmentation process should accurate due to the next process need the interpretation of the information on the image. This article discussed the application of minimum spanning tree on graph in segmentation process of digital image. This method is able to separate an object from the background and the image will change to be the binary images. In this case, the object that being the focus is set in white, while the background is black or otherwise.
Oyama, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Sanshin; Kogure, Takashi; Hirakawa, Ken; Akaike, Akira
Lateral segment of left lobe of the liver is clearly demarcated on sup(99m) Tc-labeled cholescintigram. With analysis of 112 sup(99m) Tc-pyridoxylideneisoleucine scintigrams about lateral border of left lobe, there are some variants in 22 cases (19.7%) in shape in lateral segment of Type 4 left lobe in morphologic classification. Of lateral segment of left lobe, there are classified into five types in the anterior view according to the degeneration; Type 1 is gradually elongated tapered type in 8 cases (36.4%), Type 2 is laterally elongated type as rod shape or island shape in 5 cases (22.7%), Type 3 is lobulated type in 1 case (4.6%), Type 4 is narrowing type in 5 cases (22.7%), Type 5 is indentation type in 3 cases (13.6%). Using colloidal radiopharmaceuticals in liver scintigraphy, lateral segment of left lobe often overlapps with the spleen, which disturb to interpret the abnormality in left lobe of the liver and in the spleen. This analysis depends upon the recent advances in sup(99m) Tc-labeled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals and equipment, and there has never discussed about the shape of lateral segment of left lobe in roentgenologic and scintigraphic evaluations. (author)
McNeish, Timothy J.; Naglieri, Jack A.
Regular education students (n=81) and students with serious emotional disturbance (n=81,) were matched on age (7-13), gender, race, and intelligence. They completed drawings which were scored using the "Draw a Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance." Students with emotional disturbance scored significantly higher than did…
Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13
Kaliev, M.Z.; Krasnikov, I.M.; Litvinov, Yu.G.; Chakenov, B.D.; Yakovets, A.F.
Records of Doppler frequency shifts of an ionospheric signal, taken in separate observation posts in the vicinity of Alma-Ata in 1986-1987, are analyzed. It is shown that the coherent parts of Doppler shift oscillations are wave disturbance trains in the ionospheric F region. The relation between the train duration and its central frequency is established. With the frequency decrease the mean train length increases, while the maximum train length, determined in the experiment, is about 6h. The probabilities of train detection in the low and high-frequency ranges are nearly the same, and moreover, they are equal in day time and at night
Chun Seng Phua
Full Text Available Bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis is a chronic lung disease that is increasingly recognised worldwide. While other common chronic lung conditions such as chronic obstructive lung disease have been associated with cardiovascular disease, there is a paucity of data on the relationship between bronchiectasis and cardiovascular risks such as stroke and sleep disturbance. Furthermore, it is unclear whether other neuropsychological aspects are affected, such as cognition, cerebral infection, anxiety and depression. In this review, we aim to highlight neurological and sleep issues in relation to bronchiectasis and their importance to patient care.
Lorena Bašan; Jasmina Dlačić; Željko Trezner
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to research the travel agencies’ communication with market segments. Communication with market segments takes into account marketing communication means as well as the implementation of different business orientations. Design – Special emphasis is placed on the use of different marketing communication means and their efficiency. Research also explores business orientation adaptation when approaching different market segments. Methodology – In explo...
Monteiro, Fernando C.; Campilho, Aurélio
In this paper we present a study of evaluation measures that enable the quantification of the quality of an image segmentation result. Despite significant advances in image segmentation techniques, evaluation of these techniques thus far has been largely subjective. Typically, the effectiveness of a new algorithm is demonstrated only by the presentation of a few segmented images and is otherwise left to subjective evaluation by the reader. Such an evaluation criterion can be useful for differ...
Muthupandian, K S
The International Accounting Standards Board issued the International Financial Reporting Standard 8 Operating Segments. Segment information is one of the most vital aspects of financial reporting for investors and other users. The IFRS 8 requires an entity to adopt the ‘management approach’ to reporting on the financial performance of its operating segments. This article presents a closer look of the standard (objective, scope, and disclosures).
Gursangeet, Kaur; Jyoti, Rani
Medical image processing and its segmentation is an active and interesting area for researchers. It has reached at the tremendous place in diagnosing tumors after the discovery of CT and MRI. MRI is an useful tool to detect the brain tumor and segmentation is performed to carry out the useful portion from an image. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of different image segmentation methods like watershed algorithm, morphological operations, neutrosophic sets, thresholding, K-...
used in the first stages of segmentation forder information in the clustering of the opposite-gender speaker diarization of news broadcasts. files, the...AFRL-HE-WP-TP-2006-0026 AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Speaker Segmentation and Clustering Using Gender Information Brian M. Ore General Dynamics...COVERED (From - To) February 2006 ProceedinLgs 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Speaker Segmentation and Clustering Using Gender Information 5b
Mikeš, Stanislav; Haindl, Michal; Scarpa, G.; Gaetano, R.
Roč. 8, č. 5 (2015), s. 2240-2248 ISSN 1939-1404 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : benchmark * remote sensing segmentation * unsupervised segmentation * supervised segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/RO/haindl-0445995.pdf
A method is presented for synthesizing track segments extracted from a gray-level digital picture of NTA film in automatic counting system. In order to detect each track in an arbitrary direction, even if it has some gaps, as a set of the track segments, the method links extracted segments along the track, in succession, to the linked track segments, according to whether each extracted segment bears a similarity of direction to the track or not and whether it is connected with the linked track segments or not. In the case of a large digital picture, the method is applied to each subpicture, which is a strip of the picture, and then concatenates subsets of track segments linked at each subpicture as a set of track segments belonging to a track. The method was applied to detecting tracks in various directions over the eight 364 x 40-pixel subpictures with the gray scale of 127/pixel (picture element) of the microphotograph of NTA film. It was proved to be able to synthesize track segments correctly for every track in the picture. (author)
Malhotra, N K
The author presents a conceptual framework for the a priori and clustering-based approaches to segmentation and evaluates them in the context of segmenting institutional health care markets. An empirical study is reported in which the hospital market is segmented on three state-of-being variables. The segmentation approach also takes into account important organizational decision-making variables. The sophisticated Thurstone Case V procedure is employed. Several marketing implications for hospitals, other health care organizations, hospital suppliers, and donor publics are identified.
Full Text Available IT education is very important and a lot of effort is put into the development of tools for helping students to acquire programming knowledge and for helping teachers in automating the examination process. This paper describes a prototype of the program segment assembling software used in the context of making tests in the field of algorithmic complexity. The proposed new program segment assembling model uses rules and templates. A template is a simple program segment. A rule defines combining method and data dependencies if they exist. One example of program segment assembling by the proposed system is given. Graphical user interface is also described.
Full Text Available The paper presents a novel method for automatic segmentation of folk music field recordings. The method is based on a distance measure that uses dynamic time warping to cope with tempo variations and a dynamic programming approach to handle pitch drifting for finding similarities and estimating the length of repeating segment. A probabilistic framework based on HMM is used to find segment boundaries, searching for optimal match between the expected segment length, between-segment similarities, and likely locations of segment beginnings. Evaluation of several current state-of-the-art approaches for segmentation of commercial music is presented and their weaknesses when dealing with folk music are exposed, such as intolerance to pitch drift and variable tempo. The proposed method is evaluated and its performance analyzed on a collection of 206 folk songs of different ensemble types: solo, two- and three-voiced, choir, instrumental, and instrumental with singing. It outperforms current commercial music segmentation methods for noninstrumental music and is on a par with the best for instrumental recordings. The method is also comparable to a more specialized method for segmentation of solo singing folk music recordings.
Full Text Available Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step of the segmentation process with equal treatment. Hence, the objective of this paper is two-fold. First, a snapshot of the segmentation process in a step-by-step fashion will be provided. Second, each step (where possible will be evaluated on chosen criteria by means of description, comparison, analysis and synthesis of 32 academic papers and 13 commercial typology systems. Ultimately, the segmentation stages will be discussed with empirical findings prevalent in the segmentation studies and last but not least suggestions calling for further investigation will be presented. This seven-step-framework may assist when segmenting in practice allowing for more confidential targeting which in turn might prepare grounds for creating of a differential advantage.
He, Jia; Kuo, C-C Jay
This book focuses on interactive segmentation techniques, which have been extensively studied in recent decades. Interactive segmentation emphasizes clear extraction of objects of interest, whose locations are roughly indicated by human interactions based on high level perception. This book will first introduce classic graph-cut segmentation algorithms and then discuss state-of-the-art techniques, including graph matching methods, region merging and label propagation, clustering methods, and segmentation methods based on edge detection. A comparative analysis of these methods will be provided
Belote, R.T.; Sanders, N.J.; Jones, R.H.
Whether biological diversity within communities is limited by local interactions or regional species pools remains an important question in ecology. In this paper, we investigate how an experimentally applied tree-harvesting disturbance gradient influenced local-regional richness relationships. Plant species richness was measured at three spatial scales (2 ha = regional; 576 m2 and 1 m2 = local) on three occasions (one year pre-disturbance, one year post-disturbance, and 10 years post-disturbance) across five disturbance treatments (uncut control through clearcut) replicated throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We investigated whether species richness in 576-m2 plots and 1-m2 subplots depended on species richness in 2-ha experimental units and whether this relationship changed through time before and after canopy disturbance. We found that, before disturbance, the relationship between local and regional richness was weak or nonexistent. One year after disturbance local richness was a positive function of regional richness, because local sites were colonized from the regional species pool. Ten years after disturbance, the positive relationship persisted, but the slope had decreased by half. These results suggest that disturbance can set the stage for strong influences of regional species pools on local community assembly in temperate forests. However, as time since disturbance increases, local controls on community assembly decouple the relationships between regional and local diversity. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.
Bendix, J.; Wiley, J. J.; Commons, M.
The intermediate disturbance hypothesis predicts that species diversity will be maximized in environments experiencing intermediate intensity disturbance, after an intermediate timespan. Because many landscapes comprise mosaics with complex disturbance histories, the theory implies that each patch in those mosaics should have a distinct level of diversity reflecting combined impact of the magnitude of disturbance and the time since it occurred. We modeled the changing patterns of species richness across a landscape experiencing varied scenarios of simulated disturbance. Model outputs show that individual landscape patches have highly variable species richness through time, with the details reflecting the timing, intensity and sequence of their disturbance history. When the results are mapped across the landscape, the resulting temporal and spatial complexity illustrates both the contingent nature of diversity and the danger of generalizing about the impacts of disturbance.
Mohamed A. Fattah
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is associated with disturbances in haemostasis that could contribute to the development of thrombotic complications.The present study was undertaken to determine the behavior of coagulation variables and fibrinolytic system in diabetes mellitus. Forty five diabetic patients and forty five matched controls were evaluated by doing the following haemostatic parameter, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, coagulation factors assay II, VII, IX, & plasma fibrinogen, ADP-induced platelet aggregation, protein C, a2- antiplasmin, PAI and FDPs. Generally diabetic patients have high levels of fibrinogen, a2- antiplasmin, & PAI and lower level of protein C. Other haemostatic parameters did not show statistically significant difference between diabetic patients and control group. Significantally elevated levels of PAI, a2- antiplasmin together with low protein C level in diabetic patients may result in the disturbance of haemostatic balance favoring thrombotic events. Conclusion: High levels of plasma fibrinogen, a2A- antiplasmin with low plasma protein C activity could lead to a prothrombotic tendency in insulin dependent diabetic patients. Moreover, in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients, the above mentioned parameters together with high levels of ADP-induced platelet aggregation and plasminogen activator inhibitor may increase the risk of thrombotic complications. Obesity can be considered as an additional risk factor for development of thrombosis in diabetic patients.
Koren, Dan; Scheyer, Ravit; Reznik, Noa
AIM: The goal of this pilot study was to assess the association between basic self-disturbance (SD) and deficits in neurocognitive and metacognitive functioning among help-seeking adolescents with and without attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS). METHODS: Sixty-one non-psychotic, help-seeking adol......AIM: The goal of this pilot study was to assess the association between basic self-disturbance (SD) and deficits in neurocognitive and metacognitive functioning among help-seeking adolescents with and without attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS). METHODS: Sixty-one non-psychotic, help...... recognition) domains. After each answer, subjects were also requested to indicate their level of confidence in the answer and to decide whether they desired it to be "counted" toward their total score on the task. Each volunteered answer earned a 5-cent gain if correct, but an equal fine if wrong. RESULTS......, it was not moderated by the presence of APS. CONCLUSIONS: These pilot results provide preliminary support a modest association between SD and metacognition, which is not reducible to neurocognition and APS. In addition, they raise an intriguing possibility regarding metacognitive monitoring and control being...
Full Text Available Coronal mass ejections are known as a solar cause of significant geospace disturbances, and a fuller elucidation of their physical properties and propagation dynamics is needed for space weather predictions. The scintillation of cosmic radio sources caused by turbulence in the solar wind (interplanetary scintillation; IPS serves as an effective ground-based method for monitoring disturbances in the heliosphere. We studied global properties of transient solar wind streams driven by CMEs using 327-MHz IPS observations of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL of Nagoya University. In this study, we reconstructed three-dimensional features of the interplanetary (IP counterpart of the CME from the IPS data by applying the model fitting technique. As a result, loop-shaped density enhancements were deduced for some CME events, whereas shell-shaped high-density regions were observed for the other events. In addition, CME speeds were found to evolve significantly during the propagation between the corona and 1 AU.
This thesis is dedicated to 3D segmentation of liver tumors in CT images. This is a task of great clinical interest since it allows physicians benefiting from reproducible and reliable methods for segmenting such lesions. Accurate segmentation would indeed help them during the evaluation of the lesions, the choice of treatment and treatment planning. Such a complex segmentation task should cope with three main scientific challenges: (i) the highly variable shape of the structures being sought, (ii) their similarity of appearance compared with their surrounding medium and finally (iii) the low signal to noise ratio being observed in these images. This problem is addressed in a clinical context through a two step approach, consisting of the segmentation of the entire liver envelope, before segmenting the tumors which are present within the envelope. We begin by proposing an atlas-based approach for computing pathological liver envelopes. Initially images are pre-processed to compute the envelopes that wrap around binary masks in an attempt to obtain liver envelopes from estimated segmentation of healthy liver parenchyma. A new statistical atlas is then introduced and used to segmentation through its diffeomorphic registration to the new image. This segmentation is achieved through the combination of image matching costs as well as spatial and appearance prior using a multi-scale approach with MRF. The second step of our approach is dedicated to lesions segmentation contained within the envelopes using a combination of machine learning techniques and graph based methods. First, an appropriate feature space is considered that involves texture descriptors being determined through filtering using various scales and orientations. Then, state of the art machine learning techniques are used to determine the most relevant features, as well as the hyper plane that separates the feature space of tumoral voxels to the ones corresponding to healthy tissues. Segmentation is then
Chu, Miao; von Birgelen, Clemens; Li, Yingguang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The relation between FFR and local coronary flow patterns is incompletely understood. We aimed at developing a novel hemodynamic index to quantify disturbed coronary flow, and to investigate its relationship with lesion-associated pressure-drop, and fractional flow reserve (F...
Le Wang; Xuhuan Duan; Qilin Zhang; Zhenxing Niu; Gang Hua; Nanning Zheng
Inspired by the recent spatio-temporal action localization efforts with tubelets (sequences of bounding boxes), we present a new spatio-temporal action localization detector Segment-tube, which consists of sequences of per-frame segmentation masks. The proposed Segment-tube detector can temporally pinpoint the starting/ending frame of each action category in the presence of preceding/subsequent interference actions in untrimmed videos. Simultaneously, the Segment-tube detector produces per-fr...
Full Text Available This article concerns a disturbance observer-based L1 robust anti-disturbance tracking algorithm for the longitudinal models of hypersonic flight vehicles with different kinds of unknown disturbances. On one hand, by applying T-S fuzzy models to represent those modeled disturbances, a disturbance observer relying on T-S disturbance models can be constructed to track the dynamics of exogenous disturbances. On the other hand, L1 index is introduced to analyze the attenuation performance of disturbance for those unmodeled disturbances. By utilizing the existing convex optimization algorithm, a disturbance observer-based proportional-integral-controlled input is proposed such that the stability of hypersonic flight vehicles can be ensured and the tracking error for velocity and altitude in hypersonic flight vehicle models can converge to equilibrium point. Furthermore, the satisfactory disturbance rejection and attenuation with L1 index can be obtained simultaneously. Simulation results on hypersonic flight vehicle models can reflect the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm.
Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.
Huang, Lan; Du, Youfu; Chen, Gongyang
Unlike English, the Chinese language has no space between words. Segmenting texts into words, known as the Chinese word segmentation (CWS) problem, thus becomes a fundamental issue for processing Chinese documents and the first step in many text mining applications, including information retrieval, machine translation and knowledge acquisition. However, for the geoscience subject domain, the CWS problem remains unsolved. Although a generic segmenter can be applied to process geoscience documents, they lack the domain specific knowledge and consequently their segmentation accuracy drops dramatically. This motivated us to develop a segmenter specifically for the geoscience subject domain: the GeoSegmenter. We first proposed a generic two-step framework for domain specific CWS. Following this framework, we built GeoSegmenter using conditional random fields, a principled statistical framework for sequence learning. Specifically, GeoSegmenter first identifies general terms by using a generic baseline segmenter. Then it recognises geoscience terms by learning and applying a model that can transform the initial segmentation into the goal segmentation. Empirical experimental results on geoscience documents and benchmark datasets showed that GeoSegmenter could effectively recognise both geoscience terms and general terms.
Coelho, Luís Pedro; Shariff, Aabid; Murphy, Robert F.
Image segmentation is an essential step in many image analysis pipelines and many algorithms have been proposed to solve this problem. However, they are often evaluated subjectively or based on a small number of examples. To fill this gap, we hand-segmented a set of 97 fluorescence microscopy images (a total of 4009 cells) and objectively evaluated some previously proposed segmentation algorithms.
Schaap, Michiel; van Walsum, Theo; Neefjes, Lisan
This paper presents a vessel segmentation method which learns the geometry and appearance of vessels in medical images from annotated data and uses this knowledge to segment vessels in unseen images. Vessels are segmented in a coarse-to-fine fashion. First, the vessel boundaries are estimated...
Meulenbroek, R G; Rosenbaum, D A; Thomassen, A.J.W.M.; Schomaker, L R
How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue
MEULENBROEK, RGJ; ROSENBAUM, DA; THOMASSEN, AJWM; SCHOMAKER, LRB; Schomaker, Lambertus
How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue
Based on vertical projection proﬁles and structural features of Oriya characters, text lines are segmented into words. For character segmentation, at ﬁrst, the isolated and connected (touching) characters in a word are detected. Using structural, topological and water reservoir concept-based features, characters of the word ...
Sun, Yu; Bhanu, Bir
This paper presents a new symmetry-integrated region-based image segmentation method. The method is developed to obtain improved image segmentation by exploiting image symmetry. It is realized by constructing a symmetry token that can be flexibly embedded into segmentation cues. Interesting points are initially extracted from an image by the SIFT operator and they are further refined for detecting the global bilateral symmetry. A symmetry affinity matrix is then computed using the symmetry axis and it is used explicitly as a constraint in a region growing algorithm in order to refine the symmetry of the segmented regions. A multi-objective genetic search finds the segmentation result with the highest performance for both segmentation and symmetry, which is close to the global optimum. The method has been investigated experimentally in challenging natural images and images containing man-made objects. It is shown that the proposed method outperforms current segmentation methods both with and without exploiting symmetry. A thorough experimental analysis indicates that symmetry plays an important role as a segmentation cue, in conjunction with other attributes like color and texture.
Van Den Boomen, Carlijn; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Snijders, Tineke M; Kemner, Chantal
Both categorization and segmentation processes play a crucial role in face perception. However, the functional relation between these subprocesses is currently unclear. The present study investigates the temporal relation between segmentation-related and category-selective responses in the brain,
Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Bhatt, Priyanka
the brainstem structures in novel scans. Thanks to the generative nature of the scheme, the segmentation method is robust to changes in MRI contrast or acquisition hardware. Using cross validation, we show that the algorithm can segment the structures in previously unseen T1 and FLAIR scans with great accuracy...
Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. We report a case of congenital segmental dilatation of the colon and highlight the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of this entity. Proper surgical treatment was initiated on the basis of preoperative radiological ...
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segmentation plan. 101.1505 Section 101.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1505 Segmentation plan. (a) An entity...
Van Hattum, P.
This dissertation deals with two basic problems in marketing, that are market segmentation, which is the grouping of persons who share common aspects, and market targeting, which is focusing your marketing efforts on one or more attractive market segments. For the grouping of persons who share
Malmgren-Hansen, David; Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten
Segmentation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images has several uses, but it is a difficult task due to a number of properties related to SAR images. In this article we show how Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can easily be trained for SAR image segmentation with good results. Besides...
Tuzuner, T.; Turgut, S.; Özen, B.; Kılınç, H.; Bagis, B.
Objective: A fractured whole crown segment can be reattached to its remnant; crowns from extracted teeth may be used as pontics in splinting techniques. We aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage solutions on tooth segment optical properties after different durations. Study design: Sixty
Brown, J D
While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.
Sithole, G.; Gorte, B.G.H.
As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first
A new generation of segmented gamma-ray scanners has been developed at Los Alamos for scrap and waste measurements at the Savannah River Plant and the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The new designs are highly automated and exhibit special features such as good segmentation and thorough shielding to improve performance
Segments allow you to quickly access data for a predefined set of Sessions or Users, such as government or education users, or sessions in a particular state. You can then apply this segment to any report within the Google Analytics (GA) interface.
Wendeson S Oliveira
Full Text Available Image segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a process that can help to predict and diagnose cardiovascular related diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes, which are known to affect the retinal blood vessels' appearance. This work proposes an unsupervised method for the segmentation of retinal vessels images using a combined matched filter, Frangi's filter and Gabor Wavelet filter to enhance the images. The combination of these three filters in order to improve the segmentation is the main motivation of this work. We investigate two approaches to perform the filter combination: weighted mean and median ranking. Segmentation methods are tested after the vessel enhancement. Enhanced images with median ranking are segmented using a simple threshold criterion. Two segmentation procedures are applied when considering enhanced retinal images using the weighted mean approach. The first method is based on deformable models and the second uses fuzzy C-means for the image segmentation. The procedure is evaluated using two public image databases, Drive and Stare. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods perform well for vessel segmentation in comparison with state-of-the-art methods.
Oliveira, L.S.; Lethelier, E.; Bortolozzi, F.; Sabourin, R.
This article presents a new segmentation approach applied to unconstrained handwritten digits. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is based on the combination of two types of structural features in order to provide the best segmentation path between connected entities. In this article, we first
Prados, Ferran; Ashburner, John; Blaiotta, Claudia; Brosch, Tom; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Conrad, Benjamin N; Datta, Esha; Dávid, Gergely; Leener, Benjamin De; Dupont, Sara M; Freund, Patrick; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Grussu, Francesco; Henry, Roland; Landman, Bennett A; Ljungberg, Emil; Lyttle, Bailey; Ourselin, Sebastien; Papinutto, Nico; Saporito, Salvatore; Schlaeger, Regina; Smith, Seth A; Summers, Paul; Tam, Roger; Yiannakas, Marios C; Zhu, Alyssa; Cohen-Adad, Julien
An important image processing step in spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging is the ability to reliably and accurately segment grey and white matter for tissue specific analysis. There are several semi- or fully-automated segmentation methods for cervical cord cross-sectional area measurement with an excellent performance close or equal to the manual segmentation. However, grey matter segmentation is still challenging due to small cross-sectional size and shape, and active research is being conducted by several groups around the world in this field. Therefore a grey matter spinal cord segmentation challenge was organised to test different capabilities of various methods using the same multi-centre and multi-vendor dataset acquired with distinct 3D gradient-echo sequences. This challenge aimed to characterize the state-of-the-art in the field as well as identifying new opportunities for future improvements. Six different spinal cord grey matter segmentation methods developed independently by various research groups across the world and their performance were compared to manual segmentation outcomes, the present gold-standard. All algorithms provided good overall results for detecting the grey matter butterfly, albeit with variable performance in certain quality-of-segmentation metrics. The data have been made publicly available and the challenge web site remains open to new submissions. No modifications were introduced to any of the presented methods as a result of this challenge for the purposes of this publication. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Yan; Tax, David M J; Loog, Marco
schemes are usually unsupervised, as they do not take into account the actual segmentation problem at hand. In this paper, we consider the problem of selecting scales, which aims at an optimal discrimination between user-defined classes in the segmentation. We show the deficiency of the classical...
Bennett, K. E.; Urrego-Blanco, J. R.; Jonko, A. K.; Vano, J. A.; Newman, A. J.; Bohn, T. J.; Middleton, R. S.
The Colorado River basin is an important river for the food-energy-water nexus in the United States and is projected to change under future scenarios of increased CO2emissions and warming. Streamflow estimates to consider climate impacts occurring as a result of this warming are often provided using modeling tools which rely on uncertain inputs—to fully understand impacts on streamflow sensitivity analysis can help determine how models respond under changing disturbances such as climate and vegetation. In this study, we conduct a global sensitivity analysis with a space-filling Latin Hypercube sampling of the model parameter space and statistical emulation of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to relate changes in runoff, evapotranspiration, snow water equivalent and soil moisture to model parameters in VIC. Additionally, we examine sensitivities of basin-wide model simulations using an approach that incorporates changes in temperature, precipitation and vegetation to consider impact responses for snow-dominated headwater catchments, low elevation arid basins, and for the upper and lower river basins. We find that for the Colorado River basin, snow-dominated regions are more sensitive to uncertainties. New parameter sensitivities identified include runoff/evapotranspiration sensitivity to albedo, while changes in snow water equivalent are sensitive to canopy fraction and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Basin-wide streamflow sensitivities to precipitation, temperature and vegetation are variable seasonally and also between sub-basins; with the largest sensitivities for smaller, snow-driven headwater systems where forests are dense. For a major headwater basin, a 1ºC of warming equaled a 30% loss of forest cover, while a 10% precipitation loss equaled a 90% forest cover decline. Scenarios utilizing multiple disturbances led to unexpected results where changes could either magnify or diminish extremes, such as low and peak flows and streamflow timing
Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.
We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.
Full Text Available Medical image segmentation is an essential and challenging aspect in computer-aided diagnosis and also in pattern recognition research. This paper proposes a hybrid method for magnetic resonance (MR image segmentation. We first remove impulsive noise inherent in MR images by utilizing a vector median filter. Subsequently, Otsu thresholding is used as an initial coarse segmentation method that finds the homogeneous regions of the input image. Finally, an enhanced suppressed fuzzy c-means is used to partition brain MR images into multiple segments, which employs an optimal suppression factor for the perfect clustering in the given data set. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed approach in noisy environment, we add different types of noise and different amount of noise to T1-weighted brain MR images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other FCM based algorithms in terms of segmentation accuracy for both noise-free and noise-inserted MR images.
Miranda, Leandro E.
Electrofishing is widely used to monitor fish species composition and relative abundance in streams and lakes. According to standard protocols, multiple segments are selected in a body of water to monitor population relative abundance as the ratio of total catch to total sampling effort. The standard protocol provides an assessment of fish distribution at a macrohabitat scale among segments, but not within segments. An ancillary protocol was developed for assessing fish distribution at a finer scale within electrofishing segments. The ancillary protocol was used to estimate spacing, dispersion, and association of two species along shore segments in two local reservoirs. The added information provided by the ancillary protocol may be useful for assessing fish distribution relative to fish of the same species, to fish of different species, and to environmental or habitat characteristics.
Kurby, Christopher A; Asiala, Lillian K E; Mills, Steven R
The perception of event structure in continuous activity is important for everyday comprehension. Although the segmentation of experience into events is a normal concomitant of perceptual processing, previous research has shown age differences in the ability to perceive structure in naturalistic activity, such as a movie of someone washing a car. However, past research has also shown that older adults have a preserved ability to comprehend events in narrative text, which suggests that narrative may improve the event processing of older adults. This study tested whether there are age differences in event segmentation at the intersection of continuous activity and narrative: narrative film. Younger and older adults watched and segmented a narrative film, The Red Balloon, into coarse and fine events. Changes in situational features, such as changes in characters, goals, and objects predicted segmentation. Analyses revealed little age-difference in segmentation behavior. This suggests the possibility that narrative structure supports event understanding for older adults.
Full Text Available Obesity markedly increases the odds of developing depression. Depressed mood not only impairs motivation, quality of life and overall functioning but also increases the risks of obesity complications. Abdominal obesity is a better predictor of depression and anxiety risk than overall adipose mass. A growing amount of research suggests that metabolic abnormalities stemming from central obesity that lead to metabolic disease may also responsible for the increased incidence of depression in obesity. As reviewed here, a higher mass of dysfunctional adipose tissue is associated with several metabolic disturbances that are either directly or indirectly implicated in the control of emotions and mood. To better comprehend the development of depression in obesity, this review pulls together select findings addressing the link between adiposity, diet and negative emotional states and discusses the evidence that alterations in glucocorticoids, adipose-derived hormones and inflammatory signalling that are characteristic of central obesity may be involved.
Fan, Peng-Lai; Xiang, Zuo-Fu
In tandem with economic growth and rising living conditions, ecotourism has increasingly gained popularity among the Chinese public. Non-human primates, as charismatic animals and the closest relatives of human beings, have shown a strong affinity in attracting the general public and raising money, and for that reason a variety of monkey parks, valleys, and islands are becoming increasingly popular in China. Though successful in raising a substantial sum of money for the managing agency of a nature reserve, there may be negative impacts on monkey groups used in ecotourism. Here, to establish effective guards for non-human primates involved in ecotourism, we present a review on tourism disturbance and summarize the negative impacts on behavioral patterns, reproduction, and health condition of animals.
Vladimir V. Markelov
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe data presented in this manuscript suggest a pivotal role of the central nervous system (CNS in the regulation of immune status. We describe here that some neurochemical disturbances may provoke development of various diseases including multiple sclerosis. Some theoretic and practical backgrounds, how to improve the multiple sclerosis sufferers and patients with other autoimmune disorders, are also given.RESUMENLos datos que presentamos en este manuscrito, sugieren un papel guia del sistema nervioso central (SNC en la regulación del estado inmune. Describimos aquí que varias alteraciones neuroquímicas pueden provocar el desarrollo de varias enfermedades, incluyendo esclerosis múltiple. También se comenta acerca del trasfondo teórico y práctico, y cómo mejorar a víctimas y pacientes con esclerosis múltiple y otras alteraciones autoinmunes.
. Information on how the sponge layers perform with respect to reflection of short-crested waves are presented mainly in terms of overall reflection coefficients and main directions as functions of incident main direction relative to the structure. The influence of a irregular structure front has also been......The motivation for the present study has been to improve the reliability in using numerical wave propagation models as a tool for estimating wave disturbance in harbours. Attention has been directed towards the importance of the modelling of reflection in the applied mild-slope model. Methods have...... been presented for the analysis of reflected wave fields in 2D and 3D. The Bayesian Directional Wave Spectrum Estimation Method has been applied throughout the study. Reflection characteristics have been investigated by use of physical models for three types of coastal structures with vertical fronts...
Honma, Motoyasu; Endo, Nobutaka; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi
Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events.
Embong, R.; Aziz, N. M. Nik Ab.; Karim, A. H. Abd; Ibrahim, M. R.
The segmentation process is one of the most important steps in image processing and computer vision since it is vital in the initial stage of image analysis. Segmentation of medical images involves complex structures and it requires precise segmentation result which is necessary for clinical diagnosis such as the detection of tumour, oedema, and necrotic tissues. Since mammography images are grayscale, researchers are looking at the effect of colour in the segmentation process of medical images. Colour is known to play a significant role in the perception of object boundaries in non-medical colour images. Processing colour images require handling more data, hence providing a richer description of objects in the scene. Colour images contain ten percent (10%) additional edge information as compared to their grayscale counterparts. Nevertheless, edge detection in colour image is more challenging than grayscale image as colour space is considered as a vector space. In this study, we implemented red, green, yellow, and blue colour maps to grayscale mammography images with the purpose of testing the effect of colours on the segmentation of abnormality regions in the mammography images. We applied the segmentation process using the Fuzzy C-means algorithm and evaluated the percentage of average relative error of area for each colour type. The results showed that all segmentation with the colour map can be done successfully even for blurred and noisy images. Also the size of the area of the abnormality region is reduced when compare to the segmentation area without the colour map. The green colour map segmentation produced the smallest percentage of average relative error (10.009%) while yellow colour map segmentation gave the largest percentage of relative error (11.367%).
Namolosu Simona Mihaela
Full Text Available The Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs represent an important target market for commercial Banks. In this respect, finding the best methods for designing and implementing the optimal marketing strategies (for this target are a continuous concern for the marketing specialists and researchers from the banking system; the purpose is to find the most suitable service model for these companies. SME portfolio of a bank is not homogeneous, different characteristics and behaviours being identified. The current paper reveals empirical evidence about SME portfolio characteristics and segmentation methods used in banking system. Its purpose is to identify if segmentation has an impact in finding the optimal marketing strategies and service model and if this hypothesis might be applicable for any commercial bank, irrespective of country/ region. Some banks are segmenting the SME portfolio by a single criterion: the annual company (official turnover; others are considering also profitability and other financial indicators of the company. In some cases, even the banking behaviour becomes a criterion. For all cases, creating scenarios with different thresholds and estimating the impact in profitability and volumes are two mandatory steps in establishing the final segmentation (criteria matrix. Details about each of these segmentation methods may be found in the paper. Testing the final matrix of criteria is also detailed, with the purpose of making realistic estimations. Example for lending products is provided; the product offer is presented as responding to needs of targeted sub segment and therefore being correlated with the sub segment characteristics. Identifying key issues and trends leads to further action plan proposal. Depending on overall strategy and commercial target of the bank, the focus may shift, one or more sub segments becoming high priority (for acquisition/ activation/ retention/ cross sell/ up sell/ increase profitability etc., while
Maintaining soil stability and normal water and nutrient cycles in desert systems is critical to avoiding desertification. These particular ecosystem processes are threatened by trampling of livestock and people, and by off-road vehicle use. Soil compaction and disruption of cryptobiotic soil surfaces (composed of cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses) can result in decreased water availability to vascular plants through decreased water infiltration and increased albedo with possible decreased precipitation. Surface disturbance may also cause accelerated soil loss through wind and water erosion and decreased diversity and abundance of soil biota. In addition, nutrient cycles can be altered through lowered nitrogen and carbon inputs and slowed decomposition of soil organic matter, resulting in lower nutrient levels in associated vascular plants. Some cold desert systems may be especially susceptible to these disruptions due to the paucity of surface-rooting vascular plants for soil stabilization, fewer nitrogen-fixing higher plants, and lower soil temperatures, which slow nutrient cycles. Desert soils may recover slowly from surface disturbances, resulting in increased vulnerability to desertification. Recovery from compaction and decreased soil stability is estimated to take several hundred years. Re-establishment rates for soil bacterial and fungal populations are not known. The nitrogen fixation capability of soil requires at least 50 years to recover. Recovery of crusts can be hampered by large amounts of moving sediment, and re-establishment can be extremely difficult in some areas. Given the sensitivity of these resources and slow recovery times, desertification threatens million of hectares of semiarid lands in the United States.
Ledesma-Medina, J.; Newman, B.; Oh, K.S.
''What is growth anyway? Can one talk about positive growth in childhood, neutral growth in maturity, and negative growth in old age? Our goal is to help promote normal positive growth in infants and children. To achieve this, we must be cognizant of the morphologic changes of both normal and abnormal bone formation as they are reflected in the radiographic image of the skeleton. The knowledge of the various causes and the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disturbances of bone growth and development allows us to recognize the early radiographic manifestations. Endocrine and metabolic disorders affect the whole skeleton, but the early changes are best seen in the distal ends of the femurs, where growth rate is most rapid. In skeletal infections and in some vascular injuries two-or three-phase bone scintigraphy supercedes radiography early in the course of the disease. MRI has proved to be very helpful in the early detection of avascular bone necrosis, osteomyelitis, and tumor. Some benign bone tumors and many bone dysplasias have distinct and diagnostic radiographic findings that may preclude further studies. In constitutional diseases of bone, including chromosomal aberrations, skeletal surveys of the patient and all family members together with biochemical and cytogenetic studies are essential for both diagnosis and genetic counseling. Our role is to perform the least invasive and most informative diagnostic imaging modalities that corroborate the biochemical and histologic findings to establish the definitive diagnosis. Unrecognized, misdiagnosed, or improperly treated disturbance of bone growth can result in permanent deformity usually associated with disability. 116 references
Kim, Kee Dae
The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic
Full Text Available Ji Han Lee,1 Won Sang Jung,2 Woo Hee Choi,3 Hyun Kook Lim4 1Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, 4Department of Psychiatry, Saint Vincent Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South Korea Objective: Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, sleep disturbances are common and serious noncognitive symptoms. Previous studies of AD patients have identified deformations in the brain stem, which may play an important role in the regulation of sleep. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and alterations in brain stem morphology in AD.Materials and methods: In 44 patients with AD and 40 healthy elderly controls, sleep disturbances were measured using the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep subscale. We employed magnetic resonance imaging-based automated segmentation tools to examine the relationship between sleep disturbances and changes in brain stem morphology.Results: Analyses of the data from AD subjects revealed significant correlations between the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep-subscale scores and structural alterations in the left posterior lateral region of the brain stem, as well as normalized brain stem volumes. In addition, significant group differences in posterior brain stem morphology were observed between the AD group and the control group.Conclusion: This study is the first to analyze an association between sleep disturbances and brain stem morphology in AD. In line with previous findings, this study lends support to the possibility that brain stem structural abnormalities might be important neurobiological mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances associated with AD. Further longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, sleep, brain stem, MRI, shape analysis
One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.
Pereira, I.M.; Orefice, R.L.
Five series of segmented polyurethanes with different hard segment content were prepared by the prepolymer mixing method. The nano-morphology of the obtained polyurethanes and their microphase separation were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, modulated differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. Although highly hydrogen bonded hard segments were formed, high hard segment contents promoted phase mixture and decreased the chain mobility, decreasing the hard segment domain precipitation and the soft segments crystallization. The applied techniques were able to show that the hard-segment content and the hard-segment interactions were the two controlling factors for determining the structure of segmented polyurethanes. (author)
McLauchlan, Kendra K.; Higuera, Philip E.; Gavin, Daniel G.; Perakis, Steven S.; Mack, Michelle C.; Alexander, Heather; Battles, John; Biondi, Franco; Buma, Brian; Colombaroli, Daniele; Enders, Sara K.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Marshall, John; McGlone, Matt; Morris, Jesse L.; Nave, Lucas E.; Shuman, Bryan; Smithwick, Erica A.H.; Urrego, Dunia H.; Wardle, David A.; Williams, Christopher J.; Williams, Joseph J.
Ongoing changes in disturbance regimes are predicted to cause acute changes in ecosystem structure and function in the coming decades, but many aspects of these predictions are uncertain. A key challenge is to improve the predictability of postdisturbance biogeochemical trajectories at the ecosystem level. Ecosystem ecologists and paleoecologists have generated complementary data sets about disturbance (type, severity, frequency) and ecosystem response (net primary productivity, nutrient cycling) spanning decadal to millennial timescales. Here, we take the first steps toward a full integration of these data sets by reviewing how disturbances are reconstructed using dendrochronological and sedimentary archives and by summarizing the conceptual frameworks for carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic responses to disturbances. Key research priorities include further development of paleoecological techniques that reconstruct both disturbances and terrestrial ecosystem dynamics. In addition, mechanistic detail from disturbance experiments, long-term observations, and chronosequences can help increase the understanding of ecosystem resilience.
Seveso, Luigi; Paris, Matteo G. A.
We address the trade-off between information and disturbance in qubit thermometry from the perspective of quantum estimation theory. Given a quantum measurement, we quantify information via the Fisher information of the measurement and disturbance via four different figures of merit, which capture different aspects (statistical, thermodynamical, geometrical) of the trade-off. For each disturbance measure, the efficient measurements, i.e., the measurements that introduce a disturbance not greater than any other measurement extracting the same amount of information, are determined explicitly. The family of efficient measurements varies with the choice of the disturbance measure. On the other hand, commutativity between the elements of the probability operator-valued measure (POVM) and the equilibrium state of the thermometer is a necessary condition for efficiency with respect to any figure of disturbance.
Full Text Available Image segmentation is a fundamental approach in the field of image processing and based on user’s application .This paper propose an original and simple segmentation strategy based on the EM approach that resolves many informatics problems about hyperspectral images which are observed by airborne sensors. In a first step, to simplify the input color textured image into a color image without texture. The final segmentation is simply achieved by a spatially color segmentation using feature vector with the set of color values contained around the pixel to be classified with some mathematical equations. The spatial constraint allows taking into account the inherent spatial relationships of any image and its color. This approach provides effective PSNR for the segmented image. These results have the better performance as the segmented images are compared with Watershed & Region Growing Algorithm and provide effective segmentation for the Spectral Images & Medical Images.
Segmented copolymers with short, glassy or crystalline hard segments and long, amorphous soft segments (multi-block copolymers) are thermoplastic elastomers (TPE’s). The hard segments form physical crosslinks for the amorphous (rubbery) soft segments. As a result, this type of materials combines
Daniel P. Treese; Shirley E. Clark; Katherine H. Baker
Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected i...
Masek, Jeffrey G.; Goward, Samuel N.; Kennedy, Robert E.; Cohen, Warren B.; Moisen, Gretchen G.; Schleeweis, Karen; Huang, Chengquan
Disturbance events strongly affect the composition, structure, and function of forest ecosystems; however, existing U.S. land management inventories were not designed to monitor disturbance. To begin addressing this gap, the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project has examined a geographic sample of 50 Landsat satellite image time series to assess trends in forest disturbance across the conterminous United States for 1985-2005. The geographic sample design used a probability-based scheme to encompass major forest types and maximize geographic dispersion. For each sample location disturbance was identified in the Landsat series using the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) algorithm. The NAFD analysis indicates that, on average, 2.77 Mha/yr of forests were disturbed annually, representing 1.09%/yr of US forestland. These satellite-based national disturbance rates estimates tend to be lower than those derived from land management inventories, reflecting both methodological and definitional differences. In particular the VCT approach used with a biennial time step has limited sensitivity to low-intensity disturbances. Unlike prior satellite studies, our biennial forest disturbance rates vary by nearly a factor of two between high and low years. High western US disturbance rates were associated with active fire years and insect activity, while variability in the east is more strongly related to harvest rates in managed forests. We note that generating a geographic sample based on representing forest type and variability may be problematic since the spatial pattern of disturbance does not necessarily correlate with forest type. We also find that the prevalence of diffuse, non-stand clearing disturbance in US forests makes the application of a biennial geographic sample problematic. Future satellite-based studies of disturbance at regional and national scales should focus on wall-to-wall analyses with annual time step for improved accuracy.
Emrick III, Verl Roy
The role of disturbance is widely recognized as a fundamental driver of ecological organization from individual species to entire landscapes. Anthropogenic disturbances from military training provide a unique opportunity to examine effects of disturbance on vegetation dynamics, physicochemical soil properties, and ecosystem processes. Additionally, plant functional diversity has been suggested as the key to ecosystem processes such as productivity and nutrient dynamics. I investigated how dis...
Villnäs, Anna; Norkko, Joanna; Hietanen, Susanna; Josefson, Alf; Lukkari, Kaarina; Norkko, Alf
Ecosystem functioning is threatened by an increasing number of anthropogenic stressors, creating a legacy of disturbance that undermines ecosystem resilience. However, few empirical studies have assessed to what extent an ecosystem can tolerate repeated disturbances and sustain its multiple functions. By inducing increasingly recurring hypoxic disturbances to a sedimentary ecosystem, we show that the majority of individual ecosystem functions experience gradual degradation patterns in respons...
Angerer, J.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Schultz, B.W.
This report presents the results of a study of secondary plant succession on disturbed sites created during initial site investigations in the late 1970s and early 1980s at Yucca Mountain, NV. Specific study objectives were to determine the rate and success of secondary plant succession, identify plant species found in disturbances that may be suitable for site-specific reclamation, and to identify environmental variables that influence succession on disturbed sites. During 1991 and 1992, fifty seven disturbed sites were located. Vegetation parameters, disturbance characteristics and environmental variables were measured at each site. Disturbed site vegetation parameters were compared to that of undisturbed sites to determine the status of disturbed site plant succession. Vegetation on disturbed sites, after an average of ten years, was different from undisturbed areas. Ambrosia dumosa, Chrysothamnus teretifolius, Hymenoclea salsola, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex canescens, and Stephanomeria pauciflora were the most dominant species across all disturbed sites. With the exception of A. dumosa, these species were generally minor components of the undisturbed vegetation. Elevation, soil compaction, soil potassium, and amounts of sand and gravel in the soil were found to be significant environmental variables influencing the species composition and abundance of perennial plants on disturbed sites. The recovery rate for disturbed site secondary succession was estimated. Using a linear function (which would represent optimal conditions), the recovery rate for perennial plant cover, regardless of which species comprised the cover, was estimated to be 20 years. However, when a logarithmic function (which would represent probable conditions) was used, the recovery rate was estimated to be 845 years. Recommendations for future studies and site-specific reclamation of disturbances are presented
Angerer, J.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Schultz, B.W.
This report presents the results of a study of secondary plant succession on disturbed sites created during initial site investigations in the late 1970s and early 1980s at Yucca Mountain, NV. Specific study objectives were to determine the rate and success of secondary plant succession, identify plant species found in disturbances that may be suitable for site-specific reclamation, and to identify environmental variables that influence succession on disturbed sites. During 1991 and 1992, fifty seven disturbed sites were located. Vegetation parameters, disturbance characteristics and environmental variables were measured at each site. Disturbed site vegetation parameters were compared to that of undisturbed sites to determine the status of disturbed site plant succession. Vegetation on disturbed sites, after an average of ten years, was different from undisturbed areas. Ambrosia dumosa, Chrysothamnus teretifolius, Hymenoclea salsola, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex canescens, and Stephanomeria pauciflora were the most dominant species across all disturbed sites. With the exception of A. dumosa, these species were generally minor components of the undisturbed vegetation. Elevation, soil compaction, soil potassium, and amounts of sand and gravel in the soil were found to be significant environmental variables influencing the species composition and abundance of perennial plants on disturbed sites. The recovery rate for disturbed site secondary succession was estimated. Using a linear function (which would represent optimal conditions), the recovery rate for perennial plant cover, regardless of which species comprised the cover, was estimated to be 20 years. However, when a logarithmic function (which would represent probable conditions) was used, the recovery rate was estimated to be 845 years. Recommendations for future studies and site-specific reclamation of disturbances are presented.
Full Text Available Image segmentation is the foundation of computer vision applications. In this paper, we propose a new cluster ensemble-based image segmentation algorithm, which overcomes several problems of traditional methods. We make two main contributions in this paper. First, we introduce the cluster ensemble concept to fuse the segmentation results from different types of visual features effectively, which can deliver a better final result and achieve a much more stable performance for broad categories of images. Second, we exploit the PageRank idea from Internet applications and apply it to the image segmentation task. This can improve the final segmentation results by combining the spatial information of the image and the semantic similarity of regions. Our experiments on four public image databases validate the superiority of our algorithm over conventional single type of feature or multiple types of features-based algorithms, since our algorithm can fuse multiple types of features effectively for better segmentation results. Moreover, our method is also proved to be very competitive in comparison with other state-of-the-art segmentation algorithms.
Full Text Available Roberto Rodríguez1, Rubén Hernández21Digital Signal Processing Group, Institute of Cybernetics, Mathematics, and Physics, Havana, Cuba; 2Interdisciplinary Professional Unit of Engineering and Advanced Technology, IPN, MexicoAbstract: Many segmentation techniques have been published, and some of them have been widely used in different application problems. Most of these segmentation techniques have been motivated by specific application purposes. Unsupervised methods, which do not assume any prior scene knowledge can be learned to help the segmentation process, and are obviously more challenging than the supervised ones. In this paper, we present an unsupervised strategy for biomedical image segmentation using an algorithm based on recursively applying mean shift filtering, where entropy is used as a stopping criterion. This strategy is proven with many real images, and a comparison is carried out with manual segmentation. With the proposed strategy, errors less than 20% for false positives and 0% for false negatives are obtained.Keywords: segmentation, mean shift, unsupervised segmentation, entropy
Carlijn eVan Den Boomen
Full Text Available Both categorization and segmentation processes play a crucial role in face perception. However, the functional relation between these subprocesses is currently unclear. The present study investigates the temporal relation between segmentation-related and category-selective responses in the brain, using electroencephalography (EEG. Surface segmentation and category content were both manipulated using texture-defined objects, including faces. This allowed us to study brain activity related to segmentation and to categorization. In the main experiment, participants viewed texture-defined objects for a duration of 800 ms. EEG results revealed that segmentation-related responses precede category-selective responses. Three additional experiments revealed that the presence and timing of categorization depends on stimulus properties and presentation duration. Photographic objects were presented for a long and short (92 ms duration and evoked fast category-selective responses in both cases. On the other hand, presentation of texture-defined objects for a short duration only evoked segmentation-related but no category-selective responses. Category-selective responses were much slower when evoked by texture-defined than by photographic objects. We suggest that in case of categorization of objects under suboptimal conditions, such as when low-level stimulus properties are not sufficient for fast object categorization, segmentation facilitates the slower categorization process.
Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J.
We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from [ 3 H]acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms
Gao, Yi; Zhu, Liangjia; Cates, Joshua; MacLeod, Rob S.; Bouix, Sylvain; Tannenbaum, Allen
In multiatlas segmentation, one typically registers several atlases to the novel image, and their respective segmented label images are transformed and fused to form the final segmentation. In this work, we provide a new dynamical system perspective for multiatlas segmentation, inspired by the following fact: The transformation that aligns the current atlas to the novel image can be not only computed by direct registration but also inferred from the transformation that aligns the previous atlas to the image together with the transformation between the two atlases. This process is similar to the global positioning system on a vehicle, which gets position by inquiring from the satellite and by employing the previous location and velocity—neither answer in isolation being perfect. To solve this problem, a dynamical system scheme is crucial to combine the two pieces of information; for example, a Kalman filtering scheme is used. Accordingly, in this work, a Kalman multiatlas segmentation is proposed to stabilize the global/affine registration step. The contributions of this work are twofold. First, it provides a new dynamical systematic perspective for standard independent multiatlas registrations, and it is solved by Kalman filtering. Second, with very little extra computation, it can be combined with most existing multiatlas segmentation schemes for better registration/segmentation accuracy. PMID:26807162
Tisato, N.; Ikeda, K.; Goldfarb, E. J.; Spikes, K. T.
In the last decade, Digital Rock Physics (DRP) has become an avenue to investigate physical and mechanical properties of geomaterials. DRP offers the advantage of simulating laboratory experiments on numerical samples that are obtained from analytical methods. Potentially, DRP could allow sparing part of the time and resources that are allocated to perform complicated laboratory tests. Like classic laboratory tests, the goal of DRP is to estimate accurately physical properties of rocks like hydraulic permeability or elastic moduli. Nevertheless, the physical properties of samples imaged using micro-computed tomography (μCT) are estimated through segmentation of the μCT dataset. Segmentation proves to be a challenging and arbitrary procedure that typically leads to inaccurate estimates of physical properties. Here we present a novel technique to extract physical properties from a μCT dataset without the use of segmentation. We show examples in which we use segmentation-less method to simulate elastic wave propagation and pressure wave diffusion to estimate elastic properties and permeability, respectively. The proposed method takes advantage of effective medium theories and uses the density and the porosity that are measured in the laboratory to constrain the results. We discuss the results and highlight that segmentation-less DRP is more accurate than segmentation based DRP approaches and theoretical modeling for the studied rock. In conclusion, the segmentation-less approach here presented seems to be a promising method to improve accuracy and to ease the overall workflow of DRP.
Van Den Boomen, Carlijn; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Snijders, Tineke M; Kemner, Chantal
Both categorization and segmentation processes play a crucial role in face perception. However, the functional relation between these subprocesses is currently unclear. The present study investigates the temporal relation between segmentation-related and category-selective responses in the brain, using electroencephalography (EEG). Surface segmentation and category content were both manipulated using texture-defined objects, including faces. This allowed us to study brain activity related to segmentation and to categorization. In the main experiment, participants viewed texture-defined objects for a duration of 800 ms. EEG results revealed that segmentation-related responses precede category-selective responses. Three additional experiments revealed that the presence and timing of categorization depends on stimulus properties and presentation duration. Photographic objects were presented for a long and short (92 ms) duration and evoked fast category-selective responses in both cases. On the other hand, presentation of texture-defined objects for a short duration only evoked segmentation-related but no category-selective responses. Category-selective responses were much slower when evoked by texture-defined than by photographic objects. We suggest that in case of categorization of objects under suboptimal conditions, such as when low-level stimulus properties are not sufficient for fast object categorization, segmentation facilitates the slower categorization process.
Chou, Zane; Paquette, Natacha; Ganesh, Bhavana; Wang, Yalin; Ceschin, Rafael; Nelson, Marvin D.; Macyszyn, Luke; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Panigrahy, Ashok; Lepore, Natasha
Several attempts have been made in the past few years to develop and implement an automated segmentation of neonatal brain structural MRI. However, accurate automated MRI segmentation remains challenging in this population because of the low signal-to-noise ratio, large partial volume effects and inter-individual anatomical variability of the neonatal brain. In this paper, we propose a learning method for segmenting the whole brain cortical grey matter on neonatal T2-weighted images. We trained our algorithm using a neonatal dataset composed of 3 fullterm and 4 preterm infants scanned at term equivalent age. Our segmentation pipeline combines the FAST algorithm from the FSL library software and a Bayesian segmentation approach to create a threshold matrix that minimizes the error of mislabeling brain tissue types. Our method shows promising results with our pilot training set. In both preterm and full-term neonates, automated Bayesian segmentation generates a smoother and more consistent parcellation compared to FAST, while successfully removing the subcortical structure and cleaning the edges of the cortical grey matter. This method show promising refinement of the FAST segmentation by considerably reducing manual input and editing required from the user, and further improving reliability and processing time of neonatal MR images. Further improvement will include a larger dataset of training images acquired from different manufacturers.
Zhang, Shaoting; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dewan, Maneesh; Huang, Junzhou; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Zhou, Xiang Sean
Appearance and shape are two key elements exploited in medical image segmentation. However, in some medical image analysis tasks, appearance cues are weak/misleading due to disease/artifacts and often lead to erroneous segmentation. In this paper, a novel deformable model is proposed for robust segmentation in the presence of weak/misleading appearance cues. Owing to the less trustable appearance information, this method focuses on the effective shape modeling with two contributions. First, a shape composition method is designed to incorporate shape prior on-the-fly. Based on two sparsity observations, this method is robust to false appearance information and adaptive to statistically insignificant shape modes. Second, shape priors are modeled and used in a hierarchical fashion. More specifically, by using affinity propagation method, our deformable surface is divided into multiple partitions, on which local shape models are built independently. This scheme facilitates a more compact shape prior modeling and hence a more robust and efficient segmentation. Our deformable model is applied on two very diverse segmentation problems, liver segmentation in PET-CT images and rodent brain segmentation in MR images. Compared to state-of-art methods, our method achieves better performance in both studies.
Kercher, Cassandra; Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Webster, Daniel W
To describe the law enforcement officer (LEO), encounter, perpetrator and victim characteristics of domestic disturbance-related LEO homicides in the USA from 1996 to 2010. Narrative text analysis was conducted on the Federal Bureau of Investigation's annual report 'Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted'. Potential cases were confirmed if the narrative included the term 'domestic disturbance' or a domestic disturbance situation was described. 116 LEOs were killed while responding to domestic disturbance calls. Ninety-five per cent of these homicides were committed with a firearm. Sixty-seven per cent of LEOs were wearing body armour when killed; however, 52% received the fatal wound to the head/neck. Sixty-one per cent of suspects had a criminal history mentioned within the narratives and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) were more likely to be killed by LEOs than suspects involved in other forms of domestic violence. Victims of the domestic disturbance were killed in 21% of the IPV-related LEO homicide cases as opposed to only 5% of other domestic disturbance calls. A firearm was the most common weapon used in the murder of a domestic disturbance victim (86%). This study describes domestic disturbance-related LEO homicides. Future research in this area should further examine the dangers unique to domestic disturbance calls. A longitudinal analysis could provide greater understanding of the injury and mortality risks faced by LEOs, in order to inform homicide prevention among law enforcement.
Full Text Available Distributed coordination of fractional multiagent systems with external disturbances is studied. The state observer of fractional dynamical system is presented, and an adaptive pinning controller is designed for a little part of agents in multiagent systems without disturbances. This adaptive pinning controller with the state observer can ensure multiple agents' states reaching an expected reference tracking. Based on disturbance observers, the controllers are composited with the pinning controller and the state observer. By applying the stability theory of fractional order dynamical systems, the distributed coordination of fractional multiagent systems with external disturbances can be reached asymptotically.
Storm aftereffect, i.e. the phase disturbance after initiation of a magnetic storm has been revealed in the observation of VLF standard radio waves. In VLF long distance propagation at middle latitudes (L - 3), the phase disturbance for several days after the initiation of a magnetic storm is due to electron fall from the radiation belt. This has been confirmed by the comparison with electron flux detected by an artificial satellite. The correlations between VLF phase disturbance and magnetism activity or ionosphere absorption are described. The relation between winter anomaly and phase disturbance is also discussed. (Mori, K.)
Kawai, Fukiko; Nakazawa, Chikashi; Vinther, Kasper
This paper presents a model based disturbance feedback control scheme. Industrial process systems have been traditionally controlled by using relay and PID controller. However these controllers are affected by disturbances and model errors and these effects degrade control performance. The authors...... propose a new control method that can decrease the negative impact of disturbance and model errors. The control method is motivated by industrial practice by Fuji Electric. Simulation tests are examined with a conventional PID controller and the disturbance feedback control. The simulation results...
Marie, I. A.; Sari, D. K.; Astuti, P.; Teorema, M.
The discussion was conducted at PT. XYZ which produces automotive components and motorcycle products. The company produced X123 type cylinder head which is a motor vehicle forming component. The disturbances in the production system has affected the company performance in achieving the target of Key Performance Indicator (KPI). Currently, the determination of the percentage of safety stock of cylinder head products is not in accordance to the control limits set by the company (60% - 80%), and tends to exceed the control limits that cause increasing the inventory wastage in the company. This study aims to identify the production system disturbances that occurs in the production process of manufacturing components of X123 type cylinder head products and design the control model of disturbance to obtain control action and determine the safety stock policy in accordance with the needs of the company. The design stage has been done based on the Disturbance Control Model which already existing and customized with the company need in controlling the production system disturbances at the company. The design of the disturbances control model consists of sub-model of the risk level of the disturbance, sub-model of action status, sub-model action control of the disturbance, and sub-model of determining the safety stock. The model can assist the automotive company in taking the decision to perform the disturbances control action in production system cylinder head while controlling the percentage of the safety stock.
Full Text Available We present a generic algorithm to address various temporal segmentation topics of audiovisual contents such as speaker diarization, shot, or program segmentation. Based on a GLR approach, involving the ΔBIC criterion, this algorithm requires the value of only a few parameters to produce segmentation results at a desired scale and on most typical low-level features used in the field of content-based indexing. Results obtained on various corpora are of the same quality level than the ones obtained by other dedicated and state-of-the-art methods.
Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas
This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...
Hartmann, Martin; Lartillot, Olivier; Toiviainen, Petri
pieces. In a second experiment on non-real-time segmentation, musicians indicated boundaries and their strength for six examples. Kernel density estimation was used to develop multi-scale segmentation models. Contrary to previous research, no relationship was found between boundary strength and boundary......While listening to music, people often unwittingly break down musical pieces into constituent chunks such as verses and choruses. Music segmentation studies have suggested that some consensus regarding boundary perception exists, despite individual differences. However, neither the effects...
Skriver, Henning; Schou, Jesper; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
A newly developed test statistic for equality of two complex covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution and an associated asymptotic probability for the test statistic has been used in a segmentation algorithm. The segmentation algorithm is based on the MUM (merge using moments......) approach, which is a merging algorithm for single channel SAR images. The polarimetric version described in this paper uses the above-mentioned test statistic for merging. The segmentation algorithm has been applied to polarimetric SAR data from the Danish dual-frequency, airborne polarimetric SAR, EMISAR...
Li, Jing; Xie, Weixin; Pei, Jihong
Sea-land segmentation is one of the key technologies of sea target detection in remote sensing images. At present, the existing algorithms have the problems of low accuracy, low universality and poor automatic performance. This paper puts forward a sea-land segmentation algorithm based on multi-feature fusion for a large-field remote sensing image removing island. Firstly, the coastline data is extracted and all of land area is labeled by using the geographic information in large-field remote sensing image. Secondly, three features (local entropy, local texture and local gradient mean) is extracted in the sea-land border area, and the three features combine a 3D feature vector. And then the MultiGaussian model is adopted to describe 3D feature vectors of sea background in the edge of the coastline. Based on this multi-gaussian sea background model, the sea pixels and land pixels near coastline are classified more precise. Finally, the coarse segmentation result and the fine segmentation result are fused to obtain the accurate sea-land segmentation. Comparing and analyzing the experimental results by subjective vision, it shows that the proposed method has high segmentation accuracy, wide applicability and strong anti-disturbance ability.
McGuire, Sarah M.
One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the
Stemerding, M.P.; Oppewal, H.; Beckers, T.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
Traditional segmentation schemes are often based on a grouping of consumers with similar preference functions. The research steps, ultimately leading to such segmentation schemes, are typically independent. In the present article, a new integrated approach to segmentation is introduced, which
Gerwing, Travis G.; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Macdonald, Tara; Cox, Kieran; Juanes, Francis; Dudas, Sarah E.
The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH) predicts that disturbances of an intermediate frequency or intensity will maximize community biodiversity/richness. Once almost universally accepted, controversy now surrounds this hypothesis, and there have even been calls for its abandonment. Therefore, we experimentally evaluated if an infaunal community along the north coast of British Columbia, Canada, would respond to disturbances as predicted by the IDH. The characteristics of this soft-sediment intertidal mudflat (productivity, species pool, population growth rate) maximized our chances of finding evidence to support the IDH. More specifically, we tested if intermediate severities and frequencies of disturbance maximized infaunal community richness by mechanically disturbing sediment, and varying the intensity (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the surface area of a plot disturbed) and frequency of sediment disturbance (never, once, twice, and every week during a four week period). No effect of frequency or intensity of sediment disturbance on community richness was observed. Further, none of our experimental treatments were statistically different than the controls. This is likely due to the subtle difference between successional stages in this soft-sediment habitat (difference of less than one taxa between treatments). Therefore, in habitats whose productivity, regional species pool, and population growth rates would otherwise suggest a response to disturbances as predicted by the IDH, minor differences between successional stages may result in richness patterns that deviate from those predicted by the IDH.
Iwakura, Narika; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Shiba, Masatsugu; Ochi, Masahiro; Fukuda, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Arakawa, Tetsuo
Objective Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is strongly associated with sleep disturbances; however, the detailed differences in the characteristics of sleep disturbances between GERD and non-GERD patients are unknown. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical characteristics as well as health-related quality of life in GERD and non-GERD patients with sleep disturbances. Methods Three hundred and fifty patients, including 124 patients with GERD and 226 patients without GERD, completed a self-administered questionnaire that evaluated clinical information. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and 8-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-8) were also used. Sleep disturbance was considered to be present if the PSQI was >5.5. Results The prevalence of sleep disturbances was significantly higher in the GERD patients (66/124, 53.9%) than in the non-GERD patients (89/226, 39.3%). Depression and anxiety were significantly more common in the subjects with sleep disturbances than in those without sleep disturbances, although there were no differences between the GERD and non-GERD patients. Among the subjects with sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness was more common in the GERD patients than in the non-GERD patients. The subjects with sleep disturbances had a poorer health-related quality of life. The physical components of quality of life were impaired, particularly in the GERD patients with sleep disturbances. Conclusion GERD patients with sleep disturbances commonly experience daytime sleepiness and an impaired health-related quality of life, especially in terms of physical components.
HU Zhilan; WANG Guijin; LIN Xinggang; YAN Hong
Skin segmentation is widely used in many computer vision tasks to improve automated visualiza-tion. This paper presents a graph cuts algorithm to segment arbitrary skin regions from images. The detected face is used to determine the foreground skin seeds and the background non-skin seeds with the color probability distributions for the foreground represented by a single Gaussian model and for the background by a Gaussian mixture model. The probability distribution of the image is used for noise suppression to alle-viate the influence of the background regions having skin-like colors. Finally, the skin is segmented by graph cuts, with the regional parameter y optimally selected to adapt to different images. Tests of the algorithm on many real wodd photographs show that the scheme accurately segments skin regions and is robust against illumination variations, individual skin variations, and cluttered backgrounds.
Shepherd, S L; Cullen, D M; Appelbe, D E; Simpson, J; Gerl, J; Kaspar, M; Kleinböhl, A; Peter, I; Rejmund, M; Schaffner, H; Schlegel, C; France, G D
The performance of a segmented Clover germanium detector has been measured. The segmented Clover detector is a composite germanium detector, consisting of four individual germanium crystals in the configuration of a four-leaf Clover, housed in a single cryostat. Each crystal is electrically segmented on its outer surface into four quadrants, with separate energy read-outs from nine crystal zones. Signals are also taken from the inner contact of each crystal. This effectively produces a detector with 16 active elements. One of the purposes of this segmentation is to improve the overall spectral resolution when detecting gamma radiation emitted following a nuclear reaction, by minimising Doppler broadening caused by the opening angle subtended by each detector element. Results of the tests with sources and in beam will be presented. The improved granularity of the detector also leads to an improved isolated hit probability compared with an unsegmented Clover detector. (author)
Mori, S; Gillespie, W; Suen, C Y
A new method for decomposing a complex figure into its constituent strokes is described. This method, based on constrained bidirectional propagation, is suitable for parallel processing. Examples of its application to the segmentation of Chinese characters are presented. 9 references.
The segmentation of a visual scene into a set of coherent patterns (objects) is a fundamental aspect of perception, which underlies a variety of important tasks such as figure/ground segregation, and scene analysis...
We present a new variational method for mesh segmentation by fitting quadric surfaces. Each component of the resulting segmentation is represented by a general quadric surface (including plane as a special case). A novel energy function is defined to evaluate the quality of the segmentation, which combines both L2 and L2 ,1 metrics from a triangle to a quadric surface. The Lloyd iteration is used to minimize the energy function, which repeatedly interleaves between mesh partition and quadric surface fitting. We also integrate feature-based and simplification-based techniques in the segmentation framework, which greatly improve the performance. The advantages of our algorithm are demonstrated by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
For information extraction from image data to create or update geographic information systems, objects are identified and labeled using an integration of segmentation and classification. This yields geometric and thematic information, respectively.
Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been found to be effective in the domain of medical image segmentation, since the problem can often be mapped to one of search in a complex and multimodal landscape. The challenges in medical image segmentation arise due to poor image contrast and artifacts that result in missing or diffuse organ/tissue boundaries. The resulting search space is therefore often noisy with a multitude of local optima. Not only does the genetic algorithmic framework prove to be effective in coming out of local optima, it also brings considerable flexibility into the segmentation procedure. In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the major applications of GAs to the domain of medical image segmentation.
Huang, Qixing; Koltun, Vladlen; Guibas, Leonidas
program is solved via a linear programming relaxation, using a block coordinate descent procedure that makes the optimization feasible for large databases. We evaluate the presented approach on the Princeton segmentation benchmark and show that joint shape
Yan, Dongming; Wang, Wen Ping; Liu, Yang; Yang, Zhouwang
We present a new variational method for mesh segmentation by fitting quadric surfaces. Each component of the resulting segmentation is represented by a general quadric surface (including plane as a special case). A novel energy function is defined to evaluate the quality of the segmentation, which combines both L2 and L2 ,1 metrics from a triangle to a quadric surface. The Lloyd iteration is used to minimize the energy function, which repeatedly interleaves between mesh partition and quadric surface fitting. We also integrate feature-based and simplification-based techniques in the segmentation framework, which greatly improve the performance. The advantages of our algorithm are demonstrated by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pitch Synchronous Segmentation (PSS) that accelerates speech without changing its fundamental frequency method could be applied and evaluated for use at NASA....
Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical method for deriving the optimal prospective field sampling scheme on a remote sensing image to represent different categories in the field. The iterated conditional modes algorithm (ICM) is used for segmentation...
Full Text Available The change of optic disc can be used to diagnose many eye diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Moreover, retinal blood vessel pattern is unique for human beings even for identical twins. It is a highly stable pattern in biometric identification. Since optic disc is the beginning of the optic nerve and main blood vessels in retina, it can be used as a reference point of identification. Therefore, optic disc segmentation is an important technique for developing a human identity recognition system and eye disease diagnostic system. This article hence presents an optic disc segmentation method to extract the optic disc from a retina image. The experimental results show that the optic disc segmentation method can give impressive results in segmenting the optic disc from a retina image.
Segmentation of handwritten text into lines, words and characters .... We now discuss here some terms relating to water reservoirs that will be used in feature ..... is found. Next, based on the touching position, reservoir base-area points, ...
This book presents the main concepts in handling digital images of mixed content, traditionally referenced as mixed raster content (MRC), in two main parts. The first includes introductory chapters covering the scientific and technical background aspects, whereas the second presents a set of research and development approaches to tackle key issues in MRC segmentation, compression and transmission. The book starts with a review of color theory and the mechanism of color vision in humans. In turn, the second chapter reviews data coding and compression methods so as to set the background and demonstrate the complexity involved in dealing with MRC. Chapter three addresses the segmentation of images through an extensive literature review, which highlights the various approaches used to tackle MRC segmentation. The second part of the book focuses on the segmentation of color images for optimized compression, including multi-layered decomposition and representation of MRC and the processes that can be employed to op...
Lu, Mowen; Nagarajan, Harsha; Yamangil, Emre; Bent, Russell; Backhaus, Scott
Recently, there have been increasing concerns about how geomagnetic disturbances (GMDs) impact electrical power systems. Geomagnetically-induced currents (GICs) can saturate transformers, induce hot spot heating and increase reactive power losses. These effects can potentially cause catastrophic damage to transformers and severely impact the ability of a power system to deliver power. To address this problem, we develop a model of GIC impacts to power systems that includes 1) GIC thermal capacity of transformers as a function of normal Alternating Current (AC) and 2) reactive power losses as a function of GIC. We also use this model to derive an optimization problem that protects power systems from GIC impacts through line switching, generator dispatch, and load shedding. We then employ state-of-the-art convex relaxations of AC power flow equations to lower bound the objective. We demonstrate the approach on a modified RTS96 system and UIUC 150-bus system and show that line switching is an effective means to mitigate GIC impacts. We also provide a sensitivity analysis of decisions with respect to GMD direction.
Linds, Alexandra B; Kirstein, Alana B; Freedman, Morris; Verhoeff, Nicolaas P L G; Wolf, Uri; Chow, Tiffany W
To replicate a previous finding that the trajectory of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) shifts in the sixth year of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). We evaluated longitudinal tracking with both the Frontal Behavioural Inventory (FBI) and NPI, comparing bvFTD against other dementias. Chart reviews over two to five years for patients with bvFTD (n=30), primary progressive aphasia (PPA, n=13) and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=118) at an urban Canadian tertiary clinic specializing in dementia. Linear regressions of the longitudinal data tested predictors of annualized rates of change (ROC) in NPI and FBI total and subscales for apathy and disinhibition among dementia groups. The mode of the overall sample for the most advanced duration of illness observed was 5 years, with the median at 7 years. We did not find a crescendo-decrescendo pattern in scores although, for bvFTD and AD, high initial scores correlated with ensuing downward ROCs on the NPI and FBI. Educational level showed an influence on disinhibition ROCs. The FBI was no more revealing than the NPI for apathy and disinhibition scores in these dementias. A cognitive reserve effect on behavioural disturbance was supported but it may take longer than our 4 years of observing the clinical sample to record inflection points in the behavioural and psychiatric symptoms seen in bvFTD. The current data only imply that both apathy and disinhibition will diminish over the course of dementia.
Ultra-relativistic U 238 -U 238 collisions, which are now being envisioned for the next generation of heavy ion accelerators, do not occur in large quantities anywhere in the universe at present. Nor have they ever occurred abundantly in the past. When U 238 nuclei were first synthesized the universe had grown already for too cold. This raises the question whether such a novel type of experiment could trigger a catastrophic phase transition of the vacuum to a lower energy state, a possibility naturally occurring in many spontaneously broken quantum field theories. Theoretical calculations of the collisionally induced nucleation rate of critical bubbles precipitating such phase transitions are not yet available, and nothing is known about the parameters describing the barrier separating our vacuum from a possibly lower energy state. Fortunately, available cosmic ray evidence suggests that sporadic individual U 238 -U 238 collisions have indeed occurred at ultra-relativistic energies inside our past light cone, which would imply that the proposed experiments do not tread potentially dangerous new ground. Direct confirmation of the predicted small abundance of U 238 and other actinides in cosmic rays at energies in the interesting range 10 13 -10 15 eV, corresponding to 40 GeV/n-4 TeV/n, is not feasible at present. Nevertheless, even indirect detection of at least some ultra-heavy nuclei in the actinide group (Z>88) in this energy range would more affirmatively answer the question: 'Do we dare disturb the vacuum. (orig.)
Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav
Roč. 57, č. 9 (2016), s. 136-151 ISSN 0031-3203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Unsupervised image segmentation * Segmentation contest * Texture analysis Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 4.582, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/RO/haindl-0459179.pdf
Ye, Linwei; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Yang
Models based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have significantly improved the performance of semantic segmentation. However, learning these models requires a large amount of training images with pixel-level labels, which are very costly and time-consuming to collect. In this paper, we propose a method for learning CNN-based semantic segmentation models from images with several types of annotations that are available for various computer vision tasks, including image-level labels fo...
Bøjgaard, John; Ellegaard, Chris
to pave the way towards closing this gap. The extent of implementation coverage is assessed and various notions of implementation are identified. Implementation as the task of converting segmentation plans into action (referred to as execution) is identified as a particularly beneficial focus area...... for marketing management. Three key elements and challenges connected to execution of market segmentation are identified — organization, motivation, and adaptation....
Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn
A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.
Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C.; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D.; Kovačević, Jelena
We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the “contour” to that of “inside and outside”, or, masks, allowing for easy mul...
Rao, Sadashiva; B Shetty, Kishan
Neonatal intestinal volvulus in the absence of malrotation is a rare occurrence and rarer still is the intestinal volvulus in absence of any other predisposing factors. Primary segmental volvulus in neonates is very rare entity, which can have catastrophic outcome if not intervened at appropriate time. We report two such cases, which were preoperatively diagnosed as ileal atresia and intraoperatively revealed to be primary segmental volvulus of the ileum. PMID:26023426
Robert G. Dvorak; Erin D. Small
This study examines visitor attitudes across the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness regarding the effects of natural disturbances on visitor planning and wilderness conditions. Visitors were intercepted at entry points and permit distribution locations during 2007. Results suggest that respondents were aware of recent wind and fire disturbances. Few respondents...
Antonio, Pereira-Querol Marco; Laura, Seppänen
When implementing innovations, disturbances are very likely to take place. Disturbances are undesirable because they can lead to unwanted outcomes, such as economic losses and work overload to workers. However, they can be powerful opportunities for learning and re-designing innovations. Here, we will present activity theoretical tools for analyzing disturbances in a way that they could be used as learning opportunities. We illustrate the proposed tools by analyzing a disturbance that took place during the implementation of a project of biogas production. By interpreting the disturbance process with a network of activity systems, we found that on-farm disturbances were formed as ruptures, innovations and asynchronies originated in other activity systems. This finding suggests that disturbances are outcomes of the functioning of networks, rather than simple results of failure of individuals or technical devices. The proposed tools could be used in interventions to help practitioners and ergonomists to recognize the systemic and networked nature of problems, and therefore, realize that they may require the collaboration of actors from different activities. In this sense, disturbances may be turned into opportunities for learning and developing innovations. We conclude by discussing how the method could be used in ergonomic design and intervention.
Theodore, Lea A.; Akin-Little, Angeleque; Little, Steven G.
The vague and incomplete federal definition of emotional disturbance has caused a great deal of controversy and debate since the inception of Public Law 94-142. The lack of resolution among professionals attempting to elucidate the distinction between emotional disturbance and social maladjustment has resulted in continued conflict. Included in…
Jeffrey G. Masek; Samuel N. Goward; Robert E. Kennedy; Warren B. Cohen; Gretchen G. Moisen; Karen Schleweiss; Chengquan. Huang
Disturbance events strongly affect the composition, structure, and function of forest ecosystems; however, existing US land management inventories were not designed to monitor disturbance. To begin addressing this gap, the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project has examined a geographic sample of 50 Landsat satellite image time series to assess trends in forest...
Aim Anderson & Stebbins (1954, Evolution, 8, 378â388) posited that human activities promote species hybridizations by creating opportunities for hybridization and new habitats for hybrids to persist through disturbances (i.e. the âdisturbance hypothesisâ). While the first part of this hypothesis appears to be well supported, the second part has...
Johnston, John D.; Thornton, Earl A.
The performance of a significant number of spacecraft has been impacted negatively by attitude disturbances resulting from thermally-induced motions of flexible structures. Recent examples of spacecraft affected by these disturbances include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Thermally-induced structural disturbances occur as the result of rapid changes in thermal loading typically initiated as a satellite exits or enters the Earth's shadow. Temperature differences in flexible appendages give rise to structural deformations, which in turn result in disturbance torques reacting back on the spacecraft. Structures which have proven susceptible to these disturbances include deployable booms and solar arrays. This paper investigates disturbances resulting from thermally-induced deformations of rigid panel solar arrays. An analytical model for the thermal-structural response of the solar array and the corresponding disturbance torque are presented. The effect of these disturbances on the attitude dynamics of a simple spacecraft is then investigated using a coupled system of governing equations which includes the effects of thermally-induced deformations. Numerical results demonstrate the effect of varying solar array geometry on the dynamic response of the system.
Algozzine, Bob; Schmid, Rex; Conners, Bob
Most definitions of emotionally disturbed youngsters suggest that disturbances in the child's behavior patterns cause academic and social problems which affect the child and his peers. While the process of identification may be facilitated by operational criteria within a definition, these factors are noticeably absent from definitions of…
Jerry F. Franklin; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik
Foresters use natural disturbances and stand development processes as models for silvicultural practices in broad conceptual ways. Incorporating an understanding of natural disturbance and stand development processes more fully into silvicultural practice is the basis for an ecological forestry approach. Such an approach must include 1) understanding the importance of...
We examined vegetation-disturbance-environment relationships in the Xiaomengyang Section of Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve (XNR) using multivariate analysis to understand the impacts of geo-physical factors and human disturbance on vegetation along the highway corridor. We found that native forests were the best ...
Thomas P. Holmes; Robert J. Huggett; John M. Pye
The major thesis of this chapter is that the economic analysis of forest disturbances will be enhanced by linking economic and ecologic models. Although we only review a limited number of concepts drawn generally from mathematical and empirical ecology, the overarching theme we present is that ecological models of forest disturbance processes are complex and not...
Wildfire and insect outbreaks are major determinants of forest dynamics in Canada, transferring carbon within the ecosystem, releasing carbon into the atmosphere and influencing post-disturbance carbon dynamics. This paper discusses the impacts of global climate change on natural disturbances. Higher temperatures and drier conditions are likely to increase burned areas in Canada and will also increase the impacts of insects, allowing for an expanded range and stressing their host species. Long-term changes in disturbance regimes have already affected Canada's forest age-class structure. Statistics of lower disturbance periods and carbon production were compared with periods of higher disturbance. Scenario analyses were conducted for the period of 1996 to 2032, assuming that annual insect and fire disturbance rates in timber-productive forests were 20 per cent higher and carbon production 20 per cent lower than base scenarios using average disturbance rates. It was concluded that these conditions could cause carbon stocks in Canada's forests to decline. The future carbon balance of Canada's forests will be affected by the rate of natural and human-induced disturbances. 4 refs
Seidl, R.; Fernandes, P.M.; Fonseca, T.F.; Gillet, F.; Jöhnsson, A.M.; Merganičová, K.; Netherer, S.; Arpaci, A.; Bontemps, J.D.; Bugmann, H.; González-Olabarria, J.R.; Lasch, P.; Meredieu, C.; Moreira, F.; Schelhaas, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.
Natural disturbances play a key role in ecosystem dynamics and are important factors for sustainable forest ecosystem management. Quantitative models are frequently employed to tackle the complexities associated with disturbance processes. Here we review the wide variety of approaches to modelling
Al-Tannir, Mohamad; Kobrosly, Samer Y; Al-Badr, Ahmad H; Salloum, Nourhan A; Altannir, Youssef M
To characterize sleeping habits, assess sleep disturbance prevalence, and identify associated factors among Saudi adults. Methods: A total of 1720 adults were approached for this observational cross-sectional study between October 2014 and March 2015. The study took place in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. We used a questionnaire to describe sleeping characteristics in relation to existing chronic diseases, smoking status, obesity, daily performance and sociodemographic variables. Results: The response rate was 79.6% (1369 participants), 61.6% have or may have sleeping disturbances of which 18.6% claimed either slowed or stopped breathing during sleep. Women reported a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances (65.2%). Feeling tired was significantly associated with sleep disturbance (49% versus 19.7%) (p greater than 0.001). Approximately 78.4% of those with sleep disturbance significantly believed that their ability to perform daily tasks is affected (p=0.005). Moreover, smoking and obesity were significantly associated with sleep disturbances (p less than 0.01). Participants with asthma, hypertension, chronic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus reported significantly more sleeping disturbance (p=0.016 to p=0.001). Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are associated with obesity, smoking, chronic health conditions, and lower performance among Saudi adults.
Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
This course, Excavation/Fill/Soil Disturbance Self-Study (#31419), presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and requirements that affect safe excavations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An overview of the LANL excavation/fill/soil disturbance permit (EXID permit) approval process is also presented, along with potholing requirements for planning and performing excavations at LANL.
McNeil, Thomas F.; Wiegerink, Ronald
No significant differences in the obstetric complication measures were found among the various diagnostic groupings of 61 psychologically or behaviorally disturbed children, nor between any complication measures and any of the three disturbed behavior patterns identified (psychotic withdrawal, acting-out aggression, organic signs). (KW)
Effect of supplemental Ascorbic acid and disturbance stress on the performance of broiler chickens. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Results showed that there were no significant interactions between dietary ascorbic acid supplementation and disturbance stress levels on any of the performance data considered.
Zhu, Biao; Dong, Yuanlin; Xu, Zhipeng; Gompf, Heinrich S; Ward, Sarah A P; Xue, Zhanggang; Miao, Changhong; Zhang, Yiying; Chamberlin, Nancy L; Xie, Zhongcong
Hospitalized patients can develop cognitive function decline, the mechanisms of which remain largely to be determined. Sleep disturbance often occurs in hospitalized patients, and neuroinflammation can induce learning and memory impairment. We therefore set out to determine whether sleep disturbance can induce neuroinflammation and impairment of learning and memory in rodents. Five to 6-month-old wild-type C57BL/6J male mice were used in the studies. The mice were placed in rocking cages for 24 h, and two rolling balls were present in each cage. The mice were tested for learning and memory function using the Fear Conditioning Test one and 7 days post-sleep disturbance. Neuroinflammation in the mouse brain tissues was also determined. Of the Fear Conditioning studies at one day and 7 days after sleep disturbance, twenty-four hour sleep disturbance decreased freezing time in the context test, which assesses hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; but not the tone test, which assesses hippocampus-independent learning and memory. Sleep disturbance increased pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 levels and induced microglia activation in the mouse hippocampus, but not the cortex. These results suggest that sleep disturbance induces neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus, and impairs hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in mice. Pending further studies, these findings suggest that sleep disturbance-induced neuroinflammation and impairment of learning and memory may contribute to the development of cognitive function decline in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ndoye, Ibrahima; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
The method of convex optimization is used as a tool for model reduction of a class of nonlinear systems in the presence of disturbances. It is shown that under some conditions the nonlinear disturbed system can be approximated by a reduced order
Barui, Subhrajit; Latha, S.; Samiappan, Dhanalakshmi; Muthu, P.
The aim of image segmentation is to simplify the representation of an image with the help of cluster pixels into something meaningful to analyze. Segmentation is typically used to locate boundaries and curves in an image, precisely to label every pixel in an image to give each pixel an independent identity. SVM pixel classification on colour image segmentation is the topic highlighted in this paper. It holds useful application in the field of concept based image retrieval, machine vision, medical imaging and object detection. The process is accomplished step by step. At first we need to recognize the type of colour and the texture used as an input to the SVM classifier. These inputs are extracted via local spatial similarity measure model and Steerable filter also known as Gabon Filter. It is then trained by using FCM (Fuzzy C-Means). Both the pixel level information of the image and the ability of the SVM Classifier undergoes some sophisticated algorithm to form the final image. The method has a well developed segmented image and efficiency with respect to increased quality and faster processing of the segmented image compared with the other segmentation methods proposed earlier. One of the latest application result is the Light L16 camera.
Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M
Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article describes process segmentation typology during business process management implementation in Czech companies. Process typology is important for a manager’s overview of process orientation as well as for a manager’s general understanding of business process management. This article provides insight into a process-oriented organizational structure. The first part analyzes process segmentation typology itself as well as some original results of quantitative research evaluating process segmentation typology in the specific context of Czech company strategies. Widespread data collection was carried out in 2006 and 2013. The analysis of this data showed that managers have more options regarding process segmentation and its selection. In terms of practicality and ease of use, the most frequently used method of process segmentation (managerial, main, and supportive stems directly from the requirements of ISO 9001. Because of ISO 9001:2015, managers must now apply risk planning in relation to the selection of processes that are subjected to process management activities. It is for this fundamental reason that this article focuses on process segmentation typology.
Just, M.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.
This paper will focus on the approach used to characterize microgravity disturbances in the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), currently scheduled for launch to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2005. Microgravity experiments contained within the CIR are extremely sensitive to vibratory and transient disturbances originating on-board and off-board the rack. Therefore, several techniques are implemented to isolate the critical science locations from external vibration. A combined testing and analysis approach is utilized to predict the resulting microgravity levels at the critical science location. The major topics to be addressed are: 1) CIR Vibration Isolation Approaches, 2) Disturbance Sources and Characterization, 3) Microgravity Predictive Modeling, 4) Science Microgravity Requirements, 6) Microgravity Control, and 7) On-Orbit Disturbance Measurement. The CIR is using the Passive Rack Isolation System (PaRIS) to isolate the rack from offboard rack disturbances. By utilizing this system, CIR is connected to the U.S. Lab module structure by either 13 or 14 umbilical lines and 8 spring / damper isolators. Some on-board CIR disturbers are locally isolated by grommets or wire ropes. CIR's environmental and science on board support equipment such as air circulation fans, pumps, water flow, air flow, solenoid valves, and computer hard drives cause disturbances within the rack. These disturbers along with the rack structure must be characterized to predict whether the on-orbit vibration levels during experimentation exceed the specified science microgravity vibration level requirements. Both vibratory and transient disturbance conditions are addressed. Disturbance levels/analytical inputs are obtained for each individual disturber in a "free floating" condition in the Glenn Research Center (GRC) Microgravity Emissions Lab (MEL). Flight spare hardware is tested on an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) basis. Based on test and analysis, maximum disturbance level
Davidson, L M; Fleming, R; Baum, A
The present study was concerned with the relationship between chronic stress and sleep disturbance. Previous research has provided evidence of chronic stress responding among people living near the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility. Compared to control subjects, the TMI group has exhibited greater symptom reporting, poorer performance on behavioral measures of concentration, and elevated levels of urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine. Other research has suggested a relationship between arousal and insomnia. The extent to which stress and sleep disturbances were experienced by residents at TMI was examined and compared to levels of stress and sleep disturbance among a group of control subjects. The relationship between stress and sleep disturbances was also examined. Results indicated that TMI area residents exhibited more stress than the controls and reported greater disturbance of sleep. Modest relationships among stress and sleep measures suggested that the symptoms of stress measured in this study were not primary determinants of sleep problems.
Davidson, L.M.; Fleming, R.; Baum, A.
The present study was concerned with the relationship between chronic stress and sleep disturbance. Previous research has provided evidence of chronic stress responding among people living near the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility. Compared to control subjects, the TMI group has exhibited greater symptom reporting, poorer performance on behavioral measures of concentration, and elevated levels of urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine. Other research has suggested a relationship between arousal and insomnia. The extent to which stress and sleep disturbances were experienced by residents at TMI was examined and compared to levels of stress and sleep disturbance among a group of control subjects. The relationship between stress and sleep disturbances was also examined. Results indicated that TMI area residents exhibited more stress than the controls and reported greater disturbance of sleep. Modest relationships among stress and sleep measures suggested that the symptoms of stress measured in this study were not primary determinants of sleep problems
Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon; Morin, Charles M
Sleep-wake disturbances are extremely common after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The most common disturbances are insomnia (difficulties falling or staying asleep), increased sleep need, and excessive daytime sleepiness that can be due to the TBI or other sleep disorders associated with TBI, such as sleep-related breathing disorder or post-traumatic hypersomnia. Sleep-wake disturbances can have a major effect on functional outcomes and on the recovery process after TBI. These negative effects can exacerbate other common sequelae of TBI-such as fatigue, pain, cognitive impairments, and psychological disorders (eg, depression and anxiety). Sleep-wake disturbances associated with TBI warrant treatment. Although evidence specific to patients with TBI is still scarce, cognitive-behavioural therapy and medication could prove helpful to alleviate sleep-wake disturbances in patients with a TBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The method of convex optimization is used as a tool for model reduction of a class of nonlinear systems in the presence of disturbances. It is shown that under some conditions the nonlinear disturbed system can be approximated by a reduced order nonlinear system with similar disturbance-output properties to the original plant. The proposed model reduction strategy preserves the nonlinearity and the input disturbance nature of the model. It guarantees a sufficiently small error between the outputs of the original and the reduced-order systems, and also maintains the properties of input-to-state stability. The matrices of the reduced order system are given in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The paper concludes with a demonstration of the proposed approach on model reduction of a nonlinear electronic circuit with additive disturbances.
Sandahl, Hinuga; Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone
Background: Sleep disturbances are often referred to as a hallmark and as core symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Untreated sleep disturbances can contribute to the maintenance and exacerbation of PTSD symptoms, which may diminish treatment response and constitute a risk factor...... for poor treatment outcome. Controlled trials on treatment of sleep disturbances in refugees suffering from PTSD are scarce. The present study aims to examine sleep-enhancing treatment in refugees with PTSD. We aim to assess if add-on treatment with mianserin and/or Imagery Rehearsal Therapy (IRT......) to treatment as usual (TAU) for PTSD improves sleep disturbances. We will study the relation between sleep disturbances, PTSD symptoms, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Methods: The study is a randomised controlled superiority trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design. The study will include 230 trauma...
Kshetri, R; Bhattacharya, P
Fold distributions at clover, crystal and segment levels have been extracted for an array of segmented clover detectors for various gamma energies. A simple analysis of the results based on a model independant approach has been presented. For the first time, the clover fold distribution of an array and associated array addback factor have been extracted. We have calculated the percentages of the number of crystals and segments that fire for a full energy peak event
Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.
Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to different volcanic disturbances were attributable to varying degrees of mortality and subsequent availability of substrate, quantity of light and removal of competitors. While sensitive to disturbance, lichens are apparently resilient to and can quickly recolonize after a variety of large, violent volcanic
Full Text Available Most forests of the world are recovering from a past disturbance. It is well known that forest disturbances profoundly affect carbon stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems, yet it has been a great challenge to assess disturbance impacts in estimates of forest carbon budgets. Net sequestration or loss of CO2 by forests after disturbance follows a predictable pattern with forest recovery. Forest age, which is related to time since disturbance, is a useful surrogate variable for analyses of the impact of disturbance on forest carbon. In this study, we compiled the first continental forest age map of North America by combining forest inventory data, historical fire data, optical satellite data and the dataset from NASA's Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS project. A companion map of the standard deviations for age estimates was developed for quantifying uncertainty. We discuss the significance of the disturbance legacy from the past, as represented by current forest age structure in different regions of the US and Canada, by analyzing the causes of disturbances from land management and nature over centuries and at various scales. We also show how such information can be used with inventory data for analyzing carbon management opportunities. By combining geographic information about forest age with estimated C dynamics by forest type, it is possible to conduct a simple but powerful analysis of the net CO2 uptake by forests, and the potential for increasing (or decreasing this rate as a result of direct human intervention in the disturbance/age status. Finally, we describe how the forest age data can be used in large-scale carbon modeling, both for land-based biogeochemistry models and atmosphere-based inversion models, in order to improve the spatial accuracy of carbon cycle simulations.
? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom
Seol, S. Y. [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
If the part of the HTS magnet is exposed to the outside of the cryogenic coolant due to the fluctuation of the height of the cooling liquid or the vapor generation, the uncooled part becomes very unstable. In this paper, the unstable equilibrium temperature distribution of the uncooled part of a superconductor is obtained, and the maximum temperature and energy are calculated as a function of the uncooled length. Similar to the superconductor stability problem, the current sharing model was applied to derive the theoretical formula and calculated by numerical integration. We also applied a jump model, which assumes that joule heat is generated in all of the uncooled segment, and compares it with the current sharing model results. As a result of the analysis, the stable equilibrium state and the critical uncooled length in the jump model are not shown in the current sharing model. The stability of the conductors to external disturbances was discussed based on the obtained temperature distribution, maximum temperature, and energy.
Feio, M J; Aguiar, F C; Almeida, S F P; Ferreira, J; Ferreira, M T; Elias, C; Serra, S R Q; Buffagni, A; Cambra, J; Chauvin, C; Delmas, F; Dörflinger, G; Erba, S; Flor, N; Ferréol, M; Germ, M; Mancini, L; Manolaki, P; Marcheggiani, S; Minciardi, M R; Munné, A; Papastergiadou, E; Prat, N; Puccinelli, C; Rosebery, J; Sabater, S; Ciadamidaro, S; Tornés, E; Tziortzis, I; Urbanič, G; Vieira, C
The present report describes a three-step approach that was used to characterize and define thresholds for the Least Disturbed Condition in Mediterranean streams of four different types, regarding organic pollution and nutrients, hydrological and morphological alterations, and land use. For this purpose, a common database composed of national reference sites (929 records) from seven countries, sampled for invertebrates, diatoms and macrophytes was used. The analyses of reference sites showed that small (catchment rivers were the most affected by stressors: 25-43% of the samples showed at least slight alterations regarding channelization, connectivity, upstream dam influence, hydropeaking and degradation of riparian vegetation. Temporary streams were the least affected by hydromorphological changes, but they were nevertheless affected by alterations in riparian vegetation. There were no major differences between all permanent stream types regarding water quality, but temporary streams showed lower values for oxygenation (DO) and wider ranges for other variables, such as nitrates. A lower threshold value for DO (60%) was determined for this stream type and can be attributed to the streams' natural characteristics. For all other river types, common limits were found for the remaining variables (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, total P, % of artificial areas, % of intensive and extensive agriculture, % of semi-natural areas in the catchment). These values were then used to select the list of reference sites. The biological communities were characterized, revealing the existence of nine groups of Mediterranean invertebrate communities, six for diatoms and five for macrophytes: each group was characterized by specific indicator taxa that highlighted the differences between groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Burlaga, L.F.; Belcher, J.W.; Ness, N.F.
We investigated disturbances in the field and particle environment observed by Voyager 2 as it passed near the Jovian moon Ganymede in Jupiter's magnetosphere. The plasma analyzer observed at least a dozen sharply bounded depressions in density (cavities). We estimated that they probably extended at least 20 RGAMMA along the ambient magnetic field lines (R/sub G/=2635 km is the radius of Ganymede) and between 2--50 R/sub G/ in the directions transverse to B. Depressions in the magnetic field strength of the order of 5% of the ambient field strength (60nT to 135nT) were observed at the boundaries of the cavities in more than half of the cases; they were probably produced by currents flowing transverse to B on the boundaries. In some cases, the magnetic field strength inside the cavities was a few percent higher than the ambient value. This gives an upper limit on β=nkT/(B 2 /8π) outside the cavities, viz. Beta 2.5 MeV protons was strongly anti-correlated with the plasma density, the flux being higher inside the cavities than outside. One possible mechanism for the production of these flux enhancements and the cavities themselves is a local, magnetic field-aligned electric field, E. It is possible that Ganymede is responsible for the energetic protons in the cavities, in which case vertical-bar E vertical-barapprox.50 mV/m. Such a localized source implies radial motions of the magnetospheric plasma with speeds of the order of a few hundred km/s. Such motions could be produced by long-wavelength, small-amplitude Alfven waves in Jupiter's magnetosphere
Full Text Available Unpredictable forces which perturb balance are frequently applied to the body through interaction between the upper limb and the environment. Lower limb muscles respond rapidly to these postural disturbances in a highly specific manner. We have shown that the muscle activation patterns of lower limb muscles are organized in a direction specific manner which changes with lower limb stability. Ankle muscles change their activity within 80 ms of the onset of a force perturbation applied to the hand which is earlier than the onset of changes in ground reaction force, ankle angle or head motion. The latency of the response is sensitive to the perturbation direction. However, neither the latency nor the magnitude of the response is affected by stiffening the arm even though this alters the magnitude and timing of motion of the body segments. Based on the short latency, insensitivity of the change in ankle muscle activation to motion of the body segments but sensitivity to perturbation direction we reason that changes in ankle muscle activation are most likely triggered by sensory signals originating from cutaneous receptors in the hand. Furthermore, evidence that the latency of changes in ankle muscle activation depends on the number of perturbation directions suggests that the neural pathway is not confined to the spinal cord.
Bejar-Pizarro, M.; Perez Lopez, R.; Fernández Cortés, A.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Staller, A.; Sánchez-Malo, A.; Sanz, E.; Cuezva, S.; Sánchez-Moral, S.
Soil radon exhalation in active faults has been reported in several cases. Mobilization of radon gas in tectonic areas is related to CO2emission, acting as gas carrier from deeper fractured zones. Fluctuation of radon values can be correlated with earthquake occurrence. We have used the soil radon emission for characterizing different tectonic segment of the Alhama de Murcia Fault (FAM), one of the most active on-shore tectonic faults in Spain. The FAM is a NE-SW trending strike-slip fault with reverse component, 90 km long and it is capable to trigger M7 earthquakes, as far as several paleoseismic studies shown. The last destructive earthquake took place in 2011 and killed 9 people. Tectonic segmentation of this fault has been proposed, with a tectonic slip-rate close to 0.1 mm/yr from geomorphic evidence, whereas 0.5 mm/yr has been suggested from GPS geodetic measurements. We have developed a perpendicular profile for measuring the soil radon exhalation, in relationship with three principal segments of FAM from west to east: (1) Goñar-Lorca segment, (2) Lorca Totana segment and (3) Alhama segment. We have introduced radon passive detectors equipped with LR115 films in colluvium detritic deposits and at 0.8 m depth. Using detritic deposits affected by Quaternary fault movement we assure equal permeability conditions for radon transport. We used passive closed housings type DRF, with a filter that avoid thoron disturbance. Results show the largest values of radon emission close to the Quaternary surface ruptures (ca 3-5.5 kBq/m3). Furthermore, the Goñar segment exhibits the highest value (6 kBq/m3) although the Lorca segment shows an isotopic signal of 13dCO2 (-7.24‰) which indicates this is a mantle-rootled CO2, i.e. non-soil derived CO2 flux, likely related to CO2 produced by thermal decarbonation of underlying sedimentary rocks containing more marine carbonate minerals. These results are part of the combined Spanish projects GEIs-SUB (CGL2016- 78318-C2-1-R
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare single segment and double segment INTACS rings in the treatment of post-LASIK ectasia. In this interventional study, 26 eyes with post-LASIK ectasia were assessed. Ectasia was defined as progressive myopia regardless of astigmatism, along with topographic evidence of inferior steepening of the cornea after LASIK. We excluded those with a history of intraocular surgery, certain eye conditions, and immune disorders, as well as monocular, pregnant and lactating patients. A total of 11 eyes had double ring and 15 eyes had single ring implantation. Visual and refractive outcomes were compared with preoperative values based on the number of implanted INTACS rings. Pre and postoperative spherical equivalent were -3.92 and -2.29 diopter (P=0.007. The spherical equivalent decreased by 1 ± 3.2 diopter in the single-segment group and 2.56 ± 1.58 diopter in the double-segment group (P=0.165. Mean preoperative astigmatism was 2.38 ± 1.93 diopter which decreased to 2.14 ± 1.1 diopter after surgery (P=0.508; 0.87 ± 1.98 diopter decrease in the single-segment group and 0.67 ± 1.2 diopter increase in the double-segment group (P=0.025. Nineteen patients (75% gained one or two lines, and only three, who were all in the double-segment group, lost one or two lines of best corrected visual acuity. The spherical equivalent and vision significantly decreased in all patients. In these post-LASIK ectasia patients, the spherical equivalent was corrected better with two segments compared to single segment implantation; nonetheless, the level of astigmatism in the single-segment group was significantly better than that in the double-segment group.
Full Text Available I highlight how disturbance determines species distributions and the implications for conservation practice. In particular, I describe opportunities to mitigate some of the threats to species resulting from climate change. Ecological theory shows that disturbance processes can often slow or prevent the exclusion of species by competitors and that different disturbance regimes result in different realized niches. There is much evidence of disturbance influencing where species occur. For example, disturbance can lower the high elevation treeline, thus expanding the area for high elevation vegetation that cannot otherwise persist under tree cover. The role of disturbance in influencing interspecific competition and resulting species persistence and distributions appears unjustly neglected. I identify various implications, including opportunities to achieve in situ conservation by expanding plant species ranges and reducing species vulnerability to competitive exclusion. Suitable frequencies, scales, intensities, spatial configurations, and timings of the right forms of disturbance can improve the persistence of targeted species in a wide range of contexts. Such options could reduce the extinctions likely to be associated with climate change. More generally, these mechanisms and the resulting realizable niche also offer novel insights to understanding and manipulating species distributions.
Villnäs, Anna; Norkko, Joanna; Hietanen, Susanna; Josefson, Alf B; Lukkari, Kaarina; Norkko, Alf
Ecosystem functioning is threatened by an increasing number of anthropogenic stressors, creating a legacy of disturbance that undermines ecosystem resilience. However, few empirical studies have assessed to what extent an ecosystem can tolerate repeated disturbances and sustain its multiple functions. By inducing increasingly recurring hypoxic disturbances to a sedimentary ecosystem, we show that the majority of individual ecosystem functions experience gradual degradation patterns in response to repetitive pulse disturbances. The degradation in overall ecosystem functioning was, however, evident at an earlier stage than for single ecosystem functions and was induced after a short pulse of hypoxia (i.e., three days), which likely reduced ecosystem resistance to further hypoxic perturbations. The increasing number of repeated pulse disturbances gradually moved the system closer to a press response. In addition to the disturbance regime, the changes in benthic trait composition as well as habitat heterogeneity were important for explaining the variability in overall ecosystem functioning. Our results suggest that disturbance-induced responses across multiple ecosystem functions can serve as a warning signal for losses of the adaptive capacity of an ecosystem, and might at an early stage provide information to managers and policy makers when remediation efforts should be initiated.
Gibb, Heloise; Sanders, Nathan J.; Dunn, Robert R.; Watson, Simon; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Inge; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Castracani, Cristina; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Enríquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener, Donald H.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Gómez, Crisanto; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin D.; Lach, Lori; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Majer, Jonathan; Menke, Sean B.; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Munyai, Thinandavha C.; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; de Souza, Jorge L. P.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Parr, Catherine L.
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction among temperature, precipitation and disturbance shaped species richness and evenness. The effect was manifested through a failure of species richness to increase substantially with temperature in transformed habitats at low precipitation. At low precipitation levels, evenness increased with temperature in undisturbed sites, peaked at medium temperatures in disturbed sites and remained low in transformed sites. In warmer climates with lower rainfall, the effects of increasing disturbance on species richness and evenness were akin to decreases in temperature of up to 9°C. Anthropogenic disturbance and ongoing climate change may interact in complicated ways to shape the structure of assemblages, with hot, arid environments likely to be at greatest risk. PMID:25994675
Full Text Available Saliency gives the way as humans see any image and saliency based segmentation can be eventually helpful in Psychovisual image interpretation. Keeping this in view few saliency models are used along with segmentation algorithm and only the salient segments from image have been extracted. The work is carried out for terrestrial images as well as for satellite images. The methodology used in this work extracts those segments from segmented image which are having higher or equal saliency value than a threshold value. Salient and non salient regions of image become foreground and background respectively and thus image gets separated. For carrying out this work a dataset of terrestrial images and Worldview 2 satellite images (sample data are used. Results show that those saliency models which works better for terrestrial images are not good enough for satellite image in terms of foreground and background separation. Foreground and background separation in terrestrial images is based on salient objects visible on the images whereas in satellite images this separation is based on salient area rather than salient objects.
Buske Orion J
Full Text Available Abstract Background As genome-wide experiments and annotations become more prevalent, researchers increasingly require tools to help interpret data at this scale. Many functional genomics experiments involve partitioning the genome into labeled segments, such that segments sharing the same label exhibit one or more biochemical or functional traits. For example, a collection of ChlP-seq experiments yields a compendium of peaks, each labeled with one or more associated DNA-binding proteins. Similarly, manually or automatically generated annotations of functional genomic elements, including cis-regulatory modules and protein-coding or RNA genes, can also be summarized as genomic segmentations. Results We present a software toolkit called Segtools that simplifies and automates the exploration of genomic segmentations. The software operates as a series of interacting tools, each of which provides one mode of summarization. These various tools can be pipelined and summarized in a single HTML page. We describe the Segtools toolkit and demonstrate its use in interpreting a collection of human histone modification data sets and Plasmodium falciparum local chromatin structure data sets. Conclusions Segtools provides a convenient, powerful means of interpreting a genomic segmentation.
Zacks, Jeffrey M; Speer, Nicole K; Reynolds, Jeremy R
When reading a story or watching a film, comprehenders construct a series of representations in order to understand the events depicted. Discourse comprehension theories and a recent theory of perceptual event segmentation both suggest that comprehenders monitor situational features such as characters' goals, to update these representations at natural boundaries in activity. However, the converging predictions of these theories had previously not been tested directly. Two studies provided evidence that changes in situational features such as characters, their locations, their interactions with objects, and their goals are related to the segmentation of events in both narrative texts and films. A 3rd study indicated that clauses with event boundaries are read more slowly than are other clauses and that changes in situational features partially mediate this relation. A final study suggested that the predictability of incoming information influences reading rate and possibly event segmentation. Taken together, these results suggest that processing situational changes during comprehension is an important determinant of how one segments ongoing activity into events and that this segmentation is related to the control of processing during reading. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
This thesis deals with the segmentation of multimodal brain MRIs by graph cuts method. First, we propose a method that utilizes three MRI modalities by merging them. The border information given by the spectral gradient is then challenged by a region information, given by the seeds selected by the user, using a graph cut algorithm. Then, we propose three enhancements of this method. The first consists in finding an optimal spectral space because the spectral gradient is based on natural images and then inadequate for multimodal medical images. This results in a learning based segmentation method. We then explore the automation of the graph cut method. Here, the various pieces of information usually given by the user are inferred from a robust expectation-maximization algorithm. We show the performance of these two enhanced versions on multiple sclerosis lesions. Finally, we integrate atlases for the automatic segmentation of deep brain structures. These three new techniques show the adaptability of our method to various problems. Our different segmentation methods are better than most of nowadays techniques, speaking of computation time or segmentation accuracy. (authors)
Carlson, R.; Hedin, G.
Operating experience from BWE:s world-wide has shown that many plants experience initial cracking of the reactor internals after approximately 20 to 25 years of service life. This ''mid-life crisis'', considering a plant design life of 40 years, is now being addressed by many utilities. Successful resolution of these issues should give many more years of trouble-free operation. Replacement of reactor internals could be, in many cases, the most favourable option to achieve this. The proactive strategy of many utilities to replace internals in a planned way is a market-driven effort to minimize the overall costs for power generation, including time spent for handling contingencies and unplanned outages. Based on technical analyses, knowledge about component market prices and in-house costs, a cost-effective, optimized strategy for inspection, mitigation and replacements can be implemented. Also decommissioning of nuclear plants has become a reality for many utilities as numerous plants worldwide are closed due to age and/or other reasons. These facts address a need for safe, fast and cost-effective methods for segmentation of internals. Westinghouse has over the last years developed methods for segmentation of internals and has also carried out successful segmentation projects. Our experience from the segmentation business for Nordic BWR:s is that the most important parameters to consider when choosing a method and equipment for a segmentation project are: - Safety, - Cost-effectiveness, - Cleanliness, - Reliability. (orig.)
In this thesis the focus is mainly on the development of segmentation techniques for human brain structures and of the visualisation of such structures. The images of the brain are both anatomical images (magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and autoradiography) and functional images that show blood flow (functional magnetic imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomography (SPECT)). When working with anatomical images, the structures segmented are visible as different parts of the brain, e.g. the brain cortex, the hippocampus, or the amygdala. In functional images, the activity or the blood flow that be seen. Grey-level morphology methods are used in the segmentations to make tissue types in the images more homogenous and minimise difficulties with connections to outside tissue. A method for automatic histogram thresholding is also used. Furthermore, there are binary operations such as logic operation between masks and binary morphology operations. The visualisation of the segmented structures uses either surface rendering or volume rendering. For the visualisation of thin structures, surface rendering is the better choice since otherwise some voxels might be missed. It is possible to display activation from a functional image on the surface of a segmented cortex. A new method for autoradiographic images has been developed, which integrates registration, background compensation, and automatic thresholding to get faster and more reliable results than the standard techniques give.
In this thesis the focus is mainly on the development of segmentation techniques for human brain structures and of the visualisation of such structures. The images of the brain are both anatomical images (magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and autoradiography) and functional images that show blood flow (functional magnetic imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission tomography (SPECT)). When working with anatomical images, the structures segmented are visible as different parts of the brain, e.g. the brain cortex, the hippocampus, or the amygdala. In functional images, the activity or the blood flow that be seen. Grey-level morphology methods are used in the segmentations to make tissue types in the images more homogenous and minimise difficulties with connections to outside tissue. A method for automatic histogram thresholding is also used. Furthermore, there are binary operations such as logic operation between masks and binary morphology operations. The visualisation of the segmented structures uses either surface rendering or volume rendering. For the visualisation of thin structures, surface rendering is the better choice since otherwise some voxels might be missed. It is possible to display activation from a functional image on the surface of a segmented cortex. A new method for autoradiographic images has been developed, which integrates registration, background compensation, and automatic thresholding to get faster and more reliable results than the standard techniques give
Li, Pengyuan; Jiang, Xiangying; Kambhamettu, Chandra; Shatkay, Hagit
Images convey essential information in biomedical publications. As such, there is a growing interest within the bio-curation and the bio-databases communities, to store images within publications as evidence for biomedical processes and for experimental results. However, many of the images in biomedical publications are compound images consisting of multiple panels, where each individual panel potentially conveys a different type of information. Segmenting such images into constituent panels is an essential first step toward utilizing images. In this article, we develop a new compound image segmentation system, FigSplit, which is based on Connected Component Analysis. To overcome shortcomings typically manifested by existing methods, we develop a quality assessment step for evaluating and modifying segmentations. Two methods are proposed to re-segment the images if the initial segmentation is inaccurate. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our method compared with other methods. The system is publicly available for use at: https://www.eecis.udel.edu/~compbio/FigSplit. The code is available upon request. email@example.com. Supplementary data are available online at Bioinformatics.
Katharine eGraf Estes
Full Text Available The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker’s voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants’ preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants’ learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across-word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation.
Elter, Matthias; Held, Christian; Wittenberg, Thomas
CADx systems have the potential to support radiologists in the difficult task of discriminating benign and malignant mammographic lesions. The segmentation of mammographic masses from the background tissue is an important module of CADx systems designed for the characterization of mass lesions. In this work, a novel approach to this task is presented. The segmentation is performed by automatically tracing the mass' contour in-between manually provided landmark points defined on the mass' margin. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to the performance of implementations of three state-of-the-art approaches based on region growing and dynamic programming. For an unbiased comparison of the different segmentation approaches, optimal parameters are selected for each approach by means of tenfold cross-validation and a genetic algorithm. Furthermore, segmentation performance is evaluated on a dataset of ROI and ground-truth pairs. The proposed method outperforms the three state-of-the-art methods. The benchmark dataset will be made available with publication of this paper and will be the first publicly available benchmark dataset for mass segmentation.
Full Text Available The space weather discipline involves different physical scenarios, which are characterised by very different physical conditions, ranging from the Sun to the terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere. Thanks to the great modelling effort made during the last years, a few Sun-to-ionosphere/thermosphere physics-based numerical codes have been developed. However, the success of the prediction is still far from achieving the desirable results and much more progress is needed. Some aspects involved in this progress concern both the technical progress (developing and validating tools to forecast, selecting the optimal parameters as inputs for the tools, improving accuracy in prediction with short lead time, etc. and the scientific development, i.e., deeper understanding of the energy transfer process from the solar wind to the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. The purpose of this paper is to collect the most relevant results related to these topics obtained during the COST Action ES0803. In an end-to-end forecasting scheme that uses an artificial neural network, we show that the forecasting results improve when gathering certain parameters, such as X-ray solar flares, Type II and/or Type IV radio emission and solar energetic particles enhancements as inputs for the algorithm. Regarding the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction topic, the geomagnetic responses at high and low latitudes are considered separately. At low latitudes, we present new insights into temporal evolution of the ring current, as seen by Burton’s equation, in both main and recovery phases of the storm. At high latitudes, the PCC index appears as an achievement in modelling the coupling between the upper atmosphere and the solar wind, with a great potential for forecasting purposes. We also address the important role of small-scale field-aligned currents in Joule heating of the ionosphere even under non-disturbed conditions. Our scientific results in
Kwark, Byeng Su; Choi, Si Wan; Kang, Seung Sik; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Kang Wook; Jeon, Eun Seok; Park, Chong Hun
It is known that the normal His-Purkinje system provides for nearly synchronous activation of right (RV) and left (LV) ventricles. When His-Purkinje conduction is abnormal, the resulting sequence of ventricular contraction must be correspondingly abnormal. These abnormal mechanical consequences were difficult to demonstrate because of the complexity and the rapidity of its events. To determine the relationship of the phase changes and the abnormalities of ventricular conduction, we performed phase image analysis of Tc-RBC gated blood pool scintigrams in patients with intraventricular conduction disturbances (24 complete left bundle branch block (C-LBBB), 15 complete right bundle branch block (C-RBBB), 13 Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), 10 controls). The results were as follows; 1) The ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER), and peak filling rate (PFR) of LV in gated blood pool scintigraphy (GBPS) were significantly lower in patients with C-LBBB than in controls (44.4 ± 13.9% vs 69.9 ± 4.2%, 2.48 ± 0.98 vs 3.51 ± 0,62, 1.76 ± 0.71 vs 3.38 ± 0.92, respectively, p<0.05). 2) In the phase angle analysis of LV, Standard deviation (SD), width of half maximum of phase angle (FWHM), and range of phase angle were significantly increased in patients with C-LBBB than in controls (20.6 + 18.1 vs S.6 + I.8, 22. 5 + 9.2 vs 16.0 + 3.9, 95.7 + 31.7 vs 51.3 + 5.4, respectively, p<0.05). 3) There was no significant difference in EF, PER, PFR between patients with the WolffParkinson-White syndrome and controls. 4) Standard deviation and range of phase angle were significantly higher in patients with WPW syndrome than in controls (10.6 + 2.6 vs 8.6 + 1.8, p<0.05, 69.8 + 11.7 vs 51.3 + 5 4, p<0.001, respectively), however, there was no difference between the two groups in full width of half maximum. 5) Phase image analysis revealed relatively uniform phase across the both ventriles in patients with normal conduction, but markedly delayed phase in the left ventricle
Kwark, Byeng Su; Choi, Si Wan; Kang, Seung Sik; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Kang Wook; Jeon, Eun Seok; Park, Chong Hun [Chung Nam University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
It is known that the normal His-Purkinje system provides for nearly synchronous activation of right (RV) and left (LV) ventricles. When His-Purkinje conduction is abnormal, the resulting sequence of ventricular contraction must be correspondingly abnormal. These abnormal mechanical consequences were difficult to demonstrate because of the complexity and the rapidity of its events. To determine the relationship of the phase changes and the abnormalities of ventricular conduction, we performed phase image analysis of Tc-RBC gated blood pool scintigrams in patients with intraventricular conduction disturbances (24 complete left bundle branch block (C-LBBB), 15 complete right bundle branch block (C-RBBB), 13 Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), 10 controls). The results were as follows; 1) The ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER), and peak filling rate (PFR) of LV in gated blood pool scintigraphy (GBPS) were significantly lower in patients with C-LBBB than in controls (44.4 +- 13.9% vs 69.9 +- 4.2%, 2.48 +- 0.98 vs 3.51 +- 0,62, 1.76 +- 0.71 vs 3.38 +- 0.92, respectively, p<0.05). 2) In the phase angle analysis of LV, Standard deviation (SD), width of half maximum of phase angle (FWHM), and range of phase angle were significantly increased in patients with C-LBBB than in controls (20.6 + 18.1 vs S.6 + I.8, 22. 5 + 9.2 vs 16.0 + 3.9, 95.7 + 31.7 vs 51.3 + 5.4, respectively, p<0.05). 3) There was no significant difference in EF, PER, PFR between patients with the WolffParkinson-White syndrome and controls. 4) Standard deviation and range of phase angle were significantly higher in patients with WPW syndrome than in controls (10.6 + 2.6 vs 8.6 + 1.8, p<0.05, 69.8 + 11.7 vs 51.3 + 5 4, p<0.001, respectively), however, there was no difference between the two groups in full width of half maximum. 5) Phase image analysis revealed relatively uniform phase across the both ventriles in patients with normal conduction, but markedly delayed phase in the left ventricle
Karaman, S; Karaman, T; Dogru, S; Onder, Y; Citil, R; Bulut, Y E; Tapar, H; Sahin, A; Arici, S; Kaya, Z; Suren, M
Sleep is a vital function for human beings, which can be affected by several factors. Chronic pain is one of these factors where it is the most frequent cause for seeking medical care in combination with insomnia. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and relationship between sleep disturbance and chronic pain. After approval, a total of 85 Family Medicine Units from over 170 in Tokat were randomly selected using a 50% sampling. A sample of 2635 subjects, over the age of 19 years, who were registered with the selected Family Medicine Units, were assessed due to gender, age group, and the urban/rural population size of Tokat using the stratified sampling method. The sample size distribution was calculated as 1515 urban subjects, 1120 rural subjects; 1345 female subjects, 1290 male subjects; 1123 subjects between 20-39 years of age, 1103 subjects between the ages of 40-64, and 409 subjects over 64 years of age. After sampling, subjects were invited to participate in the study via an invitation letter, and agreeing individuals were taken to the Family Medicine Unit for face-to-face meetings. Written, informed consent was obtained, along with demographic data. The presence of chronic pain was recorded. According to the presence of chronic pain, all subjects were separated into two groups as Group Chronic Pain and Group Non-Chronic Pain. The visual analog scale for pain intensity, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for sleep quality, were performed with all subjects. A multiple linear regression model was used to assess the predictors of sleep quality. Analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), version 20.0. The statistical significance for all analyses was set at p 5. A moderate positive correlation was found between the global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Visual Analog Scale scores (r = 0.310, p < 0.01). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that age, gender, income, Visual
Biemond, G.J.E.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.
Poly(tetramethylene oxide)-based poly(ether ester amide)s with monodisperse tetraamide segments were synthesized. The tetraamide segment was based on adipic acid, terephthalic acid, and hexamethylenediamine. The synthesis method of the copolymers and the influence of the tetraamide concentration,
Full Text Available A common market segmentation premise for products and services rules consumer behavior as the segmentation center piece. Would this be the logic for segmentation used by small technology based companies? In this article we target at determining the principles of market segmentation used by a vitiwinery company, as research object. This company is recognized by its products excellence, either in domestic as well as in the foreign market, among 13 distinct countries. The research method used is a case study, through information from the company’s CEOs and crossed by primary information from observation and formal registries and documents of the company. In this research we look at sparkling wines market segmentation. Main results indicate that the winery studied considers only technological elements as the basis to build a market segment. One may conclude that a market segmentation for this company is based upon technological dominion of sparkling wines production, aligned with a premium-price policy. In the company, directorship believes that as sparkling wines market is still incipient in the country, sparkling wine market segments will form and consolidate after the evolution of consumers tasting preferences, depending on technologies that boost sparkling wines quality.
Lemmens, A.; Croux, C.; Stremersch, S.
Prior international segmentation studies have been static in that they have identified segments that remain stable over time. This paper shows that country segments in new product growth are intrinsically dynamic. We propose a semiparametric hidden Markov model to dynamically segment countries based
Pulsford, Stephanie A; Lindenmayer, David B; Driscoll, Don A
The topics of succession and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery have a long and convoluted history. There is extensive redundancy within this body of theory, which has resulted in confusion, and the links among theories have not been adequately drawn. This review aims to distil the unique ideas from the array of theory related to ecosystem change in response to disturbance. This will help to reduce redundancy, and improve communication and understanding between researchers. We first outline the broad range of concepts that have developed over the past century to describe community change in response to disturbance. The body of work spans overlapping succession concepts presented by Clements in 1916, Egler in 1954, and Connell and Slatyer in 1977. Other theories describing community change include state and transition models, biological legacy theory, and the application of functional traits to predict responses to disturbance. Second, we identify areas of overlap of these theories, in addition to highlighting the conceptual and taxonomic limitations of each. In aligning each of these theories with one another, the limited scope and relative inflexibility of some theories becomes apparent, and redundancy becomes explicit. We identify a set of unique concepts to describe the range of mechanisms driving ecosystem responses to disturbance. We present a schematic model of our proposed synthesis which brings together the range of unique mechanisms that were identified in our review. The model describes five main mechanisms of transition away from a post-disturbance community: (i) pulse events with rapid state shifts; (ii) stochastic community drift; (iii) facilitation; (iv) competition; and (v) the influence of the initial composition of a post-disturbance community. In addition, stabilising processes such as biological legacies, inhibition or continuing disturbance may prevent a transition between community types. Integrating these six mechanisms with the functional
Youssif Mohamed Toum Elobaid
Full Text Available Presently pneumatic muscles (PMs are used in various applications due to their simple construction, lightweight, and high force-to-weight ratio. However, pneumatic muscles are facing various problems due to their nonlinear characteristics and various uncertainties in real applications. To cope with the uncertainties and strong nonlinearity of a PM model, a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO is designed to estimate the lumped disturbance. Based on the disturbance observer, the tracking control of PM is studied. Stability analysis based on Lyapunov method with respect to our proposed control law is discussed. The simulation results show the validity, effectiveness, and enhancing robustness of the proposed methods.
Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; van Beest, Floris; Grimm, Volker
Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to anthropogenic disturbances that cause animals to change behavior and move away from potential foraging grounds. Here we present a process-based modeling framework for assessing population consequences of such sub-lethal behavioral effects. It builds...... on how disturbances influence animal movements, and how this in turn affect their foraging and energetics. The animals’ tendency to move away from disturbances is directly related to the experienced noise level. The reduced foraging in noisy areas affects the animals’ energy budget, fitness...... that determine animal fitness, are expected to have high predictive power in novel environments, making them ideal tools for marine management....
Felkel, L.; Grumbach, R.
The program system ALSAN has been developed to process the large number of signals due to a disturbance in a complex technical process, to recognize the important (in order to settle the disturbance within a minimum amount of time) information, and to display it to the operators. By means of the results, clear decisions can be made on what counteractions have to be taken. The system works in on-line-open-loop mode, and analyses disturbances autonomously as well as in dialog with the operators. (orig.) [de
Finn, Amy S.; Hudson Kam, Carla L.
We ask whether an adult learner’s knowledge of their native language impedes statistical learning in a new language beyond just word segmentation (as previously shown). In particular, we examine the impact of native-language word-form phonotactics on learners’ ability to segment words into their component morphemes and learn phonologically triggered variation of morphemes. We find that learning is impaired when words and component morphemes are structured to conflict with a learner’s native-language phonotactic system, but not when native-language phonotactics do not conflict with morpheme boundaries in the artificial language. A learner’s native-language knowledge can therefore have a cascading impact affecting word segmentation and the morphological variation that relies upon proper segmentation. These results show that getting word segmentation right early in learning is deeply important for learning other aspects of language, even those (morphology) that are known to pose a great difficulty for adult language learners. PMID:25730305
Finn, Amy S; Hudson Kam, Carla L
We ask whether an adult learner's knowledge of their native language impedes statistical learning in a new language beyond just word segmentation (as previously shown). In particular, we examine the impact of native-language word-form phonotactics on learners' ability to segment words into their component morphemes and learn phonologically triggered variation of morphemes. We find that learning is impaired when words and component morphemes are structured to conflict with a learner's native-language phonotactic system, but not when native-language phonotactics do not conflict with morpheme boundaries in the artificial language. A learner's native-language knowledge can therefore have a cascading impact affecting word segmentation and the morphological variation that relies upon proper segmentation. These results show that getting word segmentation right early in learning is deeply important for learning other aspects of language, even those (morphology) that are known to pose a great difficulty for adult language learners. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Jensen, Karl Kristoffer
We present a new method to segment popular music based on rhythm. By computing a shortest path based on the self-similarity matrix calculated from a model of rhythm, segmenting boundaries are found along the di- agonal of the matrix. The cost of a new segment is opti- mized by matching manual...... and automatic segment boundaries. We compile a small song database of 21 randomly selected popular Chinese songs which come from Chinese Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong. The segmenting results on the small corpus show that 78% manual segmentation points are detected and 74% auto- matic segmentation points...
Full Text Available Underwater optical environments are seriously affected by various optical inputs, such as artificial light, sky light, and ambient scattered light. The latter two can block underwater object segmentation tasks, since they inhibit the emergence of objects of interest and distort image information, while artificial light can contribute to segmentation. Artificial light often focuses on the object of interest, and, therefore, we can initially identify the region of target objects if the collimation of artificial light is recognized. Based on this concept, we propose an optical feature extraction, calculation, and decision method to identify the collimated region of artificial light as a candidate object region. Then, the second phase employs a level set method to segment the objects of interest within the candidate region. This two-phase structure largely removes background noise and highlights the outline of underwater objects. We test the performance of the method with diverse underwater datasets, demonstrating that it outperforms previous methods.
Nuclear propulsion apparatus comprising: (a) means for compressing incoming air; (b) nuclear fission reactor means for heating said air; (c) means for expanding a portion of the heated air to drive said compressing means; (d) said nuclear fission reactor means being divided into a plurality of radially extending segments; (e) means for directing a portion of the compressed air for heating through alternate segments of said reactor means and another portion of the compressed air for heating through the remaining segments of said reactor means; and (f) means for further expanding the heated air from said drive means and the remaining heated air from said reactor means through nozzle means to effect reactive thrust on said apparatus. 12 claims
Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl
Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...... on the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....
Srinivasa, Gowri; Fickus, Matthew C; Guo, Yusong; Linstedt, Adam D; Kovacević, Jelena
We propose a new active mask algorithm for the segmentation of fluorescence microscope images of punctate patterns. It combines the (a) flexibility offered by active-contour methods, (b) speed offered by multiresolution methods, (c) smoothing offered by multiscale methods, and (d) statistical modeling offered by region-growing methods into a fast and accurate segmentation tool. The framework moves from the idea of the "contour" to that of "inside and outside," or masks, allowing for easy multidimensional segmentation. It adapts to the topology of the image through the use of multiple masks. The algorithm is almost invariant under initialization, allowing for random initialization, and uses a few easily tunable parameters. Experiments show that the active mask algorithm matches the ground truth well and outperforms the algorithm widely used in fluorescence microscopy, seeded watershed, both qualitatively, as well as quantitatively.
Jie Xu (徐杰); Pengfei Shi (施鹏飞)
A new method for natural color image segmentation using integrated mechanism is proposed in this paper.Edges are first detected in term of the high phase congruency in the gray-level image. K-mean cluster is used to label long edge lines based on the global color information to estimate roughly the distribution of objects in the image, while short ones are merged based on their positions and local color differences to eliminate the negative affection caused by texture or other trivial features in image. Region growing technique is employed to achieve final segmentation results. The proposed method unifies edges, whole and local color distributions, as well as spatial information to solve the natural image segmentation problem.The feasibility and effectiveness of this method have been demonstrated by various experiments.
Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten; Chamoun, George Chaouki
Sets of constrained orbit segments of time continuous flows are collections of trajectories that represent a whole or parts of an invariant set. A non-trivial but simple example is a homoclinic orbit. A typical representation of this set consists of an equilibrium point of the flow and a trajectory...... that starts close and returns close to this fixed point within finite time. More complicated examples are hybrid periodic orbits of piecewise smooth systems or quasi-periodic invariant tori. Even though it is possible to define generalised two-point boundary value problems for computing sets of constrained...... orbit segments, this is very disadvantageous in practice. In this talk we will present an algorithm that allows the efficient continuation of sets of constrained orbit segments together with the solution of the full variational problem....
Romero, Jose E; Coupé, Pierrick; Giraud, Rémi; Ta, Vinh-Thong; Fonov, Vladimir; Park, Min Tae M; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Manjón, Jose V
The human cerebellum is involved in language, motor tasks and cognitive processes such as attention or emotional processing. Therefore, an automatic and accurate segmentation method is highly desirable to measure and understand the cerebellum role in normal and pathological brain development. In this work, we propose a patch-based multi-atlas segmentation tool called CERES (CEREbellum Segmentation) that is able to automatically parcellate the cerebellum lobules. The proposed method works with standard resolution magnetic resonance T1-weighted images and uses the Optimized PatchMatch algorithm to speed up the patch matching process. The proposed method was compared with related recent state-of-the-art methods showing competitive results in both accuracy (average DICE of 0.7729) and execution time (around 5 minutes). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Du, Yingzi; Arslanturk, Emrah; Zhou, Zhi; Belcher, Craig
In this paper, we propose a video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation scheme that incorporates a quality filter to quickly eliminate images without an eye, employs a coarse-to-fine segmentation scheme to improve the overall efficiency, uses a direct least squares fitting of ellipses method to model the deformed pupil and limbic boundaries, and develops a window gradient-based method to remove noise in the iris region. A remote iris acquisition system is set up to collect noncooperative iris video images. An objective method is used to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the segmentation results. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The proposed method would make noncooperative iris recognition or iris surveillance possible.