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Sample records for somatic withdrawal signs

  1. Effects of NPY and the specific Y1 receptor agonist [D-His(26)]-NPY on the deficit in brain reward function and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats.

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    Rylkova, Daria; Boissoneault, Jeffrey; Isaac, Shani; Prado, Melissa; Shah, Hina P; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W

    2008-06-01

    Tobacco addiction is a chronic disorder that is characterized by dysphoria upon smoking cessation and relapse after periods of abstinence. Previous research suggests that Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Y1 receptor agonists attenuate negative affective states and somatic withdrawal signs. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the effects of NPY and the specific Y1 receptor agonist [D-His(26)]-NPY on the deficit in brain reward function and somatic signs associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of nicotine withdrawal on brain reward function as this procedure can provide a quantitative measure of emotional states in rodents. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a deficit in brain reward function. In the first experiment, NPY did not prevent the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal and elevated the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. Similar to NPY, [D-His(26)]-NPY did not prevent the elevations in brain reward thresholds associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal and elevated the brain reward thresholds of the saline-treated control rats. Neither NPY nor [D-His(26)]-NPY affected the response latencies. In a separate experiment, it was demonstrated that the specific Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 prevented the NPY-induced elevations in brain reward thresholds. NPY attenuated the overall somatic signs associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal. [D-His(26)]-NPY did not affect the overall somatic signs associated with precipitated nicotine withdrawal, but decreased the number of abdominal constrictions. Both NPY and [D-His(26)]-NPY attenuated the overall somatic signs associated with spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. These findings indicate that NPY and [D-His(26)]-NPY attenuate somatic nicotine withdrawal signs, but do not prevent the deficit in brain reward function associated

  2. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors.

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    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Berner, Laura A; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2011-10-24

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet or a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was also not seen in rats fed a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize "food addiction" may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic agmatine treatment prevents behavioral manifestations of nicotine withdrawal in mice.

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    Kotagale, Nandkishor R; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Umekar, Milind J; Taksande, Brijesh G

    2015-05-05

    Smoking cessation exhibits an aversive withdrawal syndrome characterized by both increases in somatic signs and affective behaviors including anxiety and depression. In present study, abrupt withdrawal of daily nicotine injections (2mg/kg, s.c., four times daily, for 10 days) significantly increased somatic signs viz. rearing, grooming, jumping, genital licking, leg licking, head shakes with associated depression (increased immobility in forced swim test) as well as anxiety (decreased the number of entries and time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze) in nicotine dependent animals. The peak effect was observed at 24h time point of nicotine withdrawal. Repeated administration of agmatine (40-80µg/mouse, i.c.v.) before the first daily dose of nicotine from day 5 to 10 attenuated the elevated scores of somatic signs and abolished the depression and anxiety like behavior induced by nicotine withdrawal in dependent animals. However, in separate groups, its acute administration 30min before behavior analysis of nicotine withdrawal was ineffective. This result clearly shows the role of agmatine in development of nicotine dependence and its withdrawal. In extension to behavioral experiments, brain agmatine analyses, carried out at 24h time point of nicotine withdrawal demonstrated marked decrease in basal brain agmatine concentration as compared to control animals. Taken together, these data support the role of agmatine as common biological substrate for somatic signs and affective symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. This data may project therapies based on agmatine in anxiety, depression and mood changes associated with tobacco withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Opioid withdrawal signs and symptoms in children: frequency and determinants.

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    Fisher, Deborah; Grap, Mary Jo; Younger, Janet B; Ameringer, Suzanne; Elswick, R K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to, in a pediatric population, describe the frequency of opioid withdrawal signs and symptoms and to identify factors associated with these opioid withdrawal signs and symptoms. Opioids are used routinely in the pediatric intensive care population for analgesia, sedation, blunting of physiologic responses to stress, and safety. In children, physical dependence may occur in as little as 2-3 days of continuous opioid therapy. Once the child no longer needs the opioid, the medications are reduced over time. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted. The sample of 26 was drawn from all patients, ages 2 weeks to 21 years admitted to the Children's Hospital of Richmond pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and who have received continuous infusion or scheduled opioids for at least 5 days. Data collected included: opioid withdrawal score (WAT-1), opioid taper rate (total dose of opioid per day in morphine equivalents per kilogram [MEK]), pretaper peak MEK, pretaper cumulative MEK, number of days of opioid exposure prior to taper, and age. Out of 26 enrolled participants, only 9 (45%) had opioid withdrawal on any given day. In addition, there was limited variability in WAT-1 scores. The most common symptoms notes were diarrhea, vomit, sweat, and fever. For optimal opioid withdrawal assessments, clinicians should use a validated instrument such as the WAT-1 to measure for signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Further research is indicated to examine risk factors for opioid withdrawal in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining the effect of the CaMKII inhibitor administration in the locus coeruleus on the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidhamidi, M; Semnanian, S; Javan, M; Goudarzvand, M; Rohampour, K; Azizi, H

    2012-01-15

    Drug addiction is an occurrence with physiological, psychological, and social outcomes. Repeated drug exposure causes neuronal adaptations and dependency. It has been shown that CaMKIIα enzyme contributes to morphine dependency. The locus coeruleus nucleus has been implied in the morphine withdrawal syndrome. This research focuses on the behavioral and molecular adaptations that occur in the locus coeruleus neurons in response to the chronic morphine exposure. Adult male Wistar rats were injected by morphine sulfate (10 mg/kg/s.c.) at an interval of 12 h for a period of nine subsequent days. On the tenth day, naloxone (1 mg/kg/i.p.) was injected 2 h after the morphine administration. Somatic withdrawal signs were investigated for 30 min. We concluded that the inhibition of CaMKIIα by administration of KN-93, the specific inhibitor of this enzyme, significantly attenuated some of the withdrawal signs. In molecular method, the expression of CaMKIIα protein has been enhanced in locus coeruleus of the morphine dependent rats. These findings indicate that CaMKIIα may be involved in the modulation of the naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome, and treatment with KN-93 may have some effects on this system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nature cures nature: Hypericum perforatum attenuates physical withdrawal signs in opium dependent rats.

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    Khan, Munasib; Subhan, Fazal; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Abbas, Muzaffar; Ali, Gowhar; Rauf, Khalid; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2014-05-01

    Hypericum perforatum Linn. (Hypericaceae) (St. John's wort) attenuates opium withdrawal signs. To explore the therapeutic potential of Hypericum perforatum in the management of opium-induced withdrawal syndrome. The effect of the Hypericum perforatum hydro-ethanol extract was investigated for potential to reverse naloxone (0.25 mg/kg)-induced opium withdrawal physical signs. Rats received opium extract (80-650 mg/kg) twice daily for 8 days along with Hypericum perforatum (20 mg/kg, orally) twice daily in chronic treatment and the same single dose 1 h before induction of withdrawal syndrome in the acute treated group. Hypericum perforatum reduced stereotype jumps and wet dog shake number in the chronic treatment compared to the saline control group (F(2, 24) = 3.968, p opium withdrawal syndrome possibly through direct or indirect interaction with opioid receptors. Further study is needed to clarify its mechanism.

  7. Microinjection of Orexin-A into the Locus Coeruleus Area Induces Morphine Withdrawal Behaviors in Morphine Independent Rats

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    Hosin Azizi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orexin neuropeptide has a role in opioid withdrawal behaviors. Orexin-expressing neurons that are present in the hypothalamic nuclei send dense projections to the Locus Coeruleus (LC. Withdrawal syndrome is temporally associated with hyperactivity of LC neurons. LC neurons do not show withdrawal-induced hyperactivity in brain slices from morphine-dependent rats. Thus, it has been suggested that the increase in LC neuronal activity seen in vivo is mediated by extrinsic factors. Therefore, this study was carried out to find whether LC microinjection of orexin-A can induce withdrawal behaviors. Method: Adult male Wistar rats were used in this study. Intra-LC microinjection of orexin-A or orexin-A vehicle was performed one week after LC cannulation. Thereafter, somatic signs of withdrawal were evaluated during a period of 25 min.Findings: Orexin-A induced several signs of morphine withdrawal. Conclusion: It may be concluded that orexin at LC acts as an extrinsic factor in the expression of morphine withdrawal syndrome.

  8. Nicotine reward and affective nicotine withdrawal signs are attenuated in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV knockout mice.

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    Kia J Jackson

    Full Text Available The influx of Ca(2+ through calcium-permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs leads to activation of various downstream processes that may be relevant to nicotine-mediated behaviors. The calcium activated protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV phosphorylates the downstream transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB, which mediates nicotine responses; however the role of CaMKIV in nicotine dependence is unknown. Given the proposed role of CaMKIV in CREB activation, we hypothesized that CaMKIV might be a crucial molecular component in the development of nicotine dependence. Using male CaMKIV genetically modified mice, we found that nicotine reward is attenuated in CaMKIV knockout (-/- mice, but cocaine reward is enhanced in these mice. CaMKIV protein levels were also increased in the nucleus accumbens of C57Bl/6 mice after nicotine reward. In a nicotine withdrawal assessment, anxiety-related behavior, but not somatic signs or the hyperalgesia response are attenuated in CaMKIV -/- mice. To complement our animal studies, we also conducted a human genetic association analysis and found that variants in the CaMKIV gene are associated with a protective effect against nicotine dependence. Taken together, our results support an important role for CaMKIV in nicotine reward, and suggest that CaMKIV has opposing roles in nicotine and cocaine reward. Further, CaMKIV mediates affective, but not physical nicotine withdrawal signs, and has a protective effect against nicotine dependence in human genetic association studies. These findings further indicate the importance of calcium-dependent mechanisms in mediating behaviors associated with drugs of abuse.

  9. Effects of Nicotine Metabolites on Nicotine Withdrawal Behaviors in Mice.

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    Elhassan, Sagi; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-06-01

    Rodent studies suggest that nicotine metabolites and minor tobacco alkaloids such as nornicotine and cotinine may promote cigarette smoking by enhancing nicotine rewarding and reinforcing effects. However, there is little information on the effects of these minor tobacco alkaloids on nicotine withdrawal. The present studies were conducted to determine whether the minor tobacco alkaloids nornicotine and cotinine exhibit nicotine-like behavioral effects in a mouse model of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. Mice were infused with nicotine or saline for 14 days. Experiments were conducted on day 15, 18-24 hours after minipump removal. Ten minutes prior to testing, nicotine-dependent ICR male mice received an acute injection of nicotine (0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg), nornicotine (2.5 and 25 mg/kg), or cotinine (5 and 50 mg/kg) to determine effects on somatic signs, anxiety-like behaviors, and hyperalgesia spontaneous signs of withdrawal. Nicotine and the minor tobacco alkaloid nornicotine, but not cotinine, produced dose-dependent reversal of nicotine withdrawal signs in the mouse. The minor tobacco alkaloid and nicotine metabolite nornicotine at high doses have nicotinic like effects that may contribute to tobacco consumption and dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. An Emerging New Paradigm in Opioid Withdrawal: A Critical Role for Glia-Neuron Signaling in the Periaqueductal Gray

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    Ouyang, Handong; Liu, Shue; Zeng, Weian; Levitt, Roy C.; Candiotti, Keith A.; Hao, Shuanglin

    2012-01-01

    The chronic use of opiates (i.e., narcotics such as the natural derivatives of opium including morphine or codeine) or opioids (i.e., semisynthetic derivatives of opium and other molecules that activate opioid receptors) induces dependence, which is associated with various specific behavioral and somatic signs after their withdrawal or after the administration of an opioid antagonist. Among the brain regions implicated in opiate dependence and withdrawal, the periaqueductal gray area (PAG) ap...

  11. An Emerging New Paradigm in Opioid Withdrawal: A Critical Role for Glia-Neuron Signaling in the Periaqueductal Gray

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    Handong Ouyang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic use of opiates (i.e., narcotics such as the natural derivatives of opium including morphine or codeine or opioids (i.e., semisynthetic derivatives of opium and other molecules that activate opioid receptors induces dependence, which is associated with various specific behavioral and somatic signs after their withdrawal or after the administration of an opioid antagonist. Among the brain regions implicated in opiate dependence and withdrawal, the periaqueductal gray area (PAG appears to be critical in regulating the complex signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Numerous neurochemical mechanisms in the PAG have been identified that may contribute to the opioid withdrawal syndrome. Accumulating evidence suggests that glial activation leading to the release of proinflammatory molecules acting on neurons is important in the complex syndrome of opioid dependence and withdrawal. This paper focuses on the recent advances in our understanding of the vital role that glia-neuron interactions play in opioid dependence and withdrawal within the PAG. We summarize those neurochemical mechanisms associated with opioid withdrawal including the recently defined importance of TNFα release from activated glial cells that communicate with TNF receptors on PAG neurons.

  12. Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Østergaard, Søren; Emanuelson, U

    2010-01-01

    Herd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling......% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was €55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at €278 and €60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk......The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, Sim...

  13. Cardiac adverse effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on right ventricle: Role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 1 receptor

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    Navarro-Zaragoza, J.; Martínez-Laorden, E.; Mora, L.; Hidalgo, J.; Milanés, M.V.; Laorden, M.L., E-mail: laorden@um.es

    2014-02-15

    Opioid addiction is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, mechanisms linking opioid addiction and cardiovascular disease remain unclear. This study investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 1 receptor in mediating somatic signs and the behavioural states produced during withdrawal from morphine dependence. Furthermore, it studied the efficacy of CRF1 receptor antagonist, CP-154,526 to prevent the cardiac sympathetic activity induced by morphine withdrawal. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation pathways were evaluated. Like stress, morphine withdrawal induced an increase in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity and an enhancement of noradrenaline (NA) turnover. Pre-treatment with CRF1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced morphine withdrawal-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, NA turnover and TH phosphorylation at Ser31 in the right ventricle. In addition, CP-154,526 reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. In addition, CP-154,526 attenuated the increases in body weight loss during morphine treatment and suppressed some of morphine withdrawal signs. Altogether, these results support the idea that cardiac sympathetic pathways are activated in response to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal suggesting that treatment with a CRF1 receptor antagonist before morphine withdrawal would prevent the development of stress-induced behavioural and autonomic dysfunction in opioid addicts. - Highlights: • Morphine withdrawal caused an increase in myocardial sympathetic activity. • ERK regulates TH phosphorylation after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. • CRF1R is involved in cardiac adaptive changes during morphine dependence.

  14. Cardiac adverse effects of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal on right ventricle: Role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro-Zaragoza, J.; Martínez-Laorden, E.; Mora, L.; Hidalgo, J.; Milanés, M.V.; Laorden, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, mechanisms linking opioid addiction and cardiovascular disease remain unclear. This study investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 1 receptor in mediating somatic signs and the behavioural states produced during withdrawal from morphine dependence. Furthermore, it studied the efficacy of CRF1 receptor antagonist, CP-154,526 to prevent the cardiac sympathetic activity induced by morphine withdrawal. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation pathways were evaluated. Like stress, morphine withdrawal induced an increase in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity and an enhancement of noradrenaline (NA) turnover. Pre-treatment with CRF1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced morphine withdrawal-induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, NA turnover and TH phosphorylation at Ser31 in the right ventricle. In addition, CP-154,526 reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. In addition, CP-154,526 attenuated the increases in body weight loss during morphine treatment and suppressed some of morphine withdrawal signs. Altogether, these results support the idea that cardiac sympathetic pathways are activated in response to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal suggesting that treatment with a CRF1 receptor antagonist before morphine withdrawal would prevent the development of stress-induced behavioural and autonomic dysfunction in opioid addicts. - Highlights: • Morphine withdrawal caused an increase in myocardial sympathetic activity. • ERK regulates TH phosphorylation after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. • CRF1R is involved in cardiac adaptive changes during morphine dependence

  15. Attenuation of morphine withdrawal signs, blood cortisol and glucose level with forced exercise in comparison with clonidine

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    Majid Motaghinejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morphine withdrawal usually results in undesired outcomes , despite partial benefits of alternative medication such as methadone, because of the lack of mental sedation during the withdrawal period, may not lead to the desired result. In this study, forced exercise by treadmill is used to manage morphine dependence in animal model. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent by increasing daily doses of morphine for 6 days (20-45 mg/kg, SC. Afterwards, the animals were treated for 21 days by either of the following protocol: Positive control (dependent received once daily 45 mg/kg of morphine sulfate (SC for 21 day, group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC for 21 day group under treatment by forced exercise by treadmill for 21 day, group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg, SC and forced exercise by treadmill for 21day and the negative control group(independent received saline injection like other groups. Each of this administration was injected at 8 AM. Finally, in the test day (day 28, all animals received a single dose of naloxone (3 mg/kg, SC at 8 AM and then were observed for withdrawal signs, and Total Withdrawal Score (TWS was determined as described previously. After withdrawal sign evaluation for evaluation of stress level of dependent mice, blood cortisol and glucose level were measured in non-fasting situations well. Results: This study showed that TWS significantly decreased in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P < 0.001. Moreover, blood cortisol and glucose level significantly decreased in group under treatment by clonidine (0.4 mg/kg and group under treatment by combination of clonidine (0.4 mg/kg and forced exercise by treadmill groups in comparison with control positive (dependent (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in dependent people

  16. The Effect of Nicotine Administration on Physical and Psychological Signs of Withdrawal Syndrome Induced by Single or Frequent Doses of Morphine in Rats

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    Mohammad Allahtavakoli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Morphine addiction and morphine withdrawal syndrome are the two main problems of today’s human society. The present study has investigated the effects of nicotine on the strength of physical and psychological dependency in single and repeated doses morphine administrated rats. Materials and methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to morphine consumption with single or frequent dose protocols. In the single dose protocol, rats received only one dose of morphine and 24hrs later they also received one dose of nicotine 30 min prior to injection of naloxone. In the repeated dose protocol, rats received incremental doses of morphine for 7 days and 24hr after the last dose (the 8th day were given naloxone. However, the nicotine regimen of this group was injected 15 min before the morphine injection, for 4 days, from the 4th to the 7th day. Five minutes after naloxone injection, each rat′s behavior was captured for 30 min, and then physical and psychological signs of withdrawal syndrome were recorded. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey tests and p<0.05 was considered as significant difference. Findings. Results showed that the injection of frequent and single doses of morphine lead to morphine dependency. In single dose protocol, nicotine consumption attenuated the signs of withdrawal syndrome, especially weight of excrement and total withdrawal score. In frequent dose protocol, in addition to these effects, nicotine induced weight loss and place aversion. Conclusion. The inhibitory effects of nicotine on signs of withdrawal syndrome may involve a dopaminergic portion of the central nervous system and is mediated by central nicotinic receptors. There is also a cross-dependence between nicotine and morphine.

  17. ‌‌The effect of nicotine administration on physical and psychological signs of withdrawal syndrome induced by single or frequent doses of morphine in rats

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    Ali Shamsizadeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Morphine addiction and morphine withdrawal syndrome are the two main problems of today’s human society. The present study has investigated the effects of nicotine on the strength of physical and psychological dependency in single and repeated doses morphine administrated rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were subjected to morphine consumption with single or frequent dose protocols. In the single dose protocol, rats received only one dose of morphine and 24hrs later they also received one dose of nicotine 30 min prior to injection of naloxone. In the repeated dose protocol, rats received incremental doses of morphine for 7 days and 24hr after the last dose (the 8th day were given naloxone. However, the nicotine regimen of this group was injected 15 min before the morphine injection, for 4 days, from the 4th to the 7th day. Five minutes after naloxone injection, each rat′s behavior was captured for 30 min, and then physical and psychological signs of withdrawal syndrome were recorded. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey tests and p<0.05 was considered as significant difference. Results: Results showed that the injection of frequent and single doses of morphine lead to morphine dependency. In single dose protocol, nicotine consumption attenuated the signs of withdrawal syndrome, especially weight of excrement and total withdrawal score. In frequent dose protocol, in addition to these effects, nicotine induced weight loss and place aversion. Discussion: The inhibitory effects of nicotine on signs of withdrawal syndrome may involve a dopaminergic portion of the central nervous system and is mediated by central nicotinic receptors. There is also a cross-dependence between nicotine and morphine.

  18. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation

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    Muelken, Peter; Schmidt, Clare E.; Shelley, David; Tally, Laura; Harris, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    , including evaluation of more clinically relevant nicotine dosing regimens and other measures of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anxiety-like behavior, somatic signs), may be useful for understanding the development of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. PMID:26658557

  19. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.

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    Sutter, Mary Beth; Leeman, Lawrence; Hsi, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome is common due to the current opioid addiction epidemic. Infants born to women covertly abusing prescription opioids may not be identified as at risk until withdrawal signs present. Buprenorphine is a newer treatment for maternal opioid addiction and appears to result in a milder withdrawal syndrome than methadone. Initial treatment is with nonpharmacological measures including decreasing stimuli, however pharmacological treatment is commonly required. Opioid monotherapy is preferred, with phenobarbital or clonidine uncommonly needed as adjunctive therapy. Rooming-in and breastfeeding may decease the severity of withdrawal. Limited evidence is available regarding long-term effects of perinatal opioid exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, cognitive deficits and alterations in apoptosis-associated proteins in morphine-dependent rats.

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    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Ghodrati-Jaldbakhan, Shahrbanoo; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Akhavan, Maziar M; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Chronic exposure to morphine results in cognitive deficits and alterations of apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death in the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory. Physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on brain health. In the current work, we examined the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, the associated cognitive defects, and changes of apoptotic proteins in morphine-dependent rats. Morphine dependence was induced through bi-daily administrations of morphine (10mg/kg) for 10 days. Then, the rats were trained under two different exercise protocols: mild treadmill exercise or voluntary wheel exercise for 10 days. After exercise training, their spatial learning and memory and aversive memory were examined by a water maze and by an inhibitory avoidance task, respectively. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the hippocampus were determined by immunoblotting. We found that chronic exposure to morphine impaired spatial and aversive memory and remarkably suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, but Bax expression remained constant. Both voluntary and treadmill exercise alleviated memory impairment, increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein, and only the later suppressed the expression of Bax protein in morphine-dependent animals. Moreover, both exercise protocols diminished the occurrence of spontaneous morphine withdrawal signs. Our findings showed that exercise reduces the spontaneous morphine-withdrawal signs, blocks the associated impairment of cognitive performance, and overcomes morphine-induced alterations in apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death. Thus, exercise may be a useful therapeutic strategy for cognitive and behavioral deficits in addict individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypocretin/orexin signaling in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is essential for the expression of nicotine withdrawal.

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    Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Flores, África; Maldonado, Rafael; Berrendero, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    Hypocretin (orexin) signaling is involved in drug addiction. In this study, we investigated the role of these hypothalamic neuropeptides in nicotine withdrawal by using behavioral and neuroanatomical approaches. Nicotine withdrawal syndrome was precipitated by mecamylamine (2 mg/kg, subcutaneous) in C57BL/6J nicotine-dependent mice (25 mg/kg/day for 14 days) pretreated with the hypocretin receptor 1 (Hcrtr-1) antagonist SB334867 (5 and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), the hypocretin receptor 2 antagonist TCSOX229 (5 and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and in preprohypocretin knockout mice. c-Fos expression was analyzed in several brain areas related to nicotine dependence by immunofluorescence techniques. Retrograde tracing with rhodamine-labeled fluorescent latex microspheres was used to determine whether the hypocretin neurons project directly to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and SB334867 was locally administered intra-PVN (10 nmol/side) to test the specific involvement of Hcrtr-1 in this brain area during nicotine withdrawal. Somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal were attenuated in mice pretreated with SB334867 and in preprohypocretin knockout mice. No changes were found in TCSOX229 pretreated animals. Nicotine withdrawal increased the percentage of hypocretin cells expressing c-Fos in the perifornical, dorsomedial, and lateral hypothalamus. In addition, the increased c-Fos expression in the PVN during withdrawal was dependent on hypocretin transmission through Hcrtr-1 activation. Hypocretin neurons directly innervate the PVN and the local infusion of SB334867 into the PVN decreased the expression of nicotine withdrawal. These data demonstrate that hypocretin signaling acting on Hcrtr-1 in the PVN plays a crucial role in the expression of nicotine withdrawal. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Withdrawal Clause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutherin, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Like any international agreement, the NPT includes a withdrawal clause. The North Korean withdrawal, which was announced in 1993 and became effective in 2003, shows how difficult it is to preserve this possibility, while guaranteeing compliance with signed agreements. To achieve this target, two conditions are required: first, enhancing the means by which the reasons for withdrawals can be made clear and second, to allow the Security Council to draw all the consequences of withdrawals that could imply that a treaty has been violated

  3. Peptidase inhibitors reduce opiate narcotic withdrawal signs, including seizure activity, in the rat.

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    Pinsky, C; Dua, A K; LaBella, F S

    1982-07-15

    Narcotic withdrawal was precipitated by administration of naloxone in a low dose at 2 h after the final dose of morphine in a 9-day dependency-inducing schedule. Withdrawal was characterized by leaps, increased nocifensor activity and by cerebral cortical epileptiform activity, the latter not generally reported to be prominent in narcotic withdrawal. Single large doses of morphine did not provoke epileptiform activity at 2 h postinjection but did induce an acute opioid dependency wherein a moderately high dose of naloxone, ineffective in non-dependent rats, provoked upward leaping and electrocortical epileptiform activity. Pretreatment of the 9-day dependent rats with peptidase inhibitors, administered intracerebroventricularly, significantly reduced withdrawal severity including the epileptiform activity. We propose that peptidase inhibitors protect certain species of endogenous opioids and/or other neuropeptides that tend to suppress expression of the narcotic withdrawal syndrome. Furthermore, our findings suggest that epileptiform activity is a nascent form of cerebral activity hitherto largely unnoticed in narcotic withdrawal and that neuropeptides may be involved in certain epileptic states.

  4. Palonosetron and hydroxyzine pre-treatment reduces the objective signs of experimentally-induced acute opioid withdrawal in humans: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendson, Matthew J; D'Arcy, Nicole; Encisco, Ellen M; Yu, Jeffrey J; Rincon-Cruz, Lorena; Peltz, Gary; Clark, J David; Chu, Larry F

    2017-01-01

    Treatments for reducing opioid withdrawal are limited and prone to problematic side effects. Laboratory studies, clinical observations, and limited human trial data suggest 5-HT3-receptor antagonists and antihistamines may be effective. This double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study employing an acute physical dependence model evaluated whether (i) treatment with a 5-HT3-receptor antagonist (palonosetron) would reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms, and (ii) co-administration of an antihistamine (hydroxyzine) would enhance any treatment effect. At timepoint T = 0, healthy (non-opioid dependent, non-substance abuser) male volunteers (N = 10) were pre-treated with either a) placebo, b) palonosetron IV (0.75 mg), or c) palonosetron IV (0.75 mg) and hydroxyzine PO (100 mg) in a crossover study design. This was followed at T = 30 by intravenous morphine (10 mg/70kg). At T = 165, 10 mg/70kg naloxone IV was given to precipitate opioid withdrawal. The objective opioid withdrawal score (OOWS) and subjective opioid withdrawal score (SOWS) were determined 5 and 15 minutes after naloxone administration (T = 170, 180, respectively). Baseline measurements were recorded at T = -30 and T = -15. Comparison of average baseline OOWS scores with OOWS scores obtained 15 minutes after naloxone was significant (p = 0.0001). Scores from 15 minutes post-naloxone infusion showed significant differences in OOWS scores between treatment groups: placebo, 3.7 ± 2.4; palonosetron, 1.5 ± 0.97; and palonosetron with hydroxyzine, 0.2 ± 0.1333. Pretreatment with palonosetron significantly reduced many signs of experimentally-induced opioid withdrawal. Co-administration with hydroxyzine further reduced opioid withdrawal severity. These results suggest that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, alone or in combination with an antihistamine, may be useful in the treatment of opioid withdrawal.

  5. Methyl Parathion Masks Withdrawal from Physical Dependence on Morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin W. Rockhold

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The cholinergic system has been proposed to participate in the development of dependence on opioids. The present study examined effects of dermal pretreatment with methyl parathion (MP, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, on the development of physical dependence on morphine. Opioid dependence was induced by continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. infusion of morphine (26 nmol/μl/h for 3 days in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each rat received two doses of MP, 12.5 mg/kg, dermally, initially, 3 days prior to initiation of i.c.v. morphine infusion and again on the first day of infusion. Withdrawal was precipitated after 3 days of infusion by administering an opioid antagonist, naloxone (48 nmol/5 μl, i.c.v.. Twelve of 23 MP-treated rats exhibited signs of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor intoxication (mild tremors and showed reduced spontaneous locomotor activity (tested by an open field test, prior to naloxone. The brain cholinesterase activity in these 12 rats was 13% of levels in control rats. Eleven rats that did not show toxic signs, exhibited cholinesterase activities that were 20% of control (not significant versus toxic group. The group that showed signs of MP intoxication exhibited a significantly lower incidence of opioid withdrawal jumping, rearing and wet dog shakes compared with the non-toxic group. No differences between quantal withdrawal signs (ptosis, penis-licking, and vocalization were noted between the two groups. The results suggest that toxic inhibition of acetylcholinesterase non-specifically reduces locomotor activity and may obscure certain behavioral signs of withdrawal from opioid dependence. This indicates that caution should be used in interpreting a direct involvement of acetylcholinesterase inhibition in preventing opioid dependence.

  6. Difficulty in making contact with others and social withdrawal as early signs of psychosis in adolescents--the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki, P; Koskela, S; Murray, G K; Nordström, T; Miettunen, J; Jääskeläinen, E; Veijola, J M

    2014-08-01

    Social withdrawal is among the first signs of the prodromal state of psychosis seen in clinical samples. The aim of this prospective study was to find out whether difficulty in making contact with others and social withdrawal precede first episode psychosis in the young general population. The members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n=6274) completed the PROD-screen questionnaire in 2001-2002. The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used to detect both new psychotic and non-psychotic disorders requiring hospitalisation during 2003-2008. Twenty-three subjects developed psychosis and 89 developed a non-psychotic mental disorder requiring hospitalisation during the follow-up. Of those who developed psychosis, 35% had reported difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others and 30% social withdrawal in adolescence. In hospitalised non-psychotic disorder, the corresponding precentages were 10 and 13% and in the control group without hospital-treated mental disorder 9 and 11%. The differences between psychotic and non-psychotic hospitalised subjects (P<0.01) as well as controls (P<0.001) were statistically significant regarding difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others. In this general population-based sample self-reported difficulty or uncertainty in making contact with others in adolescence preceded psychosis specifically compared to hospitalised non-psychotic mental disorders and controls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A 'symptom-triggered' approach to alcohol withdrawal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jay; Marsden, Janet

    In acute hospital settings, alcohol withdrawal often causes significant management problems and complicates a wide variety of concurrent conditions, placing a huge burden on the NHS. A significant number of critical incidents around patients who were undergoing detoxification in a general hospital setting led to the need for a project to implement and evaluate an evidence-based approach to the management of alcohol detoxification-a project that included a pre-intervention case note audit, the implementation of an evidence-based symptom-triggered detoxification protocol, and a post-intervention case note audit. This change in practice resulted in an average reduction of almost 60% in length of hospital stay and a 66% reduction in the amount of chlordiazepoxide used in detoxification, as well as highlighting that 10% of the sample group did not display any signs of withdrawal and did not require any medication. Even with these reductions, no patient post-intervention developed any severe signs of withdrawal phenomena, such as seizures or delirium tremens. The savings to the trust (The Pennine Acute Hospital Trust) are obvious,but the development of a consistent, quality service will lead to fewer long-term negative effects for patients that can be caused by detoxification. This work is a project evaluation of a locally implemented strategy, which, it was hypothesised,would improve care by providing an individualised treatment plan for the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

  8. Drug-induced GABA transporter currents enhance GABA release to induce opioid withdrawal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Elena E; Hacker, Jennifer; Chefer, Vladimir I; Mallet, Christophe; McNally, Gavan P; Chieng, Billy C H; Perroud, Julie; Shippenberg, Toni S; Christie, MacDonald J

    2011-10-30

    Neurotransmitter transporters can affect neuronal excitability indirectly via modulation of neurotransmitter concentrations or directly via transporter currents. A physiological or pathophysiological role for transporter currents has not been described. We found that GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) cation currents directly increased GABAergic neuronal excitability and synaptic GABA release in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) during opioid withdrawal in rodents. In contrast, GAT-1 did not indirectly alter GABA receptor responses via modulation of extracellular GABA concentrations. Notably, we found that GAT-1-induced increases in GABAergic activity contributed to many PAG-mediated signs of opioid withdrawal. Together, these data support the hypothesis that GAT-1 activity directly produces opioid withdrawal signs through direct hyperexcitation of GABAergic PAG neurons and nerve terminals, which presumably enhances GABAergic inhibition of PAG output neurons. These data provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence that dysregulation of a neurotransmitter transporter current is important for the maladaptive plasticity that underlies opiate withdrawal.

  9. Narp regulates long-term aversive effects of morphine withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reti, Irving M.; Crombag, Hans S.; Takamiya, Kogo; Sutton, Jeffrey M.; Guo, Ning; Dinenna, Megan L.; Huganir, Richard L.; Holland, Peter C.; Baraban, Jay M.

    2008-01-01

    Although long-lasting effects of drug withdrawal are thought to play a key role in motivating continued drug use, the mechanisms mediating this type of drug-induced plasticity are unclear. As Narp is an immediate early gene product that is secreted at synaptic sites and binds to AMPA receptors, it has been implicated in mediating enduring forms of synaptic plasticity. In previous studies, we found that Narp is selectively induced by morphine withdrawal in the extended amygdala, a group of limbic nuclei that mediate aversive behavioral responses. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated whether long-term aversive effects of morphine withdrawal are altered in Narp KO mice. We found that acute physical signs of morphine withdrawal are unaffected by Narp deletion. However, Narp KO mice acquire and sustain more aversive responses to the environment conditioned with morphine withdrawal than WT controls. Paradoxically, Narp KO mice undergo accelerated extinction of this heightened aversive response. Taken together, these studies suggest that Narp modulates both acquisition and extinction of aversive responses to morphine withdrawal and, therefore, may regulate plasticity processes underlying drug addiction. PMID:18729628

  10. Neurobiology of opioid withdrawal: Role of the endothelin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Andurkar, Shridhar V; Gulati, Anil

    2016-08-15

    Morphine and oxycodone are potent opioid analgesics most commonly used for the management of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain. Their clinical utility is limited by undesired side effects like analgesic tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal. We have previously demonstrated that endothelin-A (ETA) receptor antagonists potentiate opioid analgesia and eliminate analgesic tolerance. Mechanistically, G proteins and regulatory proteins such as β-arrestins have shown to play an important role in mediating opioid tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal. Recently, the involvement of central ET mechanisms in opioid withdrawal was investigated. ETA receptor antagonist was shown to block majority of the signs and symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal. This review focuses on ET as one of the potential novel strategies to manage the challenge of opioid withdrawal. An overview of additional players in this process (G proteins and β-arrestin2), and the possible therapeutic implications of these findings are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Potassium Channel Modulators on Morphine Withdrawal in Mice

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    Vikas Seth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of potassium channel openers and blockers on morphine withdrawal syndrome. Mice were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of morphine; four hours later, withdrawal was induced by using an opioid antagonist, naloxone. Mice were observed for 30 minutes for the withdrawal signs ie, the characteristic jumping, hyperactivity, urination and diarrhea. ATP-dependent potassium (K + ATP channel modulators were injected intraperitoneally (i.p. 30 minutes before the naloxone. It was found that a K + ATP channel opener, minoxidil (12.5–50 mg/kg i.p., suppressed the morphine withdrawal significantly. On the other hand, the K + ATP channel blocker glibenclamide (12.5–50 mg/kg i.p. caused a significant facilitation of the withdrawal. Glibenclamide was also found to abolish the minoxidil's inhibitory effect on morphine withdrawal. The study concludes that K + ATP channels play an important role in the genesis of morphine withdrawal and K + ATP channel openers could be useful in the management of opioid withdrawal. As morphine opens K + ATP channels in neurons, the channel openers possibly act by mimicking the effects of morphine on neuronal K + currents.

  12. Prolonged-release melatonin for insomnia – an open-label long-term study of efficacy, safety, and withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemoine P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Lemoine1, Doron Garfinkel2, Moshe Laudon3, Tali Nir3, Nava Zisapel3,41The Clinique Lyon-Lumière, Meyzieu, France; 2Geriatric-Palliative Department, Shoham Geriatric Medical Center, Pardes Hanna, Israel; 3Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 4Department of Neurobiology Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, IsraelBackground: Prolonged-release melatonin (PRM 2 mg is indicated for insomnia in patients aged 55 years and older. A recent double-blind placebo-controlled study demonstrated 6-month efficacy and safety of PRM in insomnia patients aged 18–80 and lack of withdrawal and rebound symptoms upon discontinuation.Objective: To investigate the efficacy, safety, and withdrawal phenomena associated with 6–12 months PRM treatment.Methods: Data from a prospective 6–12-month open-label study of 244 community dwelling adults with primary insomnia, who had participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind dose-ranging trial of PRM. Patients received PRM nightly, followed by a 2-week withdrawal period. Main outcome measures were patient-reported sleep quality ratings (diary, adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory tests recorded at each visit, and withdrawal symptoms (CHESS-84 [Check-list Evaluation of Somatic Symptoms]. Nocturnal urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion, a measure of the endogenous melatonin production, was assessed upon discontinuing long-term PRM.Results: Of the 244 patients, 36 dropped out, 112 completed 6 months of treatment, and the other 96 completed 12 months of treatment. The mean number of nights by which patients reported sleep quality as "good" or "very good" was significantly higher during PRM than before treatment. There was no evidence of tolerance to PRM. Discontinuation of PRM was not associated with rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms; on the contrary, residual benefit was observed. PRM was well tolerated, and there was no suppression of endogenous melatonin production

  13. Effect of Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome on Cerebral Ischemia

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    Mohammad Allahtavakoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sOpioid abuse is still remained a major mental health problem, a criminal legal issue and may cause ischemic brain changes including stroke and brain edema. In the present study, we investigated whether spontaneously withdrawal syndrome might affect stroke outcomes.Materials and MethodsAddiction was induced by progressive incremental doses of morphine over 7 days. Behavioral signs of withdrawal were observed 24, 48 and 72 hr after morphine deprivation and total withdrawal score was determined. Cerebral ischemia was induced 18-22 hr after the last morphine injection by placing a natural clot into the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Neurological deficits were evaluated at 2, 24 and 48 hr after ischemia induction, and infarct size and brain edema were determined at 48 hr after stroke.ResultsMorphine withdrawal animals showed a significant increase in total withdrawal score and decrease of weight gain during the 72 hr after the last morphine injection. Compared to the addicted and control animals, infarct volume and brain edema were significantly increased in the morphine deprived animals (P< 0.05 at 48 hr after cerebral ischemia. Also, neurological deficits were higher in the morphine-withdrawn rats at 48 hr after stroke (P< 0.05. ConclusionOur data indicates that spontaneous withdrawal syndrome may worsen stroke outcomes. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate mechanisms of opiate withdrawal syndrome on stroke.

  14. Keeping your distance: attentional withdrawal in individuals who show physiological signs of social discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpak, Ancret; Loetscher, Tobias; Churches, Owen; Thomas, Nicole A; Spence, Charles J; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2015-04-01

    Being in close social proximity to a stranger is generally perceived to be an uncomfortable experience, which most people seek to avoid. In circumstances where crowding is unavoidable, however, people may seek to withdraw their attention from the other person. This study examined whether social discomfort, as indexed by electrodermal activity, is related to a withdrawal of attention in 28 (m=8, f=20) university students. Students performed a radial line bisection task while alone or together with a stranger facing them. Physiological arousal was indexed by a wrist monitor, which recorded electrodermal activity. Correlational analyses showed that individuals who displayed physiological discomfort when together showed a withdrawal of the perceived midpoint of the line towards them (and away from the stranger). Conversely, individuals who showed no discomfort exhibited an expansion of the perceived midpoint away from them. We propose that participants shift their attention away from the stranger to increase interpersonal distance and reduce anxiety/arousal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Infants' social withdrawal symptoms assessed with a direct infant observation method in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puura, Kaija; Mäntymaa, Mirjami; Luoma, Ilona; Kaukonen, Pälvi; Guedeney, Antoine; Salmelin, Raili; Tamminen, Tuula

    2010-12-01

    Distressed infants may withdraw from social interaction, but recognising infants' social withdrawal is difficult. The aims of the study were to see whether an infant observation method can be reliably used by front line workers, and to examine the prevalence of infants' social withdrawal symptoms. A random sample of 363 families with four, eight or 18-month-old infants participated in the study. The infants were examined by general practitioners (GPs) in well-baby clinics with the Alarm Distress BaBy Scale (ADBB), an observation method developed for clinical settings. A score of five or more on the ADBB Scale in two subsequent assessments at a two-week interval was regarded as a sign of clinically significant infant social withdrawal. Kappas were calculated for the GPs' correct rating of withdrawn/not withdrawn against a set of videotapes rated by developer of the method, Professor Guedeney and his research group. The kappas for their ratings ranged from 0.5 to 1. The frequency of infants scoring above the cut off in two subsequent assessments was 3%. The ADBB Scale is a promising method for detecting infant social withdrawal in front line services. Three percents of infants were showing sustained social withdrawal as a sign of distress in this normal population sample. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Geraniin attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal and Morphine-Induced Tolerance in Mice

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    Ella Anle Kasanga

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Geraniin does not produce any tolerant effects like morphine and also reduced the signs associated with naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in mice. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 199-205

  17. Effects of chronic alcohol consumption, withdrawal and nerve growth factor on neuropeptide Y expression and cholinergic innervation of the rat dentate hilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Pedro A; Rocha, João P; Cardoso, Armando; Vilela, Manuel; Sousa, Sérgio; Madeira, M Dulce

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the vulnerability of the hippocampal formation (HF) to chronic alcohol consumption and withdrawal. Among the brain systems that appear to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of these conditions are the neuropeptide Y (NPY)-ergic and the cholinergic systems. Because these two systems seem to closely interact in the HF, we sought to study the effects of chronic alcohol consumption (6months) and subsequent withdrawal (2months) on the expression of NPY and on the cholinergic innervation of the rat dentate hilus. As such, we have estimated the areal density and the somatic volume of NPY-immunoreactive neurons, and the density of the cholinergic varicosities. In addition, because alcohol consumption and withdrawal are associated with impaired nerve growth factor (NGF) trophic support and the administration of exogenous NGF alters the effects of those conditions on various cholinergic markers, we have also estimated the same morphological parameters in withdrawn rats infused intracerebroventricularly with NGF. NPY expression increased after withdrawal and returned to control values after NGF treatment. Conversely, the somatic volume of these neurons did not differ among all groups. On other hand, the expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) was reduced by 24% in ethanol-treated rats and by 46% in withdrawn rats. The administration of NGF to withdrawn rats increased the VAChT expression to values above control levels. These results show that the effects of prolonged alcohol intake and protracted withdrawal on the hilar NPY expression differ from those induced by shorter exposures to ethanol and by abrupt withdrawal. They also suggest that the normalizing effect of NGF on NPY expression might rely on the NGF-induced improvement of cholinergic neurotransmission in the dentate hilus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychosocial withdrawal characteristics of nicotine compared with alcohol and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hisatsugu; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Takada, Kohji; Miyasato, Katsumasa; Nakamura, Koichi; Yanagita, Tomoji

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the psychosocial characteristics of withdrawal from cigarette smoking in comparison with those from caffeine (CAF) and alcoholic (ALC) beverage withdrawal. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers at a medial level of dependence on both cigarettes (nicotine, NCT) and either CAF or ALC, as judged by the DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence, participated in this study. The participants were required to abstain from smoking and either CAF or ALC for 7 days, each one after another, with a 7-day interval. The order of abstinence was counterbalanced among the participants. Psychosocial parameters, including a desire for substances, social activity function, well-being, withdrawal symptoms, and vital signs, were assessed during the withdrawal periods. The study protocol was approved by the Jikei University Review Board. The results indicated that there were no differences in the maximum level of desire for a substance and the influence on social activity function between NCT and other substances during the withdrawal periods. As for withdrawal symptoms, NCT caused a more intensive degree of irritability than CAF or ALC, and a more intensive degree of difficulty concentrating and restlessness than did withdrawal from ALC. However, the subjective well-being questionnaire indicated no differences in these symptoms between NCT and other substances. The present results suggest that there are no significant differences in psychosocial manifestations regarding the difficulty in abstaining from NCT, CAF, and ALC.

  19. Gut microbiota modulates alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui-Wen; Ge, Chang; Feng, Guo-Xing; Li, Yuan; Luo, Dan; Dong, Jia-Li; Li, Hang; Wang, Haichao; Cui, Ming; Fan, Sai-Jun

    2018-05-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption remains a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Accumulative experimental evidence has suggested an important involvement of gut microbiota in the modulation of host's immunological and neurological functions. However, it is previously unknown whether enteric microbiota is implicated in the formation of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Using a murine model of chronic alcoholism and withdrawal, we examined the impact of alcohol consumption on the possible alterations of gut microbiota as well as alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety and behavior changes. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that alcohol consumption did not alter the abundance of bacteria, but markedly changed the composition of gut microbiota. Moreover, the transplantation of enteric microbes from alcohol-fed mice to normal healthy controls remarkably shaped the composition of gut bacteria, and elicited behavioral signs of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we further confirmed that the expression of genes implicated in alcohol addiction, BDNF, CRHR1 and OPRM1, was also altered by transplantation of gut microbes from alcohol-exposed donors. Collectively, our findings suggested a possibility that the alterations of gut microbiota composition might contribute to the development of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety, and reveal potentially new etiologies for treating alcohol addiction. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Differentiating Delirium From Sedative/Hypnotic-Related Iatrogenic Withdrawal Syndrome: Lack of Specificity in Pediatric Critical Care Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kate; Burns, Michele M; Tasker, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    To identify available assessment tools for sedative/hypnotic iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium in PICU patients, the evidence supporting their use, and describe areas of overlap between the components of these tools and the symptoms of anticholinergic burden in children. Studies were identified using PubMed and EMBASE from the earliest available date until July 3, 2016, using a combination of MeSH terms "delirium," "substance withdrawal syndrome," and key words "opioids," "benzodiazepines," "critical illness," "ICU," and "intensive care." Review article references were also searched. Human studies reporting assessment of delirium or iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome in children 0-18 years undergoing critical care. Non-English language, exclusively adult, and neonatal intensive care studies were excluded. References cataloged by study type, population, and screening process. Iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium are both prevalent in the PICU population. Commonly used scales for delirium and iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome assess signs and symptoms in the motor, behavior, and state domains, and exhibit considerable overlap. In addition, signs and symptoms of an anticholinergic toxidrome (a risk associated with some common PICU medications) overlap with components of these scales, specifically in motor, cardiovascular, and psychiatric domains. Although important studies have demonstrated apparent high prevalence of iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium in the PICU population, the overlap in these scoring systems presents potential difficulty in distinguishing syndromes, both clinically and for research purposes.

  1. Cortisol and somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, W; Auer, C

    2000-05-01

    Somatization symptoms are frequently associated with depression, anxiety, and feelings of distress. These features interact with the activity of the HPA-axis. Therefore we investigated relationships between somatization symptoms and cortisol. Seventy-seven participants were classified into three groups: somatization syndrome (at least eight physical symptoms from the DSM-IV somatization disorder list), somatization syndrome combined with major depression, and healthy controls. The following data were collected: salivary cortisol at three time points (morning, afternoon, evening), nighttime urinary cortisol, serum cortisol after the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, somatization, and hypochondriasis. Salivary cortisol showed typical diurnal variations. However, the groups did not differ on any of the cortisol variables. A possible explanation may be counteracting effects of somatization and depression. Exploratory correlational analyses revealed that associations between cortisol and psychopathological variables were time-dependent. DST results correlated with psychological aspects of somatization, but not with the number of somatoform symptoms per se.

  2. Moves to withdraw nuclear weapons from NATO?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumoulin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The American nuclear landscape in Europe could change in the coming months. The signs are already there, and a new strategic posture will have major implications for the Europeans as well as for the visibility of France deterrent force. Nonetheless, the Georgian crisis, tensions with Iran, Russian muscle flexing and NATO's line cast doubt on the idea that a partial or even complete withdrawal of American B-61 bombs could be on the agenda at the Alliance's 60. anniversary in April 2009. (author)

  3. Drug withdrawal symptoms in children after continuous infusions of fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J P; Nocera, M

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the extent to which critically ill infants exhibited signs and symptoms of narcotic withdrawal after receiving continuous infusions of fentanyl. The convenience sample consisted of 12 pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients under 25 months of age who received fentanyl infusions for at least 24 hours. Drug withdrawal symptoms were monitored using the Neonatal Abstinence Score Tool (NAST), which assigns a score to each behavior indicative of withdrawal. A score of 8 or greater indicates Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). Scoring began 4 hours after discontinuation of fentanyl and was conducted once per hour for 8 hours. Six subjects had a NAST score exceeding 8; these infants frequently exhibited tremors with or without stimulation, increased muscle tone, insomnia, and increased respiratory rate and effort. There were significant correlations between fentanyl dosage and NAST score (r = .76, p observation protocol and a possible weaning regimen after fentanyl is discontinued.

  4. Effect of environmental enrichment on physical and psychological dependence signs and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine-dependent and morphine-withdrawn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami-Abrand Abadi, Arezoo; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Bigdeli, Imanollah

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during morphine dependency and withdrawal on the severity of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, anxiety, and depressive-like behaviors and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine-dependent rats. The rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10 mg/kg, 12 h intervals) of morphine for 14 days following rearing in a standard environment (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for withdrawal signs after naloxone injection, anxiety (the elevated plus maze) and depression-related behavior (sucrose preference test), and voluntary consumption of morphine using a two-bottle choice paradigm, in morphine-dependent and morphine-withdrawn rats. The results showed that EE decreased naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs, but not anxiety or sucrose preference during dependence on morphine. The EE-withdrawn rats showed an increase in the elevated plus maze open arm time and entries and higher levels of sucrose preference than SE rats. Voluntary consumption of morphine was lower in the EE-withdrawn rats than in the SE groups in the second period of drug intake. Thus, exposure to EE reduced the severity of morphine dependence and voluntary consumption of morphine, alongside reductions in anxiety and depression-related behavior in morphine-withdrawn rats.

  5. Opioid withdrawal suppression efficacy of oral dronabinol in opioid dependent humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofwall, Michelle R; Babalonis, Shanna; Nuzzo, Paul A; Elayi, Samy Claude; Walsh, Sharon L

    2016-07-01

    The cannabinoid (CB) system is a rational novel target for treating opioid dependence, a significant public health problem around the world. This proof-of-concept study examined the potential efficacy of a CB1 receptor partial agonist, dronabinol, in relieving signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Twelve opioid dependent adults participated in this 5-week, inpatient, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Volunteers were maintained on double-blind oxycodone (30mg oral, four times/day) and participated in a training session followed by 7 experimental sessions, each testing a single oral test dose (placebo, oxycodone 30 and 60mg, dronabinol 5, 10, 20, and 30mg [decreased from 40mg]). Placebo was substituted for oxycodone maintenance doses for 21h before each session in order to produce measurable opioid withdrawal. Outcomes included observer- and participant-ratings of opioid agonist, opioid withdrawal and psychomotor/cognitive performance. Oxycodone produced prototypic opioid agonist effects (i.e. suppressing withdrawal and increasing subjective effects indicative of abuse liability). Dronabinol 5 and 10mg produced effects most similar to placebo, while the 20 and 30mg doses produced modest signals of withdrawal suppression that were accompanied by dose-related increases in high, sedation, bad effects, feelings of heart racing, and tachycardia. Dronabinol was not liked more than placebo, showed some impairment in cognitive performance, and was identified as marijuana with increasing dose. CB1 receptor activation is a reasonable strategy to pursue for the treatment of opioid withdrawal; however, dronabinol is not a likely candidate given its modest withdrawal suppression effects of limited duration and previously reported tachycardia during opioid withdrawal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Somatic Expression of Psychological Problems (Somatization: Examination with Structural Equation Model

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    Tugba Seda Çolak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is to define which psychological symptoms (somatization, depression, obsessive ‐ compulsive, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism cause somatic reactions at most. Total effect of these psychological symptoms on somatic symptoms had been investigated. Study was carried out with structural equation model to research the relation between the psychological symptoms and somatization. The main material of the research is formed by the data obtained from 492 people. SCL‐90‐R scale was used in order to obtain the data. As a result of the structural equation analysis, it has been found that 1Psychoticism, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation do not predict somatic symptoms.2There is a negative relation between interpersonal sensitivity level mand somatic reactions.3Anxiety symptoms had been found as causative to occur the highest level of somatic reactions.

  7. Effects of chronic morphine and morphine withdrawal on gene expression in rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Stephane; Belkai, Emilie; Crete, Dominique; Cordonnier, Laurie; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Noble, Florence; Marie-Claire, Cynthia

    2008-12-01

    Chronic morphine treatment alters gene expression in brain structures. There are increasing evidences showing a correlation, in gene expression modulation, between blood cells and brain in psychological troubles. To test whether gene expression regulation in blood cells could be found in drug addiction, we investigated gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells of saline and morphine-treated rats. In rats chronically treated with morphine, the behavioral signs of spontaneous withdrawal were observed and a withdrawal score was determined. This score enabled to select the time points at which the animals displayed the mildest and strongest withdrawal signs (12 h and 36 h after the last injection). Oligonucleotide arrays were used to assess differential gene expression in the PBMCs and quantitative real-time RT-PCR to validate the modulation of several candidate genes 12 h and 36 h after the last injection. Among the 812 differentially expressed candidates, several genes (Adcy5, Htr2a) and pathways (Map kinases, G-proteins, integrins) have already been described as modulated in the brain of morphine-treated rats. Sixteen out of the twenty-four tested candidates were validated at 12 h, some of them showed a sustained modulation at 36 h while for most of them the modulation evolved as the withdrawal score increased. This study suggests similarities between the gene expression profile in PBMCs and brain of morphine-treated rats. Thus, the searching of correlations between the severity of the withdrawal and the PBMCs gene expression pattern by transcriptional analysis of blood cells could be promising for the study of the mechanisms of addiction.

  8. Somatic expressions of grief and psychosomatic illness in the works of William Shakespeare and his coevals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Kenneth W

    2012-10-01

    To find out if Shakespeare, famed for his insights into human nature, is exceptional in how much his characters express grief through somatic symptoms and signs, and by physical illness. The texts of all large-scale works currently attributed to Shakespeare (39 plays, 3 long narrative poems) were systematically searched for bodily changes and for evidence of grief as dominating the character's emotional state at the time. The findings were compared with those from a search of 46 works, similar in genre, by 15 prominent playwrights active at the same time as Shakespeare. In Shakespeare 31 different grief-associated symptoms or signs were found, in 140 instances. They are present in all but two of his plays and long poems and involve most systems of the body. With non-Shakespearean writers there were 26 kinds, 132 instances. Twenty-two changes are common to both groups, including fainting, death (sudden or after a decline), and wrinkled face, and symptoms such as malaise, fatigue, awareness of the heart-beat, and anorexia. Ten somatic expressions of grief were found only in Shakespeare, including hyperventilation, hair turning white and premature childbirth. Four were found only in his contemporaries but were trivial or unconvincing. Deaths and non-fatal illnesses are prevalent in Shakespeare. Grieving Shakespearean characters exhibit many somatic symptoms and signs and a wide range of psychosomatic illnesses. This panoply of psychosomatic phenomena may be an artistic artefact but it also confirms that Shakespeare's empathy with grieving humanity was unrivalled. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Flumazenil in treatment benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramah Aleksandar J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today in the world and in Serbia is growing number of people who are addicted to benzodiazepine. A particular problem is the process of detoxification and treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome due to a recurrence of symptoms of anxiety disorder, availability of benzodiazepines, falling motivation. Standard procedures have often proved unsuccessful and the last decade, and the search for new protocols, including the flumazenil, benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, is actualized. Case report: The patient aged 48 years was admitted to the specialist psychiatric clinic, for treatment of benzodiazepine addiction. Anxiety disorder was diagnosed since adolescence perennial addiction on benzodiazepines and the initial withdrawal syndrome. Former motivated topical treatments for detoxification were unsuccessful. The presence of dual diagnosis, persistence of both disorders in perennial cycle, treatment resistance and actual motivation contributed to the decision to opt rapid detoxification from benzodiazepines by flumazenil application protocol, for hospital treatment by adjuvant therapy with lamotrigine. After discharge from hospital in stable condition it was with no signs of withdrawal syndrome and a rebound of anxiety symptoms. Lamotrigine medication continued including CBT, held during the one-year abstinence monitoring, with sufficient social functionality. Discussion: The efficacy and safety of flumazenil in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome was investigated in numerous clinical trials, and the mechanism of action is complex, from the benzodiazepine antagonist to inverse agonist in certain circumstances, as well as 'up-regulation' receptors, which together leads to a reduction in symptoms of abstinence syndrome and anxiety in the longer term after treatment, thereby acting favorably to the adherence and remission. Conclusions: Flumazenil protocol is an efficient method in the treatment of the benzodiazepine

  10. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during ethanol withdrawal in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsen, R; Barry, D I; Hertz, M M; Klinken, L

    1979-09-14

    The ethanol withdrawal syndrome in man and animals is characterized by signs of CNS hyperactivity although a direct measurement of a physiological variable reflecting this CNS hyperactivity has never been performed in untreated man or in animals. We induced ethanol dependence in the rat by means of intragastric intubation with a 20% w/v ethanol solution, thus keeping the animals in a state of continuous severe intoxication for 3--4 days; during the subsequent state of withdrawal characterized by tremor, rigidity, stereotyped movements and general seizures a 25% increase in cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2) could be measured; this increase was not due to catecholamines originating from adrenal medulla as adrenomedullectomized animals showed a similar increase in CMRO2 (28%); the withdrawing animals showed a corresponding cerebral blood flow (CBF) increase. The elevated CMRO2 and CBF could be reduced to normal by administration of a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker (propranolol 2 mg/kg i.v.), and hence the increased CMRO2 during ethanol withdrawal could be related to catecholaminergic systems in the brain, e.g. the noradrenergic locus coeruleus system which is anatomically well suited as a general activating system. This interpretation is supported by the earlier neurochemical finding of an increased cerebral noradrenaline turnover during ethanol withdrawal. The exact mechanism underlying the increased cerebral oxygen consumption during ethanol withdrawal and the effect of propranolol on cerebral function during this condition remains to be clarified.

  11. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

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    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germination and that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol of regeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculated on WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D (22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture medium containing NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction (8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein and the development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promoted in WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containing hydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. During the maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages. The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histological studies.

  12. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812343Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germinationand that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol ofregeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculatedon WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein orglutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D(22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed caseinor glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture mediumcontaining NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction(8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein andthe development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promotedin WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containinghydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. Duringthe maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages.The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histologicalstudies.

  13. Managing acute alcohol withdrawal with Homoeopathy: A prospective, observational, multicentre exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debadatta Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol dependence is a common social problem which may be associated with other risk factors and co-morbidities. Abrupt cessation of alcohol intake may provoke an acute alcohol withdrawal phase with varying degrees of signs and symptoms. In conventional medical system, specific pharmacological interventions are used for management of Acute Alcohol Withdrawal (AAW. There exists a need to explore safe and holistic treatment of AAW. The present work reports the results of a prospective, observational, exploratory, multicentre trial (2008-2011 to assess the role of Homoeopathy in AAW. Materials and Methods: Individualised Homoeopathy was given to 112 patients reporting with AAW. The clinical assessment was done for 05 days using Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment Scale of Alcohol-Revised (CIWA-Ar. Post-withdrawal phase, quality of life of patients was assessed at end of 01 st , 03 rd and 06 th month using World Health Organisation quality of life (WHOQOL- BREF. Results and Analysis: There was a significant decrease in CIWA-Ar mean scores and increase in quality of life score (P < 0.001. The most common remedies used were Arsenicum album, Lycopodium clavatum, Belladonna, Nux vomica and Pulsatilla. Conclusion: The results of current observational pilot study suggest the promising use of Homoeopathy in the management of acute alcohol withdrawal. Further studies with large sample size and rigorous design are warranted.

  14. The Combination Very Low-Dose Naltrexone–Clonidine in the Management of Opioid Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannelli, Paolo; Peindl, Kathleen; Wu, Li-Tzy; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Gorelick, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The management of withdrawal absorbs substantial clinical efforts in opioid dependence (OD). The real challenge lies in improving current pharmacotherapies. Although widely used, clonidine causes problematic adverse effects and does not alleviate important symptoms of opioid withdrawal, alone or in combination with the opioid antagonist naltrexone. Very low-dose naltrexone (VLNTX) has been shown to attenuate withdrawal intensity and noradrenaline release following opioid agonist taper, suggesting a combination with clonidine may result in improved safety and efficacy. Objectives We investigated the effects of a VLNTX–clonidine combination in a secondary analysis of data from a double-blind, randomized opioid detoxification trial. Methods Withdrawal symptoms and treatment completion were compared following VLNTX (.125 or .25 mg/day) and clonidine (.1–.2 mg q6h) in 127 individuals with OD undergoing 6-day methadone inpatient taper at a community program. Results VLNTX was more effective than placebo or clonidine in reducing symptoms and signs of withdrawal. The use of VLNTX in combination with clonidine was associated with attenuated subjective withdrawal compared with each medication alone, favoring detoxification completion in comparison with clonidine or naltrexone placebo. VLNTX/clonidine was effective in reducing symptoms that are both undertreated and well controlled with clonidine treatment and was not associated with significant adverse events compared with other treatments. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Preliminary results elucidate neurobiological mechanisms of OD and support the utility of controlled studies on a novel VLNTX + low-dose clonidine combination for the management of opioid withdrawal. PMID:22233189

  15. The Successful Treatment of Opioid Withdrawal-Induced Refractory Muscle Spasms with 5-HTP in a Patient Intolerant to Clonidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dais, Jennifer; Khosia, Ankur; Doulatram, Gulshan

    2015-01-01

    Instituting drug holidays for chronic opioid using patients is becoming commonplace for pain practitioners initiating procedures such as intrathecal pump or spinal cord stimulator trials. As such, pain practitioners need to be adept in their management of acute opioid withdrawal. Successfully weaning an opioid dependent patient off of chronic opioids requires a thorough knowledge of the available adjuvants to assist in this process. However, that selection can become exhausted by adjuvant side effects or by ineffective attenuation of opioid withdrawal symptoms. In that case, novel drugs, or novel application of currently available medications must be sought after to assist in the drug holiday. We present a case in which refractory muscle spasms secondary to opioid withdrawal were successfully treated with an over-the-counter supplement that is not typically used for the attenuation of opioid withdrawal symptoms. In a patient intolerant to the side effects of clonidine, we were able to successfully wean chronic opiates by treating refractory muscle spasms with the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). We hypothesize that our success with this medication gives further credence to the role of serotonin in opioid withdrawal somatic symptomatology, and supports the need for future research to clarify the role of serotonin precursors or serotonin modulating drugs as potential alternatives in those unable to follow standard treatment protocols.

  16. Somatic symptom disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Somatic symptom disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . ...

  17. Buprenorphine for managing opioid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; White, Jason M; Mbewe, Dalitso

    2017-02-21

    Managed withdrawal is a necessary step prior to drug-free treatment or as the endpoint of substitution treatment. To assess the effects of buprenorphine versus tapered doses of methadone, alpha 2 -adrenergic agonists, symptomatic medications or placebo, or different buprenorphine regimens for managing opioid withdrawal, in terms of the intensity of the withdrawal syndrome experienced, duration and completion of treatment, and adverse effects. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 11, 2016), MEDLINE (1946 to December week 1, 2016), Embase (to 22 December 2016), PsycINFO (1806 to December week 3, 2016), and the Web of Science (to 22 December 2016) and handsearched the reference lists of articles. Randomised controlled trials of interventions using buprenorphine to modify the signs and symptoms of withdrawal in participants who were primarily opioid dependent. Comparison interventions involved reducing doses of methadone, alpha 2 -adrenergic agonists (clonidine or lofexidine), symptomatic medications or placebo, and different buprenorphine-based regimens. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included 27 studies involving 3048 participants. The main comparators were clonidine or lofexidine (14 studies). Six studies compared buprenorphine versus methadone, and seven compared different rates of buprenorphine dose reduction. We assessed 12 studies as being at high risk of bias in at least one of seven domains of methodological quality. Six of these studies compared buprenorphine with clonidine or lofexidine and two with methadone; the other four studies compared different rates of buprenorphine dose reduction.For the comparison of buprenorphine and methadone in tapered doses, meta-analysis was not possible for the outcomes of intensity of withdrawal or adverse effects. However, information reported by the individual studies was suggestive of buprenorphine and methadone having similar capacity to

  18. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    on the recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides...

  19. Are signs of temporomandibular disorders stable and predictable in adolescents with headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeström, M-R; Le Bell, Y; Laimi, K; Anttila, P; Aromaa, M; Jämsä, T; Metsähonkala, L; Vahlberg, T; Viander, S; Alanen, P; Sillanpää, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to study changes in signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and factors predicting TMD signs in adolescents with and without headache. A population-based sample (n = 212) of 13-year-olds with and without headache was re-examined at the age of 16. The study included a questionnaire, face-to-face interview and somatic examination. In addition, a neurological examination, a muscle evaluation and a stomatognathic examination were performed. Significant changes were seen in TMD signs during the follow-up, but TMD signs at the end of the follow-up could not be predicted by baseline headache, sleeping difficulties, depression or muscle pain. TMD signs at the age of 16 were associated with female gender and muscle pain. We conclude that considerable changes in TMD signs occur in the follow-up of adolescents with and without headache. Headache-related TMD are not predictable in adolescents with and without headache.

  20. Further evidence for a broader concept of somatization disorder using the somatic symptom index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, W; Rief, W; Fichter, M M

    1995-01-01

    Somatization syndromes were defined in a sample of 102 psychosomatic inpatients according to the restrictive criteria of DSM-III-R somatization disorder and the broader diagnostic concept of the Somatic Symptom Index (SSI). Both groups showed a qualitatively similar pattern of psychopathological comorbidity and had elevated scores on measures of depression, hypochondriasis, and anxiety. A good discrimination between mild and severe forms of somatization was found by using the SSI criterion. SSI use accounted for a substantial amount of comorbidity variance, with rates of 15%-20% for depression, 16% for hypochondriasis, and 13% for anxiety. The results provide further evidence for the validity of the SSI concept, which reflects the clinical relevance of somatization in addition to the narrow definition of somatization disorder.

  1. [An examination of the determinants of social withdrawal and affinity for social withdrawal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Asami; Matsui, Yutaka; Takatsuka, Yusuke

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the determinants of social withdrawal using data from a survey by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office for Youth Affairs and Public Safety (2008). In addition, this study identified young people who showed an affinity for social withdrawal although they were not in a state of withdrawal, and examined the determinants of an affinity for social withdrawal. The results of stepwise discriminant analysis showed that factors such as social phobia, depression, violence, and emotional bonds with family differentiated between the general youth group and the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". Social phobia, violence, and refusal to be interfered in self-decision making differentiated between the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". This study shows that an "affinity group" should be cared as well as an actual withdrawal group.

  2. Is somatic comorbidity associated with more somatic symptoms, mental distress, or unhealthy lifestyle in elderly cancer survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Ellen Karine; Fosså, Sophie D; Dahl, Alv A

    2009-06-01

    The associations of lifestyle factors, somatic symptoms, mental distress, and somatic comorbidity in elderly cancer survivors have not been well studied. This study examines these associations among elderly cancer survivors (age >or=65 years) in a population-based sample. A cross-sectional comparative study of Norwegian elderly cancer survivors. Combining information from The Norwegian Cancer Registry, and by self-reporting, 972 elderly cancer survivors were identified, of whom 632 (65%) had somatic comorbidity and 340 did not. Elderly cancer survivors with somatic comorbidity had significantly higher BMI, more performed minimal physical activity, had more somatic symptoms, used more medication, and had more frequently seen a medical doctor than survivors without somatic comorbidity. In multivariable analyses, unhealthy lifestyle and higher somatic symptoms scores were significantly associated with cancer cases with somatic comorbidity. In univariate analyses those with somatic comorbidity were significantly older, had lower levels of education, higher proportions of BMI >or= 30, less physical activity, poorer self-rated health, higher somatic symptoms score, more mental distress, had more frequently seen a medical doctor last year, and more frequently used daily medication. Our outcome measures of lifestyle, somatic symptoms and mental distress were all significantly associated with somatic comorbidity in elderly cancer survivors, however only lifestyle and somatic symptoms were significant in multivariable analyses. In elderly cancer survivors not only cancer, but also somatic comorbidity, deserve attention. Such comorbidity is associated with unhealthy lifestyles, more somatic symptoms and mental distress which should be evaluated and eventually treated.

  3. Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoptaw, Steven J; Kao, Uyen; Heinzerling, Keith; Ling, Walter

    2009-04-15

    Few studies examined treatments for amphetamine withdrawal, although it is a common problem among amphetamine users. Its symptoms, in particular intense craving, may be a critical factor leading to relapse to amphetamine use. In clinical practice, medications for cocaine withdrawal are commonly used to manage amphetamine withdrawal although the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of these two illicit substances are different. To assess the effectiveness of pharmacological alone or in combination with psychosocial treatment for amphetamine withdrawals on discontinuation rates, global state, withdrawal symptoms, craving, and other outcomes. MEDLINE (1966 - 2008), CINAHL (1982 - 2008), PsycINFO (1806 - 2008), CENTRAL (Cochrane Library 2008 issue 2), references of obtained articles. All randomised controlled and clinical trials evaluating pharmacological and or psychosocial treatments (alone or combined) for people with amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. Two authors evaluated and extracted data independently. The data were extracted from intention-to-treat analyses. The Relative Risk (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to assess dichotomous outcomes. The Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) with 95% CI was used to assess continuous outcomes. Four randomised controlled trials (involving 125 participants) met the inclusion criteria for the review. Two studies found that amineptine significantly reduced discontinuation rates and improved overall clinical presentation, but did not reduce withdrawal symptoms or craving compared to placebo. The benefits of mirtazapine over placebo for reducing amphetamine withdrawal symptoms were not as clear. One study suggested that mirtazapine may reduce hyperarousal and anxiety symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. A more recent study failed to find any benefit of mirtazapine over placebo on retention or on amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. No medication is effective for treatment of amphetamine

  4. Opiate and opioid withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opiate withdrawal; Oxycontin - opiate withdrawal; Hydrocodone - opiate withdrawal; Detox - opiates; Detoxification - opiates ... facilities set up to help people with detoxification (detox). In a regular hospital, if symptoms are severe. ...

  5. In vivo and in vitro attenuation of naloxone-precipitated experimental opioid withdrawal syndrome by insulin and selective KATP channel modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabhat; Sharma, Bhupesh; Gupta, Surbhi; Sharma, B M

    2015-01-01

    Opiate exposure for longer duration develops state of dependence in humans and animals, which is revealed by signs and symptoms of withdrawal precipitated by opioid receptor antagonists. The sudden withdrawal of opioids produces a withdrawal syndrome in opioid-dependent subjects. Insulin and ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel-mediated glucose homeostasis have been shown to modulate morphine withdrawal. Present study has been structured to investigate the role of insulin and pharmacological modulator of KATP channel (gliclazide) in experimental morphine withdrawal syndrome, both invivo and invitro. In this study, naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice (invivo) as well as in rat ileum (invitro) were utilized to assess opioid withdrawal phenomenon. Morphine withdrawal syndromes like jumping and rearing frequency, forepaw licking, circling, fore paw tremor, wet dog shake, sneezing, overall morphine withdrawal severity (OMWS), serum glucose, brain malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), nitrite/nitrate, and calcium (Ca(+2)) were assessed. Naloxone has significantly increased morphine withdrawal syndrome, both invivo and invitro. Insulin and gliclazide have significantly attenuated, naloxone induced behavioral changes like jumping and rearing frequency, forepaw licking, wet dog shake, sneezing, straightening, circling, OMWS, and various biochemical impairments such as serum glucose, brain MDA, GSH, nitrite/nitrate, and Ca(+2) in morphine-dependent animals (invivo). In vitro, insulin and gliclazide have significantly reduced naloxone-induced contraction in morphine-withdrawn rat ileum preparation. Insulin and gliclazide (KATP channel blocker) have attenuated naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome, both invivo and invitro. Thus, insulin and KATP channel modulation may provide new avenues for research in morphine withdrawal.

  6. Negative Affect and Excessive Alcohol Intake Incubate during Protracted Withdrawal from Binge-Drinking in Adolescent, But Not Adult, Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziya M. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Binge-drinking is common in underage alcohol users, yet we know little regarding the biopsychological impact of binge-drinking during early periods of development. Prior work indicated that adolescent male C57BL6/J mice with a 2-week history of binge-drinking (PND28-41 are resilient to the anxiogenic effects of early alcohol withdrawal. Herein, we employed a comparable Drinking-in-the-Dark model to determine how a prior history of binge-drinking during adolescence (EtOHadolescents influences emotionality (assayed with the light-dark box, marble burying test, and the forced swim test and the propensity to consume alcohol in later life, compared to animals without prior drinking experience. For additional comparison, adult mice (EtOHadults with comparable drinking history (PND56-69 were subdivided into groups tested for anxiety/drinking either on PND70 (24 h withdrawal or PND98 (28 days withdrawal. Tissue from the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA was examined by immunoblotting for changes in the expression of glutamate-related proteins. EtOHadults exhibited some signs of hyperanxiety during early withdrawal (PND70, but not during protracted withdrawal (PND98. In contrast, EtOHadolescents exhibited robust signs of anxiety-l and depressive-like behaviors when tested as adults on PND70. While all alcohol-experienced animals subsequently consumed more alcohol than mice drinking for the first time, alcohol intake was greatest in EtOHadolescents. Independent of drinking age, the manifestation of withdrawal-induced hyperanxiety was accompanied by reduced Homer2b expression within the CeA and increased Group1 mGlu receptor expression within the AcbSh. The present data provide novel evidence that binge-drinking during adolescence produces a state characterized by profound negative affect and excessive alcohol consumption that incubates with the passage of time in withdrawal. These data extend our prior studies on the

  7. Experimental immunization of ponies with Strongylus vulgaris radiation-attenuated larvae or crude soluble somatic extracts from larval or adult stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, C M; Taylor, H W; Chapman, M R; Klei, T R

    1994-12-01

    Protection from Strongylus vulgaris infection through immunization with radiation-attenuated third-stage larvae (L3) or crude soluble homogenates from larval or adult stages was examined. Yearling ponies raised parasite-free were divided into 3 immunization groups: radiation-attenuated L3; soluble adult somatic extracts; larval somatic extracts with excretory/secretory products (E/S) from in vitro culture; and 1 medium control group. Ponies were immunized twice; attenuated larvae were administered orally and somatic extracts or controls injected intramuscularly with adjuvant. Approximately 6 wk following the second immunization, all ponies were challenged. Necrospy examinations were performed 6 wk following challenge. Irradiated larvae recipients had the fewest postchallenge clinical signs and lesions and were 91% protected from infection determined by larval recoveries from arterial dissections. Soluble antigen recipients and controls had similar larval recoveries and thus equal susceptibility to challenge. Soluble antigen recipients had more severe clinical signs and lesions than controls, suggesting that parenteral immunization exacerbated postchallenge inflammatory responses. Protection by immunization with irradiated larvae was associated with an anamnestic eosinophilia and postimmunization antibody recognition of S. vulgaris L3 surface antigens. Histologic staining of eosinophils within tissues of this group suggested that this immunization induced a cytophilic antibody response that facilitated degranulation.

  8. Hypochondriasis and somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, R

    1987-11-20

    Between 60% and 80% of healthy individuals experience somatic symptoms in any one week. About 10% to 20% of a random sample of people worry intermittently about illness. A substantial proportion of patients present physicians with somatic complaints for which no organic cause can be found. Patients who are hypochondriacal do not understand the benign nature of functional somatic symptoms and interpret these as evidence of disease. Hypochondriacal concerns range from common short-lived worries to persistent and distressing fears or convictions of having a disease. Hypochondriasis can be secondary to other psychiatric disorders (eg, melancholia or panic disorder), and hypochondriacal attitudes remit when the primary disorder is successfully treated. Patients with primary hypochondriasis are also anxious or depressed, but the fear of disease, or the false belief of having a disease, persists and is the most important feature of their psychopathology. There are substantial differences among hypochondriacal patients in their personalities and psychopathologies. Psychotherapy as well as psychotropic drugs are effective in the treatment of functional somatic symptoms. There are no adequate controlled studies on the value of psychotherapy in hypochondriasis; the recommended guidelines are based on uncontrolled studies of hypochondriasis and on controlled studies of the psychotherapy in similar disorders. The prognosis of functional somatic symptoms as well as that of hypochondriasis is good in a substantial proportion of patients.

  9. Withdrawal: Expanding a Key Addiction Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Megan E

    2015-12-01

    Withdrawal is an essential component of classical addiction theory; it is a vital manifestation of dependence and motivates relapse. However, the traditional conceptualization of withdrawal as a cohesive collection of symptoms that emerge during drug deprivation and decline with either the passage of time or reinstatement of drug use, may be inadequate to explain scientific findings or fit with modern theories of addiction. This article expands the current understanding of tobacco withdrawal by examining: (1) withdrawal variability; (2) underlying causes of withdrawal variability, including biological and person factors, environmental influences, and the influence of highly routinized behavioral patterns; (3) new withdrawal symptoms that allow for enhanced characterization of the withdrawal experience; and (4) withdrawal-related cognitive processes. These topics provide guidance regarding the optimal assessment of withdrawal and illustrate the potential impact modern withdrawal conceptualization and assessment could have on identifying treatment targets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Somatization disorders of the urogenital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthert, E A

    2002-11-01

    Diffuse symptoms in the urogenital region can frequently be explained by somatization disorders. Since they cannot be proven either by laboratory tests or with common technical diagnostic methods, somatization disorders should always be taken into consideration. Somatization disorders are to be considered functional disorders. Since somatization disorders due to muscular tension prevail in the urogenital region, the functional disturbance can be explained by the muscular tension. Subsequently, muscular tension causes the pathophysiological development of symptoms. As a rule they appear as myofascial pain or disorder. Muscular tension can have a psychic origin. The absence of urological findings is typical. Males and females between the ages of 16 and 75 can be affected by somatization disorders in the urogenital region. Somatization disorders due to muscular tension belong to the large group of symptoms due to tension. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as well as the pathophysiology of somatization disorders due to muscular tension are illustrated by two detailed case-reports.

  11. Control rod withdrawal monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisuya, Mitsuo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the power ramp even if a plurality of control rods are subjected to withdrawal operation at a time, by reducing the reactivity applied to the reactor. Constitution: The control rod withdrawal monitoring device is adapted to monitor and control the withdrawal of the control rods depending on the reactor power and the monitoring region thereof is divided into a control rod group monitoring region a transition region and a control group monitoring not interfere region. In a case if the distance between a plurality of control rods for which the withdrawal positions are selected is less than a limiting value, the coordinate for the control rods, distance between the control rods and that the control rod distance is shorter are displayed on a display panel, and the withdrawal for the control rods are blocked. Accordingly, even if a plurality of control rods are subjected successively to the withdrawal operation contrary to the control rod withdrawal sequence upon high power operation of the reactor, the power ramp can be prevented. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  13. Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkolÿ Thege Barna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.

  14. Exploring relationships for visceral and somatic pain with autonomic control and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Peter; Kishor, Jessin; Worthen, Sian F; Gregory, Lloyd J; Aziz, Qasim

    2009-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) integrates afferent and motor activity for homeostatic processes including pain. The aim of the study was to compare hitherto poorly characterised relations between brainstem autonomic control and personality in response to visceral and somatic pain. Eighteen healthy subjects (16 females, mean age 34) had recordings during rest and pain of heart rate (HR), cardiac vagal tone (CVT), cardiac sensitivity to baroreflex (CSB), skin conductance level (SC), cardiac sympathetic index (CSI) and mean blood pressure (MBP). Visceral pain was induced by balloon distension in proximal (PB) and distal (DB) oesophagus and somatic pain by nail-bed pressure (NBP). Eight painful stimuli were delivered at each site and unpleasantness and intensity measured. Personality was profiled with the Big Five inventory. (1) Oesophageal intubation evoked "fight-flight" responses: HR and sympathetic (CSI, SC, MBP) elevation with parasympathetic (CVT) withdrawal (pintrovert subjects had greater positive pain-related CVT slope change (neuroticism r 0.8, p<0.05; extroversion r -0.5, p<0.05). Pain-evoked heart rate increases were mediated by parasympathetic and sympathetic co-activation - a novel finding in humans but recently described in mammals too. Visceral pain-related parasympathetic change correlated with personality. ANS defence responses are nuanced and may relate to personality type for visceral pain. Clinical relevance of these findings warrants further exploration.

  15. Osteoporosis and Somatization of Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papanikou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress can now be physiologically traced as a significant player in the creation of osteoporotic bones. The present pilot study involved 100 women (N = 42 have been diagnosed with osteopenia, N = 21 have been diagnosed with osteoporosis, N = 37 had a non-osteoporotic condition who participated in the Hellenic Society of Osteoporosis Association Support. Correlations between somatic symptoms of anxiety and osteoporosis, and among medications and somatization in women were explored. Assessments were based on a self-report demographic questionnaire and on the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST administered for detection of anxiety disorder and somatization. Statistical analysis detected non-significant differences regarding the correlation between anxiety symptomatology or somatization due to osteoporosis and osteopenia diagnosis. The same pattern is observed among women’s age group, the occupational and marital status. Hypothesis that the osteoporosis and osteopenia group would manifest significant relationships with the age group and medicines was confirmed, as well as between somatization and medicines that women with osteoporosis and osteopenia undertake. The results suggest that women are not prone to manifest anxiety or somatization in relation to the osteoporosis condition. However, the majority of women with osteoporosis and osteopenia consume more than two medicines other than those for osteoporosis. This quantity and combination they undertake appear to contribute and deteriorate their anxiety/somatization symptomatology. Further research based on a larger sample would give more definite results.

  16. Hemoglobin promotes somatic embryogenesis in peanut cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, N; Anthony, P; Davey, M R; Power, J B; Lowe, K C

    2004-02-01

    Critical parameters influencing somatic embryogenesis include growth regulators and oxygen supply. Consequently, the present investigation has focused on optimization of a somatic embryogenic system for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through media supplementation with the auxin, picloram. The latter at 30 mg L(-1) was optimal for inducing regeneration of somatic embryos from cultured explants of zygotic embryos. In contrast, somatic embryogenesis did not occur in the absence of this growth regulator. An assessment has also been made of the beneficial effect on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of the commercial hemoglobin (Hb) solution, Erythrogen. Hemoglobin at 1:50 and 1:100 (v:v) stimulated increases in mean fresh weight (up to a maximum of 57% over control), mean number of explants producing somatic embryos (15%) and mean number of somatic embryos per explant (29%).

  17. The somatic symptom scale-8 (SSS-8): a brief measure of somatic symptom burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierk, Benjamin; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Kroenke, Kurt; Spangenberg, Lena; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Löwe, Bernd

    2014-03-01

    Somatic symptoms are the core features of many medical diseases, and they are used to evaluate the severity and course of illness. The 8-item Somatic Symptom Scale (SSS-8) was recently developed as a brief, patient-reported outcome measure of somatic symptom burden, but its reliability, validity, and usefulness have not yet been tested. To investigate the reliability, validity, and severity categories as well as the reference scores of the SSS-8. A national, representative general-population survey was performed between June 15, 2012, and July 15, 2012, in Germany, including 2510 individuals older than 13 years. The SSS-8 mean (SD), item-total correlations, Cronbach α, factor structure, associations with measures of construct validity (Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 scale, visual analog scale for general health status, 12-month health care use), severity categories, and percentile rank reference scores. The SSS-8 had excellent item characteristics and good reliability (Cronbach α = 0.81). The factor structure reflects gastrointestinal, pain, fatigue, and cardiopulmonary aspects of the general somatic symptom burden. Somatic symptom burden as measured by the SSS-8 was significantly associated with depression (r = 0.57 [95% CI, 0.54 to 0.60]), anxiety (r = 0.55 [95% CI, 0.52 to 0.58]), general health status (r = -0.24 [95% CI, -0.28 to -0.20]), and health care use (incidence rate ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.10 to 1.14]). The SSS-8 severity categories were calculated in accordance with percentile ranks: no to minimal (0-3 points), low (4-7 points), medium (8-11 points), high (12-15 points), and very high (16-32 points) somatic symptom burden. For every SSS-8 severity category increase, there was a 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) increase in health care visits. The SSS-8 is a reliable and valid self-report measure of somatic symptom burden. Cutoff scores identify individuals with low, medium, high, and very high somatic

  18. Evaluation of Nine Somatic Variant Callers for Detection of Somatic Mutations in Exome and Targeted Deep Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Thomassen, Mads; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Kruse, Torben A; Larsen, Martin Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing is extensively applied to catalogue somatic mutations in cancer, in research settings and increasingly in clinical settings for molecular diagnostics, guiding therapy decisions. Somatic variant callers perform paired comparisons of sequencing data from cancer tissue and matched normal tissue in order to detect somatic mutations. The advent of many new somatic variant callers creates a need for comparison and validation of the tools, as no de facto standard for detection of somatic mutations exists and only limited comparisons have been reported. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation using exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing data of paired tumor-normal samples from five breast cancer patients to evaluate the performance of nine publicly available somatic variant callers: EBCall, Mutect, Seurat, Shimmer, Indelocator, Somatic Sniper, Strelka, VarScan 2 and Virmid for the detection of single nucleotide mutations and small deletions and insertions. We report a large variation in the number of calls from the nine somatic variant callers on the same sequencing data and highly variable agreement. Sequencing depth had markedly diverse impact on individual callers, as for some callers, increased sequencing depth highly improved sensitivity. For SNV calling, we report EBCall, Mutect, Virmid and Strelka to be the most reliable somatic variant callers for both exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing. For indel calling, EBCall is superior due to high sensitivity and robustness to changes in sequencing depths.

  19. The cannabis withdrawal syndrome: current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Udo; Preuss, Ulrich W

    2017-01-01

    The cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS) is a criterion of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition) and cannabis dependence (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10). Several lines of evidence from animal and human studies indicate that cessation from long-term and regular cannabis use precipitates a specific withdrawal syndrome with mainly mood and behavioral symptoms of light to moderate intensity, which can usually be treated in an outpatient setting. Regular cannabis intake is related to a desensitization and downregulation of human brain cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors. This starts to reverse within the first 2 days of abstinence and the receptors return to normal functioning within 4 weeks of abstinence, which could constitute a neurobiological time frame for the duration of CWS, not taking into account cellular and synaptic long-term neuroplasticity elicited by long-term cannabis use before cessation, for example, being possibly responsible for cannabis craving. The CWS severity is dependent on the amount of cannabis used pre-cessation, gender, and heritable and several environmental factors. Therefore, naturalistic severity of CWS highly varies. Women reported a stronger CWS than men including physical symptoms, such as nausea and stomach pain. Comorbidity with mental or somatic disorders, severe CUD, and low social functioning may require an inpatient treatment (preferably qualified detox) and post-acute rehabilitation. There are promising results with gabapentin and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol analogs in the treatment of CWS. Mirtazapine can be beneficial to treat CWS insomnia. According to small studies, venlafaxine can worsen the CWS, whereas other antidepressants, atomoxetine, lithium, buspirone, and divalproex had no relevant effect. Certainly, further research is required with respect to the impact of the CWS treatment setting on long-term CUD prognosis and with respect to

  20. Evaluation of Nine Somatic Variant Callers for Detection of Somatic Mutations in Exome and Targeted Deep Sequencing Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bruun Krøigård

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing is extensively applied to catalogue somatic mutations in cancer, in research settings and increasingly in clinical settings for molecular diagnostics, guiding therapy decisions. Somatic variant callers perform paired comparisons of sequencing data from cancer tissue and matched normal tissue in order to detect somatic mutations. The advent of many new somatic variant callers creates a need for comparison and validation of the tools, as no de facto standard for detection of somatic mutations exists and only limited comparisons have been reported. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation using exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing data of paired tumor-normal samples from five breast cancer patients to evaluate the performance of nine publicly available somatic variant callers: EBCall, Mutect, Seurat, Shimmer, Indelocator, Somatic Sniper, Strelka, VarScan 2 and Virmid for the detection of single nucleotide mutations and small deletions and insertions. We report a large variation in the number of calls from the nine somatic variant callers on the same sequencing data and highly variable agreement. Sequencing depth had markedly diverse impact on individual callers, as for some callers, increased sequencing depth highly improved sensitivity. For SNV calling, we report EBCall, Mutect, Virmid and Strelka to be the most reliable somatic variant callers for both exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing. For indel calling, EBCall is superior due to high sensitivity and robustness to changes in sequencing depths.

  1. Is this ?complicated? opioid withdrawal?

    OpenAIRE

    Parkar, S.R.; Seethalakshmi, R; Adarkar, S; Kharawala, S

    2006-01-01

    Seven patients with opioid dependence admitted in the de-addiction centre for detoxification developed convulsions and delirium during the withdrawal phase. After ruling out all other possible causes of these complications, opioid withdrawal seemed to emerge as the most likely explanation. The unpredictability of the course of opioid dependence and withdrawal needs to be considered when treating patients with opioid dependence.

  2. Extending a structural model of somatization to South Koreans: Cultural values, somatization tendency, and the presentation of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu; Min, Seongho; Sun, Jiahong; Kim, Se Joo; Ahn, Joung-Sook; Peng, Yunshi; Noh, Samuel; Ryder, Andrew G

    2015-05-01

    Somatization refers to the tendency to emphasize somatic symptoms when experiencing a psychiatric disturbance. This tendency has been widely reported in patients from East Asian cultural contexts suffering from depression. Recent research in two Chinese samples have demonstrated that the local cultural script for depression, involving two aspects-the experience and expression of distress (EED) and conceptualization and communication of distress (CCD)-can be evoked to help explain somatization. Given the beliefs and practices broadly shared across Chinese and South Korean cultural contexts, the current study seeks to replicate this explanatory model in South Koreans. Our sample included 209 psychiatric outpatients from Seoul and Wonju, South Korea. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess somatization tendency, adherence to traditional values, and psychological and somatic symptoms of depression. Results from SEM showed that the EED and CCD factors of somatization tendency were differently associated with cultural values and somatic symptoms, replicating our previous findings in Chinese outpatients. The reliance on a brief self-report measure of somatization tendency, not originally designed to assess separate EED and CCD factors, highlights the need for measurement tools for the assessment of cultural scripts in cross-cultural depression research. The replication of the Chinese structural model of somatization in South Korea lends empirical support to the view that somatization can be understood as the consequence of specific cultural scripts. These scripts involve the experience and expression of distress as well as culturally meaningful ways in which this distress is conceptualized and communicated to others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to neurochemical changes in the nucleus accumbens that are not fully reversed by withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Pedro A; Neves, João; Vilela, Manuel; Sousa, Sérgio; Cruz, Catarina; Madeira, M Dulce

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and acetylcholine-containing interneurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) seem to play a major role in the rewarding effects of alcohol. This study investigated the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and subsequent withdrawal and the expression of NPY and acetylcholine in the NAc, and the possible involvement of nerve growth factor (NGF) in mediating the effects of ethanol. Rats ingesting an aqueous ethanol solution over 6months and rats subsequently deprived from ethanol during 2months were used to estimate the total number and the somatic volume of NPY and cholinergic interneurons, and the numerical density of cholinergic varicosities in the NAc. The tissue content of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and catecholamines were also determined. The number of NPY interneurons increased during alcohol ingestion and returned to control values after withdrawal. Conversely, the number and the size of cholinergic interneurons, and the amount of ChAT were unchanged in ethanol-treated and withdrawn rats, but the density of cholinergic varicosities was reduced by 50% during alcohol consumption and by 64% after withdrawal. The concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine were unchanged both during alcohol consumption and after withdrawal. The administration of NGF to withdrawn rats significantly increased the number of NPY-immunoreactive neurons, the size of cholinergic neurons and the density of cholinergic varicosities. Present data show that chronic alcohol consumption leads to long-lasting neuroadaptive changes of the cholinergic innervation of the NAc and suggest that the cholinergic system is a potential target for the development of therapeutic strategies in alcoholism and abstinence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Attenuation of Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome by Various Dosages of Curcumin in Comparison with Clonidine in Mouse: Possible Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal medical compounds and their major constituent have been used in the management and treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome and pain. This study was carried out to clarify the effect of curcumin, the major compound of turmeric, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mouse model and its possible mechanisms of pain relieving activity by assessing in writhing test as a model of visceral pain. Methods: Due to two separate protocols (withdrawal syndrome and pain, 144 male albino mice were divided in two major groups. In withdrawal syndrome group, test effect of various dosages of curcumin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg was assessed on withdrawal signs and compared with positive and negative control and standard treatment (clonidine 0.4 mg/kg groups. In pain groups, to determine the mechanism of pain relieving activity of curcumin, various dosages of curcumin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg in three separated groups, were used against acetic acid induced writhing (which is a constriction test. The most effective dose (40 mg/kg was used in writhing test and compared with groups pretreated with antagonist of major neurotransmitters involved in pain; and compared with group pretreated with vehicle (DMSO, 0.05% as control. Results: Curcumin attenuates withdrawal syndrome in a dose dependent manner in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05. It also indicated that pretreatment with naloxone and cyproheptadine significantly attenuate antinociception effect of curcumin (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study advocate that antinociception of curcumin was mediated by opioidergic and adrenergic system.

  5. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Schröder, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population...

  6. Direct somatic embryogenesis in Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Collado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King is difficult to be propagated by tissue culture and there is not an efficient system via organogenesis, due to problems of microbial contamination, phenolic oxidation and death of tissue in the phase of in vitro establishment of explants. In order to establish a protocol for obtaining somatic embryos, zygotic embryos were used as initial plant material. Three combinations of 2,4-D with kinetin were studied, to obtain the formation of somatic embryos. After six weeks of culture, the number of explants with high and low somatic embryogenesis frequency were determined. So that the somatic embryos in globular stage reach the final stages of torpedo and cotyledonal, these were placed in three treatments with 6-BAP (0.2, 0.4 y 0.6 mg.l-1. The number of somatic embryos that reached the torpedo and cotyledonal stages were evaluated after 30 days of culture. Results demonstrated that direct somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos is obtained in the culture medium composed by MS salts with 4.0 mg.l-1 of 2,4-D and 1.0 mg.l-1 of kinetin. Higher percentage of somatic embryos in cotiledonal stage (91.7 %, was obtained with 0.4 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP. Key word: forestry, growth regulator, mahogany, somatic embryo, tissue culture

  7. MMPI screening scales for somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, R D; Brim, J; Guze, S B; Cloninger, C R; Martin, R L; Clayton, P J

    1999-08-01

    44 items on the MMPI were identified which appear to correspond to some of the symptoms in nine of the 10 groups on the Perley-Guze checklist for somatization disorder (hysteria). This list was organized into two scales, one reflecting the total number of symptoms endorsed and the other the number of organ systems with at least one endorsed symptom. Full MMPIs were then obtained from 29 women with primary affective disorder and 37 women with somatization disorder as part of a follow-up study of a consecutive series of 500 psychiatric clinic patients seen at Washington University. Women with the diagnosis of somatization disorder scored significantly higher on the somatization disorder scales created from the 44 items than did women with only major depression. These new scales appeared to be slightly more effective in identifying somatization disorder than the use of the standard MMPI scales for hypochondriasis and hysteria. Further development is needed.

  8. 19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal for consumption. 144.38 Section 144.38... Withdrawal for consumption. (a) Form. Withdrawals for consumption of merchandise in bonded warehouses shall... considered a withdrawal for consumption pursuant to § 181.53 of this chapter. (c) Information to be shown on...

  9. Personality characteristics in patients with somatized disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolyevna Tolkach

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study personality characteristics, behavioral style, and modes of relations with their people in patients with somatized disorder. Subjects and methods. Eighty-six patients diagnosed as having somatized disorder were examined using Leary's interpersonal diagnosis system. Results. The author revealed the following personality characteristics and behavioral styles: a depressed need for authoritarianism, dominance, autonomy, aggressiveness, a display of qualities, such as superfriendliness, benevolence, submissiveness, dependency, and suspiciousness. These characteristics give an insight into the development of somatization in patients with somatized disorder.

  10. Somatic tinnitus prevalence and treatment with tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, K; Lurquin, P; Horoi, M; Cotton, P; Hervé, V; Thill, M P

    2016-01-01

    Somatic tinnitus originates from increased activity of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, a cross-point between the somatic and auditory systems. Its activity can be modified by auditory stimulation or somatic system manipulation. Thus, sound enrichment and white noise stimulation might decrease tinnitus and associated somatic symptoms. The present uncontrolled study sought to determine somatic tinnitus prevalence among tinnitus sufferers, and to investigate whether sound therapy with counselling (tinnitus retraining therapy; TRT) may decrease tinnitus-associated somatic symptoms. To determine somatic tinnitus prevalence, 70 patients following the TRT protocol completed the Jastreboff Structured Interview (JSI) with additional questions regarding the presence and type of somatic symptoms. Among 21 somatic tinnitus patients, we further investigated the effects of TRT on tinnitus-associated facial dysesthesia. Before and after three months of TRT, tinnitus severity was evaluated using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), and facial dysesthesia was assessed with an extended JSI-based questionnaire. Among the evaluated tinnitus patients, 56% presented somatic tinnitus-including 51% with facial dysesthesia, 36% who could modulate tinnitus by head and neck movements, and 13% with both conditions. Self-evaluation indicated that TRT significantly improved tinnitus and facial dysesthesia in 76% of patients. Three months of TRT led to a 50% decrease in mean THI and JSI scores regarding facial dysesthesia. Somatic tinnitus is a frequent and underestimated condition. We suggest an extension of the JSI, including specific questions regarding somatic tinnitus. TRT significantly improved tinnitus and accompanying facial dysesthesia, and could be a useful somatic tinnitus treatment.

  11. A clinical trial to determine if corelease of morphine and naltrexone from crushed extended-release capsules induces withdrawal in opioid-dependent patients: a descriptive analysis of six patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setnik, Beatrice; Roland, Carl L; Goli, Veeraindar; Sommerville, Kenneth; Webster, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether intact or crushed doses of an extended-release formulation of morphine sulfate surrounding an inner core of sequestered naltrexone (MSN) induces signs and symptoms of withdrawal in opioid-dependent patients. Randomized, double-blind, two-way crossover study. Single center. Fourteen patients with chronic moderate-to-severe noncancer pain receiving opioids were enrolled into the study; six completed the maintenance and treatment phases prior to early study discontinuation for issues with manufacturing; eight discontinued: adverse effects (4), noncompliance (1), patient decision (1), study termination (2). Patients were titrated to a stable dose of MSN (ranging from 30/1.2 to 100/4.0 mg of morphine/naltrexone) that was used in the single-dose crossover evaluation of crushed and intact MSN. Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS). Clinically significant withdrawal (COWS ≥ 13) was observed with rapid onset (≤0.8 hours postdose) in three patients (50 percent) following treatment with crushed MSN at the highest doses administered of ≥60/2.4 mg. Although naltrexone exposure was negligible following exposure to intact MSN, increasing plasma levels of naltrexone and 6-β-naltrexol were associated with COWS score ≥13 in patients who received crushed MSN. COWS ≥ 13 was observed in one patient receiving intact MSN without quantifiable naltrexone concentrations. Crushing the MSN capsule may precipitate moderate-to-severe signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal in opioid-dependent individuals. The negligible exposure to naltrexone following exposure to intact MSN supports that intact capsules may be taken safely without precipitating withdrawal in opioid-dependent individuals.

  12. The Role of Somatic Symptoms in Sexual Medicine: Somatization as Important Contextual Factor in Male Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, Egidia; Castellini, Giovanni; Corona, Giovanni; Boddi, Valentina; Ricca, Valdo; Rastrelli, Giulia; Fisher, Alessandra Daphne; Cipriani, Sarah; Maggi, Mario

    2016-09-01

    An important feature of somatic symptom disorder is the subjective perception of the physical symptoms and its maladaptive interpretation. Considering that psychological distress is often expressed through somatic symptoms, it is possible that they underlie at least a part of the symptoms in subjects complaining of sexual dysfunction. Nevertheless, studies on the impact of somatoform disorders in sexual dysfunction are scanty. To define the psychological, relational, and organic correlates of somatic symptoms in a large sample of patients complaining of sexual problems. A consecutive series of 2833 men (mean age 50.2 ± 13.5 years) was retrospectively studied. Somatic symptoms were assessed using the "somatized anxiety symptoms" subscale of the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ-S). Several clinical, biochemical, psychological, and relational parameters were studied. Patients were interviewed with the previously validated Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY), and ANDROTEST (a structured interview for the screening of hypogonadism in patients with sexual dysfunction). Among the 2833 patients studied, subjects scoring higher on somatic symptoms were older, more obese, reporting unhealthy lifestyle (current smoking, alcohol consumption), and a lower education (all P sexuality more often, including erectile problems (spontaneous or sexual-related), low sexual desire, decreased frequency of intercourse, and perceived reduction of ejaculate volume (all P sexual dysfunction. High levels of somatic symptoms in subjects with sexual dysfunction can be related to the sexual symptom itself. The consequences of this pattern have great clinical relevance in a sexual medicine setting, considering their severe impact on sexuality. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Somatic complaints, emotional awareness and maladjustment in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, A; Maganto, C; González, R

    2015-05-01

    Somatic complaints are common in childhood. Research has shown their relationship with emotional awareness and maladjustment. The study had three objectives: 1) to analyze the prevalence of somatic complaints; 2) To explore the relationships between the variables evaluated: somatic complaints, differentiating emotions, verbal sharing of emotions, not hiding emotions, body awareness, attending to others' emotions, analysis of emotions, and personal, social, family, and school maladjustments; and 3) To identify predictors of somatic complaints. The study included a total of 1,134 randomly selected schoolchildren of both sexes between 10-12 years old (M=10.99; SD=0.88). The Somatic Complaint List, Emotional Awareness Questionnaire, and Self-reported Multifactor Test of Childhood Adaptation were used to gather information. The results showed that the prevalence of somatic complaints was 90.2%, with fatigue, headache and stomachache being the most frequently. Dizziness and headache were more common in girls, and the frequency of complaints decreases with age. Somatic complaints are negatively related to emotional awareness, and positively related to maladjustment. The variables that contribute the most to the prediction of somatic complaints are personal maladjustment (25.1%) and differentiating emotions (2.5%). The study shows that personal maladjustment is the best predictor of somatic complaints; the more emotional awareness and better adapted the child, the fewer somatic complaints they lodge. Childhood is a stage with significant physical discomfort. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  15. The Somatic Complaints List: Validation of a self-report questionnaire assessing somatic complaints in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F. C.; Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the Somatic Complaint List (SCL) in children. Method: At T1, 365 fourth and 352 fifth graders completed the SCL, the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI-C), and the Mood Questionnaire. Parents (n=564) completed the parental form of the CSI-C (CSI-P). Six months later, the

  16. The Processing of Biologically Plausible and Implausible forms in American Sign Language: Evidence for Perceptual Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Diogo; Poeppel, David; Corina, David

    The human auditory system distinguishes speech-like information from general auditory signals in a remarkably fast and efficient way. Combining psychophysics and neurophysiology (MEG), we demonstrate a similar result for the processing of visual information used for language communication in users of sign languages. We demonstrate that the earliest visual cortical responses in deaf signers viewing American Sign Language (ASL) signs show specific modulations to violations of anatomic constraints that would make the sign either possible or impossible to articulate. These neural data are accompanied with a significantly increased perceptual sensitivity to the anatomical incongruity. The differential effects in the early visual evoked potentials arguably reflect an expectation-driven assessment of somatic representational integrity, suggesting that language experience and/or auditory deprivation may shape the neuronal mechanisms underlying the analysis of complex human form. The data demonstrate that the perceptual tuning that underlies the discrimination of language and non-language information is not limited to spoken languages but extends to languages expressed in the visual modality.

  17. Somatization in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Bech, Per; Patierno, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The current systematic review study is aimed at critically analyzing from a clinimetric viewpoint the clinical consequence of somatization in Parkinson's Disease (PD). By focusing on the International Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we...... consequence of such psychiatric symptom should be further evaluated by replacing the clinically inadequate diagnostic label of psychogenic parkinsonism with the psychosomatic concept of persistent somatization as conceived by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR)....

  18. Perinatal risk factors and social withdrawal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Marchand-Martin, Laetitia; Cote, Sylvana J; Larroque, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to assess prevalence of social withdrawal behaviour in infants aged 12 months included in the French Perinatal Risk Factor Study Eden; (2) To study the correlation between relational withdrawal and several perinatal and parental factors assessed in the EDEN study. A longitudinal study using the ADBB scale was conducted within the Eden Cohort in the year 2008. 1,586 infants were included in the study. Fourteen percent of the children who had an ADBB assessment had a score at 5 and over on the ADBB, a scale designed to assess social withdrawal behaviour at age 0-24 months. Social withdrawal at 12 months was associated with low birth weight, low gestational age and with intra uterine growth retardation. Social withdrawal was independently associated with several maternal and paternal risk factors. The level of social withdrawal behaviour increased with a score of maternal difficulties. This study on a large longitudinally followed volunteer sample demonstrate a clear association of social withdrawal behaviour at age one with low birth weight and preterm birth, possibly mediated by parental vulnerabilities. Social withdrawal behaviour seems to be an important alarm signal to detect early on particularly in premature and small for date babies. © Springer-Verlag 2012

  19. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Kattimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed.

  20. Somatization: a perspective from self psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, G M

    1991-01-01

    Somatization is a complex phenomenon that occurs in many forms and diverse settings. It is not necessarily pathological and may be found in a variety of psychiatric disorders. Much of the psychiatric literature has focused on patients with conversion disorders and hypochondriasis. Psychoanalytic theories regarding such conditions were largely based upon concepts of drive, conflict, and defense. The perspective from self psychology, with its emphasis on subjective experience and the sense of self, may further enhance the psychoanalytic understanding of somatization. Individuals with disturbances in the stability and organization of the self may present with somatic symptoms and disturbances in emotional awareness. Somatization in such cases may be the experiential manifestation of a disturbance in the cohesion of the self and/or may result from defensive operations to ward off affect. The latter may be prominent when affective arousal triggers the psychological threat of fragmentation. Somatization may diminish in such individuals when a self-object relationship is formed that bolsters and consolidates the sense of self. The integration of affect into ongoing subjective experience may also be an important aspect of psychoanalytic treatment in such patients.

  1. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Krabbe, Paul F M; De Jong, Cor A J; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  2. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  3. Predictive factors for somatization in a trauma sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Unexplained somatic symptoms are common among trauma survivors. The relationship between trauma and somatization appears to be mediated by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only few studies have focused on what other psychological risk factors may predispose...... a trauma victim towards developing somatoform symptoms. METHODS: The present paper examines the predictive value of PTSD severity, dissociation, negative affectivity, depression, anxiety, and feeling incompetent on somatization in a Danish sample of 169 adult men and women who were affected by a series...... of incompetence significantly predicted somatization in the trauma sample whereas dissociation, depression, and anxiety were not associated with degree of somatization. PTSD as a risk factor was mediated by negative affectivity....

  4. Somatic point mutation calling in low cellularity tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin S Kassahn

    Full Text Available Somatic mutation calling from next-generation sequencing data remains a challenge due to the difficulties of distinguishing true somatic events from artifacts arising from PCR, sequencing errors or mis-mapping. Tumor cellularity or purity, sub-clonality and copy number changes also confound the identification of true somatic events against a background of germline variants. We have developed a heuristic strategy and software (http://www.qcmg.org/bioinformatics/qsnp/ for somatic mutation calling in samples with low tumor content and we show the superior sensitivity and precision of our approach using a previously sequenced cell line, a series of tumor/normal admixtures, and 3,253 putative somatic SNVs verified on an orthogonal platform.

  5. Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvina Lindsay Mijen; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 μM. (Author)

  6. Remifentanil-induced tolerance, withdrawal or hyperalgesia in infants: a randomized controlled trial. RAPIP trial: remifentanil-based analgesia and sedation of paediatric intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzing, Lars; Link, Florian; Junghaenel, Shino; Oberthuer, Andre; Harnischmacher, Urs; Stuetzer, Hartmut; Roth, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Short-acting opioids like remifentanil are suspected of an increased risk for tolerance, withdrawal and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). These potential adverse effects have never been investigated in neonates. To compare remifentanil and fentanyl concerning the incidence of tolerance, withdrawal and OIH. 23 mechanically ventilated infants received up to 96 h either a remifentanil- or fentanyl-based analgesia and sedation regimen with low-dose midazolam. We compared the required opioid doses and the number of opioid dose adjustments. Following extubation, withdrawal symptoms were assessed by a modification of the Finnegan score. OIH was evaluated by the CHIPPS scale and by testing the threshold of the flexion withdrawal reflex with calibrated von Frey filaments. Remifentanil had to be increased by 24% and fentanyl by 47% to keep the infants adequately sedated during mechanical ventilation. Following extubation, infants revealed no pronounced opioid withdrawal and low average Finnegan scores in both groups. Only 1 infant of the fentanyl group and 1 infant of the remifentanil group required methadone for treatment of withdrawal symptoms. Infants also revealed no signs of OIH and low CHIPPS scores in both groups. The median threshold of the flexion withdrawal reflex was 4.5 g (IQR = 2.3) in the fentanyl group and 2.7 g (IQR = 3.3) in the remifentanil group (p = 0.312), which is within the physiologic range of healthy infants. Remifentanil does not seem to be associated with an increased risk for tolerance, withdrawal or OIH. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Control rod excess withdrawal prevention device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Yoshihito.

    1992-01-01

    Excess withdrawal of a control rod of a BWR type reactor is prevented. That is, the device comprises (1) a speed detector for detecting the driving speed of a control rod, (2) a judging circuit for outputting an abnormal signal if the driving speed is greater than a predetermined level and (3) a direction control valve compulsory closing circuit for controlling the driving direction of inserting and withdrawing a control rod based on an abnormal signal. With such a constitution, when the with drawing speed of a control rod is greater than a predetermined level, it is detected by the speed detector and the judging circuit. Then, all of the direction control valve are closed by way of the direction control valve compulsory closing circuit. As a result, the operation of the control rod is stopped compulsorily and the withdrawing speed of the control rod can be lowered to a speed corresponding to that upon gravitational withdrawal. Accordingly, excess withdrawal can be prevented. (I.S)

  8. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Class 9 warehouse withdrawals for exportation—(1) Applicability of sales ticket procedure. Merchandise... be eligible for withdrawal under the sales ticket procedure specified in this paragraph. (2) Sales ticket content and handling. Sales ticket withdrawals must be made only under a blanket permit to...

  9. Reversal of Proximal Renal Tubular Dysfunction after Nucleotide Analogue Withdrawal in Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhasnee Sobhonslidsuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Proximal renal tubular dysfunction (PRTD is an infrequent complication after nucleotide analogue therapy. We evaluated the outcomes of PRTD and nephrotoxicity after nucleotide analogue withdrawal in chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Methods. A longitudinal follow-up study was performed in patients with PRTD after nucleotide analogue discontinuation. Serum and urine were collected at baseline and every 3 months for one year. The fractional excretion of phosphate (PO4, uric acid (UA, and potassium and tubular maximal reabsorption rate of PO4 to glomerular filtration rate (TmPO4/GFR were calculated. Renal losses were defined based on the criteria of substance losses. Subclinical PRTD and overt PRTD were diagnosed when 2 and ≥3 criteria were identified. Results. Eight subclinical and eight overt PRTD patients were enrolled. After nucleotide analogue withdrawal, there were overall improvements in GFR, serum PO4, and UA. Renal loss of PO4, UA, protein, and β2-microglobulin reduced over time. At one year, complete reversal of PRTD was seen in 13 patients (81.2%. Improvements in PRTD were seen in all but one patient. Conclusion. One year after nucleotide analogue withdrawal, PRTD was resolved in most patients. Changes in TmPO4/GFR, urinary protein, and β2-microglobulin indicate that urinary biomarkers may represent an early sign of PRTD recovery.

  10. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in soybean: physicochemical factors influencing the development of somatic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonacin Gisele Aparecida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryogenic capability of five soybean cultivars (Renascença, IAS-5, IAC-17, BR-16 and FT-Cometa was studied at different auxin concentrations (8, 10 and 12 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid, NAA, at different pHs (5.8 and 7.0 and at low (8-12 muEm-2 s-1 and high (27-33 mEm-2 s-1 light intensities. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. Immature cotyledons 4-6 mm in length were placed in the six induction mediums evaluated and submitted to two light intensities. Twenty immature cotyledons per cultivar were placed on each Petri dish, which was considered to be one replication. The number of somatic embryos per treatment per replication was counted. The results showed genotype influence on somatic embryogenic capability of each cultivar, with the most embryogenic cultivars being BR-16, FT-Cometa and IAS-5. Auxin concentration and pH value also influenced somatic embryo production, with 10 mg/l NAA being the best auxin concentration and 7.0 the best pH value. The interactions cultivar x auxin, auxin x pH and pH x light were significant, while other double interactions were not. All triple and quadruple interactions were significant, except cultivar x pH x light. No significant differences in somatic embryo production were observed in medium with different pHs or when the Petri dishes containing immature cotyledons were exposed to the two light intensities evaluated. However, a higher number of somatic embryos was produced when the medium pH was adjusted to 7.0.

  11. 5 CFR 362.207 - Withdrawal and readmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal and readmission. 362.207... PRESIDENTIAL MANAGEMENT FELLOWS PROGRAM Program Administration § 362.207 Withdrawal and readmission. (a...) An agency must notify OPM when a Fellow or Senior Fellow withdraws from the Program. (b) Readmission...

  12. Depression and hypochondriasis in family practice patients with somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, T E; Barrett, J

    1985-10-01

    The relationships specified in DSM-III between somatization disorder and depression, and somatization disorder and hypochondriasis require further validation and easier methods of detection for use by primary care physicians. The authors investigated hypochondriacal and depressive symptoms in 13 family practice outpatients with somatization disorder. Pain complaints and depressive symptomatology were present in over 75% of this group, while hypochondriacal symptoms were present in 38%. The mean score on the somatization scale of the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-90) was greater than that reported for any other group. These findings support the separation of somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and suggest the need for better delineation of depressive subtypes in somatization disorder. The somatization scale of the HSCL-90 should be a useful screen for somatization disorder in future research.

  13. Multicellularity makes somatic differentiation evolutionarily stable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Mary E.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Many multicellular organisms produce two cell lineages: germ cells, whose descendants produce the next generation, and somatic cells, which support, protect, and disperse the germ cells. This germ-soma demarcation has evolved independently in dozens of multicellular taxa but is absent in unicellular species. A common explanation holds that in these organisms, inefficient intercellular nutrient exchange compels the fitness cost of producing nonreproductive somatic cells to outweigh any potential benefits. We propose instead that the absence of unicellular, soma-producing populations reflects their susceptibility to invasion by nondifferentiating mutants that ultimately eradicate the soma-producing lineage. We argue that multicellularity can prevent the victory of such mutants by giving germ cells preferential access to the benefits conferred by somatic cells. The absence of natural unicellular, soma-producing species previously prevented these hypotheses from being directly tested in vivo: to overcome this obstacle, we engineered strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that differ only in the presence or absence of multicellularity and somatic differentiation, permitting direct comparisons between organisms with different lifestyles. Our strains implement the essential features of irreversible conversion from germ line to soma, reproductive division of labor, and clonal multicellularity while maintaining sufficient generality to permit broad extension of our conclusions. Our somatic cells can provide fitness benefits that exceed the reproductive costs of their production, even in unicellular strains. We find that nondifferentiating mutants overtake unicellular populations but are outcompeted by multicellular, soma-producing strains, suggesting that multicellularity confers evolutionary stability to somatic differentiation. PMID:27402737

  14. Tobacco withdrawal among opioid-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, Joanna M; Heil, Sarah H; Higgins, Stephen T; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence of cigarette smoking among opioid-dependent individuals is 6-fold that of the general U.S. adult population and their quit rates are notoriously poor. One possible reason for the modest cessation outcomes in opioid-dependent smokers may be that they experience more severe tobacco withdrawal upon quitting. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated tobacco withdrawal in opioid-dependent (OD) smokers versus smokers without co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 47 methadone- or buprenorphine-maintained smokers and 25 non-SUD smokers who completed 1 of several 2-week studies involving daily visits for biochemical monitoring, delivery of financial incentives contingent on smoking abstinence, and assessment of withdrawal via the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS). Prior to quitting smoking, OD smokers presented with higher baseline withdrawal scores than non-SUD smokers (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2, respectively; F [1, 63] = 7.31, p non-SUD smokers, suggesting that elevated withdrawal severity following quitting may not be a major factor contributing to the poor cessation outcomes consistently observed among OD smokers. Further scientific efforts are needed to improve our understanding of the high smoking rates and modest cessation outcomes in this challenging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Water withdrawals in Florida, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, the total amount of water withdrawn in Florida was estimated to be 14,237 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Saline water accounted for 7,855 Mgal/d (55 percent), and freshwater accounted for 6,383 Mgal/d (45 percent). Groundwater accounted for 4,167 Mgal/d (65 percent) of freshwater withdrawals, and surface water accounted for the remaining 2,216 Mgal/d (35 percent). Surface water accounted for nearly all (99.9 percent) saline-water withdrawals. Freshwater withdrawals were greatest in Palm Beach County (682 Mgal/d), and saline-water withdrawals were greatest in Pasco County (1,822 Mgal/d). Fresh groundwater provided drinking water (through either public supply or private domestic wells) for 17.699 million residents (93 percent of Florida’s population), and fresh surface water provided drinking water for 1.375 million residents (7 percent). The statewide public-supply gross per capita water use for 2012 was estimated at 136 gallons per day.

  16. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested t...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  17. The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome and its management.

    OpenAIRE

    Onyett, S R

    1989-01-01

    The literature on benzodiazepine dependence and withdrawal is reviewed with an emphasis on social and psychological considerations. The problems of when to prescribe, identifying withdrawal symptoms, effective communication with the patient, the structure of withdrawal programmes, and the use of drugs, psychological approaches and other services are discussed.

  18. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw an...

  19. 29 CFR 102.104 - Withdrawal of petition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of petition. 102.104 Section 102.104 Labor... Orders and Advisory Opinions Regarding Board Jurisdiction § 102.104 Withdrawal of petition. The petitioner may withdraw his petition at any time prior to issuance of the Board's advisory opinion. ...

  20. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  1. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt.A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001.Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  2. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at the...

  3. Psychosis following Tramadol Withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Rajabizadeh, Ghodratolah; Kheradmand, Ali; Nasirian, Mansoureh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Tramadol is a centrally acting opioid analgesic used to treat moderate to sever pain. It has more advantage and less opioid adverse effects than conventional opioid analgesia. Case Report: This article reports a patient with tramadol dependency that had psychosis after tramadol withdrawal. Conclusion: By the increase of tramadol usage for relief of chronic pain, tramadol abuse and dependency is increased. Some of tramadol withdrawal symptoms are not related to opioid, for example ...

  4. Mental and somatic health in a non-clinical sample 10 years after a diagnosis of encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultén, Ib; Jonsson, Jakob; Jonsson, Carl-Otto

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the diagnosis of encopresis at 8 and 10 years of age, and mental and somatic health 10 years later. The importance of type of encopresis (primary or secondary) at 8 years was also studied. Subjects were a non-clinical encopretic sample (N=73) and control subjects (N=75) [2]. Seven assessment variables from conscription surveys provided information about mental and somatic health status at 18 years of age. Former encopretics (n=66) did not differ significantly from the controls (n=67) at 18 years of age, although there were consistent, small negative differences. The boys who at 10 years of age had still been encopretic did not differ significantly at 18 years of age from the boys who at 10 years had recovered from encopresis, and the signs indicating the small differences varied. For former primary and secondary encopretic boys, there were two significant differences, the men in the secondary group being more often exempted from conscription than the primary group and the control cases. The results indicate that boys with non-clinical encopresis show only small, if any, mental and somatic disturbances at the beginning of adulthood. Comprehensive investigations of encopretic patients are recommended as important clinical problems, in addition to encopresis, might be present.

  5. Dance and Somatic Inquiry in Studios and Community Dance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Martha Hart

    2002-01-01

    Addresses pragmatic aspects of somatics in the public sector, investigating the fit of somatics within various institutions and settings, including universities, professional schools, and community programs. The article explores issues such as somatic movement approaches, certification, academic degrees in somatic study, confusions within the…

  6. Somatic embryogenesis in ferns: a new experimental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuła, Anna; Pożoga, Mariusz; Tomiczak, Karolina; Rybczyński, Jan J

    2015-05-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has never been reported in ferns. The study showed that it is much easier to evoke the acquisition and expression of embryogenic competence in ferns than in spermatophytes. We discovered that the tree fern Cyathea delgadii offers an effective model for the reproducible and rapid formation of somatic embryos on hormone-free medium. Our study provides cyto-morphological evidence for the single cell origin and development of somatic embryos. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) in both primary and secondary explants was induced on half-strength micro- and macro-nutrients Murashige and Skoog medium without the application of exogenous plant growth regulators, in darkness. The early stage of SE was characterized by sequential perpendicular cell divisions of an individual epidermal cell of etiolated stipe explant. These resulted in the formation of a linear pro-embryo. Later their development resembled that of the zygotic embryo. We defined three morphogenetic stages of fern somatic embryo development: linear, early and late embryonic leaf stage. The transition from somatic embryo to juvenile sporophyte was quick and proceeded without interruption caused by dormancy. Following 9 weeks of culture the efficiency of somatic embryogenesis reached 12-13 embryos per responding explant. Spontaneous formation of somatic embryos and callus production, which improved the effectiveness of the process sevenfold in 10-month-long culture, occurred without subculturing. The tendency for C. delgadii to propagate by SE in vitro makes this species an excellent model for studies relating to asexual embryogenesis and the endogenous hormonal regulation of that process and opens new avenues of experimentation.

  7. Pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depressive disorders. Design: Cross Sectional Comparative study Place of Study: Department of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration of Study: From May to November 2002. Patients and Methods: Patients were divided in Group I of anxiety and group II of depression. Fifty patients considered in each group by convenience sampling. The organic basis of their symptoms was ruled out. The patterns of their somatic symptoms and other information like educational and economic status were recorded on Semi Structured Proforma. The patient's diagnosis was made on schedule based ICD-10 research criteria. The severity of anxiety and depression was assessed by using HARS and HDRS respectively. The pattern of somatic symptoms in both groups was then analyzed by the urdu version of Bradford Somatic Inventory. Patterns of somatic complaints were then analyzed by chi square test. Results: Out of 100 patients we placed 50 each in group I (anxiety) and group II (Depression). Males were higher in depression whereas females were higher in anxiety disorder group. P-value for headache was 0.017 while in rest of the somatic symptoms it was insignificant ranging from 0.4 to 1. Conclusion: We found that the patterns of somatic symptoms are present in both the groups of anxiety and depression like symptoms related to musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal system were commonly observed in cases of depression whereas symptoms related to autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system is more significantly somatized in patients of anxiety. A larger sample is required for further studies to get better results. (author)

  8. Predictors of withdrawal: possible precursors of avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum, Natalie D; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Valiente, Carlos; Edwards, Alison; Kupfer, Anne S; Reiser, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Relations of avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) with shyness and inhibition suggest that a precursor of AvPD is withdrawal. Using a sample of 4.5- to 7-year-olds studied four times, 2 years apart, four and three classes of children differing in trajectories of mother- and teacher-reported withdrawal, respectively, were identified. Mothers and teachers generally did not agree on children's trajectories but the pattern of findings in the two contexts did not differ markedly. The mother-identified high and declining withdrawal class, in comparison with less withdrawn classes, and the teacher-identified high and declining class compared with low withdrawal classes, were associated with relatively high levels of anger and low levels of attentional control and resiliency. The mother-identified moderate and increasing withdrawal class was distinguished from less problematic withdrawal classes by higher anger, lower resiliency, and sometimes, lower attentional control. The teacher-identified low and increasing withdrawal class was distinguished from less problematic withdrawal classes by lower resiliency and lower attentional control. Findings are discussed in terms of the developmental precursors to social withdrawal and avoidant behavior.

  9. 20 CFR 408.355 - Can you withdraw your application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 408.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Withdrawal of Application § 408.355 Can you withdraw your application? (a) Request for withdrawal filed before a determination is made. You may withdraw your application...

  10. Evaluation of Nine Somatic Variant Callers for Detection of Somatic Mutations in Exome and Targeted Deep Sequencing Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Thomassen, Mads; Lænkholm, Anne Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    a comprehensive evaluation using exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing data of paired tumor-normal samples from five breast cancer patients to evaluate the performance of nine publicly available somatic variant callers: EBCall, Mutect, Seurat, Shimmer, Indelocator, Somatic Sniper, Strelka, VarScan 2...

  11. 21 CFR 514.7 - Withdrawal of applications without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the time...

  12. [Psychosomatic symptoms in somatic diseases - open-angle glaucoma for example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, G M

    2010-08-01

    Psychological aspects exist in somatic diseases like tumours and even fractures, not only in the beginning but also in the management of disease. Somatic diseases give rise to signs of a special constellation of life and management of these diseases is important for the psychological constellation of the individual. Studies on open-angle glaucoma have shown that many patients suffering from this disease are anxious, hypochondric, perfectionist and emotional instable. Chronic diseases are demanding processes of flexibility and defense, and define how the individual can deal with the diseases and what place in life the disease will occupy in the future. In the holistic view of medicine even psychological conflicts should be treated. In many situations, these conflicts are not consciously experienced by the individual. Therapeutically, 2 different tools can be used: symbolic stories can bring forces to manage the conflict and to solve the conflict (2 examples in the text). The method of positive psychotherapy describes the reasons for psychosomatic diseases in three parts: psychosomatic in the traditional understanding, in further and comprehensive understanding. Especially the psychosomatic effects in comprehensive understanding are embedded in the individual's sociocultural environment and provide tips on reasons for the diseases in those parts of life. The "positive balance model" gives an example of life-management and conflict-therapy. In ophthalmology, fear is often more important for the patient than pain. To avoid this, the patients develop techniques to deny, to cover or to suppress the fear. In the article questions are presented like those the ophthalmologist should be able to ask patients in the office concerning open-angle glaucoma. Tips for the therapy and management for neurotic stress are offered and some special anamnestic questions for the ophthalmologist are presented. Unsolved conflicts and denied desires as neurotic symptoms can be focused in

  13. Nicotine Withdrawal Induces Neural Deficits in Reward Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Evans, David E; Addicott, Merideth A; Potts, Geoffrey F; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J

    2017-06-01

    Nicotine withdrawal reduces neurobiological responses to nonsmoking rewards. Insight into these reward deficits could inform the development of targeted interventions. This study examined the effect of withdrawal on neural and behavioral responses during a reward prediction task. Smokers (N = 48) attended two laboratory sessions following overnight abstinence. Withdrawal was manipulated by having participants smoke three regular nicotine (0.6 mg yield; satiation) or very low nicotine (0.05 mg yield; withdrawal) cigarettes. Electrophysiological recordings of neural activity were obtained while participants completed a reward prediction task that involved viewing four combinations of predictive and reward-determining stimuli: (1) Unexpected Reward; (2) Predicted Reward; (3) Predicted Punishment; (4) Unexpected Punishment. The task evokes a medial frontal negativity that mimics the phasic pattern of dopaminergic firing in ventral tegmental regions associated with reward prediction errors. Nicotine withdrawal decreased the amplitude of the medial frontal negativity equally across all trial types (p nicotine dependence (p Nicotine withdrawal had equivocal impact across trial types, suggesting reward processing deficits are unlikely to stem from changes in phasic dopaminergic activity during prediction errors. Effects on tonic activity may be more pronounced. Pharmacological interventions directly targeting the dopamine system and behavioral interventions designed to increase reward motivation and responsiveness (eg, behavioral activation) may aid in mitigating withdrawal symptoms and potentially improving smoking cessation outcomes. Findings from this study indicate nicotine withdrawal impacts reward processing signals that are observable in smokers' neural activity. This may play a role in the subjective aversive experience of nicotine withdrawal and potentially contribute to smoking relapse. Interventions that address abnormal responding to both pleasant and

  14. Somatic embryogenesis in cassava: A tool for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Duren, M. Van; Morpurgo, R.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava is an important food and livestock feed crop. The effect of gamma radiation on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cassava clones of African origin was investigated. Explants from young leaves of cassava were cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 18.1 mM 2,4-D and 2 mM CuSO4, solidified with 0.3% Phytagel. Compact and friable calli were observed after 10-15 days of explant culture in dark, which produced somatic embryos in all but one clone. The somatic embryos showed morphological aberrations, such as fused cotyledons, lack of meristematic tip, epicotyl elongation, and had low germination rate; desiccation of embryos increased germination. Histological study showed that the somatic embryos were of multicellular origin. Leaf explants were irradiated with doses between 4 to 38 Gy of gamma rays, and cultured on somatic embryo induction medium. In addition, somatic embryos were irradiated with gamma ray doses from 10 to 18 Gy, and analyzed for germination. LD 50 for embryogenic response of leaf-explants was at around 20 Gy, while that for somatic embryo germination was ca. 10 Gy. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  15. Somatic embryogenesis in cassava: A tool for mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K S; Duren, M Van; Morpurgo, R [Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1997-07-01

    Cassava is an important food and livestock feed crop. The effect of gamma radiation on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cassava clones of African origin was investigated. Explants from young leaves of cassava were cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 18.1 mM 2,4-D and 2 mM CuSO4, solidified with 0.3% Phytagel. Compact and friable calli were observed after 10-15 days of explant culture in dark, which produced somatic embryos in all but one clone. The somatic embryos showed morphological aberrations, such as fused cotyledons, lack of meristematic tip, epicotyl elongation, and had low germination rate; desiccation of embryos increased germination. Histological study showed that the somatic embryos were of multicellular origin. Leaf explants were irradiated with doses between 4 to 38 Gy of gamma rays, and cultured on somatic embryo induction medium. In addition, somatic embryos were irradiated with gamma ray doses from 10 to 18 Gy, and analyzed for germination. LD{sub 50} for embryogenic response of leaf-explants was at around 20 Gy, while that for somatic embryo germination was ca. 10 Gy. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs.

  16. Somatic Symptom Disorder in Semantic Dementia: The Role of Alexisomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Joanna J; Lin, Andrew; Samimi, Mersal S; Mendez, Mario F

    Semantic dementia (SD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of semantic knowledge. SD may be associated with somatic symptom disorder due to excessive preoccupation with unidentified somatic sensations. To evaluate the frequency of somatic symptom disorder among patients with SD in comparison to comparably demented patients with Alzheimer׳s disease. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using clinical data from a referral-based behavioral neurology program. Fifty-three patients with SD meeting criteria for imaging-supported semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (another term for SD) were compared with 125 patients with clinically probable Alzheimer disease. Logistic regression controlled for sex, age, disease duration, education, overall cognitive impairment, and depression. The prevalence of somatic symptom disorder was significantly higher among patients with SD (41.5%) compared to patients with Alzheimer disease (11.2%) (odds ratio = 6:1; p Cotard syndrome or the delusion that unidentified somatic symptoms signify death or deterioration. SD, a disorder of semantic knowledge, is associated with somatic symptom disorder from impaired identification of somatic sensations. Their inability to read and name somatic sensations, or "alexisomia," results in disproportionate and persistent concern about somatic sensations with consequent significant disability. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Variability in prescription opioid intake and reinforcement amongst 129 substrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, S M; Healy, A F; Coelho, M A; Brown, C N; Kippin, T E; Szumlinski, K K

    2017-09-01

    Opioid abuse in the United States has reached epidemic proportions, with treatment admissions and deaths associated with prescription opioid abuse quadrupling over the past 10 years. Although genetics are theorized to contribute substantially to inter-individual variability in the development, severity and treatment outcomes of opioid abuse/addiction, little direct preclinical study has focused on the behavioral genetics of prescription opioid reinforcement and drug-taking. Herein, we employed different 129 substrains of mice currently available from The Jackson Laboratory (129S1/SvlmJ, 129X1/SvJ, 129S4/SvJaeJ and 129P3/J) as a model system of genetic variation and assayed mice for oral opioid intake and reinforcement, as well as behavioral and somatic signs of dependence. All substrains exhibited a dose-dependent increase in oral oxycodone and heroin preference and intake under limited-access procedures and all, but 129S1/SvlmJ mice, exhibited oxycodone reinforcement. Relative to the other substrains, 129P3/J mice exhibited higher heroin and oxycodone intake. While 129X1/SvJ exhibited the highest anxiety-like behavior during natural opioid withdrawal, somatic and behavior signs of precipitated withdrawal were most robust in 129P3/J mice. These results demonstrate the feasibility and relative sensitivity of our oral opioid self-administration procedures for detecting substrain differences in drug reinforcement/intake among 129 mice, of relevance to the identification of genetic variants contributing to high vs. low oxycodone reinforcement and intake. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Determinants of early withdrawal and of early withdrawal by reason of disability from the Irish labour force in the third age

    OpenAIRE

    Lawless, Martin

    2015-01-01

    III – Abstract: Determinants of early withdrawal and early withdrawal by reason of disability from the Irish labour force in the Third Age.Background. This study examines the relationship between early withdrawal and early withdrawal through disability from the Irish labour force in the Third Age. The relationship between unemployment or early retirement and ill health has been determined by a number of studies and, while unemployment through ill health or occupational disability may lead to ...

  19. Moves to withdraw nuclear weapons from NATO?; Vers un retrait des armes nucleaires de l'Otan?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumoulin, A. [Ecole Royale Militaire, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2008-11-15

    The American nuclear landscape in Europe could change in the coming months. The signs are already there, and a new strategic posture will have major implications for the Europeans as well as for the visibility of France deterrent force. Nonetheless, the Georgian crisis, tensions with Iran, Russian muscle flexing and NATO's line cast doubt on the idea that a partial or even complete withdrawal of American B-61 bombs could be on the agenda at the Alliance's 60. anniversary in April 2009. (author)

  20. 20 CFR 404.640 - Withdrawal of an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of an application. 404.640 Section 404.640 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Filing of Applications and Other Forms Withdrawal of Application § 404.640 Withdrawal of...

  1. 20 CFR 416.355 - Withdrawal of an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of an application. 416.355 Section 416.355 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Filing of Applications Withdrawal of Application § 416.355 Withdrawal of an...

  2. Name signs in Danish Sign Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakken Jepsen, Julie

    2018-01-01

    in spoken languages, where a person working as a blacksmith by his friends might be referred to as ‘The Blacksmith’ (‘Here comes the Blacksmith!’) instead of using the person’s first name. Name signs are found not only in Danish Sign Language (DSL) but in most, if not all, sign languages studied to date....... This article provides examples of the creativity of the users of Danish Sign Language, including some of the processes in the use of metaphors, visual motivation and influence from Danish when name signs are created.......A name sign is a personal sign assigned to deaf, hearing impaired and hearing persons who enter the deaf community. The mouth action accompanying the sign reproduces all or part of the formal first name that the person has received by baptism or naming. Name signs can be compared to nicknames...

  3. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool for Theobroma cacao improvement and propagation. Depending on culture medium composition, different morphogenetic structures (including somatic embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns and biochemical changes. The effect of SO42- ion deficiency ...

  4. Withdrawal symptoms in internet gaming disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsis, Dean; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The aim of this review was to examine the state of current knowledge of gaming withdrawal symptomatology, given the importance of withdrawal in positioning the disorder as a behavioral addiction. A total of 34 studies, including 10 qualitative studies, 17 research reports on psychometric instruments, and 7 treatment studies, were evaluated. The results indicated that the available evidence on Internet gaming withdrawal is very underdeveloped. Internet gaming withdrawal is most consistently referred to as 'irritability' and 'restlessness' following cessation of the activity. There exists a concerning paucity of qualitative studies that provide detailed clinical descriptions of symptoms arising from cessation of internet gaming. This has arguably compromised efforts to quantify withdrawal symptoms in empirical studies of gaming populations. Treatment studies have not reported on the natural course of withdrawal and/or withdrawal symptom trajectory following intervention. It is concluded that many more qualitative clinical studies are needed, and should be prioritised, to develop our understanding of gaming withdrawal. This should improve clinical descriptions of problematic internet gaming and in turn improve the quantification of IGD withdrawal and thus treatments for harmful internet gaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SSRI and SNRI withdrawal symptoms reported on an internet forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann, Tom; Odegbaro, Dolapo; Timimi, Sami; Moncrieff, Joanna

    2018-05-09

    Antidepressant withdrawal symptoms are well-recognised, but their potential duration remains uncertain. We aimed to describe the characteristics of withdrawal associated with two popular classes of antidepressants, including duration. We analysed the content of a sample of posts on an antidepressant withdrawal website. We compared the characteristics of withdrawal associated with SSRIs and SNRIs, including time of onset, duration and nature of symptoms. 110 posts about SSRI withdrawal, and 63 concerning SNRI withdrawal, were analysed. The mean duration of withdrawal symptoms was significantly longer with SSRIs than SNRIs: 90.5 weeks (standard deviation, SD, 150.0) and 50.8 weeks (SD 76.0) respectively; p = 0.043). Neurological symptoms, such as 'brain zaps,' were more common among SNRI users (p = 0.023). Psychosexual/genitourinary symptoms may be more common among SSRI users (p = 0.054). The website aims to help people with antidepressant withdrawal, and is therefore likely to attract people who have difficulties. Length of prior use of antidepressants was long, with a mean of 252.2 weeks (SD 250.8). People accessing antidepressant withdrawal websites report experiencing protracted withdrawal symptoms. There are some differences in the characteristics of withdrawal associated with different classes of antidepressants.

  6. Characteristics of somatic tinnitus patients with and without hyperacusis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ralli

    Full Text Available Determine if somatic tinnitus patients with hyperacusis have different characteristics from those without hyperacusis.172 somatic tinnitus patients with (n = 82 and without (n = 90 hyperacusis referred to the Tinnitus Unit of Sapienza University of Rome between June 2012 and June 2016 were compared for demographic characteristics, tinnitus features, self-administered questionnaire scores, nature of somatic modulation and history.Compared to those without hyperacusis, patients with somatic tinnitus and hyperacusis: (a were older (43.38 vs 39.12 years, p = 0.05, (b were more likely to have bilateral tinnitus (67.08% vs 55.56%, p = 0.04, (c had a higher prevalence of somatic modulation of tinnitus (53.65% vs 36.66%, p = 0.02 and (d scored significantly worse on tinnitus annoyance (39.34 vs 22.81, p<0.001 and subjective hearing level (8.04 vs 1.83, p<0.001.Our study shows significantly higher tinnitus modulation and worse self-rating of tinnitus and hearing ability in somatic tinnitus patients with hyperacusis versus somatic tinnitus patients without hyperacusis. These differences could prove useful in developing a better understanding of the pathophysiology and establishing a course of treatment for these two groups of patients.

  7. Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas L.(Lam)l. Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryo-genesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants. They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  8. Hypochondriacal concerns and somatization in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, P; Walker, J R; Chartier, M J; Stein, M B

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between panic disorder and the symptoms of hypochondriasis and somatization, we evaluated these symptoms and diagnoses in patients attending an Anxiety Disorders Clinic. Structured clinical interviews, self-report measures, and symptom diaries were used to assess 21 patients with panic disorder, 23 patients with social phobia, and 22 control subjects with no psychiatric disorders. Ten of the patients with panic disorder (48%) also met DSM-IV criteria for hypochondriasis, whereas only one of the patients with social phobia and none of the healthy control subjects met the criteria for this diagnosis. None of the participants met DSM-IV criteria for somatization disorder, even though both anxiety groups reported high levels of somatic symptoms. The panic disorder group reported higher levels of fear about illness and disease conviction and endorsed more somatic symptoms than did the other groups. A higher proportion of panic disorder patients reported previously diagnosed medical conditions (48%) as compared with patients with social phobia (17%) or healthy control subjects (14%). The panic disorder patients with DSM-IV hypochondriasis obtained higher scores on measures of hypochondriacal concerns, somatization, blood-injury phobia, and general anxiety and distress than did the panic disorder patients without hypochondriasis. The results suggest a strong association between panic disorder and hypochondriasis.

  9. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles.

  10. Mortality in unipolar depression preceding and following chronic somatic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyanagi, A; Köhler-Forsberg, O; Benros, M E

    2018-01-01

    -varying covariates were constructed to assess the risk for all-cause and non-suicide deaths for individual somatic diseases. RESULTS: For all somatic diseases, prior and/or subsequent depression conferred a significantly higher mortality risk. Prior depression was significantly associated with a higher mortality......OBJECTIVE: It is largely unknown how depression prior to and following somatic diseases affects mortality. Thus, we examined how the temporal order of depression and somatic diseases affects mortality risk. METHOD: Data were from a Danish population-based cohort from 1995 to 2013, which included...... all residents in Denmark during the study period (N = 4 984 912). Nineteen severe chronic somatic disorders from the Charlson Comorbidity Index were assessed. The date of first diagnosis of depression and somatic diseases was identified. Multivariable Cox proportional Hazard models with time...

  11. Withdrawal-oriented therapy for smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, P

    1989-06-01

    The treatment approach of the Maudsley Hospital Smokers Clinic is described. It stems from the notion that smokers seeking help are dependent on nicotine, and that withdrawal discomfort is a major block to their success in quitting. Accordingly, therapy focuses on helping clients overcome nicotine deprivation. It uses nicotine replacement and a special format of group treatment. Details are given of preparation of clients, use of nicotine chewing gum, use of group-oriented groupwork, use of information about withdrawal, and training in withdrawal-oriented therapy. Data are presented concerning characteristics of the clientele, treatment adherence, and treatment results. A number of controversial issues are addressed, such as the optimal duration of treatment, timing of the quit date, the value of educational input, and the value of individualization of treatment goals.

  12. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-05

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model.

  13. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model. PMID:23166393

  14. Masked depression: its interrelations with somatization, hypochondriasis and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, R Z

    1987-01-01

    Masked depression appears to be a common clinical phenomenon. Most depressions present with some somatic complaints in addition to affective and cognitive ones. About one half of all depressions seen by primary care physicians initially present predominantly or exclusively with somatic symptoms. Many of these depressions are not recognized or are misdiagnosed and mistreated. The possible reasons for this are discussed here. The phenomenon of somatization in depressions and other conditions is reviewed and the interface with other related clinical problems like hypochondriasis and conversion is delineated. It is hypothesized that the proportion of depressions that are masked is positively correlated to the patients' tendency to somatize and negatively correlated to the doctors' ability to recognize depressions that hide behind somatic complaints. Suggestions for the diagnosis and treatment of masked depressions are given.

  15. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first objective of this study was to assess and optimize somatic embryo production in a genetically diverse range of cacao genotypes. The primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis response of eight promising cacao clones and a positive control was evaluated using modified versions of standard protocols.

  16. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  17. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  18. Somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient was later referred to the psychiatry department of the same hospital and diagnosed with schizophrenia with somatic delusions and OCS according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. He was screened for schizophrenia, OCS and olfactory and somatic delusions by ...

  19. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  20. Somatic Embryogenesis: Still a Relevant Technique in Citrus Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures.

  1. The visceromotor and somatic afferent nerves of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Djibril; Zaitouna, Mazen; Alsaid, Bayan; Quillard, Jeanine; Ba, Nathalie; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Benoit, Gérard; Bedretdinova, Dina; Bessede, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Innervation of the penis supports erectile and sensory functions. This article aims to study the efferent autonomic (visceromotor) and afferent somatic (sensory) nervous systems of the penis and to investigate how these systems relate to vascular pathways. Penises obtained from five adult cadavers were studied via computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD). The number of autonomic and somatic nerve fibers was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Proximally, penile innervation was mainly somatic in the extra-albugineal sector and mainly autonomic in the intracavernosal sector. Distally, both sectors were almost exclusively supplied by somatic nerve fibers, except the intrapenile vascular anastomoses that accompanied both somatic and autonomic (nitrergic) fibers. From this point, the neural immunolabeling within perivascular nerve fibers was mixed (somatic labeling and autonomic labeling). Accessory afferent, extra-albugineal pathways supplied the outer layers of the penis. There is a major change in the functional type of innervation between the proximal and distal parts of the intracavernosal sector of the penis. In addition to the pelvis and the hilum of the penis, the intrapenile neurovascular routes are the third level where the efferent autonomic (visceromotor) and the afferent somatic (sensory) penile nerve fibers are close. Intrapenile neurovascular pathways define a proximal penile segment, which guarantees erectile rigidity, and a sensory distal segment. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Development of Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Sensitization and Relapse Drinking in Mice Selected for High or Low Ethanol Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F.; Grahame, Nicholas J.; Becker, Howard C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that high alcohol consumption is associated with low withdrawal susceptiblility, while at the same time, other studies have shown that exposure to ethanol vapor increases alcohol drinking in rats and mice. In the present studies, we sought to shed light on this seeming contradiction by using mice selectively bred for High- (HAP) and Low- (LAP) Alcohol Preference, first, assessing these lines for differences in signs of ethanol withdrawal and second, for differences in the efficacy of intermittent alcohol vapor exposure on elevating subsequent ethanol intake. Methods Experiment 1 examined whether these lines of mice differed in ethanol withdrawal-induced CNS hyperexcitability and the development of sensitization to this effect following intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. Adult HAP and LAP lines (replicates 1 and 2), and the C3H/HeNcr inbred strain (included as a control genotype for comparison purposes) received intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor and were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal-induced seizures assessed by scoring handling-induced convulsions (HIC). Experiment 2 examined the influence of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on voluntary ethanol drinking. Adult male and female HAP-2 and LAP-2 mice, along with male C57BL/6J (included as comparative controls) were trained to drink 10% ethanol using a limited access (2 hr/day) 2-bottle choice paradigm. After stable baseline daily intake was established, mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers. Ethanol intake sessions resumed 72 hr after final ethanol (or air) exposure for 5 consecutive days. Results Following chronic ethanol treatment, LAP mice exhibited overall greater withdrawal seizure activity compared to HAP mice. In Experiment 2, chronic ethanol exposure/withdrawal resulted in a significant increase in ethanol intake in male C57BL/6J, and modestly elevated intake in HAP-2 male mice. Ethanol intake for male control mice

  3. Effect of the methanolic extracts of different parts of Ferula assa-foetida on naloxone-induced withdrawal behavior in morphine-dependent mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Khanavi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ferula assa-foetida, a native species in Iran, is used for treatment of several diseases particularly for neurological disorders in Iranian Traditional Medicine. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of methanolic roots, fruits, and aerial parts extracts of Ferula assa-foetida on withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent mice. Materials and Methods: Aerial parts, roots, and fruits of the plant were separately extracted with 80% MeOH. For induction of dependence, morphine (50, 50 and 75 mg/kg was injected subcutaneously three times daily (10 am, 1 pm and 4 pm for three days and a last dose of morphine (50 mg/kg was administrated on the fourth day. Withdrawal syndrome was induced by injection of naloxone (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal 2 hr after the final dose of morphine. Different doses of the extracts were administered i.p. 60 minutes before naloxone injection and withdrawal sign was recorded 2 minutes after naloxone injection for a period of 60 minutes.   Results: Pre-treatment of animals with different doses (2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg of methanolic extract of the aerial parts of F. assa-foetida caused a significant decrease in naloxone-induced behavior. Intraperitoneal administration of different doses (10, 15, 20, 25 mg/kg of methanolic extract of the fruit significantly reduced the naloxone-induced withdrawal behavior (p

  4. Water Withdrawals, Use, and Trends in Florida, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the total amount of water withdrawals in Florida was estimated at 18,359 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Saline water accounted for 11,486 Mgal/d (63 percent), and freshwater accounted for 6,873 Mgal/d (37 percent). Groundwater accounted for 4,247 Mgal/d (62 percent) of freshwater withdrawals, and surface water accounted for the remaining 2,626 Mgal/d (38 percent). Surface water accounted for nearly all (99.9 percent) saline-water withdrawals. An additional 660 Mgal/d of reclaimed wastewater was used in Florida during 2005. The largest amount of freshwater was withdrawn from Palm Beach County, and the largest amount of saline water was withdrawn from Pasco County. Fresh groundwater provided drinking water (public supplied and self-supplied) for 16.19 million people (90 percent of Florida's population), and fresh surface water provided drinking water for 1.73 million people (10 percent). The majority of groundwater withdrawals (nearly 60 percent) in 2005 was obtained from the Floridan aquifer system which is present throughout the entire State. The majority of fresh surface-water withdrawals (59 percent) came from the southern Florida hydrologic unit subregion and is associated with Lake Okeechobee and the canals in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Glades, Hendry, and Palm Beach Counties, as well as the Caloosahatchee River and its tributaries in the agricultural areas of Collier, Glades, Hendry, and Lee Counties. Overall, agricultural irrigation accounted for 40 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals (ground and surface), followed by public supply with 37 percent. Public supply accounted for 52 percent of groundwater withdrawals, followed by agricultural self-supplied (31 percent), ommercial-industrial-mining self-supplied (8.5 percent), recreational irrigation and domestic self-supplied (4 percent each), and power generation (0.5 percent). Agricultural self-supplied accounted for 56 percent of fresh surface-water withdrawals, followed by power

  5. Anxiety, depression, and somatization in DSM-III hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, R; Abbott, P; Winslow, W W; Pathak, D

    1989-01-01

    To assess the severity of distress and of somatization in hypochondriasis, the authors administered several validated self-rating scales of depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and anger/hostility to 21 psychiatric outpatients with the DSM-III diagnosis of hypochondriasis and to matched groups of other nonpsychotic psychiatric patients, family practice patients, and employees. Anxiety and somatic symptoms were highest in hypochondriacal patients; depression and anger/hostility did not differ from those of other psychiatric patients but were higher than in the other groups. The findings do not support the theory that hypochondriasis is a defense against anxiety or that it is a masked depression or depressive equivalent. The findings are consistent with the view that the interaction of severe anxiety and severe somatic symptoms is a common feature of the psychopathology of hypochondriasis.

  6. Opiate Withdrawal Complicated by Tetany and Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfanali R. Kugasia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with symptoms of opiate withdrawal, after the administration of opiate antagonist by paramedics, are a common presentation in the emergency department of hospitals. Though most of opiate withdrawal symptoms are benign, rarely they can become life threatening. This case highlights how a benign opiate withdrawal symptom of hyperventilation led to severe respiratory alkalosis that degenerated into tetany and cardiac arrest. Though this patient was successfully resuscitated, it is imperative that severe withdrawal symptoms are timely identified and immediate steps are taken to prevent catastrophes. An easier way to reverse the severe opiate withdrawal symptom would be with either low dose methadone or partial opiate agonists like buprenorphine. However, if severe acid-base disorder is identified, it would be safer to electively intubate these patients for better control of their respiratory and acid-base status.

  7. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeon, A

    2008-08-01

    The alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common management problem in hospital practice for neurologists, psychiatrists and general physicians alike. Although some patients have mild symptoms and may even be managed in the outpatient setting, others have more severe symptoms or a history of adverse outcomes that requires close inpatient supervision and benzodiazepine therapy. Many patients with AWS have multiple management issues (withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, seizures, depression, polysubstance abuse, electrolyte disturbances and liver disease), which requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach. Although AWS may be complex, careful evaluation and available treatments should ensure safe detoxification for most patients.

  8. 42 CFR 457.170 - Withdrawal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170 Public... Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a... amendment, or any portion of a proposed State plan or plan amendment, at any time during the review process...

  9. Mitragynine attenuates withdrawal syndrome in morphine-withdrawn zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beng-Siang Khor

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway.

  10. Withdrawing to a Virtual World: Associations between Subtypes of Withdrawal, Media Use, and Maladjustment in Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Larry J.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Howard, Emily; Clifford, Brandon N.

    2016-01-01

    An approach-avoidance model of social withdrawal (Asendorpf, 1990) identifies 3 types of social withdrawal including shyness, unsociability, and avoidance. Each appears to be uniquely associated with varying indicators of maladjustment in emerging adulthood (Nelson, 2013) but little, if any, work has been done to see how they might be linked to…

  11. An overview of research on social withdrawal in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    野村, あすか; NOMURA, Asuka

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, “HIKIKOMORI” in adolescence or adulthood has grown into a serious problem in Japan and the need for early intervention and support has been emphasized. Among the risk factors of “HIKIKOMORI” is social withdrawal in childhood. With this in mind, I reviewed previous studies on the social withdrawal in children living abroad. The review commences with an examination of definitions of social withdrawal, which showed that in some foreign countries, social withdrawal refers to the ...

  12. Why withdrawal from the European Union is undemocratic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents; Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2017-01-01

    The Lisbon Treaty from 2009 introduced the possibility for individual member states to withdraw from the European Union (EU) on the basis of a unilateral decision. In June 2016 the UK decided to leave the EU invoking article 50 of the treaty. But is withdrawal democratically legitimate? In fact......, the all affected principle suggests that it is undemocratic for subunits to leave larger political units when it adversely affects other citizens without including them in the decision. However, it is unclear what the currency of this affectedness is and, hence, why withdrawal would be undemocratic. We...... argue that it is the effect of withdrawal on the status of citizens as free and equal that is decisive and that explains why unilateral withdrawal of subunits from larger units is democratically illegitimate. Moreover, on the ‘all affected status principle’ that we develop, even multilaterally agreed...

  13. Cognitive aspects of hypochondriasis and the somatization syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, W; Hiller, W; Margraf, J

    1998-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether specific cognitive aspects are present in patients suffering from somatoform disorders. With a sample of 493 patients from a center for behavioral medicine, the authors evaluated a questionnaire assessing typical cognitions concerning body perception, illness behavior, and health. The authors further examined 225 participants, including patients with a somatization syndrome, patients with somatization syndrome and additional hypochondriasis, patients with hypochondriasis, patients with other mental disorders (clinical control group), and nonclinical controls. The results showed that not only patients with hypochondriasis but also patients with somatization syndrome had cognitive concerns and assumptions that were specific for the disorder. These patients had a self-concept of being weak and unable to tolerate stress. A catastrophizing interpretation of minor bodily complaints found in hypochondriacal patients in earlier studies was also found for patients with multiple somatization symptoms.

  14. Germline contamination and leakage in whole genome somatic single nucleotide variant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendorek, Dorota H; Caloian, Cristian; Ellrott, Kyle; Bare, J Christopher; Yamaguchi, Takafumi N; Ewing, Adam D; Houlahan, Kathleen E; Norman, Thea C; Margolin, Adam A; Stuart, Joshua M; Boutros, Paul C

    2018-01-31

    The clinical sequencing of cancer genomes to personalize therapy is becoming routine across the world. However, concerns over patient re-identification from these data lead to questions about how tightly access should be controlled. It is not thought to be possible to re-identify patients from somatic variant data. However, somatic variant detection pipelines can mistakenly identify germline variants as somatic ones, a process called "germline leakage". The rate of germline leakage across different somatic variant detection pipelines is not well-understood, and it is uncertain whether or not somatic variant calls should be considered re-identifiable. To fill this gap, we quantified germline leakage across 259 sets of whole-genome somatic single nucleotide variant (SNVs) predictions made by 21 teams as part of the ICGC-TCGA DREAM Somatic Mutation Calling Challenge. The median somatic SNV prediction set contained 4325 somatic SNVs and leaked one germline polymorphism. The level of germline leakage was inversely correlated with somatic SNV prediction accuracy and positively correlated with the amount of infiltrating normal cells. The specific germline variants leaked differed by tumour and algorithm. To aid in quantitation and correction of leakage, we created a tool, called GermlineFilter, for use in public-facing somatic SNV databases. The potential for patient re-identification from leaked germline variants in somatic SNV predictions has led to divergent open data access policies, based on different assessments of the risks. Indeed, a single, well-publicized re-identification event could reshape public perceptions of the values of genomic data sharing. We find that modern somatic SNV prediction pipelines have low germline-leakage rates, which can be further reduced, especially for cloud-sharing, using pre-filtering software.

  15. Anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal may be feasible in liver transplant recipients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA are negative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Geng; Bing-Yi Lin; Tian Shen; Hua Guo; Yu-Fu Ye; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Anti-virus prophylactic therapy may be not nec-essary for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recur-rence after HBV-related liver transplantation (LT). However, studies on completely stopping the hepatitis B immune globu-lin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUC) after LT are few. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal in liver recipients whose serum hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA are negative. We analyzed 190 patients undergone LT for HBV-related liver dis-ease from 2006 to 2012 and found that 10 patients completely stopped the HBIG and NUC due to poor compliance. These patients were liver biopsied and checked monthly with serum HBV markers, HBV DNA and liver function. Among the 10 patients, 9 did not show the signs of HBV recurrence after a mean follow-up of 51.6 months (range 20-73) after with-drawal of the HBIG and NUC. The average time from LT to the withdrawal of the anti-virus drug was 23.8 (13-42) months;one patient showed hepatitis B surface antigen-positive and detectable HBV DNA after stopping anti-virus drugs and this patient was successfully treated with entecavir. Our data sug-gested that complete withdrawal of anti-virus prophylaxis was safe and feasible for patients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA were negative at the time of LT.

  16. Anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal may be feasible in liver transplant recipients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA are negative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Geng; Bing-Yi Lin; Tian Shen; Hua Guo; Yu-Fu Ye; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Anti-virus prophylactic therapy may be not nec-essary for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) recur-rence after HBV-related liver transplantation (LT). However, studies on completely stopping the hepatitis B immune globu-lin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUC) after LT are few. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of anti-virus prophylaxis withdrawal in liver recipients whose serum hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA are negative. We analyzed 190 patients undergone LT for HBV-related liver dis-ease from 2006 to 2012 and found that 10 patients completely stopped the HBIG and NUC due to poor compliance. These patients were liver biopsied and checked monthly with serum HBV markers, HBV DNA and liver function. Among the 10 patients, 9 did not show the signs of HBV recurrence after a mean follow-up of 51.6 months (range 20-73) after with-drawal of the HBIG and NUC. The average time from LT to the withdrawal of the anti-virus drug was 23.8 (13-42) months;one patient showed hepatitis B surface antigen-positive and detectable HBV DNA after stopping anti-virus drugs and this patient was successfully treated with entecavir. Our data sug-gested that complete withdrawal of anti-virus prophylaxis was safe and feasible for patients whose serum HBeAg and HBV DNA were negative at the time of LT.

  17. Fear of body symptoms and sensations in patients with panic disorders and patients with somatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latas Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A cognitive model of aetiology of panic disorder assumes that people who experience frequent panic attacks have tendencies to catastrophically interpret normal and benign somatic sensations - as signs of serious illness. This arise the question: is this cognition specific for patients with panic disorder and in what intensity it is present in patients with serious somatic illness and in healthy subjects. Objective. The aim of the study was to ascertain the differences in the frequency and intensity of 'catastrophic' cognitions related to body sensations, and to ascertain the differences in the frequency and intensity of anxiety caused by different body sensations all related to three groups of subjects: a sample of patients with panic disorder, a sample of patients with history of myocardial infarction and a sample of healthy control subjects from general population. Methods. Three samples are observed in the study: A 53 patients with the diagnosis of panic disorder; B 25 patients with history of myocardial infarction; and C 47 healthy controls from general population. The catastrophic cognitions were assessed by the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ and the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ. These questionnaires assess the catastrophic thoughts associated with panic and agoraphobia (ACQ and the fear of body sensations (BSQ. All study subjects answered questionnaires items, and the scores of the answers were compared among the groups. Results. The results of the study suggest that: 1 There is no statistical difference in the tendency to catastrophically interpret body sensations and therefore to induce anxiety in the samples of healthy general population and patients with history of myocardial infarction; 2 The patients with panic disorder have a statistically significantly more intensive tendency to catastrophically interpret benign somatic symptoms and therefore to induce a high level of anxiety in comparison to the

  18. Is chronic pain associated with somatization/hypochondriasis? An evidence-based structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, David A; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun; Cole, Brandly; Steele Rosomoff, R

    2009-01-01

    This is an evidence-based structured review. The objectives of this review were to answer the following questions: (1) Are somatization/hypochondriasis associated with chronic pain? (2) Is the degree of somatization/hypochondriasis related to pain levels? (3) Does pain treatment improve somatization/hypochondriasis? (4) Are some pain diagnoses differentially associated with somatization/hypochondriasis? Fifty-seven studies which fulfilled inclusion criteria and had high quality scores were sorted by the above-mentioned objectives. Agency for health care policy and research guidelines were utilized to type and characterize the strength/consistency of the study evidence within each objective. Somatization and hypochondriasis were both consistently associated with chronic pain (consistency ratings B and A, respectively). Study evidence indicated a correlation between pain intensity and presence of somatization and hypochondriasis (consistency rating A and B, respectively). Pain treatment improved somatization and hypochondriasis (consistency rating B and A, respectively). Some chronic pain diagnostic groups somatized more (consistency rating B). Somatization is commonly associated with chronic pain and may relate to pain levels.

  19. Social withdrawal in children moderates the association between parenting styles and the children's own socioemotional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarra-Nezhad, Maryam; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Zarra-Nezhad, Mansour; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-11-01

    Social withdrawal in early childhood is a risk factor for later socioemotional difficulties. This study examined the joint effects of children's social withdrawal and mothers' and fathers' parenting styles on children's socioemotional development. Based on diatheses-stress, vantage sensitivity, and differential susceptibility models, socially withdrawn children were assumed to be more prone to parental influences than others. Teachers rated 314 children on prosocial skills, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors at three points in time between grades 1-3. Mothers (n = 279) and fathers (n = 182) filled in questionnaires measuring their affection, and their behavioral and psychological control at the same points in time. Teacher reports on children's level of social withdrawal were obtained at the end of kindergarten. Panel analysis showed that particularly those children who showed signs of social withdrawal were vulnerable to the negative effects of low maternal affection in terms of externalizing behavior. Moreover, among these children, mothers' and fathers' psychological control predicted high levels of internalizing problem but, at the same time, mothers' psychological control predicted also a high level of prosocial behavior and low levels of externalizing problem. The results supported the diathesis-stress model more than the differential susceptibility model. For example, socially withdrawn children were found to be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of low maternal affection. Although maternal psychological control had positive effects on the prosocial skills of socially withdrawn children, and reduced the amount of externalizing problems, it was at the same time associated with an increase in their internalizing problems. In this way, socially withdrawn children seem to be at risk of pleasing their mothers at the cost of their own well-being. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child

  20. Personality traits influencing somatization symptoms and social inhibition in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai WongpakaranFaculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: Somatization is a common symptom among the elderly, and even though personality disorders have been found to be associated with somatization, personality traits have not yet been explored with regard to this symptom. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality traits and somatization, and social inhibition.Patients and methods: As part of a cross-sectional study of a community sample, 126 elderly Thais aged 60 years or over completed self-reporting questionnaires related to somatization and personality traits. Somatization was elicited from the somatization subscale when using the Symptom Checklist SCL-90 instrument. Personality traits were drawn from the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire and social inhibition was identified when using the inventory of interpersonal problems. In addition, path analysis was used to establish the influence of personality traits on somatization and social inhibition.Results: Of the 126 participants, 51% were male, 55% were married, and 25% were retired. The average number of years in education was 7.6 (standard deviation =5.2. “Emotional stability” and “dominance” were found to have a direct effect on somatization, as were age and number of years in education, but not sex. Also, 35% of the total variance could be explained by the model, with excellent fit statistics. Dominance was found to have an indirect effect, via vigilance, on social inhibition, which was also influenced by number of years in education and emotional stability. Social inhibition was not found to have any effect on somatization, although hypothetically it should.Conclusion: “Emotional stability”, “dominance”, and “vigilance”, as well as age and the number of years in education, were found to have an effect on somatization. Attention should be paid to these factors in the elderly

  1. 15 CFR 10.13 - Withdrawal of a published standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Before withdrawing a standard published under these procedures, the Director will review the relative... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of a published standard. 10... DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.13 Withdrawal of a published standard. (a) Standards published...

  2. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis induction in Iranian melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... embryo induction and the combination of 0.1 mg/l BA and 5 mg/l 2,4-D had significant effect on somatic ... such as genotype, growth regulator, explant and culture ... different stages of somatic embryos development. (globular ...

  3. Induction of somatic embryogenesis by polyethylene glycol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VIJI

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... supplemented with 2,4-D (2 µM), abscisic acid (3 µM) and glutamine (0.03 mM). The somatic embryos ... essential amino acids of seed proteins, shortened vegetative ... or somatic embryo maturation in diverse plants such as.

  4. Demand-Withdraw Patterns in Marital Conflict in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Cummings, E Mark

    2009-06-01

    The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that concerned the marital relationship. For both patterns, conflict initiator was positively linked to the demander role. Accounting for marital satisfaction, both demand-withdraw patterns predicted negative emotions and tactics during marital interactions and lower levels of conflict resolution. Spousal depression was linked to increased likelihood of husband demand-wife withdraw.

  5. 75 FR 7526 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ...'s Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections . Regulatory guides are... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0052] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.56, ``Maintenance of Water Purity in Boiling...

  6. Practice Guidelines for Treatment of Somatic Pain and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Sonali Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Somatic pain is often associated with depression. Patients presenting with this combination can be difficult to treat and create a significant financial burden on the medical system. The mechanisms of action linking somatic pain and the myriad of depression are not clearly understood thus highlighting a gap in knowledge between the scientific mechanism, pathogenesis, and psychiatry involved in depression and somatic pain. The objective of this review article is to address etiolog...

  7. Effect of light quality on somatic embryogenesis of quince leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Onofrio, C.; Morini, S.; Bellocchi, G.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of light quality on somatic embryogenesis in quince BA 29 was investigated. 2,4-D induced leaves were exposed for 25 days to the following light quality treatments: dark, far-red, far-red+blue, far-red+red, blue, white, red+blue, red. After a further 20 days of white light exposure, somatic embryo production was recorded. Somatic embryogenesis was highest in cultures subjected to red light treatment, and decreased progressively with the transition to red+blue and to white. Overall, embryogenic competence showed a correlation with photoequilibrium. Phytochrome appeared to be inductive although this effect was adversely influenced by the blue absorbing photoreceptor, in particular at low photoequilibrium. Independently of light treatments applied, somatic embryos frequently showed severe morphological abnormalities. Conversion of somatic embryos to plantlets was not observed. (author)

  8. Acupuncture for alcohol withdrawal: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trümpler, François; Oez, Suzan; Stähli, Peter; Brenner, Hans Dieter; Jüni, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Previous trials on acupuncture in alcohol addiction were in outpatients and focused on relapse prevention. Rates of dropout were high and interpretation of results difficult. We compared auricular laser and needle acupuncture with sham laser stimulation in reducing the duration of alcohol withdrawal. Inpatients undergoing alcohol withdrawal were randomly allocated to laser acupuncture (n = 17), needle acupuncture (n = 15) or sham laser stimulation (n = 16). Attempts were made to blind patients, therapists and outcome assessors, but this was not feasible for needle acupuncture. The duration of withdrawal symptoms (as assessed using a nurse-rated scale) was the primary outcome; the duration of sedative prescription was the secondary outcome. Patients randomized to laser and sham laser had identical withdrawal symptom durations (median 4 days). Patients randomized to needle stimulation had a shorter duration of withdrawal symptoms (median 3 days; P = 0.019 versus sham intervention), and tended to have a shorter duration of sedative use, but these differences diminished after adjustment for baseline differences. The data from this pilot trial do not suggest a relevant benefit of auricular laser acupuncture for alcohol withdrawal. A larger trial including adequate sham interventions is needed, however, to reliably determine the effectiveness of any type of auricular acupuncture in this condition.

  9. 45 CFR 400.301 - Withdrawal from the refugee program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal from the refugee program. 400.301... Waivers and Withdrawals § 400.301 Withdrawal from the refugee program. (a) In the event that a State... assistance, social services, preventive health, and an unaccompanied minors program if appropriate. A State...

  10. Parental Criticism is an Environmental Influence on Adolescent Somatic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, BN; Marceau, K; Narusyte, J; Ganiban, J; Spotts, EL; Reiss, D; Lichtenstein, P; Neiderhiser, JM

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that parental criticism leads to more somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Yet this research has not assessed the direction of causation or whether genetic and/or environmental influences explain the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. As such, it is impossible to understand the mechanisms that underlie this association. The current study uses the Extended Children of Twins design to examine whether parents’ genes, adolescents’ genes, and/or environmental factors explain the relationship between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. Participants came from two twin samples, including the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (N = 868 pairs of adult twins and each twin’s adolescent child) and from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (N = 690 pairs of twin children and their parents). Findings showed that environmental influences account for the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. This suggests that parents’ critical behaviors exert a direct environmental effect on somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Results support the use of intervention programs focused on parental criticism to help reduce adolescents’ somatic symptoms. PMID:25844495

  11. Water withdrawals, use, and trends in Florida, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the total amount of water withdrawn in Florida was estimated to be 14,988 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Saline water accounted for 8,589 Mgal/d (57 percent) and freshwater accounted for 6,399 Mgal/d (43 percent). Groundwater accounted for 4,166 Mgal/d (65 percent) of freshwater withdrawals, and surface water accounted for the remaining 2,233 Mgal/d (35 percent). Surface water accounted for nearly all (99.9 percent) saline-water withdrawals. An additional 659 Mgal/d of reclaimed wastewater was used in Florida during 2010. Freshwater withdrawals were greatest in Palm Beach County (707 Mgal/d), and saline-water withdrawals were greatest in Hillsborough County (1,715 Mgal/d). Fresh groundwater provided drinking water (public supplied and self-supplied) for 17.33 million people (92 percent of Florida’s population), and fresh surface water provided drinking water for 1.47 million people (8 percent). The statewide public-supply gross per capita use for 2010 was 134 gallons per day, whereas the statewide public-supply domestic per capita use was 85 gallons per day. The majority of groundwater withdrawals (almost 62 percent) in 2010 were obtained from the Floridan aquifer system, which is present throughout most of the State. The majority of fresh surface-water withdrawals (56 percent) came from the southern Florida hydrologic unit subregion and is associated with Lake Okeechobee and the canals in the Everglades Agricultural Area of Glades, Hendry, and Palm Beach Counties, as well as the Caloosahatchee River and its tributaries in the agricultural areas of Collier, Glades, Hendry, and Lee Counties. Overall, agricultural irrigation accounted for 40 percent of the total freshwater withdrawals (ground and surface), followed by public supply with 35 percent. Public supply accounted for 48 percent of groundwater withdrawals, followed by agricultural self-supplied (34 percent), commercial-industrial-mining self-supplied (7 percent), recreational

  12. A psychometric validation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Bjarne; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, Nete

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS).......The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS)....

  13. [The effect of palonosetron on rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Bum; Jeon, Younghoon; Yi, Junggu; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Chung, Seung-Yeon; Kwak, Kyung-Hwa

    Rocuronium causes pain and withdrawal movement during induction of anesthesia. In this study, palonosetron was investigated to have analgesic effect on the reduction of rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement. 120 patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups to receive either saline, lidocaine 20mg, or palonosetron 0.075mg with a tourniquet applied two minutes before thiopental sodium (5mg.kg -1 ) was given intravenously. After loss of consciousness, rocuronium (0.6mg.kg -1 ) was injected and the withdrawal movement was estimated by 4-point scale in a double-blind manner. The overall incidence of rocuronium withdrawal movement was 50% with lidocaine (p=0.038), 38% with palonosetron (p=0.006) compared with 75% for saline. The incidence of no pain to mild pain was significantly lower in the lidocaine and palonosetron groups (85% and 92% respectively) than in the saline group (58%). However, there was no significant difference in withdrawal movement between the lidocaine and palonosetron groups. There was no severe movement with palonosetron. Pretreatment of palonosetron with venous occlusion may attenuate rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement as effective as the use of lidocaine. It suggested that peripheral action of palonosetron was effective to reduce rocuronium-induced withdrawal movement. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  14. [Treatment of gamma-hydroxybutyrate withdrawal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Niels August Willer; Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Nielsen, Lars Martin; Boegevig, Soren

    2017-12-11

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse, for which physical addiction develops quickly. GHB withdrawal can develop into a life-threatening condition and has previously been treated mainly with benzodiazepines. These have not always proven effective, leading to long hospitalizations in intensive care units. Based on successful Dutch treatment results for using GHB to treat GHB withdrawal symptoms, we propose to implement a similar method in Denmark. The method requires an interdisciplinary effort for which The Danish Poison Information Centre should be consulted for expertise.

  15. 21 CFR 171.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing...

  16. 21 CFR 571.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 571.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing...

  17. Three forms of somatization in primary care: prevalence, co-occurrence, and sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, L J; Robbins, J M

    1991-11-01

    Three definitions of somatization were operationalized: (a) high levels of functional somatic distress, measured by the Somatic Symptom Index (SSI) of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule; (b) hypochondriasis measured by high scores on a measure of illness worry in the absence of evidence for serious illness; and (c) exclusively somatic clinical presentations among patients with current major depression or anxiety. Of 685 patients attending two family medicine clinics, 26.3% met criteria for one or more forms of somatization. While DSM-III somatization disorder had a prevalence of only 1% in this population, 16.6% of the patients met abridged criteria for subsyndromal somatization disorder (SSI 4,6). Hypochondriacal worry had a prevalence of 7.7% in the clinic sample. Somatized presentations of current major depression or anxiety disorder had a prevalence of 8%. The three forms of somatization were associated with different sociodemographic and illness behavior characteristics. A majority of patients met criteria for only one type of somatization, suggesting that distinct pathogenic processes may be involved in each of the three types.

  18. Development of direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration on citrus sinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Saw Peng; Alvina Lindsay Mijen; Rusli Ibrahim

    2004-01-01

    The plant regeneration processes in Citrus sinensis involves direct somatic embryogenesis. Culture medium used was MS basal supplemented with 50 mg/L sucrose, 0.27% agar and 0.1% vitamin at pH 5.8. Sucrose is the major carbon source for the induction of somatic embryo and also the maturation and germination of somatic embryo. (Author)

  19. Children of people with somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, R

    1993-05-01

    The author investigated psychopathology, suicidal behavior, child abuse, somatization, and health care utilization in 34 children with a parent who has somatization disorder (SD-P) and two comparison groups: 41 children with a somatizing parent (SOM) (fewer symptoms than required for diagnosis of SD-P), and 30 pediatrically ill controls (CON). Child and parent versions of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents were scored for diagnosis and symptom counts in specified categories. Medical records were obtained and abstracted. Children of SD-P had significantly more psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts than did children of SOM or the CON. SD-P and CON had significantly more unexplained physical symptoms than SOM. SD-P showed a trend toward more hospitalizations and experienced significantly more maltreatment. Children of SD-P are at significant risk in several respects. Clinical implications of these findings include a need for awareness and cooperation among general psychiatrists, primary care physicians, and child and adolescent psychiatrists to facilitate detection and treatment of these children's problems.

  20. Emotion, Decision-Making and Substance Dependence: A Somatic-Marker Model of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-García, A; Pérez-García, M; Bechara, A

    2006-01-01

    Similar to patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions, substance dependent individuals (SDI) show signs of impairments in decision-making, characterised by a tendency to choose the immediate reward at the expense of severe negative future consequences. The somatic-marker hypothesis proposes that decision-making depends in many important ways on neural substrates that regulate homeostasis, emotion and feeling. According to this model, there should be a link between abnormalities in experiencing emotions in SDI, and their severe impairments in decision-making in real-life. Growing evidence from neuroscientific studies suggests that core aspects of substance addiction may be explained in terms of abnormal emotional guidance of decision-making. Behavioural studies have revealed emotional processing and decision-making deficits in SDI. Combined neuropsychological and physiological assessment has demonstrated that the poorer decision-making of SDI is associated with altered reactions to reward and punishing events. Imaging studies have shown that impaired decision-making in addiction is associated with abnormal functioning of a distributed neural network critical for the processing of emotional information, including the ventromedial cortex, the amygdala, the striatum, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the insular/somato-sensory cortices, as well as non-specific neurotransmitter systems that modulate activities of neural processes involved in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to review this growing evidence, and to examine the extent of which these studies support a somatic-marker model of addiction. PMID:18615136

  1. The cannabis withdrawal syndrome: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnet U

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Udo Bonnet,1,2 Ulrich W Preuss3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Castrop-Rauxel, Academic Teaching Hospital of the University of Duisburg-Essen, Castrop-Rauxel, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, LVR-Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, 3Vitos-Klinik Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie Herborn, Herborn, 4Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale, Germany Abstract: The cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS is a criterion of cannabis use disorders (CUDs (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition and cannabis dependence (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10. Several lines of evidence from animal and human studies indicate that cessation from long-term and regular cannabis use precipitates a specific withdrawal syndrome with mainly mood and behavioral symptoms of light to moderate intensity, which can usually be treated in an outpatient setting. Regular cannabis intake is related to a desensitization and downregulation of human brain cannabinoid 1 (CB1 receptors. This starts to reverse within the first 2 days of abstinence and the receptors return to normal functioning within 4 weeks of abstinence, which could constitute a neurobiological time frame for the duration of CWS, not taking into account cellular and synaptic long-term neuroplasticity elicited by long-term cannabis use before cessation, for example, being possibly responsible for cannabis craving. The CWS severity is dependent on the amount of cannabis used pre-cessation, gender, and heritable and several environmental factors. Therefore, naturalistic severity of CWS highly varies. Women reported a stronger CWS than men including physical symptoms, such as nausea and stomach pain. Comorbidity with mental or somatic disorders, severe CUD, and low social functioning may require an inpatient treatment (preferably qualified detox and

  2. A case of rhabdomyolysis associated with severe opioid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangahar, Deepali

    2015-08-01

    While the risk of opioid overdose is widely accepted, the dangers of opioid withdrawal are far less clearly defined. The purpose of this publication is to provide evidence against the erroneous clinical dictum that opioid withdrawal is never life-threatening. This case report (N = 1) illustrates an unfortunate, common scenario of a man abusing prescription opioids and heroin. His attempt at self-detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone resulted in life-threatening opioid withdrawal. A detailed account of each day of his withdrawal period was documented by patient and family report and review of all medical records. The patient was contacted three months after hospitalization to verify information and determine progress in treatment and abstinence from drugs and alcohol. A review of the literature was completed on severe cases of precipitated and spontaneous opioid withdrawal followed by a discussion of the significance as it relates to this case. Given the widespread use of prescription opioids and opioid maintenance treatment, physicians should be aware of the complications of acute opioid withdrawal and should be equipped to treat these complications. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  3. Delusional disorder-somatic type (or body dysmorphic disorder) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to distinguish cases of delusional disorder of somatic subtype from severe somatization .... features suggestive of a paranoid schizophrenia. Paranoid schizophrenia ... Of note is that the patient's personality and psychosocial functioning were ...

  4. Somatic surveillance: corporeal control through information networks

    OpenAIRE

    Monahan, Torin; Wall, Tyler

    2007-01-01

    Somatic surveillance is the increasingly invasive technological monitoring of and intervention into body functions. Within this type of surveillance regime, bodies are recast as nodes on vast information networks, enabling corporeal control through remote network commands, automated responses, or self-management practices. In this paper, we investigate three developments in somatic surveillance: nanotechnology systems for soldiers on the battlefield, commercial body-monitoring systems for hea...

  5. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is well known for edible fruit, environment friendly pharmaceutical and commercial products for both national and international market. The conventional propagation and in vitro organogenesis do not meet the demand for the good quality planting materials. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (P. guajava L.) has been developed to fill up the gap. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlets regeneration are achieved from 10-week post-anthesis zygotic embryo explants by 8-day inductive treatment with different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on MS agar medium containing 5% sucrose. Subsequent development and maturation of somatic embryos occur after 8 days on MS basal medium supplemented with 5% sucrose without plant growth regulator. The process of somatic embryogenesis shows the highest relative efficiency in 8-day treatment of zygotic embryo explants with 1.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D. High efficiency germination of somatic embryos and plantlet regeneration takes place on half strength semisolid MS medium amended with 3% sucrose within 2 weeks of subculture. Somatic plantlets are grown for additional 2 weeks by subculturing in MS liquid growth medium containing 3% sucrose. Well-grown plantlets from liquid medium have survived very well following 2-4 week hardening process. The protocol of somatic embryogenesis is optimized for high efficiency micropropagation of guava species.

  6. Progressive neurologic and somatic disease in a novel mouse model of human mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marcó

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIC (MPSIIIC is a severe lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency in activity of the transmembrane enzyme heparan-α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase (HGSNAT that catalyses the N-acetylation of α-glucosamine residues of heparan sulfate. Enzyme deficiency causes abnormal substrate accumulation in lysosomes, leading to progressive and severe neurodegeneration, somatic pathology and early death. There is no cure for MPSIIIC, and development of new therapies is challenging because of the unfeasibility of cross-correction. In this study, we generated a new mouse model of MPSIIIC by targeted disruption of the Hgsnat gene. Successful targeting left LacZ expression under control of the Hgsnat promoter, allowing investigation into sites of endogenous expression, which was particularly prominent in the CNS, but was also detectable in peripheral organs. Signs of CNS storage pathology, including glycosaminoglycan accumulation, lysosomal distension, lysosomal dysfunction and neuroinflammation were detected in 2-month-old animals and progressed with age. Glycosaminoglycan accumulation and ultrastructural changes were also observed in most somatic organs, but lysosomal pathology seemed most severe in liver. Furthermore, HGSNAT-deficient mice had altered locomotor and exploratory activity and shortened lifespan. Hence, this animal model recapitulates human MPSIIIC and provides a useful tool for the study of disease physiopathology and the development of new therapeutic approaches.

  7. Plant regeneration of Michelia champaca L., through somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... as a basic material for perfume, cosmetic, and medicine. The development of an ... Plant regeneration systems of M. champaca through somatic ... The embryogenic cells proliferated and formed somatic embryos (30%) after four to six .... by using MS excel program and Duncan's new multiple range test.

  8. Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Derik; Klages, Eckard; Welzel, Helga; Mann, Karl; Croissant, Bernhard

    2005-06-01

    Opioid withdrawal, stress or cues associated with opioid consumption can induce opioid craving. If opioids are not available, opioid-dependent patients usually search for alternative drugs. Because several non-opioid drugs stimulate the endogenous opioidergic system, this concept may explain their frequent use by opioid-dependent patients. We hypothesized that non-opioid drugs alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms and are therefore consumed by opioid addicts. We asked 89 opioid-dependent patients participating in an out-patient opioid maintenance program to estimate the potential of several non-opioid drugs in being able to alleviate opioid withdrawal. We applied a five-point Lickert scale (1 = very good reduction of opioid withdrawal; 5 = no reduction of opioid withdrawal). Patients could also indicate a worsening of opioid withdrawal. Values (mean +/- SD) were: for benzodiazepines, 3.2 +/- 1.1; tricyclic antidepressants, 3.6 +/- 1.1; cannabis, 3.6 +/- 1.0; alcohol, 4.1 +/- 1.1; cocaine, 4.2 +/- 1.1; amphetamine, 4.4 +/- 0.9; nicotine, 4.7 +/- 0.7; and caffeine, 4.9 +/- 0.5. A worsening of opioid withdrawal was reported by 62% of the patients for cocaine, 62% for amphetamine, 50% for caffeine, 37.5% for cannabis, 27% for nicotine, 26% for alcohol, 8% for tricyclic antidepressants and 3% for benzodiazepines. Our study shows a low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms. The data basis of this study was good and the sample was suitable to be asked for estimations of drug-drug interactions. Of the patients, 26 - 62% even reported a worsening of opioid withdrawal for cannabis, alcohol, cocaine and amphetamine. Only benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were reported to have a moderate positive effect on opioid withdrawal.

  9. 49 CFR 450.16 - Withdrawal of delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of delegation. 450.16 Section 450.16... SECURITY SAFETY APPROVAL OF CARGO CONTAINERS GENERAL Procedure for Delegation to Approval Authorities § 450.16 Withdrawal of delegation. (a) The Chief, Office of Operating and Environmental Standards (CG-522...

  10. 20 CFR 410.690 - Withdrawal of charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of charges. 410.690 Section 410.690 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969... Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.690 Withdrawal of charges. If an...

  11. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  12. Neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal in addicted patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Babhadiashar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphine is one of the most potent alkaloid in opium, which has substantial medical uses and needs and it is the first active principle purified from herbal source. Morphine has commonly been used for relief of moderate to severe pain as it acts directly on the central nervous system; nonetheless, its chronic abuse increases tolerance and physical dependence, which is commonly known as opiate addiction. Morphine withdrawal syndrome is physiological and behavioral symptoms that stem from prolonged exposure to morphine. A majority of brain regions are hypofunctional over prolonged abstinence and acute morphine withdrawal. Furthermore, several neural mechanisms are likely to contribute to morphine withdrawal. The present review summarizes the literature pertaining to neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal. Despite the fact that morphine withdrawal is a complex process, it is suggested that neural mechanisms play key roles in morphine withdrawal.

  13. File list: Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  16. Somatic Embryogenesis Induction and Plant Regeneration in Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João F; Correia, Sandra I; Canhoto, Jorge M

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful tool both for cloning and studies of genetic transformation and embryo development. Most protocols for somatic embryogenesis induction start from zygotic embryos or embryonic-derived tissues which do not allow the propagation of elite trees. In the present study, a reliable protocol for somatic embryogenesis induction from adult trees of strawberry tree is described. Leaves from in vitro proliferating shoots were used to induce somatic embryo formation on a medium containing an auxin and a cytokinin. Somatic embryos germinated in a plant growth regulator-free medium.

  17. Somatic hybridization of sexually incompatible petunias: Petunia parodii, Petunia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J B; Berry, S F; Chapman, J V; Cocking, E C

    1980-01-01

    Somatic hybrid plants were regenerated following the fusion of leaf mesophyll protoplasts of P. parodii with those isolated from a nuclear-albino mutant of P. parviflora. Attempts at sexual hybridization of these two species repeatedly failed thus confirming their previously established cross-incompatibility. Selection of somatic hybrid plants was possible since protoplasts of P. parodii would not develop beyond the cell colony stage, whilst those of the somatic hybrid and albino P. parviflora produced calluses. Green somatic hybrid calluses were visible against a background of albino cells/calluses, and upon transfer to regeneration media gave rise to shoots. Shoots and the resultant flowering plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids based on their growth habit, floral pigmentation and morphology, leaf hair structure, chromosome number and Fraction 1 protein profiles. The relevance of such hybrid material for the development of new, and extensively modified cultivars, is discussed.

  18. Somatic seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic seeds of Plantago asiatica L. were produced for the first time. Shoot-tips isolated from in vitro obtained 4-week shoots were encapsulated using sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Capsules with or without sucrose and with and without cytokinin - indole-3-butyric acid (IBA were used. Sucrose presence in capsules very distinctly influences somatic seeds of Plantago asiatica germination and their conversion into plants. However, addition of IBA to capsules has not clear influence on the ability of plant regrowth. Plantlets transplanted to soil grew to phenotypically normal plants.

  19. Opioid antagonists with minimal sedation for opioid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; White, Jason M

    2017-05-29

    Managed withdrawal is a necessary step prior to drug-free treatment or as the endpoint of long-term substitution treatment. To assess the effects of opioid antagonists plus minimal sedation for opioid withdrawal. Comparators were placebo as well as more established approaches to detoxification, such as tapered doses of methadone, adrenergic agonists, buprenorphine and symptomatic medications. We updated our searches of the following databases to December 2016: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and Web of Science. We also searched two trials registers and checked the reference lists of included studies for further references to relevant studies. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials along with prospective controlled cohort studies comparing opioid antagonists plus minimal sedation versus other approaches or different opioid antagonist regimens for withdrawal in opioid-dependent participants. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Ten studies (6 randomised controlled trials and 4 prospective cohort studies, involving 955 participants) met the inclusion criteria for the review. We considered 7 of the 10 studies to be at high risk of bias in at least one of the domains we assessed.Nine studies compared an opioid antagonist-adrenergic agonist combination versus a treatment regimen based primarily on an alpha 2 -adrenergic agonist (clonidine or lofexidine). Other comparisons (placebo, tapered doses of methadone, buprenorphine) made by included studies were too diverse for any meaningful analysis. This review therefore focuses on the nine studies comparing an opioid antagonist (naltrexone or naloxone) plus clonidine or lofexidine versus treatment primarily based on clonidine or lofexidine.Five studies took place in an inpatient setting, two studies were in outpatients with day care, two used day care only for the first day of opioid antagonist administration, and one study described the setting as outpatient

  20. The Effectiveness of Somatization in Communicating Distress in Korean and American Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Parrott, W. Gerrod

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found that Korean participants used more somatic words to communicate distress than US participants. Among Korean participants, but not US participants, use of somatic words predicted perceived effectiveness of the communication and expectations of positive reactions (e.g., empathy) from others. In Study 2, we found that when presented with distress narratives of others, Koreans (but not Americans) showed more sympathy in response to narratives using somatic words than narratives using emotional words. These findings suggest that cultural differences in use of somatization may reflect differential effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress across cultural contexts. PMID:27047414

  1. The Effectiveness of Somatization in Communicating Distress in Korean and American Cultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo eChoi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found that Korean participants used more somatic words to communicate distress than US participants. Among Korean participants, but not US participants, use of somatic words predicted perceived effectiveness of the communication and expectations of positive reactions (e.g., empathy from others. In study 2, we found that when presented with distress narratives of others, Koreans (but not Americans showed more sympathy in response to narratives using somatic words than narratives using emotional words. These findings suggest that cultural differences in use of somatization may reflect differential effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress across cultural contexts.

  2. Gradual withdrawal of remifentanil infusion may prevent opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comelon, M; Raeder, J; Stubhaug, A; Nielsen, C S; Draegni, T; Lenz, H

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if gradual withdrawal of remifentanil infusion prevented opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) as opposed to abrupt withdrawal. OIH duration was also evaluated. Nineteen volunteers were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. All went through three sessions: abrupt or gradual withdrawal of remifentanil infusion and placebo. Remifentanil was administered at 2.5 ng ml(-1) for 30 min before abrupt withdrawal or gradual withdrawal by 0.6 ng ml(-1) every five min. Pain was assessed at baseline, during infusion, 45-50 min and 105-110 min after end of infusions using the heat pain test (HPT) and the cold pressor test (CPT). The HPT 45 min after infusion indicated OIH development in the abrupt withdrawal session with higher pain scores compared with the gradual withdrawal and placebo sessions (both Pwithdrawal compared with placebo (P=0.93). In the CPT 50 min after end of infusion there was OIH in both remifentanil sessions compared with placebo (gradual P=0.01, abrupt Pwithdrawal of remifentanil infusion in the HPT. After abrupt withdrawal OIH was present in the HPT. In the CPT there was OIH after both gradual and abrupt withdrawal of infusion. The duration of OIH was less than 105 min for both pain modalities. NCT 01702389. EudraCT number 2011-002734-39. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Two-day thionamide withdrawal prior to radioiodine uptake sufficiently increases uptake and does not exacerbate hyperthyroidism compared to 7-day withdrawal in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Sumihisa; Ohye, Hidemi; Yano, Genichiro; Nishihara, Eijun; Kudo, Takumi; Ito, Mitsuru; Fukata, Shuji; Amino, Nobuyuki; Kuma, Kanji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2006-01-01

    The appropriate period of antithyroid drug (ATD) discontinuation before radioiodine therapy is the most critical problem in Graves' disease patients under going treatment with ATD. To determine the optimal period that does not alter the outcome of radioiodine therapy or exacerbate hyperthyroidism, we compared serum FT4 levels at radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and therapy outcomes between a 2-day withdrawal group and 7-day withdrawal group. We prospectively recruited 43 patients for the 2-day withdrawal protocol and retrospectively reviewed 49 patients treated with radioiodine following the protocol of 7-day withdrawal. There was no significant difference in RAIU between the 2 groups. The mean serum FT4 level measured on the first day of 24-h RAIU of the 7-day group was significantly higher than that in the 2-day group. There were no significant differences in the outcomes at each point (6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after therapy) between the 2 groups. Our results indicated that withdrawal of ATD for 2 days is superior to 7 days in that 2 days discontinuation did not exacerbate hyperthyroidism. In order to prevent serum thyroid hormone increase after ATD withdrawal and radioiodine therapy, a 2-day ATD withdrawal period before radioiodine therapy may be useful for high-risk patients such as the elderly and patients with cardiac complications. We believe that the 2-day ATD withdrawal method may be useful for patients undergoing treatment with ATD who are to undergo radioiodine therapy. (author)

  4. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  5. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  6. Germinal and somatic mutations in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, A.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The role of germinal and somatic mutations in carcinogenesis leads to the conclusion that environmental carcinogens probably exert their effects via somatic mutations. Susceptibility to this process may itself be genetically determined, so we may deduce that two groups, one genetic and one non-genetic, are included in the 'environmental' class. Other individuals seem to acquire cancer even in the absence of such environmental agents, and these too may be classified into a genetic and a non-genetic group. It has been estimated that in industrial countries, the environmental groups include 70-80% of all cancer cases, but we are only beginning to know how to separate the genetic and non-genetic subgroups. The genetic subgroup of the 'non-environmental' group is very small, probably of the order of magnitude of 1-2% for cancer as a whole. The remainder, about 25%, comprises a non-genetic, non-environmental subgroup that seems to arise as a consequence of 'spontaneous' somatic mutations. The incidence of these 'background' cancers is what we should combat with preventive and therapeutic measures

  7. TRACY transient experiment databook. 2) ramp withdrawal experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Ken; Yamane, Yuichi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Aizawa, Eiju; Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2002-03-01

    This is a databook of TRACY ''ramp withdrawal'' experiments. TRACY is a reactor to perform supercritical experiments using low-enriched uranyl nitrate aqueous solution. The excess reactivity of TRACY is 3$ at maximum, and it is inserted by feeding the solution to a core tank or by withdrawing a control rod, which is called as the transient rod, from the core. In the ramp withdrawal experiment, the supercritical experiment is initiated by withdrawing the transient rod from the core in a constant speed using a motor drive system. The data in the present databook consist of datasheets and graphs. Experimental conditions and typical values of measured parameters are tabulated in the datasheet. In the graph, power and temperature profiles are plotted. Those data are useful for the investigation of criticality accidents with fissile solutions, and for validation of criticality accident analysis codes. (author)

  8. Cannabis Withdrawal in Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauchard, Emeline; Hartwell, Karen J; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Sherman, Brian J; Gorelick, David A

    2018-02-22

    Cannabis withdrawal has not been studied in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have high rates of cannabis use. We aimed to describe cannabis withdrawal, motivations to quit, and strategies to quit cannabis use in cannabis-dependent adults with ADHD. Twenty-three adults with ADHD enrolled in a controlled clinical trial of pharmacotherapy (atomoxetine) for cannabis dependence (DSM-IV criteria) completed the Marijuana Quit Questionnaire (MJQQ) to provide information on their "most serious" quit attempt made without formal treatment. The study was conducted between November 2005 and June 2008. Participants were predominantly male (82.6%, n = 19), with a mean (SD) age of 27.4 (8.5) years (range, 18-53) at the start of their index quit attempt. The most common motive for quitting cannabis was "to save money" (87%, n = 20); the most common strategy to maintain abstinence was "stopped associating with people who smoke marijuana" (43%, n = 10). Almost all (96%, n = 22) subjects reported ≥ 1 cannabis withdrawal symptom; 7 (30%) met DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Participants with comorbid ADHD and cannabis dependence reported withdrawal symptoms similar to other samples of non-treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults with no psychiatric comorbidity. These findings suggest that ADHD does not influence cannabis withdrawal in the way that it does tobacco (nicotine) withdrawal. Data used in this secondary analysis came from ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00360269. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Somatic Embryogenesis in Two Orchid Genera (Cymbidium, Dendrobium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Winarto, Budi

    2016-01-01

    The protocorm-like body (PLB) is the de facto somatic embryo in orchids. Here we describe detailed protocols for two orchid genera (hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon 'Day Light' and Dendrobium 'Jayakarta', D. 'Gradita 31', and D. 'Zahra FR 62') for generating PLBs. These protocols will most likely have to be tweaked for different cultivars as the response of orchids in vitro tends to be dependent on genotype. In addition to primary somatic embryogenesis, secondary (or repetitive) somatic embryogenesis is also described for both genera. The use of thin cell layers as a sensitive tissue assay is outlined for hybrid Cymbidium while the protocol outlined is suitable for bioreactor culture of D. 'Zahra FR 62'.

  10. Monitoring somatic symptoms in patients with mental disorders: Sensitivity to change and minimal clinically important difference of the Somatic Symptom Scale - 8 (SSS-8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierk, Benjamin; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Hagemann-Goebel, Marion; Löwe, Bernd; Nestoriuc, Yvonne

    2017-09-01

    The SSS-8 is a brief questionnaire for the assessment of somatic symptom burden. This study examines its sensitivity to change and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in patients with mental disorders. 55 outpatients with mental disorders completed the SSS-8 and measures of anxiety, depression, and disability before and after receiving treatment. Effect sizes and correlations between the change scores were calculated. The MCID was estimated using a one standard error of measurement threshold and the change in disability as an external criterion. There was a medium decline in somatic symptom burden for the complete sample (n=55, d z =0.53) and a large decline in a subgroup with very high somatic symptom burden at baseline (n=11, d z =0.94). Decreases in somatic symptom burden were associated with decreases in anxiety (r=0.68, pSSS-8 is sensitive to change. A 3-point decrease reflects a clinically important improvement. Due to its brevity and sound psychometric properties, the SSS-8 is useful for monitoring somatic symptom burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 40 CFR 97.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins. § 97.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting withdrawal. To...

  12. 42 CFR 8.6 - Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS CERTIFICATION OF OPIOID TREATMENT PROGRAMS Accreditation § 8.6 Withdrawal of approval of... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of approval of accreditation bodies. 8.6... to establish that the problems that were grounds for withdrawal of approval have been resolved. (2...

  13. A randomized trial of treatments for high-utilizing somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Arthur J; Ahern, David K; Bauer, Mark R; Nolido, Nyryan; Orav, E John

    2013-11-01

    Somatization and hypochondriacal health anxiety are common sources of distress, impairment, and costly medical utilization in primary care practice. A range of interventions is needed to improve the care of these patients. To determine the effectiveness of two cognitive behavioral interventions for high-utilizing, somatizing patients, using the resources found in a routine care setting. Patients were randomly assigned to a two-step cognitive behavioral treatment program accompanied by a training seminar for their primary care physicians, or to relaxation training. Providers routinely working in these patients' primary care practices delivered the cognitive behavior therapy and relaxation training. A follow-up assessment was completed immediately prior to treatment and 6 and 12 months later. Eighty-nine medical outpatients with elevated levels of somatization, hypochondriacal health anxiety, and medical care utilization. Somatization and hypochondriasis, overall psychiatric distress, and role impairment were assessed with well-validated, self-report questionnaires. Outpatient visits and medical care costs before and after the intervention were obtained from the encounter claims database. At 6 month and 12 month follow-up, both intervention groups showed significant improvements in somatization (p somatization, hypochondriacal symptoms, overall psychiatric distress, and role function. They also reduced the ambulatory visits and costs of these high utilizing outpatients.

  14. Tobacco withdrawal symptoms mediate motivation to reinstate smoking during abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-08-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and 3 unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day; N = 286) attended 2 counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1 hr vs. 17 hr). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Social Withdrawal, Friendship, and Depressed Mood in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleva, A.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141299789; van Beek, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107292300

    2017-01-01

    Social withdrawal in children may develop into a depressed mood in early adolescence , through experiences of problematic peer relationships, while friendship may function as a buffer (Rubin, Coplan, & Bowker, 2009). Our study examines the predictive relation between social withdrawal and depressive

  16. Polyphenols distributions and reserve substances analysis in cacao somatic embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana María Gallego Rúa; Ana María Henao Ramírez; Aura Inés Urrea Trujillo; Lucía Atehortúa Garcés

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn order to understand the causes of lack of regeneration in cacao somatic embryos, two cacao varieties with different responses to regeneration potential were described based on their capacity to store different compounds. It is well known that seed reserves play a central role in the regenerative capability of somatic embryos; thus, we followed histochemical changes and reserve fluctuations of proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenols during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the two cac...

  17. POLYPHENOLS DISTRIBUTION AND RESERVE SUBSTANCES ANALYSIS IN CACAO SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    GALLEGO RÚA, Adriana María; HENAO RAMÍREZ, Ana María; URREA TRUJILLO, Aura Inés; ATEHORTÚA GARCÉS, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the causes of lack of regeneration in cacao somatic embryos, two cacao varieties with different responses to regeneration potential were described based on their capacity to store different compounds. It is well known that seed reserves play a central role in the regenerative capability of somatic embryos; thus, we followed histochemical changes and reserve fluctuations of proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenols during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the two cacao varie...

  18. Prolonged social withdrawal disorder: a hikikomori case in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, Santiago; Caro-Cañizares, Irene; de León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    The Japanese term hikikomori means literally 'to be confined'. Social withdrawal can be present in severe psychiatric disorders; however, in Japan, hikikomori is a defined nosologic entity. There have been only a few reported cases in occidental culture. We present a case report of a Spanish man with prolonged social withdrawal lasting for 4 years. This is a case of prolonged social withdrawal not bound to culture, as well as the second case of hikikomori reported in Spain. We propose prolonged social withdrawal disorder as a disorder not linked to culture, in contrast to hikikomori. Further documentation of this disorder is still needed to encompass all cases reported in Japan and around the world. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, L; Hoyos, R; Roca, W

    1987-06-01

    An efficient and reproducible plant regeneration system, initiated in somatic tissues, has been devised for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Somatic embryogenesis has been induced from shoot tips and immature leaves of in vitro shoot cultures of 15 cassava genotypes. Somatic embryos developed directly on the explants when cultured on a medium containing 4-16 mg/l 2,4-D. Differences were observed with respect to the embryogenic capacity of the explants of different varieties. Secondary embryogenesis has been induced by subculture on solid or liquid induction medium. Long term cultures were established and maintained for up to 18 months by repeated subculture of the proliferating somatic embryos. Plantlets developed from primary and secondary embryos in the presence of 0.1 mg/l BAP, 1mg/l GA3, and 0.01 mg/l 2,4-D. Regenerated plants were transferred to the field, and were grown to maturity.

  20. Alcohol withdrawal delirium manifested by manic symptoms in an elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hung-Yu; Lee, Kuan-I

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a commonly seen problem in psychiatric practice. Alcohol withdrawal delirium is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Withdrawal symptoms usually include tremulousness, psychotic and perceptual symptoms, seizures, and consciousness disturbance. Herein, we report a case involving a 63-year-old man who had alcohol withdrawal delirium that was manifested mainly by manic symptoms. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  1. Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Vibeke; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas; Guedeney, Antoine; Heimann, Mikael; Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Smith, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N=238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N=64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants' social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Somatic syndromes, insomnia, anxiety, and stress among sleep disordered breathing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdo, Tshering; Hasaneen, Nadia; Gold, Morris S; Gold, Avram R

    2016-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of somatic syndromes, anxiety, and insomnia among sleep disordered breathing (SDB) patients is correlated with their levels of somatic arousal, the symptoms of increased sympathetic nervous system tone under conditions of stress. We administered the Body Sensation Questionnaire (BSQ; a 17-item questionnaire with increasing levels of somatic arousal scored 17-85) to 152 consecutive upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) patients and 150 consecutive obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSA/H) patients. From medical records, we characterized each patient in terms of the presence of syndromes and symptoms into three categories: somatic syndromes (six syndromes), anxiety (anxiety disorders, nightmares, use of benzodiazepines), and insomnia (sleep onset, sleep maintenance, and use of hypnotics). For the pooled sample of SDB patients, we modeled the correlation of the BSQ score with the presence of each syndrome/symptom parameter within each of the three categories, with adjustment for male vs. female. Mean BSQ scores in females were significantly higher than those in males (32.5 ± 11.1 vs. 26.9 ± 8.2; mean ± SD). Increasing BSQ scores significantly correlated with increasing prevalence rates of somatic syndromes (p insomnia (p ≤ 0.0001). In general, females had higher prevalence rates of somatic syndromes and symptoms of anxiety than males at any BSQ score while rates of insomnia were similar. In patients with SDB, there is a strong association between the level of somatic arousal and the presence of stress-related disorders like somatic syndromes, anxiety, and insomnia.

  3. Sign Lowering and Phonetic Reduction in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrone, Martha E; Mauk, Claude E

    2010-04-01

    This study examines sign lowering as a form of phonetic reduction in American Sign Language. Phonetic reduction occurs in the course of normal language production, when instead of producing a carefully articulated form of a word, the language user produces a less clearly articulated form. When signs are produced in context by native signers, they often differ from the citation forms of signs. In some cases, phonetic reduction is manifested as a sign being produced at a lower location than in the citation form. Sign lowering has been documented previously, but this is the first study to examine it in phonetic detail. The data presented here are tokens of the sign WONDER, as produced by six native signers, in two phonetic contexts and at three signing rates, which were captured by optoelectronic motion capture. The results indicate that sign lowering occurred for all signers, according to the factors we manipulated. Sign production was affected by several phonetic factors that also influence speech production, namely, production rate, phonetic context, and position within an utterance. In addition, we have discovered interesting variations in sign production, which could underlie distinctions in signing style, analogous to accent or voice quality in speech.

  4. Social Withdrawal and Maladjustment in a Very Group-Oriented Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Ibis Alvarez; Schneider, Barry H.; Chavez, Kenia Lorenzo; Chen, Xinyin

    2005-01-01

    Elementary-school children in Cuba and Canada participated in measures of loneliness, sociometric status, friendship, aggression, and social withdrawal. Withdrawal was associated with loneliness in the Cuban data from both cohorts, Grade 4 and Grade 6. In the Canadian data, withdrawal was only linked to loneliness in Grade 6. In contrast with…

  5. Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To (1) estimate sex-specific risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases in alcohol-dependent individuals versus a control population, and in the same population to (2) estimate sex-specific risks of dying from the examined somatic diseases. DESIGN: Register-based matched cohort...

  6. Demand-Withdraw Patterns in Marital Conflict in the Home

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Lauren M.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2009-01-01

    The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that con...

  7. Mouse cloning and somatic cell reprogramming using electrofused blastomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Amjad; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Dai, Xiangpeng; Li, Wei; Liu, Lei; Wan, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi

    2011-05-01

    Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of "genetically tailored" human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell donors leading to ES cell lines. In fertility clinics, embryos of advanced embryonic stages are usually stored for future use, but their ability to support the derivation of ES cell lines via somatic nuclear transfer has not yet been proved. Here, we report that two-cell stage electrofused mouse embryos, arrested in mitosis, can support developmental reprogramming of nuclei from donor cells ranging from blastomeres to somatic cells. Live, full-term cloned pups from embryonic donors, as well as pluripotent ES cell lines from embryonic or somatic donors, were successfully generated from these reconstructed embryos. Advanced stage pre-implantation embryos were unable to develop normally to term after electrofusion and transfer of a somatic cell nucleus, indicating that discarded pre-implantation human embryos could be an important resource for research that minimizes the ethical concerns for human therapeutic cloning. Our approach provides an attractive and practical alternative to therapeutic cloning using donated oocytes for the generation of patient-specific human ES cell lines.

  8. POLE somatic mutations in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joana; Pinto, Carla; Pinto, Diana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Silva, Romina; Peixoto, Ana; Rocha, Patrícia; Veiga, Isabel; Santos, Catarina; Santos, Rui; Cabreira, Verónica; Lopes, Paula; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2017-12-01

    Despite all the knowledge already gathered, the picture of somatic genetic changes in colorectal tumorigenesis is far from complete. Recently, germline and somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit (POLE) gene have been reported in a small subset of microsatellite-stable and hypermutated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), affecting the proofreading activity of the enzyme and leading to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. To evaluate the role of POLE mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis, namely in advanced CRC, we searched for somatic mutations by Sanger sequencing in tumor DNA samples from 307 cases. Microsatellite instability and mutation analyses of a panel of oncogenes were performed in the tumors harboring POLE mutations. Three heterozygous mutations were found in two tumors, the c.857C>G, p.Pro286Arg, the c.901G>A, p.Asp301Asn, and the c.1376C>T, p.Ser459Phe. Of the POLE-mutated CRCs, one tumor was microsatellite-stable and the other had low microsatellite instability, whereas KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were found in one tumor each. We conclude that POLE somatic mutations exist but are rare in advanced CRC, with further larger studies being necessary to evaluate its biological and clinical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Characterization of somatic embryo attached structures in Feijoa sellowiana Berg. (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Sandra M; Canhoto, Jorge M

    2010-06-01

    The presence of an attached organ to somatic embryos of angiosperms connecting the embryo to the supporting tissue has been a subject of controversy. This study shows that 67% of the morphologically normal somatic embryos of Feijoa sellowiana possess this type of organ and that its formation was not affected by culture media composition. Histological and ultrastructural analysis indicated that the attached structures of somatic embryos displayed a great morphological diversity ranging from a few cells to massive and columnar structures. This contrast with the simple suspensors observed in zygotic embryos which were only formed by five cells. As well as the suspensor of zygotic embryos, somatic embryo attached structures undergo a process of degeneration in later stages of embryo development. Other characteristic shared by zygotic suspensors and somatic embryo attached structures was the presence of thick cell walls surrounding the cells. Elongated thin filaments were often associated with the structures attached to somatic embryos, whereas in other cases, tubular cells containing starch grains connected the embryo to the supporting tissue. These characteristics associated with the presence of plasmodesmata in the cells of the attached structures seem to indicate a role on embryo nutrition. However, cell proliferation in the attached structures resulting into new somatic embryos may also suggest a more complex relationship between the embryo and the structures connecting it to the supporting tissue.

  10. Ethical Analysis of Withdrawing Total Artificial Heart Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Erin S; Wordingham, Sara E; Stulak, John M; Boilson, Barry A; Fuechtmann, Kayla R; Singh, Nausheen; Sulmasy, Daniel P; Pajaro, Octavio E; Mueller, Paul S

    2017-05-01

    To describe the characteristics of patients who undergo withdrawal of total artificial heart support and to explore the ethical aspects of withdrawing this life-sustaining treatment. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all adult recipients of a total artificial heart at Mayo Clinic from the program's inception in 2007 through June 30, 2015. Management of other life-sustaining therapies, approach to end-of-life decision making, engagement of ethics and palliative care consultation, and causes of death were analyzed. Of 47 total artificial heart recipients, 14 patients or their surrogates (30%) requested withdrawal of total artificial heart support. No request was denied by treatment teams. All 14 patients were supported with at least 1 other life-sustaining therapy. Only 1 patient was able to participate in decision making. It is widely held to be ethically permissible to withdraw a life-sustaining treatment when the treatment no longer meets the patient's health care-related goals (ie, the burdens outweigh the benefits). These data suggest that some patients, surrogates, physicians, and other care providers believe that this principle extends to the withdrawal of total artificial heart support. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  12. Improving somatic health of outpatients with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hasselt, Fenneke M.; Oud, Marian J. T.; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience a 13-to 30-year reduction in life expectancy compared with the general population. The majority of these deaths can be attributed to somatic health problems. The risk on somatic health problems is partly increased due to a reduced

  13. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt was made to study the somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from the in vitro leaf explants of Rumex vesicarius L. a renowned medicinal plant, which belongs to polygonaceae family. Effective in vitro regeneration of R. vesicarius was achieved via young leaf derived somatic embryo cultures.

  14. File list: NoD.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 No description Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 No description Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  17. Induction of synaptic long-term potentiation after opioid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drdla, Ruth; Gassner, Matthias; Gingl, Ewald; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2009-07-10

    mu-Opioid receptor (MOR) agonists represent the gold standard for the treatment of severe pain but may paradoxically also enhance pain sensitivity, that is, lead to opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). We show that abrupt withdrawal from MOR agonists induces long-term potentiation (LTP) at the first synapse in pain pathways. Induction of opioid withdrawal LTP requires postsynaptic activation of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and a rise of postsynaptic calcium concentrations. In contrast, the acute depression by opioids is induced presynaptically at these synapses. Withdrawal LTP can be prevented by tapered withdrawal and shares pharmacology and signal transduction pathways with OIH. These findings provide a previously unrecognized target to selectively combat pro-nociceptive effects of opioids without compromising opioid analgesia.

  18. Sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal syndrome: recognition and treatment [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Olmedo, Ruben E; Kim, Jeremy

    2017-03-22

    Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents. Managing withdrawal symptoms requires a patient-specific approach that takes into account the physiologic pathways of the particular drugs used as well as the patient's age and comorbidities. Adjunctive therapies include alpha agonists, beta blockers, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics. Newer pharmacological therapies offer promise in managing withdrawal symptoms. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice].

  19. Somatic mutations in histiocytic sarcoma identified by next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Tomaszewicz, Keith; Hutchinson, Lloyd; Hornick, Jason L; Woda, Bruce; Yu, Hongbo

    2016-08-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of presumed hematopoietic origin showing morphologic and immunophenotypic evidence of histiocytic differentiation. Somatic mutation importance in the pathogenesis or disease progression of histiocytic sarcoma was largely unknown. To identify somatic mutations in histiocytic sarcoma, we studied 5 histiocytic sarcomas [3 female and 2 male patients; mean age 54.8 (20-72), anatomic sites include lymph node, uterus, and pleura] and matched normal tissues from each patient as germ line controls. Somatic mutations in 50 "Hotspot" oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes were examined using next generation sequencing. Three (out of five) histiocytic sarcoma cases carried somatic mutations in BRAF. Among them, G464V [variant frequency (VF) of 43.6 %] and G466R (VF of 29.6 %) located at the P loop potentially interfere with the hydrophobic interaction between P and activating loops and ultimately activation of BRAF. Also detected was BRAF somatic mutation N581S (VF of 7.4 %), which was located at the catalytic loop of BRAF kinase domain: its role in modifying kinase activity was unclear. A similar mutational analysis was also performed on nine acute monocytic/monoblastic leukemia cases, which did not identify any BRAF somatic mutations. Our study detected several BRAF mutations in histiocytic sarcomas, which may be important in understanding the tumorigenesis of this rare neoplasm and providing mechanisms for potential therapeutical opportunities.

  20. Hypochondriasis and somatization: two distinct aspects of somatoform disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrand, R; Hiller, W; Fichter, M M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated boundaries and overlap between somatization and hypochondriasis on different levels of psychopathology: (1) comorbidity between hypochondriasis and somatization on the level of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): (2) comorbidity with other mental disorders; (3) differences in clinical characteristics: and (4) overlap on the level of psychometric measures. The sample consisted of 120 psycho somatic inpatients. Somatoform, hypochondriacal, and depressive symptomatology, cognitions about body and health, and further aspects of general symptomatology were investigated. Diagnoses of Axis I and II were based on DSM-IV Our results suggest a large overlap on the level of DSM-IV-diagnoses: only 3 of 31 hypochondriacal patients had no multiple somatoform symptoms, while 58 of 86 patients with multiple somatoform symptoms had no hypochondriasis. However, the overlap between hypochondriacal and somatization symptomatology on the level of psychometric measurement is only moderate, indicating that hypochondriasis is a markedly distinct aspect of somatoform disorders.

  1. Zygotic and somatic embryo morphogenesis in Pinus pinaster: comparative histological and histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereso, Susana; Zoglauer, Kurt; Milhinhos, Ana; Miguel, Célia; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2007-05-01

    We compared morphogenesis and accumulation of storage proteins and starch in Pinus pinaster Ait. zygotic embryos with those in somatic embryos grown with different carbohydrate sources. The maturation medium for somatic embryos included 80 microM abscisic acid (ABA), 9 g l(-1) gellam gum and either glucose, sucrose or maltose at 44, 88, 175 or 263 mM in the presence or absence of 6% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 MW. Maturation medium containing 44 or 88 mM of a carbohydrate source produced only one or no cotyledonary somatic embryos per 0.6 g fresh mass of culture. The addition of PEG to the basal maturation medium resulted in a low yield of cotyledonary somatic embryos that generally showed incomplete development and anatomical abnormalities such as large intercellular spaces and large vacuoles. High concentrations of maltose also induced large intercellular spaces in the somatic embryonic cells, and 263 mM sucrose produced fewer and less developed cotyledonary somatic embryos compared with 175 mM sucrose, indicating that the effect of carbohydrate source is partially osmotic. Zygotic embryos had a lower dry mass than somatic embryos at the same stage of development. Starch granules followed a similar accumulation pattern in zygotic and somatic embryos. A low starch content was found in cotyledonary zygotic embryos and in somatic embryos developed in the presence of 175 mM maltose or 263 mM glucose. In zygotic embryos and in PEG-treated somatic embryos, protein bodies appeared later and were smaller and fewer than in well-developed somatic embryos grown without PEG. We propose that storage protein concentration might be a marker of embryo quality.

  2. Caffeine Withdrawal and Dependence: A Convenience Survey Among Addiction Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, Alan J; Brown, Pamela C; Griffiths, Roland R; Hughes, John R; Juliano, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine withdrawal was included in the research appendix of the DSM-IV to encourage additional research to assist with determining its status for the next version of the manual. Caffeine dependence was not included because of a lack of empirical research at the time of publication. This study assessed the beliefs of addiction professionals about the clinical importance of caffeine withdrawal and dependence. A 6-item survey was developed and delivered electronically to the members of six professional organizations that focus on addiction. Open-ended comments were also solicited. Five hundred members responded. The majority (95%) thought that cessation of caffeine could produce a withdrawal syndrome, and that caffeine withdrawal can have clinical importance (73%); however, only half (48%) thought that caffeine withdrawal should be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). A majority (58%) believed that some people develop caffeine dependence; however, only 44% indicated that it should be in the DSM. Comments suggested that trepidation about inclusion of caffeine diagnoses was due to the concerns about the field of psychiatry being criticized for including common disorders with a relatively low clinical severity. Others, however, expressed an urgent need to take caffeine-related problems more seriously. The majority of addiction professionals believe that caffeine withdrawal and dependence disorders exist and are clinically important; however, these professionals are divided in whether caffeine withdrawal and dependence should be included in DSM. Wider dissemination of the extant literature on caffeine withdrawal and additional research on caffeine dependence will be needed to provide additional guidance to policymakers and healthcare workers.

  3. Behavioral Variability and Somatic Mosaicism: A Cytogenomic Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Zelenova, Maria A; Yurov, Yuri B; Iourov, Ivan Y

    2018-04-01

    Behavioral sciences are inseparably related to genetics. A variety of neurobehavioral phenotypes are suggested to result from genomic variations. However, the contribution of genetic factors to common behavioral disorders (i.e. autism, schizophrenia, intellectual disability) remains to be understood when an attempt to link behavioral variability to a specific genomic change is made. Probably, the least appreciated genetic mechanism of debilitating neurobehavioral disorders is somatic mosaicism or the occurrence of genetically diverse (neuronal) cells in an individual's brain. Somatic mosaicism is assumed to affect directly the brain being associated with specific behavioral patterns. As shown in studies of chromosome abnormalities (syndromes), genetic mosaicism is able to change dynamically the phenotype due to inconsistency of abnormal cell proportions. Here, we hypothesize that brain-specific postzygotic changes of mosaicism levels are able to modulate variability of behavioral phenotypes. More precisely, behavioral phenotype variability in individuals exhibiting somatic mosaicism might correlate with changes in the amount of genetically abnormal cells throughout the lifespan. If proven, the hypothesis can be used as a basis for therapeutic interventions through regulating levels of somatic mosaicism to increase functioning and to improve overall condition of individuals with behavioral problems.

  4. [Alcohol withdrawal syndrome dynamics during treatment with nooclerin (deanoli aceglumas)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agibalova, T V; Buzik, O Zh; Rychkova, O V; Smyshlyaev, A V; Rumbesht, V V

    2018-01-01

    To study the efficacy of nooclerin (deanoli aceglumas) in alcohol withdrawal syndrome assessed by clinical and biochemical characteristics. A multicenter, open, randomized, comparative study of nooclerin in the complex treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome included 90 patients. The patients were randomized into nooclerin group (n=55) and control group (n=35). Nooclerin reduced alcohol withdrawal symptoms more significantly throughout the whole study period. There were significant between-group differences on the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (МFI-20). However, patients exhibited no excessive activity. No adverse side-effects were observed.

  5. Restriction endonuclease analysis of chloroplast DNA in interspecies somatic Hybrids of Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Cocking, E C; Bovenberg, W A; Kool, A J

    1982-12-01

    Restriction endonuclease cleavage pattern analysis of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of three different interspecific somatic hybrid plants revealed that the cytoplasms of the hybrids contained only cpDNA of P. parodii. The somatic hybrid plants analysed were those between P. parodii (wild type) + P. hybrida (wild type); P. parodii (wild type)+P. inflata (cytoplasmic albino mutant); P. parodii (wild type) + P. parviflora (nuclear albino mutant). The presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in the somatic hybrid of P. parodii + P. inflata is possibly due to the stringent selection used for somatic hybrid production. However, in the case of the two other somatic hybrids P. parodii + P. hybrida and P. parodii + P. parviflora it was not possible to determine whether the presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in these somatic hybrid plants was due to the nature of the selection schemes used or simply occurred by chance. The relevance of such somatic hybrid material for the study of genomic-cytoplasmic interaction is discussed, as well as the use of restriction endonuclease fragment patterns for the analysis of taxonomic and evolutionary inter-relationships in the genus Petunia.

  6. Opioid withdrawal syndrome: emerging concepts and novel therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehni, Ashish K; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-02-01

    Opioid withdrawal syndrome is a debilitating manifestation of opioid dependence and responds poorly to the available clinical therapies. Studies from various in vivo and in vitro animal models of opioid withdrawal syndrome have led to understanding of its pathobiology which includes complex interrelated pathways leading to adenylyl cyclase superactivation based central excitation. Advancements in the elucidation of opioid withdrawal syndrome mechanisms have revealed a number of key targets that have been hypothesized to modulate clinical status. The present review discusses the neurobiology of opioid withdrawal syndrome and its therapeutic target recptors like calcitonin gene related peptide receptors (CGRP), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, gamma aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA), G-proteingated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels and calcium channels. The present review further details the potential role of second messengers like calcium (Ca2+) / calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), nitric oxide synthase, cytokines, arachidonic acid metabolites, corticotropin releasing factor, fos and src kinases in causing opioid withdrawal syndrome. The exploitation of these targets may provide effective therapeutic agents for the management of opioid dependence-induced abstinence syndrome.

  7. Evaluation of Ashwagandha in alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of Ashwagandha (ASW in attenuation of alcohol withdrawal in ethanol withdrawal mice model. Methods: Alcohol dependence was induced in mice by the oral, once-daily administration of 10% v/v ethanol (2 g/kg for one week. Once the animals were withdrawn from alcohol, the efficacy of ASW (200mg/kg and 500mg/kg in comparison with diazepam (1 mg/kg in the attenuation of withdrawal was studied using, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ kindling test for seizure threshold, forced swim test (FST for depression and locomotor activity (LCA in open field test (OFT. 6 hours after the last ethanol administration, seizure threshold was measured in all the groups by administering the convulsant drug, PTZ with a subconvulsive dose of 30 mg/kg i.p. In FST, mice were forced to swim and the total duration of immobility (seconds was measured during the last 4 min of a single 6-min test session. In OFT, number of crossings of the lines marked on the floor was recorded for a period of 5 min. Results: Compared to ethanol group, ASW (500 mg/Kg has suppressed the PTZ kindling seizures in ethanol withdrawal animals [0% convulsion], FST has shown decreased immobility time and OFT has exhibited increase in the number of line crossing activity by mice which may be the consequence of anxiolytic activity of ASW similar to that of diazepam. Conclusions: The present study provides satisfactory evidence to use ASW as a safe and reliable alternative to diazepam in alcohol withdrawal conditions.

  8. Cellular Mechanisms of Somatic Stem Cell Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yunjoon

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity rely on rare populations of somatic stem cells endowed with the potential to self-renew and differentiate. During aging, many tissues show a decline in regenerative potential coupled with a loss of stem cell function. Cells including somatic stem cells have evolved a series of checks and balances to sense and repair cellular damage to maximize tissue function. However, during aging the mechanisms that protect normal cell function begin to fail. In this review, we will discuss how common cellular mechanisms that maintain tissue fidelity and organismal lifespan impact somatic stem cell function. We will highlight context-dependent changes and commonalities that define aging, by focusing on three age-sensitive stem cell compartments: blood, neural, and muscle. Understanding the interaction between extrinsic regulators and intrinsic effectors that operate within different stem cell compartments is likely to have important implications for identifying strategies to improve health span and treat age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24439814

  9. Phenobarbital compared to benzodiazepines in alcohol withdrawal treatment: A register-based cohort study of subsequent benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askgaard, Gro; Hallas, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Molander, Anna Camilla; Madsen, Kenneth Grønkjær; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-04-01

    Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide are recommended as first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal. These drugs are known for their abuse liability and might increase alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. Phenobarbital could be an alternative treatment option, possibly with the drawback of a more pronounced acute toxicity. We evaluated if phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide decreased the risk of subsequent use of benzodiazepines, alcohol recidivism and mortality. The study was a register-based cohort study of patients admitted for alcohol withdrawal 1998-2013 and treated with either phenobarbital or chlordiazepoxide. Patients were followed for one year. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality associated with alcohol withdrawal treatment, while adjusting for confounders. A total of 1063 patients treated with chlordiazepoxide and 1365 patients treated with phenobarbital were included. After one year, the outcome rates per 100 person-years in the phenobarbital versus the chlordiazepoxide cohort were 9.20 vs. 5.13 for use of benzodiazepine, 37.9 vs. 37.9 for alcohol recidivism and 29 vs. 59 for mortality. Comparing phenobarbital to chlordiazepoxide treated, the HR of subsequent use of benzodiazepines was 1.56 (95%CI 1.05-2.30). Similarly, the HR for alcohol recidivism was 0.99 (95%CI 0.84-1.16). Lastly, the HR for 30-days and 1 year mortality was 0.25 (95%CI 0.08-0.78) and 0.51 (95%CI 0.31-0.86). There was no decreased risk of subsequent benzodiazepine use or alcohol recidivism in patients treated with phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital treatment was associated with decreased mortality, which might be confounded by somatic comorbidity among patients receiving chlordiazepoxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. From culture to symptom: Testing a structural model of "Chinese somatization".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu; Peng, Yunshi; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Yao, Shuqiao; Dere, Jessica; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Ryder, Andrew G

    2016-02-01

    "Chinese somatization" has been frequently discussed over the past three decades of cultural psychiatry, and has more recently been demonstrated in cross-national comparisons. Empirical studies of potential explanations are lacking, however. Ryder and Chentsova-Dutton (2012) proposed that Chinese somatization can be understood as a cultural script for depression, noting that the literature is divided on whether this script primarily involves felt bodily experience or a stigma-avoiding communication strategy. Two samples from Hunan province, China-one of undergraduate students (n = 213) and one of depressed psychiatric outpatients (n = 281)-completed the same set of self-report questionnaires, including a somatization questionnaire developed in Chinese. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that Chinese somatization could be understood as two correlated factors: one focusing on the experience and expression of distress, the other on its conceptualization and communication. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that traditional Chinese cultural values are associated with both of these factors, but only bodily experience is associated with somatic depressive symptoms. This study takes a first step towards directly evaluating explanations for Chinese somatization, pointing the way to future multimethod investigations of this cultural script. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Perceived social support and life satisfaction in persons with somatization disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life satisfaction and perceived social support been shown to improve the well-being of a person and also affect the outcome of treatment in somatization disorder. The phenomenon of somatization was explored in relation to the perceived social support and life satisfaction. Aim: This study aimed at investigating perceived social support and life satisfaction in people with somatization disorder. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on persons having somatization disorder attending the outpatient unit of LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam. Satisfaction with life scale and multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to assess life satisfaction and perceived social support respectively. Results: Women reported more somatic symptoms than men. Family perceived social support was high in the patient in comparison to significant others′ perceived social support and friends′ perceived social support. Perceived social support showed that a significant positive correlation was found with life satisfaction. Conclusion: Poor social support and low life satisfaction might be a stress response with regard to increased distress severity and psychosocial stressors rather than a cultural response to express psychological problems in somatic terms.

  12. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Enright, Brian; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2003-01-01

    Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle. PMID:14614770

  13. USA Withdrawal from Paris Agreement – What Next?

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Chestnoy; Dinara Gershinkova

    2017-01-01

    In June 2017, President Trump announced the USA’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord, which had been ratified for less than a year, thanks in large part to the USA. That drastic shift followed the change in residency at the White House. Withdrawing from the Paris Accord presents an interesting topic for analysis. There’s the practical side of the withdrawal procedure as set out in Article 28 of the agreement, not to mention the consequences of US non-participation in address...

  14. Cocaine withdrawal causes delayed dysregulation of stress genes in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Julia García-Fuster

    Full Text Available Relapse, even following an extended period of withdrawal, is a major challenge in substance abuse management. Delayed neurobiological effects of the drug during prolonged withdrawal likely contribute to sustained vulnerability to relapse. Stress is a major trigger of relapse, and the hippocampus regulates the magnitude and duration of stress responses. Recent work has implicated hippocampal plasticity in various aspects of substance abuse. We asked whether changes in stress regulatory mechanisms in the hippocampus may participate in the neuroadaptations that occur during prolonged withdrawal. We therefore examined changes in the rat stress system during the course of withdrawal from extended daily access (5-hours of cocaine self-administration, an animal model of addiction. Tissue was collected at 1, 14 and 28 days of withdrawal. Plasma corticosterone levels were determined and corticosteroid receptors (GR, MR, MR/GR mRNA ratios and expression of other stress-related molecules (HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1 mRNA were measured in hippocampal subfields using in situ hybridization. Results showed a delayed emergence of dysregulation of stress genes in the posterior hippocampus following 28 days of cocaine withdrawal. This included increased GR mRNA in DG and CA3, increased MR and HSP90AA1 mRNA in DG, and decreased MR/GR mRNA ratio in DG and CA1. Corticosterone levels progressively decreased during the course of withdrawal, were normalized following 28 days of withdrawal, and were correlated negatively with GR and positively with MR/GR mRNA ratio in DG. These results suggest a role for the posterior hippocampus in the neuroadaptations that occur during prolonged withdrawal, and point to a signaling partner of GR, HSP90AA1, as a novel dysregulated target during cocaine withdrawal. These delayed neurobiological effects of extended cocaine exposure likely contribute to sustained vulnerability to relapse.

  15. Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This document presents arguments that conclude that it is unethical to use somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for infertility treatment due to concerns about safety; the unknown impact of SCNT on children, families, and society; and the availability of other ethically acceptable means of assisted reproduction. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee report titled, "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning)," last published in Fertil Steril 2000;74:873-6. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ketogenic Diet suppresses Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna; Thomsen, Morgane

    2018-01-01

    , we investigated the potential therapeutic benefit of a ketogenic diet in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats fed either ketogenic or regular diets were administered ethanol or water orally, twice daily for 6 days while the diet conditions were...... maintained. Abstinence symptoms were rated 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the last alcohol administration. RESULTS: Maintenance on a ketogenic diet caused a significant decrease in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms 'rigidity' and 'irritability'. CONCLUSION: Our preclinical pilot study suggests that a ketogenic...... diet may be a novel approach for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. 'Chernobyl syndrome' (CS) signs and role of socio psychological factors in its formation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyirazyan, S.A.; Fyilyippova, S.M.; Tikhomirova, M.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    5200 case histories of the liquidators (1986-1990) were analyzed. The study involved 520 patients who were performed therapeutic and neurological investigation, instrumental studies (electrocardiogram, veloergometry, US examination, electroencephalogram, rheoelectrogram) as well as psycho diagnostic investigation (MMPI, Luscher's test). CS signs are formed of somatic and neurological symptoms as well as psychological peculiarities of the liquidators, which are mainly due ro socio economical factors. Correlation between the frequency of illness, frequency of visits, invalidism beginning and socio economical changes is noted. The leading role in CS formation is played by socio psychological factors, which may be one of the cause of low efficacy of the treatment

  18. Emergence of dormant conditioned incentive approach by conditioned withdrawal in nicotine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel; Hiroi, Noboru

    2010-10-15

    Nicotine is one of the determinants for the development of persistent smoking, and this maladaptive behavior is characterized by many symptoms, including withdrawal and nicotine seeking. The process by which withdrawal affects nicotine seeking is poorly understood. The impact of a withdrawal-associated cue on nicotine (.2 mg/kg)-conditioned place preference was assessed in male C57BL/6J mice (n = 8-17/group). To establish a cue selectively associated with withdrawal distinct from those associated with nicotine, a tone was paired with withdrawal in their home cages; mice were chronically exposed to nicotine (200 μg/mL for 15 days) from drinking water in their home cages and received the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (2.5 mg/kg) to precipitate withdrawal in the presence of a tone. The effect of the withdrawal-associated tone on nicotine-conditioned place preference was then evaluated in the place-conditioning apparatus after a delay, when nicotine-conditioned place preference spontaneously disappeared. A cue associated with precipitated withdrawal reactivated the dormant effect of nicotine-associated cues on conditioned place preference. This effect occurred during continuous exposure to nicotine but not during abstinence. A conditioned withdrawal cue could directly amplify the incentive properties of cues associated with nicotine. This observation extends the contemporary incentive account of the role of withdrawal in addiction to cue-cue interaction. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Thylstrup, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacco...... the DSM-5 Withdrawal Symptom Check List with withdrawal symptoms from all classes of substances, with no indication that the described symptoms should be attributed to withdrawal. Self-reported time since last use of cannabis was used as a predictor of cannabis withdrawal severity. Results...... With the exception of loss of appetite, time since last use of cannabis was associated with all types of withdrawal symptoms listed in the DSM-5. Only four of 19 symptoms intended to measure withdrawal from other substances were related to time since last use of cannabis, including vivid, unpleasant dreams...

  20. Tolerance and withdrawal from prolonged opioid use in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Willson, Douglas F; Berger, John; Harrison, Rick; Meert, Kathleen L; Zimmerman, Jerry; Carcillo, Joseph; Newth, Christopher J L; Prodhan, Parthak; Dean, J Michael; Nicholson, Carol

    2010-05-01

    After prolonged opioid exposure, children develop opioid-induced hyperalgesia, tolerance, and withdrawal. Strategies for prevention and management should be based on the mechanisms of opioid tolerance and withdrawal. Relevant manuscripts published in the English language were searched in Medline by using search terms "opioid," "opiate," "sedation," "analgesia," "child," "infant-newborn," "tolerance," "dependency," "withdrawal," "analgesic," "receptor," and "individual opioid drugs." Clinical and preclinical studies were reviewed for data synthesis. Mechanisms of opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance suggest important drug- and patient-related risk factors that lead to tolerance and withdrawal. Opioid tolerance occurs earlier in the younger age groups, develops commonly during critical illness, and results more frequently from prolonged intravenous infusions of short-acting opioids. Treatment options include slowly tapering opioid doses, switching to longer-acting opioids, or specifically treating the symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Novel therapies may also include blocking the mechanisms of opioid tolerance, which would enhance the safety and effectiveness of opioid analgesia. Opioid tolerance and withdrawal occur frequently in critically ill children. Novel insights into opioid receptor physiology and cellular biochemical changes will inform scientific approaches for the use of opioid analgesia and the prevention of opioid tolerance and withdrawal.

  1. A double blind, within subject comparison of spontaneous opioid withdrawal from buprenorphine versus morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, D Andrew; Smith, Michael T; Mintzer, Miriam Z; Campbell, Claudia M; Strain, Eric C

    2014-02-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that there is minimal withdrawal after the cessation of chronically administered buprenorphine and that opioid withdrawal symptoms are delayed compared with those of other opioids. The present study compared the time course and magnitude of buprenorphine withdrawal with a prototypical μ-opioid agonist, morphine. Healthy, out-of-treatment opioid-dependent residential volunteers (N = 7) were stabilized on either buprenorphine (32 mg/day i.m.) or morphine (120 mg/day i.m.) administered in four divided doses for 9 days. They then underwent an 18-day period of spontaneous withdrawal, during which four double-blind i.m. placebo injections were administered daily. Stabilization and spontaneous withdrawal were assessed for the second opioid using the same time course. Opioid withdrawal measures were collected eight times daily. Morphine withdrawal symptoms were significantly (P withdrawal as measured by mean peak ratings of Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS), Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), all subscales of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), sick and pain (0-100) Visual Analog Scales, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and pupil dilation. Peak ratings on COWS and SOWS occurred on day 2 of morphine withdrawal and were significantly greater than on day 2 of buprenorphine withdrawal. Subjective reports of morphine withdrawal resolved on average by day 7. There was minimal evidence of buprenorphine withdrawal on any measure. In conclusion, spontaneous withdrawal from high-dose buprenorphine appears subjectively and objectively milder compared with that of morphine for at least 18 days after drug cessation.

  2. File list: Unc.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Unc.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Unclassified Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  6. Flow cytometric and morphological analyses of Pinus pinaster somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Loureiro, João; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Santos, Conceição; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-09-25

    An approach combining morphological profiling and flow cytometric analysis was used to assess genetic stability during the several steps of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus pinaster. Embryogenic cell lines of P. pinaster were established from immature zygotic embryos excised from seeds obtained from open-pollinated trees. During the maturation stage, phenotype of somatic embryos was characterized as being either normal or abnormal. Based upon the prevalent morphological traits, different types of abnormal embryos underwent further classification and quantification. Nuclear DNA content of maritime pine using the zygotic embryos was estimated to be 57.04 pg/2C, using propidium iodide flow cytometry. According to the same methodology, no significant differences (P< or =0.01) in DNA ploidy were detected among the most frequently observed abnormal phenotypes, embryogenic cell lines, zygotic and normal somatic embryos, and somatic embryogenesis-derived plantlets. Although the differences in DNA ploidy level do not exclude the occurrence of a low level of aneuploidy, the results obtained point to the absence of major changes in ploidy level during the somatic embryogenesis process of this economically important species. Therefore, our primary goal of true-to-typeness was assured at this level.

  7. The Study of the Role of Contributor Factors in Addiction Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Kianipour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present paper investigated the factors contributing to addiction withdrawal so as to it would be possible to set preventive and rehabilitative programs for addicts. Method: The study was ex-post facto and causal-comparative one. Population included all addicts referred to addiction withdrawal centers of Kahnouj city and the sample was selected of addicts of Yaran addiction withdrawal Center by voluntary sampling. Bar-on emotional intelligence inventory, family boundary questionnaire and demographic information were administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed that normal family boundaries, higher emotional intelligence and opium use in comparison of crack and crystal glass are effective on addiction withdrawal. But disengaged family boundaries, crack and crystal glass use can be led to addiction recursion. Age, addiction duration, marital status, and education level are not effective on addiction withdrawal. Conclusion: Altogether, the results represented the role and importance of variables namely: family, emotional intelligence, and the kind of used material in addiction withdrawal.

  8. 20 CFR 410.232 - Withdrawal of a claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of a claim. 410.232 Section 410.232 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969... Claims and Evidence § 410.232 Withdrawal of a claim. (a) Before adjudication of claim. A claimant (or an...

  9. 12 CFR 563g.11 - Withdrawal or abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal or abandonment. 563g.11 Section 563g.11 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.11 Withdrawal or abandonment. (a) Any offering circular, amendment, or exhibit may be withdrawn...

  10. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel alcohol...

  11. File list: Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular somatic ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: DNS.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular somatic ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular somatic ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 DNase-seq Gonad Testicular somatic ce...lls http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  20. Water relations in culture media influence maturation of avocado somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Martín, Belén; Sesmero, Rafael; Quesada, Miguel A; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Sánchez-Romero, Carolina

    2011-11-15

    Application of transformation and other biotechnological tools in avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is hampered by difficulties in obtaining mature somatic embryos capable of germination at an acceptable rate. In this work, we evaluated the effect of different compounds affecting medium water relations on maturation of avocado somatic embryos. Culture media were characterized with respect to gel strength, water potential and osmotic potential. Improved production of mature somatic embryos was achieved with gelling agent concentrations higher than those considered standard. The osmotic agents such as sorbitol and PEG did not have positive effects on embryo maturation. The number of w-o mature somatic embryos per culture was positively correlated with medium gel strength. Gel strength was significantly affected by gelling agent type as well as by gelling agent and PEG concentration. Medium water potential was influenced by sorbitol concentration; incorporation of PEG to a culture medium did not affect medium water potential. The highest maturation results were achieved on a medium gelled with 10 gl(-1) agar. Moreover, these somatic embryos had improved germination rates. These results corroborate the role of water restriction as a key factor controlling maturation of somatic embryos. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The somatic mutation landscape of premalignant colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hong; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Huff, Chad; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Liang, Han; Menter, David G; Morris, Jeffery; Hawk, Ernest; Stroehlein, John R; Futreal, Andrew; Kopetz, Scott; Mishra, Lopa; Wu, Xifeng

    2017-06-12

    There are few studies which characterised the molecular alterations in premalignant colorectal adenomas. Our major goal was to establish colorectal adenoma genome atlas and identify molecular markers of progression from colorectal adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing were carried out in 149 adenoma samples and paired blood from patients with conventional adenoma or sessile serrated adenoma to characterise the somatic mutation landscape for premalignant colorectal lesions. The identified somatic mutations were compared with those in colorectal cancer (CRC) samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A supervised random forest model was employed to identify gene panels differentiating adenoma from CRC. Similar somatic mutation frequencies, but distinctive driver mutations, were observed in sessile serrated adenomas and conventional adenomas. The final model included 20 genes and was able to separate the somatic mutation profile of colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma with an area under the curve of 0.941. The findings of this project hold potential to better identify patients with adenoma who may be candidates for targeted surveillance programmes and preventive interventions to reduce the incidence of CRC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Buffalo milk: proteins electrophoretic profile and somatic cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mattii

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999 and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000. In particular the inverse correlation between cheese yields and somatic cells’content have been demonstrated. In Italy the regulation in force DPR 54/97 acknowledges what expressed in EEC 46/92 Directive (Tripodi, 1999 without fixing the limit threshold of somatic cells for buffalo’s milk....

  3. The Treatment of Clozapine-Withdrawal Delirium with Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Modak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine, a commonly used atypical antipsychotic, can precipitate a severe withdrawal syndrome. In this report, we describe a case of delirium with catatonic features emerging after the immediate cessation of clozapine subsequent to concerns of developing neuroleptic malignant syndrome. After multiple treatments were found to be inefficacious, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT was initiated, resulting in significant improvement. A literature search revealed six previous cases of clozapine-withdrawal syndromes of varied symptomatology treated with ECT. To our knowledge, the present case represents the first reported clozapine-withdrawal delirium treated successfully with ECT.

  4. Youth social withdrawal behavior (hikikomori): A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tim M H; Wong, Paul W C

    2015-07-01

    Acute and/or severe social withdrawal behavior among youth was seen as a culture-bound psychiatric syndrome in Japan, but more youth social withdrawal cases in different countries have been discovered recently. However, due to the lack of a formal definition and diagnostic tool for youth social withdrawal, cross-cultural observational and intervention studies are limited. We aimed to consolidate existing knowledge in order to understand youth social withdrawal from diverse perspectives and suggest different interventions for different trajectories of youth social withdrawal. This review examined the current available scientific information on youth social withdrawal in the academic databases: ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and PubMed. We included quantitative and qualitative studies of socially withdrawn youths published in English and academic peer-reviewed journals. We synthesized the information into the following categories: (1) definitions of youth social withdrawal, (2) developmental theories, (3) factors associated with youth social withdrawal and (4) interventions for socially withdrawn youths. Accordingly, there are diverse and controversial definitions for youth social withdrawal. Studies of youth social withdrawal are based on models that lead to quite different conclusions. Researchers with an attachment perspective view youth social withdrawal as a negative phenomenon, whereas those who adopt Erikson's developmental theory view it more positively as a process of seeking self-knowledge. Different interventions for socially withdrawn youths have been developed, mainly in Japan, but evidence-based practice is almost non-existent. We propose a theoretical framework that views youth social withdrawal as resulting from the interplay between psychological, social and behavioral factors. Future validation of the framework will help drive forward advances in theory and interventions for youth social withdrawal as an emerging issue in developed

  5. Smartphone Restriction and its Effect on Subjective Withdrawal Related Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Aarestad, Sarah Helene; Eide, Tine Almenning

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone overuse is associated with a number of negative consequences for the individual and the environment. In the right end of the distribution of smartphone usage, concepts such as smartphone addiction seem warranted. An area that so far lacks research concerns the effect of smartphone restriction generally and specifically on subjective withdrawal related scores across different degrees of smartphone usage. The present study examined withdrawal related scores on the Smartphone Withdraw...

  6. File list: His.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: His.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: His.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Histone Gonad Testicular somatic cell...s SRX591729,SRX591717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Histone Gonad Testicular somatic cell...s SRX591729,SRX591717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  10. Somatic perception, cultural differences and immigration: results from administration of the Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire (MSPQ to a sample of immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragazzi NL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Giovanni Del Puente, Werner Maria NattaDepartment of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, Section of Psychiatry, University of Genoa, Genoa, ItalyAbstract: The number of immigrants in Italy has doubled every 10 years from 1972 and Genoa hosts two large communities of immigrants from South America and Africa. We investigated differences in the somatic perception between immigrants and Italians and between South Americans and Africans living in the city of Genoa. During a 7 month period, an anonymous questionnaire asking for sociodemographic information and the Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire (MSPQ were administered to all immigrants accessing an outpatient clinic or the general practitioners offices. MSPQ mean scores were significantly higher in immigrant patients than in Italian patients, after adjusting for sex and age differences. We found no differences between South Americans and Africans in MSPQ score. The tendency to express discomfort through physical symptoms appears to be related to being a foreigner who arrived in Italy through a migratory trip and also to being a person who comes from a cultural context that is very different from the one of developed countries.Keywords: immigrants, Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire (MSPQ, somatization, transcultural psychiatry

  11. Somatic Diseases and Conditions Before the First Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with excess physical comorbidity. Yet, to our knowledge, large studies are lacking on the associations with somatic diseases before the onset of schizophrenia. The authors conducted a nationwide study of the full spectrum of treated somatic diseases before t...

  12. Magnetic field control of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain wall resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Roya, E-mail: royamajidi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, 16788-15811 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, we have compared the resistance of the 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain walls in the presence of external magnetic field. The calculations are based on the Boltzmann transport equation within the relaxation time approximation. One-dimensional Neel-type domain walls between two domains whose magnetization differs by angle of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign are considered. The results indicate that the resistance of the 360 Degree-Sign DW is more considerable than that of the 90 Degree-Sign and 180 Degree-Sign DWs. It is also found that the domain wall resistance can be controlled by applying transverse magnetic field. Increasing the strength of the external magnetic field enhances the domain wall resistance. In providing spintronic devices based on magnetic nanomaterials, considering and controlling the effect of domain wall on resistivity are essential.

  13. Journeying as Amateur and Professional – A Somatic Movement Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Eddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This account is an interactive case study co-authored by a teacher and her student on the topic of moving from amateur to professional. It highlights the role of somatic education in equalizing the experience of amateurs and professionals as well as pointing to specific curricula, public performances, participatory events and volunteer work that are made uniquely available to students of programs related to Dynamic EmbodimentTM Somatic Movement Therapy (known as the Somatic Movement Therapy Training – SMTT from 1991-2005. Written in first-person narrative style (Powdermaker 1966, this inquiry supports the primary methodology of somatic education – the process of self-discovery “from within” (Hanna 1976 emphasizing the physical body with a focus on bodily proprioception and kinesthetic awareness – as well as the humanistic nature of the student-teacher relationship and the value of each in performance and education.

  14. Recurrent Somatic Structural Variations Contribute to Tumorigenesis in Pediatric Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric osteosarcoma is characterized by multiple somatic chromosomal lesions, including structural variations (SVs and copy number alterations (CNAs. To define the landscape of somatic mutations in pediatric osteosarcoma, we performed whole-genome sequencing of DNA from 20 osteosarcoma tumor samples and matched normal tissue in a discovery cohort, as well as 14 samples in a validation cohort. Single-nucleotide variations (SNVs exhibited a pattern of localized hypermutation called kataegis in 50% of the tumors. We identified p53 pathway lesions in all tumors in the discovery cohort, nine of which were translocations in the first intron of the TP53 gene. Beyond TP53, the RB1, ATRX, and DLG2 genes showed recurrent somatic alterations in 29%–53% of the tumors. These data highlight the power of whole-genome sequencing for identifying recurrent somatic alterations in cancer genomes that may be missed using other methods.

  15. Hypochondriasis and somatization related to personality and attitudes toward self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, M; Tuttle, L; Paine, S; Kellner, R

    1999-01-01

    Better definition of the boundary between hypochondriasis and somatization was determined by measuring attitudes to self and personality dimensions associated with these syndromes. In this study, the primary care patients with hypochondriacal responses (HR) on the Illness Attitudes Scales or high somatic concern (HSC) on the Symptom Questionnaire had more negative attitudes to self and more psychological distress than the matched group of primary care control subjects. The HR subjects were different from the non-HR subjects on two of five personality domains on the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO)-Five-Factor Inventory, and the HSC subjects were different from the non-HSC subjects on four of five NEO domains. Analysis of variance demonstrated that somatization explained most of the variance in attitudes, personality, and psychological distress, but hypochondriasis uniquely contributed only to thanatophobia. The authors discuss the boundary between hypochondriasis and somatization and offer a descriptive model of this relationship.

  16. When Whole(ness is more than the Sum of the Parts: somatics as contemporary epistemological field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the text, it is discussed some aspects on somatics in contemporary times, from the starting point of its technical and conceptual basis, clarifying premises and applications, as well as misunderstandings and restrictions. Some aspects include: conceptual, historical, and technical origins; common premises and principles developed by diverse somatic techniques; the difference between somatic technique, method, and approach; transculturality, decolonization, and repatterning; Somatic Attunement and Wisdom; institutionalization in technical and/or academic courses; somatics as autonomous field of therapy, education, aesthetics, and research; somatics as practice as research; somatic-performative research.

  17. The Effect of Nicotine Administration on Physical and Psychological Signs of Withdrawal Syndrome Induced by Single or Frequent Doses of Morphine in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Allahtavakoli; Fatemeh Amin; Elham Hakimizadeh; Ali Roohbakhsh; Sayed Ali Haeri Rohani; Ahmad Taghavi Rafsanjani; Abbas Haghparast; Ali Shamsizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Morphine addiction and morphine withdrawal syndrome are the two main problems of today’s human society. The present study has investigated the effects of nicotine on the strength of physical and psychological dependency in single and repeated doses morphine administrated rats. Materials and methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to morphine consumption with single or frequent dose protocols. In the single dose protocol, rats received only one dose of morphine and 24hrs later t...

  18. Hypochondriasis, somatization, and perceived health and utilization of health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, M; Paine, S; Tuttle, L; Kellner, R

    1999-01-01

    The authors determined the different effects of hypochondriasis and somatization on health perceptions, health status, and service utilization in a primary care population. The subjects with hypochondriacal responses (HR) on the Illness Attitudes Scales or high somatic concern (HSC) on the Symptom Questionnaire had a worse perception of health and variably used more health services than the control subjects, even though the HR and HSC subjects had the same level of chronic medical disorders. Regression analyses determined that somatization contributed more to negative health perception and service utilization than did hypochondriasis, although an interaction between the two contributed to the use of psychiatric care. The authors discuss the boundary between hypochondriasis and somatization for its implications for research and clinical practice.

  19. The acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome among black smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Waters, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal.

  20. Depression, anxiety and somatization in primary care: syndrome overlap and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Bernd; Spitzer, Robert L; Williams, Janet B W; Mussell, Monika; Schellberg, Dieter; Kroenke, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    To determine diagnostic overlap of depression, anxiety and somatization as well as their unique and overlapping contribution to functional impairment. Two thousand ninety-one consecutive primary care clinic patients participated in a multicenter cross-sectional survey in 15 primary care clinics in the United States (participation rate, 92%). Depression, anxiety, somatization and functional impairment were assessed using validated scales from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) (PHQ-8, eight-item depression module; GAD-7, seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale; and PHQ-15, 15-item somatic symptom scale) and the Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-20). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate unique and overlapping associations of depression, anxiety and somatization with functional impairment. In over 50% of cases, comorbidities existed between depression, anxiety and somatization. The contribution of the commonalities of depression, anxiety and somatization to functional impairment substantially exceeded the contribution of their independent parts. Nevertheless, depression, anxiety and somatization did have important and individual effects (i.e., separate from their overlap effect) on certain areas of functional impairment. Given the large syndrome overlap, a potential consideration for future diagnostic classification would be to describe basic diagnostic criteria for a single overarching disorder and to optionally code additional diagnostic features that allow a more detailed classification into specific depressive, anxiety and somatoform subtypes.

  1. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... type. (d) OPM also considers a disability retirement application to be withdrawn when the agency... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of...

  2. File list: ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 All antigens Gonad Testicular somatic... cells SRX591729,SRX591728,SRX591717,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 All antigens Gonad Testicular somatic... cells SRX591728,SRX591729,SRX591717,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 All antigens Gonad Testicular somatic... cells SRX591728,SRX591729,SRX591717,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  5. Somatic radiation risk in case of irradiation of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocken, U.; Ewen, K.; Makoski, H.B.

    1983-09-01

    The somatic dose index for irradiation of the brain was determined for the 10 MeV bremsstrahlung of a linear electron-accelerator. A small volume rotation technique and the irradiation of the total neurocranium were chosen as extreme conditions for the radiation exposure of the skull. On the basis of a target volume dose of 50 Gy for the total irradiation series, the somatic dose index of the small volume technique is within the scope of coronarography. In case of irradiation of the total neurocranium, however, the somatic dose index largely exceeds the maximum values of X-ray diagnosis.

  6. Somatization as a core symptom of melancholic type depression. Evidence from a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, D; Martus, P

    1994-12-01

    The study questions whether different types of somatization may be a core symptom of melancholia, thus, being invariable across cultures and being a candidate for neurobiological research and diagnostic criteria. 51 Turkish patients and 51 education-matched German patients with melancholic depression were compared for two types of somatization. Turkish patients had higher frequencies of somatic preoccupation and hypochondriasis but they were not different in the perception and experience of somatic symptoms. It is concluded that: (1) somatization has to be differentiated psychopathologically; (2) it may be a neurobiological core symptom of melancholia in the well-defined sense of 'perceiving abnormal somatic symptoms'; and (3) it may be a culture-bound symptom in the sense of 'being abnormally concerned with somatic symptoms or hypochondrial fears'.

  7. Mind-Body Interactions in Anxiety and Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Bulbena, Antonio; Pailhez, Guillem; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Critchley, Hugo D

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and somatic symptoms have a high prevalence in the general population. A mechanistic understanding of how different factors contribute to the development and maintenance of these symptoms, which are highly associated with anxiety disorders, is crucial to optimize treatments. In this article, we review recent literature on this topic and present a redefined model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms, with an emphasis on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Consideration is given to the role played in this interaction by predisposing physiological and psychological traits (e.g., interoception, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety) and to the levels at which mindfulness approaches may exert a therapeutic benefit. The proposed model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms is appraised in the context of joint hypermobility syndrome, a constitutional variant associated with autonomic abnormalities and vulnerability to anxiety disorders.

  8. U.S. withdrawal from the Paris Agreement: Reasons, impacts, and China's response

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Bin Zhang; Han-Cheng Dai; Hua-Xia Lai; Wen-Tao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Applying qualitative and quantitative methods, this article explains the driving forces behind U.S. President Donald Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, assesses the impacts of this withdrawal on the compliance prospects of the agreement, and proposes how China should respond. The withdrawal undercuts the foundation of global climate governance and upsets the process of climate cooperation, and the impacts are manifold. The withdrawal undermines the universality of the Pari...

  9. Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana A. Fernando

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells only from explant 18 days after inoculation. Somatic embryos formed indirectly were originated from embryogenic superficial cells of pre-embryonic complexes located on peripherical and on internal cell layers of callus 49 days after inoculation. Diverse morphological differences including disformed embryos were observed among the somatic embryos.Embriões zigóticos maduros de Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ foram utilizados como explantes para indução da embriogênese. Estes explantes foram inoculados em meio de cultura de Murashige & Skoog suplementado com 2,0 mg.L-1 de 2,4 ácido diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D e mantidos no escuro em câmara de crescimento à temperatura de 21°C por período de tempo variável. Através da análise histológica foi possível verificar que os primeiros embriões somáticos formaram-se diretamente a partir de células únicas da epiderme hipocotiledonar do explante após o 18º dia de cultura. Porém, os demais embriões somáticos originaram-se indiretamente a partir de células superficiais de complexos pré-embriônicos presentes nas camadas periféricas e internas do calo após o 49º dia de cultura. Foram detectadas algumas diferenças morfológicas entre os embriões somáticos obtidos.

  10. Comparison of conventional L-thyroxine withdrawal and moderate hypothyroidism in preparation for whole-body 131-I scan and thyroglobulin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano, I; Russo, M; Spadaro, A; Latina, A; Malandrino, P; Regalbuto, C

    2015-09-01

    After thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer, patients often withdraw L-T4 for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, showing signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. A slighter hypothyroidism (reducing L-T4 to one-half) has been proposed to limit these inconveniences. We evaluated half-dose L-T4 protocol, in comparison to conventional L-T4 withdrawal, in terms of effectiveness and improvement of clinical and biochemical disorders. We randomized 55 thyroid cancer patients into two groups: 29 patients underwent 5 weeks of half-dose of previous L-T4 treatment (HD group); 26 patients replaced L-T4 with L-T3 for 3 weeks followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal (TW group). Clinical features (Zulewsky clinical score) and biochemical parameters (lipids, liver, and muscle enzymes) were evaluated in all patients at baseline and after 5 weeks. Total cholesterol, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase increased at 5 weeks in both groups, but significantly more in TW, but no difference was found by clinical score. Patients who achieved the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) target value (25 µU/ml) were 92.3% in TW group and 48.3% in HD group (p < 0.001). In the HD group, only basal TSH statistically correlated with the achievement of the TSH target. Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that a basal TSH ≥0.52 μU/ml is required to reach an adequate TSH level. Half-dose L-T4 protocol, compared to conventional L-T4 withdrawal, is associated with less biochemical disorders but no significant clinical advantage. Therefore, the half-dose protocol reaches an adequate TSH target in 48.3% of patients and is not effective unless basal serum TSH is ≥0.52 μU/ml.

  11. Number and importance of somatic cells in goat’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kozačinski

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Goat’s milk samples were examined on mastitis using stable procedure (California-mastitis test. 427 of the examined milk samples (46.82% had positive reaction from 1 to 3 while other 485 samples (53.18% had negative reaction on the mastitis test, indicating that no illness of mammary gland occurred. Number of somatic cells, counted using “Fossomatic” counter, was 1.3x106/ml average. By comparing the results of mastitis-test evaluation (CMT with the number of somatic cells and findings of mastitis agents in milk showed that higher number of somatic cells is not the only indication of goat’s mammary gland illness. Mastitis-test is method that can exclude inflammation of goat’s mammary gland, but every positive reaction should be confirmed or eliminate with bacteriological examination. Based on the results of this research, it has been shown that the limit for somatic cells number in goat's milk can be over 1 000 000/ml.

  12. Phenobarbital compared to benzodiazepines in alcohol withdrawal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Hallas, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide are recommended as first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal. These drugs are known for their abuse liability and might increase alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. Phenobarbital could be an alternative treatment option......, possibly with the drawback of a more pronounced acute toxicity. We evaluated if phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide decreased the risk of subsequent use of benzodiazepines, alcohol recidivism and mortality. METHODS: The study was a register-based cohort study of patients admitted for alcohol...... withdrawal 1998-2013 and treated with either phenobarbital or chlordiazepoxide. Patients were followed for one year. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality associated with alcohol withdrawal treatment, while adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: A total...

  13. Determination of organ doses during radiological examinations and calculation of somatically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.

    1980-01-01

    Examples are used to demonstrate that a shift in the point of emphasis is necessary with regard to radiation hazard in medicinal X-ray diagnosis. The parameters employed in this study to calculate somatic dose (SD) and somatically significant dose (SSD) may well be in need of modification; nevertheless the numerical estimation of SSD arrived at here appears to reflect the right order of magnitude for the estimation of somatic risk. The consideration of the threshold dose for somatic injury remains a problem. (orig./MG) [de

  14. [Disease at any price: psychological challenge and the financial costs of somatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, A

    1996-01-01

    In clinical medicine we sometimes deal with patients with unexplained somatic complaints. In a 45-year-old woman with multiple somatic complaints, 2 years of medical examinations in search of a disease diagnosis cost almost 250,000 shekels (about +84,000). The differential diagnosis between somatization, hypochondriasis and psychosomatic pain, and the reasons why physicians are tempted to participate in the "investigation dance" are presented.

  15. 75 FR 12804 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... ``Regulatory Guides'' in the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0103] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.6 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 8.6, ``Standard Test Procedure for Geiger-M...

  16. 40 CFR 180.8 - Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prejudice. 180.8 Section 180.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.8 Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. In some cases the Administrator will notify the... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal may be without prejudice to a future filing...

  17. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms and self-administration following caffeine deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S H; de Wit, H; Zacny, J P

    1995-08-01

    This study examined the effects of complete or partial caffeine deprivation on withdrawal symptomatology and self-administration of coffee in caffeine-dependent coffee drinkers. Nine habitual coffee drinkers abstained from dietary sources of caffeine for 33.5 h. Caffeine deprivation was manipulated by administering capsules containing 0%, 50%, or 100% of each subject's daily caffeine intake (complete, partial, and no deprivation conditions). Caffeine withdrawal symptomatology was measured using self-report questionnaires. Caffeine self-administration was measured using: i) the amount of coffee subjects earned on a series of concurrent random-ratio schedules that yielded coffee and money reinforcers; ii) the amount of earned coffee they consumed. Saliva samples revealed that subjects complied with the caffeine abstinence instructions. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms occurred reliably following complete caffeine deprivation, though not in the partial deprivation condition. Caffeine self-administration was not related to deprivation condition. We conclude that caffeine withdrawal symptomatology is not necessarily associated with increased caffeine consumption.

  18. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, <\\/= 5 mg\\/day, > 5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  19. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2010-10-29

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, ≤5 mg\\/day, >5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  20. Determination of Screw and Nail Withdrawal Resistance of Some Important Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aytekin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, screw and nail withdrawal resistance of fir (Abies nordmanniana, oak (Quercus robur L. black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Stone pine (Pinus pinea L. wood were determined and compared. The data represent the testing of withdrawal resistance of three types of screws as smart, serrated and conventional and common nails. The specimens were prepared according to TS 6094 standards. The dimensions of the specimens were 5x5x15cm and for all of the directions. Moreover, the specimens were conditioned at ambient room temperature and 65±2% relative humidity. The screws and nails were installed according to ASTM-D 1761 standards. Nail dimensions were 2.5mm diameter and 50 mm length, conventional screws were 4x50mm, serrated screws were 4x45mm and smart screws were 4x50mm. Results show that the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value was found in Stone pine for the serrated screw. There were no significant differences between Stone pine and oak regarding screw withdrawal resistance values. Conventional screw yielded the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value in oak, followed by Stone pine, black pine and fir. Oak wood showed the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value for the smart screw, followed by Stone pine, black pine, and fir. Oak wood showed higher nail withdrawal resistances than softwood species. It was also determined that oak shows the maximum nail withdrawal resistance in all types. The nail withdrawal resistances at the longitudinal direction are lower with respect to radial and tangential directions.

  1. Pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among men and women attending an outpatient mental health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Tsai, Michelle; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between types of pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among psychiatric outpatients. Patients (N = 95) completed measures of somatic symptoms, narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability, and psychiatric symptoms. Relationships among variables were analysed using t-tests and correlations, controlling for psychiatric distress. Somatic symptoms were positively associated with two types of narcissistic dysfunction. Among women there was a positive association between somatic symptoms and narcissistic vulnerability, but not grandiosity. Among men, somatic symptoms were positively associated with narcissistic grandiosity, but not vulnerability. The connection between narcissistic pathology and somatic symptom severity appears to differ based on gender. Further research is needed to confirm and extend this preliminary finding.

  2. Somatic cell counts in bulk milk and their importance for milk processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, N. R.; Mikulec, D. P.; Radovanović, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Bulk tank milk somatic cell counts are the indicator of the mammary gland health in the dairy herds and may be regarded as an indirect measure of milk quality. Elevated somatic cell counts are correlated with changes in milk composition The aim of this study was to assess the somatic cell counts that significantly affect the quality of milk and dairy products. We examined the somatic cell counts in bulk tank milk samples from 38 farms during the period of 6 months, from December to the May of the next year. The flow cytometry, Fossomatic was used for determination of somatic cell counts. In the same samples content of total proteins and lactose was determined by Milcoscan. Our results showed that average values for bulk tank milk samples were 273,605/ml from morning milking and 292,895/ml from evening milking. The average values for total proteins content from morning and evening milking are 3,31 and 3,34%, respectively. The average values for lactose content from morning and evening milking are 4,56 and 4,63%, respectively. The highest somatic cell count (516,000/ml) was detected in bulk tank milk sample from evening milk in the Winter and the lowest content of lactose was 4,46%. Our results showed that obtained values for bulk tank milk somatic cell counts did not significantly affected the content of total proteins and lactose.

  3. A genetic perspective on the proposed inclusion of cannabis withdrawal in the DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Agrawal, A.; Nat, N.O.; Creemers, H.E.; Huizink, A.C.; Martin, N.G.; Lynskey, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Various studies support the inclusion of cannabis withdrawal to the diagnosis of cannabis use disorders in the upcoming DSM-5. The aims of the current study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal (Criterion B), (2) estimate the role of genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in cannabis withdrawal, and (3) determine the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on cannabis withdrawal overlap with those on DSM-IV defined abuse/dependence. Methods The sample included 2276 lifetime cannabis-using adult Australian twins. Cannabis withdrawal was defined in accordance with Criterion B of the proposed DSM-5 revisions. Cannabis abuse/dependence was defined as endorsing one or more DSM-IV criteria of abuse or three or more dependence criteria. The classical twin model was used to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on variation in cannabis withdrawal, as well as its covariation with abuse/dependence. Results Of all cannabis users 11.9% met criteria for cannabis withdrawal. Around 50% of between-individual variation in withdrawal could be attributed to additive genetic variation, and the rest of the variation was mostly due to non-shared environmental influences. Importantly, the genetic influences on cannabis withdrawal almost completely (99%) overlapped with those on abuse/dependence. Conclusions We showed that cannabis withdrawal symptoms exist among cannabis users, and that cannabis withdrawal is moderately heritable. Genetic influences on cannabis withdrawal are the same as those influencing abuse/dependence. These results add to the wealth of literature that recommends the addition of cannabis withdrawal to the diagnosis of DSM-5 cannabis use disorders. PMID:23194657

  4. The environmental cost of a reference withdrawal from surface waters: Definition and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligno, Irene; Ridolfi, Luca; Laio, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    World freshwater ecosystems are significantly deteriorating at a faster rate than other ecosystems. Water withdrawals are recognized as one of the main drivers of growing water stress in river basins worldwide. Over the years, much effort has been devoted to quantify water withdrawals at a global scale; however, comparisons are not simple because the uneven spatiotemporal distribution of surface water resources entails that the same amount of consumed water does not have the same environmental cost in different times or places. In order to account for this spatiotemporal heterogeneity, this work proposes a novel index to assess the environmental cost of a withdrawal from a generic river section. The index depends on (i) the environmental relevance of the impacted fluvial ecosystem (e.g., bed-load transport capacity, width of the riparian belt, biodiversity richness) and (ii) the downstream river network affected by the water withdrawal. The environmental cost has been estimated in each and every river section worldwide considering a reference withdrawal. Being referred to a unitary reference withdrawal that can occur in any river section worldwide, our results can be suitably arranged for describing any scenario of surface water consumption (i.e., as the superposition of the actual pattern of withdrawals). The index aims to support the interpretation of the volumetric measure of surface water withdrawal with a perspective that takes into account the fluvial system where the withdrawal actually occurs. The application of the index highlights the river regions where withdrawals can cause higher environmental costs, with the challenge of weighting each water withdrawal considering the responsibilities that it has on downstream freshwater ecosystems.

  5. Epilepsy as a systemic condition: Link with somatic comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, J; Bell, G S; Peacock, J L; Sisodiya, S M; Sander, J W

    2017-10-01

    People with epilepsy have more concomitant medical conditions than the general population; these comorbidities play an important role in premature mortality. We sought to generate explanatory hypotheses about the co-occurrence of somatic comorbidities and epilepsy, avoiding causal and treatment-resultant biases. We collected clinical, demographic and somatic comorbidity data for 2016 consecutive adults with epilepsy undergoing assessment at a tertiary centre and in 1278 people with epilepsy in the community. Underlying causes of epilepsy were not classed as comorbidities. Somatic comorbidities were more frequent in the referral centre (49%) where people more frequently had active epilepsy than in the community (36%). Consistent risk factors for comorbidities were found in both cohorts. Using multivariable ordinal regression adjusted for age, longer epilepsy duration and an underlying brain lesion were independently associated with a smaller burden of somatic conditions. The treatment burden, measured by the number of drugs to which people were exposed, was not an independent predictor. Shorter epilepsy duration was a predictor for conditions that conceivably harbour significant mortality risks. Somatic comorbidities do not occur randomly in relation to epilepsy; having more severe epilepsy seems to be a risk factor. Independently from age, the early period after epilepsy onset appears to be at particular risk, although it is not clear whether this relates to an early mortality or to a later decrease in the burden of comorbidities. These results suggest that, for some people, epilepsy should be considered a systemic condition not limited to the CNS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Relationship of milking rate to somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C A; Rischette, S J; Schultz, L H

    1986-03-01

    Information on milking rate, monthly bucket somatic cell counts, mastitis treatment, and milk production was obtained from 284 lactations of Holstein cows separated into three lactation groups. Significant correlations between somatic cell count (linear score) and other parameters included production in lactation 1 (-.185), production in lactation 2 (-.267), and percent 2-min milk in lactation 2 (.251). Somatic cell count tended to increase with maximum milking rate in all lactations, but correlations were not statistically significant. Twenty-nine percent of cows with milking rate measurements were treated for clinical mastitis. Treated cows in each lactation group produced less milk than untreated cows. In the second and third lactation groups, treated cows had a shorter total milking time and a higher percent 2-min milk than untreated cows, but differences were not statistically significant. Overall, the data support the concept that faster milking cows tend to have higher cell counts and more mastitis treatments, particularly beyond first lactation. However, the magnitude of the relationship was small.

  7. [Product safety analysis of somatic cell cloned bovine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Song; Lan, Jie; Song, Yongli; Lu, Chenglong; Zhang, Yong

    2010-05-01

    Somatic cell cloning (nuclear transfer) is a technique through which the nucleus (DNA) of a somatic cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte for the generation of a new individual, genetically identical to the somatic cell donor. It could be applied for the enhancement of reproduction rate and the improvement of food products involving quality, yield and nutrition. In recent years, the United States, Japan and Europe as well as other countries announced that meat and milk products made from cloned cattle are safe for human consumption. Yet, cloned animals are faced with a wide range of health problems, with a high death rate and a high incidence of disease. The precise causal mechanisms for the low efficiency of cloning remain unclear. Is it safe that any products from cloned animals were allowed into the food supply? This review focuses on the security of meat, milk and products from cloned cattle based on the available data.

  8. The Use of Light Microscopy for Detection of Somatic Embryos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usuario

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... 2,4-D. After four weeks of culture of explants on the callus induction medium, globular structures were obtained. At the end of 20 days in maturation medium, somatic embryos were observed. Histological analysis showed somatic embryos with caulinar and root apex, protodermal tissue, and the vascular ...

  9. Caffeine, sleep and wakefulness: implications of new understanding about withdrawal reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E; Keane, Michael A

    2007-12-01

    The broad aim of this review is to critically examine the implications of new understanding concerning caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal in the context of research concerned with the effects of caffeine on sleep and wakefulness. A comprehensive search was conducted for relevant experimental studies in the PubMED and PsycINFO databases. Studies were assessed with particular reference to methodological adequacy for controlling against confounding due to caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. This assessment was used to clarify evidence of effects, highlight areas of ambiguity and derive recommendations for future research. It was found that researchers have generally failed to take account of the fact that habitual use of caffeine, even at moderate levels, leads to physical dependence evidenced by physiological, behavioural and subjective withdrawal effects during periods of abstinence. Consequently, there has been near-complete absence of adequate methodological controls against confounding due to reversal of withdrawal effects when caffeine is experimentally administered. The findings of what has been a substantial research effort to elucidate the effects of caffeine on sleep and wakefulness, undertaken over a period spanning decades, are ambiguous. Current shortcomings can be redressed by incorporating suitable controls in new experimental designs.

  10. Children's judgements of social withdrawal behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Dawn

    2015-06-01

    Ding et al. (Brit. J. Dev. Psychol., 2015; 33, 159-173) demonstrated that Chinese children discriminate between the three subtypes of social withdrawal: Shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance. This commentary on the Ding et al.'s paper highlights the need to further explore the following: (1) children's understanding of the implications of being shy, unsociable, or socially avoidant, including assessing these which we know are associated with outcomes for socially withdrawn children; (2) what additional subtypes might exist naturally within the Chinese culture; and (3) consider the implications of social withdrawal on children's developing social skills. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Monitoring Genetic Stability in Quercus serrata Thunb. Somatic Embryogenesis Using RAPD Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh C., Thakur; Susumu, Goto; Katsuaki, Ishii; S. Mohan, Jain; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute; Fukuoka Prefecture Forest Research and Extension Center; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute; University of Helsinki

    1999-01-01

    Genetic stability of propagules regenerated via somatic embryogenesis is of paramount importance for its application to clonal forestry. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to determine the genetic stability in somatic embryogenesis of Quercus serrata Thunb. (Japanese white oak). Forty samples from an embryogenic line, consisting of regenerated plantlets, somatic embryos, and embryogenic calli, were examined using 54 decanucleotide primers. A total of 6520 clear reproduc...

  12. Depression, Anxiety and Somatic Complaints in Colombian Children Living in Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby C. Castilla Puentes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Colombia, children are frequently exposed to traumatic events; however, there are no data regarding the impact on depression, anxiety and somatic correlates of such exposure in children living in rural communities. Objective: To investigate the somatic complaints and symptoms of depression and anxiety among children exposed to traumatic events in a rural community of Colombia. Methods: Design: Cross-Sectional study. Participants: Two hundred and ninety-three Colombian children aged eight to 18 years. Main Outcome Measures: Standardized measures were administered to assess children's depression, anxiety, physical symptoms and exposure to traumatic events. Depression: CDI (Children's Depression Inventory; anxiety: SCARED (The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders; somatic complaints: CBCL (Child Behavior Checklist, Somatic Complaints scale and reporting traumatic events during the K-SADS-PL (Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents. Results: Ninety-one of the 293 children (31.1% reported somatic complaints. The most common somatic complaint was in the gastrointestinal category (35/91. One hundred and seventy eight children (60.5% had observed traumatic events, including homicides during the last month. Two hundred five (69.9% of the children showed depressive symptom profiles above established norms, and 239 (81.6% exhibited anxiety symptoms according to their own reports. The correlation between depression and traumatic events, anxiety and somatic complaints, and between anxiety and depression were statistically significant (p<0.005. Conclusions: As the first study of its kind in children living in rural communities in Colombia, it demonstrates a clear impact of traumatic events on mental health. Information that somatic complaints are commonly an expression of underlying depression and anxiety may facilitate the treatment and thereby help avoid unnecessary medical workups and sequelae from traumatized

  13. Conducting a Withdrawal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Sue; Rowley, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    A survey at Edge Hill College of Higher Education in Canada, designed to be part of the mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the quality of the student experience, revealed that key factors influencing withdrawal were: course not as expected, traveling difficulties, institution not as expected, domestic difficulties, and financial difficulties.…

  14. File list: NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 No description Gonad Testicular somatic... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  15. Somatic embryogenesis in plantain cultivar 'FHIA - 25' (AAB from meristem tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Rodríguez González

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantain cultivar 'FHIA – 25' (AAB shows high yielding qualities and high resistance to Black Sigatoka disease, but its sugar content in the fruit is low, so a regeneration method at cell level is necessary, such as somatic embryogenesis supported by biotechnological tools to improve fruit quality. This work was performed with the aim of establishing a plant regeneration method via somatic embryogenesis using initial explants of shoot apices from axillary buds in liquid culture medium. Homogenous embryogenic cell suspensions were obtained from mentioned explants. The highest cellular multiplication rates were achieved at 3,0% density. The incubation of somatic embryos during 30 days in the maturation culture medium permitted to increase germination. During the acclimatization stage, plants regenerated from somatic embryos, as well as plants from organogenesis, showed a high survival percentage (98 and 97 respectively, without somaclonal variation.

  16. Metacarpal sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Nieradko-Iwanicka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Archibald's sign, or metacarpal sign is defined as shortening of the IV and V metacarpal bones, is a rare phenomenon found in the Turner syndrome, homocystinuria and in Albright's osteodystrophy. Objectives The aim of the article was to show a rare case of metacarpal sign with atypical shortening of the III and IV metacarpal bones not connected with gonadal dysgenesia, genetic disorders nor osteodystrophy. Material and methods Case report of a 60-year-old female patient. Results Artchibald's metacarpal sign in the described case was accompanied by erosive arthritis in the left lower extremity. No features of genetic disorders nor gonadal disgenesia were found in the patient. Undifferentiated seronegative asymmetric erosive arthritis developed in the patient. The level of parathormon was within the normal range. No signs of tumor were seen in bone scintigraphy. Conclusions Archibald's metacarpal sign may be present in patients without genetic disorders.

  17. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.

  18. Sign language comprehension: the case of Spanish sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Ortiz, I R

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were interpreters). Sign language comprehension was assessed using passages of secondary level. After being exposed to the passages, the participants had to tell what they had understood about them, answer a set of related questions, and offer a title for the passage. Sign language comprehension by deaf participants was quite acceptable but not as good as that by hearing signers who, unlike deaf participants, were not only late learners of sign language as a second language but had also learned it through formal training.

  19. Time-dependent negative reinforcement of ethanol intake by alleviation of acute withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christopher L; Fidler, Tara L; Murphy, Kevin V; Mulgrew, Jennifer A; Smitasin, Phoebe J

    2013-02-01

    Drinking to alleviate the symptoms of acute withdrawal is included in diagnostic criteria for alcoholism, but the contribution of acute withdrawal relief to high alcohol intake has been difficult to model in animals. Ethanol dependence was induced by passive intragastric ethanol infusions in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice; nondependent control animals received water infusions. Mice were then allowed to self-administer ethanol or water intragastrically. The time course of acute withdrawal was similar to that produced by chronic ethanol vapor exposure in mice, reaching a peak at 7 to 9 hours and returning to baseline within 24 hours; withdrawal severity was greater in D2 than in B6 mice (experiment 1). Postwithdrawal delays in initial ethanol access (1, 3, or 5 days) reduced the enhancement in later ethanol intake normally seen in D2 (but not B6) mice allowed to self-infuse ethanol during acute withdrawal (experiment 2). The postwithdrawal enhancement of ethanol intake persisted over a 5-day abstinence period in D2 mice (experiment 3). D2 mice allowed to drink ethanol during acute withdrawal drank more ethanol and self-infused more ethanol than nondependent mice (experiment 4). Alcohol access during acute withdrawal increased later alcohol intake in a time-dependent manner, an effect that may be related to a genetic difference in sensitivity to acute withdrawal. This promising model of negative reinforcement encourages additional research on the mechanisms underlying acute withdrawal relief and its role in determining risk for alcoholism. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute pregabalin withdrawal: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett JA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pregabalin is a commonly prescribed GABA analog most commonly used for the treatment of neuralgia. Recently, case reports on pregabalin have been published describing episodes that may be associated with withdrawal-like symptoms after extended or aggressive therapy. This report describes a case in which long term exposure of high dose pregabalin may have resulted in acute withdrawal, and outlines the subsequent medical management of these symptoms. Case Summary: A 61-year-old male presenting with severe agitation presumed to be withdrawal from long term and high dose exposure to pregabalin. Medical management included the use of haloperidol, diphenhydramine, lorazepam and the addition of clonidine over the course of several days for the pharmacological management of withdrawal symptoms. Discussion: Although case reports are available to guide clinicians in the recognition of acute pregabalin withdrawal, definitive evidence on how best to treat these patients remains severely limited. With an increase in the prescribing practices of pregabalin, insight into the acute management by fellow clinicians is further needed. Conclusion: Caution must be practiced when prescribing and educating patients on the use of pregabalin to prevent associated withdrawal-like symptoms. In addition, documentation by the medical community on methods utilized to treat pregabalin withdrawal syndromes remains crucial for the advancement of patient care. Benzodiazepines and clonidine are the current therapies that have been documented as potentially effective treatment modalities at this time.

  1. Impacts of crop insurance on water withdrawals for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryugina, Tatyana; Konar, Megan

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural production remains particularly vulnerable to weather fluctuations and extreme events, such as droughts, floods, and heat waves. Crop insurance is a risk management tool developed to mitigate some of this weather risk and protect farmer income in times of poor production. However, crop insurance may have unintended consequences for water resources sustainability, as the vast majority of freshwater withdrawals go to agriculture. The causal impact of crop insurance on water use in agriculture remains poorly understood. Here, we determine the empirical relationship between crop insurance and irrigation water withdrawals in the United States. Importantly, we use an instrumental variables approach to establish causality. Our methodology exploits a major policy change in the crop insurance system - the 1994 Federal Crop Insurance Reform Act - which imposed crop insurance requirements on farmers. We find that a 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.223% increase in irrigation withdrawals, with most coming from groundwater aquifers. We identify farmers growing more groundwater-fed cotton as an important mechanism contributing to increased withdrawals. A 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.624% increase in cotton acreage, or 95,602 acres. These results demonstrate that crop insurance causally leads to more irrigation withdrawals. More broadly, this work underscores the importance of determining causality in the water-food nexus as we endeavor to achieve global food security and water resources sustainability.

  2. [Hypochondriac symptoms in late-onset depression: the relationship between hypochondria and somatic state of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanets, N N; Avdeeva, T I; Kinkul'kina, M A

    2013-01-01

    Authors studied 276 women with late-onset depression. Concomitant chronic somatic diseases were identified in 90%. The presence of disease and its nosological definition did not impact on the development of hypochondriac symptoms in patients with late-onset depression. Patients with hypochondriac late-onset depression more often had disability pension due to somatic disease because they more often referred to internists in case of similar objective severity of somatic pathology. It was singled out three variants of the relationship between hypochondria and somatic state: hypernosognostic (a complete coincidence of hypochondria content with actual somatic pathology; anosognostic (a lack of coincidence) and disharmonic (a partial coincidence). The themes of hypochondria in late-nset depressions were correlated with a total number of somatic diseases and their severity. At the same time, there was no correlation between the content of hypochondria and the character of somatic disease.

  3. Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hossein, M Shamim; Shamim, M Hossein; Kim, Jung Ju; Kang, Sung Keun; Schatten, Gerald; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-04

    Several mammals--including sheep, mice, cows, goats, pigs, rabbits, cats, a mule, a horse and a litter of three rats--have been cloned by transfer of a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell (oocyte) that has had its nucleus removed. This technology has not so far been successful in dogs because of the difficulty of maturing canine oocytes in vitro. Here we describe the cloning of two Afghan hounds by nuclear transfer from adult skin cells into oocytes that had matured in vivo. Together with detailed sequence information generated by the canine-genome project, the ability to clone dogs by somatic-cell nuclear transfer should help to determine genetic and environmental contributions to the diverse biological and behavioural traits associated with the many different canine breeds.

  4. File list: InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Input control Gonad Testicular somatic... cells SRX591728,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.20.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Input control Gonad Testicular somatic... cells SRX591728,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  6. Cognitive-affective depression and somatic symptoms clusters are differentially associated with maternal parenting and coparenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Morais, Ana; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2017-09-01

    Both depressive and somatic symptoms are significant predictors of parenting and coparenting problems. However, despite clear evidence of their co-occurrence, no study to date has examined the association between depressive-somatic symptoms clusters and parenting and coparenting. The current research sought to identify and cross-validate clusters of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and nonspecific somatic symptoms, as well as to test whether clusters would differ on parenting and coparenting problems across three independent samples of mothers. Participants in Studies 1 and 3 consisted of 409 and 652 community mothers, respectively. Participants in Study 2 consisted of 162 mothers exposed to intimate partner violence. All participants prospectively completed self-report measures of depressive and nonspecific somatic symptoms and parenting (Studies 1 and 2) or coparenting (Study 3). Across studies, three depression-somatic symptoms clusters were identified: no symptoms, high depression and low nonspecific somatic symptoms, and high depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms. The high depression-somatic symptoms cluster was associated with the highest levels of child physical maltreatment risk (Study 1) and overt-conflict coparenting (Study 3). No differences in perceived maternal competence (Study 2) and cooperative and undermining coparenting (Study 3) were found between the high depression and low somatic symptoms cluster and the high depression-somatic symptoms cluster. The results provide novel evidence for the strong associations between clusters of depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms and specific parenting and coparenting problems. Cluster stability across three independent samples suggest that they may be generalizable. The results inform preventive approaches and evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Headaches - danger signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migraine headache - danger signs; Tension headache - danger signs; Cluster headache - danger signs; Vascular headache - danger signs ... and other head pain. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. A rare case of complicated opioid withdrawal in delirium without convulsions

    OpenAIRE

    B Neeraj Raj; N Manamohan; Divya Hegde; Chandrashekar B Huded; Johnson Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Opioids are one of the commonly abused substances in India. Opioid withdrawal symptoms classically include severe muscle cramps, bone aches, autonomic symptoms, anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, and temperature dysregulation. However, reports of cases with delirium during withdrawal are few. A 25-year-old male with severe opioid withdrawal symptoms developed delirium. Investigations were normal. There were no comorbidities, no significant past history and family history. Patient treated for op...

  9. An alcohol withdrawal test battery measuring multiple behavioral symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metten, Pamela; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Huang, Lawrence C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hack, Wyatt R; Spence, Stephanie E; Crabbe, John C

    2018-05-01

    Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time. To permit eventual use of the battery in different strains of mice, we used male and female mice of a genetically heterogeneous stock developed from intercrossing eight inbred strains. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed using commonly used tests after administration of ethanol in vapor for 72 continuous hours. We found significant effects of ethanol withdrawal versus air-breathing controls on nearly all symptoms, spanning 4 days following ethanol vapor inhalation. Withdrawal produced hypothermia, greater neurohyperexcitability (seizures and tremor), anxiety-like behaviors using an apparatus (such as reduced transitions between light and dark compartments), anhedonia (reduced sucrose preference), Straub tail, backward walking, and reductions in activity; however, there were no changes in thermal pain sensitivity, hyper-reactivity to handling, or anxiety-like emergence behaviors in other apparatus. Using these data, we constructed a refined battery of withdrawal tests. Individual differences in severity of withdrawal among different tests were weakly correlated at best. This battery should be useful for identifying genetic influences on particular withdrawal behaviors, which should reflect the influences of different constellations of genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. CYTOLOGICAL QUALITY OF GOAT MILK ON THE BASIS OF THE SOMATIC CELL COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka BERNACKA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the cytological quality of goat milk based on the somatic cell count in respective months of lactation. Besides there was defined the effect of somatic cell on the milk production and chemical composition of milk. The research covered goats of color improved breed in the 2nd and 3rd lactation. Daily milk yield, chemical composition of milk and its somatic cell count were defined based on monthly morning and evening control milkings from both teats, following the A4 method applied in District Animal Evaluation Stations. The research indicated that the greater the somatic cell count in milk, the lower the daily milk yield, however the greater the somatic cell count, the greater the percentage content of fat and dry matter and the lower the content of lactose.

  11. Somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Australian fan flower, Scaevola aemula R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-H; Bhalla, P L

    2004-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Scaevola aemula R. Br. was achieved. Somatic embryos were induced from explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/ 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.2-0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Various developmental stages of somatic embryos were found on this medium-from globular embryos to germinated embryos. The transfer of globular embryos to MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP resulted in a high frequency of shoot regeneration. Leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing different combinations of BAP and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid formed adventitious shoots and roots. Histological examination confirmed the process of somatic embryogenesis. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in Scaevola provides a system for studying embryogenesis in Australian native plants and will facilitate the improvement of these plants using genetic transformation techniques.

  12. 27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.532 Section 19.532 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532 Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. Wine spirits may be withdrawn to a bonded wine cellar without payment of tax for use in wine...

  13. Somatic PI3K activity regulates transition to the spermatocyte stages ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir Gupta

    2017-04-22

    Apr 22, 2017 ... like growth factor (IGF) families, control the tissue homeosta- sis (Biteau et al. 2011 ... A breach in the somatic encapsulation due to the loss of somatic cyst cells .... populations at the apical region of testes of 4-days-old adults.

  14. Somatic PI3K activity regulates transition to the spermatocyte stages ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spermatogenesis, involving multiple transit amplification divisions and meiosis, occurs within an enclosure formed bytwo somatic cells. As the cohort of germline cells divide and grow, the surface areas of the somatic cells expandmaintaining a tight encapsulation throughout the developmental period. Correlation between ...

  15. File list: InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 Input control Gonad Testicular somati...c cells SRX591728,SRX591716 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Gon.10.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  16. Sign language typology: The contribution of rural sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, C.; Pfau, R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the field of sign language typology has shown that sign languages exhibit typological variation at all relevant levels of linguistic description. These initial typological comparisons were heavily skewed toward the urban sign languages of developed countries, mostly in the Western

  17. Evolution of Metabolic Abnormalities in Alcoholic Patients during Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vandemergel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol intoxication is accompanied by metabolic abnormalities. Evolution during the early withdrawal period has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of metabolic parameters during alcohol withdrawal. Patients and Methods. Thirty-three patients admitted in our department for alcohol withdrawal were prospectively included. Results. Baseline hypophosphatemia was found in 24% of cases. FEPO4 was reduced from 14.2 ± 9% at baseline to 7.3 ± 4.2% at day 3 (Pnl, respectively. No correlation was found between the sodium and CPK levels (P=0.75 nor between the CPK level and the amount of alcohol ingested (rs = 0.084, P=0.097. Baseline urate level was elevated and returned to normal after three days. Baseline magnesium concentration was normal and stable over time. Conclusion. Chronic alcohol intoxication was accompanied by phosphaturia, rapidly reversible after alcohol withdrawal and inversely correlated with albuminemia, slight hyponatremia, low levels of 25 hydroxy vitamin D, elevated CPK level in about 30% of women, and hyperuricemia with rapid normalization.

  18. It's self defense: how perceived discrimination promotes employee withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpone, Sabrina D; Avery, Derek R

    2013-10-01

    Integrating theory on stress, stigma, and coping, the present study sheds light on how employees react to perceived discrimination (PD) in the workplace. Using three national samples, we found that PD based on race, sex, age, family obligation, and sexual orientation related to physical withdrawal (i.e., lateness, absenteeism,and intent to quit) indirectly through psychological withdrawal (i.e., burnout and engagement) such that PD corresponded in less engagement and more burnout, which related to increased lateness, absenteeism, and intent to quit [corrected].Further, these indirect relationships were moderated by employees' coping mechanisms with those who were more apt to change the situation or to avoid the stressor exhibiting weaker relationships between PD and psychological withdrawal. Though each of these studies is cross-sectional in nature and therefore cannot provide strong evidence of causal ordering of the variables in our model, the replication and extension of results over three databases and multiple forms of discrimination, coping, psychological, and physical withdrawal demonstrates that understanding the relationships explored in these studies can aid researchers and practitioners in enhancing employee quality of life and productivity.

  19. Worldwide withdrawal of medicinal products because of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Heneghan, Carl J; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-01

    We have systematically identified medicinal products withdrawn worldwide because of adverse drug reactions, assessed the level of evidence used for making the withdrawal decisions, and explored the patterns of withdrawals over time. We searched PubMed, the WHO database of withdrawn products, and selected texts. We included products that were withdrawn after launch from 1950 onwards, excluding non-human and over-the-counter medicines. We assessed the levels of evidence on which withdrawals were based using the Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Of 353 medicinal products withdrawn from any country, only 40 were withdrawn worldwide. Anecdotal reports were cited as evidence for withdrawal in 30 (75%) and deaths occurred in 27 (68%). Hepatic, cardiac, and nervous system toxicity accounted for over 60% of withdrawals. In 28 cases, the first withdrawal was initiated by the manufacturer. The median interval between the first report of an adverse drug reaction that led to withdrawal and the first withdrawal was 1 year (range 0-43 years). Worldwide withdrawals occurred within 1 year after the first withdrawal in any country. In conclusion, the time it takes for drugs to be withdrawn worldwide after reports of adverse drug reactions has shortened over time. However, there are inconsistencies in current withdrawal procedures when adverse drug reactions are suspected. A uniform method for establishing worldwide withdrawal of approved medicinal products when adverse drug reactions are suspected should be developed, to facilitate global withdrawals. Rapid synthesis of the evidence on harms should be a priority when serious adverse reactions are suspected.

  20. Beta-blocker withdrawal among patients presenting for surgery from home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B.; Lukens, Carrie L.; Turkoglu, O. Dicle; Feinleib, Jessica L.; Haspel, Kenneth L.; Burg, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective This study sought to measure the incidence of perioperative beta-blocker non-compliance by patients who were prescribed chronic beta blocker therapy and presented for surgery from home. The effect of patient non-compliance on day of surgery presenting heart rate was also examined. Design Prospective observational study with outcome data obtained from review of the medical record. Setting The preoperative clinic and operating rooms of a Veterans Administration hospital. Participants Patients on chronic beta blocker therapy who presented from home for surgery. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Demographic and comorbidity data as well as data on self-reported compliance to beta-blocker therapy, initial day of surgery vital signs, and recent ambulatory vital signs were collected. Ten out of fifty subjects (20%; 95% CI = 9-31%) reported not taking their day of surgery beta-blocker. These self-reported non-adherers demonstrated a higher presenting heart rate on the day of surgery vs. adherent subjects (median of 78 beats per minute vs. 65 beats per minute, p=0.02 by Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test). The difference-in-difference between baseline primary care and day of surgery heart rate was also statistically significant between compliant and non-compliant subjects (-7 beats per minute vs. +12.5 beats per minute, p<0.00001). Conclusions Patient self-report and physiologic data documented failure to take beta-blockers and possible beta-blocker withdrawal in 20% of patients who presented for surgery from home. If these findings are confirmed in larger studies, improved patient understanding of and compliance with medication instructions during preoperative visits should be a focus of future quality improvement initiatives. PMID:22418043

  1. Teaching at the interface of dance science and somatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Pamela; Wilson, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a combined scientific and somatic approach to teaching and learning about the body, and explains how it can be of benefit to dancers and dance educators. The study of the science of movement (kinesiology) and a somatic approach to teaching are initially defined and described as distinct entities; following this, a model for integration of the two is presented. The authors advocate for such a combination in order to enhance dancing.

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis of off-type and normal phenotype somatic plantlets derived from somatic embryos of Feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Hugo Pacheco de Freitas; Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Caprestano, Clarissa Alves; Nodari, Rubens Onofre; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2013-09-01

    Morphological disorders in a relevant portion of emerged somatic embryos have been a limiting factor in the true-to-type plantlet formation in Acca sellowiana. In this sense, the present study undertook a comparison between normal phenotype and off-type somatic plantlets protein profiles by means of the 2-D DIGE proteomics approach. Off-type and normal phenotype somatic plantlets obtained at 10 and 20 days conversion were evaluated. Results indicated 12 exclusive spots between normal and off-type plantlets at 10 days conversion, and 17 exclusive spots at 20 days conversion. Also at 20 days conversion, 4 spots were differentially expressed, up- or down-regulated. Two proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism were only expressed in off-types at 10 days conversion, suggesting a more active respiratory pathway. A vicilin-like storage protein was only found in off-types at 20 days conversion, indicating that plantlets may present an abnormality in the mobilization of storage compounds, causing reduced vigor in the development of derived plantlets. The presence of heat shock proteins were only observed during formation of normal phenotype somatic plantlets, indicating that these proteins may be involved in normal morphogenesis of plantlets formed. These new findings shed light on possible genetic or epigenetic mechanisms governing A. sellowiana morphogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Object relations, reality testing, and social withdrawal in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Charlotte Fredslund; Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Romm, Kristin Lie; Andreassen, Ole Andreas; Bell, Morris D; Melle, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships between observed social withdrawal (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] Passive Social Withdrawal and PANSS Active Social Avoidance), subjectively experienced social withdrawal (Social Functioning Scale [SFS] Withdrawal and SFS Interpersonal Behavior), and their associations to the underlying psychological patterns of Object Relations and Reality Testing. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 55) and bipolar disorder (n = 51) from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis project, Oslo University Hospital, Norway, were evaluated using the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory, the PANSS, and the SFS. Object relations and reality testing subscales related differentially to PANSS Passive Social Withdrawal and PANSS Active Social Avoidance. These two measures, together with the level of alienation, explained a significant amount of variance in self-experienced social dysfunction. Findings reveal the multidimensional nature of social dysfunction in severe mental disorders.

  4. Contrastive Study of Somatisms Distinctive Features in Phraseology of Different Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharbat Muhamedzhanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes semantic transformations of phraseologically active somatisms, based on contrastive study of fixed combinations in Kazakh and French languages. The prospects for the study of fixed combinations, having somatic vocabulary as a semantic kernel in conceptualization of idioethnic anthropological paradigm was studied

  5. Residents' perceptions about surrogate decision makers' financial conflicts of interest in ventilator withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastila, Lisa J; Farber, Neil J

    2014-05-01

    There have been no studies to date that examine physicians' decisions to withdraw life-sustaining treatment for patients based on their surrogates' financial gain. The authors' objective was to ascertain physician attitudes about withdrawing life-sustaining treatment when financial considerations are involved. A survey was developed and pretested containing eight scenarios in which a terminally ill patient's spouse had a decision to make regarding withdrawal of the ventilator, which was deemed medically futile. Nested variables included agreement or disagreement between the spouse and patient, decision to withdraw or continue the ventilator, and financial gain or no financial gain for the spouse. The authors surveyed all internal medicine residents at the University of California, San Diego in the autumn of 2011 and winter of 2012. The responses on each of the three variables for which respondents were likely to withdraw the ventilator were analyzed via student's t-tests. Residents were more likely to withdraw the ventilator when requested to do so than when it was requested to be continued. They were also more likely to withdraw the ventilator when there was agreement in the decision between the spouse and the patient. Residents were more likely to withdraw the ventilator when the spouse would not benefit financially. Internal medicine residents make some decisions about whether to withdraw life-sustaining treatment based on financial considerations. There needs to be ongoing communication with residents about end-of-life decisions where conflicts may exist between the surrogate decision makers and patients or physicians.

  6. 8 CFR 246.4 - Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS RESCISSION OF ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS § 246.4 Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution. In any proceeding conducted under this part, the immigration judge shall have...

  7. 20 CFR 416.360 - Cancellation of a request to withdraw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....360 Section 416.360 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Filing of Applications Withdrawal of Application § 416.360... received after we have approved the withdrawal, the cancellation request is filed no later than 60 days...

  8. Trajectories of Social Withdrawal from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Wonjung; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Bowker, Julie C.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Laursen, Brett

    2008-01-01

    Heterogeneity and individual differences in the developmental course of social withdrawal were examined longitudinally in a community sample (N = 392). General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) was used to identify distinct pathways of social withdrawal, differentiate valid subgroup trajectories, and examine factors that predicted change in…

  9. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK; Selçuk ASLAN; Çisem UTKU

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used ...

  10. Somatic VHL gene alterations in MEN2-associated medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Christian A; Brouwers, Frederieke M; Vortmeyer, Alexander O; Tannapfel, Andrea; Libutti, Steven K; Zhuang, Zhengping; Pacak, Karel; Neumann, Hartmut PH; Paschke, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Germline mutations in RET are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), an autosomal dominantly inherited cancer syndrome that is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid hyperplasia/adenoma. Recent studies suggest a 'second hit' mechanism resulting in amplification of mutant RET. Somatic VHL gene alterations are implicated in the pathogenesis of MEN2 pheochromocytomas. We hypothesized that somatic VHL gene alterations are also important in the pathogenesis of MEN2-associated MTC. We analyzed 6 MTCs and 1 C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) specimen from 7 patients with MEN2A and RET germline mutations in codons 609, 618, 620, or 634, using microdissection, microsatellite analysis, phosphorimage densitometry, and VHL mutation analysis. First, we searched for allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET by using the polymorphic markers D10S677, D10S1239, and RET on thyroid tissue from these patients. Evidence for RET amplification by this technique could be demonstrated in 3 of 6 MTCs. We then performed LOH analysis using D3S1038 and D3S1110 which map to the VHL gene locus at 3p25/26. VHL gene deletion was present in 3 MTCs. These 3 MTCs also had an allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET. Mutation analysis of the VHL gene showed a somatic frameshift mutation in 1 MTC that also demonstrated LOH at 3p25/26. In the 2 other MTCs with allelic imbalance of RET and somatic VHL gene deletion, no somatic VHL mutation could be detected. The CCH specimen did neither reveal RET imbalance nor somatic VHL gene alterations. These data suggest that a RET germline mutation is necessary for development of CCH, that allelic imbalance between mutant and wild-type RET may set off tumorigenesis, and that somatic VHL gene alterations may not play a major role in tumorigenesis of MEN2A-associated MTC

  11. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Capsicum baccatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddaboina Venkataiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis was achieved in cotyledon and leaf explants of Capsicum baccatum, when cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.5–5.0 mg l−1 in combination with Kinetin (Kn, 0.5 mg l−1 and 3% sucrose. Various stages were observed during the development of somatic embryos, including globular, heart, and torpedo-stages. Torpedo stage embryos were separated from the explants and subcultured on medium supplemented with various concentrations of different plant growth regulators for maturation. Maximum percentage (55% of somatic embryo germination and plantlet formation was found at 1.0 mg l−1 BA. Finally, about 68% of plantlets were successfully established under field conditions. The regenerated plants were morphologically normal, fertile and able to set viable seeds.

  12. A Water-Withdrawal Input-Output Model of the Indian Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogra, Shelly; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Mathur, Ritu

    2016-02-02

    Managing freshwater allocation for a highly populated and growing economy like India can benefit from knowledge about the effect of economic activities. This study transforms the 2003-2004 economic input-output (IO) table of India into a water withdrawal input-output model to quantify direct and indirect flows. This unique model is based on a comprehensive database compiled from diverse public sources, and estimates direct and indirect water withdrawal of all economic sectors. It distinguishes between green (rainfall), blue (surface and ground), and scarce groundwater. Results indicate that the total direct water withdrawal is nearly 3052 billion cubic meter (BCM) and 96% of this is used in agriculture sectors with the contribution of direct green water being about 1145 BCM, excluding forestry. Apart from 727 BCM direct blue water withdrawal for agricultural, other significant users include "Electricity" with 64 BCM, "Water supply" with 44 BCM and other industrial sectors with nearly 14 BCM. "Construction", "miscellaneous food products"; "Hotels and restaurants"; "Paper, paper products, and newsprint" are other significant indirect withdrawers. The net virtual water import is found to be insignificant compared to direct water used in agriculture nationally, while scarce ground water associated with crops is largely contributed by northern states.

  13. A pathway-centric survey of somatic mutations in Chinese patients with colorectal carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ling

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies on colorectal carcinomas (CRC have identified multiple somatic mutations in four candidate pathways (TGF-β, Wnt, P53 and RTK-RAS pathways on populations of European ancestry. However, it is under-studied whether other populations harbor different sets of hot-spot somatic mutations in these pathways and other oncogenes. In this study, to evaluate the mutational spectrum of novel somatic mutations, we assessed 41 pairs of tumor-stroma tissues from Chinese patients with CRC, including 29 colon carcinomas and 12 rectal carcinomas. We designed Illumina Custom Amplicon panel to target 43 genes, including genes in the four candidate pathways, as well as several known oncogenes for other cancers. Candidate mutations were validated by Sanger sequencing, and we further used SIFT and PolyPhen-2 to assess potentially functional mutations. We discovered 3 new somatic mutations in gene APC, TCF7L2, and PIK3CA that had never been reported in the COSMIC or NCI-60 databases. Additionally, we confirmed 6 known somatic mutations in gene SMAD4, APC, FBXW7, BRAF and PTEN in Chinese CRC patients. While most were previously reported in CRC, one mutation in PTEN was reported only in malignant endometrium cancer. Our study confirmed the existence of known somatic mutations in the four candidate pathways for CRC in Chinese patients. We also discovered a number of novel somatic mutations in these pathways, which may have implications for the pathogenesis of CRC.

  14. Consequences of dextropropoxyphene market withdrawal in elderly patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquemont, Laurent; Delespierre, Tiba; Bauduceau, Bernard; Benattar-Zibi, Linda; Berrut, Gilles; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Danchin, Nicolas; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Doucet, Jean; Falissard, Bruno; Forette, Francoise; Hanon, Olivier; Pasquier, Florence; Pinget, Michel; Ourabah, Rissane; Bucher, Sophie; Lazkani, Aida; Piedvache, Celine; Bertin, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    Describe the consequences of dextropropoxyphene (DXP) market withdrawal on analgesic prescriptions and on the quality of therapeutic management of chronic pain. From a cohort of non-institutionalised elderly patients with chronic pain recruited by general practitioners, we selected patients who were treated with DXP daily for at least 6 months just prior to DXP market withdrawal and who had an evaluation of pain and its impact on daily activities before and after DXP withdrawal. One hundred three patients took DXP daily for chronic pain. Immediately after DXP market withdrawal, 42 (40.8%), 55 (53.4%) and 3 (2.9%) patients were treated with step 1, 2 and 3 analgesics, respectively, and 3 patients (2.9%) were no longer receiving any analgesic medication. Among the 55 patients who continued on step 2 analgesics, 37 were treated with tramadol, 14 with codeine and 9 with opium. Pain intensity and the impact of pain on daily activities remained stable. DXP market withdrawal had no consequences on the intensity or impact of chronic pain in elderly patients.

  15. Long-Term Follow-Up of Individuals Undergoing Sex-Reassignment Surgery: Somatic Morbidity and Cause of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Rikke Kildevæld; Hald, Gert Martin; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2016-03-01

    Studies of mortality and somatic well-being after sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) of transsexual individuals are equivocal. Accordingly, the present study investigated mortality and somatic morbidity using a sample of transsexual individuals who comprised 98% (n = 104) of all surgically reassigned transsexual individuals in Denmark. To investigate somatic morbidity before and after SRS and cause of death and its relation to somatic morbidity after SRS in Danish individuals who underwent SRS from 1978 through 2010. Somatic morbidity and mortality in 104 sex-reassigned individuals were identified retrospectively by data from the Danish National Health Register and the Cause of Death Register. Somatic morbidity and cause of death. Overall, 19.2% of the sample were registered with somatic morbidity before SRS and 23.1% after SRS (P = not significant). In total, 8.6% had somatic morbidity before and after SRS. The most common diagnostic category was cardiovascular disease, affecting 18 individuals, 9 before and 14 after SRS, and 5 of those 14 who were affected after SRS had cardiovascular disease before and after SRS. Ten individuals died after SRS at an average age of 53.5 ± 7.9 years (male to female) and 53.5 ± 7.3 years (female to male). Of 98% of all Danish transsexuals who officially underwent SRS from 1978 through 2010, one in three had somatic morbidity and approximately 1 in 10 had died. No significant differences in somatic morbidity or mortality were found between male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Despite the young average age at death and the relatively larger number of individuals with somatic morbidity, the present study design does not allow for determination of casual relations between, for example, specific types of hormonal or surgical treatment received and somatic morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Nicotinic receptor blockade decreases fos immunoreactivity within orexin/hypocretin-expressing neurons of nicotine-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Steven J; Gentile, Taylor A; Mo, Lili; Tran, Fionya H; Ma, Sisi; Muschamp, John W

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Nicotine is the principal psychoactive ingredient in tobacco that causes addiction. The structures governing nicotine addiction, including those underlying withdrawal, are still being explored. Nicotine withdrawal is characterized by negative affective and cognitive symptoms that enhance relapse susceptibility, and suppressed dopaminergic transmission from ventral tegmental area (VTA) to target structures underlies behavioral symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. Agonist and partial agonist therapies help 1 in 4 treatment-seeking smokers at one-year post-cessation, and new targets are needed to more effectively aid smokers attempting to quit. Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons send excitatory projections to dopamine (DA)-producing neurons of VTA and modulate mesoaccumbal DA release. The effects of nicotinic receptor blockade, which is commonly used to precipitate withdrawal, on orexin neurons remain poorly investigated and present an attractive target for intervention. The present study sought to investigate the effects of nicotinic receptor blockade on hypothalamic orexin neurons using mecamylamine to precipitate withdrawal in rats. Separate groups of rats were treated with either chronic nicotine or saline for 7-days at which point effects of mecamylamine or saline on somatic signs and anxiety-like behavior were assessed. Finally, tissue from rats was harvested for immunofluorescent analysis of Fos within orexin neurons. Results demonstrate that nicotinic receptor blockade leads to reduced orexin cell activity, as indicated by lowered Fos-immunoreactivity, and suggest that this underlying cellular activity may be associated with symptoms of nicotine withdrawal as effects were most prominently observed in rats given chronic nicotine. We conclude from this study that orexin transmission becomes suppressed in rats upon nicotinic receptor blockade, and that behavioral symptoms associated

  17. Malaysian sign language dataset for automatic sign language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT ... SL recognition system based on the Malaysian Sign Language (MSL). Implementation results are described. Keywords: sign language; pattern classification; database.

  18. Somatic gene mutation in the human in relation to radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the measurement of somatic gene-mutation frequencies in the human. We ask the following questions. How well can they be measured? Do they respond to radiation? Can they also function as a dosimeter? What do they tell us about the somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis?

  19. Somatic Markers and Explicit Knowledge Are both Involved in Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Sebastien; Jollant, Fabrice; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lawrence, Natalia; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In 1994, it was proposed that decision-making requires emotion-related signals, known as somatic markers. In contrast, some authors argued that conscious knowledge of contingencies is sufficient for advantageous decision-making. We aimed to investigate the respective roles of somatic markers and explicit knowledge in decision-making. Thirty…

  20. Deadly pressure pneumothorax after withdrawal of misplaced feeding tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Erik Nygaard; Frydland, Martin; Usinger, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients have a nasogastric feeding tube inserted during admission; however, misplacement is not uncommon. In this case report we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first documented fatality from pressure pneumothorax following nasogastric tube withdrawal. CASE PRESENTATION......, but our patient died less than an hour after withdrawal. The autopsy report stated that cause of death was tension pneumothorax, which developed following withdrawal of the misplaced feeding tube. CONCLUSIONS: The indications for insertion of nasogastric feeding tubes are many and the procedure...... is considered harmless; however, if the tube is misplaced there is good reason to be cautious on removal as this can unmask puncture of the pleura eliciting pneumothorax and, as this case report shows, result in an ultimately deadly tension pneumothorax....

  1. Images in pediatrics: the thymic sail sign and thymic wave sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Nuno D; Sousa, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a radiographic image portraying the "thymic sail sign" and the "thymic wave sign," both normal findings in infant radiographs and present a short description of these signs. These are distinguished from pathologic findings such as the "spinnaker-sail sign" in pneumomediastinum.

  2. Infants in Drug Withdrawal: A National Description of Nurse Workload, Infant Acuity, and Parental Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica G; Rogowski, Jeannette A; Schoenauer, Kathryn M; Lake, Eileen T

    Infants in drug withdrawal have complex physiological and behavioral states, requiring intensive nursing care. The study objectives were to describe acuity, parental needs, and nurse workload of infants in drug withdrawal compared with other infants. The design was cross-sectional and involved secondary nurse survey data from 6045 staff nurses from a national sample of 104 neonatal intensive care units. Nurses reported the care of 15 233 infants, 361 (2.4%) of whom were in drug withdrawal. Three-fourths of hospitals had at least 1 infant in drug withdrawal. In these hospitals, the mean number of infants in drug withdrawal was 4.7. Infant acuity was significantly higher among infants in drug withdrawal. Parents of infants in drug withdrawal required significantly more care to address complex social situations (51% vs 12%). The number of infants assigned to nurses with at least 1 infant in withdrawal (mean = 2.69) was significantly higher than typical (mean = 2.51). Given infant acuity and parental needs, policies legislating patient-to-nurse ratios should permit professional discretion on the number of patients to assign nurses caring for infants in drug withdrawal. Managers and charge nurses should consider the demands of caring for infants in drug withdrawal in assignment decisions and provide support and education.

  3. Estimated water withdrawals and return flows in Vermont in 2005 and 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura; Horn, Marilee A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, about 12 percent of total water withdrawals (440 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)) in Vermont were from groundwater sources (51 Mgal/d), and about 88 percent were from surface-water sources (389 Mgal/d). Of total water withdrawals, about 78 percent were used for cooling at a power plant, 9 percent were withdrawn by public suppliers, about 5 percent were withdrawn for domestic use, about 3 percent were withdrawn for use at fish hatcheries, and the remaining 5 percent were divided among commercial/industrial, irrigation, livestock, and snowmaking uses. About 49 percent of the population of Vermont was supplied with drinking water by a public supplier, and 51 percent was self supplied. Some of the Minor Civil Divisions (MCDs) that had large self-supplied populations were located near the major cities of St. Albans, Burlington, Montpelier, Barre, and Rutland, where the cities themselves were served largely by public supply, but the surrounding areas were not. Most MCDs where withdrawals by community water systems totaled more than 1 Mgal/d used predominantly surface water, and those where withdrawals by community water systems totaled 1 Mgal/d or less used predominantly groundwater. Withdrawals of groundwater greater than 1 Mgal/d were made in Middlebury, Bethel, Hartford, Springfield, and Bennington, and withdrawals of surface water greater than 2 Mgal/d were made in Grand Isle, Burlington, South Burlington, Mendon, Brattleboro, and Vernon. Increases in groundwater withdrawals greater than 0.1 Mgal/d are projected for 2020 for Fairfax, Hardwick, Middlebury, Sharon, Proctor, Springfield, and Manchester. The largest projected increases in surface-water withdrawals from 2005 to 2020 are located along the center axis of the Green Mountains in the ski-area towns of Stowe, Warren, Mendon, Killington, and Wilmington. In 2005, withdrawals were at least 1 Mgal/d greater than return flows in South Burlington, Waterford, Orange, Mendon, Woodford, and Vernon. Many of

  4. Somatic symptoms of anxiety and nonadherence to statin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Pentti, Jaana; Hartikainen, Juha; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2016-07-01

    The association between anxiety and nonadherence to preventive therapies remains unclear. We investigated whether somatic symptoms of anxiety predict statin nonadherence. This is a prospective cohort study of 1924 individuals who responded to a questionnaire survey on health status and initiated statin therapy after the survey during 2008-2010. We followed the cohort for nonadherence, defined as the proportion of days covered pain upon anger or emotion, sweating without exercise, flushing, tremor of hands or voice, muscle twitching) before the statin initiation, and 16% had experienced at least one symptom on average weekly to daily. 49% of respondents were nonadherent. Weekly to daily occurrence of these symptoms predicted a 33% increase in the risk of nonadherence (risk ratio [RR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.13-1.57) compared to no symptoms when adjusted for sociodemographics, lifestyle risks, cardiovascular comorbidities, and depression. Particularly, chest pain upon anger or emotion (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.46) and muscle twitching (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.42) predicted an increased risk of nonadherence to statin therapy. Psychological symptoms of anxiety were not associated with nonadherence when adjusted for somatic symptoms. Somatic anxiety-related symptoms predicted nonadherence to statin therapy. Information on pre-existing somatic symptoms may help identifying patients at increased risk of statin nonadherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Central crosstalk for somatic tinnitus: abnormal vergence eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frequent oulomotricity problems with orthoptic testing were reported in patients with tinnitus. This study examines with objective recordings vergence eye movements in patients with somatic tinnitus patients with ability to modify their subjective tinnitus percept by various movements, such as jaw, neck, eye movements or skin pressure. METHODS: Vergence eye movements were recorded with the Eyelink II video system in 15 (23-63 years control adults and 19 (36-62 years subjects with somatic tinnitus. FINDINGS: 1 Accuracy of divergence but not of convergence was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 2 Vergence duration was longer and peak velocity was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 3 The number of embedded saccades and the amplitude of saccades coinciding with the peak velocity of vergence were higher for tinnitus subjects. Yet, saccades did not increase peak velocity of vergence for tinnitus subjects, but they did so for controls. 4 In contrast, there was no significant difference of vergence latency between these two groups. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest dysfunction of vergence areas involving cortical-brainstem-cerebellar circuits. We hypothesize that central auditory dysfunction related to tinnitus percept could trigger mild cerebellar-brainstem dysfunction or that tinnitus and vergence dysfunction could both be manifestations of mild cortical-brainstem-cerebellar syndrome reflecting abnormal cross-modality interactions between vergence eye movements and auditory signals.

  6. Potential harms, anonymization, and the right to withdraw consent to biobank research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Stefan; Helgesson, Gert

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses the potential harms involved in biobank research and how ethical review, informed consent, withdrawals, and anonymization of samples should be handled in the light of these harms. There is less risk involved in biobank research than in human subject research; it should therefore be treated differently. In our view, anonymization should not be an automatically permissible response to requests for withdrawal. Nor should a request for withdrawal necessarily stop research on identifiable samples. Apart from not being particularly appropriate for protecting the interests of individuals, anonymization of samples has a negative impact on research. We suggest that the current view on withdrawal from research, supported by the Declaration of Helsinki and subsequent ethical guidelines, be abandoned in the context of biobank research and be replaced by an approach inspired by the Nuremberg Code. This approach requires those wishing to withdraw their samples from research to present sufficient reason for doing so. Our interpretation of 'sufficient reason' includes all those involving genuine, deeply felt concerns that are not based on misconceptions. Still, this underlines the fact that we all share a responsibility for health research and that no one should take withdrawal from biobank research lightly.

  7. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics of Embryogenic and Non-Embryogenic Callus during Sugarcane Somatic Embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Schuabb Heringer

    Full Text Available The development of somatic cells in to embryogenic cells occurs in several stages and ends in somatic embryo formation, though most of these biochemical and molecular changes have yet to be elucidated. Somatic embryogenesis coupled with genetic transformation could be a biotechnological tool to improve potential crop yields potential in sugarcane cultivars. The objective of this study was to observe somatic embryo development and to identify differentially expressed proteins in embryogenic (E and non-embryogenic (NE callus during maturation treatment. E and NE callus were cultured on maturation culture medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.0, 0.75, 1.5 and 2.0 g L(-1 of activated charcoal (AC. Somatic embryo formation and differential protein expression were evaluated at days 0 and 21 using shotgun proteomic analyses. Treatment with 1.5 g L(-1 AC resulted in higher somatic embryo maturation rates (158 somatic embryos in 14 days in E callus but has no effect in NE callus. A total of 752 co-expressed proteins were identified through the SUCEST (The Sugarcane EST Project, including many housekeeping proteins. E callus showed 65 exclusive proteins on day 0, including dehydrogenase, desiccation-related protein, callose synthase 1 and nitric oxide synthase. After 21 days on maturation treatment, 14 exclusive proteins were identified in E callus, including catalase and secreted protein. NE callus showed 23 exclusive proteins on day 0 and 10 exclusive proteins after 21 days on maturation treatment, including many proteins related to protein degradation. The induction of maturation leads to somatic embryo development, which likely depends on the expression of specific proteins throughout the process, as seen in E callus under maturation treatment. On the other hand, some exclusive proteins can also specifically prevent of somatic embryos development, as seen in the NE callus.

  8. Decision-making, somatic markers and emotion processing in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Kathryn; Terrett, Gill; McLennan, Skye N; Labuschagne, Izelle; Morton, Phoebe; Rendell, Peter G

    2018-01-01

    Opiate use is associated with deficits in decision-making. A possible explanation for these deficits is provided by the somatic marker hypothesis, which suggests that substance users may experience abnormal emotional responses during decision-making involving reward and punishment. This in turn may interfere with the brief physiological arousal, i.e. somatic markers that normally occur in anticipation of risky decisions. To date, the applicability of the somatic marker hypothesis to explain decision-making deficits has not been investigated in opiate users. This study assessed whether decision-making deficits in opiate users were related to abnormal emotional responses and reduced somatic markers. Opiate users enrolled in an opiate substitute treatment program (n = 28) and healthy controls (n = 32) completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) while their skin conductance responses (SCRs) were recorded. Participants' emotional responses to emotion-eliciting videos were also recorded using SCRs and subjective ratings. Opiate users displayed poorer decision-making on the IGT than did controls. However, there were no differences between the groups in SCRs; both groups displayed stronger SCRs following punishment than following reward, and both groups displayed stronger anticipatory SCRs prior to disadvantageous decisions than advantageous decisions. There were no group differences in objective or subjective measures of emotional responses to the videos. The results suggest that deficits in emotional responsiveness are not apparent in opiate users who are receiving pharmacological treatment. Thus, the somatic marker hypothesis does not provide a good explanation for the decision-making deficits in this group.

  9. A Case Report of Severe Delirium after Amantadine Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Marxreiter

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Amantadine is frequently used in addition to dopaminergic substances like dopamine agonists or L-Dopa in advanced Parkinson disease (PD. However, adverse effects like hallucinations limit its use. PD patients developing severe psychotic symptoms upon treatment with either dopaminergic substances and/or amantadine need to stop intake of any psychotropic substance. Here, we report the case of a 71-year-old PD patient without previously known cognitive impairment. He presented with drug-induced psychotic symptoms due to changes in his therapeutic regimen (increase in COMT inhibitors, newly introduced MAO B inhibitors. Also, amantadine had been part of his long-term medication for more than 2 years. The severity of his psychotic symptoms required a L-Dopa monotherapy. After changing his medication, the patient developed severe delirium that resolved rapidly after i.v. amantadine infusion, suggesting an amantadine withdrawal syndrome. Amantadine withdrawal syndrome is a rare adverse event that may present even in PD patients without cognitive impairment. This case report highlights the need for a gradual withdrawal of amantadine even if acute and severe psychotic symptoms are present. Moreover, this is the first report of a cognitively unimpaired patient developing an amantadine withdrawal syndrome.

  10. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  11. 20 CFR 404.641 - Cancellation of a request to withdraw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....641 Section 404.641 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Filing of Applications and Other Forms Withdrawal of Application § 404.641... received after we have approved the withdrawal, the request is filed no later than 60 days after the date...

  12. Blocking of beta-2 adrenergic receptors hastens recovery from hypoglycemia-associated social withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Jung; Guest, Christopher B; Barnes, Meredith B; Martin, Jonathan; Ahmad, Uzma; York, Jason M; Freund, Gregory G

    2008-11-01

    Hypoglycemia is associated with a variety of adverse behaviors including fatigue, confusion and social withdrawal. While these clinical symptoms are well characterized, the mechanism of their cause is not understood. Here we investigated how insulin-induced hypoglycemia causes social withdrawal. Male 8-12-week-old C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with or without and/or insulin, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (Epi), terbutaline and butoxamine with subsequent measurement of blood glucose, social withdrawal and plasma catecholamines. Insulin generated (0.75h post-injection) significant hypoglycemia with blood glucose nadirs of 64+/-4 and 48+/-5mg/dl for 0.8 and 1.2units/kg of insulin, respectively. Insulin (0.8 or 1.2units/kg) caused near total social withdrawal at 0.75h with full recovery not occurring until 4h (0.8units/kg) or 8h (1.2units/kg) post-insulin injection. Insulin also caused a marked elevation in plasma catecholamines. Basal 12h fasting NE and Epi were 287+/-38 and 350+/-47pg/ml, respectively. Insulin at 0.8units/kg increased plasma NE and Epi to 994+/-73 and 1842+/-473pg/ml, respectively. Administration of exogenous NE or Epi caused social withdrawal similar in magnitude to insulin. Importantly, administration of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist terbutaline also caused social withdrawal while administration of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist butoxamine blocked NE-induced social withdrawal. Finally, butoxamine blocked insulin-induced social withdrawal. These data demonstrate that hypoglycemia-associated social withdrawal is dependent on catecholamines via a beta-2 receptor-mediated pathway.

  13. Somatic FAS mutations are common in patients with genetically undefined autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdell, Kennichi C; Niemela, Julie E; Price, Susan; Davis, Joie; Hornung, Ronald L; Oliveira, João Bosco; Puck, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Elaine S; Pittaluga, Stefania; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Fleisher, Thomas A; Rao, V Koneti

    2010-06-24

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by childhood onset of lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune cytopenias, elevated numbers of double-negative T (DNT) cells, and increased risk of lymphoma. Most cases of ALPS are associated with germline mutations of the FAS gene (type Ia), whereas some cases have been noted to have a somatic mutation of FAS primarily in their DNT cells. We sought to determine the proportion of patients with somatic FAS mutations among a group of our ALPS patients with no detectable germline mutation and to further characterize them. We found more than one-third (12 of 31) of the patients tested had somatic FAS mutations, primarily involving the intracellular domain of FAS resulting in loss of normal FAS signaling. Similar to ALPS type Ia patients, the somatic ALPS patients had increased DNT cell numbers and elevated levels of serum vitamin B(12), interleukin-10, and sFAS-L. These data support testing for somatic FAS mutations in DNT cells from ALPS patients with no detectable germline mutation and a similar clinical and laboratory phenotype to that of ALPS type Ia. These findings also highlight the potential role for somatic mutations in the pathogenesis of nonmalignant and/or autoimmune hematologic conditions in adults and children.

  14. A survey of the effects of Raha® and Berberin medicine in toxic and sub toxic doses compare with Clonidine medicine on reducing symptoms of morphine withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad.J Khoshnood

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opiate withdrawal refers to the wide range of symptoms that occur after stopping or dramatically reducing opiate drugs after heavy and prolonged use. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Raha and Berberin medicine in toxic and sub toxic doses compare with Clonidine medicine on reducing symptoms of morphine withdrawal in Syrian mice.Materials and Method: 140 Syrian mice (weight range 70-90 gr were divided randomly into 2 groups; first group; n1=35(receiving drug =21, control=14 & second group; n2=105 (receiving drug=91, control=14. Animals were treated by injected increasing doses of morphine sulfate for physical dependence. Then withdrawal syndrome was induced by administration of Naloxone. In order to evaluate the effect of Raha Berberin and Clonidine on morphine withdrawal syndrome in Syrian mice and also amount of total alkaloids and Berberin value in the Raha® were measured.Result: Total of average of alkaloid and Berberin value was 120, 5.72 mg, respectively in 5 ml of the Raha®. The rate of alcohol in Raha® was shown by using the USP procedure which was 19.34 percent. Toxic doses of Raha® and Berberin were 4, 40 mg/kg, respectively. Results indicated that, Raha increases significantly the percent of occurrence of ptosis and immobility were compared with control group (distilled water receiver (p=0.016. The occurrence rate of sniffing, grooming and rearing behavior in Raha and Berberin treated groups compared with control group, within 15min period, was not found statistically significant (p=0.089.Conclusion: Based on our study both Raha® and Berberin in any dilution had no effect on reducing signs of opioid withdrawal syndrome. According to the lack of its effect in mice, further studies should be undertaken for prescription of this drug in human

  15. In vitro regeneration of some Iranian alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. genotypes via somatic embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Shokrpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective in vitro regeneration system is one of the prerequisites for genetic manipulation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. varieties and genotypes. In this research, somatic embryogenesis of four alfalfa genotypes, 6-18 (synthetic, 4-14 (Kara Yonje- Karakozlu, 3-27 (Kara Yonje Maraghe and y-6 (Regen-SY, were investigated using leaf and petiole explants. Formation of callus and somatic embryogenesis was significantly influenced by the explant type and interaction of genotype and culture medium. Petiole explants of genotype 4-14 produced the highest yield of callus (0.406 gr fresh weight of callus. Percentage of somatic embryogenesis and the number of embryos per callus in petiole explants of genotype 4-14 was higher than those of other genotypes and explants. In genotype 6-18, the highest percentage of somatic embryogenesis was achieved on MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D and 2 mg/L kinetin. There was no significant differences between genotypes and explants in terms of embryo conversion to plantlet, and on average, 58% of somatic embryos converted to plantlet on MS medium. The petiole explants of genotype 6-18 did not exhibit somatic embryogenesis response in medium containing low ratio of 2,4-D:Kinetin (5 mg/L 2,4-D and 2 mg/L kinetin. While, these explants showed somatic embryogenesis in higher ratio of 2,4-D:Kinetin (5:1. The plantlet conversion efficiency of somatic embryos produced through this study was relatively higher and therefore, the method presented in this study could be used in alfalfa genetic manipulation and molecular studies.

  16. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miranzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  17. Safety of oral dronabinol during opioid withdrawal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jicha, Crystal J; Lofwall, Michelle R; Nuzzo, Paul A; Babalonis, Shanna; Elayi, Samy Claude; Walsh, Sharon L

    2015-12-01

    Opioid dependence remains a significant public health problem worldwide with only three FDA-approved treatments, all targeting the mu-opioid receptor. Dronabinol, a cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptor agonist, is currently under investigation as a novel opioid withdrawal treatment. This study reports on safety outcomes of dronabinol among adults in opioid withdrawal. Twelve adults physically dependent on short-acting opioids participated in this 5-week within-subject, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled inpatient study. Volunteers were maintained on oral oxycodone 30 mg qid. Double-blind placebo substitutions occurred for 21 h before each of 7 experimental sessions in order to produce opioid withdrawal. A single oral test dose was administered each session (placebo, oxycodone 30 and 60 mg, dronabinol 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg [decreased from 40 mg]). Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory outcomes and pupil diameter were assessed repeatedly. Dronabinol 40 mg produced sustained sinus tachycardia accompanied by anxiety and panic necessitating dose reduction to 30 mg. Sinus tachycardia and anxiety also occurred in one volunteer after dronabinol 20mg. Compared to placebo, dronabinol 20 and 30 mg produced significant increases in heart rate beginning 1h after drug administration that lasted approximately 2h (popioid agonist effects (e.g., miosis). Dronabinol 20mg and higher increased heart rate among healthy adults at rest who were in a state of opioid withdrawal, raising concern about its safety. These results have important implications for future dosing strategies and may limit the utility of dronabinol as a treatment for opioid withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Method for Estimating Water Withdrawals for Livestock in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Livestock water use includes ground water and surface water associated with livestock watering, feedlots, dairy operations, and other on-farm needs. The water may be used for drinking, cooling, sanitation, waste disposal, and other needs related to the animals. Estimates of water withdrawals for livestock are needed for water planning and management. This report documents a method used to estimate withdrawals of fresh ground water and surface water for livestock in 2005 for each county and county equivalent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Categories of livestock included dairy cattle, beef and other cattle, hogs and pigs, laying hens, broilers and other chickens, turkeys, sheep and lambs, all goats, and horses (including ponies, mules, burros, and donkeys). Use of the method described in this report could result in more consistent water-withdrawal estimates for livestock that can be used by water managers and planners to determine water needs and trends across the United States. Water withdrawals for livestock in 2005 were estimated by using water-use coefficients, in gallons per head per day for each animal type, and livestock-population data. Coefficients for various livestock for most States were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey water-use program personnel or U.S. Geological Survey water-use publications. When no coefficient was available for an animal type in a State, the median value of reported coefficients for that animal was used. Livestock-population data were provided by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. County estimates were further divided into ground-water and surface-water withdrawals for each county and county equivalent. County totals from 2005 were compared to county totals from 1995 and 2000. Large deviations from 1995 or 2000 livestock withdrawal estimates were investigated and generally were due to comparison with reported withdrawals, differences in estimation techniques, differences in livestock

  19. Somatic comorbidity among migrants with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolk, Mette; Byberg, Stine; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a cohort of migrants in Denmark, we compared somatic disease incidence among migrants diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. METHODS: The study builds on a unique cohort of migrants who obtained...... for the implementation of the project (No 2012-41-0065). RESULTS: Our results showed that migrants diagnosed with PTSD and depression had significantly higher rates of somatic diseases compared with migrants without diagnosed psychiatric disorders - especially, infectious disease (IRR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.45-2.48; p ... with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. The rates were especially high for infectious, neurological and pulmonary diseases. Our results further suggest difference in the rates of somatic comorbidity according to region of. Preventive and treatment services should pay special attention to improve...

  20. 21 CFR 314.530 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Serious or Life-Threatening Illnesses § 314.530 Withdrawal procedures. (a) For new drugs approved under... benefit; (2) The applicant fails to perform the required postmarketing study with due diligence; (3) Use...

  1. Direct Transcriptional Consequences of Somatic Mutation in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Shlien

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Disordered transcriptomes of cancer encompass direct effects of somatic mutation on transcription, coordinated secondary pathway alterations, and increased transcriptional noise. To catalog the rules governing how somatic mutation exerts direct transcriptional effects, we developed an exhaustive pipeline for analyzing RNA sequencing data, which we integrated with whole genomes from 23 breast cancers. Using X-inactivation analyses, we found that cancer cells are more transcriptionally active than intermixed stromal cells. This is especially true in estrogen receptor (ER-negative tumors. Overall, 59% of substitutions were expressed. Nonsense mutations showed lower expression levels than expected, with patterns characteristic of nonsense-mediated decay. 14% of 4,234 rearrangements caused transcriptional abnormalities, including exon skips, exon reusage, fusions, and premature polyadenylation. We found productive, stable transcription from sense-to-antisense gene fusions and gene-to-intergenic rearrangements, suggesting that these mutation classes drive more transcriptional disruption than previously suspected. Systematic integration of transcriptome with genome data reveals the rules by which transcriptional machinery interprets somatic mutation.

  2. Emplotting Hikikomori: Japanese Parents' Narratives of Social Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Ellen

    2016-12-01

    Hikikomori, often glossed as "social withdrawal," emerged as a sociomedical condition among Japanese youth at the end of the twentieth century, and it continues to fascinate and concern the public. Explanatory frameworks for hikikomori abound, with different stakeholders attributing it to individual psychopathology, poor parenting, and/or a lack of social support structures. This article takes an interpretive approach to hikikomori by exploring parents' narrative constructions of hikikomori children in support group meetings and in-depth interviews. I argue that some parents were able to find hope in hikikomori by 'emplotting' their children's experiences into a larger narrative about onset, withdrawal, and recovery, which helped them remain invested in the present by maintaining a sense of possibility about the future. Contrary to literature that examines hikikomori as an epidemic of isolated individuals, I demonstrate how parents play a key role in hikikomori through meaning-making activities that have the potential to shape their children's experiences of withdrawal.

  3. Control device for the withdrawal of control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To significantly suppress the maximum value of the control-rod worth upon control rod withdrawal. Constitution: At first, a signal for designating the first class is sent from a class-control section to the group-control section. In the group-control section, the peripheral group among the first class is designated by which the withdrawal of the control rods other than the peripheral group is inhibited and the control-rods in the peripheral group are withdrawn one by one. When all of them have been withdrawn, the group-control section designates the central group of the first class. All the control rods of the central group have been withdrawn, then the group-control section designates the peripheral group of the second class. Thereafter, the central group in the second class is designated. The control rods are thus withdrawn in the same manner hereinafter. The maximum value for the control-rod worth can be decreased by such a withdrawing sequence for the control rods. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Sexual Victimization and Somatic Complaints in Pregnancy: Examination of Depression as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that women with histories of sexual victimization are more likely to experience somatic complaints in pregnancy. However, prior studies have been limited by homogenous samples, have primarily only examined the relationship of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to somatic complaints, and have not examined potential mechanisms explaining this association. Thus, the current study examined the relationship between lifetime sexual victimization history and somatic complaints in pregnancy in an ethnically diverse sample of pregnant women. Additionally, depressive symptoms were examined as a mediator of the sexual victimization-somatic complaints relationship. Women were recruited from the waiting room of a university-affiliated obstetrics-gynecology clinic to complete a study of psychological health and negative sexual experiences. The 407 currently pregnant participants who completed measures of their sexual victimization history, depressive symptoms, and somatic complaints were primarily African American (53.6%), low to middle income (75.4%), and reported an unplanned pregnancy (72%). A total of 27.7% of women had a history of CSA and/or adolescent/adult sexual assault. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping supported depression as a significant mediator of the relationship between sexual victimization and somatic complaints, with a medium-sized effect (κ(2) = .09). Having a history of sexual victimization is associated with risk for poor mental and physical health during pregnancy. There are likely multiple mechanisms explaining the association between sexual victimization and somatic complaints in pregnancy, which should be investigated in future research. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for early somatic gonad development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerberg, Dena M; Sano, Kaori; Draper, Bruce W

    2017-09-01

    The vertebrate ovary and testis develop from a sexually indifferent gonad. During early development of the organism, primordial germ cells (the gamete lineage) and somatic gonad cells coalesce and begin to undergo growth and morphogenesis to form this bipotential gonad. Although this aspect of development is requisite for a fertile adult, little is known about the genetic regulation of early gonadogenesis in any vertebrate. Here, we provide evidence that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is required for the early growth phase of a vertebrate bipotential gonad. Based on mutational analysis in zebrafish, we show that the Fgf ligand 24 (Fgf24) is required for proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the early somatic gonad, and as a result, most fgf24 mutants are sterile as adults. Additionally, we describe the ultrastructural elements of the early zebrafish gonad and show that distinct somatic cell populations can be identified soon after the gonad forms. Specifically, we show that fgf24 is expressed in an epithelial population of early somatic gonad cells that surrounds an inner population of mesenchymal somatic gonad cells that are in direct contact with the germ cells, and that fgf24 is required for stratification of the somatic tissue. Furthermore, based on gene expression analysis, we find that differentiation of the inner mesenchymal somatic gonad cells into functional cell types in the larval and early juvenile-stage gonad is dependent on Fgf24 signaling. Finally, we argue that the role of Fgf24 in zebrafish is functionally analogous to the role of tetrapod FGF9 in early gonad development.

  6. The relationship of PTSD to key somatic complaints and cultural syndromes among Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic: the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Kredlow, M Alexandra; Pich, Vuth; Bui, Eric; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-06-01

    This article describes a culturally sensitive questionnaire for the assessment of the effects of trauma in the Cambodian refugee population, the Cambodian Somatic Symptom and Syndrome Inventory (CSSI), and gives the results of a survey with the instrument. The survey examined the relationship of the CSSI, the two CSSI subscales, and the CSSI items to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and self-perceived functioning. A total of 226 traumatized Cambodian refugees were assessed at a psychiatric clinic in Lowell, MA, USA. There was a high correlation of the CSSI, the CSSI somatic and syndrome scales, and all the CSSI items to the PTSD Checklist (PCL), a measure of PTSD severity. All the CSSI items varied greatly across three levels of PTSD severity, and patients with higher levels of PTSD had very high scores on certain CSSI-assessed somatic items such as dizziness, orthostatic dizziness (upon standing), and headache, and on certain CSSI-assessed cultural syndromes such as khyâl attacks, "fear of fainting and dying upon standing up," and "thinking a lot." The CSSI was more highly correlated than the PCL to self-perceived disability assessed by the Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12). The study demonstrates that the somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes described by the CSSI form a central part of the Cambodian refugee trauma ontology. The survey indicates that locally salient somatic symptoms and cultural syndromes need be profiled to adequately assess the effects of trauma.

  7. symptomatology and comorbidity of somatization disorder amongst

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    underlying mental disorder, manifesting solely as somatic symptoms or with ... unsatisfactory visit and seemingly ineffective treatment plan. ... patients of all ages and both gender with various ..... identity and physical health: Interdisciplinary.

  8. 40 CFR 96.86 - Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 96.86 Withdrawal from NOX Budget Trading Program. (a) Requesting...

  9. 20 CFR 410.233 - Cancellation of a request for withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of a request for withdrawal. 410.233 Section 410.233 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND... Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.233 Cancellation of a request for withdrawal. Before or after...

  10. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  11. LSE-Sign: A lexical database for Spanish Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Costello, Brendan; Baus, Cristina; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The LSE-Sign database is a free online tool for selecting Spanish Sign Language stimulus materials to be used in experiments. It contains 2,400 individual signs taken from a recent standardized LSE dictionary, and a further 2,700 related nonsigns. Each entry is coded for a wide range of grammatical, phonological, and articulatory information, including handshape, location, movement, and non-manual elements. The database is accessible via a graphically based search facility which is highly flexible both in terms of the search options available and the way the results are displayed. LSE-Sign is available at the following website: http://www.bcbl.eu/databases/lse/.

  12. Socially anxious smokers experience greater negative affect and withdrawal during self-quit attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Langdon, Kirsten J; Jeffries, Emily R; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Despite evidence of a strong and consistent relation between smoking and elevated social anxiety, strikingly little empirical work has identified mechanisms underlying the smoking-social anxiety link. Persons with elevated social anxiety may rely on smoking to cope with more severe nicotine withdrawal and post-quit negative mood states; yet, no known studies have investigated the relation of social anxiety to withdrawal severity. The current study examined the relation of social anxiety to post-quit nicotine withdrawal severity among 51 (33.3% female, Mage = 34.6) community-recruited smokers during the first two weeks following an unaided (i.e., no treatment) cessation attempt. Ecological momentary assessment was used to collect multiple daily ratings of withdrawal and negative mood states. Baseline social anxiety was related to increases in negative affect during the monitoring period and remained significantly related to post-quit withdrawal after controlling for negative affect, gender, lapses, and substance use. Persons with elevated social anxiety experience more severe post-quit withdrawal symptoms and increases in negative affect during a cessation attempt and may therefore benefit from intervention and treatment strategies geared toward helping them learn to cope with withdrawal and negative affect to improve cessation rates among these vulnerable smokers.

  13. Sign language perception research for improving automatic sign language recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Holt, G.A.; Arendsen, J.; De Ridder, H.; Van Doorn, A.J.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Current automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) seldom uses perceptual knowledge about the recognition of sign language. Using such knowledge can improve ASLR because it can give an indication which elements or phases of a sign are important for its meaning. Also, the current generation of

  14. Effect of intensive epilimnetic withdrawal on phytoplankton community in a (subtropical deep reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Withdrawal is an important process in reservoir hydrodynamics, removing phytoplankton with flushed water. Zooplankton,the grazers of phytoplankton, having longer generation times, are even more susceptible than phytoplankton to flushing loss. Therefore phytoplankton are affected not only by abiotic conditions linked to hydrodynamics but also by zooplankton due to weakened grazing pressure. During the Asian Games (November 12-27, 2010 in Guangzhou, China, two intensive epilimnetic withdrawals were conducted in Liuxihe, a deep canyon-shaped reservoir. To examine the influence of the intensive epilimnetic withdrawals on the phytoplankton community, a seven-week field observation and a hydrodynamic simulation were carried out. The observation was divided in two stages: stage 1 represented partial surface vertical mixing period, and stage 2 represented intensive epilimnetic withdrawal period. It was found that phytoplankton abundance and biomass declined with water temperature and partial surface vertical mixing in stage 1. However, the intensive epilimnetic withdrawal reversed this decreasing trend and increased phytoplankton biomass and abundance in stage 2. Phytoplankton showed a higher rate of composition change in stage 2. A numerical model (DYRESM-CAEDYM simulated scenarios with and without epilimnetic withdrawal to test their effects on abiotic factors (water temperature, suspended sediment and soluble reactive phosphorus for phytoplankton. The results showed no obvious difference in the abiotic factors between the two scenarios during stage 2. We therefore suggested that the abiotic factors in the water column were probably driven by a seasonal pattern, not by epilimnetic withdrawal. It is likely that the intensive epilimnetic withdrawal could remove large crustaceans. The reduced grazing pressure probably explained the increase of phytoplankton biomass and abundance after the withdrawal. Thus, we suggest that reservoir operation should pay

  15. Parental views on withdrawing life-sustaining therapies in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Koogler, Tracy; Sullivan, Christine; Ortega, María del Pilar; Hall, Emily; Frader, Joel

    2009-11-01

    To broaden existing knowledge of pediatric end-of-life decision making by exploring factors described by parents of patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) as important/influential if they were to consider withdrawing life-sustaining therapies. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of semi-structured one-on-one interviews. The PICUs at 2 tertiary care hospitals. English- or Spanish-speaking parents who were older than 17 years and whose child was admitted to the PICU for more than 24 hours to up to 1 week. Semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Forty of 70 parents (57%) interviewed said they could imagine a situation in which they would consider withdrawing life-sustaining therapies. When asked if specific factors might influence their decision making, 64% of parents said they would consider withdrawing life-sustaining therapies if their child were suffering; 51% would make such a decision based on quality-of-life considerations; 43% acknowledged the influence of physician-estimated prognosis in their decision; and 7% said financial burden would affect their consideration. Qualitative analysis of their subsequent comments identified 9 factors influential to parents when considering withdrawing life-sustaining therapies: quality of life, suffering, ineffective treatments, faith, time, financial considerations, general rejection of withdrawing life-sustaining therapies, mistrust/doubt toward physicians, and reliance on self/intuition. Parents describe a broad range of views regarding possible consideration of withdrawing life-sustaining therapies for their children and what factors might influence such a decision.

  16. Replication of somatic micronuclei in bovine enucleated oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canel Natalia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT was developed to introduce a low number of chromosomes into a host cell. We have designed a novel technique combining part of MMCT with somatic cell nuclear transfer, which consists of injecting a somatic micronucleus into an enucleated oocyte, and inducing its cellular machinery to replicate such micronucleus. It would allow the isolation and manipulation of a single or a low number of somatic chromosomes. Methods Micronuclei from adult bovine fibroblasts were produced by incubation in 0.05 μg/ml demecolcine for 46 h followed by 2 mg/ml mitomycin for 2 h. Cells were finally treated with 10 μg/ml cytochalasin B for 1 h. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were mechanically enucleated and intracytoplasmatically injected with one somatic micronucleus, which had been previously exposed [Micronucleus- injected (+] or not [Micronucleus- injected (−] to a transgene (50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP during 5 min. Enucleated oocytes [Enucleated (+] and parthenogenetic [Parthenogenetic (+] controls were injected into the cytoplasm with less than 10 pl of PVP containing 50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP. A non-injected parthenogenetic control [Parthenogenetic (−] was also included. Two hours after injection, oocytes and reconstituted embryos were activated by incubation in 5 μM ionomycin for 4 min + 1.9 mM 6-DMAP for 3 h. Cleavage stage and egfp expression were evaluated. DNA replication was confirmed by DAPI staining. On day 2, Micronucleus- injected (−, Parthenogenetic (− and in vitro fertilized (IVF embryos were karyotyped. Differences among treatments were determined by Fisher′s exact test (p≤0.05. Results All the experimental groups underwent the first cell divisions. Interestingly, a low number of Micronucleus-injected embryos showed egfp expression. DAPI staining confirmed replication of micronuclei in most of the evaluated embryos. Karyotype analysis revealed that all Micronucleus-injected embryos had

  17. Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of water use at thermoelectric plants were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey based on linked heat and water budgets, and complement reported thermoelectric water withdrawals and consumption. The heat- and water-budget models produced withdrawal and consumption estimates, including thermodynamically plausible ranges of minimum and maximum withdrawal and consumption, for 1,290 water-using plants in the United States for 2010. Total estimated withdrawal for 2010 was about 129 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d), and total estimated consumption was about 3.5 Bgal/d. In contrast, total withdrawal reported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), was about 24 percent higher than the modeled estimates, and total EIA-reported consumption was about 8 percent lower. Most thermoelectric generation in 2010 was not associated with thermodynamically plausible EIA-reported values of both withdrawal and consumption.

  18. Response to CPAP Withdrawal in Patients with Mild Versus Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laura R.; Taxin, Zachary H.; Norman, Robert G.; Walsleben, Joyce A.; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), even those generally compliant with CPAP therapy, often intermittently discontinue CPAP. Study Objective: Examine the impact of CPAP withdrawal on sleep, sleep disordered breathing (SDB), and daytime function in subjects with varying severity of OSAHS. Patients and Interventions: Forty-two subjects (26M/16 F) with OSAHS (AHI4% = 45.2 ± 35.5/h pretreatment) on CPAP for 4 months were evaluated on the second night of CPAP withdrawal. Sleep architecture, SDB indices, and subjective/objective daytime function were assessed pretreatment, on CPAP therapy, and after CPAP withdrawal. Comparisons were made between pretreatment and CPAP withdrawal for the entire group, and for subgroups of mild/moderate (AHI4% 30/h, n = 20) SDB. Results: Overall, and for mild/moderate subjects, SDB indices returned to pretreatment values on CPAP withdrawal but with fewer apneas and more hypopneas/RERAs. For severe SDB, the event frequency (AI, AHI4%, and RDI) was lower and O2 desaturation was improved on CPAP withdrawal. Across SDB severity, sleep architecture showed lower %REM (15.6% vs 12.9%, P = 0.009) on the CPAP withdrawal compared to pretreatment. Stanford Sleepiness Score, MSLT, and PVT measures were not significantly different between pretreatment and CPAP withdrawal. Conclusions: Over a wide range of SDB severity CPAP withdrawal results in recurrence of SDB, albeit with less severe O2 desaturation. Subjective/objective daytime function returned to pretreatment levels. Sleep architecture changes on CPAP withdrawal (acute SDB) may reflect reduced sleep pressure compared to pretreatment chronic SDB. Our data suggest detrimental effects of even brief withdrawal of CPAP in subjects with both mild and severe OSAHS. Citation: Young LR; Taxin ZH; Norman RG; Walsleben JA; Rapoport DM; Ayappa I. Response to CPAP withdrawal in patients with mild versus severe obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. SLEEP 2013

  19. 25 CFR 1200.34 - Can a tribe withdraw redeposited funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe withdraw redeposited funds? 1200.34 Section 1200.34 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT Returning Tribal Funds to Trust § 1200.34 Can a tribe withdraw...

  20. Somatic and genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on somatic and genetic effects of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: haematopoietic and immune systems, mechanisms of late effects in various tissues, endogenous and exogenous factors in radiation carcinogenesis, teratogenic effects, genetic effects, in vitro transformation, tumour induction in different tissues, carcinogenesis in incorporated tissues, cancer epidemology and risk assessment. refs.; figs.; tabs

  1. Ballet as Somatic Practice: A Case Study Exploring the Integration of Somatic Practices in Ballet Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    This case study explores one teacher's integration of Alexander Technique and the work of neuromuscular retrainer Irene Dowd in ballet pedagogy to establish a somatic approach to teaching, learning, and performing ballet technique. This case study highlights the teacher's unique teaching method called IMAGE TECH for dancers (ITD) and offers…

  2. Somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-12

    Oct 12, 2009 ... Case Study: Somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder in schizophrenia. 527. Vol 52 No 6 ... liver function, and urea and electrolytes), including an ... neurotransmitter systems (such as serotonin and dopamine).

  3. Cellular and molecular changes associated with somatic embryogenesis induction in Agave tequilana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, L; Olmedilla, A; Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, F

    2012-10-01

    In spite of the importance of somatic embryogenesis for basic research in plant embryology as well as for crop improvement and plant propagation, it is still unclear which mechanisms and cell signals are involved in acquiring embryogenic competence by a somatic cell. The aim of this work was to study cellular and molecular changes involved in the induction stage in calli of Agave tequilana Weber cultivar azul in order to gain more information on the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis in this species. Cytochemical and immunocytochemical techniques were used to identify differences between embryogenic and non-embryogenic cells from several genotypes. Presence of granular structures was detected after somatic embryogenesis induction in embryogenic cells; composition of these structures as well as changes in protein and polysaccharide distribution was studied using Coomassie brilliant blue and Periodic Acid-Schiff stains. Distribution of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and pectins was investigated in embryogenic and non-embryogenic cells by immunolabelling using anti-AGP monoclonal antibodies (JIM4, JIM8 and JIM13) as well as an anti-methyl-esterified pectin-antibody (JIM7), in order to evaluate major modifications in cell wall composition in the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis. Our observations pointed out that induction of somatic embryogenesis produced accumulation of proteins and polysaccharides in embryogenic cells. Presence of JIM8, JIM13 and JIM7 epitopes were detected exclusively in embryogenic cells, which supports the idea that specific changes in cell wall are involved in the acquisition of embryogenic competence of A. tequilana.

  4. Embodied Feeling and Reason in Decision-Making: Assessing the Somatic-Marker Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren TenHouten

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not reason and affect are complementary depends on the task at hand. In ordinary circumstances, problemsolving and decision-making involve both somatic feelings and limbic-structure-based emotions. Feelings, experienced as states of the body, can contribute to decision-making by triggering heuristic cues and rapidly eliminating negative behavioral alternatives, in part by providing what Damasio call somatic markers (Damasio, Tranel and Damasio, 1991; Damasio, 1994, 1999, 2003. However, if task-performance is motivated by potentially large rewards, with high demands on short-term memory and on concentration, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortexcan inhibit affects manifested in the medial prefrontal cortex in order to carry out the necessary cognitive operations. We interpret these two different mental task situations using dual process models. Although experimental evidence from studies of normal subjects and frontal-lobe-damaged patients performing the Iowa Gambling Task has been interpreted as supportive of the somatic-marker hypothesis (SMH, we show that this evidence has been called into question due to faulty study designs. However, studies of normal and psychopathic subjects playing the ultimatum game show that pulse-rate deceleration occurring during the brief period preceding decision-making constitutes a somatic marker. Compared to normal controls, psychopaths show less somatic (electro dermal activity and act with cool, economic rationality, accepting unfair (<50/50 offers that normal subjects reject on the basis of non-economic values of fairness. The somatic-marker hypothesis is discussed and criticized, and various theories based on this hypothesis are identified.

  5. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

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    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used to determine psychiatric disorders in patient group. In order to assess the clinical state and disease severity of the patient group; Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with panic disorder and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess psychopathology in healthy group. In order to evaluate health anxiety of both groups, Health Anxiety Inventory-Short Form was used. Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective.

  6. Somatic Embryos in Catharanthus roseus: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid ASLAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don is an important medicinal plant as it contains several anti-cancerous compounds, like vinblastine and vincristine. Plant tissue culture technology (organogenesis and embryogenesis has currently been used in fast mass propagating raw materials for secondary metabolite synthesis. In this present communication, scanning electron microscopic (SEM study of somatic embryos was conducted and discussed. The embryogenic callus was first induced from hypocotyls of in vitro germinated seeds on which somatic embryos, differentiated in numbers, particularly on 2,4-D (1.0 mg/L Murashige and Skoog (MS was medium. To understand more about the regeneration method and in vitro formed embryos SEM was performed. The SEM study revealed normal somatic embryo origin and development from globular to heart-, torpedo- and then into cotyledonary-stage of embryos. At early stage, the embryos were clustered together in a callus mass and could not easily be detached from the parental tissue. The embryos were often long cylindrical structure with or without typical notch at the tip. Secondary embryos were also formed on primary embryo structure. The advanced cotyledonary embryos showed prominent roots and shoot axis, which germinated into plantlets. The morphology, structure and other details of somatic embryos at various stages were presented.

  7. 39 CFR 955.23 - Copies of papers, withdrawal of exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of papers, withdrawal of exhibits. 955.23... SERVICE BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS § 955.23 Copies of papers, withdrawal of exhibits. (a) When books, records, papers, or documents have been received in evidence, a true copy thereof or of such part thereof...

  8. Hypochondriasis and somatization in college women: a personal projects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, P; Lecci, L

    1993-03-01

    Although the descriptive features of hypochondriasis and somatization have been widely studied, the motivational correlates (goal representations) of individuals manifesting abnormal illness patterns have not been considered. The Personal Projects Analysis method (Little, 1983) was used to contrast the health and nonhealth goals of female undergraduates. Subjects selected 10 goals for evaluation along a series of dimensions. When health pursuits alone were examined, hypochondriasis on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was found to correlate directly with goal appraisal dimensions subsumed by an anxiety-absorption factor and inversely with dimensions characterizing rewardingness, thus suggesting a negativity of health goal construal. Somatizers also pursued more health-related projects than did nonsomatizers; nonhealth goal cognition did not relate as strongly to hypochondriasis. Finally, using discriminant function analysis, goal representations were shown to significantly and substantially differentiate somatizers from nonsomatizers.

  9. Systematic review of measurement properties of questionnaires measuring somatization in primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, Kate; Dijkstra-Kersten, Sandra M A; Mokkink, Lidwine B; Terluin, Berend; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Leone, Stephanie S; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; van der Wouden, Johannes C

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this review is to critically appraise the evidence on measurement properties of self-report questionnaires measuring somatization in adult primary care patients and to provide recommendations about which questionnaires are most useful for this purpose. We assessed the methodological quality of included studies using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. To draw overall conclusions about the quality of the questionnaires, we conducted an evidence synthesis using predefined criteria for judging the measurement properties. We found 24 articles on 9 questionnaires. Studies on the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) and the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) somatization subscale prevailed and covered the broadest range of measurement properties. These questionnaires had the best internal consistency, test-retest reliability, structural validity, and construct validity. The PHQ-15 also had good criterion validity, whereas the 4DSQ somatization subscale was validated in several languages. The Bodily Distress Syndrome (BDS) checklist had good internal consistency and structural validity. Some evidence was found for good construct validity and criterion validity of the Physical Symptom Checklist (PSC-51) and good construct validity of the Symptom Check-List (SCL-90-R) somatization subscale. However, these three questionnaires were only studied in a small number of primary care studies. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of either the PHQ-15 or 4DSQ somatization subscale for somatization in primary care. Other questionnaires, such as the BDS checklist, PSC-51 and the SCL-90-R somatization subscale show promising results but have not been studied extensively in primary care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Somatic USP8 Gene Mutations Are a Common Cause of Pediatric Cushing Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucz, Fabio R; Tirosh, Amit; Tatsi, Christina; Berthon, Annabel; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Settas, Nikolaos; Angelousi, Anna; Correa, Ricardo; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Chittiboina, Prashant; Quezado, Martha; Pankratz, Nathan; Lane, John; Dimopoulos, Aggeliki; Mills, James L; Lodish, Maya; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-08-01

    Somatic mutations in the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) gene have been recently identified as the most common genetic alteration in patients with Cushing disease (CD). However, the frequency of these mutations in the pediatric population has not been extensively assessed. We investigated the status of the USP8 gene at the somatic level in a cohort of pediatric patients with corticotroph adenomas. The USP8 gene was fully sequenced in both germline and tumor DNA samples from 42 pediatric patients with CD. Clinical, biochemical, and imaging data were compared between patients with and without somatic USP8 mutations. Five different USP8 mutations (three missense, one frameshift, and one in-frame deletion) were identified in 13 patients (31%), all of them located in exon 14 at the previously described mutational hotspot, affecting the 14-3-3 binding motif of the protein. Patients with somatic mutations were older at disease presentation [mean 5.1 ± 2.1 standard deviation (SD) vs 13.1 ± 3.6 years, P = 0.03]. Levels of urinary free cortisol, midnight serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone, as well as tumor size and frequency of invasion of the cavernous sinus, were not significantly different between the two groups. However, patients harboring somatic USP8 mutations had a higher likelihood of recurrence compared with patients without mutations (46.2% vs 10.3%, P = 0.009). Somatic USP8 gene mutations are a common cause of pediatric CD. Patients harboring a somatic mutation had a higher likelihood of tumor recurrence, highlighting the potential importance of this molecular defect for the disease prognosis and the development of targeted therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  11. Use of somatic cell banks in the conservation of wild felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praxedes, Érika A; Borges, Alana A; Santos, Maria V O; Pereira, Alexsandra F

    2018-05-03

    The conservation of biological resources is an interesting strategy for the maintenance of biodiversity, especially for wild felids who are constantly threatened with extinction. For this purpose, cryopreservation techniques have been used for the long-term storage of gametes, embryos, gonadal tissues, and somatic cells and tissues. The establishment of these banks has been suggested as a practical approach to the preservation of species and, when done in tandem with assisted reproductive techniques, could provide the means for reproducing endangered species. Somatic cell banks have been shown remarkable for the conservation of genetic material of felids; by merely obtaining skin samples, it is possible to sample a large group of individuals without being limited by factors such as gender or age. Thus, techniques for somatic tissue recovery, cryopreservation, and in vitro culture of different wild felids have been developed, resulting in a viable method for the conservation of species. One of the most notable conservation programs for wild felines using somatic samples was the one carried out for the Iberian lynx, the most endangered feline in the world. Other wild felids have also been studied in other continents, such as the jaguar in South America. This review aims to present the technical progress achieved in the conservation of somatic cells and tissues in different wild felids, as well address the progress that has been achieved in a few species. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. On the relationship between Indian monsoon withdrawal and Iran's fall precipitation onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Iman; Rezazadeh, Parviz

    2017-09-01

    Indian monsoon is the most prominent of the world's monsoon systems which primarily affects synoptic patterns of India and adjacent countries such as Iran in interaction with large-scale weather systems. In this article, the relationship between the withdrawal date of the Indian monsoon and the onset of fall precipitation in Iran has been studied. Data included annual time series of withdrawal dates of the Indian monsoon prepared by the Indian Institute for Tropical Meteorology, and time series of the first date of 25 mm accumulated precipitation over Iran's synoptic weather stations in a 10-day period which is the basis for the cultivation date. Both time series were considered in Julian calendar with the starting date on August 1. The studied period is 1960-2014 which covers 55 years of data from 36 meteorological stations in Iran. By classifying the withdrawal dates of the Indian monsoon in three stages of late, normal, and early withdrawals, its relation with the onset of fall precipitation in western, southwestern, southern, eastern, central, and northern regions of Iran was studied. Results demonstrated that in four out of the six mentioned regions, the late withdrawal of the Indian monsoon postpones the onset of fall precipitation over Iran. No significant relation was found between the onset of fall precipitation in central region of Iran and the monsoon's withdrawal date. In the western, southwestern, southern, and eastern regions of Iran, the late monsoon delays the onset of fall's precipitation; while in the south Caspian Sea coastal area, it causes the early onset of autumnal precipitation. The lag in onset of fall precipitation in Iran which is coordinated with the late withdrawal of monsoon is accompanied with prolonged subtropical high settling over Iran's plateau that prevents the southward movement of polar jet frontal systems. Such conditions enhance northerly wind currents over the Caspian Sea which, in turn, increase the precipitation in Caspian

  13. Lethals induced by γ-radiation in drosophila somatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of 3-hour drosophila male embryos to γ-radiation during the topographic segregation of the germ anlage nuclei caused recessive sex-linked lethals in somatic cells only. The selectivity of the screening was determined by the ratio of mutation frequencies induced in embryos and adult males. Analysis of lethal mutations shows that a minimal rate of the divergence between germinal and somatic patterns of the cell development is observed in the embryogenesis, the 3d instar larva and prepupa, and maximal in the 1st and 2nd larva and pupa

  14. Plant regeneration via direct somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Tolumnia Louise Elmore 'Elsa'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui-Ju; Chen, Jen-Tsung; Chung, Hsiao-Hang; Chang, Wei-Chin

    2018-01-22

    Tolumnia genus (equitant Oncidium) is a group of small orchids with vivid flower color. Thousands of hybrids have been registered on Royal Horticulture Society and showed great potential for ornamental plant market. The aim of this study is to establish an efficient method for in vitro propagation. Leaf explants taken from in vitro-grown plants were used to induce direct somatic embryogenesis on a modified 1/2 MS medium supplemented with five kinds of cytokinins, 2iP, BA, kinetin, TDZ and zeatin at 0.3, 1 and 3 mg l -1 in darkness. TDZ at 3 mg l -1 gave the highest percentage of explants with somatic globular embryos after 90 days of culture. It was found that 2,4-D and light regime highly retarded direct somatic embryogenesis and showed 95-100% of explant browning. Histological observations revealed that the leaf cells divided into meristematic cells firstly, followed by somatic proembryos, and then somatic globular embryos. Eventually, somatic embryos developed a bipolar structure with the shoot apical meristem and the root meristem. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the direct somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants was asynchronously. The somatic embryos were found on the leaf tip, the adaxial surface and also the mesophyll through a cleft, and it reflected the heterogeneity of the explant. The 90-day-old globular embryos were detached from the parent explants and transferred onto a hormone-free 1/2 MS medium in light condition for about 1 month to obtain 1-cm-height plantlets. After another 3 months for growth, the plantlets were potted with Sphagnum moss and were acclimatized in a shaded greenhouse. After 1 month of culture, the survival rate was 100%. In this report, a protocol for efficient regenerating a Tolumnia orchid, Louise Elmore 'Elsa', was established via direct somatic embryogenesis and might reveal an alternative approach for mass propagation of Tolumnia genus in orchid industry.

  15. Maturation and germination of somatic embryos of Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench cultivar 'CIAP 132R-05'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de J Martínez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench], developed protocols for plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis do not include maturation stage. The present work was carried out with the aim of achieving the maturation and germination of sorghum somatic embryos in cultivar 'CIAP 132R-05'. It were studied four concentrations of sucrose (30, 50, 70 and 90 g l-1, two of abscisic acid (0.25 and 0.5 μM and a control without this growth regulator. Germination initiation (days and number of somatic embryos with complete germination were evaluated in three periods (1 - 7, 8 - 14 and 15 - 21 days of culture. In addition, the effect of 6-BAP (8.9, 17.8 and 26.6 μM on somatic embryo germination was determined. The germination start time (days and after 21 days the number of somatic embryos with complete germination and plants with malformations were determined. The addition of 70 g l-1 sucrose in the culture medium without abscisic acid increased the germination of the somatic embryos to 37.2 plants per embryo group (0.5 g of fresh mass. The highest number of somatic embryos germinated was obtained with 17.78 μM 6-BAP in the germination culture medium. It was demonstrated the need of a maturation stage in the sorghum somatic embryogenesis to increase the germination percentage.   Keywords: somatic embryogenesis, sorghum, sucrose, 6-BAP

  16. The role of spiritual intelligence in employees’ withdrawal behaviors in physical education organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Noroozi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual intelligence is the mind’s capacity to handle substantial and spiritual aspects of life. According to previous studies, spiritual intelligence can be effective in reducing the withdrawal behavior of employees. This study investigated the effect of spiritual intelligence on employees’ withdrawal behavior in Ardabil Physical Education organization. The statistical population of this study included all the employees of Physical Education organization of Ardabil (N=60. Descriptive Statistics, Pearson Correlation, and Linear Regression Analyses were used to assess the association between spiritual intelligence and withdrawal behaviors. The results of the study revealed that spiritual intelligence had positive and significant effect on reducing employees’ withdrawal behavior. The findings supported that spiritual intelligence training as a new psychological and religious construction may reduce psychological and physical withdrawal behaviors and improve the employees’ perception of themselves.

  17. Linking Anger Trait with Somatization in Low-Grade College Students: Moderating Roles of Family Cohesion and Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Cuilian; Zhao, Xudong

    2017-02-25

    Between 22% and 58% of patients in primary care settings complain of somatic symptoms. Previous research has found that somatization was associated with anger traits and family functions. However, studies that specifically assess the moderating effect of family function in how anger traits become somatic complaints are lacking. This study was designed to examine whether the variances in family cohesion and family adaptability moderated the strength of the relationship between anger traits and somatization. A cross-section design was conducted and 2008 college students were recruited from a comprehensive university in Shanghai. All participants finished questionnaires including Symptom Check List- 90 (SCL-90), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2, Chinese version) and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, second edition (FACES II, Chinese Version) to assess their degree of current somatization, anger trait and family function. Hierarchical linear regression analysis (Enter) was conducted respectively for men and women to examine the moderation effect of family cohesion and family adaptability in the association between anger and somatization. Somatic symptoms were significantly linked in the expected directions with depression and anger trait for both genders. Family cohesion and family adaptability were negatively associated with somatic symptoms. For female college students family cohesion was found to moderate the link between anger trait and somatization, but for male college students the moderation effect of family cohesion was marginally significant. The moderating role of family adaptability was significant for neither male nor female after current depressive symptoms were accounted for. Proneness to anger is an independent predictor of somatization. For women, a high level of family cohesion was a protective factor which could reduce the influence of anger trait on somatic symptoms. Without comorbidity of current depression, family

  18. Alexithymia and Somatosensory Amplification Link Perceived Psychosocial Stress and Somatic Symptoms in Outpatients with Psychosomatic Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuhiro Nakao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychosomatic patients often complain of a variety of somatic symptoms. We sought to clarify the role of clinical predictors of complaints of somatic symptoms. Methods: We enrolled 604 patients visiting a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. The outcome was the total number of somatic symptoms, and the candidate clinical predictors were perceived psychosocial stress, alexithymia, somatosensory amplification, adaptation, anxiety, and depression. All participants completed questionnaires assessing the outcome and the predictors. Results: The average number of reported somatic symptoms was 4.8; the most frequent was fatigue (75.3%, followed by insomnia (56.1%, low-back pain (49.5%, headache (44.7%, and palpitations (43.1%. Multiple regression analysis showed that the total number of somatic symptoms was significantly associated with the degree of perceived psychosocial stress, alexithymia, somatosensory amplification, and depression. Also, structural equation models indicated links between excessive adaptation (via perceived psychosocial stress, alexithymia, and somatosensory amplification and the total number of somatic symptoms. Conclusion: The results suggested that the association between psychosocial stress and reported somatic symptoms is mediated by alexithymia and somatosensory amplification in psychosomatic patients.

  19. Feed withdrawal and transportation effects on Salmonella enterica levels in market-weight pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, S D; Rostagno, M H; Lay, D C

    2017-07-01

    Feed withdrawal and transport commonly occur together in pigs. Objectives of this study were to determine if these preslaughter stressors, feed withdrawal and transportation, affect the levels of , stress hormone concentrations, and immune functions in infected market pigs. A 2 × 2 factorial analysis of a randomized complete block design with feed withdrawal and transport as fixed effects was used. Sixty market-weight pigs were individually inoculated with serovar Typhimurium. The experiment was replicated 3 times (blocking factor) with 20 pigs per replicate. Three days after inoculation, the pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (5 pigs per treatment in each/replicate), including 1) control (Control; or no stress), 2) feed withdrawal for 12 h (FW), 3) transportation for 2 h (T), and 4) feed withdrawal for 12 h followed by transportation for 2 h (FWT). Feed withdrawal by itself or followed by transportation caused an increase of levels in ileal contents ( 0.10). Cortisol increased in pigs from all 3 stress treatments ( 0.03). Each granulocyte percentage (neutrophil, eosinophils, and basophils) increased ( transport but was attenuated ( > 0.05) by feed withdrawal with transport. Lymphocytes were suppressed ( transported (T and FWT). However, monocytes were suppressed ( transportation, lead to greater intestinal levels and gut-associated lymphoid tissue markers of inflammation in market pigs and, consequently, to an increased food safety risk.

  20. Timing of nicotine lozenge administration to minimize trigger induced craving and withdrawal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Michael; Lindgren, Bruce R; Vuchetich, John P; Le, Chap; Mills, Anne M; Amiot, Elizabeth; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2017-08-01

    Smokers are often advised to use nicotine lozenge when craving or withdrawal symptoms occur. This may be too late to prevent lapses. This study assessed if nicotine lozenge use prior to a common smoking trigger can minimize trigger induced increases in craving and withdrawal symptoms. Eighty-four smokers completed two laboratory sessions in random order. At one session, nicotine lozenge was given immediately after a stressor (to approximate current recommended use - i.e., after craving and withdrawal symptoms occur); at the other session subjects were randomized to receive nicotine lozenge at time points ranging from immediately to 30min prior to the stressor. Withdrawal symptoms and urge to smoke were measured using the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale and the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU). Relative to receiving lozenge after the stressor, a smaller increase in pre-stressor to post-stressor withdrawal symptom scores occurred when lozenge was used immediately (p=0.03) and 10min prior (p=0.044) to the stressor. Results were similar for factors 1 and 2 of the QSU when lozenge was used immediately prior to the stressor (pnicotine lozenge prior to a smoking trigger can decrease trigger induced craving and withdrawal symptoms. Future studies are needed to determine if such use would increase cessation rates. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT01522963. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social transfer of alcohol withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia in female prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Andre T; Smith, Monique L; Loftis, Jennifer M; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2018-03-27

    The expression of pain serves as a way for animals to communicate potential dangers to nearby conspecifics. Recent research demonstrated that mice undergoing alcohol or morphine withdrawal, or inflammation, could socially communicate their hyperalgesia to nearby mice. However, it is unknown whether such social transfer of hyperalgesia can be observed in other species of rodents. Therefore, the present study investigated if the social transfer of hyperalgesia occurs in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). We observe that adult female prairie voles undergoing withdrawal from voluntary two-bottle choice alcohol drinking display an increase in nociception. This alcohol withdrawal-induced hypersensitiity is socially transferred to female siblings within the same cage and female strangers housed in separate cages within the same room. These experiments reveal that the social transfer of pain phenomenon is not specific to inbred mouse strains and that prairie voles display alcohol withdrawal and social transfer-induced hyperalgesia.

  2. 'Felson Signs' revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Phiji P.; Irodi, Aparna; Keshava, Shyamkumar N.; Lamont, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we revisit, with the help of images, those classic signs in chest radiography described by Dr Benjamin Felson himself, or other illustrious radiologists of his time, cited and discussed in 'Chest Roentgenology'. We briefly describe the causes of the signs, their utility and the differential diagnosis to be considered when each sign is seen. Wherever possible, we use CT images to illustrate the basis of some of these classic radiographic signs.

  3. Cross-cultural differences in somatic presentation in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Elizabeth A; Tamrakar, Sharad M; Christian, Kelly M; Mahara, Namrata; Nepal, Mahendra K; Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M

    2006-12-01

    Little is known about cultural differences in the expression of distress in anxiety disorders. Previous cross-cultural studies of depression have found a greater somatic focus in Asian populations. We examined anxiety symptoms in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in urban mental health settings in Nepal (N = 30) and in the United States (N = 23). Participants completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The overall BAI score and somatic and psychological subscales were compared. While there was no difference in total BAI scores, the Nepali group scored higher on the somatic subscale (i.e. "dizziness" and "indigestion," t[df] = -2.63[50], p < 0.05), while the American group scored higher on the psychological subscale (i.e. "scared" and "nervous," t[df] = 3.27[50], p < 0.01). Nepali patients with GAD had higher levels of somatic symptoms and lower levels of psychological symptoms than American patients with GAD. Possible explanations include differences in cultural traditions of describing distress and the mind-body dichotomy.

  4. Parental Views on Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Therapies in Critically Ill Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Koogler, Tracy; Sullivan, Christine; del Pilar Ortega, María; Hall, Emily; Frader, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Objective To broaden existing knowledge of pediatric end-of-life decision making by exploring factors described by parents of patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) as important/influential if they were to consider withdrawing life-sustaining therapies. Design Quantitative and qualitative analysis of semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Setting The PICUs at 2 tertiary care hospitals. Participants English- or Spanish-speaking parents who were older than 17 years and whose child was admitted to the PICU for more than 24 hours to up to 1 week. Intervention Semi-structured one-on-one interviews. Results Forty of 70 parents (57%) interviewed said they could imagine a situation in which they would consider withdrawing life-sustaining therapies. When asked if specific factors might influence their decision making, 64% of parents said they would consider withdrawing life-sustaining therapies if their child were suffering; 51% would make such a decision based on quality-of-life considerations; 43% acknowledged the influence of physician-estimated prognosis in their decision; and 7% said financial burden would affect their consideration. Qualitative analysis of their subsequent comments identified 9 factors influential to parents when considering withdrawing life-sustaining therapies: quality of life, suffering, ineffective treatments, faith, time, financial considerations, general rejection of withdrawing life-sustaining therapies, mistrust/doubt toward physicians, and reliance on self/intuition. Conclusion Parents describe a broad range of views regarding possible consideration of withdrawing life-sustaining therapies for their children and what factors might influence such a decision. PMID:19884588

  5. sign-by-sign'' correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Sabine; Lepori, Domenico; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Duvoisin, Bertrand; Meuli, Reto; Schnyder, Pierre; Denys, Alban; Michetti, Pierre; Felley, Christian; Melle, Guy van

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was a prospective comparison of MR enteroclysis (MRE) with multidetector spiral-CT enteroclysis (MSCTE). Fifty patients with various suspected small bowel diseases were investigated by MSCTE and MRE. The MSCTE was performed using slices of 2.5 mm, immediately followed by MRE, obtaining T1- and T2-weighted sequences, including gadolinium-enhanced acquisition with fat saturation. Three radiologists independently evaluated MSCTE and MRE searching for 12 pathological signs. Interobserver agreement was calculated. Sensitivities and specificities resulted from comparison with pathological results (n=29) and patient's clinical evolution (n=21). Most pathological signs, such as bowel wall thickening (BWT), bowel wall enhancement (BWE) and lymphadenopathy (ADP), showed better interobserver agreement on MSCTE than on MRE (BWT: 0.65 vs 0.48; BWE: 0.51 vs 0.37; ADP: 0.52 vs 0.15). Sensitivity of MSCTE was higher than that of MRE in detecting BWT (88.9 vs 60%), BWE (78.6 vs 55.5%) and ADP (63.8 vs 14.3%). Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed significantly better sensitivity of MSCTE than that of MRE for each observer (p=0.028, p=0.046, p=0.028, respectively). Taking the given study design into account, MSCTE provides better sensitivity in detecting lesions of the small bowel than MRE, with higher interobserver agreement. (orig.)

  6. To Withdraw Or Not To Withdraw? Evaluation of the Mandatory Right of Withdrawal in Consumer Distance Selling Contracts Taking Into Account Its Behavioural Effects on Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The right of withdrawal was introduced to European consumer law as an exception to the general contractual principle of pacta sunt servanda. It has recently been upheld in the Consumer Rights Directive as a mandatory right for consumers concluding distance selling contracts. Among various

  7. 29 CFR 4211.35 - Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.35 Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial plan year. The allocation method under this section is the... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial...

  8. USA Withdrawal from Paris Agreement – What Next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Chestnoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In June 2017, President Trump announced the USA’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord, which had been ratified for less than a year, thanks in large part to the USA. That drastic shift followed the change in residency at the White House. Withdrawing from the Paris Accord presents an interesting topic for analysis. There’s the practical side of the withdrawal procedure as set out in Article 28 of the agreement, not to mention the consequences of US non-participation in addressing international climate issues. There are other international forums (Such as G8 and G20, which also have an interest in climate related topics. The Article analyses the U.S. position in negotiations and its commitments assumed the moment the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC came into effect until now: the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, financial aid and reporting. It also provides general analysis of national legal obligations under the Paris Accord, ratification of that agreement in general and in particularly another that took place in the USA, it focuses on the specifics of withdrawal. The specified three-year period from the Agreement becoming active, after which any party may withdraw from it (2019, is a noteworthy detail. It is well-known that the Paris Agreement provides a framework that does not impose individual national commitments or a commitment to a compliance system. In essence, and from a legal point of view, it is nonbinding. This was what allowed the USA to accept the terms of the accord relatively quickly and to use the simplified procedure, which by-passed Congress. In the opinion of the authors, President Trump’s resolution to withdraw should, possibly, be considered as a simple continuation of his election discourse and the fulfilment of a campaign promise. Additionally, President Trump’s declared intent to review the Paris Accord has legal grounds on which to launch further international negotiations

  9. At the crossroads of fate - somatic cell lineage specification in the fetal gonad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotgers, Emmi; Jørgensen, Anne; Yao, Humphrey Hung-Chang

    2018-01-01

    The reproductive endocrine systems are vastly different between male and female. This sexual dimorphism of endocrine milieu originates from sex-specific differentiation of the somatic cells in the gonads during fetal life. The majority of gonadal somatic cells arise from the adrenogonadal...... of the reproductive tracts. Impairment of lineage specification and function of gonadal somatic cells can lead to disorders of sexual development (DSDs) in humans. Human DSDs and processes for gonadal development have been successfully modelled using genetically modified mouse models. In this review, we focus...

  10. Effects of Response Styles on the Report of Psychological and Somatic Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Wolfgang; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed the impact of two major response style dimensions (self-deception and impression management) on the report of psychological and somatic symptoms. Results confirmed that response styles were more predictive of psychological than somatic symptoms. Both anxiety and depression were associated with a high rate of physical symptoms,…

  11. Fearfulness moderates the link between childhood social withdrawal and adolescent reward response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Judith K; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-06-01

    Withdrawal from peers during childhood may reflect disruptions in reward functioning that heighten vulnerability to affective disorders during adolescence. The association between socially withdrawn behavior and reward functioning may depend on traits that influence this withdrawal, such as fearfulness or unsociability. In a study of 129 boys, we evaluated how boys' fearfulness and sociability at age 5 and social withdrawal at school at ages 6 to 10 and during a summer camp at age 9/10 were associated with their neural response to reward at age 20. Greater social withdrawal during childhood was associated with heightened striatal and mPFC activation when anticipating rewards at age 20. Fearfulness moderated this effect to indicate that social withdrawal was associated with heightened reward-related response in the striatum for boys high on fearfulness. Altered striatal response associated with social withdrawal and fearfulness predicted greater likelihood to have a lifetime history of depression and social phobia at age 20. These findings add greater specificity to previous findings that children high in traits related to fear of novelty show altered reward responses, by identifying fearfulness (but not low levels of sociability) as a potential underlying mechanism that contributes to reward alterations in withdrawn children. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. U.S. withdrawal from the Paris Agreement: Reasons, impacts, and China's response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bin Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying qualitative and quantitative methods, this article explains the driving forces behind U.S. President Donald Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, assesses the impacts of this withdrawal on the compliance prospects of the agreement, and proposes how China should respond. The withdrawal undercuts the foundation of global climate governance and upsets the process of climate cooperation, and the impacts are manifold. The withdrawal undermines the universality of the Paris Agreement and impairs states' confidence in climate cooperation; it aggravates the leadership deficit in addressing global climate issues and sets a bad precedent for international climate cooperation. The withdrawal reduces other countries' emission space and raises their emission costs, and refusal to contribute to climate aid makes it more difficult for developing countries to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Cutting climate research funding will compromise the quality of future IPCC reports and ultimately undermine the scientific authority of future climate negotiations. China faces mounting pressure from the international community to assume global climate leadership after the U.S. withdraws, and this article proposes that China should reach the high ends of its domestic climate targets under the current Nationally Determined Contributions; internationally, China should facilitate the rebuilding of shared climate leadership, replacing the G2 with C5. Meanwhile, China needs to keep the U.S. engaged in climate cooperation.

  13. Radionuclide withdrawal from animal and human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A.S.; Sidorova, T.F.

    1995-01-01

    The authors review the history of the problem of radionuclide withdrawal from animal and human body and discuss methodological approaches to it. Results of studies of radionuclide elimination by means of chemical and bioactive substances are analyzed. Special attention is paid to decorporation of radioactive elements which are the most hazardous as regards intoxication in connection with the Chernobyl accident: 131 I, 89 St and 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, and 241 Am. The authors analyze the results of studies of radionuclide withdrawal based on the dissolution effect, ionic antagonism, and by means of complexons, carried out in humans and animals. Efficacies of alimentary fibers and other adsorbents, foodstuffs and drinks are demonstrated. 48 refs

  14. Reconstruction of global gridded monthly sectoral water withdrawals for 1971-2010 and analysis of their spatiotemporal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwei; Hejazi, Mohamad; Li, Xinya; Tang, Qiuhong; Vernon, Chris; Leng, Guoyong; Liu, Yaling; Döll, Petra; Eisner, Stephanie; Gerten, Dieter; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide

    2018-04-01

    Human water withdrawal has increasingly altered the global water cycle in past decades, yet our understanding of its driving forces and patterns is limited. Reported historical estimates of sectoral water withdrawals are often sparse and incomplete, mainly restricted to water withdrawal estimates available at annual and country scales, due to a lack of observations at seasonal and local scales. In this study, through collecting and consolidating various sources of reported data and developing spatial and temporal statistical downscaling algorithms, we reconstruct a global monthly gridded (0.5°) sectoral water withdrawal dataset for the period 1971-2010, which distinguishes six water use sectors, i.e., irrigation, domestic, electricity generation (cooling of thermal power plants), livestock, mining, and manufacturing. Based on the reconstructed dataset, the spatial and temporal patterns of historical water withdrawal are analyzed. Results show that total global water withdrawal has increased significantly during 1971-2010, mainly driven by the increase in irrigation water withdrawal. Regions with high water withdrawal are those densely populated or with large irrigated cropland production, e.g., the United States (US), eastern China, India, and Europe. Seasonally, irrigation water withdrawal in summer for the major crops contributes a large percentage of total annual irrigation water withdrawal in mid- and high-latitude regions, and the dominant season of irrigation water withdrawal is also different across regions. Domestic water withdrawal is mostly characterized by a summer peak, while water withdrawal for electricity generation has a winter peak in high-latitude regions and a summer peak in low-latitude regions. Despite the overall increasing trend, irrigation in the western US and domestic water withdrawal in western Europe exhibit a decreasing trend. Our results highlight the distinct spatial pattern of human water use by sectors at the seasonal and annual

  15. Dimensions of somatization and hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C V

    1995-05-01

    A significantly large group of patients who communicate their psychosocial distress in the form of physical symptoms are called somatizers. They tend to overuse medical services. The syndromes with which they present have indistinct boundaries, and there tends to be some fluidity of their symptomatic presentations. Underlying psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder), and personality disorders are frequently present.

  16. Valence evaluation with approaching or withdrawing cues: directly testing valence-arousal conflict theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Mei; Li, Ting; Li, Lin

    2017-07-19

    The valence-arousal conflict theory assumes that both valence and arousal will trigger approaching or withdrawing tendencies. It also predicts that the speed of processing emotional stimuli will depend on whether valence and arousal trigger conflicting or congruent motivational tendencies. However, most previous studies have provided evidence of the interaction between valence and arousal only, and have not provided direct proof of the interactive links between valence, arousal and motivational tendencies. The present study provides direct evidence for the relationship between approach-withdrawal tendencies and the valence-arousal conflict. In an empirical test, participants were instructed to judge the valence of emotional words after visual-spatial cues that appeared to be either approaching or withdrawing from participants. A three-way interaction (valence, arousal, and approach-withdrawal tendency) was observed such that the response time was shorter if participants responded to a negative high-arousal stimulus after a withdrawing cue, or to a positive low-arousal stimulus after an approaching cue. These findings suggest that the approach-withdrawal tendency indeed plays a crucial role in valence-arousal conflict, and that the effect depends on the congruency of valence, arousal and tendency at an early stage of processing.

  17. The social side of shame: approach versus withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hooge, Ilona E; Breugelmans, Seger M; Wagemans, Fieke M A; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2018-01-05

    At present, the consequences and functions of experiences of shame are not yet well understood. Whereas psychology literature typically portrays shame as being bad for social relations, motivating social avoidance and withdrawal, there are recent indications that shame can be reinterpreted as having clear social tendencies in the form of motivating approach and social affiliation. Yet, until now, no research has ever put these alternative interpretations of shame-motivated behaviours directly to the test. The present paper presents such a test by studying the extent to which shame motivates a preference for social withdrawal versus a preference for social approach. Two studies (N = 148 and N = 133) using different shame inductions both showed people experiencing shame to prefer to be together with others (social approach) over being alone (social withdrawal). In addition, the preference for a social situation was found to be unique for shame; it was not found for the closely related emotion of guilt. Taken together, these findings provide direct empirical support for the idea that shame can have positive interpersonal consequences.

  18. Induction and isolation of somatic mutations in vegetatively propagated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, B.

    1975-01-01

    Research carried out since 1963 concentrated on techniques of mutagenic treatment: problems of exposure, type of radiation (acute irradiation by x- and γ-rays, and chronic exposure in the gamma field), conditions during and after irradiation, mechanisms of mutation induction, and methodology of isolation of somatic mutations. Analyses of somatic mutations included studies on apple, pear, olive, peach, grape and cherry plants. Young trees, dormant and rooted scions, summer and floral buds or seeds were used

  19. Tolerance and withdrawal to anticonvulsant action of clonazepam: role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, N; Bhargava, V K; Pandhi, P

    2000-05-01

    The use of clonazepam in the long-term treatment of epilepsy is greatly inhibited by its capacity to induce tolerance and dependence. A means of preventing or minimizing the tolerance and dependence inducing properties is required. Here the role of nitric oxide in preventing the development of tolerance and withdrawal hyperexcitability was studied. In Wistar rats, clonazepam at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg i.p. twice daily produced tolerance to its anticonvulsant action in 28 days. After sudden cessation of therapy it produced hyperexcitability. Tolerance was shown by a decrease in seizure threshold to near control value while withdrawal hyperexcitability was evidenced by a significant decrease in seizure threshold below the control value. L-Arginine (a donor of nitric oxide) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase) were given in doses of 150 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg, respectively on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 with clonazepam. Withdrawal hyperexcitability was seen on day 1, 2 and 4 after cessation of drug therapy. Electroshock was used as a model of epilepsy and seizure thresholds were determined by an up and down method of Kimball et al. L-Arginine was found to inhibit the development tolerance as well as withdrawal hyperexcitability when administered with clonazepam while N omega-L-arginine did not prevent either the development of tolerance or withdrawal hyperexcitability in the electroshock model. In the PTZ model, however, L-arginine had no effect on the anticonvulsant action and withdrawal hyperexcitability while inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis prevented withdrawal hyperexcitability in PTZ-induced seizures.

  20. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS ON ARABICA COFFEE (Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of Coffea arabica L. through direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis technique is promising for producing large number of coffee seedlings. The objectives of the research were to evaluate methods for direct and indirect somatic embryo-genesis induction of C. arabica var. Kartika. The explants were the youngest fully expanded leaves of arabica coffee. The evalu-ated medium was modified Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; 4.52 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Both calli (100 mg and pre-embryos developed from the edge of leaf explants were subcultured into regeneration medium (half strength MS with modified vitamin, supplemented with kinetine 9.30 µM and adenine sulfate 40 mg L-1. The results showed coffee leaf explant cultured on medium containing 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induce direct somatic embriogenesis from explant, while that of 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induced indirect somatic embrio-genesis. The medium for calli induction from coffee by explants was medium supplemented with 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D in combination with 9.08 µM thidiazuron. On the other hand, the best medium for activation of induction of somatic embryos was MS medium supplemented with 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Based on this results, the first step for developing micropropagation for coffee has been resolved. The subsequent studies will be directed to evaluate agronomic performance of the derived planting materials.

  1. Clinical relevance of "withdrawal therapy" as a form of hormonal manipulation for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson John FR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown in in-vitro experiments that "withdrawal" of tamoxifen inhibits growth of tumor cells. However, evidence is scarce when this is extrapolated into clinical context. We report our experience to verify the clinical relevance of "withdrawal therapy". Methods Breast cancer patients since 1998 who fulfilled the following criteria were selected from the departmental database and the case-notes were retrospectively reviewed: (1 estrogen receptor positive, operable primary breast cancer in elderly (age > 70 years, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer; (2 disease deemed suitable for treatment by hormonal manipulation; (3 disease assessable by UICC criteria; (4 received "withdrawal" from a prior endocrine agent as a form of therapy; (5 on "withdrawal therapy" for ≥ 6 months unless they progressed prior. Results Seventeen patients with median age of 84.3 (53.7-92.5 had "withdrawal therapy" as second to tenth line of treatment following prior endocrine therapy using tamoxifen (n = 10, an aromatase inhibitor (n = 5, megestrol acetate (n = 1 or fulvestrant (n = 1. Ten patients (58.8% had clinical benefit (CB (complete response/partial response/stable disease ≥ 6 months with a median duration of Clinical Benefit (DoCB of 10+ (7-27 months. Two patients remain on "withdrawal therapy" at the time of analysis. Conclusion "Withdrawal therapy" appears to produce sustained CB in a significant proportion of patients. This applies not only to "withdrawal" from tamoxifen, but also from other categories of endocrine agents. "Withdrawal" from endocrine therapy is, therefore, a viable intercalating option between endocrine agents to minimise resistance and provide additional line of therapy. It should be considered as part of the sequencing of endocrine therapy.

  2. Somatic Treatments in Treatment of Depression During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Ozten

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although some psychotropic drugs are known to be teratogenic no psychotropic drug is of proven safety for treatment of depression during pregnancy. Untreated mood disorders during pregnancy pose significant risks for mother and the newborn. This review focuses on the use of somatic tretments of depression during pregnancy.Electroconvulsive therapy, bright light therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation and vagal nerve stimulation are relatively safe and effective treatments during pregnancy if steps are taken to decrease potential risks. A clear information related to the somatic treatment should be given to the patient and informed consent should be obtained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 244-254

  3. 10 CFR 95.21 - Withdrawal of requests for facility security clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of requests for facility security clearance. 95.21 Section 95.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.21 Withdrawal of...

  4. The Association of Sensory Responsiveness with Somatic Symptoms and Illness Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodic, Donja; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Lieb, Roselind; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2016-02-01

    Somatoform Disorders or Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders are a major public health problem.The pathophysiology underlying these disorders is not yet understood. The aim of this study was to explore if sensory responsiveness could contribute to a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying two key symptoms of Somatoform Disorders, namely somatic symptoms and illness anxiety. We measured vibrotactile perception thresholds with the HVLab Perception Meter and examined their association with somatic symptoms, illness anxiety and trait anxiety. A sample of 205 volunteers participated in the study. Sensory responsiveness was neither associated with somatic symptoms (β = -0.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.37, 0.39) nor trait anxiety (β = -0.07; 95% CI, -0.30, 0.07). However, lower vibrotactile perception thresholds were associated with increased scores of the overall illness anxiety scale (β = -0.65; 95% CI, -1.21, -0.14) and its constituent subscale disease conviction (β = -2.07; 95% CI, -3.94, -0.43). Our results suggest that increased sensory responsiveness is associated with illness anxiety and hence should be examined further as potential target within the etiopathology of somatoform disorders.

  5. Somatic Complaints in Adolescence and Labour Market Participation in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2018-05-01

    The primary aim was to investigate the association between somatic symptoms at ages 15 or 18 and reduced labour market participation at age 23, when socioeconomic, social, and mental health risk factors were taken into account. The study included 3223 participants from the West Jutland Cohort Study with questionnaire information on somatic symptoms at ages 15 or 18 and with register information on labour market participation at age 23, gathered from a national register on all public transfer benefits for a 52-week period. The analyses included additional information about socioeconomic background, number of negative life events, social climate in the family, social relations with friends, and depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analyses yielded odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Among the males, associations between reporting somatic symptoms at age 18 and low labour market participation was seen in both crude and adjusted analyses (odds ratio: 1.66; 95% confidence intervals: 1.01-2.75), whereas the association among the females disappeared after adjustments (odds ratio: 0.97; 95% confidence intervals: 0.63-1.52). The males that reported somatic symptoms in late adolescence appeared to be the most vulnerable to future reduced labour market participation.

  6. The role of post-migration living difficulties on somatization among first-generation immigrants visited in a primary care service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Aragona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of post-migration living difficulties (PMLD on somatization was studied in 101 first generation immigrants visited in primary care. Premigratory traumas and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD were also assessed. About one third of patients somatized. Sociodemographic variables were similar in somatizers and non-somatizers. Premigratory traumas, PTSD and the likelihood to report at least one serious or very serious PMLD were higher in somatizers. Four kinds of PMLD were more frequent in somatizers: worries about unavailability of health assistance, working problems, discrimination and poor social help. Traumas and PTSD influenced the effect of PMLD on somatization. Findings suggest that in specific samples of primary care immigrants severe premigratory traumas increase the sensitivity to PMLD and in turn distress due to PMLD amplifies the tendency to somatize.

  7. [Structure of childhood and adolescent invalidity in persons with chronic somatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, N M; Bogmat, L F; Tolmacheva, S R; Timofeeva, O N

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of statistical data, prevalence is estimated of disorders with invalidism patterns outlined among those children and young adults under 40 years of age presenting with chronic somatic disorders in Kharkov. Both in children (52.4%) and in young adults (43.9%) diseases of the nervous system held the prominent place. Invalidity due to formed somatic disorders was identified in 10.9% of children and 24.3% of those persons less than 40 years old. There prevailed diseases of the circulation organs. The necessity is substantiated for the rehabilitation to be carried out of children with somatic disorders to prevent their disability.

  8. Efficacy of Tramadol Extended-Release for Opioid Withdrawal: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly E; Tompkins, D Andrew; Bigelow, George E; Strain, Eric C

    2017-09-01

    Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant public health problem. Supervised withdrawal (ie, detoxification) from opioids using clonidine or buprenorphine hydrochloride is a widely used treatment. To evaluate whether tramadol hydrochloride extended-release (ER), an approved analgesic with opioid and nonopioid mechanisms of action and low abuse potential, is effective for use in supervised withdrawal settings. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a residential research setting with 103 participants with OUD. Participants' treatment was stabilized with morphine, 30 mg, administered subcutaneously 4 times daily. A 7-day taper using clonidine (n = 36), tramadol ER (n = 36), or buprenorphine (n = 31) was then instituted, and patients were crossed-over to double-blind placebo during a post-taper period. The study was conducted from October 25, 2010, to June 23, 2015. Retention, withdrawal symptom management, concomitant medication utilization, and naltrexone induction. Results were analyzed over time and using area under the curve for the intention-to-treat and completer groups. Of the 103 participants, 88 (85.4%) were men and 43 (41.7%) were white; mean (SD) age was 28.9 (10.4) years. Buprenorphine participants (28 [90.3%]) were significantly more likely to be retained at the end of the taper compared with clonidine participants (22 [61.1%]); tramadol ER retention was intermediate and did not differ significantly from that of the other groups (26 [72.2%]; χ2 = 8.5, P = .01). Time-course analyses of withdrawal revealed significant effects of phase (taper, post taper) for the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) score (taper mean, 5.19 [SE, .26]; post-taper mean, 3.97 [SE, .23]; F2,170 = 3.6, P = .03) and Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS) score (taper mean,8.81 [SE, .40]; post-taper mean, 4.14 [SE, .30]; F2,170 = 15.7, P withdrawal severity between the taper and post-taper periods for clonidine (taper mean, 13.1; post

  9. Somatic Experiencing Treatment with Social Service Workers Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, M. Laurie; Vanslyke, Jan; Allen, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    In a disaster, social service workers are often survivors themselves. This study examines whether somatic intervention using a brief (one to two session) stabilization model now called the Trauma Resiliency Model[TM] (TRM), which uses the skills of Somatic Experiencing[R] (SE), can reduce the postdisaster symptoms of social service workers…

  10. Iatrogenic Opioid Withdrawal in Critically Ill Patients: A Review of Assessment Tools and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ada W; Contreras, Sofia; Mehta, Sangeeta; Korman, Jennifer; Perreault, Marc M; Williamson, David R; Burry, Lisa D

    2017-12-01

    To (1) provide an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and risk factors of iatrogenic opioid withdrawal in critically ill patients and (2) conduct a literature review of assessment and management of iatrogenic opioid withdrawal in critically ill patients. We searched MEDLINE (1946-June 2017), EMBASE (1974-June 2017), and CINAHL (1982-June 2017) with the terms opioid withdrawal, opioid, opiate, critical care, critically ill, assessment tool, scale, taper, weaning, and management. Reference list of identified literature was searched for additional references as well as www.clinicaltrials.gov . We restricted articles to those in English and dealing with humans. We identified 2 validated pediatric critically ill opioid withdrawal assessment tools: (1) Withdrawal Assessment Tool-Version 1 (WAT-1) and (2) Sophia Observation Withdrawal Symptoms Scale (SOS). Neither tool differentiated between opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal. WAT-1 was evaluated in critically ill adults but not found to be valid. No other adult tool was identified. For management, we identified 5 randomized controlled trials, 2 prospective studies, and 2 systematic reviews. Most studies were small and only 2 studies utilized a validated assessment tool. Enteral methadone, α-2 agonists, and protocolized weaning were studied. We identified 2 validated assessment tools for pediatric intensive care unit patients; no valid tool for adults. Management strategies tested in small trials included methadone, α-2 agonists, and protocolized sedation/weaning. We challenge researchers to create validated tools assessing specifically for opioid withdrawal in critically ill children and adults to direct management.

  11. Reprogramming to pluripotency can conceal somatic cell chromosomal instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Hamada

    Full Text Available The discovery that somatic cells are reprogrammable to pluripotency by ectopic expression of a small subset of transcription factors has created great potential for the development of broadly applicable stem-cell-based therapies. One of the concerns regarding the safe use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in therapeutic applications is loss of genomic integrity, a hallmark of various human conditions and diseases, including cancer. Structural chromosome defects such as short telomeres and double-strand breaks are known to limit reprogramming of somatic cells into iPSCs, but whether defects that cause whole-chromosome instability (W-CIN preclude reprogramming is unknown. Here we demonstrate, using aneuploidy-prone mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs in which chromosome missegregation is driven by BubR1 or RanBP2 insufficiency, that W-CIN is not a barrier to reprogramming. Unexpectedly, the two W-CIN defects had contrasting effects on iPSC genomic integrity, with BubR1 hypomorphic MEFs almost exclusively yielding aneuploid iPSC clones and RanBP2 hypomorphic MEFs karyotypically normal iPSC clones. Moreover, BubR1-insufficient iPSC clones were karyotypically unstable, whereas RanBP2-insufficient iPSC clones were rather stable. These findings suggest that aneuploid cells can be selected for or against during reprogramming depending on the W-CIN gene defect and present the novel concept that somatic cell W-CIN can be concealed in the pluripotent state. Thus, karyotypic analysis of somatic cells of origin in addition to iPSC lines is necessary for safe application of reprogramming technology.

  12. Sedatives for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, David A; Jeffery, Heather E; Cole, Michael J

    2010-10-06

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) due to opiate withdrawal may result in disruption of the mother-infant relationship, sleep-wake abnormalities, feeding difficulties, weight loss and seizures. Treatments used to ameliorate symptoms and reduce morbidity include opiates, sedatives and non-pharmacological treatments. To assess the effectiveness and safety of using a sedative compared to a non-opiate control for NAS due to withdrawal from opiates, and to determine which type of sedative is most effective and safe. This update included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1, 2010), MEDLINE 1966 to April 2010 and abstracts of conference proceedings. Trials enrolling infants with NAS born to mothers with an opiate dependence with > 80% follow-up and using random or quasi-random allocation to sedative or control. Control could include another sedative or non-pharmacological treatment. Each author assessed study quality and extracted data independently. Seven studies enrolling 385 patients were included. There were substantial methodological concerns for most studies including the use of quasi-random allocation methods and sizeable, largely unexplained differences in reported numbers allocated to each group.One study reported phenobarbitone compared to supportive care alone did not reduce treatment failure or time to regain birthweight, but resulted in a significant reduction in duration of supportive care (MD -162.1 min/day, 95% CI -249.2, -75.1). Comparing phenobarbitone to diazepam, meta-analysis of two studies found phenobarbitone resulted in a significant reduction in treatment failure (typical RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.24, 0.62). Comparing phenobarbitone with chlorpromazine, one study reported no significant difference in treatment failure.In infants treated with an opiate, one study reported addition of clonidine resulted in no significant difference in treatment failure, seizures or mortality. In infants treated with an opiate, one study

  13. Effect of Cryopreservation and Post-Cryopreservation Somatic Embryogenesis on the Epigenetic Fidelity of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy; Marcelino Rodríguez López, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    While cocoa plants regenerated from cryopreserved somatic embryos can demonstrate high levels of phenotypic variability, little is known about the sources of the observed variability. Previous studies have shown that the encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation methodology imposes no significant extra mutational load since embryos carrying high levels of genetic variability are selected against during protracted culture. Also, the use of secondary rather than primary somatic embryos has been shown to further reduce the incidence of genetic somaclonal variation. Here, the effect of in vitro conservation, cryopreservation and post-cryopreservation generation of somatic embryos on the appearance of epigenetic somaclonal variation were comparatively assessed. To achieve this we compared the epigenetic profiles, generated using Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphisms, of leaves collected from the ortet tree and from cocoa somatic embryos derived from three in vitro conditions: somatic embryos, somatic embryos cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen and somatic embryos generated from cryoproserved somatic embryos. Somatic embryos accumulated epigenetic changes but these were less extensive than in those regenerated after storage in LN. Furthermore, the passage of cryopreserved embryos through another embryogenic stage led to further increase in variation. Interestingly, this detected variability appears to be in some measure reversible. The outcome of this study indicates that the cryopreservation induced phenotypic variability could be, at least partially, due to DNA methylation changes. Phenotypic variability observed in cryostored cocoa somatic-embryos is epigenetic in nature. This variability is partially reversible, not stochastic in nature but a directed response to the in-vitro culture and cryopreservation.

  14. Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Getz, Gad; Wheeler, David A.; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sougnez, Carrie; Greulich, Heidi; Muzny, Donna M.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert S.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wendl, Michael C.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Larson, David E.; Chen, Ken; Dooling, David J.; Sabo, Aniko; Hawes, Alicia C.; Shen, Hua; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Lewis, Lora R.; Hall, Otis; Zhu, Yiming; Mathew, Tittu; Ren, Yanru; Yao, Jiqiang; Scherer, Steven E.; Clerc, Kerstin; Metcalf, Ginger A.; Ng, Brian; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Osborne, John R.; Meyer, Rick; Shi, Xiaoqi; Tang, Yuzhu; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Lin, Ling; Abbott, Rachel; Miner, Tracie L.; Pohl, Craig; Fewell, Ginger; Haipek, Carrie; Schmidt, Heather; Dunford-Shore, Brian H.; Kraja, Aldi; Crosby, Seth D.; Sawyer, Christopher S.; Vickery, Tammi; Sander, Sacha; Robinson, Jody; Winckler, Wendy; Baldwin, Jennifer; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Dutt, Amit; Fennell, Tim; Hanna, Megan; Johnson, Bruce E.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Thomas, Roman K.; Tonon, Giovanni; Weir, Barbara A.; Zhao, Xiaojun; Ziaugra, Liuda; Zody, Michael C.; Giordano, Thomas; Orringer, Mark B.; Roth, Jack A.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Ozenberger, Bradley; Good, Peter J.; Chang, Andrew C.; Beer, David G.; Watson, Mark A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Broderick, Stephen; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Travis, William D.; Pao, William; Province, Michael A.; Weinstock, George M.; Varmus, Harold E.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Meyerson, Matthew; Wilson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more than 1,000 somatic mutations across the samples. Our analysis identified 26 genes that are mutated at significantly high frequencies and thus are probably involved in carcinogenesis. The frequently mutated genes include tyrosine kinases, among them the EGFR homologue ERBB4; multiple ephrin receptor genes, notably EPHA3; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR; and NTRK genes. These data provide evidence of somatic mutations in primary lung adenocarcinoma for several tumour suppressor genes involved in other cancers—including NF1, APC, RB1 and ATM—and for sequence changes in PTPRD as well as the frequently deleted gene LRP1B. The observed mutational profiles correlate with clinical features, smoking status and DNA repair defects. These results are reinforced by data integration including single nucleotide polymorphism array and gene expression array. Our findings shed further light on several important signalling pathways involved in lung adenocarcinoma, and suggest new molecular targets for treatment. PMID:18948947

  15. Boron-Mediated Plant Somatic Embryogenesis: A Provocative Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay K. Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A central question in plant regeneration biology concerns the primary driving forces invoking the acquisition of somatic embryogenesis. Recently, the role of micronutrient boron (B in the initiation and perpetuation of embryogenesis has drawn considerable attention within the scientific community. This interest may be due in part to the bewildering observation that the system-wide induction of embryogenic potential significantly varied in response to a minimal to optimal supply of B (minimal ≤ 0.1 mM, optimal = 0.1 mM. At the cellular level, certain channel proteins and cell wall-related proteins important for the induction of embryogenesis have been shown to be transcriptionally upregulated in response to minimal B supply suggesting the vital role of B in the induction of embryogenesis. At the molecular level, minimal to no B supply increased the endogenous level of auxin, which subsequently influenced the auxin-inducible somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases, suggesting the role of B in the induction of embryogenesis. Also, minimal B concentration may “turn on” other genetic and/or cellular transfactors reported earlier to be essential for cell-restructuring and induction of embryogenesis. In this paper, both the direct and indirect roles of B in the induction of somatic embryogenesis are highlighted and suggested for future validation.

  16. Recent advances in alcohol withdrawal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, M J

    1977-11-26

    Recent advances in alcohol withdrawal states are described. New concepts of classification, the development of the syndrome and its management are outlined. In the light of recent research, more optimistic results for this much maligned but common condition may be achieved.

  17. Trauma exposure and the mediating role of posttraumatic stress on somatic symptoms in civilian war victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Klaghofer, Richard; Müller, Julia; Martin-Soelch, Chantal

    2018-04-10

    It has been well documented that the exposure to war has a negative effect on the psychological health of civilian. However, little is known on the impact of war exposure on the physical health of the civilian population. In addition, the link between trauma exposure and somatic symptoms remain poorly understood. This cross-sectional study examined levels of somatic symptoms in the aftermath of war, and the mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the relationship between trauma exposure and somatic symptoms. Civilian war survivors (N = 142) from Kosovo were assessed for potentially traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and somatic symptoms. Data were analyzed using mediation analyses. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were categorized based on King's four factor model (Psychol Assessment. 10: 90-96, 1998). Participants reported on average more than 5 types of traumatic exposure. The cut-off indicative for PTSD was exceeded by 26.1% of participants. Symptom levels of PTSD were associated with somatic symptoms. The relationship between trauma exposure and somatic symptoms was partly mediated by the active avoidance and hyperarousal symptom clusters of PTSD. Active avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms seem to play a key role in traumatized people suffering from somatic symptoms.

  18. PECTIMORF and BIOBRAS-16 utilization in the potato somatic embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime R. Hidrobo Luna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available With the application of PECTIMORF and BIOBRAS-16, somatic embryos were obtained in potato (Solanum tuberosum, L c.v. Desirèe, of 40 days old callus obtained from stem micropropagated plants. These were used as possible substitutes for crop regulators used in culture media for the induction of somatic embryos. The culture media was composed for 10ml.l-1 of Murashige and Skoog salt, 0.1mg.l-1 ANA, 0.1mg.l-1 kinetin, 0.5mg.l-1 thiamine, 2.5mg.l-1 cistein, 100mg.l-1 mioinositol, 20g.l-1 sucrose and 2.0g.l-1 agar. Four culture medias were tested in distinct combinations that contained different concentration of PECTIMOR and BIOBRAS-16 as substitute of auxins and cytokinins. After 90 days, the results obtained showed the possibility of substituting the auxins (0.5mg.l-1 ANA and the cytokinins (0.5mg.l-1 kinetin in the culture media, because the application of PECTIMORF at 3.2mg.l-1 and BIOBRAS-16 at 1.0mg.l-1, gave friable callus, high fresh weight (more than 1.4g and a brownish color at the end of the process, moment in which the somatic embryos of different phases, appeared at the surface of the callus. Keywords: brasinoesteroids, callus, oligopectate, somatic embryo

  19. Somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning: practical applications and current legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Lucas-Hahn, A

    2012-08-01

    Somatic cloning is emerging as a new biotechnology by which the opportunities arising from the advances in molecular genetics and genome analysis can be implemented in animal breeding. Significant improvements have been made in SCNT protocols in the past years which now allow to embarking on practical applications. The main areas of application of SCNT are: Reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and basic research. A great application potential of SCNT based cloning is the production of genetically modified (transgenic) animals. Somatic cell nuclear transfer based transgenic animal production has significant advances over the previously employed microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of zygotes. This cell based transgenesis is compatible with gene targeting and allows both, the addition of a specific gene and the deletion of an endogenous gene. Efficient transgenic animal production provides numerous opportunities for agriculture and biomedicine. Regulatory agencies around the world have agreed that food derived from cloned animals and their offspring is safe and there is no scientific basis for questioning this. Commercial application of somatic cloning within the EU is via the Novel Food regulation EC No. 258/97. Somatic cloning raises novel questions regarding the ethical and moral status of animals and their welfare which has prompted a controversial discussion in Europe which has not yet been resolved. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Somatic diseases in patients with schizophrenia in general practice: their prevalence and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Marian J T; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    2009-05-09

    Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physical problems; however GPs have neither specific management policies nor guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients. This paper systematically reviews the prevalence and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients in general practice. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO data-bases and the Cochrane Library were searched and original research articles on somatic diseases of schizophrenia patients and their treatment in the primary care setting were selected. The results of this search show that the incidence of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart diseases, and COPD is significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in the normal population. The health of schizophrenic patients is less than optimal in several areas, partly due to their inadequate help-seeking behaviour. Current GP management of such patients appears not to take this fact into account. However, when schizophrenic patients seek the GP's help, they value the care provided. Schizophrenia patients are at risk of undetected somatic co-morbidity. They present physical complaints at a late, more serious stage. GPs should take this into account by adopting proactive behaviour. The development of a set of guidelines with a clear description of the GP's responsibilities would facilitate the desired changes in the management of somatic diseases in these patients.