WorldWideScience

Sample records for somatic urogenital epithelia

  1. OCT4 and downstream factors are expressed in human somatic urogenital epithelia and in culture of epididymal spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Brunak, Søren; Kristensen, DM

    2010-01-01

    and microdissected tissues, in situ hybridisation, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting to show that OCT4 and SOX2 together with downstream targets, UTF1 and REX1, are expressed in the human male urogenital tract. We further supported these results by analysis of DNA methylation of a region in the OCT4...

  2. [Somatization disorders of the urogenital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthert, E A

    2002-11-01

    Diffuse symptoms in the urogenital region can frequently be explained by somatization disorders. Since they cannot be proven either by laboratory tests or with common technical diagnostic methods, somatization disorders should always be taken into consideration. Somatization disorders are to be considered functional disorders. Since somatization disorders due to muscular tension prevail in the urogenital region, the functional disturbance can be explained by the muscular tension. Subsequently, muscular tension causes the pathophysiological development of symptoms. As a rule they appear as myofascial pain or disorder. Muscular tension can have a psychic origin. The absence of urological findings is typical. Males and females between the ages of 16 and 75 can be affected by somatization disorders in the urogenital region. Somatization disorders due to muscular tension belong to the large group of symptoms due to tension. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as well as the pathophysiology of somatization disorders due to muscular tension are illustrated by two detailed case-reports.

  3. Urogenital imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, B.; Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hein, P.; Lemke, U.

    2008-01-01

    The book in direct diagnosis in radiology, urogenital imaging, includes information concerning definition, imaging signs and clinical aspects on the following topics: kidneys and adrenals, the urinary tract, the male genitals and the female genitals

  4. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Urogenital tuberkulose hos danskere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almasi, Charlotte Elberling; Holm, Mette; Meyhoff, Hans-Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is rare in natives of Denmark, who are not exposed to risk factors, such as homelessness and drug or alcohol abuse. Two patients diagnosed with advanced urogenital tuberculosis are reported.......Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is rare in natives of Denmark, who are not exposed to risk factors, such as homelessness and drug or alcohol abuse. Two patients diagnosed with advanced urogenital tuberculosis are reported....

  6. Urogenital system diseases's radiological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, S; Mecozzi, B

    1985-01-01

    Radiological urogenital radiography reliability, can be compromised because of absence of a correct urodynamic diagnosis. It is then required that specialist radiologists know the problems concerning the urogenital system radiographies cannot be made in many cases, because of the scarcity in hospitals of idoneous urodynamic services.

  7. Goldenhar syndrome and urogenital abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Marulaiah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syn-drome or 1st and 2nd branchial arch syndrome is a com-plex of craniofacial anomalies. It has been associated with anomalies in other systems and with abnormalities of the urogenital system. We present a case of Goldenhar syn-drome with multiple renal anomalies and a urogenital si-nus, which has not been reported before.

  8. Urogenital Applications of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor

    The urogenital tract extends from the perineal skin close to the anus, to the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, urethra, bladder and kidneys. The uterus, bladder and kidneys are regarded as being sterile, although it will not be surprising if molecular techniques discover that this is not necessarily the case. The importance of the urogenital tract in the health of women cannot be understated. Given its proximity to potential pathogens emerging from the rectum, exposure to sexually transmitted organisms, hormonal fluctuations that affect cells, use of tampons, contraceptives and douches, and the birthing process, it is remarkable that this area is not constantly infected. Nevertheless, it has been estimated that almost every female will have a vaginal or bladder infection at some point in her life.

  9. Urogenital tuberculosis: definition and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchavenya, Ekaterina

    2014-10-01

    To improve the approach to the diagnosis and management of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), we need clear and unique classification. UGTB remains an important problem, especially in developing countries, but it is often an overlooked disease. As with any other infection, UGTB should be cured by antibacterial therapy, but because of late diagnosis it may often require surgery. Scientific literature dedicated to this problem was critically analyzed and juxtaposed with the author's own more than 30 years' experience in tuberculosis urology. The conception, terms and definition were consolidated into one system; classification stage by stage as well as complications are presented. Classification of any disease includes dispersion on forms and stages and exact definitions for each stage. Clinical features and symptoms significantly vary between different forms and stages of UGTB. A simple diagnostic algorithm was constructed. UGTB is multivariant disease and a standard unified approach to it is impossible. Clear definition as well as unique classification are necessary for real estimation of epidemiology and the optimization of therapy. The term 'UGTB' has insufficient information in order to estimate therapy, surgery and prognosis, or to evaluate the epidemiology.

  10. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  11. Vesicovaginal fistula presenting as urogenital prolapse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prolapse especially following traumatic pelvic injuries. Key words: Bladder base; trauma; urogenital; ... Physical examination revealed a moderately obese woman with a body mass index of 33.8 kg/m² with an external fixator ... collectively known as disorders of the pelvic floor. In our case, there was a history of direct trauma ...

  12. Total urogenital sinus mobilization for ambiguous genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Vinicius Menezes; Buriti, Francisco; Lessa, Rodrigo; Toralles, Maria Betânia; Oliveira, Luciana Barros; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2018-04-01

    Genital ambiguity is a very common phenomenon in disorders of sex development (DSD). According to the Chicago Consensus 2006, feminizing genitoplasty, when indicated, should be performed in the most virilized cases (Prader III to V). Advances in the knowledge of genital anatomy in DSD have enabled the development and improvement of various surgical techniques. Mobilization of the urogenital sinus (MUS), first described by Peña, has become incorporated by most surgeons. However, the proximity of the urethral sphincter prompts concern over urinary incontinence, especially for full mobilization of the urogenital sinus. To retrospectively evaluate the short-term surgical results of feminizing genitoplasty with total mobilization of the urogenital sinus in patients with DSD. Review of medical records of all patients undergoing feminizing genitoplasty with mobilization of the urogenital sinus. We evaluated the rates of complications from surgery and of urinary incontinence, as well as cosmetic results, according to the opinion of the surgeon and the family. A total of 8 patients were included in the study. The mean age at surgery was 51months. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was diagnosed in six patients, and gonadal dysgenesis in the other two. The vagina was separated from the urethra, with suitable distance in all cases. No patient had urinary incontinence after surgery. The mean follow-up of patients was. 20months (3-56months). In all cases, surgeons recorded being satisfied with the aesthetic result of post-surgical genitalia. The family was recorded as satisfied with the aesthetic result of the genitalia after surgery. In every case, there was no need for a second surgical procedure. The total mobilization of the urogenital sinus is a feasible and safe technique. The technique permits good cosmetic results, and urinary incontinence is absent. Therapeutic study. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Course NICER in gastrointestinal and urogenital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksel Kruse; Nolan, D.J.; Allison, D.J.; Jackson, J.; Gibson, R.

    1998-01-01

    Course of NICER (Nycomed Intercontinental Continuing Education in Radiology) in gastrointestinal and urogenital radiology in the frameworks of NICER program. This program is one of the best educational programs the purpose of which consists in education of maximum good quality, free of marketing and advertisement accessible to roentgenologists of all the countries. The above course was presented in Hua Dong Hospital, Shanghai, China, April 18-21, 1996

  14. Microbiologic picture of microflora offemale urogenital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyudyun A.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this report authors give a detailed analysis of microorganisms that can contaminate mucous membranes of female urogenital system in normal range and in the formation of certain dysbiotic position. The composition of microorganisms that colonize the mucous membrane of the urogenital tract depends on many exogenous and endogenous factors. The main microorganisms that provide colonizing resistance of vaginal biotop (VB are lactobacilli and lactobacteria. The protective properties of lactobacillus are implemented by antagonistic activity and ability to produce lysozyme and hydrogen peroxide. L. acidophilus, L. spp.; Propionbacterium spp.; Fusobacterium spp.; Porphyromonas spp.; Prevotella spp.; S. epidermidis and S. Saprophyticus novobionrezistentni and Streptococcus spp. and others are of definite importance in supporting normobiots of mucous membranes of urogenital system of women. Decreasing number of lactobacilli and other microorganisms of normobiota leads to colonization of mucous membranes of the vagina with G.vaginalis, B.bivies, B.disiens, B.melaninigenius, Mobiluncus, E.coli, E.fecalis, S.epidermidis and development of clinical manifestation of VB. The authors show microscopic and bacteriological characteristics of microorganisms that form normal microbiota and pathological states. The development of basic subjects promotes increasing number of the known microorganisms, important in the development of VB.

  15. Lymphangioma involving the urogenital system in childhood

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    Michael Yap

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangioma of the urogenital system is extremely rare and we present two cases treated at our institution over a one year period. The first case is a 3 year-old boy who presented with scrotal swelling and was initially thought to have a complex hydrocele. On surgical exploration, an extratesticular multiloculated cystic mass was discovered and testis-sparing excision of the mass was performed. Pathology revealed lymphangioma. The second case is a 5 year-old male who initially presented with gross hematuria. Ultrasound was unremarkable but cystoscopy revealed varicosities extending from the bladder wall. On transurethral resection, histology showed non-specific benign vascular malformation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was obtained because of persistent hematuria and showed multiple bladder lesions suggestive of lymphatic malformation. Partial cystectomy was ultimately performed and histology confirmed lymphangioma. To the author's knowledge, this represents the fifth reported case of lymphangioma of bladder.

  16. Urogenital function after cloacal reconstruction, two techniques evaluated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, H.P.; Sloots, C.E.J.; Wolffenbuttel, K.P.; Jong, J.R. de; Sleeboom, C.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Heurn, L.W.E. van; Zee, D.C. van der; Wijnen, R.M.H.; Blaauw, I. de

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current surgical techniques for cloacal reconstruction are posterior sagittal anorecto vagino urethroplasty (PSARVUP) and posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) with total urogenital mobilization (TUM). The aim of this study was to explore the results of reconstructive cloaca surgery

  17. Urogenital function after cloacal reconstruction, two techniques evaluated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, Hendt P.; Sloots, Cornelius E. J.; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P.; de Jong, Justin R.; Sleeboom, Christien; Feitz, Wout F.; van Heurn, L. W. Ernest; van der Zee, David C.; Wijnen, Rene M. H.; de Blaauw, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Current surgical techniques for cloacal reconstruction are posterior sagittal anorecto vagino urethroplasty (PSARVUP) and posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) with total urogenital mobilization (TUM). The aim of this study was to explore the results of reconstructive cloaca surgery in the

  18. Gender aspects of epidemiology and laboratory diagnostics of urogenital trichomoniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorchakov D.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital trichomoniasis is still one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Evolutionary vaginal Tricho-monas parazited initially in female genital tract, and later adapted to the conditions of the male genital tract. This contributed to the formation of certain gender biology of the parasite, epidemiology and clinics of trichomoniasis. Existing gender differences should be taken into account in prevention, diagnostics and treatment of urogenital trichomoniasis.

  19. Prevention of urogenital infections by oral administration of probiotic lactobacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Slačanac

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In general, lactobacilli are nonpathogenic part of the normal urogenital microflora and have been recognized as a barrier against colonization of unwanted (pathogen microflora. The results of many in vitro studies suggest following mechanisms of probiotic lactobacilli action in urogenital tract: adhesion to urogenital cells, competition with pathogens for adhesive sites, production of biosurfactants, co-aggregation with pathogens, production of antimicrobial substances (organic acids, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins and stimulation of immune system. From 80 different lactobacilli species isolated from human or animal intestinal and urogenital tract, only few lactobacilli strains possess optimal properties to be effective as probiotic therapeutics against infections in the urogenital tract. Combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 was proposed as the best one for epithelial vaginal cells colonization and inhibition of uropathogens adhesion. The results of a number of clinical studies confirmed beneficial role of oral lactobacilli. However, the most of commercially available Lactobacillus strains, which are ordinary used in fermented dairy products,are seriously limited in protection of urogenital tract when they are ingested orally.

  20. Somatic symptom disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Somatic symptom disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . ...

  1. Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation

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    Shailesh Solanki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal duplication (RD accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD.

  2. Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD.

  3. A cross-sectional study on urogenital schistosomiasis in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This becomes important as rapid detection of diseased individuals is necessary for efficient ... Objective: To assess the burden of urogenital schistosomiasis and the diagnostic efficiency of morbidity indicators of the disease in an endemic rural ... depend on streams and rivers for their sources of water for domestic purposes.

  4. Cortisol and somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, W; Auer, C

    2000-05-01

    Somatization symptoms are frequently associated with depression, anxiety, and feelings of distress. These features interact with the activity of the HPA-axis. Therefore we investigated relationships between somatization symptoms and cortisol. Seventy-seven participants were classified into three groups: somatization syndrome (at least eight physical symptoms from the DSM-IV somatization disorder list), somatization syndrome combined with major depression, and healthy controls. The following data were collected: salivary cortisol at three time points (morning, afternoon, evening), nighttime urinary cortisol, serum cortisol after the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, somatization, and hypochondriasis. Salivary cortisol showed typical diurnal variations. However, the groups did not differ on any of the cortisol variables. A possible explanation may be counteracting effects of somatization and depression. Exploratory correlational analyses revealed that associations between cortisol and psychopathological variables were time-dependent. DST results correlated with psychological aspects of somatization, but not with the number of somatoform symptoms per se.

  5. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    on the recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides...

  6. Maternal urogenital schistosomiasis; monitoring disease morbidity by simple reagent strips.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetunde T Oyeyemi

    Full Text Available Urine analysis is one of the recommended antenatal guidelines for early diagnosis of pregnancy-associated complications. While in practice, urine analysis by dipstick had been used to provide useful information on other urinary tract infections, its applications for early detection of urogenital schistosomiasis in pregnant women is often times not given due attention in most endemic areas. Our study therefore assessed the performance of some common urinalysis parameters in the diagnosis of maternal urogenital schistosomiasis in endemic rural communities of Nigeria.The cross-sectional epidemiologic survey of urogenital schistosomiasis was conducted among pregnant women in Yewa North Local Government, Ogun State, Nigeria. The women were microscopically examined for infection with Schistosoma haematobium, visually observed for macrohematuria, and screened for microhematuria and proteinuria using standard urine chemical reagent strips. Of 261 volunteered participants, 19.9% tested positive for S. haematobium infection. The proportion of microhematuria (23.8% was significantly higher than that of macrohematuria (3.8% and proteinuria (16.8% (P<0.05. Microhematuria with sensitivity (82.7% and specificity (89.0% was the best diagnostic indicator of urogenital schistosomiasis. Macrohematuria with the least sensitivity (11.8% was however the most specific (98.1% for diagnosing urogenital schistosomiasis in pregnant women. Maximum microhematuria sensitivity (100.0% was observed in women between 15-19 years but sensitivity was consistently low in older age groups. Maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values (100.0% were recorded for microhematuria in first trimester women. Diagnostic efficiency of proteinuria and macrohematuria was also better in the first trimester women except the 25.0% specificity recorded for proteinuria. The overall diagnostic performance of microhematuria and proteinuria was better in secundigravidae.Microhematuria can be

  7. Masculinity and urogenital cancer: sensitive issues in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Regina; Sand, Inger; Elofsson, Kristina

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this literature review was to analyse the approaches adopted by patients, health professionals, spouses and other care-givers towards sensitive issues related to male urogenital cancer, and to describe how these findings can be applied in health care practice. The findings revealed five identifiable domains, namely 'the barrier to talking', 'the barrier of sensitivity', 'the barrier of masculinity', 'the barrier to seeking health care' and 'the communicative barrier'. The conclusion was that the phenomenon of a barrier is strongly connected with hegemonic masculinity. The review of literature confirmed that, for many men, talking about genitally-related health problems is not easy and that health care professionals need to learn more about gender and masculinity in order to address urogenitally sensitive issues.

  8. Urogenital disease: current medical need and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoboski, M

    1998-11-01

    The Medicinal Chemistry Division session on Urogenital Disease began with an overview by Dr P-O Andersson (Pharmacia and Upjohn, MI, USA) of current medical need and recent advances in the field. Dr Andersson drew attention to the limited interest that pharmaceutical companies have historically shown in the area of non-malignant diseases of the urogenital tract. Conditions such as bladder overactivity and urinary incontinence, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and erectile dysfunction have been poorly understood and have been regarded as unavoidable consequences of old age. One factor, which further compounds the problem, is that many people do not seek treatment, a practice which tends to lower the awareness of these conditions.

  9. An Epidemiological Trend of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bayissa Chala; Bayissa Chala; Workineh Torben

    2018-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Currently, the prevalence of the disease can possibly be heightened due to man-made ecological transformations particularly related to the recent development programs involving irrigation and construction of dams. The expansion of some of the water resource development projects has been cited enhancing the upsurge of urogenital schistosomiasis mainly in the lower altitude areas of the country. In connection to the extensive initiat...

  10. Frequency of urogenital mycoplasma detection in women of Dnipropetrovsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Bubalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of urogenital mycoplasmas detection in women of different ages was studied in culture with the help of DUO test-system in order to determine their etiological significance in the development of inflammatory processes of women urogenital tract. We identified the researched cultures Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum in the diagnostic titer >104 TEM/ml indicating severe contamination by microorganisms, and in the titer 104 TEM/ml, 104 TEM/ml was observed in 55 women (46% and 20 women (17%, respectively, and the titer of <103 CFU/ml U. urealyticum was observed in 20 women (17%, and M. hominis in 18 women (15%. Analysis of genital mycoplasmas distribution among women of different ages has shown that there was the certain correlation between the patient age and frequency of genital mycoplasmas detection: the highest detection rate was observed in women age of 24–29. The dominant pathogen of urogenital tract inflammatory processes in women in 24–29 age group is U. urealyticum. The comparison of DUO test-system and PCR data has shown that DUO test-system in culture allowed more sensitive quantitave characterization of mycoplasmas, however, for the more effective laboratory diagnostics it was necessary to use complex methods to increase the probability of pathogen detection. Incidence of mycoplasmas in women with the presence of inflammation was higher than in women having the inflammation in the genital tract. In this case, potential symptom-free carriers exist for the development of inflammation of urogenital tract of women. Scientists have proved that mycoplasma could cause vulvovaginitis, urethritis, paraurethritis, bartholinitis, adnexitis, salpingitis, endometritis, and ovaritis.

  11. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

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    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  12. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  13. UROKIN: A Software to Enhance Our Understanding of Urogenital Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyrnyj, Catriona S; Labrosse, Michel R; Graham, Ryan B; McLean, Linda

    2018-05-01

    Transperineal ultrasound (TPUS) allows for objective quantification of mid-sagittal urogenital mechanics, yet current practice omits dynamic motion information in favor of analyzing only a rest and a peak motion frame. This work details the development of UROKIN, a semi-automated software which calculates kinematic curves of urogenital landmark motion. A proof of concept analysis, performed using UROKIN on TPUS video recorded from 20 women with and 10 women without stress urinary incontinence (SUI) performing maximum voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles. The anorectal angle and bladder neck were tracked while the motion of the pubic symphysis was used to compensate for the error incurred by TPUS probe motion during imaging. Kinematic curves of landmark motion were generated for each video and curves were smoothed, time normalized, and averaged within groups. Kinematic data yielded by the UROKIN software showed statistically significant differences between women with and without SUI in terms of magnitude and timing characteristics of the kinematic curves depicting landmark motion. Results provide insight into the ways in which UROKIN may be useful to study differences in pelvic floor muscle contraction mechanics between women with and without SUI and other pelvic floor disorders. The UROKIN software improves on methods described in the literature and provides unique capacity to further our understanding of urogenital biomechanics.

  14. The incidence of apparent congenital urogenital anomalies in North Indian newborns: A study of 20,432 pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhat

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of apparent congenital urogenital anomalies was 3.91%. Infertility treatment, parity >2 and a maternal age >30 years were independently associated with an increased risk of congenital urogenital anomalies.

  15. Urogenital infection symptoms and occupational stress among women working in export production factories in Tianjin, China

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    Kristin K. Sznajder

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Many women working in China's export factories report symptoms of urogenital infection. Occupational stress may be linked to an increased risk for urogenital infection. Focused efforts are needed to improve accessibility to reproductive health services for women working in China's export production factories.

  16. Evaluation of microbiological diagnostics in urogenital infections in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Hunjak,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the percentage of infections in postmenopausal women with urinary symptoms which can be confirmed by microbiological analysis, the most common causative agents and whether the urethra and vagina in patients with cystitis are concurrently colonized by pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Laboratories of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health in Zagreb, in the period of two years, analyzed 245 samples taken from patients with urinary symptoms who had been postmenopausal at least for a year. Urine samples, as well as urethral and vaginal swabs were taken from each patient and tested for causative agents of urogenital infections, genital mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis.Results Cystitis was confirmed by microbiological analysis in 31.4% women, urethritis in 24.8%, and vaginitis in 15.1%. The most common causative agent of urethritis was Ureaplasma urealyticum, while Gardnerella vaginalis was the most common in vaginal infections. E. coli was concurrently isolated in urine, urethral and vaginal samples in 65.1% of patients with E. coli cystitis, while Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in urethral and vaginal samples in each patient with Streptococcus agalactiae cystitis.Conclusion Mucosal colonization of the urethra and vagina contributes to the incidence of cystitis in postmenopausal women. Microbiological diagnostics is necessary to distinguish between the symptoms of ageing of the urogenital system and infection, with a view to preventing unnecessary antibiotic therapy.

  17. [Winter sports injuries of the urogenital tract (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakse, G; Madersbacher, H

    1977-11-01

    During 1964-1974 112 injuries of the urogenital tract caused by winter sports were treated at the University Hospital Innsbruck, Department of Urology. Eighty-eight patients suffered skiing injuries, 20 tobogganing injuries, and one injury each was caused by ski jumping and bobsleighing accidents, two traumas resulted from a fall from a chair lift. On the basis of typical case reports the most common types of trauma of the urogenital tract are demonstrated and the basic mechanisms of the accidents are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the obvious increase of lesions of the external genitalia and the urethra in the last few years caused by the so-called spinning ski, as well as the frequency of kidney traumas, especially in winters with little snow. Tobogganing accidents caused injuries to the kidneys as well as to bladder and urethra. In contrast to traumas caused by skiing, tobogganing injuries were mostly multiple. Analysis of patients records shows an increase of these injuries, which were really not typical for winter sports. The possible reasons as well as their prevention are discussed.

  18. Prevalence of urogenital symptoms among Colombian indigenous postmenopausal women = Prevalencia de la sintomatología urogenital en mujeres indígenas colombianas enposmenopausia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez Vega, Jhonmer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deterioration of life quality in postmenopausal women differs according to their ethnicity.Objective: To compare the frequency of urogenital symptoms and the deterioration of the urogenital dimension in indigenous postmenopausal women belonging to three different communities.Methods: By means of the Menopausal Rating Scale, 609 indigenous postmenopausal women, aged between 40-59 years, were studied: 161 (26.4% belonged to different Amazonic tribes, 297 (48.8% were Zenu and 151 (24.8%, Wayuu.Results: Scores in the urogenital dimension were as follows: 3.8 ± 3.2 in the Amazonic women; 6.2 ± 1.3 in the Zenu community, and 2.9 ± 2.6 among the Wayuu. The score for the whole group was 4.8 ± 2.7; all these scores are higher than those of other Colombian and Latinamerican populations. Total score in the MRS was 13.8 ± 8.2 (Amazonic women, 14.7 ± 2.5 (Zenu, and 10.0 ± 6.7 (Wayuu. In the whole group, 9.1% had severe symptoms concerning sexual problems, 48.0% had urinary incontinence, and 12.1% suffered from vaginal dryness. The urogenital dimension was altered in 42%.Conclusion: Indigenous postmenopausal Colombian women belonging to different communities have high prevalence and early appearance of symptoms related to the urogenital dimension. Half of the studied population, with average age 53 years, have urogenital deterioration.

  19. Gene expression profiling supports the hypothesis that human ovarian surface epithelia are multipotent and capable of serving as ovarian cancer initiating cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyunina Lilya V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence suggests that somatic stem cells undergo mutagenic transformation into cancer initiating cells. The serous subtype of ovarian adenocarcinoma in humans has been hypothesized to arise from at least two possible classes of progenitor cells: the ovarian surface epithelia (OSE and/or an as yet undefined class of progenitor cells residing in the distal end of the fallopian tube. Methods Comparative gene expression profiling analyses were carried out on OSE removed from the surface of normal human ovaries and ovarian cancer epithelial cells (CEPI isolated by laser capture micro-dissection (LCM from human serous papillary ovarian adenocarcinomas. The results of the gene expression analyses were randomly confirmed in paraffin embedded tissues from ovarian adenocarcinoma of serous subtype and non-neoplastic ovarian tissues using immunohistochemistry. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed using gene ontology, molecular pathway, and gene set enrichment analysis algorithms. Results Consistent with multipotent capacity, genes in pathways previously associated with adult stem cell maintenance are highly expressed in ovarian surface epithelia and are not expressed or expressed at very low levels in serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. Among the over 2000 genes that are significantly differentially expressed, a number of pathways and novel pathway interactions are identified that may contribute to ovarian adenocarcinoma development. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that human ovarian surface epithelia are multipotent and capable of serving as the origin of ovarian adenocarcinoma. While our findings do not rule out the possibility that ovarian cancers may also arise from other sources, they are inconsistent with claims that ovarian surface epithelia cannot serve as the origin of ovarian cancer initiating cells.

  20. Somatization in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Bech, Per; Patierno, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The current systematic review study is aimed at critically analyzing from a clinimetric viewpoint the clinical consequence of somatization in Parkinson's Disease (PD). By focusing on the International Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we...... consequence of such psychiatric symptom should be further evaluated by replacing the clinically inadequate diagnostic label of psychogenic parkinsonism with the psychosomatic concept of persistent somatization as conceived by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR)....

  1. Gross and Fine Dissection of Inner Ear Sensory Epithelia in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Jin; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2009-01-01

    Neurosensory epithelia in the inner ear are the crucial structures for hearing and balance functions. Therefore, it is important to understand the cellular and molecular features of the epithelia, which are mainly composed of two types of cells: hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Here we choose to study the inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish not only because the epithelial structures are highly conserved in all vertebrates studied, but also because the adult zebrafish is...

  2. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  3. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in the assessment of urogenital pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libero Barozzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS is an innovative technique that employs microbubble contrast agents to demonstrate parenchymal perfusion. Although initial clinical application was focused on the liver pathology, a wide variety of clinical conditions can be assessed now with CEUS. CEUS is a well-tolerated technique and is acquiring an increasing role in the assessment of renal pathology because contrast agents are not excreted by the kidney and do not affect the renal function. CEUS demonstrated an accuracy similar to contrast enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (CEMDCT in detecting focal lesions, with the advantage of the real-time assessment of microvascular perfusion by using time-intensity curves. The aim of this paper is to review the main indications of CEUS in the assessment of renal and urogenital pathology. Imaging examples are presented and described. Advantages and limitations of CEUS with reference to conventional US and CE-MDCT are discussed.

  4. [Social integration of women operated for obstetric urogenital fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, A; Tembely, A; Berthe, H J G; Diakité, M L; Traoré, B; Ouattara, K

    2013-10-01

    To study the social integration of women supported in the urology department of the University Hospital of Point G for obstetric urogenital fistula. Prospective study conducted over a period of 13 months from June 2008 to June 2009 in the Department of Urology at the University Hospital of Point G. The study included all patients who have been operated on at least twice for obstetric fistula genitourinary. Records of surgical, medical records and tracking sheets for each patient were the media database. Situation before treatment: before surgical treatment, 76.92% of patients were rejected by their spouses. The family attended the patient in 84.62% of cases. Situation after treatment: after treatment, 90.31% of women with fistula lived in the matrimonial home or family. The resumption of business activity was announced by 11.2% of patients. Among the women, 93.7% participated in housework. The number of patient intervention ranged from two to five. Healing (fistula closed and no sphincter dysfunction) was complete in 50% of cases. Among the women, 11.54% had sphincter dysfunction after closure of the fistula, which makes a total of fistula closed more than 61% after at least two attempts. The urogenital fistulas are not a fatal disease but is a real handicap for women who suffer to conduct a socio-cultural and economic mainstream. Generally excluded from the ongoing operations of the company, these women are more integrated after successful surgical treatment of the fistula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling and inferring cleavage patterns in proliferating epithelia.

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    Ankit B Patel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of cleavage plane orientation is one of the key mechanisms driving epithelial morphogenesis. Still, many aspects of the relationship between local cleavage patterns and tissue-level properties remain poorly understood. Here we develop a topological model that simulates the dynamics of a 2D proliferating epithelium from generation to generation, enabling the exploration of a wide variety of biologically plausible cleavage patterns. We investigate a spectrum of models that incorporate the spatial impact of neighboring cells and the temporal influence of parent cells on the choice of cleavage plane. Our findings show that cleavage patterns generate "signature" equilibrium distributions of polygonal cell shapes. These signatures enable the inference of local cleavage parameters such as neighbor impact, maternal influence, and division symmetry from global observations of the distribution of cell shape. Applying these insights to the proliferating epithelia of five diverse organisms, we find that strong division symmetry and moderate neighbor/maternal influence are required to reproduce the predominance of hexagonal cells and low variability in cell shape seen empirically. Furthermore, we present two distinct cleavage pattern models, one stochastic and one deterministic, that can reproduce the empirical distribution of cell shapes. Although the proliferating epithelia of the five diverse organisms show a highly conserved cell shape distribution, there are multiple plausible cleavage patterns that can generate this distribution, and experimental evidence suggests that indeed plants and fruitflies use distinct division mechanisms.

  6. Hypochondriasis and somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, R

    1987-11-20

    Between 60% and 80% of healthy individuals experience somatic symptoms in any one week. About 10% to 20% of a random sample of people worry intermittently about illness. A substantial proportion of patients present physicians with somatic complaints for which no organic cause can be found. Patients who are hypochondriacal do not understand the benign nature of functional somatic symptoms and interpret these as evidence of disease. Hypochondriacal concerns range from common short-lived worries to persistent and distressing fears or convictions of having a disease. Hypochondriasis can be secondary to other psychiatric disorders (eg, melancholia or panic disorder), and hypochondriacal attitudes remit when the primary disorder is successfully treated. Patients with primary hypochondriasis are also anxious or depressed, but the fear of disease, or the false belief of having a disease, persists and is the most important feature of their psychopathology. There are substantial differences among hypochondriacal patients in their personalities and psychopathologies. Psychotherapy as well as psychotropic drugs are effective in the treatment of functional somatic symptoms. There are no adequate controlled studies on the value of psychotherapy in hypochondriasis; the recommended guidelines are based on uncontrolled studies of hypochondriasis and on controlled studies of the psychotherapy in similar disorders. The prognosis of functional somatic symptoms as well as that of hypochondriasis is good in a substantial proportion of patients.

  7. Comparison of ion transport by cultured secretory and absorptive canine airway epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucher, R C; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1988-01-01

    The use of primary cell culture techniques to predict the function of native respiratory epithelia was tested in studies of dog airway epithelia. Epithelial cells from Cl- secretory (tracheal) and Na+ absorptive (bronchial) airway regions were isolated by enzymatic digestion, plated on collagen...

  8. Molecular polymorphism of a cell surface proteoglycan: distinct structures on simple and stratified epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, R D; Bernfield, M

    1988-12-01

    Epithelial cells are organized into either a single layer (simple epithelia) or multiple layers (stratified epithelia). Maintenance of these cellular organizations requires distinct adhesive mechanisms involving many cell surface molecules. One such molecule is a cell surface proteoglycan, named syndecan, that contains both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains. This proteoglycan binds cells to fibrillar collagens and fibronectin and thus acts as a receptor for interstitial matrix. The proteoglycan is restricted to the basolateral surface of simple epithelial cells, but is located over the entire surface of stratified epithelial cells, even those surfaces not contacting matrix. We now show that the distinct localization in simple and stratified epithelia correlates with a distinct proteoglycan structure. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia (modal molecular size, 160 kDa) is larger than that from stratified epithelia (modal molecular size, 92 kDa), but their core proteins are identical in size and immunoreactivity. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia has more and larger heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains than the proteoglycan from stratified epithelia. Thus, the cell surface proteoglycan shows a tissue-specific structural polymorphism due to distinct posttranslational modifications. This polymorphism likely reflects distinct proteoglycan functions in simple and stratified epithelia, potentially meeting the different adhesive requirements of the cells in these different organizations.

  9. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections among Ethnic Groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; Determinants and Ethnic Sexual Mixing Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bom, Reinier J. M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia) in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for

  10. Expression of blood group-related glycoconjugates in the junctional and other oral epithelia of rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, I C; Dabelsteen, Erik; Rittman, G

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The junctional epithelium (JE) attaches the gingiva to the non-vital tooth surface and has other unusual properties which protect the underlying periodontal tissues. The JE differs from other gingival and oral epithelia in its unusual expression of cytokeratins typical of both...... and provide an alternative marker system for regionally-differing patterns of cell maturation. RESULTS: Markers that are typical of basal cells in other stratifying epithelia were expressed by all cell strata of JE. JE lacked differentiation markers typical of other stratifying oral epithelial but showed...... suprabasal expression of markers typically expressed by simple epithelia and specialized epithelia, such as taste buds. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype of rodent JE differs from that of other oral epithelia and the pattern of differentiation assessed by its expression of glycoconjugates parallels that for other...

  11. STUDY OF UROGENITAL TRACT MICROFLORA OF DNEPROPETROVSK FEMALES BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

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    Honcharova S.Y.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We isolated and identified the pathogens from the urogenital tract in 100 women of 26-55 years in Diagnostic Center of Dnepropetrovsk Medical Academy by polymerase chain reaction. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by HPV of high and low cancer risk - HSV type 1+2, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Candida yeast species. The most abundant pathogens from the urogenital tract were HPV, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Chlamydia trachomatis.

  12. Plasticity within stem cell hierarchies in mammalian epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Farin, Henner F; Clevers, Hans

    2015-02-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are fueled by resident stem cells that have the capacity to self-renew, and to generate all the differentiated cell types that characterize a particular tissue. Classical models of such cellular hierarchies propose that commitment and differentiation occur unidirectionally, with the arrows 'pointing away' from the stem cell. Recent studies, all based on genetic lineage tracing, describe various strategies employed by epithelial stem cell hierarchies to replace damaged or lost cells. While transdifferentiation from one tissue type into another ('metaplasia') appears to be generally forbidden in nonpathological contexts, plasticity within an individual tissue stem cell hierarchy may be much more common than previously appreciated. In this review, we discuss recent examples of such plasticity in selected mammalian epithelia, highlighting the different modes of regeneration and their implications for our understanding of cellular hierarchy and tissue self-renewal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cystic urogenital anomalies in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Fox, J G; Erdman, S E; Lipman, N S; Murphy, J C

    1996-03-01

    Single or multiple semispherical to bilobulated fluid-filled cystic structures of variable size were observed on the dorsal aspects of the urinary bladder of four male and two female ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). All ferrets had been neutered. On physical examination, the cysts were palpated as caudal abdominal masses. Three of the six ferrets presented with dysuria, and two ferrets had signs compatible with endocrine dysfunction. Adrenal cortical hyperplasia or neoplasia were observed in all of the five ferrets examined. Sex hormones assayed in one of the six ferrets revealed elevated levels of serum estrodiol. The posterior aspect of the cysts was located on and/or attached to the trigone or neck of the bladder, with variable intraluminal communication with the bladder and/or the urethra. The anterior aspect of the cysts projected dorsally or dorsocranially into the caudal abdomen. The cysts were thin walled and contained urinelike fluid (n = 5) or viscous yellow fluid (n = 1). Histologically, the cyst walls were composed of three layers, epithelium, muscle, and serosa, with fibrovascular stroma between layers. The epithelium consisted of simple to stratified transitional, columnar, or squamous epithelial cells. The muscular layer consisted of intermittent bundles and/or single to double layers of continuous to discontinuous smooth muscle. The serosal layer consisted of loose fibrous stroma covered by flattened mesothelial cells. The cystic anomalies in these ferrets were most likely derived from the urogenital glands/ducts or other remnants.

  14. [Chlamydia trachomatis and urogenital mycoplasms in nonconococcal urethritis in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesić, Sonja; Vukićević, Jelica; Gvozdenović, Eleonora; Skiljević, Dusan; Janosević, Slobodanka; Medenica, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis is the most common sexually transmitted infection in men, with vast majority of the etiological agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis, followed by urogenital mycoplasmas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in nongonococcal urethritis in men, and to examine infections associated with these agents. Material and methods 299 sexually active, heterosexual men with nongonococcal urethritis were included into the study. Urethral samples were taken with a dacron swab placed into the urethra up to 2-3 cm. The Direct immunofluorescence technique was performed for identification of Chlamydia trachomatis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis were detected with Mycoplasma IST assay. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 22.75%, Uraeplasma urealyticum in 21.08% and Mycoplasma hominis in 8.02% cases. We found no significant differences in prevalence between Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticym (p > 0.05). Monoinfections were found in 51.85% with significantly higher rate (p urethritis with prevalence of 51.85% in monoinfections and 11.70% in associated infections. In 36.45% of cases the etiology of urethritis was not elucidated. These results suggest that more sensitive diagnostic tool should be applied when searching for the derailed etiology of nongonococcal urethritis.

  15. MR urography: the future gold standard in paediatric urogenital imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borthne, A.; Nordshus, T.; Reiseter, T. [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Geitung, J.T. [Department of General Radiology, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Gjesdal, K.I. [Department of Medical Physics and Techniques, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Babovic, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Bjerre, A. [Department of Paediatrics, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Loe, B. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    1999-09-01

    Background. Examination of the paediatric urogenital tract is traditionally performed using methods that utilise ionising radiation, such as intravenous urography (IVU), computerised tomography (CT), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and scintigraphy, in addition to ultrasound (US). Objective. To determine the potential and effectiveness of MR urography (MRU) in infants and children. Materials and methods. 44 MRU examinations were prospectively performed in 39 patients (21 infants, mean age 3.5 months, and 18 children, mean age 6 years 2 months) with known or suspected pathology of the urinary tract. Non-enhanced, fast spin-echo sequences (TSE) were performed in all patients. In 70 % of the patients a contrast-enhanced, fast gradient-echo sequence (TFE) was included. The dynamic sequence was prolonged and supplemented with furosemide provocation in some patients with suspected urinary-tract obstruction. Results. Nine percent of examinations were non-diagnostic or interrupted due to movement. MRU contributed additional information in 66 %. Nine patients with suspected urinary-tract obstruction were examined with both contrast-enhanced MRU and scintigraphy. Three MRU examinations were less informative and one equal to scintigraphy when obstruction was the diagnosis. When using a technique with a prolonged dynamic sequence, including frusemide provocation, four MRU examinations were equal and one was superior to scintigraphy. Conclusions. MRU has the potential to replace traditional diagnostic methods which use ionising radiation in paediatric patients. Further studies are needed before definite conclusions can be drawn. (orig.) With 6 figs., 3 tabs., 34 refs.

  16. Somatic and genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on somatic and genetic effects of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: haematopoietic and immune systems, mechanisms of late effects in various tissues, endogenous and exogenous factors in radiation carcinogenesis, teratogenic effects, genetic effects, in vitro transformation, tumour induction in different tissues, carcinogenesis in incorporated tissues, cancer epidemology and risk assessment. refs.; figs.; tabs

  17. Inducing sex reversal of the urogenital system of marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Marsupials differ from eutherian mammals in their reproductive strategy of delivering a highly altricial young after a short gestation. The young, with its undeveloped organ systems completes its development post-natally, usually within a pouch. The young is dependent on milk with a composition that varies through lactation to support its growth and changing needs as it matures over a lengthy period. Gonadal differentiation occurs after birth, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effects of hormonal manipulations on its sexual differentiation of the highly accessible young. In marsupials a difference in the migration of the urinary ducts around the genital ducts from eutherian mammals results in the unique tammar reproductive tract which has three vaginae and two cervices, and two distinctly separate uteri. In the tammar wallaby, a small member of the kangaroo family, we showed that virilisation of the Wolffian duct, prostate and phallus depends on an alternate androgen pathway, which has now been shown to be important for virilisation in humans. Through hormonal manipulations over differing time periods we have achieved sex reversal of both ovaries and testes, germ cells, genital ducts, prostate and phallus. Whilst we understand many of the mechanisms behind sexual differentiation there are still many lessons to be learned from understanding how sex reversal is achieved by using a model such as the tammar wallaby. This will help guide investigations into the major questions of how and why sex determination is achieved in other species. This review discusses the control and development of the marsupial urogenital system, largely drawn from our studies in the tammar wallaby and our ability to manipulate this system to induce sex reversal. Copyright © 2013 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Female urogenital dysfunction following total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ashraf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of Total Mesorectal Excision (TME on sexual function in the male is well documented. However, there is little literature in female patients. The aim of this study was to review the pelvic autonomic nervous anatomy in the female and to perform a retrospective audit of urinary and sexual function in women following surgery for rectal cancer where TME had been performed. Urogenital dysfunction was assessed through interview and questionnaire. Method Twenty-three questionnaires, eighteen returned, were sent to women with a mean age 65.5 yrs (range 34–86. All had undergone total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer between 1998–2001. Mean follow-up was 18.8 months (range 3–35. Results Preoperatively 5/18 (28% were sexually active, 3/18 (17% of patients described urinary frequency and nocturia and 7/18 (39% described symptoms of stress incontinence prior to surgery. Postoperatively all sexually active patients remained active although all described some discomfort with penetration. Two of the patients sexually active described reduced libido secondary to the stoma. Postoperative urinary symptoms developed with 59% reporting the development of nocturia, 18% developed stress incontinence and one patient required a permanent catheter. Of those with symptoms, 80% persisted longer than three months from surgery. Symptoms were predominant in those patients with low rectal cancers, particularly those undergoing abdomino-perineal excision and in those who had previously undergone abdominal hysterectomy. Conclusion The treatment of rectal cancer involves surgery to the pelvic floor. Despite nerve preservation this is associated with the development of worsening nocturia and stress incontinence. This is most marked in those patients who had previously undergone a hysterectomy. Further studies are warranted to assess the interaction with previous gynaecological surgery.

  19. The Prevalence of Urogenital Infections in Pregnant Women Experiencing Preterm and Full-Term Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Giraldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital infections are extremely prevalent during pregnancy and are an important cause of premature labor. However, the prevalence of urogenital infections during childbirth is not well known. Objective. Identify urogenital infections present at the beginning of labor in both full-term and preterm pregnancies. Study Design. Ninety-four women were admitted to the inpatient maternity clinic of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN. In total, 49 women in preterm labor and 45 women in full-term labor were included in the study, and samples of urinary, vaginal, and perianal material were collected for microbiological analysis. Results. The prevalences of general infections in the preterm labor group and the full-term labor group were 49.0% and 53.3% (P=0.8300, respectively. Urogenital infections in the preterm and full-term labor groups included urinary tract infection in 36.7% and 22.2% of women, vaginal candidiasis in 20.4% and 28.9% of women, bacterial vaginosis in 34.7% and 28.9% of women, and group B streptococcus in 6.1% and 15.6% of women, respectively. Conclusions. Urogenital infections were prevalent in women in preterm labor and full-term labor; however, significant differences between the groups were not observed.

  20. Dosimetry of paranasal sinus and mastoid epithelia in radium-exposed humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Dose calculations for 228 Ra and 226 Ra are presented for the sinus and mastoid epithelia and lead to the conclusion that the isotopes are of comparable dosimetric significance for the production of carcinomas in patients exposed to comparable levels

  1. Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure on Carcinogenic Properties of Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Shinsaku; Kim, Young Hak; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Mishima, Michiaki; Furuse, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. The inflammation increases the permeability of blood vessels and consequently elevates pressure in the interstitial tissues. However, there have been only a few reports on the effects of hydrostatic pressure on cultured cells, and the relationship between elevated hydrostatic pressure and cell properties related to malignant tumors is less well understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the cultured epithelial cells seeded on permeable filters. Surprisingly, hydrostatic pressure from basal to apical side induced epithelial stratification in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) I and Caco-2 cells, and cavities with microvilli and tight junctions around their surfaces were formed within the multi-layered epithelia. The hydrostatic pressure gradient also promoted cell proliferation, suppressed cell apoptosis, and increased transepithelial ion permeability. The inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) promoted epithelial stratification by the hydrostatic pressure whereas the activation of PKA led to suppressed epithelial stratification. These results indicate the role of the hydrostatic pressure gradient in the regulation of various epithelial cell functions. The findings in this study may provide clues for the development of a novel strategy for the treatment of the carcinoma.

  2. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kitami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  3. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitami, Masahiro [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  4. Local infiltration analgesia in urogenital prolapse surgery: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Billy B; Rasmussen, Yvonne H; Agerlin, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the analgesic effect of high-volume infiltration analgesia in urogenital prolapse surgery and provide a detailed description of the infiltration technique.......To evaluate the analgesic effect of high-volume infiltration analgesia in urogenital prolapse surgery and provide a detailed description of the infiltration technique....

  5. THE METHODS OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF UROGENITAL INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MYCOPLASMA HOMINIS AND UREAPLASMA SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zarucheynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide distribution of urogenital mycoplasmas in the population, the high frequency of carrier state and a long asymptomatic course of disease, the lack of specific clinical symptoms making the diagnosis impossible without using of special laboratory tests. The review focuses on indications for mycoplasma infection screening and for an appointmentof antibiotic therapy. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic methods of urogenital infections, associated with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp., with their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are described.

  6. Validation of ultrasonography in detecting structural disease of the urogenital tract of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, C; Flanagan, C; Higgins, D P; Krockenberger, M B

    2014-05-01

    A retrospective review of case records of ultrasonography and necropsy outcomes of 62 koalas was used to investigate the accuracy of ultrasonography in assessing koala urogenital tract structural disease at the Port Macquarie Koala Hospital. The results showed high concordance, supporting ultrasonography as an effective tool for evaluating structural disease of the koala urogenital tract, most commonly seen with chlamydiosis. The study also illustrates the advances benefiting animal welfare that can be made by wildlife carer groups through using a scientific, evidence-based approach. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Distribution of Y-receptors in murine lingual epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D Hurtado

    Full Text Available Peptide hormones and their cognate receptors belonging to neuropeptide Y (NPY family mediate diverse biological functions in a number of tissues. Recently, we discovered the presence of the gut satiation peptide YY (PYY in saliva of mice and humans and defined its role in the regulation of food intake and body weight maintenance. Here we report the systematic analysis of expression patterns of all NPY receptors (Rs, Y1R, Y2R, Y4R, and Y5R in lingual epithelia in mice. Using four independent assays, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and RT PCR, we show that the morphologically different layers of the keratinized stratified epithelium of the dorsal layer of the tongue express Y receptors in a very distinctive yet overlapping pattern. In particular, the monolayer of basal progenitor cells expresses both Y1 and Y2 receptors. Y1Rs are present in the parabasal prickle cell layer and the granular layer, while differentiated keratinocytes display abundant Y5Rs. Y4Rs are expressed substantially in the neuronal fibers innervating the lamina propria and mechanoreceptors. Basal epithelial cells positive for Y2Rs respond robustly to PYY(3-36 by increasing intracellular Ca(2+ suggesting their possible functional interaction with salivary PYY. In taste buds of the circumvallate papillae, some taste receptor cells (TRCs express YRs localized primarily at the apical domain, indicative of their potential role in taste perception. Some of the YR-positive TRCs are co-localized with neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, suggesting that these TRCs may have synaptic contacts with nerve terminals. In summary, we show that all YRs are abundantly expressed in multiple lingual cell types, including epithelial progenitors, keratinocytes, neuronal dendrites and TRCs. These results suggest that these receptors may be involved in the mediation of a wide variety of functions, including proliferation, differentiation, motility, taste perception

  8. Gross and fine dissection of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jin; Burgess, Shawn M

    2009-05-08

    Neurosensory epithelia in the inner ear are the crucial structures for hearing and balance functions. Therefore, it is important to understand the cellular and molecular features of the epithelia, which are mainly composed of two types of cells: hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Here we choose to study the inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish not only because the epithelial structures are highly conserved in all vertebrates studied, but also because the adult zebrafish is able to regenerate HCs, an ability that mammals lose shortly after birth. We use the inner ear of adult zebrafish as a model system to study the mechanisms of inner ear HC regeneration in adult vertebrates that could be helpful for clinical therapy of hearing/balance deficits in human as a result of HC loss. Here we demonstrate how to do gross and fine dissections of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish. The gross dissection removes the tissues surrounding the inner ear and is helpful for preparing tissue sections, which allows us to examine the detailed structure of the sensory epithelia. The fine dissection cleans up the non-sensory-epithelial tissues of each individual epithelium and enables us to examine the heterogeneity of the whole epithelium easily in whole-mount epithelial samples.

  9. Probiotics for Treatment and Prevention of Urogenital Infections in Women: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lisa; VandeVusse, Leona; Jermé, Martha; Abad, Cybéle L; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-05-01

    Probiotics are a complementary and integrative therapy useful in the treatment and prevention of urogenital infections in women. This study extends the work of researchers who systematically investigated the scientific literature on probiotics to prevent or treat urogenital infections. A systematic review was conducted to determine the efficacy of probiotics for prevention and/or treatment of urogenital infections in adult women from January 1, 2008, through June 30, 2015. We searched in CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Dissertations and Theses, and Alt-HealthWatch. After removing duplicates and studies that did not meet inclusion criteria, 20 studies were reviewed. All included at least one species of Lactobacillus probiotic as an intervention for treatment or prevention of urogenital infections. Data extracted included samples, settings, study designs, intervention types, reported outcomes, follow-up periods, and results. We evaluated all randomized controlled trials for risk of bias and made quality appraisals on all studies. Fourteen of the studies focused on bacterial vaginosis (BV), 3 on urinary tract infections (UTIs), 2 on vulvovaginal candidiasis, and one on human papillomavirus (HPV) as identified on Papanicolaou test. Studies were heterogeneous in terms of design, intervention, and outcomes. Four studies were of good quality, 9 of fair, and 7 poor. Probiotic interventions were effective for treatment and prevention of BV, prevention of recurrences of candidiasis and UTIs, and clearing HPV lesions. No study reported significant adverse events related to the probiotic intervention. The quality of the studies in this systematic review varied. Although clinical practice recommendations were limited by the strength of evidence, probiotic interventions were effective in treatment and prevention of urogenital infections as alternatives or co-treatments. More good quality research is needed to strengthen the body

  10. Osteoporosis and Somatization of Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papanikou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress can now be physiologically traced as a significant player in the creation of osteoporotic bones. The present pilot study involved 100 women (N = 42 have been diagnosed with osteopenia, N = 21 have been diagnosed with osteoporosis, N = 37 had a non-osteoporotic condition who participated in the Hellenic Society of Osteoporosis Association Support. Correlations between somatic symptoms of anxiety and osteoporosis, and among medications and somatization in women were explored. Assessments were based on a self-report demographic questionnaire and on the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST administered for detection of anxiety disorder and somatization. Statistical analysis detected non-significant differences regarding the correlation between anxiety symptomatology or somatization due to osteoporosis and osteopenia diagnosis. The same pattern is observed among women’s age group, the occupational and marital status. Hypothesis that the osteoporosis and osteopenia group would manifest significant relationships with the age group and medicines was confirmed, as well as between somatization and medicines that women with osteoporosis and osteopenia undertake. The results suggest that women are not prone to manifest anxiety or somatization in relation to the osteoporosis condition. However, the majority of women with osteoporosis and osteopenia consume more than two medicines other than those for osteoporosis. This quantity and combination they undertake appear to contribute and deteriorate their anxiety/somatization symptomatology. Further research based on a larger sample would give more definite results.

  11. Quantification and distribution of big conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in kidney epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Klaerke, Dan A

    2005-01-01

    and immunohistochemical studies. In cortical collecting ducts, BK channels were exclusively located in principal cells while no channels could be found in intercalated cells. The abundant and distinct distribution in kidney epithelia talks in favor for BK channels being important contributors in maintaining salt......Big conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels (BK channels) is an abundant channel present in almost all kind of tissue. The accurate quantity and especially the precise distribution of this channel in kidney epithelia are, however, still debated. The aim of the present study has therefore been...... to examine the presence of BK channels in kidney epithelia and determine the actual number and distribution of these channels. For this purpose, a selective peptidyl ligand for BK channels called iberiotoxin or the radiolabeled double mutant analog 125I-IbTX-D19Y/Y36F has been employed. The presence of BK...

  12. Motile cilia of human airway epithelia contain hedgehog signaling components that mediate noncanonical hedgehog signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Suifang; Shah, Alok S; Moninger, Thomas O; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Lu, Lin; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Thornell, Ian M; Reznikov, Leah R; Ernst, Sarah E; Karp, Philip H; Tan, Ping; Keshavjee, Shaf; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H; Welsh, Michael J

    2018-02-06

    Differentiated airway epithelia produce sonic hedgehog (SHH), which is found in the thin layer of liquid covering the airway surface. Although previous studies showed that vertebrate HH signaling requires primary cilia, as airway epithelia mature, the cells lose primary cilia and produce hundreds of motile cilia. Thus, whether airway epithelia have apical receptors for SHH has remained unknown. We discovered that motile cilia on airway epithelial cells have HH signaling proteins, including patched and smoothened. These cilia also have proteins affecting cAMP-dependent signaling, including Gα i and adenylyl cyclase 5/6. Apical SHH decreases intracellular levels of cAMP, which reduces ciliary beat frequency and pH in airway surface liquid. These results suggest that apical SHH may mediate noncanonical HH signaling through motile cilia to dampen respiratory defenses at the contact point between the environment and the lung, perhaps counterbalancing processes that stimulate airway defenses. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Constitutive and inducible expression of SKALP/elafin provides anti-elastase defense in human epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundt, R; van Ruissen, F; van Vlijmen-Willems, I M; Alkemade, H A; Zeeuwen, P L; Jap, P H; Dijkman, H; Fransen, J; Croes, H; van Erp, P E; Schalkwijk, J

    1996-01-01

    Skin-derived antileukoproteinase (SKALP), also known as elafin, is a serine proteinase inhibitor first discovered in keratinocytes from hyperproliferative human epidermis. In addition to the proteinase inhibiting domain which is directed against polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) derived enzymes such as elastase and proteinase 3, SKALP contains multiple transglutaminase (TGase) substrate domains which enable crosslinking to extracellular and cell envelope proteins. Here we show that SKALP is constitutively expressed in several epithelia that are continuously subjected to inflammatory stimuli, such as the oral cavity and the vagina where it co-localizes with type 1 TGase. All epithelia from sterile body cavities are negative for SKALP. In general, stratified squamous epithelia are positive, whereas pseudostratified epithelia, simple/glandular epithelia and normal epidermis are negative. SKALP was found in fetal tissues of the oral cavity from 17 wk gestation onwards where it continued to be expressed up to adult life. Remarkably, in fetal epidermis SKALP was found from week 28 onwards, but was downregulated to undetectable levels in neonatal skin within three months, suggesting a role during pregnancy in feto-maternal interactions or in the early maturation phase of the epidermis. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the presence of SKALP in secretory vesicles including the lamellar granules. In culture models for epidermal keratinocytes we found that expression of the endogenous SKALP gene provided protection against cell detachment caused by purified elastase or activated PMNs. Addition of exogenous recombinant SKALP fully protected the keratinocytes against PMN-dependent detachment whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase were only marginally effective. These findings strongly suggest that the constitutive expression of SKALP in squamous epithelia, and the inducible expression in epidermis participate in the control of epithelial integrity, by inhibiting PMN

  14. Histamine H1 receptors are expressed in mouse and frog semicircular canal sensory epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Laura; Tritto, Simona; Perin, Paola; Laforenza, Umberto; Gastaldi, Giulia; Zampini, Valeria; Zucca, Gianpiero; Valli, Stefano; Masetto, Sergio; Valli, Paolo

    2008-03-05

    Histamine-related drugs are commonly used in the treatment of vertigo and related vestibular disorders. Their site and mechanism of action, however, are still poorly understood. To increase our knowledge of the histaminergic system in the vestibular organs, we have investigated the expression of H1 and H3 histamine receptors in the frog and mouse semicircular canal sensory epithelia. Analysis was performed by mRNA reverse transcriptase-PCR, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry experiments. Our data show that both frog and mouse vestibular epithelia express H1 receptors. Conversely no clear evidence for H3 receptors expression was found.

  15. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested t...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  16. Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvina Lindsay Mijen; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 μM. (Author)

  17. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  18. DK phocomelia phenotype (von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome) caused by somatic mosaicism for del(13q).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamforth, J S; Lin, C C

    1997-12-31

    DK phocomelia (von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome) is a rare condition characterized by radial ray defects, occipital encephalocoele, and urogenital abnormalities. Lubinsky et al. [1994: Am J Med Genet 52:272-278] pointed out similarities between this and the del(13q) syndrome. To date, all reported cases of DK phocomelia have been apparently normal chromosomally. We report on a case of DK phocomelia in which the proposita had normal lymphocyte chromosomes, but was mosaic in fibroblasts for del(13)(q12). Fibroblast chromosomes studies on other cases of DK phocomelia have not been reported: this raises the possibility that some cases of DK phocomelia may be somatic mosaics for del(13)(q12).

  19. Effects of bestatin on the host immunity in patients treated for urogenital cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozono, S.; Iwai, A.; Babaya, K.; Hiramatsu, T.; Yoshida, K.; Yamada, K.; Hirao, Y.; Aoyama, H.; Ohara, S.; Okajima, E.

    1990-01-01

    To examine effects of bestatin on the host immunity of patients with urogenital cancer, 54 patients were randomized into 2 groups: bestatin treated and controls. In each group, the patients were divided into 2 subgroups: one which received basic treatment expected to greatly affect host immunity ('invasive treatment') while the other one received other types of basic treatment ('non-invasive treatment'). Peripheral lymphocyte, OKT 4/8 ratio and purified protein derivative (PPD) skin reaction were used as immunological markers. There were significant differences in the 'invasive' treatment group between bestatin treated patients and controls concerning lymphocyte counts and PPD skin reactions and in the 'non-invasive' group concerning lymphocyte counts and OKT 4/8 ratios. These results suggest that bestatin may potentiate host immunity in patients with urogenital cancer. Further studies on larger materials are, however, needed before more definite conclusions can be drawn. (orig.)

  20. Postmitotic basal cells in squamous cell epithelia are identified with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin - functional consequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdličková-Celá, E.; Plzák, J.; Holíková, Z.; Dvořánková, B.; Smetana, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 10 (2001), s. 714-720 ISSN 0903-4641 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : squamous cell epithelia * carcinoma * lectin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.924, year: 2001

  1. Slow spontaneous [Ca2+]i oscillations reflect nucleotide release from renal epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyti, Christine Stride; Odgaard, Elvin V. P.; Overgaard, Morten Thaarup

    2008-01-01

    Renal epithelia can be provoked mechanically to release nucleotides, which subsequently increases the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i) through activation of purinergic (P2) receptors. Cultured cells often show spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations, a feature suggested to involve nucl...

  2. Gene Expression and Functional Annotation of the Human Ciliary Body Epithelia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Sarah F.; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; Bossers, Koen; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Essing, Anke H. W.; Nagtegaal, Martijn; van der Spek, Peter J.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The ciliary body (CB) of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular

  3. Critical analysis of the literature investigating urogenital function preservation following robotic rectal cancer surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sofoklis; Panteleimonitis; Jamil; Ahmed; Mick; Harper; Amjad; Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyses the current literature regarding the urogenital functional outcomes of patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS A comprehensive literature search of electronic databases was performed in October 2015. The following search terms were applied: 'rectal cancer' or 'colorectal cancer' and robot* or 'da Vinci' and sexual or urolog* or urinary or erect* or ejaculat* or impot* or incontinence. All original studies examining the urological and/or sexual outcomes of male and/or female patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery were included. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were manually searched for further relevant articles. Abstracts were independently searched by two authors. RESULTS Fifteen original studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A total of 1338 patients were included; 818 received robotic, 498 laparoscopic and 22 open rectal cancer surgery. Only 726(54%) patients had their urogenital function assessed via means of validated functional questionnaires. From the included studies, three found that robotic rectal cancer surgery leads to quicker recovery of male urological function and five of male sexual function as compared to laparoscopic surgery. It is unclear whether robotic surgery offers favourable urogenital outcomes in the long run for males. In female patients only two studies assessed urological and threesexual function independently to that of males. In these studies there was no difference identified between patients receiving robotic and laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. However, in females the presented evidence was very limited making it impossible to draw any substantial conclusions. CONCLUSION There seems to be a trend towards earlier recovery of male urogenital function following robotic surgery. To evaluate this further, larger well designed studies are required.

  4. Critical analysis of the literature investigating urogenital function preservation following robotic rectal cancer surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sofoklis; Panteleimonitis[1,2; Jamil; Ahmed[1; Mick; Harper[2; Amjad; Parvaiz[1,2

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyses the current literature regarding the urogenital functional outcomes of patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery.METHODS A comprehensive literature search of electronic databases was performed in October 2015. The following search terms were applied: “rectal cancer” or “colorectal cancer” and robot* or “da Vinci” and sexual or urolog* or urinary or erect* or ejaculat* or impot* or incontinence.All original studies examining the urological and/or sexual outcomes of male and/or female patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery were included. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were manually searched for further relevant articles. Abstracts were independently searched by two authors.RESULTS Fifteen original studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria.A total of 1338 patients were included; 818 received robotic, 498 laparoscopic and 22 open rectal cancer surgery. Only 726 (54%) patients had their urogenital function assessed via means of validated functional questionnaires. From the included studies, three found that robotic rectal cancer surgery leads to quicker recovery of male urological function and five of male sexual function as compared to laparoscopic surgery.It is unclear whether robotic surgery offers favourable urogenital outcomes in the long run for males. In female patients only two studies assessed urological and three sexual function independently to that of males. In these studies there was no difference identified between patients receiving robotic and laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. However, in females the presented evidence was very limited making it impossible to draw any substantial conclusions.CONCLUSION There seems to be a trend towards earlier recovery of male urogenital function following robotic surgery. To evaluate this further, larger well designed studies are required.

  5. [State and developmental trends of urogenital tuberculosis--20 years clinical and pathologic-anatomical experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, H; Haenselt, V; Endmann, P

    1978-10-01

    On the basis of own experiences of twenty years and taking into consideration the knowledge of other authors the developmental tendency in the treatment of the urogenital tuberculosis is demonstrated, the indications to nephrectomy, resection of the kidney, and epididymectomy are reified as well as kind and sequelae of errors in chemotherapy analysed. From 1958 to 1977 2,868 patients with urogenital tuberculosis were hospitalized in the Central Clinic Bad Berka. Of them about 41% had to undergo an operation. A decrease of the quantity of operations can be observed only in the renal resections, whereas the nephrectomy rate is unchangedly high (16.3% of the own patients) and even shows an increasing tendency since 1975. Comparative examinations show that the pathologo-anatomical picture of the ectomized kidneys has not changed during the period of observation. The knowledge of the symptom-poor course obliges also further on differential-diagnostically to take into consideration the urogenital tuberculosis. Only on this way the still large number of organ endangering complications may be encountered in time.

  6. Prevalence of Urogenital Carcinoma in Stranded California Sea Lions ( Zalophus Californianus) from 2005-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Alissa C; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Duignan, Padraig J; Hall, Ailsa J; Wellehan, James F X; Gulland, Frances M D

    2018-03-02

    Urogenital carcinoma is common in wild California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus) along the west coast of the US. From 1979 to 1994, this cancer was observed in 18% (66/370) of necropsied subadult and adult sea lions at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California. A retrospective review of records from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015 was performed to characterize prevalence and characteristics of cancer over this decade. Fourteen percent (263/1917) of necropsied sea lions had cancer, of which 90% (237/263) were urogenital carcinoma. The prevalence of urogenital carcinoma was significantly higher in adults compared to juveniles and subadults. Advanced-stage disease with metastases was identified histologically in 78% (182/232) of cases and was the cause of death in 95% (172/182) of these cases. Metastases were most common in lung and lymph nodes, and hydronephrosis, secondary to ureter obstruction by metastases, was identified in 62% (114/185) of animals with advanced disease. No significant temporal change in prevalence was detected over the decade, and this highly aggressive, fatal cancer remains common in stranded California sea lions.

  7. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germination and that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol of regeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculated on WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D (22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture medium containing NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction (8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein and the development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promoted in WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containing hydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. During the maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages. The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histological studies.

  8. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812343Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germinationand that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol ofregeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculatedon WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein orglutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D(22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed caseinor glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture mediumcontaining NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction(8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein andthe development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promotedin WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containinghydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. Duringthe maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages.The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histologicalstudies.

  9. Manipulation of Cell Physiology Enables Gene Silencing in Well-differentiated Airway Epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh Krishnamurthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of RNA interference-based gene silencing to the airway surface epithelium holds great promise to manipulate host and pathogen gene expression for therapeutic purposes. However, well-differentiated airway epithelia display significant barriers to double-stranded small-interfering RNA (siRNA delivery despite testing varied classes of nonviral reagents. In well-differentiated primary pig airway epithelia (PAE or human airway epithelia (HAE grown at the air–liquid interface (ALI, the delivery of a Dicer-substrate small-interfering RNA (DsiRNA duplex against hypoxanthine–guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT with several nonviral reagents showed minimal uptake and no knockdown of the target. In contrast, poorly differentiated cells (2–5-day post-seeding exhibited significant oligonucleotide internalization and target knockdown. This finding suggested that during differentiation, the barrier properties of the epithelium are modified to an extent that impedes oligonucleotide uptake. We used two methods to overcome this inefficiency. First, we tested the impact of epidermal growth factor (EGF, a known enhancer of macropinocytosis. Treatment of the cells with EGF improved oligonucleotide uptake resulting in significant but modest levels of target knockdown. Secondly, we used the connectivity map (Cmap database to correlate gene expression changes during small molecule treatments on various cells types with genes that change upon mucociliary differentiation. Several different drug classes were identified from this correlative assessment. Well-differentiated epithelia treated with DsiRNAs and LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, significantly improved gene silencing and concomitantly reduced target protein levels. These novel findings reveal that well-differentiated airway epithelia, normally resistant to siRNA delivery, can be pretreated with small molecules to improve uptake of synthetic oligonucleotide and RNA interference (RNAi responses.

  10. Menstrual Hygiene Practices, WASH Access and the Risk of Urogenital Infection in Women from Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Padma; Baker, Kelly K.; Dutta, Ambarish; Swain, Tapoja; Sahoo, Sunita; Das, Bhabani Sankar; Panda, Bijay; Nayak, Arati; Bara, Mary; Bilung, Bibiana; Mishra, Pravas Ranjan; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Cairncross, Sandy; Torondel, Belen

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices vary worldwide and depend on the individual’s socioeconomic status, personal preferences, local traditions and beliefs, and access to water and sanitation resources. MHM practices can be particularly unhygienic and inconvenient for girls and women in poorer settings. Little is known about whether unhygienic MHM practices increase a woman’s exposure to urogenital infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and urinary tract infection (UTI). This study aimed to determine the association of MHM practices with urogenital infections, controlling for environmental drivers. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted on 486 women at Odisha, India. Cases and controls were recruited using a syndromic approach. Vaginal swabs were collected from all the participants and tested for BV status using Amsel’s criteria. Urine samples were cultured to assess UTI status. Socioeconomic status, clinical symptoms and reproductive history, and MHM and water and sanitation practices were obtained by standardised questionnaire. A total of 486 women were recruited to the study, 228 symptomatic cases and 258 asymptomatic controls. Women who used reusable absorbent pads were more likely to have symptoms of urogenital infection (AdjOR=2.3, 95%CI1.5-3.4) or to be diagnosed with at least one urogenital infection (BV or UTI) (AdjOR=2.8, 95%CI1.7-4.5), than women using disposable pads. Increased wealth and space for personal hygiene in the household were protective for BV (AdjOR=0.5, 95%CI0.3-0.9 and AdjOR=0.6, 95%CI0.3-0.9 respectively). Lower education of the participants was the only factor associated with UTI after adjusting for all the confounders (AdjOR=3.1, 95%CI1.2-7.9). Interventions that ensure women have access to private facilities with water for MHM and that educate women about safer, low-cost MHM materials could reduce urogenital disease among women. Further studies of the effects of specific practices for managing

  11. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  12. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Schröder, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population...

  13. Microbiota composition of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) ocular and urogenital sites, and their association with Chlamydia infection and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidgen, Miranda E; Hanger, Jonathan; Timms, Peter

    2017-07-12

    Disease caused by Chlamydia pecorum is characterised by ocular and urogenital infections that can lead to blindness and infertility in koalas. However, koalas that are infected with C. pecorum do not always progress to disease. In other host systems, the influence of the microbiota has been implicated in either accelerating or preventing infections progressing to disease. This study investigates the contribution of koala urogenital and ocular microbiota to Chlamydia infection and disease in a free ranging koala population. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, it was found that reproductive status in females and sexual maturation in males, were defining features in the koala urogenital microbiota. Changes in the urogenital microbiota of koalas is correlated with infection by the common pathogen, C. pecorum. The correlation of microbiota composition and C. pecorum infection is suggestive of members of the microbiota being involved in the acceleration or prevention of infections progressing to disease. The analysis also suggests that multiple microbes are likely to be associated with this process of disease progression, rather than a single organism. While other Chlamydia-like organisms were also detected, they are unlikely to contribute to chlamydial disease as they are rare members of the urogenital and ocular microbiota communities.

  14. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki [Osaka Police Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  15. Urogenital abnormalities in men exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Julie R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women during the 1940s–70s, has been shown to cause reproductive problems in the daughters. Studies of prenatally-exposed males have yielded conflicting results. Methods In data from a collaborative follow-up of three U.S. cohorts of DES-exposed sons, we examined the relation of prenatal DES exposure to occurrence of male urogenital abnormalities. Exposure status was determined through review of prenatal records. Mailed questionnaires (1994, 1997, 2001 asked about specified abnormalities of the urogenital tract. Risk ratios (RR were estimated by Cox regression with constant time at risk and control for year of birth. Results Prenatal DES exposure was not associated with varicocele, structural abnormalities of the penis, urethral stenosis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, or inflammation/infection of the prostate, urethra, or epididymus. However, RRs were 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.1–3.4 for cryptorchidism, 2.5 (1.5–4.3 for epididymal cyst, and 2.4 (1.5–4.4 for testicular inflammation/infection. Stronger associations were observed for DES exposure that began before the 11th week of pregnancy: RRs were 2.9 (1.6–5.2 for cryptorchidism, 3.5 (2.0–6.0 for epididymal cyst, and 3.0 (1.7–5.4 for inflammation/infection of testes. Conclusion These results indicate that prenatal exposure to DES increases risk of male urogenital abnormalities and that the association is strongest for exposure that occurs early in gestation. The findings support the hypothesis that endocrine disrupting chemicals may be a cause of the increased prevalence of cryptorchidism that has been seen in recent years.

  16. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  17. High-Dimensional Phenotyping Identifies Age-Emergent Cells in Human Mammary Epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny A. Pelissier Vatter

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Aging is associated with tissue-level changes in cellular composition that are correlated with increased susceptibility to disease. Aging human mammary tissue shows skewed progenitor cell potency, resulting in diminished tumor-suppressive cell types and the accumulation of defective epithelial progenitors. Quantitative characterization of these age-emergent human cell subpopulations is lacking, impeding our understanding of the relationship between age and cancer susceptibility. We conducted single-cell resolution proteomic phenotyping of healthy breast epithelia from 57 women, aged 16–91 years, using mass cytometry. Remarkable heterogeneity was quantified within the two mammary epithelial lineages. Population partitioning identified a subset of aberrant basal-like luminal cells that accumulate with age and originate from age-altered progenitors. Quantification of age-emergent phenotypes enabled robust classification of breast tissues by age in healthy women. This high-resolution mapping highlighted specific epithelial subpopulations that change with age in a manner consistent with increased susceptibility to breast cancer. : Vatter et al. find that single-cell mass cytometry of human mammary epithelial cells from 57 women, from 16 to 91 years old, depicts an in-depth phenotyping of aging mammary epithelia. Subpopulations of altered luminal and progenitor cells that accumulate with age may be at increased risk for oncogenic transformation. Keywords: human mammary epithelia, aging, mass cytometry, single-cell analysis, heterogeneity, breast cancer

  18. The thermosensitive TRPV3 channel contributes to rapid wound healing in oral epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijima, Reona; Wang, Bing; Takao, Tomoka; Mihara, Hiroshi; Kashio, Makiko; Ohsaki, Yasuyoshi; Zhang, Jing-Qi; Mizuno, Atsuko; Suzuki, Makoto; Yamashita, Yoshio; Masuko, Sadahiko; Goto, Masaaki; Tominaga, Makoto; Kido, Mizuho A

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity provides an entrance to the alimentary tract to serve as a protective barrier against harmful environmental stimuli. The oral mucosa is susceptible to injury because of its location; nonetheless, it has faster wound healing than the skin and less scar formation. However, the molecular pathways regulating this wound healing are unclear. Here, we show that transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3), a thermosensitive Ca(2+)-permeable channel, is more highly expressed in murine oral epithelia than in the skin by quantitative RT-PCR. We found that temperatures above 33°C activated TRPV3 and promoted oral epithelial cell proliferation. The proliferation rate in the oral epithelia of TRPV3 knockout (TRPV3KO) mice was less than that of wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated the contribution of TRPV3 to wound healing using a molar tooth extraction model and found that oral wound closure was delayed in TRPV3KO mice compared with that in WT mice. TRPV3 mRNA was up-regulated in wounded tissues, suggesting that TRPV3 may contribute to oral wound repair. We identified TRPV3 as an essential receptor in heat-induced oral epithelia proliferation and wound healing. Our findings suggest that TRPV3 activation could be a potential therapeutic target for wound healing in skin and oral mucosa. © FASEB.

  19. Differential and Cooperative Cell Adhesion Regulates Cellular Pattern in Sensory Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Hideru

    2016-01-01

    Animal tissues are composed of multiple cell types arranged in complex and elaborate patterns. In sensory epithelia, including the auditory epithelium and olfactory epithelium, different types of cells are arranged in unique mosaic patterns. These mosaic patterns are evolutionarily conserved, and are thought to be important for hearing and olfaction. Recent progress has provided accumulating evidence that the cellular pattern formation in epithelia involves cell rearrangements, movements, and shape changes. These morphogenetic processes are largely mediated by intercellular adhesion systems. Differential adhesion and cortical tension have been proposed to promote cell rearrangements. Many different types of cells in tissues express various types of cell adhesion molecules. Although cooperative mechanisms between multiple adhesive systems are likely to contribute to the production of complex cell patterns, our current understanding of the cooperative roles between multiple adhesion systems is insufficient to entirely explain the complex mechanisms underlying cellular patterning. Recent studies have revealed that nectins, in cooperation with cadherins, are crucial for the mosaic cellular patterning in sensory organs. The nectin and cadherin systems are interacted with one another, and these interactions provide cells with differential adhesive affinities for complex cellular pattern formations in sensory epithelia, which cannot be achieved by a single mechanism.

  20. Pelvic floor physiotherapy for women with urogenital dysfunction: indications and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, T Y

    2011-03-01

    Pelvic floor physiotherapy (PFPT) is considered to be a salient component of the conservative management of women with urogenital dysfunction including urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). PFPT is an important adjunct to the management of female pelvic and sexual pain disorders which are often associated with bothersome bladder symptoms. Physiotherapists utilize a variety of treatment methods which include behavioral therapy, exercise instruction, manual therapy, biofeedback and electrical stimulation. This review article provides a literature-based update describing and highlighting current indications and methods for pelvic floor physiotherapy intervention.

  1. Hemoglobin promotes somatic embryogenesis in peanut cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, N; Anthony, P; Davey, M R; Power, J B; Lowe, K C

    2004-02-01

    Critical parameters influencing somatic embryogenesis include growth regulators and oxygen supply. Consequently, the present investigation has focused on optimization of a somatic embryogenic system for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through media supplementation with the auxin, picloram. The latter at 30 mg L(-1) was optimal for inducing regeneration of somatic embryos from cultured explants of zygotic embryos. In contrast, somatic embryogenesis did not occur in the absence of this growth regulator. An assessment has also been made of the beneficial effect on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of the commercial hemoglobin (Hb) solution, Erythrogen. Hemoglobin at 1:50 and 1:100 (v:v) stimulated increases in mean fresh weight (up to a maximum of 57% over control), mean number of explants producing somatic embryos (15%) and mean number of somatic embryos per explant (29%).

  2. Dimensions of somatization and hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C V

    1995-05-01

    A significantly large group of patients who communicate their psychosocial distress in the form of physical symptoms are called somatizers. They tend to overuse medical services. The syndromes with which they present have indistinct boundaries, and there tends to be some fluidity of their symptomatic presentations. Underlying psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder), and personality disorders are frequently present.

  3. Complex malformations of the urogenital tract in a female dog: Gartner duct cyst, ipsilateral renal agenesis, and ipsilateral hydrometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Atsushi; Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Ryohei

    2016-05-01

    A 10-month-old female toy poodle was referred to the University of Tokyo Veterinary Medical Center with a urogenital anomaly found during sterilization. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a cyst adhering to the cervix and a unilateral renal agenesis. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis of the cyst was consistent with remnants of the Wolffian duct or a Gartner duct cyst. This is a rare case of a canine Gartner duct cyst with renal agenesis and uterine anomaly. We discuss the similarity of this case to that of humans and introduce a classification in the literature for these complex urogenital malformations for further clinical research into the precise diagnosis and appropriate surgical planning.

  4. LONG-TERM RESULTS OF IMMUNOPROPHYLAXIS RECURRENT INFECTION OF THE UROGENITAL TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kulchavenya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study included 48 patients who received a first course of Uro-Vaxom in 2007-2008, 19 men with chronic prostatitis/urethroprostatitis, and 29 women with recurrent cystitis. In just five years, it was noted 125 recurrences of urogenital infections, of which 88 cases (70,4% is required in addition to Uro-Vaxom antibiotics in combination with herbal medicine, and in the remaining 37 cases, and (29,6%, Uro-Vaxom alone was enough to relieve inflammation. In five years there were 254 monthly rate of Uro-Vaxom, of whom 125 (49,2% with curative intent for recurrent urogenital infections, and 129 (50,8% – from preventive, without exacerbation of underlying disease. Key for Punishment - intercurrent infection, mainly respiratory (86 cases – 66,7%, stress (14 cases – 10,8% in the 29 and the cases (22,5% patients received Uro-Vaxom alone, without a doctor's prescription , focusing on the sensations.

  5. A better understanding of urogenital tuberculosis pathophysiology based on radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Andre A.; Lucon, Antonio M.; Arvellos, Andre N.; Ramos, Claudio O.P.; Toledo, Antonio C.T.; Falci, Renato; Gomes, Cristiano M.; Recaverren, Fernando E.Q.; Netto, Jose Murillo B.; Srougi, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the radiological findings of urogenital tuberculosis (UGT) in patients at different disease stages, for a better understanding of its pathophysiology. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the radiological exams of 20 men (median age 41 years; range: 28-65) with urogenital tuberculosis diagnosis. The patients were classified in the following groups: (1) bilateral renal tuberculosis with predominantly parenchymatous involvement; (2) unilateral renal tuberculosis; (3) unilateral renal tuberculosis with bladder tuberculosis and (4) bilateral renal tuberculosis with bladder tuberculosis. Results: One AIDS patient had multiple bilateral renal tuberculosis abscesses (group 1). Six patients had unilateral renal tuberculosis with hydronephrosis due to stenosis and thickening of the collecting system, without involvement of the bladder or contralateral kidney (group 2). Six patients had bladder tuberculosis with diffuse thickening of the bladder wall, with one very low or no function kidney while the other kidney was normal (group 3). Seven patients had bladder tuberculosis associated to a very low or no function kidney with the other kidney with high-grade vesicoureteral reflux-associated ureterohydronephrosis (group 4). In two patients, sequential exams showed evolution of tuberculosis from a unilateral renal and ureteral lesion to contracted bladder and dilatation of the contralateral kidney secondary to high-grade reflux. Conclusions: UGT may have variable radiological presentations. However, in two of our cases we have seen that tuberculosis involvement of the urinary tract may be sequential. Further evidences are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  6. Development of Antibiotic Resistance Against Ureaplasma urealyticum Strains Isolated from Urogenital Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Saraçoğlu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess any change in the antibiotic sensitivity of Ureaplasma urealyticum strains isolated from urogenital samples in the course of time. Materials and Methods: Hospital records were retrospectively examined and cases with growth of U. urealyticum in urogenital samples in the years 2008 and 2013 were identified. Furthermore, the change in the course of time was examined by taking into consideration the cases we reported in 2001. Results: Higher rates of sensitivity against tetracycline and doxycycline were observed in 60 patients with isolated U. urealyticum. Higher rates of resistance against ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were observed. A significant difference was found in resistance against antibiotics when the records of 2008 and 2013 were compared. A statistically significant increase was found in resistance against ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin when the records of 2001 were compared with the records of 2008 and 2013 (p<0.0005. Conclusion: U. urealyticum strains demonstrated high levels of resistance to quinolones. Resistance development is increasing in the course of time. Sensitivity against tetracycline and doxycycline has continued at high rates. It would be beneficial to consider these results during empirical treatment to be applied in cases ineligible for culturing.

  7. The Effect of Shift Work on Urogenital Disease: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Nanfu; Haney, Nora M; Kohn, Taylor P; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2018-05-28

    Non-standard shift work schedules negatively impact the overall health of shift workers, and several studies have shown that shift work, specifically, is detrimental to urogenital health. The aims of this study are to systematically review the literature and determine the effect of shift work on the outcomes of hypogonadism, male infertility, lower urinary tract symptoms, and urogenital cancers. Recent evidence supports associations between non-standard shift work and an increase in the frequency of prostate cancer and the severity of erectile dysfunction, lower urinary tract symptoms, and hypogonadal symptoms, as well as worsening of semen parameters and fertility. These associations are strengthened by the presence of shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) which affects up to 20% of shift workers. No studies have assessed the impact of shift work on the frequency or severity of nephrolithiasis, interstitial cystitis, pelvic pain, prostatitis, or urinary tract infections. Non-standard shift work has been associated with a variety of negative health outcomes and urologic complications, especially with concurrent shift work sleep disorder. Recognition of these elevated risks among shift workers can aid in more effective screening for urologic conditions.

  8. Surface models of the male urogenital organs built from the Visible Korean using popular software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Byeong-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Unlike volume models, surface models, which are empty three-dimensional images, have a small file size, so they can be displayed, rotated, and modified in real time. Thus, surface models of male urogenital organs can be effectively applied to an interactive computer simulation and contribute to the clinical practice of urologists. To create high-quality surface models, the urogenital organs and other neighboring structures were outlined in 464 sectioned images of the Visible Korean male using Adobe Photoshop; the outlines were interpolated on Discreet Combustion; then an almost automatic volume reconstruction followed by surface reconstruction was performed on 3D-DOCTOR. The surface models were refined and assembled in their proper positions on Maya, and a surface model was coated with actual surface texture acquired from the volume model of the structure on specially programmed software. In total, 95 surface models were prepared, particularly complete models of the urinary and genital tracts. These surface models will be distributed to encourage other investigators to develop various kinds of medical training simulations. Increasingly automated surface reconstruction technology using commercial software will enable other researchers to produce their own surface models more effectively. PMID:21829759

  9. A better understanding of urogenital tuberculosis pathophysiology based on radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Andre A., E-mail: andreavaresef@gmail.com [Department of Morphology and Division of Urology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Division of Urology, Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lucon, Antonio M. [Division of Urology, Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Arvellos, Andre N.; Ramos, Claudio O.P.; Toledo, Antonio C.T. [Department of Morphology and Division of Urology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Falci, Renato; Gomes, Cristiano M. [Division of Urology, Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Recaverren, Fernando E.Q.; Netto, Jose Murillo B. [Department of Morphology and Division of Urology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Srougi, Miguel [Division of Urology, Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the radiological findings of urogenital tuberculosis (UGT) in patients at different disease stages, for a better understanding of its pathophysiology. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the radiological exams of 20 men (median age 41 years; range: 28-65) with urogenital tuberculosis diagnosis. The patients were classified in the following groups: (1) bilateral renal tuberculosis with predominantly parenchymatous involvement; (2) unilateral renal tuberculosis; (3) unilateral renal tuberculosis with bladder tuberculosis and (4) bilateral renal tuberculosis with bladder tuberculosis. Results: One AIDS patient had multiple bilateral renal tuberculosis abscesses (group 1). Six patients had unilateral renal tuberculosis with hydronephrosis due to stenosis and thickening of the collecting system, without involvement of the bladder or contralateral kidney (group 2). Six patients had bladder tuberculosis with diffuse thickening of the bladder wall, with one very low or no function kidney while the other kidney was normal (group 3). Seven patients had bladder tuberculosis associated to a very low or no function kidney with the other kidney with high-grade vesicoureteral reflux-associated ureterohydronephrosis (group 4). In two patients, sequential exams showed evolution of tuberculosis from a unilateral renal and ureteral lesion to contracted bladder and dilatation of the contralateral kidney secondary to high-grade reflux. Conclusions: UGT may have variable radiological presentations. However, in two of our cases we have seen that tuberculosis involvement of the urinary tract may be sequential. Further evidences are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Anatomy of pudendal nerve at urogenital diaphragm--new critical site for nerve entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Stephan; Ebmer, Johannes; Dellon, A Lee; Aszmann, Oskar C

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the relations of the pudendal nerve in this complex anatomic region and determine possible entrapment sites that are accessible for surgical decompression. Entrapment neuropathies of the pudendal nerve are an uncommon and, therefore, often overlooked or misdiagnosed clinical entity. The detailed relations of this nerve as it exits the pelvis through the urogenital diaphragm and enters the mobile part of the penis have not yet been studied. Detailed anatomic dissections were performed in 10 formalin preserved hemipelves under 3.5x loupe magnification. The pudendal nerve was dissected from the entrance into the Alcock canal to the dorsum of the penis. The branching pattern of the nerve and its topographic relationship were recorded and photographs taken. The anatomic dissections revealed that the pudendal nerve passes through a tight osteofibrotic canal just distal to the urogenital diaphragm at the entrance to the base of the penis. This canal is, in part, formed by the inferior ramus of the pubic bone, the suspensory ligament of the penis, and the ischiocavernous body. In two specimens, a fusiform pseudoneuromatous thickening was found. The pudendal nerve is susceptible to compression at the passage from the Alcock canal to the dorsum of the penis. Individuals exposed to repetitive mechanical irritation in this region are especially endangered. Diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy can have additional compression neuropathy with decreased penile sensibility and will benefit from decompression of the pudendal nerve.

  11. Isolation and antibiotic resistance of Ureaplasma spp. isolated from urogenital specimen between 2002 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Del Gaudio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis are frequently isolated from urogenital samples. Ureaplasma spp is responsible for cervicovaginitis, salpingitis, urethritis, epididymitis, male and female infertility, spontaneous abortion, and during pregnancy, for the premature rupture of the membranes, because of chorionamnionitis. Our study aimed to establish the pattern of antimicrobial resistance among Ureaplasma spp isolated in the area of Andria,Apulia Region, from January 2002 to December 2007. 240/781 (30.7% of the urogenital samples examined were found Ureaplasma spp.-positive. 152/240 (63.3 % were >104 UFC/ml and 88/240 (36.7 % were <104 UFC/ml. With regard to the resistance rate, we observed significant increase in resistance to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin. While we did not observe resistance to doxycycline, strains resistant to tetracycline, josamycin, and pristinamycins, were isolated during last years of investigation. Our data may help improve the management of these infections above all in consideration of the differences among isolates in different geographic regions.

  12. Urogenital system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, B.; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hein, P.; Zaspel, U.

    2007-01-01

    The book is focussed on the radiological diagnostics of diseases in the urogential system. The description of the specific diseases, the identification by modern imaging techniques, the interpretation of examinatory results and therapeutic options are systematically treated in 4 chapters: kidney and adrenal glands, urinary tract, male genitals, female genitals

  13. Phenylbutyrate counteracts Shigella mediated downregulation of cathelicidin in rabbit lung and intestinal epithelia: a potential therapeutic strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protim Sarker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cathelicidins and defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs that are downregulated in the mucosal epithelia of the large intestine in shigellosis. Oral treatment of Shigella infected rabbits with sodium butyrate (NaB reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18 in the large intestinal epithelia. AIMS: To develop novel regimen for treating infectious diseases by inducing innate immunity, we selected sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB, a registered drug for a metabolic disorder as a potential therapeutic candidate in a rabbit model of shigellosis. Since acute respiratory infections often cause secondary complications during shigellosis, the systemic effect of PB and NaB on CAP-18 expression in respiratory epithelia was also evaluated. METHODS: The readouts were clinical outcomes, CAP-18 expression in mucosa of colon, rectum, lung and trachea (immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR and release of the CAP-18 peptide/protein in stool (Western blot. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Significant downregulation of CAP-18 expression in the epithelia of rectum and colon, the site of Shigella infection was confirmed. Interestingly, reduced expression of CAP-18 was also noticed in the epithelia of lung and trachea, indicating a systemic effect of the infection. This suggests a causative link to acute respiratory infections during shigellosis. Oral treatment with PB resulted in reduced clinical illness and upregulation of CAP-18 in the epithelium of rectum. Both PB and NaB counteracted the downregulation of CAP-18 in lung epithelium. The drug effect is suggested to be systemic as intravenous administration of NaB could also upregulate CAP-18 in the epithelia of lung, rectum and colon. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that PB has treatment potential in human shigellosis. Enhancement of CAP-18 in the mucosal epithelia of the respiratory tract by PB or NaB is a novel discovery. This could mediate protection from

  14. Phenylbutyrate counteracts Shigella mediated downregulation of cathelicidin in rabbit lung and intestinal epithelia: a potential therapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Protim; Ahmed, Sultan; Tiash, Snigdha; Rekha, Rokeya Sultana; Stromberg, Roger; Andersson, Jan; Bergman, Peter; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Agerberth, Birgitta; Raqib, Rubhana

    2011-01-01

    Cathelicidins and defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are downregulated in the mucosal epithelia of the large intestine in shigellosis. Oral treatment of Shigella infected rabbits with sodium butyrate (NaB) reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18) in the large intestinal epithelia. To develop novel regimen for treating infectious diseases by inducing innate immunity, we selected sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB), a registered drug for a metabolic disorder as a potential therapeutic candidate in a rabbit model of shigellosis. Since acute respiratory infections often cause secondary complications during shigellosis, the systemic effect of PB and NaB on CAP-18 expression in respiratory epithelia was also evaluated. The readouts were clinical outcomes, CAP-18 expression in mucosa of colon, rectum, lung and trachea (immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR) and release of the CAP-18 peptide/protein in stool (Western blot). Significant downregulation of CAP-18 expression in the epithelia of rectum and colon, the site of Shigella infection was confirmed. Interestingly, reduced expression of CAP-18 was also noticed in the epithelia of lung and trachea, indicating a systemic effect of the infection. This suggests a causative link to acute respiratory infections during shigellosis. Oral treatment with PB resulted in reduced clinical illness and upregulation of CAP-18 in the epithelium of rectum. Both PB and NaB counteracted the downregulation of CAP-18 in lung epithelium. The drug effect is suggested to be systemic as intravenous administration of NaB could also upregulate CAP-18 in the epithelia of lung, rectum and colon. Our results suggest that PB has treatment potential in human shigellosis. Enhancement of CAP-18 in the mucosal epithelia of the respiratory tract by PB or NaB is a novel discovery. This could mediate protection from secondary respiratory infections that frequently are the lethal causes in

  15. Proteomic analysis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestinal epithelia: physiological acclimation to short-term starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarner, Bradley L; Bharadwaj, Anant S; Inerowicz, Dorota; Goodman, Angela S; Brown, Paul B

    2013-03-01

    The intestinal epithelia form the first line of defense against harmful agents in the gut lumen of most monogastric vertebrates, including teleost fishes. Previous investigations into the effect of starvation on the intestinal epithelia of teleost fishes have focused primarily on changes in morphological characteristics and targeted molecular analysis of specific enzymes. The goal of this study was to use a comprehensive approach to help reveal how the intestinal epithelia of carnivorous teleost fishes acclimate to short-term nutrient deprivation. We utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to conduct the proteomic analysis of the mucosal and epithelial layer of the anterior gut intestinal tract (GIT) from satiation fed vs. 4 week starved rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total of 40 proteins were determined to be differentially expressed and were subsequently picked for in-gel trypsin digestion. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis was conducted using matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight/time-of-flight. Nine of the 11 positively identified proteins were directly related to innate immunity. The expression of α-1 proteinase inhibitor decreased in starved vs. fed fish. Also, the concentration of one leukocyte elastase inhibitor (LEI) isomer decreased in starved fish, though the concentration of another LEI isomer increased in due to starvation. In addition, starvation promoted an increased concentration of the important xenobiotic-transporter p-glycoprotein. Finally, starvation resulted in a significant increase in type II keratin E2. Overall, our results indicate that starvation promoted a reduced capacity to inhibit enzymatic stress but increased xenobiotic resistance and paracellular permeability of epithelial cells in the anterior intestine of rainbow trout. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Targeted deletion of Atg5 reveals differential roles of autophagy in keratin K5-expressing epithelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukseree, Supawadee [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok (Thailand); Rossiter, Heidemarie; Mildner, Michael [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Pammer, Johannes [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Buchberger, Maria; Gruber, Florian [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Watanapokasin, Ramida [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok (Thailand); Tschachler, Erwin [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Eckhart, Leopold, E-mail: leopold.eckhart@meduniwien.ac.at [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated mice lacking Atg5 and autophagy in keratin K5-positive epithelia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of autophagy in thymic epithelium was not associated with signs of autoimmunity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autophagy was required for normal terminal differentiation of preputial gland cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autophagy-deficient cells of the preputial glands degraded nuclear DNA prematurely. -- Abstract: Autophagy contributes to the homeostasis of many tissues, yet its role in epithelia is incompletely understood. A recent report proposed that Atg5-dependent autophagy in thymic epithelial cells is essential for their function in the negative selection of self-reactive T-cells and, thus, for the suppression of tissue inflammation. Here we crossed mice carrying floxed alleles of the Atg5 gene with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the keratin K5 promoter to suppress autophagy in all K5-positive epithelia. The efficiency of autophagy abrogation was confirmed by immunoanalyses of LC3, which was converted to the autophagy-associated LC3-II form in normal but not Atg5-deficient cells, and of p62, which accumulated in Atg5-deficient cells. Mice carrying the epithelium-specific deletion of Atg5 showed normal weight gain, absence of tissue inflammation, and a normal morphology of the thymic epithelium. By contrast, autophagy-deficient epithelial cells of the preputial gland showed aberrant eosinophilic staining in histology and premature degradation of nuclear DNA during terminal differentiation. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that autophagy is dispensable for the suppression of autoimmunity by thymic epithelial cells but essential for normal differentiation of the preputial gland in mice.

  17. Expression pattern of adhesion molecules in junctional epithelium differs from that in other gingival epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, S; Yaegashi, T; Oikawa, Y; Fujiwara, H; Mikami, T; Takeda, Y; Satoh, M

    2006-08-01

    The gingival epithelium is the physiologically important interface between the bacterially colonized gingival sulcus and periodontal soft and mineralized connective tissues, requiring protection from exposure to bacteria and their products. However, of the three epithelia comprising the gingival epithelium, the junctional epithelium has much wider intercellular spaces than the sulcular epithelium and oral gingival epithelium. Hence, the aim of the present study was to characterize the cell adhesion structure in the junctional epithelium compared with the other two epithelia. Gingival epithelia excised at therapeutic flap surgery from patients with periodontitis were examined for expression of adhesion molecules by immunofluorescence. In the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but not in the junctional epithelium, desmoglein 1 and 2 in cell-cell contact sites were more abundant in the upper than the suprabasal layers. E-cadherin, the main transmembranous molecule of adherens junctions, was present in spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but was scarce in the junctional epithelium. In contrast, desmoglein 3 and P-cadherin were present in all layers of the junctional epithelium as well as the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium. Connexin 43 was clearly localized to spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium, sulcular epithelium and parts of the junctional epithelium. Claudin-1 and occludin were expressed in the cell membranes of a few superficial layers of the oral gingival epithelium. These findings indicated that the junctional epithelium contains only a few desmosomes, composed of only desmoglein 3; adherens junctions are probably absent because of defective E-cadherin. Thus, the anchoring junctions connecting junctional epithelium cells are lax, causing widened intercellular spaces. In contrast, the oral gingival epithelium, which has a few tight junctions, functions as a barrier.

  18. The urokinase receptor homolog Haldisin is a novel differentiation marker of stratum granulosum in squamous epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Kriegbaum, Mette C; Hertz, Emil P

    2013-01-01

    Several members of the Ly-6/uPAR (LU)-protein domain family are differentially expressed in human squamous epithelia. In some cases, they even play important roles in maintaining skin homeostasis, as exemplified by the secreted single domain member, SLURP-1, the deficiency of which is associated....... In accordance with its expression pattern, we denote this protein product, which is encoded by the LYPD5 gene, as Haldisin (human antigen with LU-domains expressed in skin). Two of the five human glycolipid-anchored membrane proteins with multiple LU-domains characterized so far are predominantly confined...

  19. Evaluating diagnostic indicators of urogenital Schistosoma haematobium infection in young women: A cross sectional study in rural South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashini Nilushika Galappaththi-Arachchige

    Full Text Available Urine microscopy is the standard diagnostic method for urogenital S. haematobium infection. However, this may lead to under-diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis, as the disease may present itself with genital symptoms in the absence of ova in the urine. Currently there is no single reliable and affordable diagnostic method to diagnose the full spectrum of urogenital S. haematobium infection. In this study we explore the classic indicators in the diagnosis of urogenital S. haematobium infection, with focus on young women.In a cross-sectional study of 1237 sexually active young women in rural South Africa, we assessed four diagnostic indicators of urogenital S. haematobium infection: microscopy of urine, polymerase chain reaction (PCR of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL, urogenital symptoms, and sandy patches detected clinically in combination with computerised image analysis of photocolposcopic images. We estimated the accuracy of these diagnostic indicators through the following analyses: 1 cross tabulation (assumed empirical gold standard of the tests against the combined findings of sandy patches and/or computerized image analysis and 2 a latent class model of the four indicators without assuming any gold standard.The empirical approach showed that urine microscopy had a sensitivity of 34.7% and specificity of 75.2% while the latent class analysis approach (LCA suggested a sensitivity of 81.0% and specificity of 85.6%. The empirical approach and LCA showed that Schistosoma PCR in CVL had low sensitivity (14.1% and 52.4%, respectively and high specificity (93.0% and 98.0, respectively. Using LCA, the presence of sandy patches showed a sensitivity of 81.6 and specificity of 42.4%. The empirical approach and LCA showed that urogenital symptoms had a high sensitivity (89.4% and 100.0%, respectively, whereas specificity was low (10.6% and 12.3%, respectively.All the diagnostic indicators used in the study had limited accuracy. Using urine microscopy

  20. Personality characteristics in patients with somatized disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolyevna Tolkach

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study personality characteristics, behavioral style, and modes of relations with their people in patients with somatized disorder. Subjects and methods. Eighty-six patients diagnosed as having somatized disorder were examined using Leary's interpersonal diagnosis system. Results. The author revealed the following personality characteristics and behavioral styles: a depressed need for authoritarianism, dominance, autonomy, aggressiveness, a display of qualities, such as superfriendliness, benevolence, submissiveness, dependency, and suspiciousness. These characteristics give an insight into the development of somatization in patients with somatized disorder.

  1. Effects of coconut oil on glycemia, inflammation, and urogenital microbial parameters in female Ossabaw mini-pigs.

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    Annie E Newell-Fugate

    Full Text Available Forty percent of American women are obese and at risk for type II diabetes, impaired immune function, and altered microbiome diversity, thus impacting overall health. We investigated whether obesity induced by an excess calorie, high fat diet containing hydrogenated fats, fructose, and coconut oil (HFD altered glucose homeostasis, peripheral immunity, and urogenital microbial dynamics. We hypothesized that HFD would cause hyperglycemia, increase peripheral inflammation, and alter urogenital microbiota to favor bacterial taxonomy associated with inflammation. We utilized female Ossabaw mini-pigs to model a 'thrifty' metabolic phenotype associated with increased white adipose tissue mass. Pigs were fed HFD (~4570 kcal/pig/day or lean (~2000 kcal/pig/day diet for a total of 9 estrous cycles (~6 months. To determine the effect of cycle stage on cytokines and the microbiome, animals had samples collected during cycles 7 and 9 on certain days of the cycle: D1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 18. Vaginal swabs or cervical flushes assessed urogenital microbiota. Systemic fatty acids, insulin, glucose, and cytokines were analyzed. Pig weights and morphometric measurements were taken weekly. Obese pigs had increased body weight, length, heart and belly girth but similar glucose concentrations. Obese pigs had decreased cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, arachidonic acid and plasma insulin, but increased levels of vaccenic acid. Obese pigs had greater urogenital bacterial diversity, including several taxa known for anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, induction of obesity did not induce inflammation but shifted the microbial communities within the urogenital tract to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. We postulate that the coconut oil in the HFD oil may have supported normal glucose homeostasis and modulated the immune response, possibly through regulation of microbial community dynamics and fatty acid metabolism. This animal model holds promise for the study of

  2. Effects of coconut oil on glycemia, inflammation, and urogenital microbial parameters in female Ossabaw mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Fugate, Annie E; Lenz, Katherine; Skenandore, Cassandra; Nowak, Romana A; White, Bryan A; Braundmeier-Fleming, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Forty percent of American women are obese and at risk for type II diabetes, impaired immune function, and altered microbiome diversity, thus impacting overall health. We investigated whether obesity induced by an excess calorie, high fat diet containing hydrogenated fats, fructose, and coconut oil (HFD) altered glucose homeostasis, peripheral immunity, and urogenital microbial dynamics. We hypothesized that HFD would cause hyperglycemia, increase peripheral inflammation, and alter urogenital microbiota to favor bacterial taxonomy associated with inflammation. We utilized female Ossabaw mini-pigs to model a 'thrifty' metabolic phenotype associated with increased white adipose tissue mass. Pigs were fed HFD (~4570 kcal/pig/day) or lean (~2000 kcal/pig/day) diet for a total of 9 estrous cycles (~6 months). To determine the effect of cycle stage on cytokines and the microbiome, animals had samples collected during cycles 7 and 9 on certain days of the cycle: D1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 18. Vaginal swabs or cervical flushes assessed urogenital microbiota. Systemic fatty acids, insulin, glucose, and cytokines were analyzed. Pig weights and morphometric measurements were taken weekly. Obese pigs had increased body weight, length, heart and belly girth but similar glucose concentrations. Obese pigs had decreased cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10), arachidonic acid and plasma insulin, but increased levels of vaccenic acid. Obese pigs had greater urogenital bacterial diversity, including several taxa known for anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, induction of obesity did not induce inflammation but shifted the microbial communities within the urogenital tract to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. We postulate that the coconut oil in the HFD oil may have supported normal glucose homeostasis and modulated the immune response, possibly through regulation of microbial community dynamics and fatty acid metabolism. This animal model holds promise for the study of how different

  3. European society of urogenital radiology (ESUR) guidelines: MR imaging of pelvic endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazot, M.; Thomassin-Naggara, I.; Bharwani, N.; Huchon, C.; Kinkel, K.; Cunha, T.M.; Guerra, A.; Manganaro, L.; Bunesch, L.; Kido, A.; Togashi, K.; Rockall, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition of unknown aetiology that primarily affects women of reproductive age. The accepted first-line imaging modality is pelvic ultrasound. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly performed as an additional investigation in complex cases and for surgical planning. There is currently no international consensus regarding patient preparation, MRI protocols or reporting criteria. Our aim was to develop clinical guidelines for MRI evaluation of pelvic endometriosis based on literature evidence and consensus expert opinion. This work was performed by a group of radiologists from the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR), experts in gynaecological imaging and a gynaecologist expert in methodology. The group discussed indications for MRI, technical requirements, patient preparation, MRI protocols and criteria for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis on MRI. The expert panel proposed a final recommendation for each criterion using Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) 2011 levels of evidence. (orig.)

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  5. European society of urogenital radiology (ESUR) guidelines: MR imaging of pelvic endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazot, M.; Thomassin-Naggara, I. [Tenon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Bharwani, N. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, St Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Huchon, C. [CHI Poissy Saint-Germain en Laye, Versailles University France, Department of Obtetrics and Gynaecology, Poissy (France); Kinkel, K. [Institut de Radiologie, Chene-Bougeries (Switzerland); Cunha, T.M. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Servico de Radiologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Guerra, A. [Hospital da Luz, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal); Manganaro, L. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Bunesch, L. [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Department of Radiology (Urogenital Section), Barcelona (Spain); Kido, A.; Togashi, K. [Kyoto University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Rockall, A.G. [The Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition of unknown aetiology that primarily affects women of reproductive age. The accepted first-line imaging modality is pelvic ultrasound. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly performed as an additional investigation in complex cases and for surgical planning. There is currently no international consensus regarding patient preparation, MRI protocols or reporting criteria. Our aim was to develop clinical guidelines for MRI evaluation of pelvic endometriosis based on literature evidence and consensus expert opinion. This work was performed by a group of radiologists from the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR), experts in gynaecological imaging and a gynaecologist expert in methodology. The group discussed indications for MRI, technical requirements, patient preparation, MRI protocols and criteria for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis on MRI. The expert panel proposed a final recommendation for each criterion using Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) 2011 levels of evidence. (orig.)

  6. Urogenital fistulae: A prospective study of 50 cases at a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Rajkumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The misfortunate incident of formation of a urogenital fistula remains a major challenge for surgical urologists worldwide. Such fistulae may not be a life-threatening problem, but surely the women face demoralization, social boycott and even divorce and separation. The fistula may be vaginal, recto-vaginal or a combination of the two. The World Health Organization (WHO has estimated that in the developing nations, nearly 5 million women annually suffer severe morbidity with obstetric fistulae being the foremost on the list. The objective of our study was to enunciate the patient demography, patient profile, incidence, type of surgery, as well as the long-term outcomes encountered in the management of all types of genital fistulae at a tertiary care centre. Materials and Methods: 50 consecutive patients, attending the outpatient department with urogenital fistulae, were studied during the period of 5 years from July 2005 to July 2009. All female patients with complaints of urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence and dribbling, patients having a history of obstructed labor, radiotherapy, instrumental delivery, foreign body or trauma and with a history of hysterectomy (abdominal/ vaginal and lower segment caesarean section (LSCS were included. A thorough urological examination included a dye study using methylene blue, Renal function tests, X-ray KUB and intravenous urography (IVU. Cystoscopy along with examination under anaesthesia (EUA were done to assess the actual extent of injury. All patients were subjected to appropriate surgical interventions via the same combination of surgeons . Post operatively, prophylactic antibiotics were administered to all patients and patients were managed till discharge and followed thereafter via regular outpatient visits for a period of 3 years. Results: Age of patients ranged from 21 to 40 years. 64% patients hailed from rural areas, 76% were from the lower socio-economic strata, 40

  7. Expression of the innate defense receptor S5D-SRCRB in the urogenital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miro-Julia, C.; Escoda-Ferran, C.; Carrasco, E.

    2014-01-01

    S5D-SRCRB is a novel mouse secretory glycoprotein belonging to the ancient and highly conserved scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily of protein receptors. Available evidence indicates that S5D-SRCRB interacts with conserved microbial cell wall components, as well as with some endogenous...... proteins, and presents a restricted tissue expression pattern. This study further analyzes the expression of S5D-SRCRB along the mouse urogenital tract. Immunohistochemical staining for S5D-SRCRB was observed in spermatocytes from seminiferous tubules and in the epithelial surface from urethra and bladder......-SRCRB was observed in the apical border of terminally differentiated IC. Colocalization of S5D-SRCRB with galectin-3 (Gal-3) was also observed in kidney and bladder, but not in testis, supporting concurrent biochemical studies demonstrating the carbohydrate-dependent interaction of Gal-3 and S5D-SRCRB. Furthermore...

  8. Urogenital fistulae: A prospective study of 50 cases at a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Rajkumar; Joshi, Nitin; Aggarwal, Gaurav; Raikwar, Ramsharan; Shrivastava, Vaibhav; Mathur, Poonam; Raikwar, Poonam; Joshi, Rupali

    2010-05-01

    The misfortunate incident of formation of a urogenital fistula remains a major challenge for surgical urologists worldwide. Such fistulae may not be a life-threatening problem, but surely the women face demoralization, social boycott and even divorce and separation. The fistula may be vaginal, recto-vaginal or a combination of the two. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that in the developing nations, nearly 5 million women annually suffer severe morbidity with obstetric fistulae being the foremost on the list. The objective of our study was to enunciate the patient demography, patient profile, incidence, type of surgery, as well as the long-term outcomes encountered in the management of all types of genital fistulae at a tertiary care centre. 50 consecutive patients, attending the outpatient department with urogenital fistulae, were studied during the period of 5 years from July 2005 to July 2009. All female patients with complaints of urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence and dribbling, patients having a history of obstructed labor, radiotherapy, instrumental delivery, foreign body or trauma and with a history of hysterectomy (abdominal/ vaginal) and lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) were included. A thorough urological examination included a dye study using methylene blue, Renal function tests, X-ray KUB and intravenous urography (IVU). Cystoscopy along with examination under anaesthesia (EUA) were done to assess the actual extent of injury. All patients were subjected to appropriate surgical interventions via the same combination of surgeons . Post operatively, prophylactic antibiotics were administered to all patients and patients were managed till discharge and followed thereafter via regular outpatient visits for a period of 3 years. Age of patients ranged from 21 to 40 years. 64% patients hailed from rural areas, 76% were from the lower socio-economic strata, 40% illiterate and 69% were short Statured. Vesico vaginal fistulae (VVF

  9. Endocrine therapy and urogenital outcomes among women with a breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Kemi M.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Hendrix, Laura; Anders, Carey K.; Wu, Jennifer M.; Nichols, Hazel B.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Endocrine therapy for breast cancer can exacerbate menopausal symptoms. The association between endocrine therapy and common pelvic floor disorders including urinary incontinence has rarely been evaluated. We examined urogenital and sexual side effects among women with a breast cancer diagnosis, comparing endocrine therapy users to nonusers. Methods Urogenital and sexual symptoms were self-reported during the enrollment interview within the University of North Carolina Cancer Survivorship Cohort. Tumor characteristics and endocrine therapy use were collected from medical and prescription records. We calculated multivariable prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association of endocrine therapy (versus no endocrine therapy) and urinary incontinence, overall and by therapy type (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors). PROMIS Sexual Function and Satisfaction domain scores were compared across endocrine therapy groups. Results Among the 548 women with a breast cancer diagnosis, 49 % received endocrine therapy. Overall, 18 % of women reported urinary incontinence symptoms. We observed no association between urinary incontinence and endocrine therapy use overall (PR = 0.97; 95 % CI 0.67, 1.43), tamoxifen (PR = 1.20; 95 % CI 0.74, 1.96), or aromatase inhibitors (PR = 0.89; 95 % CI 0.55, 1.42), compared to no use. Approximately 55 % of women were sexually active. Sexual function scores did not vary according to endocrine therapy use, although urinary incontinence was associated with lower satisfaction scores (p = 0.05). Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a high prevalence of urinary incontinence after breast cancer diagnosis similar to the overall prevalence in older U.S. women, and this did not vary strongly according to use of endocrine therapy. PMID:27680018

  10. Internal epithelia in Drosophila display rudimentary competence to form cytoplasmic networks of transgenic human vimentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullmets, Josef; Torvaldson, Elin; Lindqvist, Julia; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Taimen, Pekka; Meinander, Annika; Eriksson, John E

    2017-12-01

    Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (cIFs) are found in all eumetazoans, except arthropods. To investigate the compatibility of cIFs in arthropods, we expressed human vimentin (hVim), a cIF with filament-forming capacity in vertebrate cells and tissues, transgenically in Drosophila Transgenic hVim could be recovered from whole-fly lysates by using a standard procedure for intermediate filament (IF) extraction. When this procedure was used to test for the possible presence of IF-like proteins in flies, only lamins and tropomyosin were observed in IF-enriched extracts, thereby providing biochemical reinforcement to the paradigm that arthropods lack cIFs. In Drosophila , transgenic hVim was unable to form filament networks in S2 cells and mesenchymal tissues; however, cage-like vimentin structures could be observed around the nuclei in internal epithelia, which suggests that Drosophila retains selective competence for filament formation. Taken together, our results imply that although the filament network formation competence is partially lost in Drosophila , a rudimentary filament network formation ability remains in epithelial cells. As a result of the observed selective competence for cIF assembly in Drosophila , we hypothesize that internal epithelial cIFs were the last cIFs to disappear from arthropods.-Gullmets, J., Torvaldson, E., Lindqvist, J., Imanishi, S. Y., Taimen, P., Meinander, A., Eriksson, J. E. Internal epithelia in Drosophila display rudimentary competence to form cytoplasmic networks of transgenic human vimentin. © FASEB.

  11. Prolactin and teleost ionocytes: new insights into cellular and molecular targets of prolactin in vertebrate epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breves, Jason P.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone prolactin is a functionally versatile hormone produced by the vertebrate pituitary. Comparative studies over the last six decades have revealed that a conserved function for prolactin across vertebrates is the regulation of ion and water transport in a variety of tissues including those responsible for whole-organism ion homeostasis. In teleost fishes, prolactin was identified as the “freshwater-adapting hormone”, promoting ion-conserving and water-secreting processes by acting on the gill, kidney, gut and urinary bladder. In mammals, prolactin is known to regulate renal, intestinal, mammary and amniotic epithelia, with dysfunction linked to hypogonadism, infertility, and metabolic disorders. Until recently, our understanding of the cellular mechanisms of prolactin action in fishes has been hampered by a paucity of molecular tools to define and study ionocytes, specialized cells that control active ion transport across branchial and epidermal epithelia. Here we review work in teleost models indicating that prolactin regulates ion balance through action on ion transporters, tight-junction proteins, and water channels in ionocytes, and discuss recent advances in our understanding of ionocyte function in the genetically and embryonically accessible zebrafish (Danio rerio). Given the high degree of evolutionary conservation in endocrine and osmoregulatory systems, these studies in teleost models are contributing novel mechanistic insight into how prolactin participates in the development, function, and dysfunction of osmoregulatory systems across the vertebrate lineage.

  12. BMP4 signaling is involved in the generation of inner ear sensory epithelia

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    Wang Yucheng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robust expression of BMP4 in the incipient sensory organs of the inner ear suggests possible roles for this signaling protein during induction and development of auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia. Homozygous BMP4-/- animals die before the inner ear's sensory organs develop, which precludes determining the role of BMP4 in these organs with simple gene knockout experiments. Results Here we use a chicken otocyst culture system to perform quantitative studies on the development of inner ear cell types and show that hair cell and supporting cell generation is remarkably reduced when BMP signaling is blocked, either with its antagonist noggin or by using soluble BMP receptors. Conversely, we observed an increase in the number of hair cells when cultured otocysts were treated with exogenous BMP4. BMP4 treatment additionally prompted down-regulation of Pax-2 protein in proliferating sensory epithelial progenitors, leading to reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Conclusion Our results implicate BMP4 in two events during chicken inner ear sensory epithelium formation: first, in inducing the switch from proliferative sensory epithelium progenitors to differentiating epithelial cells and secondly, in promoting the differentiation of hair cells within the developing sensory epithelia.

  13. Nobiletin Stimulates Chloride Secretion in Human Bronchial Epithelia via a cAMP/PKA-Dependent Pathway

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    Yuan Hao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from tangerines, alters ion transport functions in intestinal epithelia, and has antagonistic effects on eosinophilic airway inflammation of asthmatic rats. The present study examined the effects of nobiletin on basal short-circuit current (ISC in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-, and characterized the signal transduction pathways that allowed nobiletin to regulate electrolyte transport. Methods: The ISC measurement technique was used for transepithelial electrical measurements. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i and cAMP were also quantified. Results: Nobiletin stimulated a concentration-dependent increase in ISC, which was due to Cl- secretion. The increase in ISC was inhibited by a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitor (CFTRinh-172, but not by 4,4'-diisothiocyano-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS, Chromanol 293B, clotrimazole, or TRAM-34. Nobiletin-stimulated ISC was also sensitive to a protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor, H89, and an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, MDL-12330A. Nobiletin could not stimulate any increase in ISC in a cystic fibrosis (CF cell line, CFBE41o-, which lacked a functional CFTR. Nobiletin stimulated a real-time increase in cAMP, but not [Ca2+]i. Conclusion: Nobiletin stimulated transepithelial Cl- secretion across human bronchial epithelia. The mechanisms involved activation of adenylate cyclase- and cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways, leading to activation of apical CFTR Cl- channels.

  14. beta1 integrins are not required for the maintenance of lymphocytes within intestinal epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsal, Jan; Brakebusch, Cord; Bungartz, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    beta(1) integrins are thought to play a central role in maintaining lymphocytes within mucosal epithelia via their interactions with extracellular matrix proteins and subepithelial cellular components within and underlying the basement membrane. In the current study type a (CD8alphabetaTCRalphabe......beta(1) integrins are thought to play a central role in maintaining lymphocytes within mucosal epithelia via their interactions with extracellular matrix proteins and subepithelial cellular components within and underlying the basement membrane. In the current study type a (CD8alphabeta......TCRalphabeta) and type b (CD8alphaalphaTCRgammadelta and CD8alphaalphaTCRalphabeta) intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) subsets within the mouse small intestine were found to express functional beta(1) integrin and the beta(1) integrin alpha chain partners alpha(1), alpha(2), and alpha(4). Using inducible beta(1) integrin......-knockout bone marrow-chimeric mice we demonstrate that IEL expression of alpha(1) and alpha(2) but not alpha(4) is dependent on expression of the beta(1) chain. Importantly, deletion of the beta(1) chain in IEL did not alter the number or composition of lymphocytes within the intestinal epithelium. Thus, while...

  15. Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkolÿ Thege Barna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.

  16. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool for Theobroma cacao improvement and propagation. Depending on culture medium composition, different morphogenetic structures (including somatic embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns and biochemical changes. The effect of SO42- ion deficiency ...

  17. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first objective of this study was to assess and optimize somatic embryo production in a genetically diverse range of cacao genotypes. The primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis response of eight promising cacao clones and a positive control was evaluated using modified versions of standard protocols.

  18. Direct somatic embryogenesis in Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Collado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King is difficult to be propagated by tissue culture and there is not an efficient system via organogenesis, due to problems of microbial contamination, phenolic oxidation and death of tissue in the phase of in vitro establishment of explants. In order to establish a protocol for obtaining somatic embryos, zygotic embryos were used as initial plant material. Three combinations of 2,4-D with kinetin were studied, to obtain the formation of somatic embryos. After six weeks of culture, the number of explants with high and low somatic embryogenesis frequency were determined. So that the somatic embryos in globular stage reach the final stages of torpedo and cotyledonal, these were placed in three treatments with 6-BAP (0.2, 0.4 y 0.6 mg.l-1. The number of somatic embryos that reached the torpedo and cotyledonal stages were evaluated after 30 days of culture. Results demonstrated that direct somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos is obtained in the culture medium composed by MS salts with 4.0 mg.l-1 of 2,4-D and 1.0 mg.l-1 of kinetin. Higher percentage of somatic embryos in cotiledonal stage (91.7 %, was obtained with 0.4 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP. Key word: forestry, growth regulator, mahogany, somatic embryo, tissue culture

  19. MMPI screening scales for somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, R D; Brim, J; Guze, S B; Cloninger, C R; Martin, R L; Clayton, P J

    1999-08-01

    44 items on the MMPI were identified which appear to correspond to some of the symptoms in nine of the 10 groups on the Perley-Guze checklist for somatization disorder (hysteria). This list was organized into two scales, one reflecting the total number of symptoms endorsed and the other the number of organ systems with at least one endorsed symptom. Full MMPIs were then obtained from 29 women with primary affective disorder and 37 women with somatization disorder as part of a follow-up study of a consecutive series of 500 psychiatric clinic patients seen at Washington University. Women with the diagnosis of somatization disorder scored significantly higher on the somatization disorder scales created from the 44 items than did women with only major depression. These new scales appeared to be slightly more effective in identifying somatization disorder than the use of the standard MMPI scales for hypochondriasis and hysteria. Further development is needed.

  20. Somatic Expression of Psychological Problems (Somatization: Examination with Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Seda Çolak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is to define which psychological symptoms (somatization, depression, obsessive ‐ compulsive, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism cause somatic reactions at most. Total effect of these psychological symptoms on somatic symptoms had been investigated. Study was carried out with structural equation model to research the relation between the psychological symptoms and somatization. The main material of the research is formed by the data obtained from 492 people. SCL‐90‐R scale was used in order to obtain the data. As a result of the structural equation analysis, it has been found that 1Psychoticism, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation do not predict somatic symptoms.2There is a negative relation between interpersonal sensitivity level mand somatic reactions.3Anxiety symptoms had been found as causative to occur the highest level of somatic reactions.

  1. Gonorrhea in Indonesia: High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Urogenital Gonorrhea but No Circulating Extended Spectrum Cephalosporins-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains in Jakarta, Yogyakarta, and Denpasar, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hananta, I. Putu Yuda; van Dam, Alje P.; Bruisten, Sylvia Maria; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus; Soebono, Hardyanto; de Vries, Henry John Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of asymptomatic urogenital gonorrhea and antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) strains circulating in Indonesia. We studied these issues in 3 large Indonesian cities. In 2014, participants were recruited from sexually transmitted infection

  2. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical localization of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 4 in Ca2+-transporting epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Beggs, Megan R; Zamani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    role in transcellular Ca(2+) flux and investigated the localization and regulation of Pmca4 in Ca(2+)-transporting epithelia. Using antibodies directed specifically against Pmca4, we found it expressed only in the smooth muscle layer of mouse and human intestine, while pan-specific Pmca antibodies...... the cortical thick ascending limbs, macula densa, and early distal tubules as well as smooth muscle layers surrounding renal vessels. In human kidney, a similar pattern of distribution was observed, with highest PMCA4 expression in NCC positive tubules. Electron microscopy demonstrated Pmca4 localization...... in distal nephron cells at both the basolateral membrane and intracellular perinuclear compartments, but not submembranous vesicles, suggesting rapid trafficking to the plasma membrane is unlikely to occur in vivo. Pmca4 expression was not altered by perturbations in Ca(2+) balance, pointing...

  3. Expression of GLUT1 in stratified squamous epithelia and oral carcinoma from humans and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1997-01-01

    mucosa from rat and man, and a human oral carcinoma by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. The results showed that GLUT1 was expressed in the basal and parabasal layers of the different stratified squamous epithelia, with some variations between keratinized and non-keratinized subtypes. GLUT1...... was also expressed in ductal- and myoepithelial cells of minor salivary glands and perineural sheath located in the lamina propra, and furthermore in the cells of an oral carcinoma. GLUT4 was not expressed in any of the tissues examined. This distribution of GLUT1 does not fit with the idea of GLUT1......Most cells express facilitative glucose transporters. Four isoforms (GLUT1-4) transporting D-glucose across the plasma membrane show a specific tissue distribution, which is the basis for tissue-specific patterns in glucose metabolism. GLUT1 is expressed at high levels in tissue barriers...

  4. Semi-Solid and Solid Dosage Forms for the Delivery of Phage Therapy to Epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovski, Steve; Chan, Hiu Tat; Angove, Michael J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The delivery of phages to epithelial surfaces for therapeutic outcomes is a realistic proposal, and indeed one which is being currently tested in clinical trials. This paper reviews some of the known research on formulation of phages into semi-solid dosage forms such as creams, ointments and pastes, as well as solid dosage forms such as troches (or lozenges and pastilles) and suppositories/pessaries, for delivery to the epithelia. The efficacy and stability of these phage formulations is discussed, with a focus on selection of optimal semi-solid bases for phage delivery. Issues such as the need for standardisation of techniques for formulation as well as for assessment of efficacy are highlighted. These are important when trying to compare results from a range of experiments and across different delivery bases. PMID:29495355

  5. Indications for percutaneous nephrostomy in patients with obstructive uropathy due to malignant urogenital neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico R. Romero

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urogenital neoplasias frequently progress with obstructive uropathy due to local spreading or pelvic metastases. The urinary obstruction must be immediately relieved in order to avoid deterioration in these patients. The percutaneous nephrostomy is a safe and effective method for relief the obstruction; however the indications of such procedures have been questioned in patients with poor prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with 43 patients (29 female and 14 male with urogenital neoplasias who were undergoing percutaneous nephrostomy during a 54-month period. The median age was 52 years. The primary tumoral site was the uterine cervix in 53.5% of patients, the bladder in 23.3%, the prostate in 11.6% and other sites in 11.6%. RESULTS: Postoperative complications occurred in 42.3% of the patients. There was no procedure-related mortality. Thirty-nine per cent of the patients died during the hospitalization period due to advanced neoplasia. The mortality rate was higher in patients with prostate cancer (p = 0.006, in patients over 52 years of age (p = 0.03 and in those who required hemodialysis before the procedure (p = 0.02. Thirty-two per cent of the patients survived long enough to undergo some form of treatment focused on the primary tumor. The survival rate was 40% at 6 months and 24.2% at 12 months. The percentage of the lifetime spent in hospitalization was 17.7%. The survival rate was higher in patients with neoplasia of the uterine cervix (p = 0.007 and in patients with 52 years of age or less (p = 0.008. CONCLUSION: Morbidity was high in this patient group; however, the majority of patients could be discharged from hospital and followed at home. Patients under 52 years of age and patients with neoplasia of the uterine cervix benefited most from the percutaneous nephrostomy when compared to patients with hormone therapy-refractory prostate cancer, bladder cancer or over 52 years of age.

  6. Na+ -K+ -2Cl- Cotransporter (NKCC) Physiological Function in Nonpolarized Cells and Transporting Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpire, Eric; Gagnon, Kenneth B

    2018-03-25

    Two genes encode the Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransporters, NKCC1 and NKCC2, that mediate the tightly coupled movement of 1Na + , 1K + , and 2Cl - across the plasma membrane of cells. Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransport is driven by the chemical gradient of the three ionic species across the membrane, two of them maintained by the action of the Na + /K + pump. In many cells, NKCC1 accumulates Cl - above its electrochemical potential equilibrium, thereby facilitating Cl - channel-mediated membrane depolarization. In smooth muscle cells, this depolarization facilitates the opening of voltage-sensitive Ca 2+ channels, leading to Ca 2+ influx, and cell contraction. In immature neurons, the depolarization due to a GABA-mediated Cl - conductance produces an excitatory rather than inhibitory response. In many cell types that have lost water, NKCC is activated to help the cells recover their volume. This is specially the case if the cells have also lost Cl - . In combination with the Na + /K + pump, the NKCC's move ions across various specialized epithelia. NKCC1 is involved in Cl - -driven fluid secretion in many exocrine glands, such as sweat, lacrimal, salivary, stomach, pancreas, and intestine. NKCC1 is also involved in K + -driven fluid secretion in inner ear, and possibly in Na + -driven fluid secretion in choroid plexus. In the thick ascending limb of Henle, NKCC2 activity in combination with the Na + /K + pump participates in reabsorbing 30% of the glomerular-filtered Na + . Overall, many critical physiological functions are maintained by the activity of the two Na + -K + -2Cl - cotransporters. In this overview article, we focus on the functional roles of the cotransporters in nonpolarized cells and in epithelia. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:871-901, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Single-cell RNA-Seq reveals cell heterogeneity and hierarchy within mouse mammary epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Heng; Miao, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Xin; Chan, Un In; Su, Sek Man; Guo, Sen; Wong, Chris Koon Ho; Xu, Xiaoling; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2018-04-17

    The mammary gland is very intricately and well organized into distinct tissues, including epithelia, endothelia, adipocytes, and stromal and immune cells. Many mammary gland diseases, such as breast cancer arise from abnormalities in the mammary epithelium, which is mainly composed of two distinct lineages, the basal and luminal cells. Because of the limitation of traditional transcriptome analysis of bulk mammary cells, the hierarchy and heterogeneity of mammary cells within these two lineages remain unclear. To this end, using single-cell RNA-Seq coupled with FACS analysis and principal component analysis, we determined gene expression profiles of mammary epithelial cells of virgin and pregnant mice. These analyses revealed a much higher heterogeneity among the mammary cells than has been previously reported and enabled cell classification into distinct subgroups according to signature gene markers present in each group. We also identified and verified a rare CDH5+ cell subpopulation within a basal cell lineage as quiescent mammary stem cells (MaSCs). Moreover, using pseudo-temporal analysis, we reconstructed the developmental trajectory of mammary epithelia and uncovered distinct changes in gene expression and in biological functions of mammary cells along the developmental process. In conclusion, our work greatly refines the resolution of the cellular hierarchy in developing mammary tissues. The discovery of CDH5+ cells as MaSCs in these tissues may have implications for our understanding of the initiation, development, and pathogenesis of mammary tumors. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: Molecular adaptation of ruminal epithelia to highly fermentable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, G B; Steele, M A; Aschenbach, J R; McBride, B W

    2011-04-01

    Feeding highly fermentable diets to ruminants is one strategy to increase energy intake. The increase in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and reduced ruminal pH associated with highly fermentable diets imposes a challenge to the metabolism and the regulation of intracellular pH homeostasis of ruminal epithelia. The ruminal epithelia respond to these challenges in a coordinated manner. Whereas the enlargement of absorptive surface area is well documented, emerging evidence at the mRNA and transporter and enzyme activity levels indicate that changes in epithelial cell function may be the initial response. It is not surprising that gene expression analysis has identified pathways involved in fatty acid metabolism, ion transport, and intracellular homeostasis to be the pathways dominantly affected during adaptation and after adaptation to a highly fermentable diet. These findings are important because the intraepithelial metabolism of SCFA, particularly butyrate, helps to maintain the concentration gradient between the cytosol and lumen, thereby facilitating absorption. Butyrate metabolism also controls the intracellular availability of butyrate, which is widely regarded as a signaling molecule. Current data indicate that for butyrate metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase are potential regulatory points with transient up- and downregulation during diet adaptation. In addition to nutrient transport and utilization, genes involved in the maintenance of cellular tight junction integrity and induction of inflammation have been identified as differentially expressed genes during adaptation to highly fermentable diets. This may have important implications on ruminal epithelial barrier function and the inflammatory response often associated with subacute ruminal acidosis. The objective of this review is to summarize ruminal epithelial adaptation to highly fermentable diets focusing on the changes at the enzyme and

  9. Effect of streptococcal preparation (picibanil) on the postoperative rise in serum alanine aminotransferase activity in patients with urogenital cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Taketa, Kazuhisa; Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Yonesuke; Asahi, Toshihiko; Okimune, Masaaki

    1980-01-01

    The effect of Picibanil, a streptococcal agent, on the development of liver injury after operations for urogenital cancer was studied retrospectively in the light of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. The series comprised 32 cases receiving Picibanil and 33 controls with otherwise comparable clinical backgrounds. Picibanil reduced the incidence of postoperative ALT rise over 50 U/l within 6 weeks but increased it thereafter. The increase in ALT activity after 6 weeks was relativel...

  10. Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum detected with the same frequency among women with and without symptoms of urogenital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marovt, M; Keše, D; Kotar, T; Kmet, N; Miljković, J; Šoba, B; Matičič, M

    2015-06-01

    There is mounting evidence stating that Ureaplasma urealyticum causes non-gonococcal urethritis in males, whereas Ureaplasma parvum does not seem to be of clinical significance. However, the clinical role of U. parvum and U. urealyticum in lower urogenital tract infections in females remains unclear. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of U. parvum and U. urealyticum among 145 Ureaplasma spp. culture-positive women with symptoms of lower urogenital tract infection (n = 75) and those without (n = 70), and to determine possible associations between the detection of U. parvum and U. urealyticum with selected characteristics. Endocervical, urethral, and vaginal swabs, and first voided urine were obtained. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to differentiate ureaplasmas. No significant association between the detection of U. parvum or U. urealyticum and symptom status was found. Significantly more women aged 25 years and younger were infected with U. urealyticum (23.4 %) compared to those aged above 25 years (9.2 %) [odds ratio (OR) 3.0 (1.1; 8.1); p = 0.03] and significantly less women aged 25 years and younger (83.5 %) were infected with U. parvum compared to those aged above 25 years (95.5 %) [OR 0.2 (0.1; 0.9); p = 0.03]. The detection of Chlamydia trachomatis was significantly associated to both U. parvum and U. urealyticum (p = 0.021), and to U. parvum alone with borderline significance (p = 0.063). Although neither U. parvum nor U. urealyticum seem to cause symptoms in females, their role in the female urogenital tract remains unknown, taking into account their ubiquity, possible augmentation of the urogenital microenvironment, and ascending capability to the sterile upper reproductive tract.

  11. Medical Students’ First Male Urogenital Examination: Investigating the Effects of Instruction and Gender on Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D. Howley

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect that standardized instruction of the male urogenital examination had on the anxiety levels of students and to determine what influence, if any, the gender of the student had on this experience. Methods: One hundred thirty six second year medical students were asked to report their level of anxiety before and after participation in a small group teaching session on the male urogenital examination. We gathered both qualitative and quantitative information to better understand students’ anxiety surrounding this instruction. Results: Students had significantly lower state-anxiety scores following the instruction than before (F(1, 76=102.353, p=.000, eta2=.574 and female students were more likely to have greater state-anxiety than male students (F=6.952, p=.010, eta2=.084. Ninety-nine percent of students reported that the teaching associates successfully reduced their anxiety. This decrease was attributed predominantly to the personal qualities of the teaching associates and to the format of the instruction. Conclusions: This study provides both quantitative and qualitative evidence that the use of male teaching associates to provide standardized instruction on the urogenital exam is effective at reducing students’ anxiety, particularly with regard to female students. Added standardized instruction may lead to increased confidence, skill, and future compliance with intimate physical exam screening practices

  12. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Karen; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness - a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 week semester. Total mindfulness scores increased overall for the Pilates Method group but not for the exercise control group, and these increases were directly related to end of semester ratings of self-regulatory self-efficacy, perceived stress and mood. Findings suggest that the Pilates Method specifically enhances mindfulness, and these increases are associated with other measures of wellness. The changes in mindfulness identified in this study support the role of the Pilates Method in the mental well-being of its practitioners and its potential to support dancers' overall well-being.

  13. Further evidence for a broader concept of somatization disorder using the somatic symptom index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, W; Rief, W; Fichter, M M

    1995-01-01

    Somatization syndromes were defined in a sample of 102 psychosomatic inpatients according to the restrictive criteria of DSM-III-R somatization disorder and the broader diagnostic concept of the Somatic Symptom Index (SSI). Both groups showed a qualitatively similar pattern of psychopathological comorbidity and had elevated scores on measures of depression, hypochondriasis, and anxiety. A good discrimination between mild and severe forms of somatization was found by using the SSI criterion. SSI use accounted for a substantial amount of comorbidity variance, with rates of 15%-20% for depression, 16% for hypochondriasis, and 13% for anxiety. The results provide further evidence for the validity of the SSI concept, which reflects the clinical relevance of somatization in addition to the narrow definition of somatization disorder.

  14. symptomatology and comorbidity of somatization disorder amongst

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    underlying mental disorder, manifesting solely as somatic symptoms or with ... unsatisfactory visit and seemingly ineffective treatment plan. ... patients of all ages and both gender with various ..... identity and physical health: Interdisciplinary.

  15. Immunological Consequences of Antihelminthic Treatment in Preschool Children Exposed to Urogenital Schistosome Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rujeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis, due to Schistosoma haematobium, is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Control is by targeted treatment with praziquantel but preschool age children are excluded from control programs. Immunological studies on the effect of treatment at this young age are scarce. In light of studies in older individuals showing that praziquantel alters antischistosome immune responses and responses to bystander antigens, this study aims to investigate how these responses would be affected by treatment at this young age. Antibody responses directed against schistosome antigens, Plasmodium falciparum crude and recombinant antigens, and the allergen house dust mite were measured in children aged 3 to 5 years before and 6 weeks after treatment. The change in serological recognition of schistosome proteins was also investigated. Treatment augmented antischistosome IgM and IgE responses. The increase in IgE responses directed against adult worm antigens was accompanied by enhanced antigen recognition by sera from the children. Antibody responses directed against Plasmodium antigens were not significantly affected by praziquantel treatment nor were levels of allergen specific responses. Overall, praziquantel treatment enhanced, quantitatively and qualitatively, the antiworm responses associated with protective immunity but did not alter Plasmodium-specific responses or allergen-specific responses which mediate pathology in allergic disease.

  16. The history of the Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine, and Urogenital Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbart, Steven J; Zimmern, Philippe E; Nitti, Victor W; Lemack, Gary E; Kobashi, Kathleen C; Vasavada, Sandip P; Wein, Alan J

    2018-03-25

    To review the history of the Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction (SUFU). We reviewed Society meeting minutes, contacted all living former Society presidents, searched the William P. Didusch Center for Urology History records, and asked Society members to share their important Society experiences in order to gather important historical information about the Society. The Society initially formed as the Urodynamics Society in 1969 in the backdrop of a growing passion for scientific research in the country after World War II ended. Since then, Society meetings have provided a pivotal forum for the advancement of science in lower urinary tract dysfunction. Meetings occurred annually until 2004, when the meeting schedule increased to biannual. The journal, Neurourology and Urodynamics, became the official journal of the Society in 2005. SUFU has authored important guidelines on urodynamics (2012), non-neurogenic overactive bladder (2012), and stress urinary incontinence (2017) and has shared important collaborations with other societies, including the American Urological Association (AUA), the International Continence Society (ICS), and the International Society of Pelvic Neuromodulation (ISPiN). SUFU has also been instrumental in trainee education and helped to establish formal fellowship training in the field in addition to holding a yearly educational meeting for urology residents. The Society has been led by 21 presidents throughout its history. Throughout the Society's near half-century long existence, the Society has fostered research, published guidelines, and educated trainees in order to improve the care of individuals suffering from lower urinary tract dysfunction. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Staging of endometrial cancer with MRI: Guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinkel, K. [Geneva University Hospital and Institut de Radiologie, Clinique des Grangettes, Chene-Bougeries/Geneva (Switzerland); Clinique des Grangettes, Institut de radiologie, Chene-Bougerie/Geneva (Switzerland); Forstner, R. [LandesklinikenSalzburg, Zentralroentgeninstitut, Salzburg (Austria); Danza, F.M. [Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Dipartimento di Bioimmagini e scienze radiologiche, Rome (Italy); Oleaga, L. [Hospital Clinic, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Cunha, T.M. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Department of Radiology, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Bergman, A. [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Barentsz, J.O. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Balleyguier, C. [Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif Cedex (France); Brkljacic, B. [University Hospital ' ' Dubrava' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zagreb (Croatia); University of Zagreb, Medical School, Zagreb (Croatia); Spencer, J.A. [St James' s Institute of Oncology, Department of Clinical Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to define guidelines for endometrial cancer staging with MRI. The technique included critical review and expert consensus of MRI protocols by the female imaging subcommittee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology, from ten European institutions, and published literature between 1999 and 2008. The results indicated that high field MRI should include at least two T2-weighted sequences in sagittal, axial oblique or coronal oblique orientation (short and long axis of the uterine body) of the pelvic content. High-resolution post-contrast images acquired at 2 min {+-} 30 s after intravenous contrast injection are suggested to be optimal for the diagnosis of myometrial invasion. If cervical invasion is suspected, additional slice orientation perpendicular to the axis of the endocervical channel is recommended. Due to the limited sensitivity of MRI to detect lymph node metastasis without lymph node-specific contrast agents, retroperitoneal lymph node screening with pre-contrast sequences up to the level of the kidneys is optional. The likelihood of lymph node invasion and the need for staging lymphadenectomy are also indicated by high-grade histology at endometrial tissue sampling and by deep myometrial or cervical invasion detected by MRI. In conclusion, expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to stage endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  18. Staging of endometrial cancer with MRI: Guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinkel, K.; Forstner, R.; Danza, F.M.; Oleaga, L.; Cunha, T.M.; Bergman, A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Balleyguier, C.; Brkljacic, B.; Spencer, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define guidelines for endometrial cancer staging with MRI. The technique included critical review and expert consensus of MRI protocols by the female imaging subcommittee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology, from ten European institutions, and published literature between 1999 and 2008. The results indicated that high field MRI should include at least two T2-weighted sequences in sagittal, axial oblique or coronal oblique orientation (short and long axis of the uterine body) of the pelvic content. High-resolution post-contrast images acquired at 2 min ± 30 s after intravenous contrast injection are suggested to be optimal for the diagnosis of myometrial invasion. If cervical invasion is suspected, additional slice orientation perpendicular to the axis of the endocervical channel is recommended. Due to the limited sensitivity of MRI to detect lymph node metastasis without lymph node-specific contrast agents, retroperitoneal lymph node screening with pre-contrast sequences up to the level of the kidneys is optional. The likelihood of lymph node invasion and the need for staging lymphadenectomy are also indicated by high-grade histology at endometrial tissue sampling and by deep myometrial or cervical invasion detected by MRI. In conclusion, expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to stage endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  19. European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) Guidelines: MR Imaging of Leiomyomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik-Huch, Rahel A; Weston, Michael; Nougaret, Stephanie; Leonhardt, Henrik; Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle; Horta, Mariana; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Maciel, Cristina; Rockall, Andrea; Forstner, Rosemarie

    2018-02-28

    The aim of the Female Pelvic Imaging Working Group of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) was to develop imaging guidelines for MR work-up in patients with known or suspected uterine leiomyomas. Guidelines for imaging uterine leiomyomas were defined based on a survey distributed to all members of the working group, an expert consensus meeting at European Congress of Radiology (ECR) 2017 and a critical review of the literature. The 25 returned questionnaires as well as the expert consensus meeting have shown reasonable homogeneity of practice among institutions. Expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to image uterine leiomyomas. Recommendations include indications for imaging, patient preparation, MR protocols and reporting criteria. The incremental value of functional imaging (DWI, DCE) is highlighted and the role of MR angiography discussed. MRI offers an outstanding and reproducible map of the size, site and distribution of leiomyomas. A standardised imaging protocol and method of reporting ensures that the salient features are recognised. These imaging guidelines are based on the current practice among expert radiologists in the field of female pelvic imaging and also incorporate essentials of the current published MR literature of uterine leiomyomas. • MRI allows comprehensive mapping of size and distribution of leiomyomas. • Basic MRI comprise T2W and T1W sequences centered to the uterus. • Standardized reporting ensures pivotal information on leiomyomas, the uterus and differential diagnosis. • MRI aids in differentiation of leiomyomas from other benign and malignant entities, including leiomyosarcoma.

  20. Anxiety and depression in patients with prostate cancer and other urogenital cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Krauss, Oliver; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Michalski, Dominik; Schwarz, Reinhold

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the degree and the course of psychological distress (anxiety and depression) in cancer patients and to detect sociodemographic determinants of the scores. Patients with prostate cancer (n = 287) and other urogenital cancer (n = 126) were tested with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at the following time points: at the beginning (T1) and the end (T2) of the treatment in the hospital, 6 months later (T3), and 1 year later (T4). Anxiety mean scores were highest at the start of the stay in the hospital. About 36% of the patients were at least doubtful cases at T1. However, the anxiety mean scores from T2 to T4 were similar to those of the general population and lower than those of cardiac patients. Depression mean scores were even lower than those of the general population. Young age and receiving radio- and/or chemotherapy were predictive of higher psychological distress. The low mean scores of anxiety and depression from T2 to T4 indicate that most of the prostate cancer patients do not need help from mental health professionals. Nevertheless, some patients may profit from mental health support, especially at the beginning of the stay in the hospital.

  1. Staging of uterine cervical cancer with MRI: guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balleyguier, Corinne [Radiology Department, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Sala, E. [Radiology Department, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cunha, T. da [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Bergman, A. [Department of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital (Sweden); Brkljacic, B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital ' ' Dubrava' ' , Zagreb (Croatia); Danza, F. [Dipartimento di Bioimmaginie Scienze Radiologiche, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Forstner, R. [Zentralroentgeninstitut, Landeskliniken Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); Hamm, B. [Department of Radiology, Charite Humboldt Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Kubik-Huch, R. [Institut Radiologie, Kantonsspital Baden, Baden (Switzerland); Lopez, C.; Manfredi, R. [Department of Radiology, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' University Hospital, Rome (Italy); McHugo, J. [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Women' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Oleaga, L. [Radiology Department, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Togashi, K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kinkel, K. [Institut de Radiologie, Clinique des Grangettes, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-05-15

    To design clear guidelines for the staging and follow-up of patients with uterine cervical cancer, and to provide the radiologist with a framework for use in multidisciplinary conferences. Methods: Guidelines for uterine cervical cancer staging and follow-up were defined by the female imaging subcommittee of the ESUR (European Society of Urogenital Radiology) based on the expert consensus of imaging protocols of 11 leading institutions and a critical review of the literature. The results indicated that high field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) should include at least two T2-weighted sequences in sagittal, axial oblique or coronal oblique orientation (short and long axis of the uterine cervix) of the pelvic content. Axial T1-weighted sequence is useful to detect suspicious pelvic and abdominal lymph nodes, and images from symphysis to the left renal vein are required. The intravenous administration of Gadolinium-chelates is optional but is often required for small lesions (<2 cm) and for follow-up after treatment. Diffusion-weighted sequences are optional but are recommended to help evaluate lymph nodes and to detect a residual lesion after chemoradiotherapy. Expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to stage uterine cervical cancer. MRI is the imaging modality of choice for preoperative staging and follow-up in patients with uterine cervical cancer. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of reuterin production in urogenital probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Peter; Wind, Anette; Sommer, Philip; Schaefer, Laura; Crowley, Kate; Britton, Robert A; Reid, Gregor

    2008-08-01

    Classified as a distinct species in 1980, Lactobacillus reuteri strains have been used in probiotic formulations for intestinal and urogenital applications. In the former, the primary mechanism of action of L. reuteri SD2112 (ATCC 55730) has been purported to be its ability to produce the antibiotic 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA), also known as reuterin. In the vagina, it has been postulated that probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 does not require reuterin production but mediates a restoration of the normal microbiota via hydrogen peroxide, biosurfactant, lactic acid production, and immune modulation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether strain RC-14 produced reuterin. Using PCR and DNA dot blot analyses, numerous Lactobacillus species, including RC-14, were screened for the presence of the gene encoding the large subunit of glycerol dehydratase (gldC), the enzyme responsible for reuterin production. In addition, lactobacilli were grown in glycerol-based media and both high-performance liquid chromatography and a colorimetric assay were used to test for the presence of reuterin. L. reuteri RC-14 was determined to be negative for gldC sequences, as well as for the production of reuterin when cultured in the presence of glycerol. These findings support that the probiotic effects of L. reuteri RC-14, repeatedly demonstrated during numerous studies of the intestine and vagina, are independent of reuterin production.

  3. Somatic surveillance: corporeal control through information networks

    OpenAIRE

    Monahan, Torin; Wall, Tyler

    2007-01-01

    Somatic surveillance is the increasingly invasive technological monitoring of and intervention into body functions. Within this type of surveillance regime, bodies are recast as nodes on vast information networks, enabling corporeal control through remote network commands, automated responses, or self-management practices. In this paper, we investigate three developments in somatic surveillance: nanotechnology systems for soldiers on the battlefield, commercial body-monitoring systems for hea...

  4. Dance and Somatic Inquiry in Studios and Community Dance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Martha Hart

    2002-01-01

    Addresses pragmatic aspects of somatics in the public sector, investigating the fit of somatics within various institutions and settings, including universities, professional schools, and community programs. The article explores issues such as somatic movement approaches, certification, academic degrees in somatic study, confusions within the…

  5. Multicellularity makes somatic differentiation evolutionarily stable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Mary E.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Many multicellular organisms produce two cell lineages: germ cells, whose descendants produce the next generation, and somatic cells, which support, protect, and disperse the germ cells. This germ-soma demarcation has evolved independently in dozens of multicellular taxa but is absent in unicellular species. A common explanation holds that in these organisms, inefficient intercellular nutrient exchange compels the fitness cost of producing nonreproductive somatic cells to outweigh any potential benefits. We propose instead that the absence of unicellular, soma-producing populations reflects their susceptibility to invasion by nondifferentiating mutants that ultimately eradicate the soma-producing lineage. We argue that multicellularity can prevent the victory of such mutants by giving germ cells preferential access to the benefits conferred by somatic cells. The absence of natural unicellular, soma-producing species previously prevented these hypotheses from being directly tested in vivo: to overcome this obstacle, we engineered strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that differ only in the presence or absence of multicellularity and somatic differentiation, permitting direct comparisons between organisms with different lifestyles. Our strains implement the essential features of irreversible conversion from germ line to soma, reproductive division of labor, and clonal multicellularity while maintaining sufficient generality to permit broad extension of our conclusions. Our somatic cells can provide fitness benefits that exceed the reproductive costs of their production, even in unicellular strains. We find that nondifferentiating mutants overtake unicellular populations but are outcompeted by multicellular, soma-producing strains, suggesting that multicellularity confers evolutionary stability to somatic differentiation. PMID:27402737

  6. The Somatic Complaints List: Validation of a self-report questionnaire assessing somatic complaints in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F. C.; Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the Somatic Complaint List (SCL) in children. Method: At T1, 365 fourth and 352 fifth graders completed the SCL, the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI-C), and the Mood Questionnaire. Parents (n=564) completed the parental form of the CSI-C (CSI-P). Six months later, the

  7. Uropathogenic E. coli Exploit CEA to Promote Colonization of the Urogenital Tract Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzner, Petra; Kengmo Tchoupa, Arnaud; Klauser, Benedikt; Brunner, Thomas; Putze, Johannes; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hauck, Christof R.

    2016-01-01

    Attachment to the host mucosa is a key step in bacterial pathogenesis. On the apical surface of epithelial cells, members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family are abundant glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and modulation of cell signaling. Interestingly, several gram-negative bacterial pathogens target these receptors by specialized adhesins. The prototype of a CEACAM-binding pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, utilizes colony opacity associated (Opa) proteins to engage CEA, as well as the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 on human epithelial cells. By heterologous expression of neisserial Opa proteins in non-pathogenic E. coli we find that the Opa protein-CEA interaction is sufficient to alter gene expression, to increase integrin activity and to promote matrix adhesion of infected cervical carcinoma cells and immortalized vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. These CEA-triggered events translate in suppression of exfoliation and improved colonization of the urogenital tract by Opa protein-expressing E. coli in CEA-transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, uropathogenic E. coli expressing an unrelated CEACAM-binding protein of the Afa/Dr adhesin family recapitulate the in vitro and in vivo phenotype. In contrast, an isogenic strain lacking the CEACAM-binding adhesin shows reduced colonization and does not suppress epithelial exfoliation. These results demonstrate that engagement of human CEACAMs by distinct bacterial adhesins is sufficient to blunt exfoliation and to promote host infection. Our findings provide novel insight into mucosal colonization by a common UPEC pathotype and help to explain why human CEACAMs are a preferred epithelial target structure for diverse gram-negative bacteria to establish a foothold on the human mucosa. PMID:27171273

  8. Kinetics of radiation-induced apoptosis in neonatal urogenital tissues with and without protein synthesis inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobe, G.C.; Harmon, B.; Schoch, E.; Allan, D.J. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    The difference in incidence of radiation-induced apoptosis between two neonatal urogenital tissues, kidney and testis, was analysed over a 24h period. Concurrent administration of cycloheximide (10mg/kg body weight), a protein synthesis inhibitor, with radiation treatment was used to determine whether new protein synthesis had a role in induction of apoptosis in this in vivo model. Many chemotherapeutic drugs act via protein synthesis inhibition, and we believe that the results of this latter analysis may provide information for the planning of concurrent radio and chemotherapy. Apoptosis was quantified using morphological parameters, and verified by DNA gel electrophoresis for the typical banding pattern, and by electron microscopy. The proliferative index in tissues was studied, using [6-{sup 3}H]-thymidine uptake ( 1h prior to euthanasia and collection of tissues) and autoradiography as indicators of cell proliferation (S-phase). Tissue was collected 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24h after radiation treatment. Expression of one of the apoptosis-associated genes, Bcl-2 (an apoptosis inhibitor/cell survival gene), was studied using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis peaked at 4h in the testis and 6h in the kidney, emphasising the necessity of knowing tissue differences in radiation response if comparing changes at a particular time. A higher proportion (almost five fold) of the apoptotic cells died in S-phase in the kidney than the testis, over the 24h. Protein synthesis inhibition completely negated induction of apoptosis in both tissues. Necrosis was not identified at any time. Cycloheximide treatment greatly diminished Bcl-2 expression. The differences in response of the two tissues to irradiation relates to their innate cell (genetic) controls, which may be determined by their state of differentiation at time of treatment, or the tissue type. This in vivo study also suggests the model may be useful for analysis of other cancer therapies for example polychemotherapies or chemo

  9. Kinetics of radiation-induced apoptosis in neonatal urogenital tissues with and without protein synthesis inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobe, G.C.; Harmon, B.; Schoch, E.; Allan, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The difference in incidence of radiation-induced apoptosis between two neonatal urogenital tissues, kidney and testis, was analysed over a 24h period. Concurrent administration of cycloheximide (10mg/kg body weight), a protein synthesis inhibitor, with radiation treatment was used to determine whether new protein synthesis had a role in induction of apoptosis in this in vivo model. Many chemotherapeutic drugs act via protein synthesis inhibition, and we believe that the results of this latter analysis may provide information for the planning of concurrent radio and chemotherapy. Apoptosis was quantified using morphological parameters, and verified by DNA gel electrophoresis for the typical banding pattern, and by electron microscopy. The proliferative index in tissues was studied, using [6- 3 H]-thymidine uptake ( 1h prior to euthanasia and collection of tissues) and autoradiography as indicators of cell proliferation (S-phase). Tissue was collected 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24h after radiation treatment. Expression of one of the apoptosis-associated genes, Bcl-2 (an apoptosis inhibitor/cell survival gene), was studied using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis peaked at 4h in the testis and 6h in the kidney, emphasising the necessity of knowing tissue differences in radiation response if comparing changes at a particular time. A higher proportion (almost five fold) of the apoptotic cells died in S-phase in the kidney than the testis, over the 24h. Protein synthesis inhibition completely negated induction of apoptosis in both tissues. Necrosis was not identified at any time. Cycloheximide treatment greatly diminished Bcl-2 expression. The differences in response of the two tissues to irradiation relates to their innate cell (genetic) controls, which may be determined by their state of differentiation at time of treatment, or the tissue type. This in vivo study also suggests the model may be useful for analysis of other cancer therapies for example polychemotherapies or chemo

  10. Urinary continence following repair of intermediate and high urogenital sinus in CAH. Experience with 55 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marcela Bailez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim :Evaluate postoperative urinary continence in patients withcongenital adrenal hyperplasia(CAHwith intermediate (ITand high urogenital sinus (UGS who underwent a UGS mobilization maneuver .Methods: We called IT to those that although needing an aggressive dissection to get to the vagina, still have enough urethra proximal to the vaginal confluence. Very low variants are excluded from this analysis. Dissection always started in the posterior wall of the UGS with an aggressive separation from the anterior rectal wall. If the wide portion of the vagina was reached dissection stopped and the UGS opened ventrally widening to the introitus. Nineteen patients were treated using this maneuver (Group1. When more dissection was required the anterior wall of the UGS was dissected and carefully freed from the low retropubic space. Then the UGS was opened either ventrally or dorsally. Thirty three patients required this approach (Group 2 .Combined procedures were used in 3 patients with high UGS (Group 3. Results : Mean age at the time of the repair and length of the UGS were 12.2 years (4 months to 18 years and 3.75 cm (3 -8 cmfor G 1; 8 years (5 months to 17 years and 6.34 cm ( 4-12 cm in G2 and 8,3 years (2 -14 y and 11.5cm (11-12cm in G3. All patients had been regularly followed. Mean age at last follow up of 14.3y, 17y and 9.9y for groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. All patients continue to void normally and are continent. All patients have 2 separate visible orifices in the vulva. Only 3 are sexually active.Conclusion: UGS mobilization for vaginoplasty in girls with CAH does not compromise voiding function or urinary continence,

  11. Is somatic comorbidity associated with more somatic symptoms, mental distress, or unhealthy lifestyle in elderly cancer survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Ellen Karine; Fosså, Sophie D; Dahl, Alv A

    2009-06-01

    The associations of lifestyle factors, somatic symptoms, mental distress, and somatic comorbidity in elderly cancer survivors have not been well studied. This study examines these associations among elderly cancer survivors (age >or=65 years) in a population-based sample. A cross-sectional comparative study of Norwegian elderly cancer survivors. Combining information from The Norwegian Cancer Registry, and by self-reporting, 972 elderly cancer survivors were identified, of whom 632 (65%) had somatic comorbidity and 340 did not. Elderly cancer survivors with somatic comorbidity had significantly higher BMI, more performed minimal physical activity, had more somatic symptoms, used more medication, and had more frequently seen a medical doctor than survivors without somatic comorbidity. In multivariable analyses, unhealthy lifestyle and higher somatic symptoms scores were significantly associated with cancer cases with somatic comorbidity. In univariate analyses those with somatic comorbidity were significantly older, had lower levels of education, higher proportions of BMI >or= 30, less physical activity, poorer self-rated health, higher somatic symptoms score, more mental distress, had more frequently seen a medical doctor last year, and more frequently used daily medication. Our outcome measures of lifestyle, somatic symptoms and mental distress were all significantly associated with somatic comorbidity in elderly cancer survivors, however only lifestyle and somatic symptoms were significant in multivariable analyses. In elderly cancer survivors not only cancer, but also somatic comorbidity, deserve attention. Such comorbidity is associated with unhealthy lifestyles, more somatic symptoms and mental distress which should be evaluated and eventually treated.

  12. Somatization: a perspective from self psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, G M

    1991-01-01

    Somatization is a complex phenomenon that occurs in many forms and diverse settings. It is not necessarily pathological and may be found in a variety of psychiatric disorders. Much of the psychiatric literature has focused on patients with conversion disorders and hypochondriasis. Psychoanalytic theories regarding such conditions were largely based upon concepts of drive, conflict, and defense. The perspective from self psychology, with its emphasis on subjective experience and the sense of self, may further enhance the psychoanalytic understanding of somatization. Individuals with disturbances in the stability and organization of the self may present with somatic symptoms and disturbances in emotional awareness. Somatization in such cases may be the experiential manifestation of a disturbance in the cohesion of the self and/or may result from defensive operations to ward off affect. The latter may be prominent when affective arousal triggers the psychological threat of fragmentation. Somatization may diminish in such individuals when a self-object relationship is formed that bolsters and consolidates the sense of self. The integration of affect into ongoing subjective experience may also be an important aspect of psychoanalytic treatment in such patients.

  13. Hypochondriacal concerns and somatization in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, P; Walker, J R; Chartier, M J; Stein, M B

    1997-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between panic disorder and the symptoms of hypochondriasis and somatization, we evaluated these symptoms and diagnoses in patients attending an Anxiety Disorders Clinic. Structured clinical interviews, self-report measures, and symptom diaries were used to assess 21 patients with panic disorder, 23 patients with social phobia, and 22 control subjects with no psychiatric disorders. Ten of the patients with panic disorder (48%) also met DSM-IV criteria for hypochondriasis, whereas only one of the patients with social phobia and none of the healthy control subjects met the criteria for this diagnosis. None of the participants met DSM-IV criteria for somatization disorder, even though both anxiety groups reported high levels of somatic symptoms. The panic disorder group reported higher levels of fear about illness and disease conviction and endorsed more somatic symptoms than did the other groups. A higher proportion of panic disorder patients reported previously diagnosed medical conditions (48%) as compared with patients with social phobia (17%) or healthy control subjects (14%). The panic disorder patients with DSM-IV hypochondriasis obtained higher scores on measures of hypochondriacal concerns, somatization, blood-injury phobia, and general anxiety and distress than did the panic disorder patients without hypochondriasis. The results suggest a strong association between panic disorder and hypochondriasis.

  14. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles.

  15. Ccdc85C, a causative protein for hydrocephalus and subcortical heterotopia, is expressed in the systemic epithelia with proliferative activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Natsuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yamate, Jyoji; Kuwamura, Mitsuru

    2015-07-01

    Coiled-coil domain containing 85c (Ccdc85c) is a causative gene for spontaneous mutant mouse with non-obstructive hydrocephalus and subcortical heterotopia. Detailed functions of Ccdc85C protein have not been clarified. To reveal roles of Ccdc85C, we examined the distribution and expression pattern of Ccdc85C in the systemic developing organs in rats. Ccdc85C was expressed in various simple epithelia but not stratified epithelia. In the various epithelia, Ccdc85C was localized at cell-cell junctions and its expression was strong at apical junctions. Furthermore, intense expression was seen at developing period and gradually decreased with advancing development. Distribution of Ccdc85C coincides with that of proliferating epithelial cells. These results suggest that Ccdc85C plays an important role in the proliferative property of simple epithelia.

  16. Iron transport across the skin and gut epithelia of Pacific hagfish: Kinetic characterisation and effect of hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Chris N; Niyogi, Som; Blewett, Tamzin A; Wood, Chris M

    2016-09-01

    In most animals, the acquisition of the essential trace metal iron (Fe) is achieved by the gut, but in hagfishes, the skin is a nutrient absorbing epithelium, and thus may also play a role in Fe uptake. In the current study, the absorption of Fe, as Fe(II), across the intestinal and cutaneous epithelia of Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus cirrhatus) was investigated. Both epithelia absorbed Fe, with saturation at lower tested concentrations, superseded by a diffusive component at higher Fe exposure concentrations. Affinity constants (Km) of 9.4 and 137μM, and maximal Fe transport rates (Jmax) of 0.81 and 0.57nmolcm(-2)h(-1) were determined for the skin and the gut, respectively. This characterises the skin as a relatively high-affinity Fe transport epithelium. The majority of the absorbed Fe in the skin remained in the tissue, whereas in the gut, most absorbed Fe was found in the serosal fluid, suggesting distinct mechanisms of Fe handling between the two epithelia. To determine if reduced dissolved oxygen altered Fe transport, hagfish were subjected to hypoxia for 24h, before Fe transport was again assessed. Hypoxia had no effect on Fe transport across gut or skin, likely owing to the relative lack of change in haematological variables, and thus an unaltered Fe demand under such conditions. These data are the first to kinetically characterise the absorption of a nutritive trace metal across the epithelia of hagfish and add to the growing understanding of the role of the skin in nutritive transport in this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S H; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-06-29

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies.

  18. Drosophila as a Model for Human Diseases-Focus on Innate Immunity in Barrier Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, P; Seyedoleslami Esfahani, S; Engström, Y

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila. This review describes the current knowledge on Drosophila as a model for human diseases, with a special focus on innate immune-related disorders of the gut, lung, and skin. The discovery of antimicrobial peptides, the crucial role of Toll and Toll-like receptors, and the evolutionary conservation of signaling to the immune systems of both human and Drosophila are described in a historical perspective. Similarities and differences between human and Drosophila are discussed; current knowledge on receptors, signaling pathways, and effectors are reviewed, including antimicrobial peptides, reactive oxygen species, as well as autophagy. We also give examples of human diseases for which Drosophila appears to be a useful model. In addition, the limitations of the Drosophila model are mentioned. Finally, we propose areas for future research, which include using the Drosophila model for drug screening, as a validation tool for novel genetic mutations in humans and for exploratory research of microbiota-host interactions, with relevance for infection, wound healing, and cancer. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Response of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelia to Alcohol Exposure and Klebsiella pneumoniae Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammeta V. Raju

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary infection. It is not fully defined how alcohol contributes to the host defense compromise. Here primary human airway epithelial cells were cultured at an air-liquid interface to form a differentiated and polarized epithelium. This unique culture model allowed us to closely mimic lung infection in the context of alcohol abuse by basolateral alcohol exposure and apical live bacterial challenge. Application of clinically relevant concentrations of alcohol for 24 h did not significantly alter epithelial integrity or barrier function. When apically challenged with viable Klebsiella pneumoniae, the cultured epithelia had an enhanced tightness which was unaffected by alcohol. Further, alcohol enhanced apical bacterial growth, but not bacterial binding to the cells. The cultured epithelium in the absence of any treatment or stimulation had a base-level IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Apical bacterial challenge significantly elevated the basolateral secretion of inflammatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α. However, alcohol suppressed the observed cytokine burst in response to infection. Addition of adenosine receptor agonists negated the suppression of IL-6 and TNF-α. Thus, acute alcohol alters the epithelial cytokine response to infection, which can be partially mitigated by adenosine receptor agonists.

  20. Toxicity of aged gasoline exhaust particles to normal and diseased airway epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzi, Lisa; Krapf, Manuel; Daher, Nancy; Dommen, Josef; Jeannet, Natalie; Schneider, Sarah; Platt, Stephen; Slowik, Jay G.; Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kalberer, Markus; Strähl, Christof; Dümbgen, Lutz; Sioutas, Constantinos; Baltensperger, Urs; Geiser, Marianne

    2015-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) pollution is a leading cause of premature death, particularly in those with pre-existing lung disease. A causative link between particle properties and adverse health effects remains unestablished mainly due to complex and variable physico-chemical PM parameters. Controlled laboratory experiments are required. Generating atmospherically realistic aerosols and performing cell-exposure studies at relevant particle-doses are challenging. Here we examine gasoline-exhaust particle toxicity from a Euro-5 passenger car in a uniquely realistic exposure scenario, combining a smog chamber simulating atmospheric ageing, an aerosol enrichment system varying particle number concentration independent of particle chemistry, and an aerosol deposition chamber physiologically delivering particles on air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures reproducing normal and susceptible health status. Gasoline-exhaust is an important PM source with largely unknown health effects. We investigated acute responses of fully-differentiated normal, distressed (antibiotics-treated) normal, and cystic fibrosis human bronchial epithelia (HBE), and a proliferating, single-cell type bronchial epithelial cell-line (BEAS-2B). We show that a single, short-term exposure to realistic doses of atmospherically-aged gasoline-exhaust particles impairs epithelial key-defence mechanisms, rendering it more vulnerable to subsequent hazards. We establish dose-response curves at realistic particle-concentration levels. Significant differences between cell models suggest the use of fully-differentiated HBE is most appropriate in future toxicity studies.

  1. Characterizing human vestibular sensory epithelia for experimental studies: new hair bundles on old tissue and implications for therapeutic interventions in ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Ruth R.; Jagger, Daniel J.; Saeed, Shakeel R.; Axon, Patrick; Donnelly, Neil; Tysome, James; Moffatt, David; Irving, Richard; Monksfield, Peter; Coulson, Chris; Freeman, Simon R.; Lloyd, Simon K.; Forge, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Balance disequilibrium is a significant contributor to falls in the elderly. The most common cause of balance dysfunction is loss of sensory cells from the vestibular sensory epithelia of the inner ear. However, inaccessibility of inner ear tissue in humans severely restricts possibilities for experimental manipulation to develop therapies to ameliorate this loss. We provide a structural and functional analysis of human vestibular sensory epithelia harvested at trans-labyrinthine surgery. We ...

  2. Reduced BMP signaling results in hindlimb fusion with lethal pelvic/urogenital organ aplasia: a new mouse model of sirenomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Adachi, Yasuha; Numata, Tomokazu; Nakada, Shoko; Yanagita, Motoko; Nakagata, Naomi; Evans, Sylvia M; Graf, Daniel; Economides, Aris; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Moon, Anne M; Yamada, Gen

    2012-01-01

    Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox)) and the Isl1 (Islet1)-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox) conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme) and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.

  3. Reduced BMP signaling results in hindlimb fusion with lethal pelvic/urogenital organ aplasia: a new mouse model of sirenomelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Suzuki

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox and the Isl1 (Islet1-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.

  4. Cellular Mechanisms of Somatic Stem Cell Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yunjoon

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity rely on rare populations of somatic stem cells endowed with the potential to self-renew and differentiate. During aging, many tissues show a decline in regenerative potential coupled with a loss of stem cell function. Cells including somatic stem cells have evolved a series of checks and balances to sense and repair cellular damage to maximize tissue function. However, during aging the mechanisms that protect normal cell function begin to fail. In this review, we will discuss how common cellular mechanisms that maintain tissue fidelity and organismal lifespan impact somatic stem cell function. We will highlight context-dependent changes and commonalities that define aging, by focusing on three age-sensitive stem cell compartments: blood, neural, and muscle. Understanding the interaction between extrinsic regulators and intrinsic effectors that operate within different stem cell compartments is likely to have important implications for identifying strategies to improve health span and treat age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24439814

  5. Somatic seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic seeds of Plantago asiatica L. were produced for the first time. Shoot-tips isolated from in vitro obtained 4-week shoots were encapsulated using sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Capsules with or without sucrose and with and without cytokinin - indole-3-butyric acid (IBA were used. Sucrose presence in capsules very distinctly influences somatic seeds of Plantago asiatica germination and their conversion into plants. However, addition of IBA to capsules has not clear influence on the ability of plant regrowth. Plantlets transplanted to soil grew to phenotypically normal plants.

  6. Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This document presents arguments that conclude that it is unethical to use somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for infertility treatment due to concerns about safety; the unknown impact of SCNT on children, families, and society; and the availability of other ethically acceptable means of assisted reproduction. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee report titled, "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning)," last published in Fertil Steril 2000;74:873-6. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Somatic tinnitus prevalence and treatment with tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, K; Lurquin, P; Horoi, M; Cotton, P; Hervé, V; Thill, M P

    2016-01-01

    Somatic tinnitus originates from increased activity of the dorsal cochlear nucleus, a cross-point between the somatic and auditory systems. Its activity can be modified by auditory stimulation or somatic system manipulation. Thus, sound enrichment and white noise stimulation might decrease tinnitus and associated somatic symptoms. The present uncontrolled study sought to determine somatic tinnitus prevalence among tinnitus sufferers, and to investigate whether sound therapy with counselling (tinnitus retraining therapy; TRT) may decrease tinnitus-associated somatic symptoms. To determine somatic tinnitus prevalence, 70 patients following the TRT protocol completed the Jastreboff Structured Interview (JSI) with additional questions regarding the presence and type of somatic symptoms. Among 21 somatic tinnitus patients, we further investigated the effects of TRT on tinnitus-associated facial dysesthesia. Before and after three months of TRT, tinnitus severity was evaluated using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), and facial dysesthesia was assessed with an extended JSI-based questionnaire. Among the evaluated tinnitus patients, 56% presented somatic tinnitus-including 51% with facial dysesthesia, 36% who could modulate tinnitus by head and neck movements, and 13% with both conditions. Self-evaluation indicated that TRT significantly improved tinnitus and facial dysesthesia in 76% of patients. Three months of TRT led to a 50% decrease in mean THI and JSI scores regarding facial dysesthesia. Somatic tinnitus is a frequent and underestimated condition. We suggest an extension of the JSI, including specific questions regarding somatic tinnitus. TRT significantly improved tinnitus and accompanying facial dysesthesia, and could be a useful somatic tinnitus treatment.

  8. Expression of the Wilms' tumor gene WT1 in the murine urogenital system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J; Schalling, M; Buckler, A J; Rogers, A; Haber, D A; Housman, D

    1991-08-01

    The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is a recessive oncogene that encodes a putative transcription factor implicated in nephrogenesis during kidney development. In this report we analyze expression of WT1 in the murine urogenital system. WT1 is expressed in non-germ-cell components of the testis and ovaries in both young and adult mice. In situ mRNA hybridization studies demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in the granulosa and epithelial cells of ovaries, the Sertoli cells of the testis, and in the uterine wall. In addition to the 3.1-kb WT1 transcript detected by Northern blotting of RNA from kidney, uterus, and gonads, there is an approximately 2.5-kb WT1-related mRNA species in testis. The levels of WT1 mRNA in the gonads are among the highest observed, surpassing amounts detected in the embryonic kidney. During development, these levels are differentially regulated, depending on the sexual differentiation of the gonad. Expression of WT1 mRNA in the female reproductive system does not fluctuate significantly from days 4 to 40 postpartum. In contrast, WT1 mRNA levels in the tesis increase steadily after birth, reaching their highest expression levels at day 8 postpartum and decreasing slightly as the animal matures. Expression of WT1 in the gonads is detectable as early as 12.5 days postcoitum (p.c.). As an initial step toward exploring the tissue-specific expression of WT1, DNA elements upstream of WT1 were cloned and sequenced. Three putative transcription initiation sites, utilized in testis, ovaries, and uterus, were mapped by S1 nuclease protection assays. The sequences surrounding these sites have a high G + C content, and typical upstream CCAAT and TATAA boxes are not present. These studies allowed us to identify the translation initiation site for WT1 protein synthesis. We have also used an epitope-tagging protocol to demonstrate that WT1 is a nuclear protein, consistent with its role as a transcription factor. Our results demonstrate regulation of WT1 expression

  9. Urogenital schistosomiasis in Cabo Delgado, northern Mozambique: baseline findings from the SCORE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna E; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro H; Aurelio, Herminio O; Dhanani, Neerav; Ferro, Josefo; Nala, Rassul; Deol, Arminder; Fenwick, Alan

    2018-01-10

    The results presented here are part of a five-year cluster-randomised intervention trial that was implemented to understand how best to gain and sustain control of schistosomiasis through different preventive chemotherapy strategies. This paper presents baseline data that were collected in ten districts of Cabo Delgado province, northern Mozambique, before treatment. A cross-sectional study of 19,039 individuals was sampled from 144 villages from May to September 2011. In each village prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium were investigated in 100 children first-year students (aged 5-8 years), 100 school children aged 9-12 years (from classes 2 to 7) and 50 adults (20-55 years). Prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection were evaluated microscopically by two filtrations, each of 10 ml, from a single urine specimen. Given that individual and community perceptions of schistosomiasis influence control efforts, community knowledge and environmental risk factors were collected using a face-to-face interview. Data were entered onto mobile phones using EpiCollect. Data summary was made using descriptive statistics. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to determine the association between dependent and independent variables. The overall prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis was 60.4% with an arithmetic mean intensity of infection of 55.8 eggs/10 ml of urine. Heavy infections were detected in 17.7%, of which 235 individuals (6.97%) had an egg count of 1000 eggs/10 ml or more. There was a significantly higher likelihood of males being infected than females across all ages (62% vs 58%; P Cabo Delgado. In addition, poor community knowledge about the causes of schistosomiasis and how to prevent it increases the significant public health challenge for the national control program. This was the first study in Mozambique that examined infection levels among adults, where results showed that S. haematobium infection was also extremely high. Given

  10. Secreted aspartic proteases are not required for invasion of reconstituted human epithelia by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lermann, Ulrich; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2008-11-01

    A well-known virulence attribute of the human-pathogenic yeast Candida albicans is the secretion of aspartic proteases (Saps), which may contribute to colonization and infection of different host niches by degrading tissue barriers, destroying host defence molecules, or digesting proteins for nutrient supply. The role of individual Sap isoenzymes, which are encoded by a large gene family, for the pathogenicity of C. albicans has been investigated by assessing the virulence of mutants lacking specific SAP genes and by studying the expression pattern of the SAP genes in various models of superficial and systemic infections. We used a recombination-based genetic reporter system to detect the induction of the SAP1-SAP6 genes during infection of reconstituted human vaginal epithelium. Only SAP5, but none of the other tested SAP genes, was detectably activated in this in vitro infection model. To directly address the importance of the SAP1-SAP6 genes for invasion of reconstituted human epithelia (RHE), we constructed a set of mutants of the wild-type C. albicans model strain SC5314 in which either single or multiple SAP genes were specifically deleted. Even mutants lacking all of the SAP1-SAP3 or the SAP4-SAP6 genes displayed the same capacity to invade and damage both oral and vaginal RHE as their wild-type parental strain, in contrast to a nonfilamentous efg1Delta mutant that was avirulent under these conditions. We therefore conclude from these results that the secreted aspartic proteases Sap1p-Sap6p are not required for invasion of RHE by C. albicans.

  11. Retention of differentiated characteristics by cultures of defined rabbit kidney epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P D; Anderson, R J; Breckon, R D; Nathrath, W; Schrier, R W

    1987-02-01

    epithelia in the kidney.

  12. Sidestream smoke exposure increases the susceptibility of airway epithelia to adenoviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    Full Text Available Although significant epidemiological evidence indicates that cigarette smoke exposure increases the incidence and severity of viral infection, the molecular mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of the respiratory tract to viral pathogens are unclear. Adenoviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses and important causative agents of acute respiratory disease. The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR is the primary receptor for many adenoviruses. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure increases epithelial susceptibility to adenovirus infection by increasing the abundance of apical CAR.Cultured human airway epithelial cells (CaLu-3 were used as a model to investigate the effect of sidestream cigarette smoke (SSS, mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS, or control air exposure on the susceptibility of polarized respiratory epithelia to adenoviral infection. Using a Cultex air-liquid interface exposure system, we have discovered novel differences in epithelial susceptibility between SSS and MSS exposures. SSS exposure upregulates an eight-exon isoform of CAR and increases adenoviral entry from the apical surface whilst MSS exposure is similar to control air exposure. Additionally, the level of cellular glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β is downregulated by SSS exposure and treatment with a specific GSK3β inhibitor recapitulates the effects of SSS exposure on CAR expression and viral infection.This is the first time that SSS exposure has been shown to directly enhance the susceptibility of a polarized epithelium to infection by a common respiratory viral pathogen. This work provides a novel understanding of the impact of SSS on the burden of respiratory viral infections and may lead to new strategies to alter viral infections. Moreover, since GSK3β inhibitors are under intense clinical investigation as therapeutics for a diverse range of diseases, studies such as these might provide insight to extend the use of clinically relevant

  13. Effects of airway surface liquid height on the kinetics of extracellular nucleotides in airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarante, Tauanne D; da Silva, Jafferson K L; Garcia, Guilherme J M

    2014-12-21

    Experimental techniques aimed at measuring the concentration of signaling molecules in the airway surface liquid (ASL) often require an unrealistically large ASL volume to facilitate sampling. This experimental limitation, prompted by the difficulty of pipetting liquid from a very shallow layer (~15 μm), leads to dilution and the under-prediction of physiologic concentrations of signaling molecules that are vital to the regulation of mucociliary clearance. Here, we use a computational model to describe the effect of liquid height on the kinetics of extracellular nucleotides in the airway surface liquid coating respiratory epithelia. The model consists of a reaction-diffusion equation with boundary conditions that represent the enzymatic reactions occurring on the epithelial surface. The simulations reproduce successfully the kinetics of extracellular ATP following hypotonic challenge for ASL volumes ranging from 25 μl to 500 μl in a 12-mm diameter cell culture. The model reveals that [ATP] and [ADO] reach 1200 nM and 2200 nM at the epithelial surface, respectively, while their volumetric averages remain less than 200 nM at all times in experiments with a large ASL volume (500 μl). These findings imply that activation of P2Y2 and A2B receptors is robust after hypotonic challenge, in contrast to what could be concluded based on experimental measurements of volumetric concentrations in large ASL volumes. Finally, given the central role that ATP and ADO play in regulating mucociliary clearance, we investigated which enzymes, when inhibited, provide the greatest increase in ATP and ADO concentrations. Our findings suggest that inhibition of NTPDase1/highTNAP would cause the greatest increase in [ATP] after hypotonic challenge, while inhibition of the transporter CNT3 would provide the greatest increase in [ADO]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment with Entinostat Heals Experimental Cholera by Affecting Physical and Chemical Barrier Functions of Intestinal Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Protim; Banik, Atanu; Stromberg, Roger; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Raqib, Rubhana; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2017-07-01

    We have shown previously that oral treatment with sodium butyrate or phenylbutyrate in an experimental model of shigellosis improves clinical outcomes and induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide CAP-18 in the large intestinal epithelia. In a subsequent study, we found that entinostat, an aroylated phenylenediamine compound, has similar therapeutic potential against shigellosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate entinostat as a potential candidate for host-directed therapy against cholera in an experimental model. Vibrio cholerae -infected rabbits were treated with two different dose regimens of entinostat: either 0.5 mg twice daily for 2 days or 1 mg once daily for 2 days. The effects of treatment on clinical outcomes and V. cholerae shedding (CFU count in stool) were observed. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out to assess CAP-18 expression in ileal and jejunal mucosae. The serum zonulin level was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to evaluate gut permeability. Infection of rabbits with V. cholerae downregulated CAP-18 expression in the ileal epithelium; the expression was replenished by oral treatment with entinostat at either dose regimen. The level of zonulin, a marker of gut permeability, in serum was upregulated after infection, and this upregulation was counteracted after treatment with entinostat. Entinostat treatment also led to recovery from cholera and a decline in the V. cholerae count in stool. In conclusion, the improved clinical outcome of cholera for rabbits treated with entinostat is associated with the induction of CAP-18 and the reduction of gut epithelial permeability. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Gene expression and functional annotation of the human ciliary body epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F Janssen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The ciliary body (CB of the human eye consists of the non-pigmented (NPE and pigmented (PE neuro-epithelia. We investigated the gene expression of NPE and PE, to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the most important functions of the CB. We also developed molecular signatures for the NPE and PE and studied possible new clues for glaucoma. METHODS: We isolated NPE and PE cells from seven healthy human donor eyes using laser dissection microscopy. Next, we performed RNA isolation, amplification, labeling and hybridization against 44×k Agilent microarrays. For microarray conformations, we used a literature study, RT-PCRs, and immunohistochemical stainings. We analyzed the gene expression data with R and with the knowledge database Ingenuity. RESULTS: The gene expression profiles and functional annotations of the NPE and PE were highly similar. We found that the most important functionalities of the NPE and PE were related to developmental processes, neural nature of the tissue, endocrine and metabolic signaling, and immunological functions. In total 1576 genes differed statistically significantly between NPE and PE. From these genes, at least 3 were cell-specific for the NPE and 143 for the PE. Finally, we observed high expression in the (NPE of 35 genes previously implicated in molecular mechanisms related to glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Our gene expression analysis suggested that the NPE and PE of the CB were quite similar. Nonetheless, cell-type specific differences were found. The molecular machineries of the human NPE and PE are involved in a range of neuro-endocrinological, developmental and immunological functions, and perhaps glaucoma.

  16. Genetic transformation of olive somatic embryos through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... 2Department of Biochemistry, National Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran. Accepted 9 March, 2011. Transformed olive plants were regenerated from inoculated somatic embryos with Agrobacterium tumefacience strain GV3101, which carries the plasmid pBI-P5CS containing ...

  17. Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Eggplant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR SIDHU

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... Two as well as three way interactions of three eggplant genotypes, media compositions and explants. (hypocotyl, cotyledon and leaf) showed significant differences for plant regeneration. Among three explants, hypocotyl induced highest percent callusing, but cotyledon showed best results for somatic.

  18. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  19. Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas L.(Lam)l. Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryo-genesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants. They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  20. POLE somatic mutations in advanced colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joana; Pinto, Carla; Pinto, Diana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Silva, Romina; Peixoto, Ana; Rocha, Patrícia; Veiga, Isabel; Santos, Catarina; Santos, Rui; Cabreira, Verónica; Lopes, Paula; Henrique, Rui; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2017-12-01

    Despite all the knowledge already gathered, the picture of somatic genetic changes in colorectal tumorigenesis is far from complete. Recently, germline and somatic mutations in the exonuclease domain of polymerase epsilon, catalytic subunit (POLE) gene have been reported in a small subset of microsatellite-stable and hypermutated colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), affecting the proofreading activity of the enzyme and leading to misincorporation of bases during DNA replication. To evaluate the role of POLE mutations in colorectal carcinogenesis, namely in advanced CRC, we searched for somatic mutations by Sanger sequencing in tumor DNA samples from 307 cases. Microsatellite instability and mutation analyses of a panel of oncogenes were performed in the tumors harboring POLE mutations. Three heterozygous mutations were found in two tumors, the c.857C>G, p.Pro286Arg, the c.901G>A, p.Asp301Asn, and the c.1376C>T, p.Ser459Phe. Of the POLE-mutated CRCs, one tumor was microsatellite-stable and the other had low microsatellite instability, whereas KRAS and PIK3CA mutations were found in one tumor each. We conclude that POLE somatic mutations exist but are rare in advanced CRC, with further larger studies being necessary to evaluate its biological and clinical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Relationship between somatization and remission with ECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Keith G; Snyder, Karen A; Knapp, Rebecca G; Mueller, Martina; Yim, Eunsil; Husain, Mustafa M; Rummans, Teresa A; Sampson, Shirlene M; O'Connor, M Kevin; Bernstein, Hilary J; Kellner, Charles H

    2004-12-30

    Patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) were divided into those with less severe depression and those with more severe depression. In the less severely depressed group, high somatic anxiety and hypochondriasis predicted a low likelihood of sustained remission with ECT. In the more severely depressed group, these traits were not predictive of ECT outcome.

  2. Somatic And Behavioral Changes Associated With Difuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: The effects of diffuse transcranial electrical stimulation on somatic and behavioral changes in anaesthetized and unanaesthetized normal male and female Wister rats was studied. Method: Diffuse transcranial electrical stimulation (0-25v, frequency 90Hz,pulse width 1ms) was administered via two electrodes clipped ...

  3. Somatic Symptoms in Traumatized Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Brittany B.; Bloom, Marlene; Kaercher, Lauren B.; Truax, Tatyana V.; Storch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood exposure to trauma has been associated with increased rates of somatic symptoms (SS), which may contribute to diminished daily functioning. One hundred and sixty-one children residing at a residential treatment home who had experienced neglect and/or abuse were administered the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), the…

  4. Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim for this particular research was initially an adaptation of optimum half strength lithium chloride-sodium propionate (LP) medium protocol for growth and proliferation of embryogenic ... Additional study on the effect of seed extraction to the growing embryogenic culture showed no effect on mature somatic embryos.

  5. [Interdependance between somatic symptoms, sleep and dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Assya

    2014-03-19

    Even in an established illness, somatic complains can hide other emotional inquiries. The therapist, always with a kind attitude, can ask more about patient's sexual life. This can be use of having a better idea of patient's life and problems. Talking about dreams can also be useful: it gives new and surprising elements about patient's personality and helps to progress on healing's way.

  6. Depression, disability and somatic diseases among elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dekker, Janny; De Waal, M.W.M.; Van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Comijs, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Depression among older adults is associated with both disability and somatic disease. We aimed to further understand this complicated relationship and to study the possible modifying effect of increasing age. Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: Outpatient and inpatient clinics of

  7. Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)

  8. Depression and hypochondriasis in family practice patients with somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, T E; Barrett, J

    1985-10-01

    The relationships specified in DSM-III between somatization disorder and depression, and somatization disorder and hypochondriasis require further validation and easier methods of detection for use by primary care physicians. The authors investigated hypochondriacal and depressive symptoms in 13 family practice outpatients with somatization disorder. Pain complaints and depressive symptomatology were present in over 75% of this group, while hypochondriacal symptoms were present in 38%. The mean score on the somatization scale of the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-90) was greater than that reported for any other group. These findings support the separation of somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and suggest the need for better delineation of depressive subtypes in somatization disorder. The somatization scale of the HSCL-90 should be a useful screen for somatization disorder in future research.

  9. Delusional disorder-somatic type (or body dysmorphic disorder) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to distinguish cases of delusional disorder of somatic subtype from severe somatization .... features suggestive of a paranoid schizophrenia. Paranoid schizophrenia ... Of note is that the patient's personality and psychosocial functioning were ...

  10. Key to successful vesico vaginal fistula repair, an experience of urogenital fistula surgeries and outcome at gynaecological surgical camp 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatoi, N.; Jatoi, N.M.; Sirichand, P.

    2008-01-01

    Vesico-vaginal fistula is not life threatening medical problem, but the woman face demoralization, social boycott and even divorce and separation. The aetiology of the condition has been changed over the years and in developed countries obstetrical fistula are rare and they are usually result of gynaecological surgeries or radiotherapy. Urogenital fistula surgery doesn't require special or advance technology but needs experienced urogynaecologist with trained team and post operative care which can restore health, hope and sense of dignity to women. This prospective study was carried out to analyze the success rate in patients attending the referral hospital and sent from free gynaecological surgery camps held at interior of Sindh, and included preoperative evaluation for route of surgery, operative techniques and postoperative care. Total 70 patients were admitted from the patients attending the camp. Out of these, 29 patients had uro-genital fistula. Surgical repair of the fistula was done through vaginal route on 27 patients while 2 required abdominal approach. Out of 29 surgical repairs performed, 27 proved successful. Difficult and complicated fistulae need experienced surgeon. Establishment of separate fistula surgery unit along with appropriate care and expertise accounts for the desired results. (author)

  11. Morphology of the urogenital papilla and its component ducts in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira-Silva

    Full Text Available The histological description of the urogenital papilla is an important tool to comprehension of the reproductive mechanisms in fish, as well as a pre-requisite to germ cell transplantation in adult fish, besides to be a good biological indicator to environmental changes. Was performed the histological description of the urogenital papilla and its component ducts in the tetra Astyanax altiparanae. The genital and urinay ducts pass separately throughout most part of its extension, joining in a single duct before opening. In males this opening is asymmetric and seems to have double origin, being completely surrounded by striated muscle fibers, while in females it is symmetric and the muscle fibers does not surround it totally. Spermatic duct and oviduct undergo changes throughout their extension, mainly in the morphology of the surrounding epithelium. In the spermatic duct, squamous epithelial cells change to columnar and cuboid with possible secretory activity, close to testes. In the oviduct, anteriorly epithelial cells are also squamous, however, close to ovary there are lamellae composed by a pseudostratified epithelium with columnar and cuboid cells. The urinary duct is highly similar for both sexes presenting globoid cells, which description is known in mammals, however, rare in fish.

  12. Development of direct somatic embryogenesis and regeneration on citrus sinesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong Saw Peng; Alvina Lindsay Mijen; Rusli Ibrahim

    2004-01-01

    The plant regeneration processes in Citrus sinensis involves direct somatic embryogenesis. Culture medium used was MS basal supplemented with 50 mg/L sucrose, 0.27% agar and 0.1% vitamin at pH 5.8. Sucrose is the major carbon source for the induction of somatic embryo and also the maturation and germination of somatic embryo. (Author)

  13. Combined gene expression analysis of whole-tissue and microdissected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma identifies genes specifically overexpressed in tumor epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Liviu; Herlea, Vlad; Dima, Simona Olimpia; Dumitrascu, Traian; Popescu, Irinel

    2008-01-01

    The precise details of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) pathogenesis are still insufficiently known, requiring the use of high-throughput methods. However, PDAC is especially difficult to study using microarrays due to its strong desmoplastic reaction, which involves a hyperproliferating stroma that effectively "masks" the contribution of the minoritary neoplastic epithelial cells. Thus it is not clear which of the genes that have been found differentially expressed between normal and whole tumor tissues are due to the tumor epithelia and which simply reflect the differences in cellular composition. To address this problem, laser microdissection studies have been performed, but these have to deal with much smaller tissue sample quantities and therefore have significantly higher experimental noise. In this paper we combine our own large sample whole-tissue study with a previously published smaller sample microdissection study by Grützmann et al. to identify the genes that are specifically overexpressed in PDAC tumor epithelia. The overlap of this list of genes with other microarray studies of pancreatic cancer as well as with the published literature is impressive. Moreover, we find a number of genes whose over-expression appears to be inversely correlated with patient survival: keratin 7, laminin gamma 2, stratifin, platelet phosphofructokinase, annexin A2, MAP4K4 and OACT2 (MBOAT2), which are all specifically upregulated in the neoplastic epithelia, rather than the tumor stroma. We improve on other microarray studies of PDAC by putting together the higher statistical power due to a larger number of samples with information about cell-type specific expression and patient survival.

  14. Technical and theoretical considerations about gradient perfusion culture for epithelia used in tissue engineering, biomaterial testing and pharmaceutical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minuth, Will W [Department of Molecular and Cellular Anatomy, University of Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg, University Street 31 (Germany); Strehl, Raimund [Cellartis AB, S-41346 Goeteborg, Arvid Wallgrens Backe 20 (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Epithelia act as biological barriers, which are exposed to different environments at the luminal and basal sides. To simulate this situation and to improve functional features an in vitro gradient perfusion culture technique was developed in our laboratory. This innovative technique appears to be simple at first sight, but the performance needs practical and theoretical knowledge. To harvest intact epithelia after a long-term gradient culture period of many days, leakage, edge damage and pressure differences in the system have to be avoided so that the epithelial barrier function is maintained continuously. Unexpectedly, one of the major obstacles are micro-injuries in the epithelia caused by gas bubbles, which arise during transportation of the medium or due to respiration of the cultured tissue. Gas bubbles randomly accumulate either at the luminal or basal fluid flow of the gradient perfusion culture container. This phenomenon results in fluid pressure differences between the luminal and basal perfusion compartments of the gradient container, which in turn leads to damage of the barrier function. Consequently, the content of gas bubbles in the transported culture medium has to be minimized. Thus, our technical concept is the reduction of gas bubbles while keeping the content of oxygen constant. To follow this strategy we developed a new type of screw cap for media bottles specifically designed to allow fluid contact only with tube and not with cap material. Furthermore, a gas expander module separates gas bubbles from the liquid phase during transportation of the medium. Finally, a new type of gradient culture container allows a permanent elimination of transported gas bubbles. Application of this innovative equipment optimizes the parallel transportation of fluid in the luminal and basal compartments of a gradient culture container. (topical review)

  15. An in vitro biotic ligand model (BLM) for silver binding to cultured gill epithelia of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bingsheng; Nichols, Joel; Playle, Richard C.; Wood, Chris M.

    2005-01-01

    'Reconstructed' gill epithelia on filter supports were grown in primary culture from dispersed gill cells of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This preparation contains both pavement cells and chloride cells, and after 7-9 days in culture, permits exposure of the apical surface to true freshwater while maintaining blood-like culture media on the basolateral surface, and exhibits a stable transepithelial resistance (TER) and transepithelial potential (TEP) under these conditions. These epithelia were used to develop a possible in vitro version of the biotic ligand model (BLM) for silver; the in vivo BLM uses short-term gill binding of the metal to predict acute silver toxicity as a function of freshwater chemistry. Radio-labeled silver ( 110m Ag as AgNO 3 ) was placed on the apical side (freshwater), and the appearance of 110m Ag in the epithelia (binding) and in the basolateral media (flux) over 3 h were monitored. Silver binding (greater than the approximate range 0-100 μg l -1 ) and silver flux were concentration-dependent with a 50% saturation point (apparent K d ) value of about 10 μg l -1 or 10 -7 M, very close to the 96-h LC50 in vivo in the same water chemistry. There were no adverse effects of silver on TER, TEP, or Na + , K + -ATPase activity, though the latter declined over longer exposures, as in vivo. Silver flux over 3 h was small ( + and dissolved organic carbon (humic acid) concentrations, increased by elevations in freshwater Cl - and reductions in pH, and insensitive to elevations in Ca 2+ . With the exception of the pH response, these effects were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to in vivo BLM responses. The results suggest that an in vitro BLM approach may provide a simple and cost-effective way for evaluating the protective effects of site-specific waters

  16. Technical and theoretical considerations about gradient perfusion culture for epithelia used in tissue engineering, biomaterial testing and pharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minuth, Will W; Strehl, Raimund

    2007-01-01

    Epithelia act as biological barriers, which are exposed to different environments at the luminal and basal sides. To simulate this situation and to improve functional features an in vitro gradient perfusion culture technique was developed in our laboratory. This innovative technique appears to be simple at first sight, but the performance needs practical and theoretical knowledge. To harvest intact epithelia after a long-term gradient culture period of many days, leakage, edge damage and pressure differences in the system have to be avoided so that the epithelial barrier function is maintained continuously. Unexpectedly, one of the major obstacles are micro-injuries in the epithelia caused by gas bubbles, which arise during transportation of the medium or due to respiration of the cultured tissue. Gas bubbles randomly accumulate either at the luminal or basal fluid flow of the gradient perfusion culture container. This phenomenon results in fluid pressure differences between the luminal and basal perfusion compartments of the gradient container, which in turn leads to damage of the barrier function. Consequently, the content of gas bubbles in the transported culture medium has to be minimized. Thus, our technical concept is the reduction of gas bubbles while keeping the content of oxygen constant. To follow this strategy we developed a new type of screw cap for media bottles specifically designed to allow fluid contact only with tube and not with cap material. Furthermore, a gas expander module separates gas bubbles from the liquid phase during transportation of the medium. Finally, a new type of gradient culture container allows a permanent elimination of transported gas bubbles. Application of this innovative equipment optimizes the parallel transportation of fluid in the luminal and basal compartments of a gradient culture container. (topical review)

  17. Squamous metaplasia as a manifestation of urogenital schistosomiasis and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Kolmakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leukoplakia or squamous metaplasia (SM of the bladder detect with the endoscopic diagnostic with urothelial biopsy. The reason for the development of SM, besides irritation of a mucous membrane by chemical reagents or drugs, is prolonged exposure of schistosome eggs (Schistosoma haematobium, penetrating into the bladder during invasion. The most common cause of urothelial SM is urogenital schistosomiasis (US and one of the most known and dangerous its complications is schistosomiasis bladder cancer (sBC. Features of cellular mechanisms linking the schistosomes invasion with the development of sBC are not well studied. Urothelial SM use to indicate by the presence of cancerous transformation, or may be a marker of long-term inflammation. The flow of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder usually is accompanied by a keratinizing SM. Taking into account the socio-political conditions of the modern world and the development of tourism, the relevance of the diagnosis and treatment of patients with those diseases continues to grow. Materials and methods. The results of observation the group of 181 residents of the Republic of Angola with gross haematuria analyzed from 2009 till 2010. US verified in all cases. We conducted urine tests for detection of schistosomes, cytological examination of urine sediment (CEUS, ultrasound and endoscopic diagnostic methods, biopsy of the urothelium. The database of the hospitals used in the statistical analysis.Results. In 142 (78.5 % cases uncomplicated US confirmed, at 39 (21.5 % patients sBC revealed. Schistosomes invasion and trichomonas were combined in 21 (14.8 % cases. Changes and thickness of the bladder wall by ultrasound were accompanied with the SM in 26.8 % cases. The combination of SM and hydronephrosis caused by ureteral stenosis due to US were founded in 2 (1.4 % cases. The coincidence cases of PM with ultrasound picture, featuring for manifestations US did not exceed 14

  18. Propagation of respiratory viruses in human airway epithelia reveals persistent virus-specific signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaidi-Laziosi, Manel; Brito, Francisco; Benaoudia, Sacha; Royston, Léna; Cagno, Valeria; Fernandes-Rocha, Mélanie; Piuz, Isabelle; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Huang, Song; Constant, Samuel; Boldi, Marc-Olivier; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

    2018-06-01

    The leading cause of acute illnesses, respiratory viruses, typically cause self-limited diseases, although severe complications can occur in fragile patients. Rhinoviruses (RVs), respiratory enteroviruses (EVs), influenza virus, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSVs), and coronaviruses are highly prevalent respiratory pathogens, but because of the lack of reliable animal models, their differential pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. We sought to compare infections by respiratory viruses isolated from clinical specimens using reconstituted human airway epithelia. Tissues were infected with RV-A55, RV-A49, RV-B48, RV-C8, and RV-C15; respiratory EV-D68; influenza virus H3N2; RSV-B; and human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43. Replication kinetics, cell tropism, effect on tissue integrity, and cytokine secretion were compared. Viral adaptation and tissue response were assessed through RNA sequencing. RVs, RSV-B, and HCoV-OC43 infected ciliated cells and caused no major cell death, whereas H3N2 and EV-D68 induced ciliated cell loss and tissue integrity disruption. H3N2 was also detected in rare goblet and basal cells. All viruses, except RV-B48 and HCoV-OC43, altered cilia beating and mucociliary clearance. H3N2 was the strongest cytokine inducer, and HCoV-OC43 was the weakest. Persistent infection was observed in all cases. RNA sequencing highlighted perturbation of tissue metabolism and induction of a transient but important immune response at 4 days after infection. No majority mutations emerged in the viral population. Our results highlight the differential in vitro pathogenesis of respiratory viruses during the acute infection phase and their ability to persist under immune tolerance. These data help to appreciate the range of disease severity observed in vivo and the occurrence of chronic respiratory tract infections in immunocompromised hosts. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic variants of genital mycoplasmas and their relation to the clinical course of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Rakhmatulina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the study. To study genetic variability of M. hominis (based on the vaa gene and M. genitalium (based on the mg192 gene derived from biological material samples taken from women with different clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system and clinically healthy women (for M. hominis. Materials and methods. Genetic variability of twenty M. hominis samples taken from patients with inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system and twenty M. hominis samples taken from patients without clinical and laboratory signs of inflammatory processes of the urogenital system was studied by the sequence analysis method. Genetic variability of eight M. genitalium samples taken from patients with different clinical signs of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system was also examined by the sequence analysis method. Results. Three genetic variants of M. hominis based on the vaa gene were found; variant I was revealed more often in patients with clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases (65.0%, and variant II - in clinically healthy women (60.0%. Three phylogenetic M. gentium groups based on the mg192 gene were revealed; two samples were referred to Groups I and II, and four samples were referred to Group III. Samples from each phylogenetic groups were taken from patients with clinical and laboratory manifestations of cervicitis and urethritis. Conclusion. The study data demonstrate a potential effect of the VAA surface protein on the virulence of opportunistic M. hominis pathogens.

  20. INDUCTION OF A SECRETORY IGA RESPONSE IN THE MURINE FEMALE UROGENITAL TRACT BY IMMUNIZATION OF THE LUNGS WITH LIPOSOME-SUPPLEMENTED VIRAL SUBUNIT ANTIGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHAAN, A; RENEGAR, KB; SMALL, PA; WILSCHUT, J

    This study demonstrates that liposomes administered to the lower respiratory tract of mice have the capacity to stimulate secretory IgA (s-IgA) antibody production in the female urogenital system. Total respiratory tract immunization of mice with influenza virus subunit antigen simply mixed with

  1. UBE2A deficiency syndrome: Mild to severe intellectual disability accompanied by seizures, absent speech, urogenital, and skin anomalies in male patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, N. de; Bulk, S.; Green, A.; Jaeckle-Santos, L.; Baker, L.A.; Zinn, A.R.; Kleefstra, T.; Smagt, J.J. van der; Vianne Morgante, A.M.; Vries, L.B.A. de; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Brouwer, A.P.M. de

    2010-01-01

    We describe three patients with a comparable deletion encompassing SLC25A43, SLC25A5, CXorf56, UBE2A, NKRF, and two non-coding RNA genes, U1 and LOC100303728. Moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), psychomotor retardation, severely impaired/absent speech, seizures, and urogenital anomalies

  2. Combination of PCR targeting the VD2 of omp1 and reverse line blot analysis for typing of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in cervical scrape specimens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molano, M; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Morre, S.A.; Pol, R; Brule, van den AJ

    2004-01-01

    50% contained both serovars D and E. The nested VD2 PCR-RLB developed is a simple, fast, and specific method for the identification of individual urogenital C. trachomatis serovars previously detected by using plasmid PCR. Moreover, it is an appropriate method for studying multiple C. trachomatis

  3. Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hossein, M Shamim; Shamim, M Hossein; Kim, Jung Ju; Kang, Sung Keun; Schatten, Gerald; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-04

    Several mammals--including sheep, mice, cows, goats, pigs, rabbits, cats, a mule, a horse and a litter of three rats--have been cloned by transfer of a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell (oocyte) that has had its nucleus removed. This technology has not so far been successful in dogs because of the difficulty of maturing canine oocytes in vitro. Here we describe the cloning of two Afghan hounds by nuclear transfer from adult skin cells into oocytes that had matured in vivo. Together with detailed sequence information generated by the canine-genome project, the ability to clone dogs by somatic-cell nuclear transfer should help to determine genetic and environmental contributions to the diverse biological and behavioural traits associated with the many different canine breeds.

  4. Should general psychiatry ignore somatization and hypochondriasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Francis

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines the tendency for general psychiatry to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. These disorders are rarely included in national surveys of mental health and are not usually regarded as a concern of general psychiatrists; yet primary care doctors and other physicians often feel let down by psychiatry's failure to offer help in this area of medical practice. Many psychiatrists are unaware of the suffering, impaired function and high costs that can result from these disorders, because these occur mainly within primary care and secondary medical services. Difficulties in diagnosis and a tendency to regard them as purely secondary phenomena of depression, anxiety and related disorders mean that general psychiatry may continue to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. If general psychiatry embraced these disorders more fully, however, it might lead to better prevention and treatment of depression as well as helping to prevent the severe disability that may arise in association with these disorders.

  5. Should general psychiatry ignore somatization and hypochondriasis?

    OpenAIRE

    CREED, FRANCIS

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the tendency for general psychiatry to ignore somatization and hypochondriasis. These disorders are rarely included in national surveys of mental health and are not usually regarded as a concern of general psychiatrists; yet primary care doctors and other physicians often feel let down by psychiatry's failure to offer help in this area of medical practice. Many psychiatrists are unaware of the suffering, impaired function and high costs that can result fr...

  6. Is Pilates a Somatic Education Method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper renews the discussion about the relevance of the Pilates method to the field of Somatic Education. The impact of marketing – which sells the method as a fitness activity – and the academic research on the application of the method in the treatment of various medical disorders, as well as its role in the construction of contemporary dance aesthetics, are put into perspective.

  7. The somatic shunt cable model for neurons.

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, D

    1984-01-01

    The derivation of the equations for an electrical model of nerve cells is presented. The model consists of an equivalent cylinder, a lumped somatic impedance, and a variable shunt at the soma. This shunt was introduced to take into account the fast voltage decays observed following the injections of current pulses in some motoneurons and hippocampal granule cells that could not be explained by existing models. The shunt can be interpreted either by penetration damage with the electrode or by ...

  8. Germinal and somatic mutations in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, A.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The role of germinal and somatic mutations in carcinogenesis leads to the conclusion that environmental carcinogens probably exert their effects via somatic mutations. Susceptibility to this process may itself be genetically determined, so we may deduce that two groups, one genetic and one non-genetic, are included in the 'environmental' class. Other individuals seem to acquire cancer even in the absence of such environmental agents, and these too may be classified into a genetic and a non-genetic group. It has been estimated that in industrial countries, the environmental groups include 70-80% of all cancer cases, but we are only beginning to know how to separate the genetic and non-genetic subgroups. The genetic subgroup of the 'non-environmental' group is very small, probably of the order of magnitude of 1-2% for cancer as a whole. The remainder, about 25%, comprises a non-genetic, non-environmental subgroup that seems to arise as a consequence of 'spontaneous' somatic mutations. The incidence of these 'background' cancers is what we should combat with preventive and therapeutic measures

  9. Children of people with somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, R

    1993-05-01

    The author investigated psychopathology, suicidal behavior, child abuse, somatization, and health care utilization in 34 children with a parent who has somatization disorder (SD-P) and two comparison groups: 41 children with a somatizing parent (SOM) (fewer symptoms than required for diagnosis of SD-P), and 30 pediatrically ill controls (CON). Child and parent versions of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents were scored for diagnosis and symptom counts in specified categories. Medical records were obtained and abstracted. Children of SD-P had significantly more psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts than did children of SOM or the CON. SD-P and CON had significantly more unexplained physical symptoms than SOM. SD-P showed a trend toward more hospitalizations and experienced significantly more maltreatment. Children of SD-P are at significant risk in several respects. Clinical implications of these findings include a need for awareness and cooperation among general psychiatrists, primary care physicians, and child and adolescent psychiatrists to facilitate detection and treatment of these children's problems.

  10. Disability and functional burden of disease because of mental in comparison to somatic disorders in general practice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Linden, U; Schwantes, U

    2015-09-01

    Severity of illness is not only depending on the symptom load, but also on the burden in life. Mental disorders are among those illnesses, which in particular cause suffering to the individual and society. To study burden of disease for mental in comparison to somatic disorders, 2099 patients from 40 general practitioners filled in (a) the Burvill scale which measures acute and chronic illnesses in ten different body systems and (b) the IMET scale which measures impairment in ten different areas of life. Patients were suffering on average from acute and/or chronic illness in 3.5 (SD: 2.0) body systems and 56.6% of patients complained about acute and/or chronic mental disorders. The most significant negative impact on the IMET total score have acute and chronic mental disorders, followed by chronic neurological and musculoskeletal and acute respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders, while cardiovascular, metabolic, urogenital, haematological and ear/eye disorders have no greater impact. Acute as well as chronic mental disorders cause impairment across all areas of life and most burden of disease (functional burden of disease 1.69), followed by musculoskeletal disorders (1.62). Mental disorders are among the most frequent health problems with high negative impact across all areas of life. When combining frequency and impairment mental disorders cause most burden of disease in comparison to other illnesses. This should be reflected in the organization of medical care including family medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The urogenital-hypogastric sheath: an anatomical observation on the relationship between the inferomedial extension of renal fascia and the hypogastric nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X F; Luo, G H; Ding, Z H; Li, G X; Chen, X W; Zhong, S Z

    2014-11-01

    The study aimed to perform an anatomical observation on the inferomedial extension of the renal fascia (RF) to the pelvis and explore its relationship with the hypogastric nerves (HGNs). Gross anatomy was performed on 12 formalin-fixed and 12 fresh cadavers. Sectional anatomy was performed on four formalin-fixed cadavers. Different from the traditional concept, both the anterior and posterior RF included the outer and inner layer with different inferomedial extensions. The multiple layers of RF extended downward to form a sandwich-like and compound fascia sheath with potential and expandable spaces which was named as "the urogenital-hypogastric sheath." Below the level of the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery, the bilateral urogenital-hypogastric sheath communicated with the counterpart in front of the great vessels in the midline and the superior hypogastric plexus ran into the urogenital-hypogastric sheath which carried the HGNs, ureters, and genital vessels downward to their terminations in the pelvis. In the retrorectal space, the urogenital-hypogastric sheath surrounded the fascia propria of the rectum posterolaterally as a layer of coat containing HGNs. The multiple layers of RF with different extensions are the anatomical basis of the formation of the urogenital-hypogastric sheath. As a special fascial structure in the retroperitoneal space and the pelvis, emphasis on its formation and morphology may be helpful for not only unifying the controversies about the relationship between the pelvic fascia and HGNs but also improving the intraoperative preservation of the HGNs by dissecting in the correct surgical plane.

  12. Microflora composition of urogenital tracts of women with nonspecific vulvo-vaginitis and vaginosis in Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ponedilok

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of causative agents of nonspecific infections of the women urogenital tracts is studied. It is established that the typical etiological agents of the vaginosis are yeast-like fungi Candida albicans (35.7 % and Escherichia coli (30.2 %, and the clinical isolates of E. coli (47.3 % and Proteus mirabilis (15.8 % are usual for vulvovaginitis. The frequency of detection of the causative agents of inflammatory genito-urinary diseases in women of different age groups varies: strains of E. coli are often found in patients of 1–12 years (47.3 % and in women of 43–66 years old (36.0 %, but C. albicans – in patients of 18–42 years (39.0 %. High levels of the resistance to penicilline, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in selected clinical isolates of opportunistic microorganisms are determined.

  13. Association of urogenital symptoms with history of water contact in young women in areas endemic for S. haematobium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Hegertun, Ingrid Elise Amlie; Holmen, Sigve

    2016-01-01

    schistosomiasis. In a cross-sectional study in rural South Africa, 883 sexually active women aged 16–22 years were included. Questions were asked about urogenital symptoms and water contact history. Urine samples were tested for S. haematobium ova. A score based on self-reported water contact was calculated......Female genital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium. Infected females may suffer from symptoms mimicking sexually transmitted infections. We explored if self-reported history of unsafe water contact could be used as a simple predictor of genital...... and the association with symptoms was explored while adjusting for other genital infections using multivariable logistic regression analyses. S. haematobium ova were detected in the urine of 30.5% of subjects. Having ova in the urine was associated with the water contact score (p

  14. Low MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) levels correlate with urogenital schistosomiasis in Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Antony, Justin S; Van Tong, Hoang; Meyer, Christian G; Akindele, Akeem A; Sina-Agbaje, Olawumi R; Kremsner, Peter G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2015-10-01

    The human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins (FCN) are involved in pathogen recognition in the first line of defence. They support activation of the complement lectin cascade in the presence of MBL-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2), a protein that cleaves the C4 and C2 complement components. Recent studies found that distinct MBL2 and FCN2 promoter variants and their corresponding serum levels are associated with relative protection from urogenital schistosomiasis. We investigated the contribution of MASP-2 levels and MASP2 polymorphisms in a Nigerian study group, of 163 individuals infected with Schistosoma haematobium and 183 healthy subjects. MASP-2 serum levels varied between younger children (≤12 years) and older children (>12 years) and adults (P = 0.0001). Younger children with a patent infection had significantly lower MASP-2 serum levels than uninfected children (P = 0.0074). Older children and adults (>12 years) with a current infection had higher serum MASP-2 levels than controls (P = 0.032). MBL serum levels correlated positively with MASP-2 serum levels (P = 0.01). MASP2 secretor haplotypes were associated with MASP-2 serum levels in healthy subjects. The heterozygous MASP2 p.P126L variant was associated with reduced serum MASP-2 levels (P = 0.01). The findings indicate that higher MASP-2 serum levels are associated with relative protection from urogenital schistosomiasis in Nigerian children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. How Mucosal Epithelia Deal with Stress: Role of NKG2D/NKG2D Ligands during Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Antonangeli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal epithelia encounter both physicochemical and biological stress during their life and have evolved several mechanisms to deal with them, including regulation of immune cell functions. Stressed and damaged cells need to be cleared to control local inflammation and trigger tissue healing. Engagement of the activating NKG2D receptor is one of the most direct mechanisms involved in the recognition of stressed cells by the immune system. Indeed, injured cells promptly express NKG2D ligands that in turn mediate the activation of lymphocytes of both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. This review focuses on different conditions that are able to modulate NKG2D ligand expression on the epithelia. Special attention is given to the mechanisms of immunosurveillance mediated by natural killer cells, which are finely tuned by NKG2D. Different types of stress, including viral and bacterial infections, chronic inflammation, and cigarette smoke exposure, are discussed as paradigmatic conditions for NKG2D ligand modulation, and the implications for tissue homeostasis are discussed.

  16. Adenovirus entry from the apical surface of polarized epithelia is facilitated by the host innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima L N Kotha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection. The primary receptor for most adenoviruses is the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, a cell-cell adhesion protein normally localized at the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia and involved in neutrophil transepithelial migration. Recently, an alternate isoform of CAR, CAREx8, has been identified at the apical surface of polarized airway epithelia and is implicated in viral infection from the apical surface. We hypothesized that the endogenous role of CAREx8 may be to facilitate host innate immunity. We show that IL-8, a proinflammatory cytokine and a neutrophil chemoattractant, stimulates the protein expression and apical localization of CAREx8 via activation of AKT/S6K and inhibition of GSK3β. Apical CAREx8 tethers infiltrating neutrophils at the apical surface of a polarized epithelium. Moreover, neutrophils present on the apical-epithelial surface enhance adenovirus entry into the epithelium. These findings suggest that adenovirus evolved to co-opt an innate immune response pathway that stimulates the expression of its primary receptor, apical CAREx8, to allow the initial infection the intact epithelium. In addition, CAREx8 is a new target for the development of novel therapeutics for both respiratory inflammatory disease and adenoviral infection.

  17. Autoradiographic investigations on the question of diurnal variations of cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelia of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herterich, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    In this work the question was investigated whether the proliferation activity of the crypt epithelia of the small intestine of mice is subject to diurnal variations. The results published so far to settle this question are contradictory. The flow rate at the beginning and end of the S phase was measured as a function of daytime for the jejunal crypt epithelia of mice following a double labelling with 3-H and 14-C-TdR. The quotient of the cell flow rate in and out of the S phase is supposed to be = 1 over the whole day if there are no diurnal variations. The method of measurements of the cell flow rate was chosen above all because the quotient is largely independent of the variation from animal to animal. The experiments provided dues as to the presence of deviations of the quotient of cell flow rate at the end and beginning of the S phase and of the mitotic index from the daily mean value. However, on account of the relatively large statistical variations of the values at the different daytimes it is not possible to state clearly whether the cell proliferation of the jejunal epithelium is subject to diurnal variations. Should there be such variations, then they are not large at any rate. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Cell density and N-cadherin interactions regulate cell proliferation in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchol, Mark E

    2002-04-01

    Sensory hair cells in the inner ears of nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate after injury. In many species, replacement hair cells are produced by the proliferation of epithelial supporting cells. Thus, the ability of supporting cells to undergo renewed proliferation is a key determinant of regenerative ability. The present study used cultures of isolated inner ear sensory epithelia to identify cellular signals that regulate supporting cell proliferation. Small pieces of sensory epithelia from the chicken utricle were cultured in glass microwells. Under those conditions, cell proliferation was inversely related to local cell density. The signaling molecules N-cadherin, beta-catenin, and focal adhesion kinase were immunolocalized in the cultured epithelial cells, and high levels of phosphotyrosine immunoreactivity were present at cell-cell junctions and focal contacts of proliferating cells. Binding of microbeads coated with a function-blocking antibody to N-cadherin inhibited ongoing proliferation. The growth of epithelial cells was also affected by the density of extracellular matrix molecules. The results suggest that cell density, cell-cell contact, and the composition of the extracellular matrix may be critical influences on the regulation of sensory regeneration in the inner ear.

  19. The somatic symptom scale-8 (SSS-8): a brief measure of somatic symptom burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierk, Benjamin; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Kroenke, Kurt; Spangenberg, Lena; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Löwe, Bernd

    2014-03-01

    Somatic symptoms are the core features of many medical diseases, and they are used to evaluate the severity and course of illness. The 8-item Somatic Symptom Scale (SSS-8) was recently developed as a brief, patient-reported outcome measure of somatic symptom burden, but its reliability, validity, and usefulness have not yet been tested. To investigate the reliability, validity, and severity categories as well as the reference scores of the SSS-8. A national, representative general-population survey was performed between June 15, 2012, and July 15, 2012, in Germany, including 2510 individuals older than 13 years. The SSS-8 mean (SD), item-total correlations, Cronbach α, factor structure, associations with measures of construct validity (Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 scale, visual analog scale for general health status, 12-month health care use), severity categories, and percentile rank reference scores. The SSS-8 had excellent item characteristics and good reliability (Cronbach α = 0.81). The factor structure reflects gastrointestinal, pain, fatigue, and cardiopulmonary aspects of the general somatic symptom burden. Somatic symptom burden as measured by the SSS-8 was significantly associated with depression (r = 0.57 [95% CI, 0.54 to 0.60]), anxiety (r = 0.55 [95% CI, 0.52 to 0.58]), general health status (r = -0.24 [95% CI, -0.28 to -0.20]), and health care use (incidence rate ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.10 to 1.14]). The SSS-8 severity categories were calculated in accordance with percentile ranks: no to minimal (0-3 points), low (4-7 points), medium (8-11 points), high (12-15 points), and very high (16-32 points) somatic symptom burden. For every SSS-8 severity category increase, there was a 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) increase in health care visits. The SSS-8 is a reliable and valid self-report measure of somatic symptom burden. Cutoff scores identify individuals with low, medium, high, and very high somatic

  20. Mortality in unipolar depression preceding and following chronic somatic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyanagi, A; Köhler-Forsberg, O; Benros, M E

    2018-01-01

    -varying covariates were constructed to assess the risk for all-cause and non-suicide deaths for individual somatic diseases. RESULTS: For all somatic diseases, prior and/or subsequent depression conferred a significantly higher mortality risk. Prior depression was significantly associated with a higher mortality......OBJECTIVE: It is largely unknown how depression prior to and following somatic diseases affects mortality. Thus, we examined how the temporal order of depression and somatic diseases affects mortality risk. METHOD: Data were from a Danish population-based cohort from 1995 to 2013, which included...... all residents in Denmark during the study period (N = 4 984 912). Nineteen severe chronic somatic disorders from the Charlson Comorbidity Index were assessed. The date of first diagnosis of depression and somatic diseases was identified. Multivariable Cox proportional Hazard models with time...

  1. Somatic Embryogenesis in Yam (Dioscorea rotundata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Elías Suárez Padrón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic yam (Dioscorea rotundata cultures were induced from petioles of leaves of in vitro grown plants on medium supplemented with different 2.4-D concentrations. Cultures were maintained either on semisolid or in liquid MS medium supplemented with 4.52 µM 2.4-D. The effect of sucrose concentration on somatic embryo development was also evaluated and the effects of different BAP concentrations on somatic embryo conversion were determined. Treatments were distributed using a complete randomized design. The highest rate of induction occurred with 4.52 µM 2.4-D. Sucrose at 131.46 mM significantly enhanced somatic embryo development. The conversion rate was not affected by BAP.Cultivos embriogénicos de ñame (Dioscorea rotundata fueron inducidos a partir de explantes consistentes de hojas con peciolos, aisladas de plantas establecidas en condiciones in vitro, en presencia de diferentes concentraciones de 2,4-D. Los cultivos inducidos fueron mantenidos en medio MS líquido o semisólido suplido con 4,52 µM 2,4-D. El efecto de las concentraciones de sacarosa sobre el desarrollo de embriones somáticos y el efecto de varias concentraciones de BAP sobre la tasa de conversión de embriones somáticos en plantas también fueron evaluados. Todos los tratamientos fueron distribuidos usando un diseño completamente al azar. El mayor porcentaje de inducción de tejidos embriogénicos ocurrió con 4,52 µM de 2,4-D. La adición de 131,46 mM de sacarosa incrementó significativamente el desarrollo de embriones somáticos. La tasa de conversión de embriones somáticos en plantas no fue afectada por las concentraciones de BAP.

  2. Somatic symptom disorder treated with electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovskaya, Anna; Augsburger, Jay Alan

    2017-05-01

    Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is a challenging condition to treat with chronic pain, a common and disabling symptom. We present a patient who received electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for SSD with significant improvement in pain and gastrointestinal symptoms. We also present a brief literature review of similar cases treated with ECT. Preliminary evidence suggests that ECT should be considered for treatment of SSD comorbid with major depressive disorder, when standard treatments fail. Further research is needed to clarify whether ECT can be used for SSD without associated depression.

  3. Practice Guidelines for Treatment of Somatic Pain and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Sonali Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Somatic pain is often associated with depression. Patients presenting with this combination can be difficult to treat and create a significant financial burden on the medical system. The mechanisms of action linking somatic pain and the myriad of depression are not clearly understood thus highlighting a gap in knowledge between the scientific mechanism, pathogenesis, and psychiatry involved in depression and somatic pain. The objective of this review article is to address etiolog...

  4. Polyphenols distributions and reserve substances analysis in cacao somatic embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana María Gallego Rúa; Ana María Henao Ramírez; Aura Inés Urrea Trujillo; Lucía Atehortúa Garcés

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn order to understand the causes of lack of regeneration in cacao somatic embryos, two cacao varieties with different responses to regeneration potential were described based on their capacity to store different compounds. It is well known that seed reserves play a central role in the regenerative capability of somatic embryos; thus, we followed histochemical changes and reserve fluctuations of proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenols during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the two cac...

  5. POLYPHENOLS DISTRIBUTION AND RESERVE SUBSTANCES ANALYSIS IN CACAO SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    GALLEGO RÚA, Adriana María; HENAO RAMÍREZ, Ana María; URREA TRUJILLO, Aura Inés; ATEHORTÚA GARCÉS, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the causes of lack of regeneration in cacao somatic embryos, two cacao varieties with different responses to regeneration potential were described based on their capacity to store different compounds. It is well known that seed reserves play a central role in the regenerative capability of somatic embryos; thus, we followed histochemical changes and reserve fluctuations of proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenols during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the two cacao varie...

  6. Ballet as Somatic Practice: A Case Study Exploring the Integration of Somatic Practices in Ballet Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    This case study explores one teacher's integration of Alexander Technique and the work of neuromuscular retrainer Irene Dowd in ballet pedagogy to establish a somatic approach to teaching, learning, and performing ballet technique. This case study highlights the teacher's unique teaching method called IMAGE TECH for dancers (ITD) and offers…

  7. Somatic Symptom Disorder in Semantic Dementia: The Role of Alexisomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Joanna J; Lin, Andrew; Samimi, Mersal S; Mendez, Mario F

    Semantic dementia (SD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of semantic knowledge. SD may be associated with somatic symptom disorder due to excessive preoccupation with unidentified somatic sensations. To evaluate the frequency of somatic symptom disorder among patients with SD in comparison to comparably demented patients with Alzheimer׳s disease. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using clinical data from a referral-based behavioral neurology program. Fifty-three patients with SD meeting criteria for imaging-supported semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (another term for SD) were compared with 125 patients with clinically probable Alzheimer disease. Logistic regression controlled for sex, age, disease duration, education, overall cognitive impairment, and depression. The prevalence of somatic symptom disorder was significantly higher among patients with SD (41.5%) compared to patients with Alzheimer disease (11.2%) (odds ratio = 6:1; p Cotard syndrome or the delusion that unidentified somatic symptoms signify death or deterioration. SD, a disorder of semantic knowledge, is associated with somatic symptom disorder from impaired identification of somatic sensations. Their inability to read and name somatic sensations, or "alexisomia," results in disproportionate and persistent concern about somatic sensations with consequent significant disability. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in soybean: physicochemical factors influencing the development of somatic embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonacin Gisele Aparecida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The embryogenic capability of five soybean cultivars (Renascença, IAS-5, IAC-17, BR-16 and FT-Cometa was studied at different auxin concentrations (8, 10 and 12 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid, NAA, at different pHs (5.8 and 7.0 and at low (8-12 muEm-2 s-1 and high (27-33 mEm-2 s-1 light intensities. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. Immature cotyledons 4-6 mm in length were placed in the six induction mediums evaluated and submitted to two light intensities. Twenty immature cotyledons per cultivar were placed on each Petri dish, which was considered to be one replication. The number of somatic embryos per treatment per replication was counted. The results showed genotype influence on somatic embryogenic capability of each cultivar, with the most embryogenic cultivars being BR-16, FT-Cometa and IAS-5. Auxin concentration and pH value also influenced somatic embryo production, with 10 mg/l NAA being the best auxin concentration and 7.0 the best pH value. The interactions cultivar x auxin, auxin x pH and pH x light were significant, while other double interactions were not. All triple and quadruple interactions were significant, except cultivar x pH x light. No significant differences in somatic embryo production were observed in medium with different pHs or when the Petri dishes containing immature cotyledons were exposed to the two light intensities evaluated. However, a higher number of somatic embryos was produced when the medium pH was adjusted to 7.0.

  9. Identification of genes with altered expression in medullary breast cancer vs. ductal breast cancer and normal breast epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Benoit, Vivian; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    to both immunological and endogenous cellular factors, although little is known about the distinct biology of MCB that may contribute to the improved outcome of MCB patients. To identify candidate genes, we performed gene array expression analysis of cell lines of MCB, ductal breast cancer and normal......Medullary breast cancer (MCB) is a morphologically and biologically distinct subtype that, despite cytologically highly malignant characteristics, has a favorable prognosis compared to the more common infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma. MCB metastasizes less frequently, which has been attributed...... breast epithelia, and the differential expression of a panel of candidate genes was further validated by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical analysis of cell lines and tumor biopsies. A limited number of genes, including several members of the GAGE and insulin growth factor binding protein (IGFBP...

  10. Submucosal chromoendoscopy: a technique that highlights epithelia and differentiates histological components, and renders colon polypectomy easier and safer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dolz-Abadía

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Submucosal chromoendoscopy involves the injection of a solution containing a vital stain, usually indigo carmine, into the intestinal wall submucosal layer. This allows to: Better delimit and characterize the various epithelia present (colonic mucosa, adenoma, hyperplastic polyp, serrated polyp, small bowel mucosa; expose and delimit lesion implantation areas; cooperate in the lifting of resectable lesions; ensure section across the submucosal plane; identify intestinal wall structures; render complex polypectomy feasible; and facilitate the identification of perforations. The present paper offers information on the endoscopic technique for submucosal injection, solution preparation and concentration, and on the potential benefits it may provide for polypectomy or endocopic mucosal resection whether en block or piecemeal. This endoscopic technique simultaneously combines a diagnostic and a therapeutic aspect, since lesion lifting in association with better delimited contours may improve not only accuracy but also endoscopic resection safety and feasibility.

  11. Evaluation of Nine Somatic Variant Callers for Detection of Somatic Mutations in Exome and Targeted Deep Sequencing Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bruun Krøigård

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing is extensively applied to catalogue somatic mutations in cancer, in research settings and increasingly in clinical settings for molecular diagnostics, guiding therapy decisions. Somatic variant callers perform paired comparisons of sequencing data from cancer tissue and matched normal tissue in order to detect somatic mutations. The advent of many new somatic variant callers creates a need for comparison and validation of the tools, as no de facto standard for detection of somatic mutations exists and only limited comparisons have been reported. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation using exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing data of paired tumor-normal samples from five breast cancer patients to evaluate the performance of nine publicly available somatic variant callers: EBCall, Mutect, Seurat, Shimmer, Indelocator, Somatic Sniper, Strelka, VarScan 2 and Virmid for the detection of single nucleotide mutations and small deletions and insertions. We report a large variation in the number of calls from the nine somatic variant callers on the same sequencing data and highly variable agreement. Sequencing depth had markedly diverse impact on individual callers, as for some callers, increased sequencing depth highly improved sensitivity. For SNV calling, we report EBCall, Mutect, Virmid and Strelka to be the most reliable somatic variant callers for both exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing. For indel calling, EBCall is superior due to high sensitivity and robustness to changes in sequencing depths.

  12. Evaluation of Nine Somatic Variant Callers for Detection of Somatic Mutations in Exome and Targeted Deep Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Thomassen, Mads; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Kruse, Torben A; Larsen, Martin Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing is extensively applied to catalogue somatic mutations in cancer, in research settings and increasingly in clinical settings for molecular diagnostics, guiding therapy decisions. Somatic variant callers perform paired comparisons of sequencing data from cancer tissue and matched normal tissue in order to detect somatic mutations. The advent of many new somatic variant callers creates a need for comparison and validation of the tools, as no de facto standard for detection of somatic mutations exists and only limited comparisons have been reported. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation using exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing data of paired tumor-normal samples from five breast cancer patients to evaluate the performance of nine publicly available somatic variant callers: EBCall, Mutect, Seurat, Shimmer, Indelocator, Somatic Sniper, Strelka, VarScan 2 and Virmid for the detection of single nucleotide mutations and small deletions and insertions. We report a large variation in the number of calls from the nine somatic variant callers on the same sequencing data and highly variable agreement. Sequencing depth had markedly diverse impact on individual callers, as for some callers, increased sequencing depth highly improved sensitivity. For SNV calling, we report EBCall, Mutect, Virmid and Strelka to be the most reliable somatic variant callers for both exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing. For indel calling, EBCall is superior due to high sensitivity and robustness to changes in sequencing depths.

  13. Are health education interventions effective for the control and prevention of urogenital schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amy; Verma, Arpana; Welfare, William

    2015-04-01

    An estimated 129 million people are infected with urogenital schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control recommendations endorse mass administration of praziquantel. Health education is an important component of effective schistosomiasis prevention and control, but there has been limited research on its effectiveness. This paper reviews the effectiveness of health education as an intervention in the prevention and control of urogenital schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. The outcomes of interest were prevalence, incidence or transmission of schistosomiasis, behaviour change associated with infection, or changes in knowledge of the disease. The findings from this review suggest that health education has a beneficial impact on knowledge and understanding of schistosomiasis within the target groups. However, further research is needed due to the poor quality of the included studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effects of the 2,4-D herbicide on gills epithelia and liver of the fish Poecilia vivipara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. Vigário

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, usually named 2,4-D is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Acute toxicity of 2,4-D herbicide was investigated through its effects on guppies (Poecilia vivipara Bloch et Schneider 1801. Fish were exposed to the herbicide at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40µl per liter of water for 24 hours to determine its effects on gills and liver epithelia. The estimated LC50 was 34.64µl of 2,4-D per liter of water. Histochemical analyses and Feulgen's reaction were conducted to detect glycoconjugates and DNA, respectively, in gills and liver epithelia. Histochemistry revealed qualitative variations of glycoconjugates present on mucous cells and granules. The four types of mucous cells contained neutral granules, acids, or both. Increasing amounts of syalomucins were observed from the control group to the group exposed to the highest concentration of 2,4-D, suggesting increased mucous viscosity and the formation of plaques that could inhibit gas exchange and osmoregulation. Lamellar fusion observed in the group exposed to 40µl of 2,4-D suggests a defense mechanism. Hepatocytes showed vacuolization in the 10 and 20µl/L groups. The 40 µl/L group showed normal hepatocytes as well as changed ones, many Ito cells, micronuclei, and nuclear swelling. These effects may be associated with toxicity or adaptative processes to cellular stress. The data from this study indicates the importance of assessing similar risks to aquatic species and suggests that Poecilia vivipara is an adequate biological model for analysis of environmental contamination.

  15. Study and implementation of urogenital schistosomiasis elimination in Zanzibar (Unguja and Pemba islands using an integrated multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knopp Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that continues to be a major public health problem in many developing countries being responsible for an estimated burden of at least 1.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs in Africa alone. Importantly, morbidity due to schistosomiasis has been greatly reduced in some parts of the world, including Zanzibar. The Zanzibar government is now committed to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. Over the next 3–5 years, the whole at-risk population will be administered praziquantel (40 mg/kg biannually. Additionally, snail control and behaviour change interventions will be implemented in selected communities and the outcomes and impact measured in a randomized intervention trial. Methods/Design In this 5-year research study, on both Unguja and Pemba islands, urogenital schistosomiasis will be assessed in 45 communities with urine filtration and reagent strips in 4,500 schoolchildren aged 9–12 years annually, and in 4,500 first-year schoolchildren and 2,250 adults in years 1 and 5. Additionally, from first-year schoolchildren, a finger-prick blood sample will be collected and examined for Schistosoma haematobium infection biomarkers. Changes in prevalence and infection intensity will be assessed annually. Among the 45 communities, 15 were randomized for biannual snail control with niclosamide, in concordance with preventive chemotherapy campaigns. The reduction of Bulinus globosus snail populations and S. haematobium-infected snails will be investigated. In 15 other communities, interventions triggering behaviour change have been designed and will be implemented in collaboration with the community. A change in knowledge, attitudes and practices will be assessed annually through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with schoolchildren, teachers, parents and community leaders. In all 45 communities, changes in the health system, water and sanitation infrastructure will

  16. One-year outcome of concurrent anterior and posterior transvaginal mesh surgery for treatment of advanced urogenital prolapse: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Tsia-Shu

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the safety and efficacy of performing concurrent anterior and posterior transvaginal mesh surgery using a commercially available kit (Gynecare PROLIFT Pelvic Floor Repair System; Ethicon, Inc., Somerville, NJ) for treatment of advanced urogenital prolapse (stage III or higher, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification [POP-Q] system staging). Case control series study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Medical school-affiliated hospital. Forty-three patients with severe prolapse, POP-Q stage III (n=23) or IV (n=20), underwent surgery and were followed up for more than 1 year. In patients with any prolapse greater than stage I, surgery were considered to have functional failure. The Surgical Satisfaction Questionnaire was used for subjective evaluation at 1 year postoperatively. Extensive pelvic reconstructive procedures were primarily performed using a combination of the PROLIFT anterior and posterior pelvic systems (i.e., similar to sparing the intermediate section of the PROLIFT total pelvic system). The concurrent pelvic surgery included sequential vaginal total hysterectomy, perineorrhaphy, and suburethra sling, if indicated. Additional subjective and objective evaluations included POP-Q staging, urodynamic assessment, and preoperative and 12-month postoperative questionnaires. Objective and subjective data were available for 42 patients. The subjective cure rate and objective success rate for prolapse at 12-month follow-up was 95.2% and 97.6%, respectively. Mean follow-up was 15.7 months, operation time was 79.2 minutes, operative blood loss was 109.1 mL, and postoperative hospital stay was 4.1 days. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were minor. All patients voided spontaneously before discharge. One mesh extrusion, no wound defective healing, and no rejection were observed. Two patients developed asymptomatic recurrent rectocele (stage II, POP-Q staging) that required no surgical intervention. Urodynamic parameters related to

  17. Decrease in Seminal HIV-1 RNA Load After Praziquantel Treatment of Urogenital Schistosomiasis Coinfection in HIV-Positive Men—An Observational Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mudenge, Boniface

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma hematobium infection is hypothesized to cause increased HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen in HIV co-infected men as result of chronic egg-induced inflammation in the prostate and the seminal vesicles. The effect of treatment with the antihelmint...... targeting praziquantel as a supplementary preventive measure of sexual transmission of HIV-1 in S. haematobium endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa....

  18. Association of Urogenital Symptoms with History of Water Contact in Young Women in Areas Endemic for S. haematobium. A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Amlie Hegertun, Ingrid Elise; Holmen, Sigve; Qvigstad, Erik; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Sebitloane, Motshedisi; Ndhlovu, Patricia Doris; Vennervald, Birgitte Jyding; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Taylor, Myra; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2016-11-14

    Female genital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium . Infected females may suffer from symptoms mimicking sexually transmitted infections. We explored if self-reported history of unsafe water contact could be used as a simple predictor of genital schistosomiasis. In a cross-sectional study in rural South Africa, 883 sexually active women aged 16-22 years were included. Questions were asked about urogenital symptoms and water contact history. Urine samples were tested for S. haematobium ova. A score based on self-reported water contact was calculated and the association with symptoms was explored while adjusting for other genital infections using multivariable logistic regression analyses. S. haematobium ova were detected in the urine of 30.5% of subjects. Having ova in the urine was associated with the water contact score ( p water contact included burning sensation in the genitals ( p = 0.005), spot bleeding ( p = 0.012), abnormal discharge smell ( p = 0.018), bloody discharge ( p = 0.020), genital ulcer ( p = 0.038), red urine ( p water contact was strongly associated with urogenital symptoms. In low-resource settings, a simple history including risk of water contact behaviour can serve as an indicator of urogenital schistosomiasis.

  19. The Use of Light Microscopy for Detection of Somatic Embryos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usuario

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... 2,4-D. After four weeks of culture of explants on the callus induction medium, globular structures were obtained. At the end of 20 days in maturation medium, somatic embryos were observed. Histological analysis showed somatic embryos with caulinar and root apex, protodermal tissue, and the vascular ...

  20. Plant regeneration of Michelia champaca L., through somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... as a basic material for perfume, cosmetic, and medicine. The development of an ... Plant regeneration systems of M. champaca through somatic ... The embryogenic cells proliferated and formed somatic embryos (30%) after four to six .... by using MS excel program and Duncan's new multiple range test.

  1. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis induction in Iranian melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... embryo induction and the combination of 0.1 mg/l BA and 5 mg/l 2,4-D had significant effect on somatic ... such as genotype, growth regulator, explant and culture ... different stages of somatic embryos development. (globular ...

  2. Somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient was later referred to the psychiatry department of the same hospital and diagnosed with schizophrenia with somatic delusions and OCS according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. He was screened for schizophrenia, OCS and olfactory and somatic delusions by ...

  3. Improving somatic health of outpatients with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hasselt, Fenneke M.; Oud, Marian J. T.; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience a 13-to 30-year reduction in life expectancy compared with the general population. The majority of these deaths can be attributed to somatic health problems. The risk on somatic health problems is partly increased due to a reduced

  4. Induction of somatic embryogenesis by polyethylene glycol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VIJI

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... supplemented with 2,4-D (2 µM), abscisic acid (3 µM) and glutamine (0.03 mM). The somatic embryos ... essential amino acids of seed proteins, shortened vegetative ... or somatic embryo maturation in diverse plants such as.

  5. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt was made to study the somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from the in vitro leaf explants of Rumex vesicarius L. a renowned medicinal plant, which belongs to polygonaceae family. Effective in vitro regeneration of R. vesicarius was achieved via young leaf derived somatic embryo cultures.

  6. Alcohol dependence and risk of somatic diseases and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Charlotte; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Sørensen, Holger Jelling

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To (1) estimate sex-specific risks of a comprehensive spectrum of somatic diseases in alcohol-dependent individuals versus a control population, and in the same population to (2) estimate sex-specific risks of dying from the examined somatic diseases. DESIGN: Register-based matched cohort...

  7. Somatic Diseases and Conditions Before the First Diagnosis of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with excess physical comorbidity. Yet, to our knowledge, large studies are lacking on the associations with somatic diseases before the onset of schizophrenia. The authors conducted a nationwide study of the full spectrum of treated somatic diseases before t...

  8. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-05

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model.

  9. Somatic point mutation calling in low cellularity tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin S Kassahn

    Full Text Available Somatic mutation calling from next-generation sequencing data remains a challenge due to the difficulties of distinguishing true somatic events from artifacts arising from PCR, sequencing errors or mis-mapping. Tumor cellularity or purity, sub-clonality and copy number changes also confound the identification of true somatic events against a background of germline variants. We have developed a heuristic strategy and software (http://www.qcmg.org/bioinformatics/qsnp/ for somatic mutation calling in samples with low tumor content and we show the superior sensitivity and precision of our approach using a previously sequenced cell line, a series of tumor/normal admixtures, and 3,253 putative somatic SNVs verified on an orthogonal platform.

  10. Predictive factors for somatization in a trauma sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Unexplained somatic symptoms are common among trauma survivors. The relationship between trauma and somatization appears to be mediated by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only few studies have focused on what other psychological risk factors may predispose...... a trauma victim towards developing somatoform symptoms. METHODS: The present paper examines the predictive value of PTSD severity, dissociation, negative affectivity, depression, anxiety, and feeling incompetent on somatization in a Danish sample of 169 adult men and women who were affected by a series...... of incompetence significantly predicted somatization in the trauma sample whereas dissociation, depression, and anxiety were not associated with degree of somatization. PTSD as a risk factor was mediated by negative affectivity....

  11. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model. PMID:23166393

  12. Masked depression: its interrelations with somatization, hypochondriasis and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, R Z

    1987-01-01

    Masked depression appears to be a common clinical phenomenon. Most depressions present with some somatic complaints in addition to affective and cognitive ones. About one half of all depressions seen by primary care physicians initially present predominantly or exclusively with somatic symptoms. Many of these depressions are not recognized or are misdiagnosed and mistreated. The possible reasons for this are discussed here. The phenomenon of somatization in depressions and other conditions is reviewed and the interface with other related clinical problems like hypochondriasis and conversion is delineated. It is hypothesized that the proportion of depressions that are masked is positively correlated to the patients' tendency to somatize and negatively correlated to the doctors' ability to recognize depressions that hide behind somatic complaints. Suggestions for the diagnosis and treatment of masked depressions are given.

  13. Somatic Embryogenesis: Still a Relevant Technique in Citrus Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad A; Dutt, Manjul; Gmitter, Frederick G; Grosser, Jude W

    2016-01-01

    The genus Citrus contains numerous fresh and processed fruit cultivars that are economically important worldwide. New cultivars are needed to battle industry threatening diseases and to create new marketing opportunities. Citrus improvement by conventional methods alone has many limitations that can be overcome by applications of emerging biotechnologies, generally requiring cell to plant regeneration. Many citrus genotypes are amenable to somatic embryogenesis, which became a key regeneration pathway in many experimental approaches to cultivar improvement. This chapter provides a brief history of plant somatic embryogenesis with focus on citrus, followed by a discussion of proven applications in biotechnology-facilitated citrus improvement techniques, such as somatic hybridization, somatic cybridization, genetic transformation, and the exploitation of somaclonal variation. Finally, two important new protocols that feature plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis are provided: protoplast transformation and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspension cultures.

  14. Somatic hybridization of sexually incompatible petunias: Petunia parodii, Petunia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J B; Berry, S F; Chapman, J V; Cocking, E C

    1980-01-01

    Somatic hybrid plants were regenerated following the fusion of leaf mesophyll protoplasts of P. parodii with those isolated from a nuclear-albino mutant of P. parviflora. Attempts at sexual hybridization of these two species repeatedly failed thus confirming their previously established cross-incompatibility. Selection of somatic hybrid plants was possible since protoplasts of P. parodii would not develop beyond the cell colony stage, whilst those of the somatic hybrid and albino P. parviflora produced calluses. Green somatic hybrid calluses were visible against a background of albino cells/calluses, and upon transfer to regeneration media gave rise to shoots. Shoots and the resultant flowering plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids based on their growth habit, floral pigmentation and morphology, leaf hair structure, chromosome number and Fraction 1 protein profiles. The relevance of such hybrid material for the development of new, and extensively modified cultivars, is discussed.

  15. Effect of light quality on somatic embryogenesis of quince leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Onofrio, C.; Morini, S.; Bellocchi, G.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of light quality on somatic embryogenesis in quince BA 29 was investigated. 2,4-D induced leaves were exposed for 25 days to the following light quality treatments: dark, far-red, far-red+blue, far-red+red, blue, white, red+blue, red. After a further 20 days of white light exposure, somatic embryo production was recorded. Somatic embryogenesis was highest in cultures subjected to red light treatment, and decreased progressively with the transition to red+blue and to white. Overall, embryogenic competence showed a correlation with photoequilibrium. Phytochrome appeared to be inductive although this effect was adversely influenced by the blue absorbing photoreceptor, in particular at low photoequilibrium. Independently of light treatments applied, somatic embryos frequently showed severe morphological abnormalities. Conversion of somatic embryos to plantlets was not observed. (author)

  16. Triple primary urogenital cancer. A case of secondary cancers following combination therapy comprising chemotherapy plus radiation therapy for testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuchi, Hiromichi; Watabe, Yoshihiko; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kitahara, Katsuyuki; Takeyama, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was referred to our outpatient clinic with left renal cell cancer and bladder cancer. He had undergone combination therapy comprising chemotherapy plus radiation therapy following radical orchiectomy for testicular cancer at the age of 48 years. The right testis could be felt within the scrotum, however the left testis could not. Blood tests showed no abnormality in regard to testicular tumor markers. Urine cytology was class V. Computed tomography revealed a 3.0 x 3.4 cm mass in the left kidney and a 4.5 x 1.5 cm mass in the left wall of the bladder. We made it a priority to treat the bladder cancer which was strongly suspected to be invasive cancer. At first the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Then left partial nephrectomy was carried out. Our case would appear to be the 24th case of triple primary urogenital cancer in Japan that consisted of left testicular cancer, left renal cancer and bladder cancer. Our case was also thought to be a case of secondary cancer that developed following treatment for testicular cancer. (author)

  17. Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal pull-through: A new approach for congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients with high urogenital sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Birraux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To open vaginal cavity to the pelvic floor is part of surgical treatment for urogenital sinus (UGS in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. For high UGS, this operative procedure can be challenging and may jeopardise urinary continence. Combined perineal and laparoscopic approaches could be useful to minimise perineal dissection and to facilitate the vaginal lowering. Patients and Methods: We report the procedure of a laparoscopic-assisted vaginal pull-through for supra-sphincteric UGS in a 5-year-old girl with CAH. Laparoscopic dissection of the vagina from the posterior wall of the bladder and urethra, division of the confluence and vaginal pull-through to the perineum are described. Discussion: The technique is derived from laparoscopic-assisted treatment for high ano-rectal malformations. Compared with current procedures for treatment for high UGS, laparoscopic-assisted approach allows mobilising vagina with minimal dissection of perineum and complete preservation of urethra. Another major advantage is to provide a direct vision for dissection of the space between rectum and urethra prior to vaginal pull-through. Conclusion: Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal pull-through appears to be an interesting approach for high UGS in CAH patients, reducing dissection and risk of urinary incontinence. This new approach needs to be strengthened by other cases.

  18. Proteflazid® and local immunity in diseases caused by human papillomavirus, herpesvirus and mixed urogenital infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Vjacheslav; Chernyshov, Viktor; Grynevych, Oleksandr; Benyuk, Vasil; Kornatskaya, Alla; Shalko, Miroslava; Usevich, Igor; Revenko, Oleg; Shepetko, Maxim; Solomakha, Ludmila

    2017-03-21

    Reporting of clinical trials results for Proteflazid® in the drug formulation suppositories and vaginal swabs soaked in the solution of the drug to the local immunity of the female reproductive tract. The aim of study was to examine the state of local immunity in the reproductive tract of women with sexually transmitted diseases caused by human papillomavirus, herpes viruses (Type 1, 2) and mixed infection (herpes viruses + chlamydia). The trials involved 216 women with viral sexually transmitted diseases: Cervical Dysplasia associated with papillomavirus infection (HPV) (Group 1); Herpes genitalis type 1 (HSV- 1) and type 2 (HSV-1) (Group 2); mixed infection - HSV-1, HSV-2 and chlamydia (Group 3). Treatment results have confirmed that Proteflazid® contributes to sustainable performance improvement of basic factors of local immunity - sIgA, lysozyme and complement component C3 in the cervical mucus for all three groups of women. Proteflazid® enhances level of local immunity markers (sIgA, lysozyme, C3 complement component) and improves their ratios. Also it intensifies anticontagious activity of mucosal protection and female reproductive system as whole, during treatment diseases caused by human papillomavirus, herpesvirus and mixed urogenital infections (herpesvirus and chlamydia).

  19. Treatment of rape-induced urogenital and lower gastrointestinal lesions among girls aged 5 years or younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukwege, Denis; Alumeti, Desiré; Himpens, Jacques; Cadière, Guy-Bernard

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate outcomes after treatment of rape-induced urogenital and lower gastrointestinal lesions among young girls. In a retrospective study, data were assessed from girls aged 5 years or younger who were treated for sexual-assault-related injuries at the General Referral Hospital, Panzi, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo, between 2004 and 2014. Data were obtained from review of charts, records of the mother's impressions and physical examinations, and photographic evidence. Elective surgery had been reserved for patients experiencing fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Overall, 205 girls aged 5 years or younger presented with rape injuries: 162 (79.1%) had only mucocutaneous lesions, 22 (10.7%) had musculocutaneous lesions, and 21 (10.2%) had musculocutaneous lesions complicated by fecal and/or urinary incontinence. Among the 21 girls who underwent perineal surgery, two with fecal and urinary incontinence and perforation of the peritoneum of Douglas pouch were additionally treated by laparoscopy. Among 16 patients with fecal incontinence, the continence score had improved significantly at 10.4 months after surgery (Prape survivors aged 5 years or younger, a treatment strategy by which surgery is reserved for incontinent patients provided good cosmetic and functional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ectopic expression of Ptf1a induces spinal defects, urogenital defects, and anorectal malformations in Danforth's short tail mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Semba

    Full Text Available Danforth's short tail (Sd is a semidominant mutation on mouse chromosome 2, characterized by spinal defects, urogenital defects, and anorectal malformations. However, the gene responsible for the Sd phenotype was unknown. In this study, we identified the molecular basis of the Sd mutation. By positional cloning, we identified the insertion of an early transposon in the Sd candidate locus approximately 12-kb upstream of Ptf1a. We found that insertion of the transposon caused overexpression of three neighboring genes, Gm13344, Gm13336, and Ptf1a, in Sd mutant embryos and that the Sd phenotype was not caused by disruption of an as-yet-unknown gene in the candidate locus. Using multiple knockout and knock-in mouse models, we demonstrated that misexpression of Ptf1a, but not of Gm13344 or Gm13336, in the notochord, hindgut, cloaca, and mesonephros was sufficient to replicate the Sd phenotype. The ectopic expression of Ptf1a in the caudal embryo resulted in attenuated expression of Cdx2 and its downstream target genes T, Wnt3a, and Cyp26a1; we conclude that this is the molecular basis of the Sd phenotype. Analysis of Sd mutant mice will provide insight into the development of the spinal column, anus, and kidney.

  1. [Family medicine and functional somatic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nago, Naoki

    2009-09-01

    Between psychosomatic medicine and psychiatry, FSS (functional somatic syndromes) patients are often visiting a family doctor. For FSS, the role of family physicians is large, but the family physicians are not required for the role of diagnosis and treatment of FSS. Rather, appropriate referral to a specialist to exclude organic disease is important and a role as the coordinator is large to the patient to refuse a psychiatric consultation. To serve as a role for such coordination, a family physician has to response the patient's emotional side and focus on the construction of the doctor-patient relationship and response. I also think of structuralism medicine approach to describe disease from the meta-level as a new procedure to the patient. This approach consists of 4 components, 'entity', 'phenomenon', 'words', and 'I'. This may be a useful approach to family physicians who coordinate the overall for FSS patients' management.

  2. Progression inference for somatic mutations in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif E. Peterson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational methods were employed to determine progression inference of genomic alterations in commonly occurring cancers. Using cross-sectional TCGA data, we computed evolutionary trajectories involving selectivity relationships among pairs of gene-specific genomic alterations such as somatic mutations, deletions, amplifications, downregulation, and upregulation among the top 20 driver genes associated with each cancer. Results indicate that the majority of hierarchies involved TP53, PIK3CA, ERBB2, APC, KRAS, EGFR, IDH1, VHL, etc. Research into the order and accumulation of genomic alterations among cancer driver genes will ever-increase as the costs of nextgen sequencing subside, and personalized/precision medicine incorporates whole-genome scans into the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Keywords: Oncology, Cancer research, Genetics, Computational biology

  3. The Somatic Genomic Landscape of Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Cameron W.; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; McKenna, Aaron; Campos, Benito; Noushmehr, Houtan; Salama, Sofie R.; Zheng, Siyuan; Chakravarty, Debyani; Sanborn, J. Zachary; Berman, Samuel H.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bernard, Brady; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Genovese, Giannicola; Shmulevich, Ilya; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Zou, Lihua; Vegesna, Rahulsimham; Shukla, Sachet A.; Ciriello, Giovanni; Yung, WK; Zhang, Wei; Sougnez, Carrie; Mikkelsen, Tom; Aldape, Kenneth; Bigner, Darell D.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Prados, Michael; Sloan, Andrew; Black, Keith L.; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Friedman, William; Andrews, David W.; Guha, Abhijit; Iacocca, Mary; O’Neill, Brian P.; Foltz, Greg; Myers, Jerome; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Penny, Robert; Kucherlapati, Raju; Perou, Charles M.; Hayes, D. Neil; Gibbs, Richard; Marra, Marco; Mills, Gordon B.; Lander, Eric; Spellman, Paul; Wilson, Richard; Sander, Chris; Weinstein, John; Meyerson, Matthew; Gabriel, Stacey; Laird, Peter W.; Haussler, David; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda

    2013-01-01

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations based on multi-dimensional and comprehensive characterization of more than 500 glioblastoma tumors (GBMs). We identify several novel mutated genes as well as complex rearrangements of signature receptors including EGFR and PDGFRA. TERT promoter mutations are shown to correlate with elevated mRNA expression, supporting a role in telomerase reactivation. Correlative analyses confirm that the survival advantage of the proneural subtype is conferred by the G-CIMP phenotype, and MGMT DNA methylation may be a predictive biomarker for treatment response only in classical subtype GBM. Integrative analysis of genomic and proteomic profiles challenges the notion of therapeutic inhibition of a pathway as an alternative to inhibition of the target itself. These data will facilitate the discovery of therapeutic and diagnostic target candidates, the validation of research and clinical observations and the generation of unanticipated hypotheses that can advance our molecular understanding of this lethal cancer. PMID:24120142

  4. Multiple somatic symptoms in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, D. P.; Reed, G. M.; Robles, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A World Health Organization (WHO) field study conducted in five countries assessed proposals for Bodily Stress Syndrome (BSS) and Health Anxiety (HA) for the Primary Health Care Version of ICD-11. BSS requires multiple somatic symptoms not caused by known physical pathology and associated...... with distress or dysfunction. HA involves persistent, intrusive fears of having an illness or intense preoccupation with and misinterpretation of bodily sensations. This study examined how the proposed descriptions for BSS and HA corresponded to what was observed by working primary care physicians (PCPs......) in participating countries, and the relationship of BSS and HA to depressive and anxiety disorders and to disability. Method PCPs referred patients judged to have BSS or HA, who were then interviewed using a standardized psychiatric interview and a standardized measure of disability. Results Of 587 patients...

  5. Endangered wolves cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hwang, Woo Suk; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Kim, Joung Joo; Shin, Nam Shik; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2007-01-01

    Over the world, canine species, including the gray wolf, have been gradually endangered or extinct. Many efforts have been made to recover and conserve these canids. The aim of this study was to produce the endangered gray wolf with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for conservation. Adult ear fibroblasts from a female gray wolf (Canis lupus) were isolated and cultured in vitro as donor cells. Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used. After removing the cumulus cells, the oocyte was enucleated, microinjected, fused with a donor cell, and activated. The reconstructed cloned wolf embryos were transferred into the oviducts of the naturally synchronized surrogate mothers. Two pregnancies were detected by ultrasonography at 23 days of gestation in recipient dogs. In each surrogate dog, two fetal sacs were confirmed by early pregnancy diagnosis at 23 days, but only two cloned wolves were delivered. The first cloned wolf was delivered by cesarean section on October 18, 2005, 60 days after embryo transfer. The second cloned wolf was delivered on October 26, 2005, at 61 days postembryo transfer. Microsatellite analysis was performed with genomic DNA from the donor wolf, the two cloned wolves, and the two surrogate female recipients to confirm the genetic identity of the cloned wolves. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned wolves were genetically identical to the donor wolf. In conclusion, we demonstrated live birth of two cloned gray wolves by nuclear transfer of wolf somatic cells into enucleated canine oocyte, indicating that SCNT is a practical approach for conserving endangered canids.

  6. [Somatic complaints, emotional awareness and maladjustment in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, A; Maganto, C; González, R

    2015-05-01

    Somatic complaints are common in childhood. Research has shown their relationship with emotional awareness and maladjustment. The study had three objectives: 1) to analyze the prevalence of somatic complaints; 2) To explore the relationships between the variables evaluated: somatic complaints, differentiating emotions, verbal sharing of emotions, not hiding emotions, body awareness, attending to others' emotions, analysis of emotions, and personal, social, family, and school maladjustments; and 3) To identify predictors of somatic complaints. The study included a total of 1,134 randomly selected schoolchildren of both sexes between 10-12 years old (M=10.99; SD=0.88). The Somatic Complaint List, Emotional Awareness Questionnaire, and Self-reported Multifactor Test of Childhood Adaptation were used to gather information. The results showed that the prevalence of somatic complaints was 90.2%, with fatigue, headache and stomachache being the most frequently. Dizziness and headache were more common in girls, and the frequency of complaints decreases with age. Somatic complaints are negatively related to emotional awareness, and positively related to maladjustment. The variables that contribute the most to the prediction of somatic complaints are personal maladjustment (25.1%) and differentiating emotions (2.5%). The study shows that personal maladjustment is the best predictor of somatic complaints; the more emotional awareness and better adapted the child, the fewer somatic complaints they lodge. Childhood is a stage with significant physical discomfort. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Nine Somatic Variant Callers for Detection of Somatic Mutations in Exome and Targeted Deep Sequencing Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Thomassen, Mads; Lænkholm, Anne Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    a comprehensive evaluation using exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing data of paired tumor-normal samples from five breast cancer patients to evaluate the performance of nine publicly available somatic variant callers: EBCall, Mutect, Seurat, Shimmer, Indelocator, Somatic Sniper, Strelka, VarScan 2...

  8. Extending a structural model of somatization to South Koreans: Cultural values, somatization tendency, and the presentation of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu; Min, Seongho; Sun, Jiahong; Kim, Se Joo; Ahn, Joung-Sook; Peng, Yunshi; Noh, Samuel; Ryder, Andrew G

    2015-05-01

    Somatization refers to the tendency to emphasize somatic symptoms when experiencing a psychiatric disturbance. This tendency has been widely reported in patients from East Asian cultural contexts suffering from depression. Recent research in two Chinese samples have demonstrated that the local cultural script for depression, involving two aspects-the experience and expression of distress (EED) and conceptualization and communication of distress (CCD)-can be evoked to help explain somatization. Given the beliefs and practices broadly shared across Chinese and South Korean cultural contexts, the current study seeks to replicate this explanatory model in South Koreans. Our sample included 209 psychiatric outpatients from Seoul and Wonju, South Korea. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess somatization tendency, adherence to traditional values, and psychological and somatic symptoms of depression. Results from SEM showed that the EED and CCD factors of somatization tendency were differently associated with cultural values and somatic symptoms, replicating our previous findings in Chinese outpatients. The reliance on a brief self-report measure of somatization tendency, not originally designed to assess separate EED and CCD factors, highlights the need for measurement tools for the assessment of cultural scripts in cross-cultural depression research. The replication of the Chinese structural model of somatization in South Korea lends empirical support to the view that somatization can be understood as the consequence of specific cultural scripts. These scripts involve the experience and expression of distress as well as culturally meaningful ways in which this distress is conceptualized and communicated to others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [The staphylococcal enterotoxin burden determines the ultrastructure of ciliated epithelia and inflammatory changes in maxillary sinus mucosa of rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongqi; Zhu, Zhengwen; Cao, Zhongsheng; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Xiaofan; Yuan, Hui

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the ultrastructure of ciliated epithelia and inflammatory changes upon repeated exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) of different concentrations in the maxillary sinus mucosa of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups (24 rabbits per group): low-dose SEA group and high-dose SEA group. The low-dose SEA group and high-dose SEA group received daily injections of 0.6 ng of SEA (2 ml) and 60 ng of SEA (2 ml) into the left maxillary sinus of rabbits for 28 days, respectively. Concurrent treatment of the right maxillary sinus with normal saline was used as control. Six rabbits chosen randomly in two groups were examined by computed tomography (CT) scans and then sacrificed to obtain the sinus mucosa from the two-side of maxillary sinuses for histological assessment on days 3, 7, 14 and 28. To characterize the inflammatory changes of the sinus mucosa examined using light microscope, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and toluidine blue staining was performed. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were performed to observe ultrastructure of ciliated epithelia in the maxillary sinus mucosa. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. On days 14 and 28, CT images showed opacification of the left maxillary sinus in the high-dose SEA group. The percentage of epithelial disruption was (22.73 ± 5.72) % and (30.79 ± 4.30)% in the high-dose SEA group respectively, and were significantly greater than those in the low-dose SEA group (5.12% ± 1.98% and 5.38% ± 1.64%, q value was 10.079 and 19.132) and control group (4.08% ± 1.29% and 4.81% ± 1.62%, q value was 11.016 and 19.592, respectively, all P microscope, loss of cilia was observed, a few compound cilia and cytoplasmic protrusion were found, an obvious stretching of the endoplasmic reticulum and an obvious turgescence of the mitochondria was also observed. However, in the low-dose SEA group on days 14 and 28, CT scan of the left maxillary sinus showed transparency; light

  10. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is well known for edible fruit, environment friendly pharmaceutical and commercial products for both national and international market. The conventional propagation and in vitro organogenesis do not meet the demand for the good quality planting materials. Somatic embryogenesis for efficient micropropagation of guava (P. guajava L.) has been developed to fill up the gap. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlets regeneration are achieved from 10-week post-anthesis zygotic embryo explants by 8-day inductive treatment with different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on MS agar medium containing 5% sucrose. Subsequent development and maturation of somatic embryos occur after 8 days on MS basal medium supplemented with 5% sucrose without plant growth regulator. The process of somatic embryogenesis shows the highest relative efficiency in 8-day treatment of zygotic embryo explants with 1.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D. High efficiency germination of somatic embryos and plantlet regeneration takes place on half strength semisolid MS medium amended with 3% sucrose within 2 weeks of subculture. Somatic plantlets are grown for additional 2 weeks by subculturing in MS liquid growth medium containing 3% sucrose. Well-grown plantlets from liquid medium have survived very well following 2-4 week hardening process. The protocol of somatic embryogenesis is optimized for high efficiency micropropagation of guava species.

  11. The visceromotor and somatic afferent nerves of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Djibril; Zaitouna, Mazen; Alsaid, Bayan; Quillard, Jeanine; Ba, Nathalie; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Benoit, Gérard; Bedretdinova, Dina; Bessede, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Innervation of the penis supports erectile and sensory functions. This article aims to study the efferent autonomic (visceromotor) and afferent somatic (sensory) nervous systems of the penis and to investigate how these systems relate to vascular pathways. Penises obtained from five adult cadavers were studied via computer-assisted anatomic dissection (CAAD). The number of autonomic and somatic nerve fibers was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Proximally, penile innervation was mainly somatic in the extra-albugineal sector and mainly autonomic in the intracavernosal sector. Distally, both sectors were almost exclusively supplied by somatic nerve fibers, except the intrapenile vascular anastomoses that accompanied both somatic and autonomic (nitrergic) fibers. From this point, the neural immunolabeling within perivascular nerve fibers was mixed (somatic labeling and autonomic labeling). Accessory afferent, extra-albugineal pathways supplied the outer layers of the penis. There is a major change in the functional type of innervation between the proximal and distal parts of the intracavernosal sector of the penis. In addition to the pelvis and the hilum of the penis, the intrapenile neurovascular routes are the third level where the efferent autonomic (visceromotor) and the afferent somatic (sensory) penile nerve fibers are close. Intrapenile neurovascular pathways define a proximal penile segment, which guarantees erectile rigidity, and a sensory distal segment. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Somatic embryogenesis in cassava: A tool for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Duren, M. Van; Morpurgo, R.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava is an important food and livestock feed crop. The effect of gamma radiation on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cassava clones of African origin was investigated. Explants from young leaves of cassava were cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 18.1 mM 2,4-D and 2 mM CuSO4, solidified with 0.3% Phytagel. Compact and friable calli were observed after 10-15 days of explant culture in dark, which produced somatic embryos in all but one clone. The somatic embryos showed morphological aberrations, such as fused cotyledons, lack of meristematic tip, epicotyl elongation, and had low germination rate; desiccation of embryos increased germination. Histological study showed that the somatic embryos were of multicellular origin. Leaf explants were irradiated with doses between 4 to 38 Gy of gamma rays, and cultured on somatic embryo induction medium. In addition, somatic embryos were irradiated with gamma ray doses from 10 to 18 Gy, and analyzed for germination. LD 50 for embryogenic response of leaf-explants was at around 20 Gy, while that for somatic embryo germination was ca. 10 Gy. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Somatic embryogenesis in cassava: A tool for mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K S; Duren, M Van; Morpurgo, R [Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1997-07-01

    Cassava is an important food and livestock feed crop. The effect of gamma radiation on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cassava clones of African origin was investigated. Explants from young leaves of cassava were cultured on MS medium, supplemented with 18.1 mM 2,4-D and 2 mM CuSO4, solidified with 0.3% Phytagel. Compact and friable calli were observed after 10-15 days of explant culture in dark, which produced somatic embryos in all but one clone. The somatic embryos showed morphological aberrations, such as fused cotyledons, lack of meristematic tip, epicotyl elongation, and had low germination rate; desiccation of embryos increased germination. Histological study showed that the somatic embryos were of multicellular origin. Leaf explants were irradiated with doses between 4 to 38 Gy of gamma rays, and cultured on somatic embryo induction medium. In addition, somatic embryos were irradiated with gamma ray doses from 10 to 18 Gy, and analyzed for germination. LD{sub 50} for embryogenic response of leaf-explants was at around 20 Gy, while that for somatic embryo germination was ca. 10 Gy. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs.

  14. Characteristics of somatic tinnitus patients with and without hyperacusis.

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    Massimo Ralli

    Full Text Available Determine if somatic tinnitus patients with hyperacusis have different characteristics from those without hyperacusis.172 somatic tinnitus patients with (n = 82 and without (n = 90 hyperacusis referred to the Tinnitus Unit of Sapienza University of Rome between June 2012 and June 2016 were compared for demographic characteristics, tinnitus features, self-administered questionnaire scores, nature of somatic modulation and history.Compared to those without hyperacusis, patients with somatic tinnitus and hyperacusis: (a were older (43.38 vs 39.12 years, p = 0.05, (b were more likely to have bilateral tinnitus (67.08% vs 55.56%, p = 0.04, (c had a higher prevalence of somatic modulation of tinnitus (53.65% vs 36.66%, p = 0.02 and (d scored significantly worse on tinnitus annoyance (39.34 vs 22.81, p<0.001 and subjective hearing level (8.04 vs 1.83, p<0.001.Our study shows significantly higher tinnitus modulation and worse self-rating of tinnitus and hearing ability in somatic tinnitus patients with hyperacusis versus somatic tinnitus patients without hyperacusis. These differences could prove useful in developing a better understanding of the pathophysiology and establishing a course of treatment for these two groups of patients.

  15. Visualization of HIV-1 interactions with penile and foreskin epithelia: clues for female-to-male HIV transmission.

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    Minh H Dinh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To gain insight into female-to-male HIV sexual transmission and how male circumcision protects against this mode of transmission, we visualized HIV-1 interactions with foreskin and penile tissues in ex vivo tissue culture and in vivo rhesus macaque models utilizing epifluorescent microscopy. 12 foreskin and 14 cadaveric penile specimens were cultured with R5-tropic photoactivatable (PA-GFP HIV-1 for 4 or 24 hours. Tissue cryosections were immunofluorescently imaged for epithelial and immune cell markers. Images were analyzed for total virions, proportion of penetrators, depth of virion penetration, as well as immune cell counts and depths in the tissue. We visualized individual PA virions breaching penile epithelial surfaces in the explant and macaque model. Using kernel density estimated probabilities of localizing a virion or immune cell at certain tissue depths revealed that interactions between virions and cells were more likely to occur in the inner foreskin or glans penis (from local or cadaveric donors, respectively. Using statistical models to account for repeated measures and zero-inflated datasets, we found no difference in total virions visualized at 4 hours between inner and outer foreskins from local donors. At 24 hours, there were more virions in inner as compared to outer foreskin (0.0495 +/- 0.0154 and 0.0171 +/- 0.0038 virions/image, p = 0.001. In the cadaveric specimens, we observed more virions in inner foreskin (0.0507 +/- 0.0079 virions/image than glans tissue (0.0167 +/- 0.0033 virions/image, p<0.001, but a greater proportion was seen penetrating uncircumcised glans tissue (0.0458 +/- 0.0188 vs. 0.0151 +/- 0.0100 virions/image, p = 0.099 and to significantly greater mean depths (29.162 +/- 3.908 vs. 12.466 +/- 2.985 μm. Our in vivo macaque model confirmed that virions can breach penile squamous epithelia in a living model. In summary, these results suggest that the inner foreskin and glans epithelia may be important sites

  16. Somatic radiation risk in case of irradiation of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocken, U.; Ewen, K.; Makoski, H.B.

    1983-09-01

    The somatic dose index for irradiation of the brain was determined for the 10 MeV bremsstrahlung of a linear electron-accelerator. A small volume rotation technique and the irradiation of the total neurocranium were chosen as extreme conditions for the radiation exposure of the skull. On the basis of a target volume dose of 50 Gy for the total irradiation series, the somatic dose index of the small volume technique is within the scope of coronarography. In case of irradiation of the total neurocranium, however, the somatic dose index largely exceeds the maximum values of X-ray diagnosis.

  17. Urogenital Schistosomiasis among Schoolchildren and the Associated Risk Factors in Selected Rural Communities of Kwara State, Nigeria

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    Babamale Olarewaju Abdulkareem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease that causes severe morbidity among schoolchildren in many poor-resource communities in Nigeria. We investigated the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of the infection in three communities of Kwara State to ascertain the current status of the disease. Of the 724 urine samples screened, using filtration method, 332 (45.6% school-aged children were infected with average intensity and mean population eggs load of 127.9 eggs/10 ml of urine and 0.794, respectively. Prevalence and intensity of infection varied with communities: high in Ajase-Ipo (57.1%; X = 100.7 ± 23.01 eggs/10 ml and low in Shonga (37.5%; X = 91.4 ± 78.0. Infection was significantly (P<0.05 higher in males (50.8% than the females (42.4%. Similarly, infection significantly (P<0.05 increased with increasing age. Multivariate logistic analysis of risk factors revealed that lack of portable drinking water (adjusted odd ratio (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 2.64–5.98, unemployment (aOR = 2.23; 1.87–2.294, lack of knowledge of infection (aOR = 2.16; 0.59–3.83, and frequent contact with contaminated water bodies (aOR = 2.01; 1.45–2.70 were important predictors of urinary schistosomiasis. Therefore, continuous evaluation of the intervention strategies that address risk factors must compliment Mass Drug Administration to curtail the transmission and debilitating health consequences of infection in endemic settings.

  18. High resolution MR for evaluation of lower urogenital tract malformations in infants and children: Feasibility and preliminary experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehammer, T.; Riccabona, M.; Maier, E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This retrospective study aimed to assess the value of supplementing heavily T2-weighted, high resolution MR-imaging for detailed anatomic assessment in paediatric lower urogenital tract (UGT) malformations. Patients/methods: Sixteen patients (6 male and 10 female, median age = 1.8 years, range = 0-9 years) with suspected malformations of the lower UGT who were retrospectively identified from the PACS underwent a clinically indicated standard MR-urography study. In order to facilitate a better anatomic assessment of questioned specific lower UGT structures, an additional three-dimensional Constructive Interference in Steady State-sequence (3D-CISS) had been acquired in these patients. The final diagnosis was established by all imaging results and surgical or laprascopic findings. The findings from the CISS-sequence were compared to the results from standard MR-urography for complementary anatomic information and conspicuity. Results: Diagnostic 3D-CISS image quality was achieved in all patients. The 3D-CISS confirmed an ectopic ureteral insertion in six patients and reliably excluded ectopic insertion in 10 patients, whereas conventional MR-urography showed an ectopic insertion of the ureter in one case. In six patients with retrovesical complex formations (suspicious for an ectopic cystic renal bud or a cystic genital structure) the 3D-CISS showed increased conspicuity scores for image quality. Conclusion: The additional 3D-CISS-sequence increases the diagnostic yield in the pelvis in children with complex malformations of the lower UGT such as ectopic ureteral insertion or suspected cystic renal or genital malformations at only minimal additional time, compared to standard MR-urography.

  19. High resolution MR for evaluation of lower urogenital tract malformations in infants and children: Feasibility and preliminary experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehammer, T., E-mail: ehammer@live.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, 8036 Graz (Austria); Riccabona, M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, 8036 Graz (Austria); Maier, E. [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, 8036 Graz (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: This retrospective study aimed to assess the value of supplementing heavily T2-weighted, high resolution MR-imaging for detailed anatomic assessment in paediatric lower urogenital tract (UGT) malformations. Patients/methods: Sixteen patients (6 male and 10 female, median age = 1.8 years, range = 0-9 years) with suspected malformations of the lower UGT who were retrospectively identified from the PACS underwent a clinically indicated standard MR-urography study. In order to facilitate a better anatomic assessment of questioned specific lower UGT structures, an additional three-dimensional Constructive Interference in Steady State-sequence (3D-CISS) had been acquired in these patients. The final diagnosis was established by all imaging results and surgical or laprascopic findings. The findings from the CISS-sequence were compared to the results from standard MR-urography for complementary anatomic information and conspicuity. Results: Diagnostic 3D-CISS image quality was achieved in all patients. The 3D-CISS confirmed an ectopic ureteral insertion in six patients and reliably excluded ectopic insertion in 10 patients, whereas conventional MR-urography showed an ectopic insertion of the ureter in one case. In six patients with retrovesical complex formations (suspicious for an ectopic cystic renal bud or a cystic genital structure) the 3D-CISS showed increased conspicuity scores for image quality. Conclusion: The additional 3D-CISS-sequence increases the diagnostic yield in the pelvis in children with complex malformations of the lower UGT such as ectopic ureteral insertion or suspected cystic renal or genital malformations at only minimal additional time, compared to standard MR-urography.

  20. Polymeric matrix membrane sensors for stability-indicating potentiometric determination of oxybutynin hydrochloride and flavoxate hydrochloride urogenital system drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heba, Mohamed; Ramadan, Nesrin; El-Laithy, Moustafa

    2008-01-01

    Four polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix membrane electrodes responsive to 2 drugs affecting the urogenital system--oxybutynin hydrochloride (OX) and flavoxate hydrochloride (FX)--were developed, described, and characterized. A precipitation-based technique with tungstophosphate (TP) and ammonium reineckate (R) anions as electroactive materials in a PVC matrix with an OX cation was used for electrode 1 and 2 fabrication, respectively. Electrode 3 and 4 fabrication was based on use of the precipitation technique of FX cation with tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate and R anions as electroactive materials. Fast and stable Nernstian responses in the range 1 x 10(-2)-1 x 10(-6) M for the 2 drugs over the pH range 5-8 revealed the performance characteristics of these electrodes, which were evaluated according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry recommendations. The method was applied to FX and OX in their pharmaceutical formulations and in human plasma samples. The 4 proposed sensors were found to be specific for the drugs in the presence of up to 60% of their degradation products. Validation of the method according to the quality assurance standards showed suitability of the proposed electrodes for use in the quality control assessment of these drugs. The recoveries for determination of the drugs by the 4 proposed selective electrodes were 99.5 +/- 0.5, 100.0 +/- 0.4, 99.9 +/- 0.4, and 100.1 +/- 0.4% for sensors 1-4, respectively. Statistical comparison between the results obtained by this method and the official method of the drugs was done, and no significant difference found.

  1. Knowledge and critical thinking skills increase clinical reasoning ability in urogenital disorders: a Universitas Sriwijaya Medical Faculty experience

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    Irfannuddin Irfannuddin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Clinical reasoning is one of the essential competencies for medical practitioners, so that it must be exercised by medical students. Studies on quantitative evidence of factors influencing clinical reasoning abilicy of students are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of knowledge and other factors on the clinical reasoning abiliry ofthe students, which can serve as reference to establish methods for learning ctinical reasoning.Methods This is a cross-sectional study on fourth semester students enrolled in the Competency-based Curriculum of the Medical Faculty, University of Sriwijaya. Data on clinical reasoning abilily and risk factors during urogenital blockwere collected inApril 2008, when the students have just completed the btock. Clinical reasoning abiliry was tested using the Script Concordance test and the risk factors were evaluated based on formative tests, block summative assessments, and student characteristics. Data were analyzed by Cox regression.Results The prevalence of low clinical reasoning ability of the 132 students was 38.6%. The group with low basic knowledge was found to have 63% risk ol low clinical reasoning abiliry when compared to those with high basic knowledge (adjusted RR = 1.63; 95% conidence intewal (Ct: 1.10 -2.42. When compared to students with high critical thinking skitls, those with lory critical thinking skills had 2.3 time to be low clinical reasoning abitity (adjusted RR : 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55 - 3.41.Conclusion Students with low critical thinking skills or with inadequate knowledge had a higher risk of low clinical reasoning ability. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 53-9Keywords: clinical reasoning, basic knowledge, critical thinking, competency-based curriculum

  2. Fusion of lower limbs with severe urogenital malformation in a newborn, a rare congenital clinical syndrome: case report

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    Al Hadhoud F

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatemah Al Hadhoud,1 Abeer H Kamal,1 Abdulmohsen Al Anjari,1 Michael FE Diejomaoh1,2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternity Hospital, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait Background: Fused lower limbs combined with severe urogenital malformation, also known as sirenomelia, is a rare congenital clinical syndrome. The etiology is unknown, and the outcome for the affected fetus is rather uncertain. Case report: Mrs RB, a Kuwaiti woman primigravida, married to a non-consanguineous husband, had uneventful antenatal care in a private health service, until she was admitted to the Maternity Hospital, Kuwait, at 31 weeks of gestation with a 3-hour history of ruptured membranes. She had a negative family history for diabetes mellitus, and her past surgical/medical/gynecological history was noncontributory. General physical examination revealed a healthy parturient with normal vital signs, clear lungs and normal heart sounds. Obstetric examination revealed a fundal height compatible with the gestational age; there was a single living fetus in breech presentation; she was not in labor. The mother was managed conservatively with antibiotics and dexamethasone injections. Labor ensued later, progressing rapidly to the second stage. Assisted breech delivery was performed, and a live baby, birth weight 1570 g and Apgar score 3/9, was delivered. The neonate had multiple congenital abnormalities, including fusion of both lower limbs, ambiguous genitalia, cloacal anomaly and tracheoesophageal fistula. The neonate was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, fully investigated, managed medically and surgically and eventually discharged home after a hospital stay of 123 days for further management. Conclusion: A case of peculiar fetal anomaly called sirenomelia, the first case in Kuwait, has been presented. Survival of such babies requires costly management with average results

  3. Life on arginine for Mycoplasma hominis: clues from its minimal genome and comparison with other human urogenital mycoplasmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Pereyre

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic human mycoplasma. Two other pathogenic human species, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma parvum, reside within the same natural niche as M. hominis: the urogenital tract. These three species have overlapping, but distinct, pathogenic roles. They have minimal genomes and, thus, reduced metabolic capabilities characterized by distinct energy-generating pathways. Analysis of the M. hominis PG21 genome sequence revealed that it is the second smallest genome among self-replicating free living organisms (665,445 bp, 537 coding sequences (CDSs. Five clusters of genes were predicted to have undergone horizontal gene transfer (HGT between M. hominis and the phylogenetically distant U. parvum species. We reconstructed M. hominis metabolic pathways from the predicted genes, with particular emphasis on energy-generating pathways. The Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway was incomplete, with a single enzyme absent. We identified the three proteins constituting the arginine dihydrolase pathway. This pathway was found essential to promote growth in vivo. The predicted presence of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase suggested that arginine catabolism is more complex than initially described. This enzyme may have been acquired by HGT from non-mollicute bacteria. Comparison of the three minimal mollicute genomes showed that 247 CDSs were common to all three genomes, whereas 220 CDSs were specific to M. hominis, 172 CDSs were specific to M. genitalium, and 280 CDSs were specific to U. parvum. Within these species-specific genes, two major sets of genes could be identified: one including genes involved in various energy-generating pathways, depending on the energy source used (glucose, urea, or arginine and another involved in cytadherence and virulence. Therefore, a minimal mycoplasma cell, not including cytadherence and virulence-related genes, could be envisaged containing a core genome (247 genes, plus a set of genes required for

  4. Dysphoria and somatization in Iranian culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskin, K L

    1992-09-01

    Iranians express dysphoria through an undifferentiated term called narahati, meaning depressed, ill at ease, nervous, inconvenienced, or anxious. People try masking this emotion or express it in specific ways nonverbally, such as sulking or not eating. Two other dysphoric affects, sadness and anger, are not masked. Because of the social conception of persons being emotionally sensitive, the expression of narahati is guarded: expressing it not only could show that one is socially vulnerable, it could also make another sensitive empathic person narahat. The body is also sensitive, but to the physical world. Physical health is maintained by balancing a diet of "hot" and "cold" foods and avoiding exposure to cold and moisture. With the social and cultural problems brought on by revolution, war, immigration, and accommodation to a new society, Iranian refugees experience changes in family, role, status, finances, language, and other sociocultural ways of being that cause them to feel narahat and to express it verbally, nonverbally, or through somatization. Understanding Iranian conceptions of emotional and physical sensitivity will help clinicians in treating Iranian patients.

  5. Dysphoria and somatization in Iranian culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskin, K L

    1992-01-01

    Iranians express dysphoria through an undifferentiated term called narahati, meaning depressed, ill at ease, nervous, inconvenienced, or anxious. People try masking this emotion or express it in specific ways nonverbally, such as sulking or not eating. Two other dysphoric affects, sadness and anger, are not masked. Because of the social conception of persons being emotionally sensitive, the expression of narahati is guarded: expressing it not only could show that one is socially vulnerable, it could also make another sensitive empathic person narahat. The body is also sensitive, but to the physical world. Physical health is maintained by balancing a diet of "hot" and "cold" foods and avoiding exposure to cold and moisture. With the social and cultural problems brought on by revolution, war, immigration, and accommodation to a new society, Iranian refugees experience changes in family, role, status, finances, language, and other sociocultural ways of being that cause them to feel narahat and to express it verbally, nonverbally, or through somatization. Understanding Iranian conceptions of emotional and physical sensitivity will help clinicians in treating Iranian patients. PMID:1413773

  6. Growth and characterization of different human rhinovirus C types in three-dimensional human airway epithelia reconstituted in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapparel, Caroline; Sobo, Komla; Constant, Samuel; Huang, Song; Van Belle, Sandra; Kaiser, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    New molecular diagnostic tools have recently allowed the discovery of human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) that may be overrepresented in children with lower respiratory tract complications. Unlike HRV-A and HRV-B, HRV-C cannot be propagated in conventional immortalized cell lines and their biological properties have been difficult to study. Recent studies have described the successful amplification of HRV-C15, HRV-C11, and HRV-C41 in sinus mucosal organ cultures and in fully differentiated human airway epithelial cells. Consistent with these studies, we report that a panel of clinical HRV-C specimens including HRV-C2, HRV-C7, HRV-C12, HRV-C15, and HRV-C29 types were all capable of mediating productive infection in reconstituted 3D human primary upper airway epithelial tissues and that the virions enter and exit preferentially through the apical surface. Similar to HRV-A and HRV-B, our data support the acid sensitivity of HRV-C. We observed also that the optimum temperature requirement during HRV-C growth may be type-dependent. - Highlights: • A 3D human upper airway epithelia reconstituted in vitro supports HRV-C growth. • HRV-Cs enter and exit preferentially at the apical side of this ALI culture system. • HRV-Cs are acid sensitive. • Temperature sensitivity may be type-dependent for HRV-Cs

  7. Growth and characterization of different human rhinovirus C types in three-dimensional human airway epithelia reconstituted in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapparel, Caroline, E-mail: Caroline.Tapparel@hcuge.ch [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases and Division of Laboratory Medicine, University of Geneva Hospitals, 4 Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Sobo, Komla [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases and Division of Laboratory Medicine, University of Geneva Hospitals, 4 Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Constant, Samuel; Huang, Song [Epithelix sárl, 14 Chemin des Aulx, 1228 Plan les Ouates, Geneva (Switzerland); Van Belle, Sandra; Kaiser, Laurent [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Infectious Diseases and Division of Laboratory Medicine, University of Geneva Hospitals, 4 Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2013-11-15

    New molecular diagnostic tools have recently allowed the discovery of human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) that may be overrepresented in children with lower respiratory tract complications. Unlike HRV-A and HRV-B, HRV-C cannot be propagated in conventional immortalized cell lines and their biological properties have been difficult to study. Recent studies have described the successful amplification of HRV-C15, HRV-C11, and HRV-C41 in sinus mucosal organ cultures and in fully differentiated human airway epithelial cells. Consistent with these studies, we report that a panel of clinical HRV-C specimens including HRV-C2, HRV-C7, HRV-C12, HRV-C15, and HRV-C29 types were all capable of mediating productive infection in reconstituted 3D human primary upper airway epithelial tissues and that the virions enter and exit preferentially through the apical surface. Similar to HRV-A and HRV-B, our data support the acid sensitivity of HRV-C. We observed also that the optimum temperature requirement during HRV-C growth may be type-dependent. - Highlights: • A 3D human upper airway epithelia reconstituted in vitro supports HRV-C growth. • HRV-Cs enter and exit preferentially at the apical side of this ALI culture system. • HRV-Cs are acid sensitive. • Temperature sensitivity may be type-dependent for HRV-Cs.

  8. Characterizing human vestibular sensory epithelia for experimental studies: new hair bundles on old tissue and implications for therapeutic interventions in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth R; Jagger, Daniel J; Saeed, Shakeel R; Axon, Patrick; Donnelly, Neil; Tysome, James; Moffatt, David; Irving, Richard; Monksfield, Peter; Coulson, Chris; Freeman, Simon R; Lloyd, Simon K; Forge, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Balance disequilibrium is a significant contributor to falls in the elderly. The most common cause of balance dysfunction is loss of sensory cells from the vestibular sensory epithelia of the inner ear. However, inaccessibility of inner ear tissue in humans severely restricts possibilities for experimental manipulation to develop therapies to ameliorate this loss. We provide a structural and functional analysis of human vestibular sensory epithelia harvested at trans-labyrinthine surgery. We demonstrate the viability of the tissue and labeling with specific markers of hair cell function and of ion homeostasis in the epithelium. Samples obtained from the oldest patients revealed a significant loss of hair cells across the tissue surface, but we found immature hair bundles present in epithelia harvested from patients >60 years of age. These results suggest that the environment of the human vestibular sensory epithelium could be responsive to stimulation of developmental pathways to enhance hair cell regeneration, as has been demonstrated successfully in the vestibular organs of adult mice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Enright, Brian; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2003-01-01

    Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle. PMID:14614770

  10. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, L; Hoyos, R; Roca, W

    1987-06-01

    An efficient and reproducible plant regeneration system, initiated in somatic tissues, has been devised for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Somatic embryogenesis has been induced from shoot tips and immature leaves of in vitro shoot cultures of 15 cassava genotypes. Somatic embryos developed directly on the explants when cultured on a medium containing 4-16 mg/l 2,4-D. Differences were observed with respect to the embryogenic capacity of the explants of different varieties. Secondary embryogenesis has been induced by subculture on solid or liquid induction medium. Long term cultures were established and maintained for up to 18 months by repeated subculture of the proliferating somatic embryos. Plantlets developed from primary and secondary embryos in the presence of 0.1 mg/l BAP, 1mg/l GA3, and 0.01 mg/l 2,4-D. Regenerated plants were transferred to the field, and were grown to maturity.

  11. Inference of Tumor Phylogenies with Improved Somatic Mutation Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Salari, Raheleh; Saleh, Syed Shayon; Kashef-Haghighi, Dorna; Khavari, David; Newburger, Daniel E.; West, Robert B.; Sidow, Arend; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2013-01-01

    multiple, genetically related tumors, current methods do not exploit available phylogenetic information to improve the accuracy of their variant calls. Here, we present a novel algorithm that uses somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in multiple

  12. Anxiety, depression, and somatization in DSM-III hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, R; Abbott, P; Winslow, W W; Pathak, D

    1989-01-01

    To assess the severity of distress and of somatization in hypochondriasis, the authors administered several validated self-rating scales of depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and anger/hostility to 21 psychiatric outpatients with the DSM-III diagnosis of hypochondriasis and to matched groups of other nonpsychotic psychiatric patients, family practice patients, and employees. Anxiety and somatic symptoms were highest in hypochondriacal patients; depression and anger/hostility did not differ from those of other psychiatric patients but were higher than in the other groups. The findings do not support the theory that hypochondriasis is a defense against anxiety or that it is a masked depression or depressive equivalent. The findings are consistent with the view that the interaction of severe anxiety and severe somatic symptoms is a common feature of the psychopathology of hypochondriasis.

  13. Hypochondriasis and somatization related to personality and attitudes toward self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollifield, M; Tuttle, L; Paine, S; Kellner, R

    1999-01-01

    Better definition of the boundary between hypochondriasis and somatization was determined by measuring attitudes to self and personality dimensions associated with these syndromes. In this study, the primary care patients with hypochondriacal responses (HR) on the Illness Attitudes Scales or high somatic concern (HSC) on the Symptom Questionnaire had more negative attitudes to self and more psychological distress than the matched group of primary care control subjects. The HR subjects were different from the non-HR subjects on two of five personality domains on the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO)-Five-Factor Inventory, and the HSC subjects were different from the non-HSC subjects on four of five NEO domains. Analysis of variance demonstrated that somatization explained most of the variance in attitudes, personality, and psychological distress, but hypochondriasis uniquely contributed only to thanatophobia. The authors discuss the boundary between hypochondriasis and somatization and offer a descriptive model of this relationship.

  14. Cognitive aspects of hypochondriasis and the somatization syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, W; Hiller, W; Margraf, J

    1998-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether specific cognitive aspects are present in patients suffering from somatoform disorders. With a sample of 493 patients from a center for behavioral medicine, the authors evaluated a questionnaire assessing typical cognitions concerning body perception, illness behavior, and health. The authors further examined 225 participants, including patients with a somatization syndrome, patients with somatization syndrome and additional hypochondriasis, patients with hypochondriasis, patients with other mental disorders (clinical control group), and nonclinical controls. The results showed that not only patients with hypochondriasis but also patients with somatization syndrome had cognitive concerns and assumptions that were specific for the disorder. These patients had a self-concept of being weak and unable to tolerate stress. A catastrophizing interpretation of minor bodily complaints found in hypochondriacal patients in earlier studies was also found for patients with multiple somatization symptoms.

  15. Journeying as Amateur and Professional – A Somatic Movement Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Eddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This account is an interactive case study co-authored by a teacher and her student on the topic of moving from amateur to professional. It highlights the role of somatic education in equalizing the experience of amateurs and professionals as well as pointing to specific curricula, public performances, participatory events and volunteer work that are made uniquely available to students of programs related to Dynamic EmbodimentTM Somatic Movement Therapy (known as the Somatic Movement Therapy Training – SMTT from 1991-2005. Written in first-person narrative style (Powdermaker 1966, this inquiry supports the primary methodology of somatic education – the process of self-discovery “from within” (Hanna 1976 emphasizing the physical body with a focus on bodily proprioception and kinesthetic awareness – as well as the humanistic nature of the student-teacher relationship and the value of each in performance and education.

  16. Somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-12

    Oct 12, 2009 ... Case Study: Somatic delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder in schizophrenia. 527. Vol 52 No 6 ... liver function, and urea and electrolytes), including an ... neurotransmitter systems (such as serotonin and dopamine).

  17. Recurrent Somatic Structural Variations Contribute to Tumorigenesis in Pediatric Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric osteosarcoma is characterized by multiple somatic chromosomal lesions, including structural variations (SVs and copy number alterations (CNAs. To define the landscape of somatic mutations in pediatric osteosarcoma, we performed whole-genome sequencing of DNA from 20 osteosarcoma tumor samples and matched normal tissue in a discovery cohort, as well as 14 samples in a validation cohort. Single-nucleotide variations (SNVs exhibited a pattern of localized hypermutation called kataegis in 50% of the tumors. We identified p53 pathway lesions in all tumors in the discovery cohort, nine of which were translocations in the first intron of the TP53 gene. Beyond TP53, the RB1, ATRX, and DLG2 genes showed recurrent somatic alterations in 29%–53% of the tumors. These data highlight the power of whole-genome sequencing for identifying recurrent somatic alterations in cancer genomes that may be missed using other methods.

  18. Effect of explant age, hormones on somatic embryogenesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of explant age, hormones on somatic embryogenesis and production of multiple shoot from cotyledonary leaf explants of Solanum trilobatum L. VNC Dhavala, RD Tejeswara, VR Yechuri, K Prabavathi ...

  19. Breeding value estimation for somatic cell score in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding value estimation for somatic cell score in South African dairy cattle. ... are not unity, the RM-model estimates more competitive variances and requires ... are therefore recommended for breeding value estimation on a national basis.

  20. Somatic embryogenesis in ferns: a new experimental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuła, Anna; Pożoga, Mariusz; Tomiczak, Karolina; Rybczyński, Jan J

    2015-05-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has never been reported in ferns. The study showed that it is much easier to evoke the acquisition and expression of embryogenic competence in ferns than in spermatophytes. We discovered that the tree fern Cyathea delgadii offers an effective model for the reproducible and rapid formation of somatic embryos on hormone-free medium. Our study provides cyto-morphological evidence for the single cell origin and development of somatic embryos. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) in both primary and secondary explants was induced on half-strength micro- and macro-nutrients Murashige and Skoog medium without the application of exogenous plant growth regulators, in darkness. The early stage of SE was characterized by sequential perpendicular cell divisions of an individual epidermal cell of etiolated stipe explant. These resulted in the formation of a linear pro-embryo. Later their development resembled that of the zygotic embryo. We defined three morphogenetic stages of fern somatic embryo development: linear, early and late embryonic leaf stage. The transition from somatic embryo to juvenile sporophyte was quick and proceeded without interruption caused by dormancy. Following 9 weeks of culture the efficiency of somatic embryogenesis reached 12-13 embryos per responding explant. Spontaneous formation of somatic embryos and callus production, which improved the effectiveness of the process sevenfold in 10-month-long culture, occurred without subculturing. The tendency for C. delgadii to propagate by SE in vitro makes this species an excellent model for studies relating to asexual embryogenesis and the endogenous hormonal regulation of that process and opens new avenues of experimentation.

  1. Pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depressive disorders. Design: Cross Sectional Comparative study Place of Study: Department of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration of Study: From May to November 2002. Patients and Methods: Patients were divided in Group I of anxiety and group II of depression. Fifty patients considered in each group by convenience sampling. The organic basis of their symptoms was ruled out. The patterns of their somatic symptoms and other information like educational and economic status were recorded on Semi Structured Proforma. The patient's diagnosis was made on schedule based ICD-10 research criteria. The severity of anxiety and depression was assessed by using HARS and HDRS respectively. The pattern of somatic symptoms in both groups was then analyzed by the urdu version of Bradford Somatic Inventory. Patterns of somatic complaints were then analyzed by chi square test. Results: Out of 100 patients we placed 50 each in group I (anxiety) and group II (Depression). Males were higher in depression whereas females were higher in anxiety disorder group. P-value for headache was 0.017 while in rest of the somatic symptoms it was insignificant ranging from 0.4 to 1. Conclusion: We found that the patterns of somatic symptoms are present in both the groups of anxiety and depression like symptoms related to musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal system were commonly observed in cases of depression whereas symptoms related to autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system is more significantly somatized in patients of anxiety. A larger sample is required for further studies to get better results. (author)

  2. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK; Selçuk ASLAN; Çisem UTKU

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used ...

  3. Teaching at the interface of dance science and somatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Pamela; Wilson, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a combined scientific and somatic approach to teaching and learning about the body, and explains how it can be of benefit to dancers and dance educators. The study of the science of movement (kinesiology) and a somatic approach to teaching are initially defined and described as distinct entities; following this, a model for integration of the two is presented. The authors advocate for such a combination in order to enhance dancing.

  4. Induction and isolation of somatic mutations in vegetatively propagated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, B.

    1975-01-01

    Research carried out since 1963 concentrated on techniques of mutagenic treatment: problems of exposure, type of radiation (acute irradiation by x- and γ-rays, and chronic exposure in the gamma field), conditions during and after irradiation, mechanisms of mutation induction, and methodology of isolation of somatic mutations. Analyses of somatic mutations included studies on apple, pear, olive, peach, grape and cherry plants. Young trees, dormant and rooted scions, summer and floral buds or seeds were used

  5. Cross-sectional interview study of fertility, pregnancy, and urogenital schistosomiasis in coastal Kenya: Documented treatment in childhood is associated with reduced odds of subfertility among adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Miller-Fellows

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented an increased risk of subfertility in areas of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as an ecological association between urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence and decreased fertility. This pilot project examined reproductive patterns and the potential effects of childhood urogenital Schistosoma haematobium infection and individual treatment experience on adult subfertility among women who were long-term residents in an S. haematobium-endemic region of coastal Kenya.We analyzed findings from 162 in-depth interviews with women of childbearing age in a rural, coastal community, linking them, if possible, to their individual treatment records from previous multi-year longitudinal studies of parasitic infections. Reproductive histories indicated a much local higher local rate of subfertility (44% than worldwide averages (8-12%. Although, due to the very high regional prevalence of schistosomiasis, a clear relationship could not be demonstrated between a history of S. haematobium infection and adult subfertility, among a convenience sub-sample of 61 women who had received documented treatment during previous interventional trials, a significant association was found between age at first anti-schistosomal treatment and later fertility in adulthood, with those women treated before age 21 significantly less likely to have subfertility (P = 0.001.The high subfertility rate documented in this pilot study suggests the importance of programs to prevent and treat pelvic infections in their early stages to preclude reproductive tract damage. The available documented treatment data also suggest that early anti-schistosomal treatment may prevent the fertility-damaging effects of urogenital schistosomiasis, and lend support for programs that provide universal treatment of children in S. haematobium-endemic regions.

  6. Effects of a soy-based dietary supplement compared with low-dose hormone therapy on the urogenital system: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmignani, Lucio O; Pedro, Adriana Orcesi; Montemor, Eliana B; Arias, Victor A; Costa-Paiva, Lucia H; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of a soy-based dietary supplement, low-dose hormone therapy (HT), and placebo on the urogenital system in postmenopausal women. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 60 healthy postmenopausal women aged 40 to 60 years (mean time since menopause, 4.1 y) were randomized into three groups: a soy dietary supplement group (90 mg of isoflavone), a low-dose HT group (1 mg of estradiol plus 0.5 mg of norethisterone), and a placebo group. Urinary, vaginal, and sexual complaints were evaluated using the urogenital subscale of the Menopause Rating Scale. Vaginal maturation value was calculated. Transvaginal sonography was performed to evaluate endometrial thickness. Genital bleeding pattern was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using χ(2) test, Fisher's exact test, paired Student's t test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test, and analysis of variance. For intergroup comparisons, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test (followed by Mann-Whitney U test) was used. Vaginal dryness improved significantly in the soy and HT groups (P = 0.04). Urinary and sexual symptoms did not change with treatment in the three groups. After 16 weeks of treatment, there was a significant increase in maturation value only in the HT group (P < 0.01). Vaginal pH decreased only in this group (P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in endometrial thickness between the three groups, and the adverse effects evaluated were similar. This study shows that a soy-based dietary supplement used for 16 weeks fails to exert estrogenic action on the urogenital tract but improves vaginal dryness.

  7. Cross-sectional interview study of fertility, pregnancy, and urogenital schistosomiasis in coastal Kenya: Documented treatment in childhood is associated with reduced odds of subfertility among adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Fellows, Sarah C; Howard, Laura; Kramer, Rebekah; Hildebrand, Vanessa; Furin, Jennifer; Mutuku, Francis M; Mukoko, Dunstan; Ivy, Julianne A; King, Charles H

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has documented an increased risk of subfertility in areas of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as an ecological association between urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence and decreased fertility. This pilot project examined reproductive patterns and the potential effects of childhood urogenital Schistosoma haematobium infection and individual treatment experience on adult subfertility among women who were long-term residents in an S. haematobium-endemic region of coastal Kenya. We analyzed findings from 162 in-depth interviews with women of childbearing age in a rural, coastal community, linking them, if possible, to their individual treatment records from previous multi-year longitudinal studies of parasitic infections. Reproductive histories indicated a much local higher local rate of subfertility (44%) than worldwide averages (8-12%). Although, due to the very high regional prevalence of schistosomiasis, a clear relationship could not be demonstrated between a history of S. haematobium infection and adult subfertility, among a convenience sub-sample of 61 women who had received documented treatment during previous interventional trials, a significant association was found between age at first anti-schistosomal treatment and later fertility in adulthood, with those women treated before age 21 significantly less likely to have subfertility (P = 0.001). The high subfertility rate documented in this pilot study suggests the importance of programs to prevent and treat pelvic infections in their early stages to preclude reproductive tract damage. The available documented treatment data also suggest that early anti-schistosomal treatment may prevent the fertility-damaging effects of urogenital schistosomiasis, and lend support for programs that provide universal treatment of children in S. haematobium-endemic regions.

  8. Clinical role of Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum presence in female lower urogenital tract: Is there a place for routine screening and treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruška Marovt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections represent major health problem in females all over the world if remained undiagnosed and untreated. They can have adverse influence on reproduction and health of a mother and a newborn. The development of molecular methods has permitted the detection of an array of microbes whose pathologic roles in urogenital infections need to be further studied. Ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma spp., being originally found in 1954 from male urogenital tract, are prokaryotic cells without a cell wall, ranging from 0.1 to 1 μm in length. Fourteen known Ureaplasma serovars have been divided in two species based on their phenotypic and genotypic features, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum detected and identified separately using polymerase chain reaction assays. Both are generally considered as genital tract commensals. U. urealyticum is most probably associated with male urethritis which has not been found for U. parvum. Recent studies with supposedly healthy women reported their detection rate between 18-87 % for U. parvum and 6-10 % for U. urealyticum. Even though they have been found to be associated with chorioamnionitis, preterm birth and perinatal complications more commonly then other commensals in this region the rising question regarding their pathogenic role in females remains unsolved and the guidelines regarding the diagnostic screening and treatment are inconsistent. The aim of our paper is to review the microbiological characteristics, diagnostic methods and epidemiology of newly differentiated U. parvum and U. urealyticum, and to assess evidence speaking pro and contra their clinical role in causing lower urogenital tract infection in women. Since both bacteria are susceptible to antimicrobials it is of utmost importance for clinicians to decide whether or not to search for one or both of them routinely and treat accordingly in order to prevent ascending upper genital tract infection as well as complications in

  9. Identificação sexual através do estudo anatômico do sistema urogenital em recém-eclodidos e jovens de Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae Sexual identification using anatomical study of urogenital system in hatchlings and juveniles of tracHemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron (Reptilia, Testudines, Emydidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Malvasio

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of Trachemys dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron, 1835 less than 12 months old are examined for sexual identification through anatomical study of urogenital system. Histological analysis is used to confirm sexual identification. It is concluded that accurate sexual identification is possible in hatchlings using gonadal morphology. Differences between testes and ovaries are clear so histological analysis is necessary for this species only in case of doubts.

  10. File list: Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 TFs and others Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Gon.05.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Gonad Testicular somat...ic cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Gon.50.AllAg.Testicular_somatic_cells.bed ...

  13. Parental Criticism is an Environmental Influence on Adolescent Somatic Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, BN; Marceau, K; Narusyte, J; Ganiban, J; Spotts, EL; Reiss, D; Lichtenstein, P; Neiderhiser, JM

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that parental criticism leads to more somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Yet this research has not assessed the direction of causation or whether genetic and/or environmental influences explain the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. As such, it is impossible to understand the mechanisms that underlie this association. The current study uses the Extended Children of Twins design to examine whether parents’ genes, adolescents’ genes, and/or environmental factors explain the relationship between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. Participants came from two twin samples, including the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (N = 868 pairs of adult twins and each twin’s adolescent child) and from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (N = 690 pairs of twin children and their parents). Findings showed that environmental influences account for the association between parental criticism and adolescent somatic symptoms. This suggests that parents’ critical behaviors exert a direct environmental effect on somatic symptoms in adolescent children. Results support the use of intervention programs focused on parental criticism to help reduce adolescents’ somatic symptoms. PMID:25844495

  14. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  15. Somatic mutations in histiocytic sarcoma identified by next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Tomaszewicz, Keith; Hutchinson, Lloyd; Hornick, Jason L; Woda, Bruce; Yu, Hongbo

    2016-08-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of presumed hematopoietic origin showing morphologic and immunophenotypic evidence of histiocytic differentiation. Somatic mutation importance in the pathogenesis or disease progression of histiocytic sarcoma was largely unknown. To identify somatic mutations in histiocytic sarcoma, we studied 5 histiocytic sarcomas [3 female and 2 male patients; mean age 54.8 (20-72), anatomic sites include lymph node, uterus, and pleura] and matched normal tissues from each patient as germ line controls. Somatic mutations in 50 "Hotspot" oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes were examined using next generation sequencing. Three (out of five) histiocytic sarcoma cases carried somatic mutations in BRAF. Among them, G464V [variant frequency (VF) of 43.6 %] and G466R (VF of 29.6 %) located at the P loop potentially interfere with the hydrophobic interaction between P and activating loops and ultimately activation of BRAF. Also detected was BRAF somatic mutation N581S (VF of 7.4 %), which was located at the catalytic loop of BRAF kinase domain: its role in modifying kinase activity was unclear. A similar mutational analysis was also performed on nine acute monocytic/monoblastic leukemia cases, which did not identify any BRAF somatic mutations. Our study detected several BRAF mutations in histiocytic sarcomas, which may be important in understanding the tumorigenesis of this rare neoplasm and providing mechanisms for potential therapeutical opportunities.

  16. Gamma ray induced somatic mutations in rose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    Budwood of 32 rose cultivars (Rosa spp.) was exposed to 3-4 krad of gamma rays and eyes were grafted on Rosa indica var. odorata root stock. Radiosensitivity with respect to sprouting, survival and plant height, and mutation frequency varied with the cultivar and dose of gamma rays. Somatic mutations in flower colour/shape were detected as chimera in 21 cultivars. The size of the mutant sector varied from a narrow streak on a petal to a whole flower and from a portion of a branch to an entire branch. 14 mutants were detected in M 1 V 1 , four in M 1 V 2 and three in M 1 V 3 . Maximum number of mutations was detected following 3 krad treatment. Eyes from mutant branches were grafted again on root stock and non-chimeric mutants were aimed at by vegetative propagation. Mutants from 11 cultivars only could be isolated in pure form. Isolation of non-chimeric mutants sometimes is difficult due to weak growth of a mutant branch. In such a case, all normal looking branches are removed to force a better growth of the mutant branch. It is advisable to maintain irradiated plants at least for four years with drastic pruning in each year. Nine mutants viz. 'Sharada', 'Sukumari', 'Tangerine Contempo', 'Yellow Contempo', 'Pink Contempo', 'Striped Contempo', 'Twinkle', 'Curio' and 'Light Pink Prize' have already been released as new cultivars for commercialization [ref. MBNL No. 23 and 31] and others are being multiplied and assessed. The mutation spectrum appears to be wider for the cultivars 'Contempo' and 'Imperator'. Pigment composition of the original variety is relevant for the kind of flower colour mutations that can be induced

  17. Dynamics of paediatric urogenital schistosome infection, morbidity and treatment: a longitudinal study among preschool children in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakunor, Derick Nii Mensah; Mduluza, Takafira; Midzi, Nicholas; Chase-Topping, Margo; Mutsaka-Makuvaza, Masceline Jenipher; Chimponda, Theresa; Eyoh, Enwono; Mduluza, Tariro; Pfavayi, Lorraine Tsitsi; Wami, Welcome Mkululi; Amanfo, Seth Appiah; Murray, Janice; Tshuma, Clement; Woolhouse, Mark Edward John; Mutapi, Francisca

    2018-01-01

    Recent research has shown that in schistosome-endemic areas preschool-aged children (PSAC), that is, ≤5 years, are at risk of infection. However, there exists a knowledge gap on the dynamics of infection and morbidity in this age group. In this study, we determined the incidence and dynamics of the first urogenital schistosome infections, morbidity and treatment in PSAC. Children (6 months to 5 years) were recruited and followed up for 12 months. Baseline demographics, anthropometric and parasitology data were collected from 1502 children. Urinary morbidity was assessed by haematuria and growth-related morbidity was assessed using standard WHO anthropometric indices. Children negative for Schistosoma haematobium infection were followed up quarterly to determine infection and morbidity incidence. At baseline, the prevalence of S haematobium infection and microhaematuria was 8.5% and 8.6%, respectively. Based on different anthropometric indices, 2.2%-8.2% of children were malnourished, 10.1% underweight and 18.0% stunted. The fraction of morbidity attributable to schistosome infection was 92% for microhaematuria, 38% for stunting and malnutrition at 9%-34%, depending on indices used. S haematobium -positive children were at greater odds of presenting with microhaematuria (adjusted OR (AOR)=25.6; 95% CI 14.5 to 45.1) and stunting (AOR=1.7; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.7). Annual incidence of S haematobium infection and microhaematuria was 17.4% and 20.4%, respectively. Microhaematuria occurred within 3 months of first infection and resolved in a significant number of children, 12 weeks post-praziquantel treatment, from 42.3% to 10.3%; P<0.001. We demonstrated for the first time the incidence of schistosome infection in PSAC, along with microhaematuria, which appears within 3 months of first infection and resolves after praziquantel treatment. A proportion of stunting and malnutrition is attributable to S haematobium infection. The study adds scientific evidence to the calls for

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with urogenital schistosomiasis among primary school children in barrage, Magba sub-division of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Longdoh Njunda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity as well as the factors associated with urogenital schistosomiasis (US in Barrage, a rural community around the Mape΄ dam, in the West region of Cameroon not previously documented for transmission. Methods In this cross sectional parasitological survey, 382 children were enrolled from three primary schools in the study area between March and May 2016. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, clinical and predisposing factors. The syringe filtration technique was used to analyse urine samples. Samples with visible or gross haematuria were recorded prior to filtration. The Pearson chi-square, the student T-test and logistic regression were all performed as part of the statistical analyses. Results The overall prevalence of US was 41.1% (95% CI: 36.1–46.2. Infection was more common in children below 10 years (p = 0.009, in males (p = 0.029, and in children who frequently come into contact with water from the dam (p < 0.001. Furthermore, US was more common in children attending Ecole Public (EP Manbonko Bord (81.1%, p < 0.001 which is very close to the dam and in children from a fishing background (80.9%, p < 0.001. On the contrary, knowledge about schistosomiasis was not observed to be associated with prevalence. In this study, the intensity of infection was observed to be higher in children below 10 years (p < 0.001, in males (p = 0.001, and in children attending EP Manbonko Bord (p < 0.001. The intensity of infection was also highest in children presenting with haematuria (p < 0.001. Frequent contact with water from the dam and having parents whose occupation was fishing were identified as the associated factors for US. Conclusion A high prevalence of US was observed in school-aged children in the study area especially in those attending EP Manbonko Bord. Limiting contact with water from the dam

  19. IN0523 (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol) a plant based derivative of boswellic acid protect Cisplatin induced urogenital toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Amarinder; Arvinda, S; Singh, Surjeet; Suri, Jyotsna; Koul, Surinder; Mondhe, Dilip M.; Singh, Gurdarshan; Vishwakarma, Ram

    2017-01-01

    The limiting factor for the use of Cisplatin in the treatment of different type of cancers is its toxicity and more specifically urogenital toxicity. Oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon associated with Cisplatin toxicity. However, in Cisplatin treated group, abnormal animal behavior, decreased body weight, cellular and sub-cellular changes in the kidney and sperm abnormality were observed. Our investigation revealed that Cisplatin when administered in combination with a natural product derivative (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol, labeled as IN0523) resulted in significant restoration of body weight and protection against the pathological alteration caused by Cisplatin to kidney and testis. Sperm count and motility were significantly restored near to normal. Cisplatin caused depletion of defense system i.e. glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase, which were restored close to normal by treatment of IN0523. Reduction in excessive lipid peroxidation induced by Cisplatin was also found by treatment with IN0523. The result suggests that IN0523 is a potential candidate for ameliorating Cisplatin induced toxicity in the kidney and testes at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o. via inhibiting the oxidative stress/redox status imbalance and may be improving the efflux mechanism. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a novel boswellic acid derivative (IN0523) • Counter oxidative stress induced due to Cisplatin • Protect against urogenital toxicity induced by Cisplatin

  20. IN0523 (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol) a plant based derivative of boswellic acid protect Cisplatin induced urogenital toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Amarinder [Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi (India); PK-PD-Toxicology and Formulation Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Arvinda, S [Deptt. of Pathology, Govt. Medical College, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Singh, Surjeet [PK-PD-Toxicology and Formulation Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Suri, Jyotsna [Deptt. of Pathology, Govt. Medical College, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Koul, Surinder [Bio-Organic Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Mondhe, Dilip M. [Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Singh, Gurdarshan, E-mail: singh_gd@iiim.ac.in [PK-PD-Toxicology and Formulation Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, J& K (India); Vishwakarma, Ram [Bio-Organic Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Canal Road, Jammu 180001, J& K (India)

    2017-03-01

    The limiting factor for the use of Cisplatin in the treatment of different type of cancers is its toxicity and more specifically urogenital toxicity. Oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon associated with Cisplatin toxicity. However, in Cisplatin treated group, abnormal animal behavior, decreased body weight, cellular and sub-cellular changes in the kidney and sperm abnormality were observed. Our investigation revealed that Cisplatin when administered in combination with a natural product derivative (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol, labeled as IN0523) resulted in significant restoration of body weight and protection against the pathological alteration caused by Cisplatin to kidney and testis. Sperm count and motility were significantly restored near to normal. Cisplatin caused depletion of defense system i.e. glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase, which were restored close to normal by treatment of IN0523. Reduction in excessive lipid peroxidation induced by Cisplatin was also found by treatment with IN0523. The result suggests that IN0523 is a potential candidate for ameliorating Cisplatin induced toxicity in the kidney and testes at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o. via inhibiting the oxidative stress/redox status imbalance and may be improving the efflux mechanism. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a novel boswellic acid derivative (IN0523) • Counter oxidative stress induced due to Cisplatin • Protect against urogenital toxicity induced by Cisplatin.

  1. Urogenital Reconstructive Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte Kaasgaard

    bladder to those of the bladder from young pigs used in the animal model. Results: By further characterising the effect of congenital obstruction, regarding urodynamic properties of the bladder and structural changes in the bladder tissue and comparing the results after relief of obstruction by continous...... of the lower urinary tract causes voiding disabilities, renal failure and chronic bladder changes. Children with such malformations often require extensive treatment, and will experience side effects and not always satisfactory results. Aim: To develop an animal model of congenital infravesical obstruction...... will be collected. To supplement the experimental studies we will evaluate patients with posterior urethral valves, and compare the effects of obstruction seen in these patients with the effects observed in the animal model. Bladder tissue from fetal pigs will be investigated, comparing the properties of the fetal...

  2. The Role of Somatic Symptoms in Sexual Medicine: Somatization as Important Contextual Factor in Male Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanni, Egidia; Castellini, Giovanni; Corona, Giovanni; Boddi, Valentina; Ricca, Valdo; Rastrelli, Giulia; Fisher, Alessandra Daphne; Cipriani, Sarah; Maggi, Mario

    2016-09-01

    An important feature of somatic symptom disorder is the subjective perception of the physical symptoms and its maladaptive interpretation. Considering that psychological distress is often expressed through somatic symptoms, it is possible that they underlie at least a part of the symptoms in subjects complaining of sexual dysfunction. Nevertheless, studies on the impact of somatoform disorders in sexual dysfunction are scanty. To define the psychological, relational, and organic correlates of somatic symptoms in a large sample of patients complaining of sexual problems. A consecutive series of 2833 men (mean age 50.2 ± 13.5 years) was retrospectively studied. Somatic symptoms were assessed using the "somatized anxiety symptoms" subscale of the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ-S). Several clinical, biochemical, psychological, and relational parameters were studied. Patients were interviewed with the previously validated Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY), and ANDROTEST (a structured interview for the screening of hypogonadism in patients with sexual dysfunction). Among the 2833 patients studied, subjects scoring higher on somatic symptoms were older, more obese, reporting unhealthy lifestyle (current smoking, alcohol consumption), and a lower education (all P sexuality more often, including erectile problems (spontaneous or sexual-related), low sexual desire, decreased frequency of intercourse, and perceived reduction of ejaculate volume (all P sexual dysfunction. High levels of somatic symptoms in subjects with sexual dysfunction can be related to the sexual symptom itself. The consequences of this pattern have great clinical relevance in a sexual medicine setting, considering their severe impact on sexuality. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mouse cloning and somatic cell reprogramming using electrofused blastomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Amjad; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Dai, Xiangpeng; Li, Wei; Liu, Lei; Wan, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi

    2011-05-01

    Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of "genetically tailored" human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell donors leading to ES cell lines. In fertility clinics, embryos of advanced embryonic stages are usually stored for future use, but their ability to support the derivation of ES cell lines via somatic nuclear transfer has not yet been proved. Here, we report that two-cell stage electrofused mouse embryos, arrested in mitosis, can support developmental reprogramming of nuclei from donor cells ranging from blastomeres to somatic cells. Live, full-term cloned pups from embryonic donors, as well as pluripotent ES cell lines from embryonic or somatic donors, were successfully generated from these reconstructed embryos. Advanced stage pre-implantation embryos were unable to develop normally to term after electrofusion and transfer of a somatic cell nucleus, indicating that discarded pre-implantation human embryos could be an important resource for research that minimizes the ethical concerns for human therapeutic cloning. Our approach provides an attractive and practical alternative to therapeutic cloning using donated oocytes for the generation of patient-specific human ES cell lines.

  4. Flow cytometric and morphological analyses of Pinus pinaster somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Loureiro, João; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Santos, Conceição; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-09-25

    An approach combining morphological profiling and flow cytometric analysis was used to assess genetic stability during the several steps of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus pinaster. Embryogenic cell lines of P. pinaster were established from immature zygotic embryos excised from seeds obtained from open-pollinated trees. During the maturation stage, phenotype of somatic embryos was characterized as being either normal or abnormal. Based upon the prevalent morphological traits, different types of abnormal embryos underwent further classification and quantification. Nuclear DNA content of maritime pine using the zygotic embryos was estimated to be 57.04 pg/2C, using propidium iodide flow cytometry. According to the same methodology, no significant differences (P< or =0.01) in DNA ploidy were detected among the most frequently observed abnormal phenotypes, embryogenic cell lines, zygotic and normal somatic embryos, and somatic embryogenesis-derived plantlets. Although the differences in DNA ploidy level do not exclude the occurrence of a low level of aneuploidy, the results obtained point to the absence of major changes in ploidy level during the somatic embryogenesis process of this economically important species. Therefore, our primary goal of true-to-typeness was assured at this level.

  5. Somatic comorbidity among migrants with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolk, Mette; Byberg, Stine; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a cohort of migrants in Denmark, we compared somatic disease incidence among migrants diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. METHODS: The study builds on a unique cohort of migrants who obtained...... for the implementation of the project (No 2012-41-0065). RESULTS: Our results showed that migrants diagnosed with PTSD and depression had significantly higher rates of somatic diseases compared with migrants without diagnosed psychiatric disorders - especially, infectious disease (IRR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.45-2.48; p ... with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. The rates were especially high for infectious, neurological and pulmonary diseases. Our results further suggest difference in the rates of somatic comorbidity according to region of. Preventive and treatment services should pay special attention to improve...

  6. Mind-Body Interactions in Anxiety and Somatic Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Bulbena, Antonio; Pailhez, Guillem; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Critchley, Hugo D

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and somatic symptoms have a high prevalence in the general population. A mechanistic understanding of how different factors contribute to the development and maintenance of these symptoms, which are highly associated with anxiety disorders, is crucial to optimize treatments. In this article, we review recent literature on this topic and present a redefined model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms, with an emphasis on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Consideration is given to the role played in this interaction by predisposing physiological and psychological traits (e.g., interoception, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety) and to the levels at which mindfulness approaches may exert a therapeutic benefit. The proposed model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms is appraised in the context of joint hypermobility syndrome, a constitutional variant associated with autonomic abnormalities and vulnerability to anxiety disorders.

  7. Hypochondriasis and somatization in college women: a personal projects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, P; Lecci, L

    1993-03-01

    Although the descriptive features of hypochondriasis and somatization have been widely studied, the motivational correlates (goal representations) of individuals manifesting abnormal illness patterns have not been considered. The Personal Projects Analysis method (Little, 1983) was used to contrast the health and nonhealth goals of female undergraduates. Subjects selected 10 goals for evaluation along a series of dimensions. When health pursuits alone were examined, hypochondriasis on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was found to correlate directly with goal appraisal dimensions subsumed by an anxiety-absorption factor and inversely with dimensions characterizing rewardingness, thus suggesting a negativity of health goal construal. Somatizers also pursued more health-related projects than did nonsomatizers; nonhealth goal cognition did not relate as strongly to hypochondriasis. Finally, using discriminant function analysis, goal representations were shown to significantly and substantially differentiate somatizers from nonsomatizers.

  8. Buffalo milk: proteins electrophoretic profile and somatic cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mattii

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo milk differs from the cow’s milk for greater fat and protein content, very important features in cheese making. Proteins, casein and whey-proteins in particular, are the most important factors determining cheese yield. Several previous research discussed the rule of SCC in cow milk production (Varisco, 1999 and the close relationship existing between cow’s milk cheese yield and somatic cell count (Barbano, 2000. In particular the inverse correlation between cheese yields and somatic cells’content have been demonstrated. In Italy the regulation in force DPR 54/97 acknowledges what expressed in EEC 46/92 Directive (Tripodi, 1999 without fixing the limit threshold of somatic cells for buffalo’s milk....

  9. [Product safety analysis of somatic cell cloned bovine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Song; Lan, Jie; Song, Yongli; Lu, Chenglong; Zhang, Yong

    2010-05-01

    Somatic cell cloning (nuclear transfer) is a technique through which the nucleus (DNA) of a somatic cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte for the generation of a new individual, genetically identical to the somatic cell donor. It could be applied for the enhancement of reproduction rate and the improvement of food products involving quality, yield and nutrition. In recent years, the United States, Japan and Europe as well as other countries announced that meat and milk products made from cloned cattle are safe for human consumption. Yet, cloned animals are faced with a wide range of health problems, with a high death rate and a high incidence of disease. The precise causal mechanisms for the low efficiency of cloning remain unclear. Is it safe that any products from cloned animals were allowed into the food supply? This review focuses on the security of meat, milk and products from cloned cattle based on the available data.

  10. Somatic Embryogenesis in Two Orchid Genera (Cymbidium, Dendrobium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Winarto, Budi

    2016-01-01

    The protocorm-like body (PLB) is the de facto somatic embryo in orchids. Here we describe detailed protocols for two orchid genera (hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon 'Day Light' and Dendrobium 'Jayakarta', D. 'Gradita 31', and D. 'Zahra FR 62') for generating PLBs. These protocols will most likely have to be tweaked for different cultivars as the response of orchids in vitro tends to be dependent on genotype. In addition to primary somatic embryogenesis, secondary (or repetitive) somatic embryogenesis is also described for both genera. The use of thin cell layers as a sensitive tissue assay is outlined for hybrid Cymbidium while the protocol outlined is suitable for bioreactor culture of D. 'Zahra FR 62'.

  11. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Capsicum baccatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddaboina Venkataiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis was achieved in cotyledon and leaf explants of Capsicum baccatum, when cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.5–5.0 mg l−1 in combination with Kinetin (Kn, 0.5 mg l−1 and 3% sucrose. Various stages were observed during the development of somatic embryos, including globular, heart, and torpedo-stages. Torpedo stage embryos were separated from the explants and subcultured on medium supplemented with various concentrations of different plant growth regulators for maturation. Maximum percentage (55% of somatic embryo germination and plantlet formation was found at 1.0 mg l−1 BA. Finally, about 68% of plantlets were successfully established under field conditions. The regenerated plants were morphologically normal, fertile and able to set viable seeds.

  12. Lipoxin A4 stimulates calcium-activated chloride currents and increases airway surface liquid height in normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterised by a deficit in epithelial Cl(-) secretion which in the lung leads to airway dehydration and a reduced Airway Surface Liquid (ASL) height. The endogenous lipoxin LXA(4) is a member of the newly identified eicosanoids playing a key role in ending the inflammatory process. Levels of LXA(4) are reported to be decreased in the airways of patients with CF. We have previously shown that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, LXA(4) produced a rapid and transient increase in intracellular Ca(2+). We have investigated, the effect of LXA(4) on Cl(-) secretion and the functional consequences on ASL generation in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from CF and non-CF patient biopsies and in bronchial epithelial cell lines. We found that LXA(4) stimulated a rapid intracellular Ca(2+) increase in all of the different CF bronchial epithelial cells tested. In non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia, LXA(4) stimulated whole-cell Cl(-) currents which were inhibited by NPPB (calcium-activated Cl(-) channel inhibitor), BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca(2+)) but not by CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor). We found, using confocal imaging, that LXA(4) increased the ASL height in non-CF and in CF airway bronchial epithelia. The LXA(4) effect on ASL height was sensitive to bumetanide, an inhibitor of transepithelial Cl(-) secretion. The LXA(4) stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+), whole-cell Cl(-) currents, conductances and ASL height were inhibited by Boc-2, a specific antagonist of the ALX\\/FPR2 receptor. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence for a novel role of LXA(4) in the stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signalling leading to Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion and enhanced ASL height in non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia.

  13. Pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among men and women attending an outpatient mental health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Tsai, Michelle; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between types of pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among psychiatric outpatients. Patients (N = 95) completed measures of somatic symptoms, narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability, and psychiatric symptoms. Relationships among variables were analysed using t-tests and correlations, controlling for psychiatric distress. Somatic symptoms were positively associated with two types of narcissistic dysfunction. Among women there was a positive association between somatic symptoms and narcissistic vulnerability, but not grandiosity. Among men, somatic symptoms were positively associated with narcissistic grandiosity, but not vulnerability. The connection between narcissistic pathology and somatic symptom severity appears to differ based on gender. Further research is needed to confirm and extend this preliminary finding.

  14. Anterograde trafficking of KCa3.1 in polarized epithelia is Rab1- and Rab8-dependent and recycling endosome-independent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A Bertuccio

    Full Text Available The intermediate conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa3.1 targets to the basolateral (BL membrane in polarized epithelia where it plays a key role in transepithelial ion transport. However, there are no studies defining the anterograde and retrograde trafficking of KCa3.1 in polarized epithelia. Herein, we utilize Biotin Ligase Acceptor Peptide (BLAP-tagged KCa3.1 to address these trafficking steps in polarized epithelia, using MDCK, Caco-2 and FRT cells. We demonstrate that KCa3.1 is exclusively targeted to the BL membrane in these cells when grown on filter supports. Following endocytosis, KCa3.1 degradation is prevented by inhibition of lysosomal/proteosomal pathways. Further, the ubiquitylation of KCa3.1 is increased following endocytosis from the BL membrane and PR-619, a deubiquitylase inhibitor, prevents degradation, indicating KCa3.1 is targeted for degradation by ubiquitylation. We demonstrate that KCa3.1 is targeted to the BL membrane in polarized LLC-PK1 cells which lack the μ1B subunit of the AP-1 complex, indicating BL targeting of KCa3.1 is independent of μ1B. As Rabs 1, 2, 6 and 8 play roles in ER/Golgi exit and trafficking of proteins to the BL membrane, we evaluated the role of these Rabs in the trafficking of KCa3.1. In the presence of dominant negative Rab1 or Rab8, KCa3.1 cell surface expression was significantly reduced, whereas Rabs 2 and 6 had no effect. We also co-immunoprecipitated KCa3.1 with both Rab1 and Rab8. These results suggest these Rabs are necessary for the anterograde trafficking of KCa3.1. Finally, we determined whether KCa3.1 traffics directly to the BL membrane or through recycling endosomes in MDCK cells. For these studies, we used either recycling endosome ablation or dominant negative RME-1 constructs and determined that KCa3.1 is trafficked directly to the BL membrane rather than via recycling endosomes. These results are the first to describe the anterograde and retrograde trafficking of KCa3

  15. The small intestinal epithelia of beef steers differentially express sugar transporter messenger ribonucleic acid in response to abomasal versus ruminal infusion of starch hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S F; Harmon, D L; Vanzant, E S; McLeod, K R; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the absorption of monosaccharides from small intestinal lumen involves at least 3 sugar transporters (SugT): sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1; gene SLC5A1) transports glucose and galactose, whereas glucose transporter (GLUT) 5 (GLUT5; gene SLC2A5) transports fructose, across the apical membrane of enterocytes. In contrast, GLUT2 (gene SLC2A2) transports all of these sugars across basolateral and apical membranes. To compare the distribution patterns and sensitivity with nutritional regulation of these 3 SugT mRNA in beef cattle small intestinal tissue, 18 ruminally and abomasally catheterized Angus steers (BW approximately 260 kg) were assigned to water (control), ruminal cornstarch (partially hydrolyzed by alpha-amylase; SH), or abomasal SH infusion treatments (n = 6) and fed an alfalfa-cube-based diet at 1.3 x NE(m) requirement. The SH infusions amounted to 20% of ME intake. After 14- or 16-d of infusion, steers were killed; duodenal, jejunal, and ileal epithelia harvested; and total RNA extracted. The relative amount of SugT mRNA in epithelia was determined using real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantification methods. Basal expression of GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA was greater (P content of GLUT5 mRNA was greater (P content of GLUT5 mRNA in small intestinal epithelia was not affected (P > or = 0.16) by either SH infusion treatment. In contrast, GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA content in the ileal epithelium was increased (P content also was increased (P = 0.07) by 64% after ruminal SH infusion. These results demonstrate that the ileum of beef cattle small intestine adapts to an increased luminal supply of glucose by increasing SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA content, whereas increased ruminal SH supply results in duodenal upregulation of SGLT1 mRNA content. These adaptive responses of GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA to abomasal or ruminal SH infusion suggest that beef cattle can adapt to increase their carbohydrate assimilation through small intestinal epithelia, assuming

  16. Membrane lipid microenvironment modulates thermodynamic properties of the Na+-K+-ATPase in branchial and intestinal epithelia in euryhaline fish in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Diaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the effects of different native membrane lipid composition on the thermodynamic properties of the Na+-K+-ATPase in different epithelia from the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata. Thermodynamic parameters of activation for the Na+-K+-ATPase, as well as contents of lipid classes and fatty acids from polar lipids were determined for gill epithelia and enterocytes isolated from pyloric caeca, anterior intestine and posterior intestine. Arrhenius analyses of control animals revealed differences in thermal discontinuity values (Td and activation energies determined at both sides of Td between intestinal and gill epithelia. Eyring plots disclosed important differences in enthalpy of activation (H‡ and entropy of activation (S‡ between enterocytes and branchial cells. Induction of n-3 LCPUFA deficiency dramatically altered membrane lipid composition in enterocytes, being the most dramatic changes the increase in 18:1n-9 (oleic acid and the reduction of n-3 LCPUFA (mainly DHA, docosahexaenoic acid. Strikingly, branchial cells were much more resistant to diet-induced lipid alterations than enterocytes, indicating the existence of potent lipostatic mechanisms preserving membrane lipid matrix in gill epithelia. Paralleling lipid alterations, values of Ea1, H‡ and S‡ for the Na+-K+-ATPase were all increased, while Td values vanished, in LCPUFA deficient enterocytes. In turn, Differences in thermodynamic parameters were highly correlated with specific changes in fatty acids, but not with individual lipid classes including cholesterol in vivo. Thus, Td was positively related to 18:1n-9 and negatively to DHA. Td, Ea1 and H‡ were exponentially related to DHA/18:1n-9 ratio. The exponential nature of these relationships highlights the strong impact of subtle changes in the contents of oleic acid and DHA in setting the thermodynamic properties of epithelial Na+-K+-ATPase in vivo. The effects are consistent with physical

  17. Lethals induced by γ-radiation in drosophila somatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of 3-hour drosophila male embryos to γ-radiation during the topographic segregation of the germ anlage nuclei caused recessive sex-linked lethals in somatic cells only. The selectivity of the screening was determined by the ratio of mutation frequencies induced in embryos and adult males. Analysis of lethal mutations shows that a minimal rate of the divergence between germinal and somatic patterns of the cell development is observed in the embryogenesis, the 3d instar larva and prepupa, and maximal in the 1st and 2nd larva and pupa

  18. Effects of topical steroids on tight junction proteins and spongiosis in esophageal epithelia of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzka, David A; Tadi, Ravikanth; Smyrk, Thomas C; Katarya, Eesha; Sharma, Anamay; Geno, Deborah M; Camilleri, Michael; Iyer, Prasad G; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Buttar, Navtej S

    2014-11-01

    The allergic response associated with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) occurs when food antigens permeate tight junction-mediated epithelial dilated intercellular spaces. We assessed whether levels of tight junction proteins correlate with the dilation of intercellular spaces (spongiosis) and the effects of topical steroids on these parameters. We assessed esophageal biopsy samples from 10 patients with active EoE treated with topical fluticasone, 10 untreated patients, and 10 patients without esophageal disease (controls) for degree of spongiosis. Immunohistochemical assays were used to determine the levels of the tight junction proteins filaggrin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, and claudin-1. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were assessed blindly, with levels of tight junction proteins and degree of spongiosis rated on scales of 0 to 3. The mean degrees of spongiosis in untreated and treated patients with EoE were 1.3 and 0.4, respectively (P = .016). Esophageal epithelia did not stain significantly for ZO-1 or ZO-2. Filaggrin was observed in a predominant cytoplasmic pattern, compared with the cytoplasmic and membranous patterns of ZO-3 and claudin-1. In biopsy specimens from patients with active EoE, the mean staining intensities for filaggrin, ZO-3, and claudin-1 were 1.6, 1.4, and 0.7, respectively. In biopsy specimens from patients treated with fluticasone, levels of filaggrin, ZO-3, and claudin-1 were 2.8 (P = .002 compared with untreated patients), 1.7 (P = .46 compared with untreated patients), and 1.3 (P = .25 compared with untreated patients), respectively. The correlation between the level of filaggrin and the degree of spongiosis was r = 0.23, and between ZO-3 staining and the degree of spongiosis was r = .016 (P = .001 for filaggrin vs ZO-3 staining). Filaggrin, ZO-3, and claudin-1 (but not ZO-1 or ZO-2) are detected in the esophageal mucosa of patients with EoE treated with steroids and individuals without esophageal disease

  19. Partial Aminoglycoside Lesions in Vestibular Epithelia Reveal Broad Sensory Dysfunction Associated with Modest Hair Cell Loss and Afferent Calyx Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultemeier, David R; Hoffman, Larry F

    2017-01-01

    at 2 and 6 months post-administration. We found no evidence of morphologic or physiologic recovery. These results indicate that gentamicin-induced partial lesions to vestibular epithelia include hair cell loss (ostensibly reflecting an apoptotic effect ) that is far less extensive than the compromise to stimulus-evoked afferent discharge modulation and retraction of afferent calyces (reflecting non-apoptotic effects ). Additionally, calyx retraction cannot be completely accounted for by loss of type I hair cells, supporting the possibility for direct action of gentamicin on the afferent dendrite.

  20. The function of 7D-cadherins: a mathematical model predicts physiological importance for water transport through simple epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walcher Sebastian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 7D-cadherins like LI-cadherin are cell adhesion molecules and represent exceptional members of the cadherin superfamily. Although LI-cadherin was shown to act as a functional Ca2+-dependent adhesion molecule, linking neighboring cells together, and to be dysregulated in a variety of diseases, the physiological role is still enigmatic. Interestingly 7D-cadherins occur only in the lateral plasma membranes of cells from epithelia of water transporting tissues like the gut, the liver or the kidney. Furthermore LI-cadherin was shown to exhibit a highly cooperative Ca2+-dependency of the binding activity. Thus it is tempting to assume that LI-cadherin regulates the water transport through the epithelium in a passive fashion by changing its binding activity in dependence on the extracellular Ca2+. Results We developed a simple mathematical model describing the epithelial lining of a lumen with a content of variable osmolarity covering an interstitium of constant osmolarity. The width of the lateral intercellular cleft was found to influence the water transport significantly. In the case of hypertonic luminal content a narrow cleft is necessary to further increase concentration of the luminal content. If the cleft is too wide, the water flux will change direction and water is transported into the lumen. Electron microscopic images show that in fact areas of the gut can be found where the lateral intercellular cleft is narrow throughout the lateral cell border whereas in other areas the lateral intercellular cleft is widened. Conclusions Our simple model clearly predicts that changes of the width of the lateral intercellular cleft can regulate the direction and efficiency of water transport through a simple epithelium. In a narrow cleft the cells can increase the concentration of osmotic active substances easily by active transport whereas if the cleft is wide, friction is reduced but the cells can hardly build up high osmotic

  1. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...... volume regulation. In the same cell, these functions may be maintained by different ion pathways that are separately regulated. RVD is often preceded by increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, probably via influx through TRP channels, but Ca2+ release from intracellular stores has also been observed. Cell...

  2. Leucocyte esterase dip-stick test as a point-of-care diagnostic for urogenital chlamydia in male patients: A multi-center evaluation in two STI outpatient clinics in Paramaribo and Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelsman, Menne; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; van der Helm, Jannie J.

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care (POC) tests are an important strategy to address the epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The leucocyte esterase test (LET) can be used as a POC test for chlamydia. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the LET to detect urogenital chlamydia

  3. Immune-to-brain communication in functional somatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacourt, T.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313935068

    2013-01-01

    When a person presents with somatic symptoms that cannot (fully) be explained by a known organic pathology, these symptoms will be labeled ‘medically unexplained’ or ‘functional’. Often, more than one symptom is present and certain constellations of symptoms give way to a diagnosis of a specific

  4. PECTIMORF and BIOBRAS-16 utilization in the potato somatic embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime R. Hidrobo Luna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available With the application of PECTIMORF and BIOBRAS-16, somatic embryos were obtained in potato (Solanum tuberosum, L c.v. Desirèe, of 40 days old callus obtained from stem micropropagated plants. These were used as possible substitutes for crop regulators used in culture media for the induction of somatic embryos. The culture media was composed for 10ml.l-1 of Murashige and Skoog salt, 0.1mg.l-1 ANA, 0.1mg.l-1 kinetin, 0.5mg.l-1 thiamine, 2.5mg.l-1 cistein, 100mg.l-1 mioinositol, 20g.l-1 sucrose and 2.0g.l-1 agar. Four culture medias were tested in distinct combinations that contained different concentration of PECTIMOR and BIOBRAS-16 as substitute of auxins and cytokinins. After 90 days, the results obtained showed the possibility of substituting the auxins (0.5mg.l-1 ANA and the cytokinins (0.5mg.l-1 kinetin in the culture media, because the application of PECTIMORF at 3.2mg.l-1 and BIOBRAS-16 at 1.0mg.l-1, gave friable callus, high fresh weight (more than 1.4g and a brownish color at the end of the process, moment in which the somatic embryos of different phases, appeared at the surface of the callus. Keywords: brasinoesteroids, callus, oligopectate, somatic embryo

  5. The somatic mutation landscape of premalignant colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hong; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Huff, Chad; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; Chen, Jiun-Sheng; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Liang, Han; Menter, David G; Morris, Jeffery; Hawk, Ernest; Stroehlein, John R; Futreal, Andrew; Kopetz, Scott; Mishra, Lopa; Wu, Xifeng

    2017-06-12

    There are few studies which characterised the molecular alterations in premalignant colorectal adenomas. Our major goal was to establish colorectal adenoma genome atlas and identify molecular markers of progression from colorectal adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing were carried out in 149 adenoma samples and paired blood from patients with conventional adenoma or sessile serrated adenoma to characterise the somatic mutation landscape for premalignant colorectal lesions. The identified somatic mutations were compared with those in colorectal cancer (CRC) samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A supervised random forest model was employed to identify gene panels differentiating adenoma from CRC. Similar somatic mutation frequencies, but distinctive driver mutations, were observed in sessile serrated adenomas and conventional adenomas. The final model included 20 genes and was able to separate the somatic mutation profile of colorectal adenoma and adenocarcinoma with an area under the curve of 0.941. The findings of this project hold potential to better identify patients with adenoma who may be candidates for targeted surveillance programmes and preventive interventions to reduce the incidence of CRC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning: practical applications and current legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Lucas-Hahn, A

    2012-08-01

    Somatic cloning is emerging as a new biotechnology by which the opportunities arising from the advances in molecular genetics and genome analysis can be implemented in animal breeding. Significant improvements have been made in SCNT protocols in the past years which now allow to embarking on practical applications. The main areas of application of SCNT are: Reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and basic research. A great application potential of SCNT based cloning is the production of genetically modified (transgenic) animals. Somatic cell nuclear transfer based transgenic animal production has significant advances over the previously employed microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of zygotes. This cell based transgenesis is compatible with gene targeting and allows both, the addition of a specific gene and the deletion of an endogenous gene. Efficient transgenic animal production provides numerous opportunities for agriculture and biomedicine. Regulatory agencies around the world have agreed that food derived from cloned animals and their offspring is safe and there is no scientific basis for questioning this. Commercial application of somatic cloning within the EU is via the Novel Food regulation EC No. 258/97. Somatic cloning raises novel questions regarding the ethical and moral status of animals and their welfare which has prompted a controversial discussion in Europe which has not yet been resolved. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. High frequency induction of somatic embryos and plantlet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... plant, Hygrophila spinosa through direct somatic embryogenesis from nodal explants excised from 4 week old ... medicinal purposes further curbs propagation via seed. Plant tissue ... buted a great deal of information for the genetic, morpho- ..... analysis of peroxidase in cultured lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

  8. Somatic cell count distributions during lactation predict clinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, M.J.; Green, L.E.; Schukken, Y.H.; Bradley, A.J.; Peeler, E.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Haas, de Y.; Collis, V.J.; Medley, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated somatic cell count (SCC) records during lactation, with the purpose of identifying distribution characteristics (mean and measures of variation) that were most closely associated with clinical mastitis. Three separate data sets were used, one containing quarter SCC (n =

  9. Effect of the somatic cell count on physicochemical components of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xz

    2015-04-29

    Apr 29, 2015 ... the standard method to determine the quality of raw milk. (Ribas, 1999). Magalhães .... somatic cell score (SCS) resulted in an increase in the protein concentration of .... Yield of Dairy Herds]. C. E. Martins, C. N. Costa, J. R. F..

  10. Hypochondriasis and somatization: two distinct aspects of somatoform disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrand, R; Hiller, W; Fichter, M M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated boundaries and overlap between somatization and hypochondriasis on different levels of psychopathology: (1) comorbidity between hypochondriasis and somatization on the level of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): (2) comorbidity with other mental disorders; (3) differences in clinical characteristics: and (4) overlap on the level of psychometric measures. The sample consisted of 120 psycho somatic inpatients. Somatoform, hypochondriacal, and depressive symptomatology, cognitions about body and health, and further aspects of general symptomatology were investigated. Diagnoses of Axis I and II were based on DSM-IV Our results suggest a large overlap on the level of DSM-IV-diagnoses: only 3 of 31 hypochondriacal patients had no multiple somatoform symptoms, while 58 of 86 patients with multiple somatoform symptoms had no hypochondriasis. However, the overlap between hypochondriacal and somatization symptomatology on the level of psychometric measurement is only moderate, indicating that hypochondriasis is a markedly distinct aspect of somatoform disorders.

  11. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used to determine psychiatric disorders in patient group. In order to assess the clinical state and disease severity of the patient group; Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with panic disorder and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess psychopathology in healthy group. In order to evaluate health anxiety of both groups, Health Anxiety Inventory-Short Form was used. Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective.

  12. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized

  13. Efficient somatic embryo production of Limau madu ( Citrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) concentration, initial cell density and carbon sources and concentrations for producing cell suspension and somatic embryos of Limau madu (Citrus suhuiensis Hort. ex Tanaka) were investigated using cell suspension culture. Cells were first inoculated into Murashige and Skoog (MS) ...

  14. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms : An adolescent population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonvanie, Irma J.; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship.

  15. Somatic CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangalia, J.; Massie, C.E.; Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Loo, P. Van; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O'Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing

  16. Effect of the somatic cell count on physicochemical components of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the Federal University of Goiás (Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Goiás). Protein, fat, lactose, casein, urea, defatted dry extract and somatic cell counts (SCC) were analyzed. A completely randomized experimental design was used.

  17. Delusional disorder-somatic type (or body dysmorphic disorder) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to delusional disorder-somatic subtype there may be a relationship with body dysmorphic disorder. There are reports that some delusional disorders can evolve to become schizophrenia. Similarly, the treatment of such disorders with antipsychotics has been documented. This report describes a case of ...

  18. Somatic symptoms of anxiety and nonadherence to statin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Pentti, Jaana; Hartikainen, Juha; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2016-07-01

    The association between anxiety and nonadherence to preventive therapies remains unclear. We investigated whether somatic symptoms of anxiety predict statin nonadherence. This is a prospective cohort study of 1924 individuals who responded to a questionnaire survey on health status and initiated statin therapy after the survey during 2008-2010. We followed the cohort for nonadherence, defined as the proportion of days covered pain upon anger or emotion, sweating without exercise, flushing, tremor of hands or voice, muscle twitching) before the statin initiation, and 16% had experienced at least one symptom on average weekly to daily. 49% of respondents were nonadherent. Weekly to daily occurrence of these symptoms predicted a 33% increase in the risk of nonadherence (risk ratio [RR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.13-1.57) compared to no symptoms when adjusted for sociodemographics, lifestyle risks, cardiovascular comorbidities, and depression. Particularly, chest pain upon anger or emotion (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.46) and muscle twitching (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.42) predicted an increased risk of nonadherence to statin therapy. Psychological symptoms of anxiety were not associated with nonadherence when adjusted for somatic symptoms. Somatic anxiety-related symptoms predicted nonadherence to statin therapy. Information on pre-existing somatic symptoms may help identifying patients at increased risk of statin nonadherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Induction of plant somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuger, M.

    1996-01-01


    The large scale propagation of plants via somatic embryogenesis, has so far been difficult to achieve. In this thesis research is described leading to embryogenic cell lines that can be maintained for a long period, without loss of genetic stability. It is also described how embryogenic

  20. Regeneration of Algerian germplasm by stigma/style somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... days in most of the cultured genotypes. Formed embryos were cultured in a single tube before in vivo acclimatization. After sanitary assays, regenerated plants were shown to be free from the agents detected in the mother trees. Key words: Algeria, citrus germplasm, plant regeneration, sanitation, somatic embryogenesis.

  1. Behavioral Variability and Somatic Mosaicism: A Cytogenomic Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Zelenova, Maria A; Yurov, Yuri B; Iourov, Ivan Y

    2018-04-01

    Behavioral sciences are inseparably related to genetics. A variety of neurobehavioral phenotypes are suggested to result from genomic variations. However, the contribution of genetic factors to common behavioral disorders (i.e. autism, schizophrenia, intellectual disability) remains to be understood when an attempt to link behavioral variability to a specific genomic change is made. Probably, the least appreciated genetic mechanism of debilitating neurobehavioral disorders is somatic mosaicism or the occurrence of genetically diverse (neuronal) cells in an individual's brain. Somatic mosaicism is assumed to affect directly the brain being associated with specific behavioral patterns. As shown in studies of chromosome abnormalities (syndromes), genetic mosaicism is able to change dynamically the phenotype due to inconsistency of abnormal cell proportions. Here, we hypothesize that brain-specific postzygotic changes of mosaicism levels are able to modulate variability of behavioral phenotypes. More precisely, behavioral phenotype variability in individuals exhibiting somatic mosaicism might correlate with changes in the amount of genetically abnormal cells throughout the lifespan. If proven, the hypothesis can be used as a basis for therapeutic interventions through regulating levels of somatic mosaicism to increase functioning and to improve overall condition of individuals with behavioral problems.

  2. The Somatic Genomic Landscape of Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Caleb F; Ricketts, Christopher J; Wang, Min; Yang, Lixing; Cherniack, Andrew D; Shen, Hui; Buhay, Christian; Kang, Hyojin; Kim, Sang Cheol; Fahey, Catherine C; Hacker, Kathryn E; Bhanot, Gyan; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Chu, Andy; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Biehl, Michael; Seth, Sahil; Kaipparettu, Benny A; Bristow, Christopher A; Donehower, Lawrence A; Wallen, Eric M; Smith, Angela B; Tickoo, Satish K; Tamboli, Pheroze; Reuter, Victor; Schmidt, Laura S; Hsieh, James J; Choueiri, Toni K; Hakimi, A Ari; Chin, Lynda; Meyerson, Matthew; Kucherlapati, Raju; Park, Woong-Yang; Robertson, A Gordon; Laird, Peter W; Henske, Elizabeth P; Kwiatkowski, David J; Park, Peter J; Morgan, Margaret; Shuch, Brian; Muzny, Donna; Wheeler, David A; Linehan, W Marston; Gibbs, Richard A; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Creighton, Chad J

    2014-01-01

    We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) on the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mtDNA and whole-genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared

  3. Somatic Embryos in Catharanthus roseus: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid ASLAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don is an important medicinal plant as it contains several anti-cancerous compounds, like vinblastine and vincristine. Plant tissue culture technology (organogenesis and embryogenesis has currently been used in fast mass propagating raw materials for secondary metabolite synthesis. In this present communication, scanning electron microscopic (SEM study of somatic embryos was conducted and discussed. The embryogenic callus was first induced from hypocotyls of in vitro germinated seeds on which somatic embryos, differentiated in numbers, particularly on 2,4-D (1.0 mg/L Murashige and Skoog (MS was medium. To understand more about the regeneration method and in vitro formed embryos SEM was performed. The SEM study revealed normal somatic embryo origin and development from globular to heart-, torpedo- and then into cotyledonary-stage of embryos. At early stage, the embryos were clustered together in a callus mass and could not easily be detached from the parental tissue. The embryos were often long cylindrical structure with or without typical notch at the tip. Secondary embryos were also formed on primary embryo structure. The advanced cotyledonary embryos showed prominent roots and shoot axis, which germinated into plantlets. The morphology, structure and other details of somatic embryos at various stages were presented.

  4. Influence of plant growth regulators on somatic embryos induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TANOH

    2013-04-17

    Theobroma cacao L.) using Thidiazuron. In vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 34:293-299. Michaux-Ferrière N, Carron MP (1989). Histology of early somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis. The importance of timing of subculturing. Plant Cell Tiss ...

  5. Review of somatic cell nuclear transfer in pig | Muenthaisong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is now more than 8 years, since the first cloned pig from nuclear transfer was reported. Success of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pig is still low compared to that in bovine. Embryonic and neonatal abnormalities of cloned piglets are probably a result of incorrect or incomplete reprogramming of the transferred ...

  6. Central crosstalk for somatic tinnitus: abnormal vergence eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frequent oulomotricity problems with orthoptic testing were reported in patients with tinnitus. This study examines with objective recordings vergence eye movements in patients with somatic tinnitus patients with ability to modify their subjective tinnitus percept by various movements, such as jaw, neck, eye movements or skin pressure. METHODS: Vergence eye movements were recorded with the Eyelink II video system in 15 (23-63 years control adults and 19 (36-62 years subjects with somatic tinnitus. FINDINGS: 1 Accuracy of divergence but not of convergence was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 2 Vergence duration was longer and peak velocity was lower in subjects with somatic tinnitus than in control subjects. 3 The number of embedded saccades and the amplitude of saccades coinciding with the peak velocity of vergence were higher for tinnitus subjects. Yet, saccades did not increase peak velocity of vergence for tinnitus subjects, but they did so for controls. 4 In contrast, there was no significant difference of vergence latency between these two groups. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest dysfunction of vergence areas involving cortical-brainstem-cerebellar circuits. We hypothesize that central auditory dysfunction related to tinnitus percept could trigger mild cerebellar-brainstem dysfunction or that tinnitus and vergence dysfunction could both be manifestations of mild cortical-brainstem-cerebellar syndrome reflecting abnormal cross-modality interactions between vergence eye movements and auditory signals.

  7. Seasonal variability in somatic and reproductive investment of the bivalve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, S.; Cardoso, J.F.M.F.; Carvalho, C.; Luttikhuizen, P.C.; van der Veer, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Monthly investment in soma and gonads in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana is described for three populations along its distributional range: Minho estuary, Portugal; Westerschelde estuary, The Netherlands and Buvika estuary, Norway. Seasonal cycles in body mass (BMI), somatic mass (SMI) and

  8. Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from root explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A system for induction of callus and plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from root explants of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. clone Reyan 87-6-62 was evaluated. The influence of plant growth regulators (PGRs) including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and kinetin (KT) on ...

  9. Somatic activating ARAF mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, David S.; Quispel, Willemijn; Badalian-Very, Gayane; van Halteren, Astrid G. S.; van den Bos, Cor; Bovée, Judith V. M. G.; Tian, Sara Y.; van Hummelen, Paul; Ducar, Matthew; MacConaill, Laura E.; Egeler, R. Maarten; Rollins, Barrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is activated in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) histiocytes, but only 60% of cases carry somatic activating mutations of BRAF. To identify other genetic causes of ERK pathway activation, we performed whole exome sequencing on

  10. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis and selection regimes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... kanamycin in CIM containing explants undergoing SSE led to a decrease in their embryogenic potential resulting in tissue death at 50 mg/L. The highest transient expression of uidA gene in FEC was observed combining plasmolysis, M5 particle and a helium pressure of 1,200 psi, while in somatic cotyledons, the highest ...

  11. Paroxetine for Somatic Pain Associated With Physical Illness: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Masand, Prakash S.; Narasimhan, Meera; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the prevalence of somatic pain with and without depression or anxiety and the pharmacologic effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine on pain in physical conditions with and without comorbid depression or anxiety.

  12. High-Throughput Testing of Urogenital and Extragenital Specimens for Detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae with Cobas® CT/NG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Elizabeth M; Hardy, David; Krevolin, Mark; Gohl, Peter; Bertram, Alexander; Arcenas, Rodney; Seiverth, Britta; Schneider, Tanja; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    We compared the analytical and clinical performance of cobas ® CT/NG for use on the Cobas ® 6800/8800 Systems with the Cobas ® 4800 CT/NG Test from urogenital and extragenital specimens in over 12,000 specimens from both male and female subjects in Germany and the United States. The analytical sensitivity was ≤40 EB/ml for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and ≤1 CFU/ml for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). Using clinical specimens, the overall percent agreement with the Cobas ® 4800 CT/NG Test was >98.5%. Across urogenital specimens, there were 93 discrepant specimens; 76 (93.8%) of 81 CT discrepant specimens were 6800+/4800- and 10 (83.3%) of 12 NG discrepant specimens were 6800+/4800-. Sequencing verified CT results for 45 (61.6%) of 73 samples positive by 6800 and 1 (20%) of 5 positive by 4800. Similarly, 7 (70.0%) of 10 NG samples positive by 6800 and 1 of 2 positive by 4800 were confirmed by sequencing. Among discrepant extragenital specimens (all 6800+/4800-), 7 (50%) of 14 oropharyngeal and 23 (76.7%) of 30 anorectal CT discordant samples were confirmed as CT positive by sequencing; all 8 anorectal and 20 (90.9%) of 22 oropharyngeal NG discordant results were also confirmed as NG positive. In conclusion, Cobas ® CT/NG for use on the Cobas ® 6800/8800 Systems provides high-throughput automated solutions for sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening programs.

  13. HEALTH EDUCATION AND THE CONTROL OF UROGENITAL SCHISTOSOMIASIS: ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF THE JUMA NA KICHOCHO COMIC-STRIP MEDICAL BOOKLET IN ZANZIBAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J R; Khamis, A N; Khamis, I S; Neo, C H E; Wei, I; Rollinson, D

    2016-09-01

    Endeavours to control urogenital schistosomiasis on Unguja Island (Zanzibar) have focused on school-aged children. To assess the impact of an associated health education campaign, the supervised use of the comic-strip medical booklet Juma na Kichocho by Class V pupils attending eighteen primary schools was investigated. A validated knowledge and attitudes questionnaire was completed at baseline and repeated one year later following the regular use of the booklet during the calendar year. A scoring system (ranging from 0.0 to 5.0) measured children's understandings of schistosomiasis and malaria, with the latter being a neutral comparator against specific changes for schistosomiasis. In 2006, the average score from 751 children (328 boys and 423 girls) was 2.39 for schistosomiasis and 3.03 for malaria. One year later, the score was 2.43 for schistosomiasis and 2.70 for malaria from 779 children (351 boys and 428 girls). As might be expected, knowledge and attitudes scores for schistosomiasis increased (+0.05), but not as much as originally hoped, while the score for malaria decreased (-0.33). According to a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, neither change was statistically significant. Analysis also revealed that 75% of school children misunderstood the importance of reinfection after treatment with praziquantel. These results are disappointing. They demonstrate that it is mistaken to assume that knowledge conveyed in child-friendly booklets will necessarily be interpreted, and acted upon, in the way intended. If long-term sustained behavioural change is to be achieved, health education materials need to engage more closely with local understandings and responses to urogenital schistosomiasis. This, in turn, needs to be part of the development of a more holistic, biosocial approach to the control of schistosomiasis.

  14. Variation in the microbiome of the urogenital tract of Chlamydia-free female koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with and without 'wet bottom'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2018-01-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are iconic Australian marsupials currently threatened by several processes, including infectious diseases and ecological disruption. Infection with Chlamydia pecorum, is considered a key driver of population decline. The clinical sign of 'wet bottom', a staining of the rump associated with urinary incontinence, is often caused by chlamydial urinary tract infections. However, wet bottom has been recorded in koalas free of C. pecorum, suggesting other causative agents in those individuals. We used 16S rRNA diversity profiling to investigate the microbiome of the urogenital tract of ten female koalas in order to identify potential causative agents of wet bottom, other than C. pecorum. Five urogenital samples were processed from koalas presenting with wet bottom and five were clinically normal. All koalas were negative for C. pecorum infection. We detected thirteen phyla across the ten samples, with Firmicutes occurring at the highest relative abundance (77.6%). The order Lactobacillales, within the Firmicutes, comprised 70.3% of the reads from all samples. After normalising reads using DESeq2 and testing for significant differences (P < 0.05), there were 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) more commonly found in one group over the other. The families Aerococcaceae and Tissierellaceae both had four significantly differentially abundant OTUs. These four Tissierellaceae OTUs were all significantly more abundant in koalas with wet bottom. This study provides the foundation for future investigations of causes of koala wet bottom, other than C. pecorum infection. This is of clinical relevance as wet bottom is often assumed to be caused by C. pecorum and treated accordingly. Our research highlights that other organisms may be causing wet bottom, and these potential aetiological agents need to be further investigated to fully address the problems this species faces.

  15. Variation in the microbiome of the urogenital tract of Chlamydia-free female koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with and without ‘wet bottom’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R.; Sansom, Fiona M.; Devlin, Joanne M.

    2018-01-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are iconic Australian marsupials currently threatened by several processes, including infectious diseases and ecological disruption. Infection with Chlamydia pecorum, is considered a key driver of population decline. The clinical sign of ‘wet bottom’, a staining of the rump associated with urinary incontinence, is often caused by chlamydial urinary tract infections. However, wet bottom has been recorded in koalas free of C. pecorum, suggesting other causative agents in those individuals. We used 16S rRNA diversity profiling to investigate the microbiome of the urogenital tract of ten female koalas in order to identify potential causative agents of wet bottom, other than C. pecorum. Five urogenital samples were processed from koalas presenting with wet bottom and five were clinically normal. All koalas were negative for C. pecorum infection. We detected thirteen phyla across the ten samples, with Firmicutes occurring at the highest relative abundance (77.6%). The order Lactobacillales, within the Firmicutes, comprised 70.3% of the reads from all samples. After normalising reads using DESeq2 and testing for significant differences (P < 0.05), there were 25 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) more commonly found in one group over the other. The families Aerococcaceae and Tissierellaceae both had four significantly differentially abundant OTUs. These four Tissierellaceae OTUs were all significantly more abundant in koalas with wet bottom. This study provides the foundation for future investigations of causes of koala wet bottom, other than C. pecorum infection. This is of clinical relevance as wet bottom is often assumed to be caused by C. pecorum and treated accordingly. Our research highlights that other organisms may be causing wet bottom, and these potential aetiological agents need to be further investigated to fully address the problems this species faces. PMID:29579080

  16. A Schistosoma haematobium-specific real-time PCR for diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis in serum samples of international travelers and migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnops, Lieselotte; Soentjens, Patrick; Clerinx, Jan; Van Esbroeck, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis by microscopy and serological tests may be elusive in travelers due to low egg load and the absence of seroconversion upon arrival. There is need for a more sensitive diagnostic test. Therefore, we developed a real-time PCR targeting the Schistosoma haematobium-specific Dra1 sequence. The PCR was evaluated on urine (n = 111), stool (n = 84) and serum samples (n = 135), and one biopsy from travelers and migrants with confirmed or suspected schistosomiasis. PCR revealed a positive result in 7/7 urine samples, 11/11 stool samples and 1/1 biopsy containing S. haematobium eggs as demonstrated by microscopy and in 22/23 serum samples from patients with a parasitological confirmed S. haematobium infection. S. haematobium DNA was additionally detected by PCR in 7 urine, 3 stool and 5 serum samples of patients suspected of having schistosomiasis without egg excretion in urine and feces. None of these suspected patients demonstrated other parasitic infections except one with Blastocystis hominis and Entamoeba cyst in a fecal sample. The PCR was negative in all stool samples containing S. mansoni eggs (n = 21) and in all serum samples of patients with a microscopically confirmed S. mansoni (n = 22), Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 1), Ancylostomidae (n = 1), Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 1) or Trichuris trichuria infection (n = 1). The PCR demonstrated a high specificity, reproducibility and analytical sensitivity (0.5 eggs per gram of feces). The real-time PCR targeting the Dra1 sequence for S. haematobium-specific detection in urine, feces, and particularly serum, is a promising tool to confirm the diagnosis, also during the acute phase of urogenital schistosomiasis.

  17. Epilepsy as a systemic condition: Link with somatic comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, J; Bell, G S; Peacock, J L; Sisodiya, S M; Sander, J W

    2017-10-01

    People with epilepsy have more concomitant medical conditions than the general population; these comorbidities play an important role in premature mortality. We sought to generate explanatory hypotheses about the co-occurrence of somatic comorbidities and epilepsy, avoiding causal and treatment-resultant biases. We collected clinical, demographic and somatic comorbidity data for 2016 consecutive adults with epilepsy undergoing assessment at a tertiary centre and in 1278 people with epilepsy in the community. Underlying causes of epilepsy were not classed as comorbidities. Somatic comorbidities were more frequent in the referral centre (49%) where people more frequently had active epilepsy than in the community (36%). Consistent risk factors for comorbidities were found in both cohorts. Using multivariable ordinal regression adjusted for age, longer epilepsy duration and an underlying brain lesion were independently associated with a smaller burden of somatic conditions. The treatment burden, measured by the number of drugs to which people were exposed, was not an independent predictor. Shorter epilepsy duration was a predictor for conditions that conceivably harbour significant mortality risks. Somatic comorbidities do not occur randomly in relation to epilepsy; having more severe epilepsy seems to be a risk factor. Independently from age, the early period after epilepsy onset appears to be at particular risk, although it is not clear whether this relates to an early mortality or to a later decrease in the burden of comorbidities. These results suggest that, for some people, epilepsy should be considered a systemic condition not limited to the CNS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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  18. Somatic Embryogenesis Induction and Plant Regeneration in Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João F; Correia, Sandra I; Canhoto, Jorge M

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful tool both for cloning and studies of genetic transformation and embryo development. Most protocols for somatic embryogenesis induction start from zygotic embryos or embryonic-derived tissues which do not allow the propagation of elite trees. In the present study, a reliable protocol for somatic embryogenesis induction from adult trees of strawberry tree is described. Leaves from in vitro proliferating shoots were used to induce somatic embryo formation on a medium containing an auxin and a cytokinin. Somatic embryos germinated in a plant growth regulator-free medium.

  19. [Hypochondriac symptoms in late-onset depression: the relationship between hypochondria and somatic state of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanets, N N; Avdeeva, T I; Kinkul'kina, M A

    2013-01-01

    Authors studied 276 women with late-onset depression. Concomitant chronic somatic diseases were identified in 90%. The presence of disease and its nosological definition did not impact on the development of hypochondriac symptoms in patients with late-onset depression. Patients with hypochondriac late-onset depression more often had disability pension due to somatic disease because they more often referred to internists in case of similar objective severity of somatic pathology. It was singled out three variants of the relationship between hypochondria and somatic state: hypernosognostic (a complete coincidence of hypochondria content with actual somatic pathology; anosognostic (a lack of coincidence) and disharmonic (a partial coincidence). The themes of hypochondria in late-nset depressions were correlated with a total number of somatic diseases and their severity. At the same time, there was no correlation between the content of hypochondria and the character of somatic disease.

  20. Somatization as a core symptom of melancholic type depression. Evidence from a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, D; Martus, P

    1994-12-01

    The study questions whether different types of somatization may be a core symptom of melancholia, thus, being invariable across cultures and being a candidate for neurobiological research and diagnostic criteria. 51 Turkish patients and 51 education-matched German patients with melancholic depression were compared for two types of somatization. Turkish patients had higher frequencies of somatic preoccupation and hypochondriasis but they were not different in the perception and experience of somatic symptoms. It is concluded that: (1) somatization has to be differentiated psychopathologically; (2) it may be a neurobiological core symptom of melancholia in the well-defined sense of 'perceiving abnormal somatic symptoms'; and (3) it may be a culture-bound symptom in the sense of 'being abnormally concerned with somatic symptoms or hypochondrial fears'.

  1. Inference of Tumor Phylogenies with Improved Somatic Mutation Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Salari, Raheleh

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies provide a powerful tool for studying genome evolution during progression of advanced diseases such as cancer. Although many recent studies have employed new sequencing technologies to detect mutations across multiple, genetically related tumors, current methods do not exploit available phylogenetic information to improve the accuracy of their variant calls. Here, we present a novel algorithm that uses somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in multiple, related tissue samples as lineage markers for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Our method then leverages the inferred phylogeny to improve the accuracy of SNV discovery. Experimental analyses demonstrate that our method achieves up to 32% improvement for somatic SNV calling of multiple related samples over the accuracy of GATK\\'s Unified Genotyper, the state of the art multisample SNV caller. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Somatic Treatments in Treatment of Depression During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Ozten

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although some psychotropic drugs are known to be teratogenic no psychotropic drug is of proven safety for treatment of depression during pregnancy. Untreated mood disorders during pregnancy pose significant risks for mother and the newborn. This review focuses on the use of somatic tretments of depression during pregnancy.Electroconvulsive therapy, bright light therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation and vagal nerve stimulation are relatively safe and effective treatments during pregnancy if steps are taken to decrease potential risks. A clear information related to the somatic treatment should be given to the patient and informed consent should be obtained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 244-254

  3. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Determination of somatic mutations in human erythrocytes by cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.H.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1985-06-21

    Flow cytometric assays of human erythrocytes labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for glycophorin A were used to enumerate variant cells that appear in peripheral blood as a result of somatic gene-loss mutations in erythrocyte precursor cells. The assay was performed on erythrocytes from 10 oncology patients who had received at least one treatment from radiation or mutagenic chemotherapy at least 3 weeks before being assayed. The patients were suffering from many different malignancies (e.g., breast, renal, bone, colon and lung), and were treated with several different mutagenic therapeutics (e.g., cisplatinum, adriamycin, daunomycin, or cyclophosphamide). The frequency of these variant cells is an indication of the amount of mutagenic damage accumulated in the individual's erythropoietic cell population. Comparing these results to HPRT clonogenic assays, we find similar baseline frequencies of somatic mutation as well as similar correlation with mutagenic exposures. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Severe Mental Illness, Somatic Delusions, and Attempted Mass Murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarteschi, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    A case of an attempted mass shooting at a large psychiatric hospital in the United States by a 30-year-old male with severe mental illness, somatic delusions, and exceptional access to healthcare professionals is reported. Six persons were shot, one died at the scene, and the shooter was then killed by the police. Data were gathered from court documents and media accounts. An analysis of the shooter's psychiatric history, his interactions with healthcare professionals, and communications prior to the shooting suggest a rare form of mass murder, a random attack by a documented psychotic and delusional individual suffering with somatic delusions. Despite his being psychotic, the killer planned the attack and made a direct threat 1 month prior to the shootings. This case highlights problems with the healthcare system, indicating that it might be ill equipped to appropriately deal with severe mental illness. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Functional Somatic Syndromes: Emerging Biomedical Models and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Tan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The so-called functional somatic syndromes comprise a group of disorders that are primarily symptom-based, multisystemic in presentation and probably involve alterations in mind-brain-body interactions. The emerging neurobiological models of allostasis/allostatic load and of the emotional motor system show striking similarities with concepts used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to understand the functional somatic disorders and their underlying pathogenesis. These models incorporate a macroscopic perspective, accounting for the toll of acute and chronic traumas, physical and emotional stressors and the complex interactions between the mind, brain and body. The convergence of these biomedical models with the ancient paradigm of TCM may provide a new insight into scientifically verifiable diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for these common disorders.

  7. Local anesthesia selection algorithm in patients with concomitant somatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, E N; Sokhov, S T; Letunova, N Y; Orekhova, I V; Gromovik, M V; Erilin, E A; Ryazantsev, N A

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents basic principles of local anesthesia selection in patients with concomitant somatic diseases. These principles are history taking; analysis of drugs interaction with local anesthetic and sedation agents; determination of the functional status of the patient; patient anxiety correction; dental care with monitoring of hemodynamics parameters. It was found that adhering to this algorithm promotes prevention of urgent conditions in patients in outpatient dentistry.

  8. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK

    2012-04-01

    Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 43-51

  9. Protecting genomic integrity in somatic cells and embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.; Cervantes, R.B.; Tichy, E.; Tischfield, J.A.; Stambrook, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Mutation frequencies at some loci in mammalian somatic cells in vivo approach 10 -4 . The majority of these events occur as a consequence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) due to mitotic recombination. Such high levels of DNA damage in somatic cells, which can accumulate with age, will cause injury and, after a latency period, may lead to somatic disease and ultimately death. This high level of DNA damage is untenable for germ cells, and by extrapolation for embryonic stem (ES) cells, that must recreate the organism. ES cells cannot tolerate such a high frequency of damage since mutations will immediately impact the altered cell, and subsequently the entire organism. Most importantly, the mutations may be passed on to future generations. ES cells, therefore, must have robust mechanisms to protect the integrity of their genomes. We have examined two such mechanisms. Firstly, we have shown that mutation frequencies and frequencies of mitotic recombination in ES cells are about 100-fold lower than in adult somatic cells or in isogenic mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). A second complementary protective mechanism eliminates those ES cells that have acquired a mutational burden, thereby maintaining a pristine population. Consistent with this hypothesis, ES cells lack a G1 checkpoint, and the two known signaling pathways that mediate the checkpoint are compromised. The checkpoint kinase, Chk2, which participates in both pathways is sequestered at centrosomes in ES cells and does not phosphorylate its substrates (i.e. p53 and Cdc25A) that must be modified to produce a G1 arrest. Ectopic expression of Chk2 does not rescue the p53-mediated pathway, but does restore the pathway mediated by Cdc25A. Wild type ES cells exposed to ionizing radiation do not accumulate in G1 but do so in S-phase and in G2. ES cells that ectopically express Chk2 undergo cell cycle arrest in G1 as well as G2, and appear to be protected from apoptosis

  10. The modulation of visceral functions by somatic afferent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A; Schmidt, R F

    1987-01-01

    We began by briefly reviewing the historical background of neurophysiological studies of the somato-autonomic reflexes and then discussed recent studies on somatic-visceral reflexes in combination with autonomic efferent nerve activity and effector organ responses. Most of the studies that have advanced our knowledge in this area have been carried out on anesthetized animals, thus eliminating emotional factors. We would like to emphasize again that the functions of many, or perhaps all visceral organs can be modulated by somato-sympathetic or somato-parasympathetic reflex activity induced by a appropriate somatic afferent stimulation in anesthetized animals. As mentioned previously, some autonomic nervous outflow, e.g. the adrenal sympathetic nerve activity, is involved in the control of hormonal secretion. John F. Fulton wrote in his famous textbook "Physiology of the Nervous System" (1949) that the posterior pituitary neurosecretion system (i.e. for oxytocin and vasopressin) could be considered a part of the parasympathetic nervous system. In the study of body homeostasis and environmental adaptation it would seem very important to further analyze the contribution of somatic afferent input to the autonomic nervous and hormonal regulation of visceral organ activity. Also, some immunological functions have been found to be influenced by autonomic nerves or hormones (e.g. adrenal cortical hormone and catecholamines). Finally, we must take into account, as we have briefly discussed, that visceral functions can be modulated by somatic afferent input via various degrees of integration of autonomic nerves, hormones, and immunological processes. We trust that such research will be expanded to higher species of mammals, and that ultimately this knowledge of somato-visceral reflexes obtained in the physiological laboratory will become clinically useful in influencing visceral functions.

  11. Reprogramming to pluripotency can conceal somatic cell chromosomal instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Hamada

    Full Text Available The discovery that somatic cells are reprogrammable to pluripotency by ectopic expression of a small subset of transcription factors has created great potential for the development of broadly applicable stem-cell-based therapies. One of the concerns regarding the safe use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in therapeutic applications is loss of genomic integrity, a hallmark of various human conditions and diseases, including cancer. Structural chromosome defects such as short telomeres and double-strand breaks are known to limit reprogramming of somatic cells into iPSCs, but whether defects that cause whole-chromosome instability (W-CIN preclude reprogramming is unknown. Here we demonstrate, using aneuploidy-prone mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs in which chromosome missegregation is driven by BubR1 or RanBP2 insufficiency, that W-CIN is not a barrier to reprogramming. Unexpectedly, the two W-CIN defects had contrasting effects on iPSC genomic integrity, with BubR1 hypomorphic MEFs almost exclusively yielding aneuploid iPSC clones and RanBP2 hypomorphic MEFs karyotypically normal iPSC clones. Moreover, BubR1-insufficient iPSC clones were karyotypically unstable, whereas RanBP2-insufficient iPSC clones were rather stable. These findings suggest that aneuploid cells can be selected for or against during reprogramming depending on the W-CIN gene defect and present the novel concept that somatic cell W-CIN can be concealed in the pluripotent state. Thus, karyotypic analysis of somatic cells of origin in addition to iPSC lines is necessary for safe application of reprogramming technology.

  12. Selection of Norway spruce somatic embryos by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Jari J.; Jokinen, Kari J.

    1993-05-01

    A computer vision system was developed for the classification of plant somatic embryos. The embryos are in a Petri dish that is transferred with constant speed and they are recognized as they pass a line scan camera. A classification algorithm needs to be installed for every plant species. This paper describes an algorithm for the recognition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos. A short review of conifer micropropagation by somatic embryogenesis is also given. The recognition algorithm is based on features calculated from the boundary of the object. Only part of the boundary corresponding to the developing cotyledons (2 - 15) and the straight sides of the embryo are used for recognition. An index of the length of the cotyledons describes the developmental stage of the embryo. The testing set for classifier performance consisted of 118 embryos and 478 nonembryos. With the classification tolerances chosen 69% of the objects classified as embryos by a human classifier were selected and 31$% rejected. Less than 1% of the nonembryos were classified as embryos. The basic features developed can probably be easily adapted for the recognition of other conifer somatic embryos.

  13. RADIA: RNA and DNA integrated analysis for somatic mutation detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie J Radenbaugh

    Full Text Available The detection of somatic single nucleotide variants is a crucial component to the characterization of the cancer genome. Mutation calling algorithms thus far have focused on comparing the normal and tumor genomes from the same individual. In recent years, it has become routine for projects like The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA to also sequence the tumor RNA. Here we present RADIA (RNA and DNA Integrated Analysis, a novel computational method combining the patient-matched normal and tumor DNA with the tumor RNA to detect somatic mutations. The inclusion of the RNA increases the power to detect somatic mutations, especially at low DNA allelic frequencies. By integrating an individual's DNA and RNA, we are able to detect mutations that would otherwise be missed by traditional algorithms that examine only the DNA. We demonstrate high sensitivity (84% and very high precision (98% and 99% for RADIA in patient data from endometrial carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma from TCGA. Mutations with both high DNA and RNA read support have the highest validation rate of over 99%. We also introduce a simulation package that spikes in artificial mutations to patient data, rather than simulating sequencing data from a reference genome. We evaluate sensitivity on the simulation data and demonstrate our ability to rescue back mutations at low DNA allelic frequencies by including the RNA. Finally, we highlight mutations in important cancer genes that were rescued due to the incorporation of the RNA.

  14. Somatic embryogenesis of East Kalimantan local upland rice varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhasanah; Ramitha; Supriyanto, B.; Sunaryo, W.

    2018-04-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is the formation, growth and development of embryos from somatic cells. Somatic embryo induction is one of the in vitro plant propagation techniques that is very important for plant developmental purposes. Four local upland rice varieties of East Kalimantan, Mayas Pancing, Gedagai, Siam and Serai, were used in this study. A total of 200 explants (mature rice grains) for each varieties were inoculated on MS solid medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 2,4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP). The results showed that response of each variety differed to embryosomatic induction, indicated by callus induction rate and callus quality, in terms of callus color and structure. The fastest callus formation was sobserved in Gedagai variety (8 days) while Mayas Pancing (13 days) was the latest one. The rate of callus induction varied from 60 to 98.5 %, and Serai variety has the highest callus induction rate. The highest friable callus structure was found in Siam variety (89.1%) and the lowest was in Gedagai (62.5%). Callus color was dominated by the yellowish-white (transparent) on all varieties tested. Most of the callus was potential as embryogenic callus characterized from the nodular and globular of friable callus structure and its yellowish-white color.

  15. Review of somatic symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A

    2013-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with both (1) 'ill-defined' or 'medically unexplained' somatic syndromes, e.g. unexplained dizziness, tinnitus and blurry vision, and syndromes that can be classified as somatoform disorders (DSM-IV-TR); and (2) a range of medical conditions, with a preponderance of cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neurological, and gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, chronic pain, sleep disorders and other immune-mediated disorders in various studies. Frequently reported medical co-morbidities with PTSD across various studies include cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension, and immune-mediated disorders. PTSD is associated with limbic instability and alterations in both the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenal medullary axes, which affect neuroendocrine and immune functions, have central nervous system effects resulting in pseudo-neurological symptoms and disorders of sleep-wake regulation, and result in autonomic nervous system dysregulation. Hypervigilance, a central feature of PTSD, can lead to 'local sleep' or regional arousal states, when the patient is partially asleep and partially awake, and manifests as complex motor and/or verbal behaviours in a partially conscious state. The few studies of the effects of standard PTSD treatments (medications, CBT) on PTSD-associated somatic syndromes report a reduction in the severity of ill-defined and autonomically mediated somatic symptoms, self-reported physical health problems, and some chronic pain syndromes.

  16. Direct Transcriptional Consequences of Somatic Mutation in Breast Cancer

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    Adam Shlien

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Disordered transcriptomes of cancer encompass direct effects of somatic mutation on transcription, coordinated secondary pathway alterations, and increased transcriptional noise. To catalog the rules governing how somatic mutation exerts direct transcriptional effects, we developed an exhaustive pipeline for analyzing RNA sequencing data, which we integrated with whole genomes from 23 breast cancers. Using X-inactivation analyses, we found that cancer cells are more transcriptionally active than intermixed stromal cells. This is especially true in estrogen receptor (ER-negative tumors. Overall, 59% of substitutions were expressed. Nonsense mutations showed lower expression levels than expected, with patterns characteristic of nonsense-mediated decay. 14% of 4,234 rearrangements caused transcriptional abnormalities, including exon skips, exon reusage, fusions, and premature polyadenylation. We found productive, stable transcription from sense-to-antisense gene fusions and gene-to-intergenic rearrangements, suggesting that these mutation classes drive more transcriptional disruption than previously suspected. Systematic integration of transcriptome with genome data reveals the rules by which transcriptional machinery interprets somatic mutation.

  17. Relationship of milking rate to somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C A; Rischette, S J; Schultz, L H

    1986-03-01

    Information on milking rate, monthly bucket somatic cell counts, mastitis treatment, and milk production was obtained from 284 lactations of Holstein cows separated into three lactation groups. Significant correlations between somatic cell count (linear score) and other parameters included production in lactation 1 (-.185), production in lactation 2 (-.267), and percent 2-min milk in lactation 2 (.251). Somatic cell count tended to increase with maximum milking rate in all lactations, but correlations were not statistically significant. Twenty-nine percent of cows with milking rate measurements were treated for clinical mastitis. Treated cows in each lactation group produced less milk than untreated cows. In the second and third lactation groups, treated cows had a shorter total milking time and a higher percent 2-min milk than untreated cows, but differences were not statistically significant. Overall, the data support the concept that faster milking cows tend to have higher cell counts and more mastitis treatments, particularly beyond first lactation. However, the magnitude of the relationship was small.

  18. The role of chromatin modifications in somatic embryogenesis in plants

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    Clelia eDe-la-Peña

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryogenesis (SE is a powerful tool for plant genetic improvement, when used in combination with agricultural traditional techniques, and it is being used to understand the different processes that occur during the development of plant embryogenesis. SE onset depends on a complex network of interactions among plant growth regulators, mainly auxins and cytokinins, during the proembryogenic early stages, and ethylene, gibberellic and abscisic acids later in the development of the somatic embryos. These growth regulators control spatial and temporal regulation of multiple genes in order to initiate the change in the genetic program of the somatic cells, as well as the transition among embryo developmental stages. In recent years, epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as critical factors during SE. Some early reports indicate that auxins modify the levels of DNA methylation in embryogenic cells. The changes in DNA methylation patterns are associated with the regulation of several genes involved in SE, such as WUS, BBM1, LEC, and several others. In this review, we highlight the more recent discoveries in the role of epigenetic regulation of SE. In addition, we include a survey of novel approaches to the study of SE, and new opportunities to focus SE studies.

  19. Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Getz, Gad; Wheeler, David A.; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sougnez, Carrie; Greulich, Heidi; Muzny, Donna M.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert S.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wendl, Michael C.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Larson, David E.; Chen, Ken; Dooling, David J.; Sabo, Aniko; Hawes, Alicia C.; Shen, Hua; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Lewis, Lora R.; Hall, Otis; Zhu, Yiming; Mathew, Tittu; Ren, Yanru; Yao, Jiqiang; Scherer, Steven E.; Clerc, Kerstin; Metcalf, Ginger A.; Ng, Brian; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Osborne, John R.; Meyer, Rick; Shi, Xiaoqi; Tang, Yuzhu; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Lin, Ling; Abbott, Rachel; Miner, Tracie L.; Pohl, Craig; Fewell, Ginger; Haipek, Carrie; Schmidt, Heather; Dunford-Shore, Brian H.; Kraja, Aldi; Crosby, Seth D.; Sawyer, Christopher S.; Vickery, Tammi; Sander, Sacha; Robinson, Jody; Winckler, Wendy; Baldwin, Jennifer; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Dutt, Amit; Fennell, Tim; Hanna, Megan; Johnson, Bruce E.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Thomas, Roman K.; Tonon, Giovanni; Weir, Barbara A.; Zhao, Xiaojun; Ziaugra, Liuda; Zody, Michael C.; Giordano, Thomas; Orringer, Mark B.; Roth, Jack A.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Ozenberger, Bradley; Good, Peter J.; Chang, Andrew C.; Beer, David G.; Watson, Mark A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Broderick, Stephen; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Travis, William D.; Pao, William; Province, Michael A.; Weinstock, George M.; Varmus, Harold E.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Meyerson, Matthew; Wilson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more than 1,000 somatic mutations across the samples. Our analysis identified 26 genes that are mutated at significantly high frequencies and thus are probably involved in carcinogenesis. The frequently mutated genes include tyrosine kinases, among them the EGFR homologue ERBB4; multiple ephrin receptor genes, notably EPHA3; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR; and NTRK genes. These data provide evidence of somatic mutations in primary lung adenocarcinoma for several tumour suppressor genes involved in other cancers—including NF1, APC, RB1 and ATM—and for sequence changes in PTPRD as well as the frequently deleted gene LRP1B. The observed mutational profiles correlate with clinical features, smoking status and DNA repair defects. These results are reinforced by data integration including single nucleotide polymorphism array and gene expression array. Our findings shed further light on several important signalling pathways involved in lung adenocarcinoma, and suggest new molecular targets for treatment. PMID:18948947

  20. Advances in reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal; Yang, Shuying

    2010-09-01

    Traditionally, nuclear reprogramming of cells has been performed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into oocytes, by combining somatic and pluripotent cells together through cell fusion and through genetic integration of factors through somatic cell chromatin. All of these techniques changes gene expression which further leads to a change in cell fate. Here we discuss recent advances in generating induced pluripotent stem cells, different reprogramming methods and clinical applications of iPS cells. Viral vectors have been used to transfer transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-myc, Klf4, and nanog) to induce reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts, neural stem cells, neural progenitor cells, keratinocytes, B lymphocytes and meningeal membrane cells towards pluripotency. Human fibroblasts, neural cells, blood and keratinocytes have also been reprogrammed towards pluripotency. In this review we have discussed the use of viral vectors for reprogramming both animal and human stem cells. Currently, many studies are also involved in finding alternatives to using viral vectors carrying transcription factors for reprogramming cells. These include using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. Applications of these techniques have been discussed in detail including its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, current clinical applications of induced pluripotent stem cells and its limitations have also been reviewed. Thus, this review is a summary of current research advances in reprogramming cells into induced pluripotent stem cells.

  1. Boron-Mediated Plant Somatic Embryogenesis: A Provocative Model

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    Dhananjay K. Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A central question in plant regeneration biology concerns the primary driving forces invoking the acquisition of somatic embryogenesis. Recently, the role of micronutrient boron (B in the initiation and perpetuation of embryogenesis has drawn considerable attention within the scientific community. This interest may be due in part to the bewildering observation that the system-wide induction of embryogenic potential significantly varied in response to a minimal to optimal supply of B (minimal ≤ 0.1 mM, optimal = 0.1 mM. At the cellular level, certain channel proteins and cell wall-related proteins important for the induction of embryogenesis have been shown to be transcriptionally upregulated in response to minimal B supply suggesting the vital role of B in the induction of embryogenesis. At the molecular level, minimal to no B supply increased the endogenous level of auxin, which subsequently influenced the auxin-inducible somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases, suggesting the role of B in the induction of embryogenesis. Also, minimal B concentration may “turn on” other genetic and/or cellular transfactors reported earlier to be essential for cell-restructuring and induction of embryogenesis. In this paper, both the direct and indirect roles of B in the induction of somatic embryogenesis are highlighted and suggested for future validation.

  2. Exposure to contaminated sediments induces alterations in the gill epithelia in juvenile Solea senegalensis: a comparative in situ and ex situ study

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    Carla Martins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The loss of biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems is a major problem for society, with very significant ecological and economic deleterious effects. Estuaries, as the Sado Estuary (SW Portugal, are fragile ecosystems always associated to multiple anthropogenic stressors, such as heavy industry, shipping and agricultural activities, which can affect biodiversity and, therefore, environmental health, as well as the local economy, through its impact on fisheries. In the Sado Estuary there are many important commercial fish species that support a significant part of the local communities. As such, fish population are continuously exposed to pollutants that can have repercussions in the animals’ physiology and survival. This estuary is characterized by its multiple sources of toxicants, which is reflected onto a complex pattern of sediment contamination. In order to evaluate the physiological effects onto an important commercial species in the Sado Estuary, juvenile Solea senegalensis were subjected to a series of in and ex situ sediment-based bioassays, since this flatfish, being benthic, is particularly exposed to sediment-bound pollutants. Histological alterations in gill epithelia were taken as the main endpoint, since this is the main apical entry organ of toxicants. Sediment contaminants, mostly adsorbed to fine particles and organic matter, namely organochlorides, PAHs and same metals, presented a relation with alterations in gill epithelia. Even though no significant gross histopathological lesions were found, the animals exposed to sediments from the most polluted sites presented physiological alterations, when compared to those exposed to sediments from a reference site. These alterations were particularly related to the number of mucous cells and hypertrophied chloride cells per interlamellar space. These changes imply physiological hampering of normal gill functions and, therefore, affect the health status of animals exposed to

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  6. Polarized secretion of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 by human airway epithelia 16HBE14o- cells in response to cationic polypeptide challenge.

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    Alison Wai-ming Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The airway epithelium participates in asthmatic inflammation in many ways. Target cells of the epithelium can respond to a variety of inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Damage to the surface epithelium occurs following the secretion of eosinophil-derived, highly toxic cationic proteins. Moreover, the surface epithelium itself is responsible for the synthesis and release of cytokines that cause the selective recruitment, retention, and accumulation of various inflammatory cells. To mimic the damage seen during asthmatic inflammation, the bronchial epithelium can be challenged with highly charged cationic polypeptides such as poly-L-arginine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells, 16HBE14o- cells, were "chemically injured" by exposing them to poly-l-arginine as a surrogate of the eosinophil cationic protein. Cytokine antibody array data showed that seven inflammatory mediators were elevated out of the 40 tested, including marked elevation in interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression levels were elevated as measured with real-time PCR. Cell culture supernatants from apical and basolateral compartments were collected, and the IL-6 and IL-8 production was quantified with ELISA. IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by 16HBE14o- epithelia into the apical compartment was significantly higher than that from the basolateral compartment. Using specific inhibitors, the production of IL-6 and IL-8 was found to be dependent on p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 MAPK, and NF-kappaB pathways. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results clearly demonstrate that damage to the bronchial epithelia by poly-L-arginine stimulates polarized IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. This apically directed secretion of cytokines may play an important role in orchestrating epithelial cell responses to inflammation.

  7. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS ON ARABICA COFFEE (Coffea arabica

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    Meynarti Sari Dewi Ibrahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of Coffea arabica L. through direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis technique is promising for producing large number of coffee seedlings. The objectives of the research were to evaluate methods for direct and indirect somatic embryo-genesis induction of C. arabica var. Kartika. The explants were the youngest fully expanded leaves of arabica coffee. The evalu-ated medium was modified Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; 4.52 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Both calli (100 mg and pre-embryos developed from the edge of leaf explants were subcultured into regeneration medium (half strength MS with modified vitamin, supplemented with kinetine 9.30 µM and adenine sulfate 40 mg L-1. The results showed coffee leaf explant cultured on medium containing 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induce direct somatic embriogenesis from explant, while that of 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induced indirect somatic embrio-genesis. The medium for calli induction from coffee by explants was medium supplemented with 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D in combination with 9.08 µM thidiazuron. On the other hand, the best medium for activation of induction of somatic embryos was MS medium supplemented with 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Based on this results, the first step for developing micropropagation for coffee has been resolved. The subsequent studies will be directed to evaluate agronomic performance of the derived planting materials.

  8. Replication of somatic micronuclei in bovine enucleated oocytes

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    Canel Natalia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT was developed to introduce a low number of chromosomes into a host cell. We have designed a novel technique combining part of MMCT with somatic cell nuclear transfer, which consists of injecting a somatic micronucleus into an enucleated oocyte, and inducing its cellular machinery to replicate such micronucleus. It would allow the isolation and manipulation of a single or a low number of somatic chromosomes. Methods Micronuclei from adult bovine fibroblasts were produced by incubation in 0.05 μg/ml demecolcine for 46 h followed by 2 mg/ml mitomycin for 2 h. Cells were finally treated with 10 μg/ml cytochalasin B for 1 h. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were mechanically enucleated and intracytoplasmatically injected with one somatic micronucleus, which had been previously exposed [Micronucleus- injected (+] or not [Micronucleus- injected (−] to a transgene (50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP during 5 min. Enucleated oocytes [Enucleated (+] and parthenogenetic [Parthenogenetic (+] controls were injected into the cytoplasm with less than 10 pl of PVP containing 50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP. A non-injected parthenogenetic control [Parthenogenetic (−] was also included. Two hours after injection, oocytes and reconstituted embryos were activated by incubation in 5 μM ionomycin for 4 min + 1.9 mM 6-DMAP for 3 h. Cleavage stage and egfp expression were evaluated. DNA replication was confirmed by DAPI staining. On day 2, Micronucleus- injected (−, Parthenogenetic (− and in vitro fertilized (IVF embryos were karyotyped. Differences among treatments were determined by Fisher′s exact test (p≤0.05. Results All the experimental groups underwent the first cell divisions. Interestingly, a low number of Micronucleus-injected embryos showed egfp expression. DAPI staining confirmed replication of micronuclei in most of the evaluated embryos. Karyotype analysis revealed that all Micronucleus-injected embryos had

  9. Anatomy of somatic embryogenesis in Carica papaya L.

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    Juliana A. Fernando

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Mature zygotic embryos of Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ were used as explants for embryogenesis induction. The explants were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog culture medium supplemented with 2 mg.L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and incubated in darkness at 25+2°C. Histological analysis of callogenesis and somatic embryogenesis indicated occurrence of direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis development. Direct somatic embryo formation was observed from hypocotyledonary epidermic cells only from explant 18 days after inoculation. Somatic embryos formed indirectly were originated from embryogenic superficial cells of pre-embryonic complexes located on peripherical and on internal cell layers of callus 49 days after inoculation. Diverse morphological differences including disformed embryos were observed among the somatic embryos.Embriões zigóticos maduros de Carica papaya L. ‘Sunrise Solo’ foram utilizados como explantes para indução da embriogênese. Estes explantes foram inoculados em meio de cultura de Murashige & Skoog suplementado com 2,0 mg.L-1 de 2,4 ácido diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D e mantidos no escuro em câmara de crescimento à temperatura de 21°C por período de tempo variável. Através da análise histológica foi possível verificar que os primeiros embriões somáticos formaram-se diretamente a partir de células únicas da epiderme hipocotiledonar do explante após o 18º dia de cultura. Porém, os demais embriões somáticos originaram-se indiretamente a partir de células superficiais de complexos pré-embriônicos presentes nas camadas periféricas e internas do calo após o 49º dia de cultura. Foram detectadas algumas diferenças morfológicas entre os embriões somáticos obtidos.

  10. When Whole(ness is more than the Sum of the Parts: somatics as contemporary epistemological field

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    Ciane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the text, it is discussed some aspects on somatics in contemporary times, from the starting point of its technical and conceptual basis, clarifying premises and applications, as well as misunderstandings and restrictions. Some aspects include: conceptual, historical, and technical origins; common premises and principles developed by diverse somatic techniques; the difference between somatic technique, method, and approach; transculturality, decolonization, and repatterning; Somatic Attunement and Wisdom; institutionalization in technical and/or academic courses; somatics as autonomous field of therapy, education, aesthetics, and research; somatics as practice as research; somatic-performative research.

  11. Three forms of somatization in primary care: prevalence, co-occurrence, and sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, L J; Robbins, J M

    1991-11-01

    Three definitions of somatization were operationalized: (a) high levels of functional somatic distress, measured by the Somatic Symptom Index (SSI) of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule; (b) hypochondriasis measured by high scores on a measure of illness worry in the absence of evidence for serious illness; and (c) exclusively somatic clinical presentations among patients with current major depression or anxiety. Of 685 patients attending two family medicine clinics, 26.3% met criteria for one or more forms of somatization. While DSM-III somatization disorder had a prevalence of only 1% in this population, 16.6% of the patients met abridged criteria for subsyndromal somatization disorder (SSI 4,6). Hypochondriacal worry had a prevalence of 7.7% in the clinic sample. Somatized presentations of current major depression or anxiety disorder had a prevalence of 8%. The three forms of somatization were associated with different sociodemographic and illness behavior characteristics. A majority of patients met criteria for only one type of somatization, suggesting that distinct pathogenic processes may be involved in each of the three types.

  12. Germline contamination and leakage in whole genome somatic single nucleotide variant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendorek, Dorota H; Caloian, Cristian; Ellrott, Kyle; Bare, J Christopher; Yamaguchi, Takafumi N; Ewing, Adam D; Houlahan, Kathleen E; Norman, Thea C; Margolin, Adam A; Stuart, Joshua M; Boutros, Paul C

    2018-01-31

    The clinical sequencing of cancer genomes to personalize therapy is becoming routine across the world. However, concerns over patient re-identification from these data lead to questions about how tightly access should be controlled. It is not thought to be possible to re-identify patients from somatic variant data. However, somatic variant detection pipelines can mistakenly identify germline variants as somatic ones, a process called "germline leakage". The rate of germline leakage across different somatic variant detection pipelines is not well-understood, and it is uncertain whether or not somatic variant calls should be considered re-identifiable. To fill this gap, we quantified germline leakage across 259 sets of whole-genome somatic single nucleotide variant (SNVs) predictions made by 21 teams as part of the ICGC-TCGA DREAM Somatic Mutation Calling Challenge. The median somatic SNV prediction set contained 4325 somatic SNVs and leaked one germline polymorphism. The level of germline leakage was inversely correlated with somatic SNV prediction accuracy and positively correlated with the amount of infiltrating normal cells. The specific germline variants leaked differed by tumour and algorithm. To aid in quantitation and correction of leakage, we created a tool, called GermlineFilter, for use in public-facing somatic SNV databases. The potential for patient re-identification from leaked germline variants in somatic SNV predictions has led to divergent open data access policies, based on different assessments of the risks. Indeed, a single, well-publicized re-identification event could reshape public perceptions of the values of genomic data sharing. We find that modern somatic SNV prediction pipelines have low germline-leakage rates, which can be further reduced, especially for cloud-sharing, using pre-filtering software.

  13. The lectin-like protein 1 in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 mediates tissue-specific adherence to vaginal epithelium and inhibits urogenital pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya I.; Lievens, Elke; Verhoeven, Tine L. A.; Macklaim, Jean M.; Gloor, Gregory; Schols, Dominique; Vanderleyden, Jos; Reid, Gregor; Lebeer, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 has been documented to survive implantation onto the vaginal epithelium and interfere with urogenital pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we report for the first time the construction of dedicated knock-out mutants in L. rhamnosus GR-1 to enable the study of gene functions. In a search for genes responsible for the adherence capacity of L. rhamnosus GR-1, a genomic region encoding a protein with homology to lectin-like proteins was identified. Phenotypic analyses of the knock-out mutant of L. rhamnosus GR-1 revealed a two-fold decreased adhesion to the vaginal and ectocervical epithelial cell lines compared to wild-type. In contrast, the adhesion to gastro-intestinal epithelial (Caco2) and endocervical cell lines (Hela and End1/E6E7) was not drastically affected by the mutation, suggesting that the LGR-1_Llp1 lectins mediates tissue tropism. The purified LGR-1_Llp1 protein also inhibited biofilm formation and adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. For the first time, an important role for a novel lectin-like protein in the adhesion capacity and host cell-specific interaction of a vaginal probiotic Lactobacillus strain has been discovered, with an additional role in pathogen inhibition. PMID:27869151

  14. IN0523 (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol) a plant based derivative of boswellic acid protect Cisplatin induced urogenital toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amarinder; Arvinda, S; Singh, Surjeet; Suri, Jyotsna; Koul, Surinder; Mondhe, Dilip M; Singh, Gurdarshan; Vishwakarma, Ram

    2017-03-01

    The limiting factor for the use of Cisplatin in the treatment of different type of cancers is its toxicity and more specifically urogenital toxicity. Oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon associated with Cisplatin toxicity. However, in Cisplatin treated group, abnormal animal behavior, decreased body weight, cellular and sub-cellular changes in the kidney and sperm abnormality were observed. Our investigation revealed that Cisplatin when administered in combination with a natural product derivative (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol, labeled as IN0523) resulted in significant restoration of body weight and protection against the pathological alteration caused by Cisplatin to kidney and testis. Sperm count and motility were significantly restored near to normal. Cisplatin caused depletion of defense system i.e. glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase, which were restored close to normal by treatment of IN0523. Reduction in excessive lipid peroxidation induced by Cisplatin was also found by treatment with IN0523. The result suggests that IN0523 is a potential candidate for ameliorating Cisplatin induced toxicity in the kidney and testes at a dose of 100mg/kg p.o. via inhibiting the oxidative stress/redox status imbalance and may be improving the efflux mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Colonization of the lower urogenital tract with Ureaplasma parvum can cause asymptomatic infection of the upper reproductive system in women: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzykowska, Urszula; Elias, Joanna; Elias, Marek; Mączyńska, Beata; Sobieszczańska, Beata Magdalena

    2014-05-01

    Genital ureaplasmas are considered opportunistic pathogens of human genitourinary tract involved in adverse pregnancy sequelae and infertility. While association of Ureaplasma urealyticum with urogenital tract infections is well established, the role of Ureaplasma parvum in these infections is still insufficient. In the study, we compared how often cervicovaginal colonization with U. parvum is associated with the presence of these microorganisms in the upper genitourinary tract of fertile and infertile women. We used PCR assay to determine the prevalence of U. parvum and U. urealyticum in pairs of specimens, i.e., vaginal swabs and Douglas' pouch fluid samples from consecutive 40 women with no symptoms of genital tract infection. In total, 19 (47.5 %) of the 40 samples were positive for ureaplasmas. U. parvum was simultaneously detected in pairs of samples in five (55.5 %) of the nine (47.4 %) women positive in PCR assay. As many as 5 (18.5 %) of the 27 infertile women and 1 (7.7 %) of the 13 fertile women showed infection of the upper genital tract with U. parvum. The results of the study demonstrated that colonization of the lower genital tract with U. parvum can produce asymptomatic infection of the upper reproductive system in women. These findings also imply that U. parvum may be present in the upper genital tract at the time of conception and might be involved in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

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    H Miranzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  17. Characterization of somatic embryogenesis initiated from the Arabidopsis shoot apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokura, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Kaoru; Tarr, Paul; Suzuki, Takamasa; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2018-04-28

    Somatic embryogenesis is one of the best examples of the remarkable developmental plasticity of plants, in which committed somatic cells can dedifferentiate and acquire the ability to form an embryo and regenerate an entire plant. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the shoot apices of young seedlings have been reported as an alternative tissue source for somatic embryos (SEs) besides the widely studied zygotic embryos taken from siliques. Although SE induction from shoots demonstrates the plasticity of plants more clearly than the embryo-to-embryo induction system, the underlying developmental and molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we characterized SE formation from shoot apex explants by establishing a system for time-lapse observation of explants during SE induction. We also established a method to distinguish SE-forming and non-SE-forming explants prior to anatomical SE formation, enabling us to identify distinct transcriptome profiles of these two explants at SE initiation. We show that embryonic fate commitment takes place at day 3 of SE induction and the SE arises directly, not through callus formation, from the base of leaf primordia just beside the shoot apical meristem (SAM), where auxin accumulates and shoot-root polarity is formed. The expression domain of a couple of key developmental genes for the SAM transiently expands at this stage. Our data demonstrate that SE-forming and non-SE-forming explants share mostly the same transcripts except for a limited number of embryonic genes and root genes that might trigger the SE-initiation program. Thus, SE-forming explants possess a mixed identity (SAM, root and embryo) at the time of SE specification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. In vivo somatic mutation systems in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    In an effort to meet the need for a fast and cheap in vivo prescreen for inherited mammalian point mutations, a somatic forward-mutation method, originally developed in an x-ray experiment, has more recently been tested in work with chemical mutagens. The method makes use of coat-color mutations because the gene product is usually locally expressed, mosaics can be detected with minimal effort, and opportunities for making comparison with induction of germinal point mutations are greatest.--Following treatment of embryos that are heterozygous at specific coat-color loci, various induced genetic changes can result in expression of the recessive (RS) in clones derived from mutant melanocyte precursor cells. However, other events, such as decrease in the number of precursor cells, or disturbed differentiation, can also result in spots, which with careful classification can usually be distinguished from RS's on the basis of their location and color. When this is done, the relative RS frequencies for a series of compounds at least roughly parallel the relative spermatogonial mutation rates. The fact that easily measurable (though low) RS rates are obtained with compounds that have yielded negative results in spermatogonial tests is not surprising in view of the fact that RS's can be caused by several mechanisms besides point mutation.--In spite of the parallelism observed in one laboratory, the usefulness of the in vivo somatic mutation method as a prescreen could come to be doubted because of major discrepancies between results of similar experiments at different laboratories. However, It appears probable that at least some of these discrepancies are due to failure to discriminate between spots that probably resulted from melanocyte insufficiency and spots that resulted from expression of the recessive.--Reverse somatic mutation systems can potentially avoid some of the pitfalls of forward mutation systems. Such system are still in developmental stages

  19. Cloning Endangered Felids by Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Martha C; Pope, C Earle

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the first wild felid was produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer. Since then other wild felid clone offspring have been produced by using the same technique with minor modifications. This chapter describes detailed protocols used in our laboratory for (1) the isolation, culture, and preparation of fibroblast cells as donor nucleus, and (2) embryo reconstruction with domestic cat enucleated oocytes to produce cloned embryos that develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro and, after transfer into synchronized recipients, establish successful pregnancies.

  20. Novel technologies using radiation and somatic embryogenesis for Kenaf improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli Ibrahim; Siti Mariam Mohd Nahar; Siti Hajar Mohd Nahar; Abdul Rahim Harun; Azhar Mohamad; Sobri Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a plant in the Malvaceae family, similar to roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), holds a promising potential in the Malaysian bio composite industry. Its long fibres are suitable in the process of making a number of products such as pulp and paper, fibre and particle boards, as well as fibre reinforced plastic components and chemical absorbent. Most varieties of kenaf are photo period sensitive and vegetative growth increases until the daylight period becomes less than 12 h 30 min. flowering is then initiated and the vegetative growth rate declines. At present, most of the varieties planted by the farmers produced very low yield, between 3-5 tons/ha. The aim of this research proposal is to study the potential of using nuclear technique with the use radiation in combination with biotechnology to induce genetic variability in kenaf using somatic embryogenesis. Since mutation is a single cell event, irradiation of cell cultures such as somatic embryos will induce high rate of mutation for selection of desired traits. One of the main objectives of the project was to establish an efficient and productive regeneration system for intact plants from somatic embryos obtained from the original mother plant varieties: G4, V36 dan G393. Once regeneration protocol has been optimized, somatic embryos were irradiated using both acute (high dose rate) and chronic (lower dose rate) gamma irradiation with effective doses (2-3 doses). It takes between 4-5 months to reach maximum height of 4-6 meters from seed propagated plants before they can be harvested. With the use of in vitro mutagenesis, screening and selection of new mutant lines with traits of interest can be achieved within a short period of time (3-5 years). Field evaluations were carried out in collaboration with National Kenaf and Tobacco Board (NKTB) and Kelantan Biotech Corporation Sdn. Bhd. targeted for desired

  1. Method for somatic cell nuclear transfer in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripattarapravat, Kannika; Cibelli, Jose B

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been a well-known technique for decades and widely applied to generate identical animals, including ones with genetic alterations. The system has been demonstrated successfully in zebrafish. The elaborated requirements of SCNT, however, limit reproducibility of the established model to a few groups in zebrafish research community. In this chapter, we meticulously outline each step of the published protocol as well as preparations of equipments and reagents used in zebrafish SCNT. All describable detailed-tips are elaborated in texts and figures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Treatment of functional somatic syndrome with abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tetsuya; Kanbara, Kenji; Mizuno, Yasuyuki; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2009-09-01

    Functional somatic syndrome (FSS) with abdominal pain include functional gastrointestinal disorder, chronic pancreatitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, which generally contain autonomic dysfunction. Regarding the treatment of FSS, it is important to know about FSS for a therapist at first. Secondly, the therapist should find out physical dysfunction of patients positively, and confirm objectively the hypotheses about both peripheral and central pathophysiological mechanisms as much as possible. Heart rate variability is an easy method, and useful to assess autonomic function. After grasping the patient's explanatory model about the illness, the therapist showes the most acceptable treatment for the patient at last.

  3. Do yogis have “Learning Styles”? (A somatic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ben Strean

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: "Learning styles" has captivated a great deal of attention in yoga teacher training. The triad of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles has been particularly popular; yet as Sharp et al. asserted, such an approach trivializes the complexity of learning and compromises scholarship at all levels of the education community. Aims: This paper addresses that although there is great merit in recognizing yoga students′ differences and preferences, many uses of learning styles in yoga teacher training are superficial and promote self-handicapping. Conclusion: A somatic perspective (from soma, the body in its wholeness offers a framework to reconsider the depth of effective learning.

  4. Molecular profiling of Vitis vinifera Chardonnay obtained by somatic embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bertsch

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the help of microsatellite profiling, we showed that Vitis vinifera Chardonnay clone 96 is a periclinal chimera plant which is composed at least of two distinct cell layers. Performing somatic embryogenesis allowed us to separate the two cell layers and to regenerate L1 plants. These regenerated L1 plants did not show phenotypic differences to the parental clone when grown in greenhouse conditions, suggesting therefore that the phenotype of Chardonnay 96 did not result of an interaction between the two distinct cell layers L1 and L2.

  5. Do yogis have "Learning Styles"? (A somatic solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strean, William Ben

    2017-01-01

    Learning styles has captivated a great deal of attention in yoga teacher training. The triad of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles has been particularly popular; yet as Sharp et al . asserted, such an approach trivializes the complexity of learning and compromises scholarship at all levels of the education community. This paper addresses that although there is great merit in recognizing yoga students' differences and preferences, many uses of learning styles in yoga teacher training are superficial and promote self-handicapping. A somatic perspective (from soma, the body in its wholeness) offers a framework to reconsider the depth of effective learning.

  6. Do yogis have “Learning Styles”? (A somatic solution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strean, William Ben

    2017-01-01

    Background: Learning styles has captivated a great deal of attention in yoga teacher training. The triad of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles has been particularly popular; yet as Sharp et al. asserted, such an approach trivializes the complexity of learning and compromises scholarship at all levels of the education community. Aims: This paper addresses that although there is great merit in recognizing yoga students’ differences and preferences, many uses of learning styles in yoga teacher training are superficial and promote self-handicapping. Conclusion: A somatic perspective (from soma, the body in its wholeness) offers a framework to reconsider the depth of effective learning. PMID:28149066

  7. [Disease at any price: psychological challenge and the financial costs of somatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, A

    1996-01-01

    In clinical medicine we sometimes deal with patients with unexplained somatic complaints. In a 45-year-old woman with multiple somatic complaints, 2 years of medical examinations in search of a disease diagnosis cost almost 250,000 shekels (about +84,000). The differential diagnosis between somatization, hypochondriasis and psychosomatic pain, and the reasons why physicians are tempted to participate in the "investigation dance" are presented.

  8. Personality traits influencing somatization symptoms and social inhibition in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran, Nahathai WongpakaranFaculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: Somatization is a common symptom among the elderly, and even though personality disorders have been found to be associated with somatization, personality traits have not yet been explored with regard to this symptom. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality traits and somatization, and social inhibition.Patients and methods: As part of a cross-sectional study of a community sample, 126 elderly Thais aged 60 years or over completed self-reporting questionnaires related to somatization and personality traits. Somatization was elicited from the somatization subscale when using the Symptom Checklist SCL-90 instrument. Personality traits were drawn from the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire and social inhibition was identified when using the inventory of interpersonal problems. In addition, path analysis was used to establish the influence of personality traits on somatization and social inhibition.Results: Of the 126 participants, 51% were male, 55% were married, and 25% were retired. The average number of years in education was 7.6 (standard deviation =5.2. “Emotional stability” and “dominance” were found to have a direct effect on somatization, as were age and number of years in education, but not sex. Also, 35% of the total variance could be explained by the model, with excellent fit statistics. Dominance was found to have an indirect effect, via vigilance, on social inhibition, which was also influenced by number of years in education and emotional stability. Social inhibition was not found to have any effect on somatization, although hypothetically it should.Conclusion: “Emotional stability”, “dominance”, and “vigilance”, as well as age and the number of years in education, were found to have an effect on somatization. Attention should be paid to these factors in the elderly

  9. Monitoring Genetic Stability in Quercus serrata Thunb. Somatic Embryogenesis Using RAPD Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh C., Thakur; Susumu, Goto; Katsuaki, Ishii; S. Mohan, Jain; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute; Fukuoka Prefecture Forest Research and Extension Center; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute; University of Helsinki

    1999-01-01

    Genetic stability of propagules regenerated via somatic embryogenesis is of paramount importance for its application to clonal forestry. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to determine the genetic stability in somatic embryogenesis of Quercus serrata Thunb. (Japanese white oak). Forty samples from an embryogenic line, consisting of regenerated plantlets, somatic embryos, and embryogenic calli, were examined using 54 decanucleotide primers. A total of 6520 clear reproduc...

  10. The Effectiveness of Somatization in Communicating Distress in Korean and American Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Parrott, W. Gerrod

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found that Korean participants used more somatic words to communicate distress than US participants. Among Korean participants, but not US participants, use of somatic words predicted perceived effectiveness of the communication and expectations of positive reactions (e.g., empathy) from others. In Study 2, we found that when presented with distress narratives of others, Koreans (but not Americans) showed more sympathy in response to narratives using somatic words than narratives using emotional words. These findings suggest that cultural differences in use of somatization may reflect differential effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress across cultural contexts. PMID:27047414

  11. Is chronic pain associated with somatization/hypochondriasis? An evidence-based structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, David A; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun; Cole, Brandly; Steele Rosomoff, R

    2009-01-01

    This is an evidence-based structured review. The objectives of this review were to answer the following questions: (1) Are somatization/hypochondriasis associated with chronic pain? (2) Is the degree of somatization/hypochondriasis related to pain levels? (3) Does pain treatment improve somatization/hypochondriasis? (4) Are some pain diagnoses differentially associated with somatization/hypochondriasis? Fifty-seven studies which fulfilled inclusion criteria and had high quality scores were sorted by the above-mentioned objectives. Agency for health care policy and research guidelines were utilized to type and characterize the strength/consistency of the study evidence within each objective. Somatization and hypochondriasis were both consistently associated with chronic pain (consistency ratings B and A, respectively). Study evidence indicated a correlation between pain intensity and presence of somatization and hypochondriasis (consistency rating A and B, respectively). Pain treatment improved somatization and hypochondriasis (consistency rating B and A, respectively). Some chronic pain diagnostic groups somatized more (consistency rating B). Somatization is commonly associated with chronic pain and may relate to pain levels.

  12. Maturation and germination of somatic embryos of Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench cultivar 'CIAP 132R-05'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de J Martínez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench], developed protocols for plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis do not include maturation stage. The present work was carried out with the aim of achieving the maturation and germination of sorghum somatic embryos in cultivar 'CIAP 132R-05'. It were studied four concentrations of sucrose (30, 50, 70 and 90 g l-1, two of abscisic acid (0.25 and 0.5 μM and a control without this growth regulator. Germination initiation (days and number of somatic embryos with complete germination were evaluated in three periods (1 - 7, 8 - 14 and 15 - 21 days of culture. In addition, the effect of 6-BAP (8.9, 17.8 and 26.6 μM on somatic embryo germination was determined. The germination start time (days and after 21 days the number of somatic embryos with complete germination and plants with malformations were determined. The addition of 70 g l-1 sucrose in the culture medium without abscisic acid increased the germination of the somatic embryos to 37.2 plants per embryo group (0.5 g of fresh mass. The highest number of somatic embryos germinated was obtained with 17.78 μM 6-BAP in the germination culture medium. It was demonstrated the need of a maturation stage in the sorghum somatic embryogenesis to increase the germination percentage.   Keywords: somatic embryogenesis, sorghum, sucrose, 6-BAP

  13. Determination of organ doses during radiological examinations and calculation of somatically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.

    1980-01-01

    Examples are used to demonstrate that a shift in the point of emphasis is necessary with regard to radiation hazard in medicinal X-ray diagnosis. The parameters employed in this study to calculate somatic dose (SD) and somatically significant dose (SSD) may well be in need of modification; nevertheless the numerical estimation of SSD arrived at here appears to reflect the right order of magnitude for the estimation of somatic risk. The consideration of the threshold dose for somatic injury remains a problem. (orig./MG) [de

  14. The Effectiveness of Somatization in Communicating Distress in Korean and American Cultural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo eChoi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented that Asians tend to somatize negative experiences to a greater degree than Westerners. It is posited that somatization may be a more functional communication strategy in Korean than American context. We examined the effects of somatization in communications of distress among participants from the US and Korea. We predicted that the communicative benefits of somatic words used in distress narratives would depend on the cultural contexts. In Study 1, we found that Korean participants used more somatic words to communicate distress than US participants. Among Korean participants, but not US participants, use of somatic words predicted perceived effectiveness of the communication and expectations of positive reactions (e.g., empathy from others. In study 2, we found that when presented with distress narratives of others, Koreans (but not Americans showed more sympathy in response to narratives using somatic words than narratives using emotional words. These findings suggest that cultural differences in use of somatization may reflect differential effectiveness of somatization in communicating distress across cultural contexts.

  15. Somatic and movement inductions phantom limb in non-amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, D. M.; Gentiletti, G. G.; Braidot, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The illusion of the mirror box is a tool for phantom limb pain treatment; this article proposes the induction of phantom limb syndrome on non-amputees upper limb, with a neurological trick of the mirror box. With two study situations: a) Somatic Induction is a test of the literature reports qualitatively, and novel proposal b) Motor Induction, which is an objective report by recording surface EEG. There are 3 cases proposed for Motor illusion, for which grasped movement is used: 1) Control: movement is made, 2) illusion: the mirror box is used, and 3) Imagination: no movement is executed; the subject only imagines its execution. Three different tasks are registered for each one of them (left hand, right hand, and both of them). In 64% of the subjects for somatic experience, a clear response to the illusion was observed. In the experience of motor illusion, cortical activation is detected in both hemispheres of the primary motor cortex during the illusion, where the hidden hand remains motionless. These preliminary findings in phantom limb on non-amputees can be a tool for neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-prosthesis control training.

  16. A stochastic model of epigenetic dynamics in somatic cell reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max eFloettmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell reprogramming has dramatically changed stem cell research inrecent years. The high pace of new findings in the field and an ever increasingamount of data from new high throughput techniques make it challengingto isolate core principles of the process. In order to analyze suchmechanisms, we developed an abstract mechanistic model of a subset of theknown regulatory processes during cell differentiation and production of inducedpluripotent stem cells. This probabilistic Boolean network describesthe interplay between gene expression, chromatin modifications and DNAmethylation. The model incorporates recent findings in epigenetics and reproducesexperimentally observed reprogramming efficiencies and changes inmethylation and chromatin remodeling. It enables us to investigate in detail,how the temporal progression of the process is regulated. It also explicitlyincludes the transduction of factors using viral vectors and their silencing inreprogrammed cells, since this is still a standard procedure in somatic cellreprogramming. Based on the model we calculate an epigenetic landscape.Simulation results show good reproduction of experimental observations duringreprogramming, despite the simple stucture of the model. An extensiveanalysis and introduced variations hint towards possible optimizations of theprocess, that could push the technique closer to clinical applications. Fasterchanges in DNA methylation increase the speed of reprogramming at theexpense of efficiency, while accelerated chromatin modifications moderatelyimprove efficiency.

  17. The Relationship between Mental and Somatic Practices and Wisdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B Williams

    Full Text Available In this study we sought to explore how experience with specific mental and somatic practices is associated with wisdom, using self-report measures of experience and wisdom. We administered standard surveys to measure wisdom and experience among four groups of practitioners of mental and somatic practices, namely, meditators, practitioners of the Alexander Technique, practitioners of the Feldenkrais Method, and classical ballet dancers. We additionally administered surveys of trait anxiety and empathy to all participants to explore possible mediating relationships of experience and wisdom by characteristics thought to be components of wisdom. Wisdom was higher on average among meditation practitioners, and lowest among ballet dancers, and this difference held when controlling for differences in age between practices, supporting the view that meditation is linked to wisdom and that ballet is not. However, we found that increased experience with meditation and ballet were both positively associated with wisdom, and that lowered trait anxiety mediated this positive association among meditation practitioners, and, non-significantly, among ballet dancers. These results suggest that not all practices that are purported to affect mental processing are related to wisdom to the same degree and different kinds of experience appear to relate to wisdom in different ways, suggesting different mechanisms that might underlie the development of wisdom with experience.

  18. Numerical chromosome errors in day 7 somatic nuclear blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Viuff, Dorthe; Tan, Shijian J

    2003-01-01

    Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona-free manipulat......Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona...... families, consisting of 112 blastocysts reconstructed from five different primary granulosa cell cultures, were examined. Overall, the mean chromosome complement within embryos was 86.9 +/- 3.7% (mean +/- SEM) diploid, 2.6 +/- 0.5% triploid, 10.0 +/- 3.1% tetraploid, and 0.5 +/- 0.2% pentaploid or greater......; the vast majority (>75%) of the abnormal nuclei were tetraploid. Completely diploid and mixoploid embryos represented 22.1 +/- 4.5% and 73.7 +/- 5.5%, respectively, of all clones. Six totally polyploid blastocysts, containing or=5N chromosome complements, respectively) between two clone families were...

  19. Genetic characterization of somatic recombination in Trichoderma pseudokoningii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcellos Fernando Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossing experiments via hyphal anastomosis between two strains contrasting for auxotrophic markers of Trichoderma pseudokoningii were conducted to characterize the somatic recombination process in this specie. Four crossings were made and a total of 1052 colonies obtained from conidial suspensions of the heterokaryotic colonies were analyzed. Sixty-eight recombinant colonies, from four growing generations, were analyzed for the auxotrophic markers. Of the 68 colonies analyzed, 58 were stable after four generations and the remainders were unstable, reverting to one of the parentals. Most of the recombinant colonies were unstable through subculture and after four growing generations they showed the leu ino met markers (auxotrophic for leucin, inositol and metionin respectively. The unstable recombinant colonies showed irregular growing borders, sparse sporulation and frequent sector formation. The results suggest the occurrence of recombination mechanisms in the heterokaryon (somatic recombination, different from those described for the parasexual cycle or parameiosis. Therefore, we proposed the ocurrence of nuclei degradation from one parental (non prevalent parental in the heterokaryon and that the resulting chromosomal fragments may be incorporated into whole nuclei of the another parental (prevalent parental. However the parameiosis as originally described cannot be excluded.

  20. A somatic marker perspective of immoral and corrupt behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Mona; Bechara, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Individuals who engage in corrupt and immoral behavior are in some ways similar to individuals with psychopathy. Normal people refrain from engaging in such behaviors because they tie together the moral value of society and the risk of punishment when they violate social rules. What is it, then, that allows these immoral individuals to behave in this manner, and in some situations even to prosper? When there is a dysfunction of somatic markers, specific disadvantageous impairments in decision-making arise, as in moral judgment, but, paradoxically, under some circumstances, the damage can cause the patient to make optimal financial investment decisions. Interestingly, individuals with psychopathy, a personality disorder, share many of the same behavioral characteristics seen in VMPFC and amygdala lesion patients, suggesting that defective somatic markers may serve as a neural framework for explaining immoral and corrupt behaviors. While these sociopathic behaviors of sometimes famous and powerful individuals have long been discussed, primarily within the realm of social science and psychology, here we offer a neurocognitive perspective on the possible neural roots of immoral and corrupt behaviors.

  1. Gastrointestinal cell lines form polarized epithelia with an adherent mucus layer when cultured in semi-wet interfaces with mechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navabi, Nazanin; McGuckin, Michael A; Lindén, Sara K

    2013-01-01

    Mucin glycoproteins are secreted in large quantities by mucosal epithelia and cell surface mucins are a prominent feature of the glycocalyx of all mucosal epithelia. Currently, studies investigating the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier use either animal experiments or non-in vivo like cell cultures. Many pathogens cause different pathology in mice compared to humans and the in vitro cell cultures used are suboptimal because they are very different from an in vivo mucosal surface, are often not polarized, lack important components of the glycocalyx, and often lack the mucus layer. Although gastrointestinal cell lines exist that produce mucins or polarize, human cell line models that reproducibly create the combination of a polarized epithelial cell layer, functional tight junctions and an adherent mucus layer have been missing until now. We trialed a range of treatments to induce polarization, 3D-organization, tight junctions, mucin production, mucus secretion, and formation of an adherent mucus layer that can be carried out using standard equipment. These treatments were tested on cell lines of intestinal (Caco-2, LS513, HT29, T84, LS174T, HT29 MTX-P8 and HT29 MTX-E12) and gastric (MKN7, MKN45, AGS, NCI-N87 and its hTERT Clone5 and Clone6) origins using Ussing chamber methodology and (immuno)histology. Semi-wet interface culture in combination with mechanical stimulation and DAPT caused HT29 MTX-P8, HT29 MTX-E12 and LS513 cells to polarize, form functional tight junctions, a three-dimensional architecture resembling colonic crypts, and produce an adherent mucus layer. Caco-2 and T84 cells also polarized, formed functional tight junctions and produced a thin adherent mucus layer after this treatment, but with less consistency. In conclusion, culture methods affect cell lines differently, and testing a matrix of methods vs. cell lines may be important to develop better in vitro models. The methods developed herein create in vitro mucosal surfaces suitable for studies

  2. Gastrointestinal cell lines form polarized epithelia with an adherent mucus layer when cultured in semi-wet interfaces with mechanical stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Navabi

    Full Text Available Mucin glycoproteins are secreted in large quantities by mucosal epithelia and cell surface mucins are a prominent feature of the glycocalyx of all mucosal epithelia. Currently, studies investigating the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier use either animal experiments or non-in vivo like cell cultures. Many pathogens cause different pathology in mice compared to humans and the in vitro cell cultures used are suboptimal because they are very different from an in vivo mucosal surface, are often not polarized, lack important components of the glycocalyx, and often lack the mucus layer. Although gastrointestinal cell lines exist that produce mucins or polarize, human cell line models that reproducibly create the combination of a polarized epithelial cell layer, functional tight junctions and an adherent mucus layer have been missing until now. We trialed a range of treatments to induce polarization, 3D-organization, tight junctions, mucin production, mucus secretion, and formation of an adherent mucus layer that can be carried out using standard equipment. These treatments were tested on cell lines of intestinal (Caco-2, LS513, HT29, T84, LS174T, HT29 MTX-P8 and HT29 MTX-E12 and gastric (MKN7, MKN45, AGS, NCI-N87 and its hTERT Clone5 and Clone6 origins using Ussing chamber methodology and (immunohistology. Semi-wet interface culture in combination with mechanical stimulation and DAPT caused HT29 MTX-P8, HT29 MTX-E12 and LS513 cells to polarize, form functional tight junctions, a three-dimensional architecture resembling colonic crypts, and produce an adherent mucus layer. Caco-2 and T84 cells also polarized, formed functional tight junctions and produced a thin adherent mucus layer after this treatment, but with less consistency. In conclusion, culture methods affect cell lines differently, and testing a matrix of methods vs. cell lines may be important to develop better in vitro models. The methods developed herein create in vitro mucosal surfaces

  3. Zygotic and somatic embryo morphogenesis in Pinus pinaster: comparative histological and histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereso, Susana; Zoglauer, Kurt; Milhinhos, Ana; Miguel, Célia; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2007-05-01

    We compared morphogenesis and accumulation of storage proteins and starch in Pinus pinaster Ait. zygotic embryos with those in somatic embryos grown with different carbohydrate sources. The maturation medium for somatic embryos included 80 microM abscisic acid (ABA), 9 g l(-1) gellam gum and either glucose, sucrose or maltose at 44, 88, 175 or 263 mM in the presence or absence of 6% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 MW. Maturation medium containing 44 or 88 mM of a carbohydrate source produced only one or no cotyledonary somatic embryos per 0.6 g fresh mass of culture. The addition of PEG to the basal maturation medium resulted in a low yield of cotyledonary somatic embryos that generally showed incomplete development and anatomical abnormalities such as large intercellular spaces and large vacuoles. High concentrations of maltose also induced large intercellular spaces in the somatic embryonic cells, and 263 mM sucrose produced fewer and less developed cotyledonary somatic embryos compared with 175 mM sucrose, indicating that the effect of carbohydrate source is partially osmotic. Zygotic embryos had a lower dry mass than somatic embryos at the same stage of development. Starch granules followed a similar accumulation pattern in zygotic and somatic embryos. A low starch content was found in cotyledonary zygotic embryos and in somatic embryos developed in the presence of 175 mM maltose or 263 mM glucose. In zygotic embryos and in PEG-treated somatic embryos, protein bodies appeared later and were smaller and fewer than in well-developed somatic embryos grown without PEG. We propose that storage protein concentration might be a marker of embryo quality.

  4. Cognitive-affective depression and somatic symptoms clusters are differentially associated with maternal parenting and coparenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Morais, Ana; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2017-09-01

    Both depressive and somatic symptoms are significant predictors of parenting and coparenting problems. However, despite clear evidence of their co-occurrence, no study to date has examined the association between depressive-somatic symptoms clusters and parenting and coparenting. The current research sought to identify and cross-validate clusters of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and nonspecific somatic symptoms, as well as to test whether clusters would differ on parenting and coparenting problems across three independent samples of mothers. Participants in Studies 1 and 3 consisted of 409 and 652 community mothers, respectively. Participants in Study 2 consisted of 162 mothers exposed to intimate partner violence. All participants prospectively completed self-report measures of depressive and nonspecific somatic symptoms and parenting (Studies 1 and 2) or coparenting (Study 3). Across studies, three depression-somatic symptoms clusters were identified: no symptoms, high depression and low nonspecific somatic symptoms, and high depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms. The high depression-somatic symptoms cluster was associated with the highest levels of child physical maltreatment risk (Study 1) and overt-conflict coparenting (Study 3). No differences in perceived maternal competence (Study 2) and cooperative and undermining coparenting (Study 3) were found between the high depression and low somatic symptoms cluster and the high depression-somatic symptoms cluster. The results provide novel evidence for the strong associations between clusters of depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms and specific parenting and coparenting problems. Cluster stability across three independent samples suggest that they may be generalizable. The results inform preventive approaches and evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CtGEM typing: Discrimination of Chlamydia trachomatis ocular and urogenital strains and major evolutionary lineages by high resolution melting analysis of two amplified DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, Philip M; Andersson, Patiyan; Wilson, Judith; Buckley, Cameron; Lilliebridge, Rachael; Harris, Tegan M; Kleinecke, Mariana; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Lambert, Stephen B; Whiley, David M; Holt, Deborah C

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infects the urogenital tract (UGT) and eyes. Anatomical tropism is correlated with variation in the major outer membrane protein encoded by ompA. Strains possessing the ocular ompA variants A, B, Ba and C are typically found within the phylogenetically coherent "classical ocular lineage". However, variants B, Ba and C have also been found within three distinct strains in Australia, all associated with ocular disease in children and outside the classical ocular lineage. CtGEM genotyping is a method for detecting and discriminating ocular strains and also the major phylogenetic lineages. The rationale was facilitation of surveillance to inform responses to C. trachomatis detection in UGT specimens from young children. CtGEM typing is based on high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of two PCR amplified fragments with high combinatorial resolving power, as defined by computerised comparison of 65 whole genomes. One fragment is from the hypothetical gene defined by Jali-1891 in the C. trachomatis B_Jali20 genome, while the other is from ompA. Twenty combinatorial CtGEM types have been shown to exist, and these encompass unique genotypes for all known ocular strains, and also delineate the TI and T2 major phylogenetic lineages, identify LGV strains and provide additional resolution beyond this. CtGEM typing and Sanger sequencing were compared with 42 C. trachomatis positive clinical specimens, and there were no disjunctions. CtGEM typing is a highly efficient method designed and tested using large scale comparative genomics. It divides C. trachomatis into clinically and biologically meaningful groups, and may have broad application in surveillance.

  6. Retesting young STI clinic visitors with urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the Netherlands; response to a text message reminder and reinfection rates: a prospective study with historical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Cjg; Koedijk, Fdh; Driessen-Hulshof, Hcm; Hautvast, Jla; van den Broek, Ivf

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effect of reminder text messages 6 months after the initial treatment on retest and chlamydia reinfection rates in young heterosexuals compared with a historical control group and to assess factors associated with both outcomes. Heterosexual people (aged 16-23 years), testing positive for urogenital chlamydia, were offered a retest after 6 months. Participants received a text message reminder at 6 months after the initial chlamydia diagnosis. Rates of retest uptake and the result of the retest were analysed using Cox regression. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated to identify factors associated with these outcomes. Furthermore, the retest rate was compared with the retest rate of a historical control group. 30.6% (253/838) of the study group returned within 5-8 months compared with 9.2% (140/1530) in the historical control group. Women and persons who were not notified for a sexually transmitted infection (STI) at inclusion were more likely to return for a retest. 20.4% (56/275) of participants had a chlamydia reinfection upon retesting. Reinfection was higher in participants reporting STI-related symptoms (PR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8 to 5.6) and in participants who were notified for an STI at retest (PR 5.3, 95% CI 2.4 to 11.5). A text message reminder appeared to have a clear, positive impact on the resulting retest rate. These results also indicate that retesting is necessary to identify chlamydia reinfections. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Accuracy of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Detecting Acute Kidney Injury after Urogenital Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Surgery under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya MIHÁLY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the accuracy of NGAL in detecting acute kidney injury (AKI after urogenital robotic surgery in general anesthesia. Methods: A prospective longitudinal observational study, which included patients scheduled for elective robotic surgery under general anesthesia. The serum and urine NGAL at induction, 6 hours and 12 hours were determined. Serum creatinine was measured preoperatively and daily 4 days postoperatively. AKI was defined as the absolute growth of serum creatinine by 0.3 mg/dl over baseline within 48 hours postoperatively. Results: 24 patients were enrolled in the study. AKI occurred in 38% of patients. Serum NGAL increased significantly at 6 hours and 12h, compared to baseline, with a higher increase in the group of patents without AKI. There were no significant results for urine NGAL. A link was observed between the values of serum NGAL, with associated significance p<0.0001. The correlations between urine NGAL were not significant. The predictive value of NGAL, analyzed by cross-tabulation, OR was 3 for baseline value and 5.33 for the values measured at 6 hours and 12 hours, but with no statistical significance. Conclusions: The modifications of the NGAL levels, measured at 6 hours and 12 hours from the induction of anesthesia, were significant with more importance at 6 hours and in patients without AKI. Serum NGAL had no predictive value for AKI, but the risk to develop AKI was 3 times higher for baseline determination and 5 times at 6 and 12 hours.

  8. Two mannose-binding lectin homologues and an MBL-associated serine protease are expressed in the gut epithelia of the urochordate species Ciona intestinalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mikkel-Ole; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl

    2010-01-01

    The lectin complement pathway has important functions in vertebrate host defence and accumulating evidence of primordial complement components trace its emergence to invertebrate phyla. We introduce two putative mannose-binding lectin homologues (CioMBLs) from the urochordate species Ciona intest...... protease in the epithelia cells lining the stomach and intestine. In conclusion we present two urochordate MBLs and identify an associated serine protease, which support the concept of an evolutionary ancient origin of the lectin complement pathway....

  9. Canine Distemper Virus Antigen Detection in External Epithelia of Recently Vaccinated, Sick Dogs by Fluorescence Microscopy Is a Valuable Prognostic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are no reliable predictors of the clinical outcomes of domesticated dogs that have been recently vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and develop respiratory disease. In this study, vaccinated dogs from Oklahoma City that were showing clinical signs of respiratory disease were evaluated for CDV antigen using a direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). Clinical outcomes after standard symptomatic therapy for respiratory disease were recorded, and a statistical analysis of the results was performed. We present our study showing that CDV FAT results were predictive of clinical recovery (prognostic indicator, prospects of clinical recovery) among vaccinated dogs showing clinical signs of respiratory disease. Negative CDV FAT results equated to 80% chances of recovery after symptomatic therapy, compared to 55% chances of recovery when the CDV FAT results were positive. Based on the results of this study, we show that veterinarians can make better informed decisions about the clinical outcomes of suspected CDV cases, with 2-h turnaround times, by using the CDV FAT. Thus, antemortem examination with the CDV FAT on external epithelia of recently vaccinated, sick dogs is a clinically useful diagnostic test and valuable prognostic indicator for veterinarians. Application of the CDV FAT to these samples avoids unnecessary euthanasia of dogs with suspected CDV. PMID:25428156

  10. Canine distemper virus antigen detection in external epithelia of recently vaccinated, sick dogs by fluorescence microscopy is a valuable prognostic indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Sanjay; Neel, Tina

    2015-02-01

    Currently, there are no reliable predictors of the clinical outcomes of domesticated dogs that have been recently vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and develop respiratory disease. In this study, vaccinated dogs from Oklahoma City that were showing clinical signs of respiratory disease were evaluated for CDV antigen using a direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). Clinical outcomes after standard symptomatic therapy for respiratory disease were recorded, and a statistical analysis of the results was performed. We present our study showing that CDV FAT results were predictive of clinical recovery (prognostic indicator, prospects of clinical recovery) among vaccinated dogs showing clinical signs of respiratory disease. Negative CDV FAT results equated to 80% chances of recovery after symptomatic therapy, compared to 55% chances of recovery when the CDV FAT results were positive. Based on the results of this study, we show that veterinarians can make better informed decisions about the clinical outcomes of suspected CDV cases, with 2-h turnaround times, by using the CDV FAT. Thus, antemortem examination with the CDV FAT on external epithelia of recently vaccinated, sick dogs is a clinically useful diagnostic test and valuable prognostic indicator for veterinarians. Application of the CDV FAT to these samples avoids unnecessary euthanasia of dogs with suspected CDV. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Influence of different dose irradiation on genetic effect in mice somatic and germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrova, L.N.; Molofej, V.P.; Mosseh, I.B.

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of clastogenic effects of different radiation doses in somatic and germ cells of one the same animals has been studied. Correlation analysis allows to extrapolate genetic effects from somatic cells to germ ones. This can be useful for human model elaboration. (authors)

  12. Somatic PI3K activity regulates transition to the spermatocyte stages ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spermatogenesis, involving multiple transit amplification divisions and meiosis, occurs within an enclosure formed bytwo somatic cells. As the cohort of germline cells divide and grow, the surface areas of the somatic cells expandmaintaining a tight encapsulation throughout the developmental period. Correlation between ...

  13. Antigen receptors and somatic hypermutation in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia with Richter's transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Laura A.; van Maldegem, Febe; Langerak, Anton W.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; de Wit, Mireille J.; Bea, Silvia; Campo, Elias; Bende, Richard J.; van Noesel, Carel J. M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase is essential for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin genes in B cells. It has been proposed that aberrant targeting of the somatic hypermutation machinery is instrumental in initiation and

  14. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  15. Injection molded pinched flow fractionation device for enrichment of somatic cells in cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Marie, Rodolphe; Olesen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the continuous microfluidic separation technique pinched flow fractionation is applied to the enrichment of somatic cells from cow milk. Somatic cells were separated from the smallest fat particles and proteins thus better imaging and analysis of the cells can be achieved...

  16. Pervasive developmental disorder behavior in adolescents with intellectual disability and co-occurring somatic chronic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior.

  17. Cell-of-Origin-Specific 3D Genome Structure Acquired during Somatic Cell Reprogramming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, Peter Hugo Lodewijk; Di Stefano, Bruno; de Wit, Elzo; Limone, Francesco; van Oevelen, Chris; de Laat, Wouter; Graf, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Forced expression of reprogramming factors can convert somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here we studied genome topology dynamics during reprogramming of different somatic cell types with highly distinct genome conformations. We find large-scale topologically associated

  18. Polyamine levels during the development of zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Dale R. Smith; Cathie Reeves; Kevin D. Steele; Subhash C. Minocha

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the cellular content of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were compared at different stages of development in zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata D. Don. During embryo development, both the zygotic and the somatic embryos showed a steady increase in spermidine content, with either a small decrease or no...

  19. Contrastive Study of Somatisms Distinctive Features in Phraseology of Different Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharbat Muhamedzhanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes semantic transformations of phraseologically active somatisms, based on contrastive study of fixed combinations in Kazakh and French languages. The prospects for the study of fixed combinations, having somatic vocabulary as a semantic kernel in conceptualization of idioethnic anthropological paradigm was studied

  20. Somatic PI3K activity regulates transition to the spermatocyte stages ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir Gupta

    2017-04-22

    Apr 22, 2017 ... like growth factor (IGF) families, control the tissue homeosta- sis (Biteau et al. 2011 ... A breach in the somatic encapsulation due to the loss of somatic cyst cells .... populations at the apical region of testes of 4-days-old adults.