WorldWideScience

Sample records for somatic nuclear transfer

  1. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  2. Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This document presents arguments that conclude that it is unethical to use somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for infertility treatment due to concerns about safety; the unknown impact of SCNT on children, families, and society; and the availability of other ethically acceptable means of assisted reproduction. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee report titled, "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning)," last published in Fertil Steril 2000;74:873-6. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of somatic cell nuclear transfer in pig | Muenthaisong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is now more than 8 years, since the first cloned pig from nuclear transfer was reported. Success of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pig is still low compared to that in bovine. Embryonic and neonatal abnormalities of cloned piglets are probably a result of incorrect or incomplete reprogramming of the transferred ...

  4. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Enright, Brian; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2003-01-01

    Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle. PMID:14614770

  5. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-05

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model.

  6. Recent advancements in cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo; Inoue, Kimiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning is the sole reproductive engineering technology that endows the somatic cell genome with totipotency. Since the first report on the birth of a cloned sheep from adult somatic cells in 1997, many technical improvements in SCNT have been made by using different epigenetic approaches, including enhancement of the levels of histone acetylation in the chromatin of the reconstructed embryos. Although it will take a considerable time before we fully understand the nature of genomic programming and totipotency, we may expect that somatic cell cloning technology will soon become broadly applicable to practical purposes, including medicine, pharmaceutical manufacturing and agriculture. Here we review recent progress in somatic cell cloning, with a special emphasis on epigenetic studies using the laboratory mouse as a model. PMID:23166393

  7. Cloning Endangered Felids by Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Martha C; Pope, C Earle

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the first wild felid was produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer. Since then other wild felid clone offspring have been produced by using the same technique with minor modifications. This chapter describes detailed protocols used in our laboratory for (1) the isolation, culture, and preparation of fibroblast cells as donor nucleus, and (2) embryo reconstruction with domestic cat enucleated oocytes to produce cloned embryos that develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro and, after transfer into synchronized recipients, establish successful pregnancies.

  8. Somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning: practical applications and current legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Lucas-Hahn, A

    2012-08-01

    Somatic cloning is emerging as a new biotechnology by which the opportunities arising from the advances in molecular genetics and genome analysis can be implemented in animal breeding. Significant improvements have been made in SCNT protocols in the past years which now allow to embarking on practical applications. The main areas of application of SCNT are: Reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning and basic research. A great application potential of SCNT based cloning is the production of genetically modified (transgenic) animals. Somatic cell nuclear transfer based transgenic animal production has significant advances over the previously employed microinjection of foreign DNA into pronuclei of zygotes. This cell based transgenesis is compatible with gene targeting and allows both, the addition of a specific gene and the deletion of an endogenous gene. Efficient transgenic animal production provides numerous opportunities for agriculture and biomedicine. Regulatory agencies around the world have agreed that food derived from cloned animals and their offspring is safe and there is no scientific basis for questioning this. Commercial application of somatic cloning within the EU is via the Novel Food regulation EC No. 258/97. Somatic cloning raises novel questions regarding the ethical and moral status of animals and their welfare which has prompted a controversial discussion in Europe which has not yet been resolved. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Method for somatic cell nuclear transfer in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripattarapravat, Kannika; Cibelli, Jose B

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been a well-known technique for decades and widely applied to generate identical animals, including ones with genetic alterations. The system has been demonstrated successfully in zebrafish. The elaborated requirements of SCNT, however, limit reproducibility of the established model to a few groups in zebrafish research community. In this chapter, we meticulously outline each step of the published protocol as well as preparations of equipments and reagents used in zebrafish SCNT. All describable detailed-tips are elaborated in texts and figures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical Chromosome Errors in Day 7 Somatic Nuclear Transfer Bovine Blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J.; VIUFF, Dorte; Tan, Shijian

    2002-01-01

    Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona-free manipulat......Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona...

  11. Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and reproductive cloning: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This document presents arguments that conclude that it is unethical to use somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for infertility treatment due to concerns about safety; the unknown impact of SCNT on children, families, and society; and the availability of other ethically acceptable means of assisted reproduction. This document replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee report titled, "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer and cloning," last published in Fertil Steril 2012;98:804-7. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influences of somatic donor cell sex on and embryo development following somatic cell nuclear transfer in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gyu Yoo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study investigates pre- and post-implantation developmental competence of nuclear-transferred porcine embryos derived from male and female fetal fibroblasts. Methods Male and female fetal fibroblasts were transferred to in vitro-matured enucleated oocytes and in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of reconstructed embryos was investigated. And, a total of 6,789 female fibroblast nuclear-transferred embryos were surgically transferred into 41 surrogate gilts and 4,746 male fibroblast nuclear-transferred embryos were surgically transferred into 25 surrogate gilts. Results The competence to develop into blastocysts was not significantly different between the sexes. The mean cell number of female and male cloned blastocysts obtained by in vivo culture (143.8±10.5 to 159.2±14.8 was higher than that of in vitro culture of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT groups (31.4±8.3 to 33.4±11.1. After embryo transfer, 5 pregnant gilts from each treatment delivered 15 female and 22 male piglets. The average birth weight of the cloned piglets, gestation length, and the postnatal survival rates were not significantly different (p<0.05 between sexes. Conclusion The present study found that the sex difference of the nuclear donor does not affect the developmental rate of porcine SCNT embryos. Furthermore, postnatal survivability of the cloned piglets was not affected by the sex of the donor cell.

  13. Role of ooplasm in nuclear and nucleolar remodeling of intergeneric somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos during the first cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Strejcek, Frantisek; Petrovicova, Ida

    2011-01-01

    Initially, development of the zygote is under control of the oocyte ooplasm. However, it is presently unknown if and to what extent is the ooplasm able to interact with a transferred somatic cell from another species in the context of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Here, one-c...... in sequence-specific interactions between the ooplasm and chromatin of another genus. In conclusion, the results demonstrate a possible reason why the intergeneric SCNT embryos never reached the full term....

  14. Impeding Xist expression from the active X chromosome improves mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inoue, K.; Kohda, T.; Sugimoto, M.; Sado, T.; Ogonuki, N.; Matoba, S.; Shiura, H.; Ikeda, R.; Mochida, K.; Fujii, T.; Sawai, K.; Otte, A.P.; Tian, X.C.; Yang, X.; Ishino, F.; Abe, K.; Ogura, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cloning mammals by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is highly inefficient because of erroneous reprogramming of the donor genome. Reprogramming errors appear to arise randomly, but the nature of nonrandom, SCNT-specific errors remains elusive. We found that Xist, a noncoding RNA that

  15. Cloning mice and ES cells by nuclear transfer from somatic stem cells and fully differentiated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde

    2011-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer (NT) has been successful in several mammalian species. In addition to cloning live animals (reproductive cloning), this technique has also been used in several species to establish cloned embryonic stem (ntES) cell lines from somatic cells. It is the latter application of this technique that has been heralded as being the potential means to produce isogenic embryonic stem cells from patients for cell therapy (therapeutic cloning). These two types of cloning differ only in the steps after cloned embryos are produced: for reproductive cloning the cloned embryos are transferred to surrogate mothers to allow them to develop to full term and for therapeutic cloning the cloned embryos are used to derive ntES cells. In this chapter, a detailed NT protocol in mouse by using somatic stem cells (neuron and skin stem cells) and fully differentiated somatic cells (cumulus cells and fibroblast cells) as nuclear donors is described.

  16. The Influence of Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer on Epigenetic Enzymes Transcription in Early Embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morovic, Martin; Murin, Matej; Strejcek, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    in oocytes and early embryos of several species including bovine and porcine zygotes is species-dependent process and the incomplete DNA methylation correlates with the nuclear transfer failure rate in mammals. In this study the transcription of DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3a (DNMT1, DNMT3a) genes in early......One of the main reason for the incorrect development of embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer is caused by insufficient demethylation of injected somatic chromatin to a state comparable with an early embryonic nucleus. It is already known that the epigenetic enzymes transcription....... In spite of the detection of ooplasmic DNA methyltransferases, the somatic genes for DNMT1 and DNMT3a enzymes were not expressed and the development of intergeneric embryos stopped at the 4-cell stage. Our results indicate that the epigenetic reprogramming during early mammalian development is strongly...

  17. Simplification of Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer by Application of a Zona-Free Manipulation Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Tan, Shijian; Reipurth, Rikke

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary nuclear transfer techniques often require the involvement of skilled personnel and extended periods of micromanipulation. Here, we present details of the development of a nuclear transfer technique for somatic cells that is both simpler and faster than traditional methods. The techni......Contemporary nuclear transfer techniques often require the involvement of skilled personnel and extended periods of micromanipulation. Here, we present details of the development of a nuclear transfer technique for somatic cells that is both simpler and faster than traditional methods....... The technique comprises the bisection of zona-free oocytes and the reconstruction of embryos comprising two half cytoplasts and a somatic cell by adherence using phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA) followed by an electropulse and subsequent culture in microwells (termed WOWs--well of the well). The development......-intact zygotes were not different in either blastocyst yield (44.6 +/- 2.4% versus 51.8 +/- 13.5% [mean +/- SEM]) or quality (126.3 +/- 48.4 versus 119.9 +/- 32.6 total cells), and exposure of zygotes to PHA-P did not reduce blastocyst yields compared to vehicle control (40.8 +/- 11.6% versus 47.1 +/- 20...

  18. DOT1L inhibitor improves early development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jia; Zhang, Yu; Zuo, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming of the genome of donor cells causes poor early and full-term developmental efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Previous research indicate that inhibition of the histone H3 K79 methyltransferase DOT1L, using a selective pharmacological...... inhibitor EPZ004777 (EPZ), significantly improved reprogramming efficiency during the generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the roles of DOT1L in porcine nuclear transfer-mediated cellular reprogramming are not yet known. Here we showed that DOT1L inhibition via 0.5 nM EPZ treatment...

  19. Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model*

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Guo-qing; Heng, Boon-chin; Ng, Soon-chye

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether four cumulus-specific genes: follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2) and steroidogenic acute regulator protein (Star), were correctly reprogrammed to be transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a murine model. Cumulus cells of C57×CBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 µmol/L strontium chloride for 5 h and sub...

  20. Differentiated cells are more efficient than adult stem cells for cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Li-Ying; Gao, Shaorong; Shen, Hongmei; Yu, Hui; Song, Yifang; Smith, Sadie L; Chang, Ching-Chien; Inoue, Kimiko; Kuo, Lynn; Lian, Jin; Li, Ao; Tian, X Cindy; Tuck, David P; Weissman, Sherman M; Yang, Xiangzhong; Cheng, Tao

    2006-11-01

    Since the creation of Dolly via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), more than a dozen species of mammals have been cloned using this technology. One hypothesis for the limited success of cloning via SCNT (1%-5%) is that the clones are likely to be derived from adult stem cells. Support for this hypothesis comes from the findings that the reproductive cloning efficiency for embryonic stem cells is five to ten times higher than that for somatic cells as donors and that cloned pups cannot be produced directly from cloned embryos derived from differentiated B and T cells or neuronal cells. The question remains as to whether SCNT-derived animal clones can be derived from truly differentiated somatic cells. We tested this hypothesis with mouse hematopoietic cells at different differentiation stages: hematopoietic stem cells, progenitor cells and granulocytes. We found that cloning efficiency increases over the differentiation hierarchy, and terminally differentiated postmitotic granulocytes yield cloned pups with the greatest cloning efficiency.

  1. Significant improvement of mouse cloning technique by treatment with trichostatin A after somatic nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Mizutani, Eiji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Thuan, Nguyen Van; Wakayama, Sayaka; Bui, Hong-Thuy; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2006-01-01

    The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is believed to be associated with epigenetic errors including abnormal DNA hypermethylation. Recently, we elucidated by using round spermatids that, after nuclear transfer, treatment of zygotes with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can remarkably reduce abnormal DNA hypermethylation depending on the origins of transferred nuclei and their genomic regions [S. Kishigami, N. Van Thuan, T. Hikichi, H. Ohta, S. Wakayama. E. Mizutani, T. Wakayama, Epigenetic abnormalities of the mouse paternal zygotic genome associated with microinsemination of round spermatids, Dev. Biol. (2005) in press]. Here, we found that 5-50 nM TSA-treatment for 10 h following oocyte activation resulted in more efficient in vitro development of somatic cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage from 2- to 5-fold depending on the donor cells including tail tip cells, spleen cells, neural stem cells, and cumulus cells. This TSA-treatment also led to more than 5-fold increase in success rate of mouse cloning from cumulus cells without obvious abnormality but failed to improve ES cloning success. Further, we succeeded in establishment of nuclear transfer-embryonic stem (NT-ES) cells from TSA-treated cloned blastocyst at a rate three times higher than those from untreated cloned blastocysts. Thus, our data indicate that TSA-treatment after SCNT in mice can dramatically improve the practical application of current cloning techniques

  2. Evaluation of porcine stem cells competence for somatic cell nuclear transfer and production of cloned animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Jan; Liu, Ying; Petkov, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    Porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been used extensively to create genetically modified pigs, but the efficiency of the methodology is still low. It has been hypothesized that pluripotent or multipotent stem cells might result in increased SCNT efficacy as these cells are closer than...... somatic cells to the epigenetic state found in the blastomeres and therefore need less reprogramming. Our group has worked with porcine SCNT during the last 20 years and here we describe our experience with SCNT of 3 different stem cell lines. The porcine stem cells used were: Induced pluripotent stem...... cells (iPSCs) created by lentiviral doxycycline-dependent reprogramming and cultered with a GSK3β- and MEK-inhibitor (2i) and leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF) (2i LIF DOX-iPSCs), iPSCs created by a plasmid-based reprogramming and cultured with 2i and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) (2i FGF Pl...

  3. An Epigenetic Modifier Results in Improved In Vitro Blastocyst production after Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan; Villemoes, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, on development of porcine cloned embryos. Our results showed that treatment of cloned embryos derived from sow oocytes with 50 nM TSA for up to 24 h after the onset of activation cou...... were tested, and for all cell lines an enhancement in blastocyst development compared to their corresponding control was observed. Our data demonstrate that TSA treatment after somatic cell nuclear transfer in the pig can significantly improve the in vitro blastocyst production...

  4. Targeted disruption of Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene in miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young June; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Sang-Min; Ryu, Junghyun; Ahn, Jin Seop; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Choi, You Jung [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong-Jun [Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hosup, E-mail: shim@dku.edu [Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • ATM gene-targeted pigs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. • A novel large animal model for ataxia telangiectasia was developed. • The new model may provide an alternative to the mouse model. - Abstract: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive autosomal disorder associated with pleiotropic phenotypes, including progressive cerebellar degeneration, gonad atrophy, and growth retardation. Even though A-T is known to be caused by the mutations in the Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, the correlation between abnormal cellular physiology caused by ATM mutations and the multiple symptoms of A-T disease has not been clearly determined. None of the existing ATM mouse models properly reflects the extent to which neurological degeneration occurs in human. In an attempt to provide a large animal model for A-T, we produced gene-targeted pigs with mutations in the ATM gene by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The disrupted allele in the ATM gene of cloned piglets was confirmed via PCR and Southern blot analysis. The ATM gene-targeted pigs generated in the present study may provide an alternative to the current mouse model for the study of mechanisms underlying A-T disorder and for the development of new therapies.

  5. Aberrant Expression of Xist in Aborted Porcine Fetuses Derived from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP. q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

  6. Aberrant Expression of Xist in Aborted Porcine Fetuses Derived from Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lin; Wang, Anfeng; Yao, Chaogang; Huang, Yongye; Duan, Feifei; Lv, Qinyan; Wang, Dongxu; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-01-01

    Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP). q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. PMID:25429426

  7. Progress toward generating a ferret model of cystic fibrosis by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhardt John F

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mammalian cloning by nuclear transfer from somatic cells has created new opportunities to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species other than mice. Although genetic mouse models play a critical role in basic and applied research for numerous diseases, often mouse models do not adequately reproduce the human disease phenotype. Cystic fibrosis (CF is one such disease. Targeted ablation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene in mice does not adequately replicate spontaneous bacterial infections observed in the human CF lung. Hence, several laboratories are pursuing alternative animal models of CF in larger species such as the pig, sheep, rabbits, and ferrets. Our laboratory has focused on developing the ferret as a CF animal model. Over the past few years, we have investigated several experimental parameters required for gene targeting and nuclear transfer (NT cloning in the ferret using somatic cells. In this review, we will discuss our progress and the hurdles to NT cloning and gene-targeting that accompany efforts to generate animal models of genetic diseases in species such as the ferret.

  8. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: Infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the 'Hayflick limit'. However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to 'passage' a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the 'passage' of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels

  9. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-06-10

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the "Hayflick limit". However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to "passage" a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the "passage" of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels.

  10. Targeted disruption of Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene in miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young June; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Sang-Min; Ryu, Junghyun; Ahn, Jin Seop; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Choi, You Jung; Choi, Seong-Jun; Shim, Hosup

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ATM gene-targeted pigs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. • A novel large animal model for ataxia telangiectasia was developed. • The new model may provide an alternative to the mouse model. - Abstract: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive autosomal disorder associated with pleiotropic phenotypes, including progressive cerebellar degeneration, gonad atrophy, and growth retardation. Even though A-T is known to be caused by the mutations in the Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, the correlation between abnormal cellular physiology caused by ATM mutations and the multiple symptoms of A-T disease has not been clearly determined. None of the existing ATM mouse models properly reflects the extent to which neurological degeneration occurs in human. In an attempt to provide a large animal model for A-T, we produced gene-targeted pigs with mutations in the ATM gene by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The disrupted allele in the ATM gene of cloned piglets was confirmed via PCR and Southern blot analysis. The ATM gene-targeted pigs generated in the present study may provide an alternative to the current mouse model for the study of mechanisms underlying A-T disorder and for the development of new therapies

  11. Significant improvement of pig cloning efficiency by treatment with LBH589 after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Li, Suo; Gao, Qing-Shan; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Yan, Chang-Guo; Kang, Jin-Dan; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) associates with epigenetic aberrancy, including the abnormal acetylation of histones. Altering the epigenetic status by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) enhances the developmental potential of SCNT embryos. In the current study, we examined the effects of LBH589 (panobinostat), a novel broad-spectrum HDACi, on the nuclear reprogramming and development of pig SCNT embryos in vitro. In experiment 1, we compared the in vitro developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos treated with different concentrations of LBH589. Embryos treated with 50 nM LBH589 for 24 hours showed a significant increase in the rate of blastocyst formation compared with the control or embryos treated with 5 or 500 nM LBH589 (32.4% vs. 11.8%, 12.1%, and 10.0%, respectively, P < 0.05). In experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos treated with 50 nM LBH589 for various intervals after activation and 6-dimethylaminopurine. Embryos treated for 24 hours had higher rates of blastocyst formation than the other groups. In experiment 3, when the acetylation of H4K12 was examined in SCNT embryos treated for 6 hours with 50 nM LBH589 by immunohistochemistry, the staining intensities of these proteins in LBH589-treated SCNT embryos were significantly higher than in the control. In experiment 4, LBH589-treated nuclear transfer and control embryos were transferred into surrogate mothers, resulting in three (100%) and two (66.7%) pregnancies, respectively. In conclusion, LBH589 enhances the nuclear reprogramming and developmental potential of SCNT embryos by altering the epigenetic status and expression, and increasing blastocyst quality. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.; Li, Shan G.; Chen, Xue J.; Shi, Jian J.; Wu, Li; Liu, Ailian; Xu, Ping; Sheng, Hui Z.

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines

  13. DNA Methylation in Peripheral Blood Cells of Pigs Cloned by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Fei; Li, Shengting; Lin, Lin

    2011-01-01

    To date, the genome-wide DNA methylation status of cloned pigs has not been investigated. Due to the relatively low success rate of pig cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer, a better understanding of the epigenetic reprogramming and the global methylation patterns associated with development...... in cloned pigs is required. In this study we applied methylation-specific digital karyotyping tag sequencing by Solexa technology and investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of peripheral blood cells in cloned pigs with normal phenotypes in comparison with their naturally bred controls....... In the result, we found that globally there was no significant difference of DNA methylation patterns between the two groups. Locus-specifically, some genes involved in embryonic development presented a generally increased level of methylation. Our findings suggest that in cloned pigs with normal phenotypes...

  14. Genomic stability of lyophilized sheep somatic cells before and after nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Iuso

    Full Text Available The unprecedented decline of biodiversity worldwide is urging scientists to collect and store biological material from seriously threatened animals, including large mammals. Lyophilization is being explored as a low-cost system for storage in bio-banks of cells that might be used to expand or restore endangered or extinct species through the procedure of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT. Here we report that the genome is intact in about 60% of lyophylized sheep lymphocytes, whereas DNA damage occurs randomly in the remaining 40%. Remarkably, lyophilized nuclei injected into enucleated oocytes are repaired by a robust DNA repairing activity of the oocytes, and show normal developmental competence. Cloned embryos derived from lyophylized cells exhibited chromosome and cellular composition comparable to those of embryos derived from fresh donor cells. These findings support the feasibility of lyophylization as a storage procedure of mammalian cells to be used for SCNT.

  15. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos.

  16. Development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transferred blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohmad Shah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed buffalo embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transfer derived blastocysts, produced by hand-guided cloning technique. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst was cut mechanically using a Microblade and cultured onto feeder cells in buffalo embryonic stem (ES cell culture medium at 38 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. The stem cell colonies were characterized for alkaline phosphatase activity, karyotype, pluripotency and self-renewal markers like OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, c-Myc, FOXD3, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 and CD90. The cell lines also possessed the capability to differentiate across all the three germ layers under spontaneous differentiation conditions.

  17. Genomic stability of lyophilized sheep somatic cells before and after nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuso, Domenico; Czernik, Marta; Di Egidio, Fiorella; Sampino, Silvestre; Zacchini, Federica; Bochenek, Michal; Smorag, Zdzislaw; Modlinski, Jacek A; Ptak, Grazyna; Loi, Pasqualino

    2013-01-01

    The unprecedented decline of biodiversity worldwide is urging scientists to collect and store biological material from seriously threatened animals, including large mammals. Lyophilization is being explored as a low-cost system for storage in bio-banks of cells that might be used to expand or restore endangered or extinct species through the procedure of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT). Here we report that the genome is intact in about 60% of lyophylized sheep lymphocytes, whereas DNA damage occurs randomly in the remaining 40%. Remarkably, lyophilized nuclei injected into enucleated oocytes are repaired by a robust DNA repairing activity of the oocytes, and show normal developmental competence. Cloned embryos derived from lyophylized cells exhibited chromosome and cellular composition comparable to those of embryos derived from fresh donor cells. These findings support the feasibility of lyophylization as a storage procedure of mammalian cells to be used for SCNT.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in ovine fetuses and sheep cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Mathias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of the cloned sheep "Dolly" and nine other ovine clones produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT was reported to consist only of recipient oocyte mtDNA without any detectable mtDNA contribution from the nucleus donor cell. In cattle, mouse and pig several or most of the clones showed transmission of nuclear donor mtDNA resulting in mitochondrial heteroplasmy. To clarify the discrepant transmission pattern of donor mtDNA in sheep clones we analysed the mtDNA composition of seven fetuses and five lambs cloned from fetal fibroblasts. Results The three fetal fibroblast donor cells used for SCNT harboured low mtDNA copy numbers per cell (A: 753 ± 54, B: 292 ± 33 and C: 561 ± 88. The ratio of donor to recipient oocyte mtDNAs was determined using a quantitative amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS PCR (i.e. ARMS-qPCR. For quantification of SNP variants with frequencies below 0.1% we developed a restriction endonuclease-mediated selective quantitative PCR (REMS-qPCR. We report the first cases (n = 4 fetuses, n = 3 lambs of recipient oocyte/nuclear donor mtDNA heteroplasmy in SCNT-derived ovine clones demonstrating that there is no species-effect hindering ovine nucleus-donor mtDNA from being transmitted to the somatic clonal offspring. Most of the heteroplasmic clones exhibited low-level heteroplasmy (0.1% to 0.9%, n = 6 indicating neutral transmission of parental mtDNAs. High-level heteroplasmy (6.8% to 46.5% was observed in one case. This clone possessed a divergent recipient oocyte-derived mtDNA genotype with three rare amino acid changes compared to the donor including one substitution at an evolutionary conserved site. Conclusion Our study using state-of-the-art techniques for mtDNA quantification, like ARMS-qPCR and the novel REMS-qPCR, documents for the first time the transmission of donor mtDNA into somatic sheep clones. MtDNA heteroplasmy was detected in seven of 12 clones

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitor significantly improved the cloning efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Yao, Chaogang; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2011-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inbibitor, has been shown to generate inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts with a significant higher efficiency. Because successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) undergoes a full reprogramming process in which the epigenetic state of a differentiated donor nuclear is converted into an embryonic totipotent state, we speculated that VPA would be useful in promoting cloning efficiency. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether VPA can promote the developmental competence of SCNT embryos by improving the reprogramming state of donor nucleus. Here we report that 1 mM VPA for 14 to 16 h following activation significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation of porcine SCNT embryos constructed from Landrace fetal fibroblast cells compared to the control (31.8 vs. 11.4%). However, we found that the acetylation level of Histone H3 lysine 14 and Histone H4 lysine 5 and expression level of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 was not significantly changed between VPA-treated and -untreated groups at the blastocyst stage. The SCNT embryos were transferred to 38 surrogates, and the cloning efficiency in the treated group was significantly improved compared with the control group. Taken together, we have demonstrated that VPA can improve both in vitro and in vivo development competence of porcine SCNT embryos.

  20. High in vitro development after somatic cell nuclear transfer and trichostatin A treatment of reconstructed porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J.; Østrup, Olga; Villemoes, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal epigenetic modification is supposed to be one of factors accounting for inefficient reprogramming of the donor cell nuclei in ooplasm after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Trichostatin A (TSA) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, potentially enhancing cloning efficiency. The aim...... transferred to 2 recipients resulting in one pregnancy and birth of one live and five dead piglets. Our data demonstrate that TSA treatment after HMC in pigs may affect reprogramming of the somatic genome resulting in higher in vitro embryo development, and enable full-term in vivo development....

  1. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in vivo and produced by in vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben

    2011-01-01

    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome...

  2. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in-vivo or produced by in-vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben

    2011-01-01

    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome...

  3. The cell agglutination agent, phytohemagglutinin-L, improves the efficiency of somatic nuclear transfer cloning in cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuliang; Shen, Perng-Chih; Xu, Jie; Sung, Li-Ying; Jeong, B-Seon; Lucky Nedambale, Tshimangadzo; Riesen, John; Cindy Tian, X; Cheng, Winston T K; Lee, Shan-Nan; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2006-02-01

    One of the several factors that contribute to the low efficiency of mammalian somatic cloning is poor fusion between the small somatic donor cell and the large recipient oocyte. This study was designed to test phytohemagglutinin (PHA) agglutination activity on fusion rate, and subsequent developmental potential of cloned bovine embryos. The toxicity of PHA was established by examining its effects on the development of parthenogenetic bovine oocytes treated with different doses (Experiment 1), and for different durations (Experiment 2). The effective dose and duration of PHA treatment (150 microg/mL, 20 min incubation) was selected and used to compare membrane fusion efficiency and embryo development following somatic cell nuclear transfer (Experiment 3). Cloning with somatic donor fibroblasts versus cumulus cells was also compared, both with and without PHA treatment (150 microg/mL, 20 min). Fusion rate of nuclear donor fibroblasts, after phytohemagglutinin treatment, was increased from 33 to 61% (P cell nuclear donors. The nuclear transfer (NT) efficiency per oocyte used was improved following PHA treatment, for both fibroblast (13% versus 22%) as well as cumulus cells (17% versus 34%; P cloned embryos, both with and without PHA treatment, were subjected to vitrification and embryo transfer testing, and resulted in similar survival (approximately 90% hatching) and pregnancy rates (17-25%). Three calves were born following vitrification and embryo transfer of these embryos; two from the PHA-treated group, and one from non-PHA control group. We concluded that PHA treatment significantly improved the fusion efficiency of somatic NT in cattle, and therefore, increased the development of cloned blastocysts. Furthermore, within a determined range of dose and duration, PHA had no detrimental effect on embryo survival post-vitrification, nor on pregnancy or calving rates following embryo transfer.

  4. Successful cloning of coyotes through interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer using domestic dog oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Insung; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Kim, Joung Joo; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Kang, Mina; Park, Kang Bae; Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yeun Wook; Kim, Woo Tae; Shin, Taeyoung; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2013-01-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is an emerging assisted reproductive technology (ART) for preserving Nature's diversity. The scarcity of oocytes from some species makes utilisation of readily available oocytes inevitable. In the present study, we describe the successful cloning of coyotes (Canis latrans) through iSCNT using oocytes from domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris or dingo). Transfer of 320 interspecies-reconstructed embryos into 22 domestic dog recipients resulted in six pregnancies, from which eight viable offspring were delivered. Fusion rate and cloning efficiency during iSCNT cloning of coyotes were not significantly different from those observed during intraspecies cloning of domestic dogs. Using neonatal fibroblasts as donor cells significantly improved the cloning efficiency compared with cloning using adult fibroblast donor cells (Pcloning of coyotes in the present study holds promise for cloning other endangered species in the Canidae family using similar techniques. However, there are still limitations of the iSCNT technology, as demonstrated by births of morphologically abnormal coyotes and the clones' inheritance of maternal domestic dog mitochondrial DNA.

  5. Current status and applications of somatic cell nuclear transfer in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Goo; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2010-11-01

    Although somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology and applications are well developed in most domesticated and laboratory animals, their use in dogs has advanced only slowly. Many technical difficulties had to be overcome before preliminary experiments could be conducted. First, due to the very low efficiency of dog oocyte maturation in vitro, in vivo matured oocytes were generally used. The nucleus of an in vivo matured oocyte was removed and a donor cell (from fetal or adult fibroblasts) was injected into the oocyte. Secondly, fusion of the reconstructed oocytes was problematic, and it was found that a higher electrical voltage was necessary, in comparison to other mammalian species. By transferring the resulting fused oocytes into surrogate females, several cloned offspring were born. SCNT was also used for producing cloned wolves, validating reproductive technologies for aiding conservation of endangered or extinct breeds. Although examples of transgenesis in canine species are very sparse, SCNT studies are increasing, and together with the new field of gene targeting technology, they have been applied in many fields of veterinary or bio-medical science. This review summarizes the current status of SCNT in dogs and evaluates its potential future applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in serially recloned pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Minhwa; Jang, Won-Gu; Hwang, Jeong Hee; Jang, Hoon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jeong, Eun-Jeong [Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305 806 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hosup [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan 330 714 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sung Soo; Oh, Keon Bong; Byun, Sung June [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Hoi [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143 701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Woong, E-mail: jwlee@kribb.re.kr [Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305 806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We success serial SCNT through the third generation using pig fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Donor-specific mtDNA in the recloned pigs was detected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SCNT affect mtDNA mounts. -- Abstract: Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been established for the transmission of specific nuclear DNA. However, the fate of donor mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) remains unclear. Here, we examined the fate of donor mtDNA in recloned pigs through third generations. Fibroblasts of recloned pigs were obtained from offspring of each generation produced by fusion of cultured fibroblasts from a Minnesota miniature pig (MMP) into enucleated oocytes of a Landrace pig. The D-loop regions from the mtDNA of donor and recipient differ at nucleotide sequence positions 16050 (A{yields}T), 16062 (T{yields}C), and 16135 (G{yields}A). In order to determine the fate of donor mtDNA in recloned pigs, we analyzed the D-loop region of the donor's mtDNA by allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) and real-time PCR. Donor mtDNA was successfully detected in all recloned offspring (F1, F2, and F3). These results indicate that heteroplasmy that originate from donor and recipient mtDNA is maintained in recloned pigs, resulting from SCNT, unlike natural reproduction.

  7. Potential of primary kidney cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer mediated transgenesis in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Anne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is currently the most efficient and precise method to generate genetically tailored pig models for biomedical research. However, the efficiency of this approach is crucially dependent on the source of nuclear donor cells. In this study, we evaluate the potential of primary porcine kidney cells (PKCs as cell source for SCNT, including their proliferation capacity, transfection efficiency, and capacity to support full term development of SCNT embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. Results PKCs could be maintained in culture with stable karyotype for up to 71 passages, whereas porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs and porcine ear fibroblasts (PEFs could be hardly passaged more than 20 times. Compared with PFFs and PEFs, PKCs exhibited a higher proliferation rate and resulted in a 2-fold higher blastocyst rate after SCNT and in vitro cultivation. Among the four transfection methods tested with a GFP expression plasmid, best results were obtained with the NucleofectorTM technology, resulting in transfection efficiencies of 70% to 89% with high fluorescence intensity, low cytotoxicity, good cell proliferation, and almost no morphological signs of cell stress. Usage of genetically modified PKCs in SCNT resulted in approximately 150 piglets carrying at least one of 18 different transgenes. Several of those pigs originated from PKCs that underwent homologous recombination and antibiotic selection before SCNT. Conclusion The high proliferation capacity of PKCs facilitates the introduction of precise and complex genetic modifications in vitro. PKCs are thus a valuable cell source for the generation of porcine biomedical models by SCNT.

  8. In vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of somatic cell nuclear transfer cloned cattle meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Jung, Yu-Ri; Lee, Jung-Won; Im, Gi-Sun; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Park, Jin-Ki; Kang, Jong-Koo; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2011-09-01

    Although the nutritional composition and health status after consumption of the meat and milk derived from both conventionally bred (normal) and somatic cell nuclear transferred (cloned) animals and their progeny are not different, little is known about their food safeties like genetic toxicity. This study is performed to examine both in vitro (bacterial mutation and chromosome aberration) and in vivo (micronucleus) genotoxicity studies of cloned cattle meat. The concentrations of both normal and cloned cattle meat extracts (0-10×) were tested to five strains of bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium: TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537; Escherichia coli: WP2uvrA) for bacterial mutation and to Chinese hamster lung (CHL/IU) cells for chromosome aberration, respectively. For micronucleus test, ICR mice were divided into five dietary groups: commercial pellets (control), pellets containing 5% (N-5) and 10% (N-10) normal cattle meat, and pellets containing 5% (C-5) and 10% (C-10) cloned cattle meat. No test substance-related genotoxicity was noted in the five bacterial strains, CHL/IU cells, or mouse bone marrow cells, suggesting that the cloned cattle meat potentially may be safe in terms of mutagenic hazards. Thus, it can be postulated that the cloned cattle meat do not induce any harmful genotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer – a retrospective study of factors related to embryo recipient and embryos transferred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongye Huang

    2013-10-01

    The successful generation of pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer depends on reducing risk factors in several aspects. To provide an overview of some influencing factors related to embryo transfer, the follow-up data related to cloned pig production collected in our laboratory was examined. (i Spring showed a higher full-term pregnancy rate compared with winter (33.6% vs 18.6%, P = 0.006. Furthermore, a regression equation can be drawn between full-term pregnancy numbers and pregnancy numbers in different months (y = 0.692x−3.326. (ii There were no significant differences detected in the number of transferred embryos between surrogate sows exhibiting full-term development compared to those that did not. (iii Non-ovulating surrogate sows presented a higher percentage of full-term pregnancies compared with ovulating sows (32.0% vs 17.5%, P = 0.004; respectively. (iv Abortion was most likely to take place between Day 27 to Day 34. (v Based on Life Table Survival Analysis, delivery in normally fertilized and surrogate sows is expected to be completed before Day 117 or Day 125, respectively. Additionally, the length of pregnancy in surrogate sows was negatively correlated with the average litter size, which was not found for normally fertilized sows. In conclusion, performing embryo transfer in appropriate seasons, improving the quality of embryos transferred, optimizing the timing of embryo transfer, limiting the occurrence of abortion, combined with ameliorating the management of delivery, is expected to result in the harvest of a great number of surviving cloned piglets.

  10. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Rita SF; Couldrey Christine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appr...

  11. Characterization of Tetraploid Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-Derived Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Jeoung-Eun; Eum, Jin Hee; Chung, Young Gie; Lee, Hoon Taek; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2017-12-01

    Polyploidy is occurred by the process of endomitosis or cell fusion and usually represent terminally differentiated stage. Their effects on the developmental process were mainly investigated in the amphibian and fishes, and only observed in some rodents as mammalian model. Recently, we have established tetraploidy somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived human embryonic stem cells (SCNT-hESCs) and examined whether it could be available as a research model for the polyploidy cells existed in the human tissues. Two tetraploid hESC lines were artificially acquired by reintroduction of remained 1st polar body during the establishment of SCNT-hESC using MII oocytes obtained from female donors and dermal fibroblasts (DFB) from a 35-year-old adult male. These tetraploid SCNT-hESC lines (CHA-NT1 and CHA-NT3) were identified by the cytogenetic genotyping (91, XXXY,-6, t[2:6] / 92,XXXY,-12,+20) and have shown of indefinite proliferation, but slow speed when compared to euploid SCNT-hESCs. Using the eight Short Tendem Repeat (STR) markers, it was confirmed that both CHA-NT1 and CHA-NT3 lines contain both nuclear and oocyte donor genotypes. These hESCs expressed pluripotency markers and their embryoid bodies (EB) also expressed markers of the three embryonic germ layers and formed teratoma after transplantation into immune deficient mice. This study showed that tetraploidy does not affect the activities of proliferation and differentiation in SCNT-hESC. Therefore, tetraploid hESC lines established after SCNT procedure could be differentiated into various types of cells and could be an useful model for the study of the polyploidy cells in the tissues.

  12. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue; Pang, Daxin; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Report for the first time that vitamin C has a beneficial effect on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. → The level of acH4K5 and Oct4 expression at blastocyst-stage was up-regulated after treatment. → A higher rate of gestation and increased number of piglets born were harvested in the treated group. -- Abstract: The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50 μg/mL vitamin C 15 h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos.

  13. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Pang, Daxin, E-mail: pdx@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Ouyang, Hongsheng, E-mail: ouyh@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Report for the first time that vitamin C has a beneficial effect on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. {yields} The level of acH4K5 and Oct4 expression at blastocyst-stage was up-regulated after treatment. {yields} A higher rate of gestation and increased number of piglets born were harvested in the treated group. -- Abstract: The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50 {mu}g/mL vitamin C 15 h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos.

  14. Viable calves produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using meiotic-blocked oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bem, Tiago H C; Chiaratti, Marcos R; Rochetti, Raquel; Bressan, Fabiana F; Sangalli, Juliano R; Miranda, Moysés S; Pires, Pedro R L; Schwartz, Kátia R L; Sampaio, Rafael V; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Pimentel, José R V; Perecin, Felipe; Smith, Lawrence C; Meirelles, Flávio V; Adona, Paulo R; Leal, Cláudia L V

    2011-10-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has had an enormous impact on our understanding of biology and remains a unique tool for multiplying valuable laboratory and domestic animals. However, the complexity of the procedure and its poor efficiency are factors that limit a wider application of SCNT. In this context, oocyte meiotic arrest is an important option to make SCNT more flexible and increase the number of cloned embryos produced. Herein, we show that the use of butyrolactone I in association with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to arrest the meiotic division for 24 h prior to in vitro maturation provides bovine (Bos indicus) oocytes capable of supporting development of blastocysts and full-term cloned calves at least as efficiently as nonarrested oocytes. Furthermore, the procedure resulted in cloned blastocysts with an 1.5- and twofold increase of POU5F1 and IFNT2 expression, respectively, which are well-known markers of embryonic viability. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was diminished by prematuration in immature oocytes (718,585±34,775 vs. 595,579±31,922, respectively, control and treated groups) but was unchanged in mature oocytes (522,179±45,617 vs. 498,771±33,231) and blastocysts (816,627±40,235 vs. 765,332±51,104). To our knowledge, this is the first report of cloned offspring born to prematured oocytes, indicating that meiotic arrest could have significant implications for laboratories working with SCNT and in vitro embryo production.

  15. In vitro oocyte culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer used to produce a live-born cloned goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkoshi, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Seiya; Koyama, Shin-Ichiro; Akagi, Satoshi; Adachi, Noritaka; Furusawa, Tadashi; Fujimoto, Jun-Ichiro; Takeda, Kumiko; Kubo, Masanori; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Tokunaga, Tomoyuki

    2003-01-01

    The use of an in vitro culture system was examined for production of somatic cells suitable for nuclear transfer in the goat. Goat cumulus-oocyte complexes were incubated in tissue culture medium TCM-199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 20 h. In vitro matured (IVM) oocytes were enucleated and used as karyoplast recipients. Donor cells obtained from the anterior pituitary of an adult male were introduced into the perivitelline space of enucleated IVM oocytes and fused by an electrical pulse. Reconstituted oocytes were cultured in chemically defined medium for 9 days. Two hundred and twenty-eight oocytes (70%) were fused with donor cells. After in vitro culture, seven somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes (3%) developed to the blastocyst stage. SCNT embryos were transferred to the oviducts of recipient females (four 8-cell embryos per female) or uterine horn (two blastocysts per female). One male clone (NT1) was produced at day 153 from an SCNT blastocyst and died 16 days after birth. This study demonstrates that nuclear transferred goat oocytes produced using an in vitro culture system could develop to term and that donor anterior pituitary cells have the developmental potential to produce term offspring. In this study, it suggested that the artificial control of endocrine system in domestic animal might become possible by the genetic modification to anterior pituitary cells.

  16. Telomere Elongation and Naive Pluripotent Stem Cells Achieved from Telomerase Haplo-Insufficient Cells by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ying Sung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Haplo-insufficiency of telomerase genes in humans leads to telomere syndromes such as dyskeratosis congenital and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Generation of pluripotent stem cells from telomerase haplo-insufficient donor cells would provide unique opportunities toward the realization of patient-specific stem cell therapies. Recently, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (ntESCs have been efficiently achieved by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. We tested the hypothesis that SCNT could effectively elongate shortening telomeres of telomerase haplo-insufficient cells in the ntESCs with relevant mouse models. Indeed, telomeres of telomerase haplo-insufficient (Terc+/− mouse cells are elongated in ntESCs. Moreover, ntESCs derived from Terc+/− cells exhibit naive pluripotency as evidenced by generation of Terc+/− ntESC clone pups by tetraploid embryo complementation, the most stringent test of naive pluripotency. These data suggest that SCNT could offer a powerful tool to reprogram telomeres and to discover the factors for robust restoration of telomeres and pluripotency of telomerase haplo-insufficient somatic cells. : Sung et al. demonstrate in a mouse model that telomeres of telomerase haplo-insufficient cells can be elongated by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Moreover, ntESCs derived from Terc+/− cells exhibit pluripotency evidenced by generation of Terc+/−ntESC clone pups by tetraploid embryo complementation, the most stringent test of naive pluripotency.

  17. Somatic cell nuclear transfer using transported in vitro-matured oocytes in cynomolgus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N; Liow, S-L; Abdullah, R Bin; Embong, W Khadijah Wan; Yip, W-Y; Tan, L-G; Tong, G-Q; Ng, S-C

    2007-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is not successful so far in non-human primates. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stimulation cycles (first and repeat) on oocyte retrieval and in vitro maturation (IVM) and to evaluate the effects of stimulation cycles and donor cell type (cumulus and fetal skin fibroblasts) on efficiency of SCNT with transported IVM oocytes. In this study, 369 immature oocytes were collected laparoscopically at 24 h following human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) treatment from 12 cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) in 24 stimulation cycles, and shipped in pre-equilibrated IVM medium for a 5 h journey, placed in a dry portable incubator (37 degrees C) without CO(2) supplement. A total of 70.6% (247/350) of immature oocytes reached metaphase II (MII) stage at 36 h after hCG administration, MII spindle could be seen clearly in 80.6% (104/129) of matured IVM oocytes under polarized microscopy. A total of 50.0% (37/74) of reconstructive SCNT embryos cleaved after activation; after cleavage, 37.8% (14/37) developed to the 8-cell stage and 8.1% (3/37) developed to morula, but unfortunately none developed to the blastocyst stage. Many more oocytes could be retrieved per cycle from monkeys in the first cycle than in repeated cycles (19.1 vs. 11.7, p vs. 71.4%, p > 0.05) and MII spindle rate under polarized microscopy (76.4 vs. 86.0%, p > 0.05) between the first and repeat cycles. There were also no significant differences in the cleavage rate, and the 4-cell, 8-cell and morula development rate of SCNT embryos between the first and repeat cycles. When fibroblast cells and cumulus cells were used as the donor cells for SCNT, first cleavage rate was not significantly different, but 4-cell (50.0 vs. 88.9%, p vs. 51.9%, p < 0.01) development rate were significantly lower for the former. In conclusion, the number of stimulation cycles has a significant effect on oocyte retrieval, but has no effect on maturation and SCNT embryo

  18. Development capacity of pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes evaluated by somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Hanne; Li, Rong; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Most of the porcine oocytes used for in vitro studies are collected from gilts. Our aims were to study development capacity of gilt v. sow oocytes (pre- and postpubertal respectively) using 2 techniques illustrating development competence [parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear...... transfer (SCNT)], and to describe a simple method to select the most competent oocytes. Inside-ZP diameter of in vitro-matured gilt oocytes was measured (µm; small ≤110; medium >110; large ≥120). Gilt and sow oocytes were morphologically grouped as good (even cytoplasm, smooth cell membrane, visible...

  19. PCI-24781 can improve in vitro and in vivo developmental capacity of pig somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Li, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Guang-Lei; Xing, Xiao-Xu; Xuan, Mei-Fu; Luo, Qi-Rong; Yin, Xi-Jun; Kang, Jin-Dan

    2016-09-01

    To examine the effect of PCI-24781 (abexinostat) on the blastocyst formation rate in pig somatic cell nuclear transferred (SCNT) embryos and acetylation levels of the histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H4 lysine 12. Treatment with 0.5 nM PCI-24781 for 6 h significantly improved the development of cloned embryos, in comparison to the control group (25.3 vs. 10.5 %, P PCI-24781 treatment led to elevated acetylation of H3K9 and H4K12. TUNEL assay and Hoechst 33342 staining revealed that the percentage of apoptotic cells in blastocysts was significantly lower in PCI-24781-treated SCNT embryos than in untreated embryos. Also, PCI-24781-treated embryos were transferred into three surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and two fetuses developed. PCI-24781 improves nuclear reprogramming and the developmental potential of pig SCNT embryos.

  20. Effective donor cell fusion conditions for production of cloned dogs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JungEun; Oh, HyunJu; Hong, SoGun; Kim, MinJung; Kim, GeonA; Koo, OkJae; Kang, SungKeun; Jang, Goo; Lee, ByeongChun

    2011-03-01

    As shown by the birth of the first cloned dog 'Snuppy', a protocol to produce viable cloned dogs has been reported. In order to evaluate optimum fusion conditions for improving dog cloning efficiency, in vivo matured oocytes were reconstructed with adult somatic cells from a female Pekingese using different fusion conditions. Fusion with needle vs chamber methods, and with low vs high pulse strength was compared by evaluating fusion rate and in vivo development of canine cloned embryos. The fusion rates in the high voltage groups were significantly higher than in the low voltage groups regardless of fusion method (83.5 vs 66.1% for the needle fusion method, 67.4 vs 37.9% for the fusion chamber method). After embryo transfer, one each pregnancy was detected after using the needle fusion method with high and low voltage and in the chamber fusion method with high voltage, whereas no pregnancy was detected using the chamber method with low voltage. However, only the pregnancy from the needle fusion method with high voltage was maintained to term and one healthy puppy was delivered. The results of the present study demonstrated that two DC pulses of 3.8 to 4.0 kV/cm for 15 μsec using the needle fusion method were the most effective method for the production of cloned dogs under the conditions of this experiment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in its first and the second decade: sussesses, setbacks, paradoxes and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajta, Gabor

    2007-01-01

    The present review gives a subjective outline of the past and future of somatic cell nuclear trensfer (SCNT). The first decade was full of contradictions: amazing successes were followed by frustrating fiascos. Although the possibility of reversing somatic cell differentiation completely is a more...

  2. Why a criminal ban? Analyzing the arguments against somatic cell nuclear transfer in the Canadian parliamentary debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; Bubela, Tania

    2007-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) remains a controversial technique, one that has elicited a variety of regulatory responses throughout the world. On March 29, 2005, Canada's Assisted Human Reproduction Act came into force. This law prohibits a number of research activities, including SCNT. Given the pluralistic nature of Canadian society, the creation of this law stands as an interesting case study of the policy-making process and how and why a liberal democracy ends up making the relatively rare decision to use a statutory prohibition, backed by severe penalties, to stop a particular scientific activity. In this article, we provide a comprehensive and systematic legal analysis of the legislative process and parliamentary debates associated with the passage of this law.

  3. [Effect of TSA and VPA treatment on long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis)-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zu-Xing; Huang, Gao-Bo; Luo, Jun; Ning, Shu-Fang; Lu, Sheng-Sheng; Lu, Ke-Huan

    2012-03-01

    Long-tailed macaque-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is beneficial to yield embryonic stem cells from iSCNT embryos with similar genetic background as human, which can be used as materials for medical and basic research. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of concentrations and treatment duration of two histone deacetylase inhibitors-Trichostatin A (TSA) and Valproic acid (VPA) and two different embryo culture media (PZM-3 and HECM-10) on the in vitro development of iSCNT embryos. The results suggested that when PZM-3 was used as the embryo culture medium, the blastocyst rate of 10 nmol/L TSA treatment for 48 h was significantly higher than the control group (22.78% vs 9.86%, PTSA treatment could enhance the in vitro developmental potential of long-tailed macaque-pig iSCNT embryos.

  4. Production of cloned mice and ES cells from adult somatic cells by nuclear transfer: how to improve cloning efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2007-02-01

    Although it has now been 10 years since the first cloned mammals were generated from somatic cells using nuclear transfer (NT), most cloned embryos usually undergo developmental arrest prior to or soon after implantation, and the success rate for producing live offspring by cloning remains below 5%. The low success rate is believed to be associated with epigenetic errors, including abnormal DNA hypermethylation, but the mechanism of "reprogramming" is unclear. We have been able to develop a stable NT method in the mouse in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. Especially in the mouse, only a few laboratories can make clones from adult somatic cells, and cloned mice are never successfully produced from most mouse strains. However, this technique promises to be an important tool for future research in basic biology. For example, NT can be used to generate embryonic stem (NT-ES) cell lines from a patient's own somatic cells. We have shown that NT-ES cells are equivalent to ES cells derived from fertilized embryos and that they can be generated relatively easily from a variety of mouse genotypes and cell types of both sexes, even though it may be more difficult to generate clones directly. In general, NT-ES cell techniques are expected to be applied to regenerative medicine; however, this technique can also be applied to the preservation of genetic resources of mouse strain instead of embryos, oocytes and spermatozoa. This review describes how to improve cloning efficiency and NT-ES cell establishment and further applications.

  5. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further

  6. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun, E-mail: yinxj33@msn.com

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further.

  7. Vitamin C supplementation enhances compact morulae formation but reduces the hatching blastocyst rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Rui-Zhe; Cui, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Zhe; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 μg/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, pvitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, pVitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos.

  8. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Followed by CRIPSR/Cas9 Microinjection Results in Highly Efficient Genome Editing in Cloned Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Sheets

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestic pig is an ideal “dual purpose” animal model for agricultural and biomedical research. With the availability of genome editing tools such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR and associated nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9, it is now possible to perform site-specific alterations with relative ease, and will likely help realize the potential of this valuable model. In this article, we investigated for the first time a combination of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT and direct injection of CRISPR/Cas ribonucleoprotein complex targeting GRB10 into the reconstituted oocytes to generate GRB10 ablated Ossabaw fetuses. This strategy resulted in highly efficient (100% generation of biallelic modifications in cloned fetuses. By combining SCNT with CRISPR/Cas9 microinjection, genome edited animals can now be produced without the need to manage a founder herd, while simultaneously eliminating the need for laborious in vitro culture and screening. Our approach utilizes standard cloning techniques while simultaneously performing genome editing in the cloned zygotes of a large animal model for agriculture and biomedical applications.

  9. Improved cloning efficiency and developmental potential in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer with the oosight imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Park, Min Jee; Park, Hyo Young; Noh, Eun Ji; Noh, Eun Hyung; Park, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Riu, Key Zung; Park, Se Pill

    2012-08-01

    In somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedures, exquisite enucleation of the recipient oocyte is critical to cloning efficiency. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two enucleation systems, Hoechst staining and UV irradiation (hereafter, irradiation group) and Oosight imaging (hereafter, Oosight group), on the in vitro production of bovine SCNT embryos. In the Oosight group, the apoptotic index (2.8 ± 0.5 vs. 7.3 ± 1.2) was lower, and the fusion rate (75.6% vs. 62.9%), cleavage rate (78.0% vs. 63.7%), blastocyst rate (40.2% vs. 29.2%), and total cell number (128.3±4.8 vs. 112.2 ± 7.6) were higher than those in the irradiation group (all p<0.05). The overall efficiency after SCNT was twice as high in the Oosight group as that in the irradiation group (p<0.05). The relative mRNA expression levels of Oct4, Nanog, Interferon-tau, and Dnmt3A were higher and those of Caspase-3 and Hsp70 were lower in the Oosight group compared with the irradiation group (p<0.05). This is the first report to show the positive effect of the Oosight imaging system on molecular gene expression in the SCNT embryo. The Oosight imaging system may become the preferred choice for enucleation because it is less detrimental to the developmental potential of bovine SCNT embryos.

  10. Pluripotency maintenance in mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos and its improvement by treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Tang; Hao, Jie; Wang, Liu; Jouneau, Alice; Zhou, Qi

    2011-02-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency can be achieved by nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes (SCNT). A key event of this process is the demethylation of the Oct4 gene and its temporally and spatially regulated expression. Different studies have shown that it occurs abnormally in some SCNT embryos. TSA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor known to increase the efficiency of development to term of SCNT embryos, but its impact on the developmental features of SCNT embryos is poorly understood. Here, we have followed the fate of the pluripotent cells within SCNT embryos, from the late blastocyst to the early epiblast prior to gastrulation. Our data show a delay in development correlated with a defect in forming and maintaining a correct number of Oct4 expressing ICM and epiblast cells in SCNT embryos. As a consequence, during the outgrowth phase of embryonic stem cell derivation as well as during diapause in vivo, part of the SCNT blastocysts completely lose their ICM cells. Meanwhile, the others display a correctly reprogrammed ICM compatible with the derivation of ES cells and development of the epiblast. Our data also indicate that TSA favors the establishment of pluripotency in SCNT embryos.

  11. Bovine conceptus of Bos indicus produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenesis present morphological variations since the blastocyst stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In cattle, embryo development is characterized by the appearance of two distinct cell layers, the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass. The latter will undergo differentiation to form the embryonic disc consisting of the epiblast and hypoblast. The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally characterize the bovine embryo from different in vitro production techniques, with emphasis on trophectoderm and inner cell mass cells. Bovine embryos on day 7 (conception = D1 of pregnancy, derived via in vitro production techniques, were fixed for light and transmission electron microscopy processing. Results suggested that embryos produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cells and parthenogenesis showed significant changes in macroscopic and microscopic structure. Size was reduced, and the inner cell mass had no defined shape. Furthermore, organelles responsible for the absorption processes, communication, growth, and cellular metabolism were fewer and had changes in shape, when compared to results in embryos produced by in vitrofertilization. We concluded that embryos produced by parthenogenesis and SCNT exhibit morphological differences when compared with IVF embryos, such as undeveloped blastocoel, poorly defined distribution of ICM, and morphological differences in organelles.

  12. Post-fusion treatment with MG132 increases transcription factor expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinyoung; Lee, Joohyeong; Kim, Jinyoung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Eunsong

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of post-fusion treatment of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 on maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, nuclear remodeling, embryonic development, and gene expression of cloned pig embryos. Immediately after electrofusion, SCNT oocytes were treated with MG132 and/or caffeine for 2 hr, vanadate for 0.5 hr, or vanadate for 0.5 hr followed by MG132 for 1.5 hr. Of the MG132 concentrations tested (0-5 microM), the 1 microM concentration showed a higher rate of blastocyst formation (25.9%) than 0 (14.2%), 0.5 (16.9%), and 5 microM (16.9%). Post-fusion treatment with MG132, caffeine, and both MG132 and caffeine improved blastocyst formation (22.1%, 21.4%, and 24.4%, respectively), whereas vanadate treatment inhibited blastocyst formation (6.5%) compared to the control (11.1%). When examined 2 hr after fusion and 1 hr after activation, MPF activity remained at a higher (P fusion with caffeine and/or MG132, but it was decreased by vanadate. The rate of oocytes showing premature chromosome condensation was not altered by MG132 but was decreased by vanadate treatment. In addition, formation of single pronuclei was increased by MG132 compared to control and vanadate treatment. MG132-treated embryos showed increased expression of POU5F1, DPPA2, DPPA3, DPPA5, and NDP52l1 genes compared to control embryos. Our results demonstrate that post-fusion treatment of SCNT oocytes with MG132 prevents MPF degradation and increases expression of transcription factors in SCNT embryos, which are necessary for normal development of SCNT embryos. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. DNA Methylation at a Bovine Alpha Satellite I Repeat CpG Site during Development following Fertilization and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Couldrey, Christine; Wells, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is postulated to contribute to the low developmental success following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Here, we describe the epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation at an alpha satellite I CpG site (αsatI-5) during development of cattle generated either by artificial insemination (AI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. Quantitative methylation analysis identified that SCNT donor cells were highly methylated at αsatI-5 and resulting SCNT bla...

  14. Role of chromosome stability and telomere length in the production of viable cell lines for somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betts Dean H

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT provides an appealing alternative for the preservation of genetic material in non-domestic and endangered species. An important prerequisite for successful SCNT is the availability of good quality donor cells, as normal embryo development is dependent upon proper reprogramming of the donor genome so that embryonic genes can be appropriately expressed. The characteristics of donor cell lines and their ability to produce embryos by SCNT were evaluated by testing the effects of tissue sample collection (DART biopsy, PUNCH biopsy, post-mortem EAR sample and culture initiation (explant, collagenase digestion techniques. Results Differences in initial sample size based on sample collection technique had an effect on the amount of time necessary for achieving primary confluence and the number of population doublings (PDL produced. Thus, DART and PUNCH biopsies resulted in cultures with decreased lifespans (50 PDL and chromosomally stable (>70% normal cells at 20 PDL cultures produced by post-mortem EAR samples. Chromosome stability was influenced by sample collection technique and was dependent upon the culture's initial telomere length and its rate of shortening over cell passages. Following SCNT, short-lived cultures resulted in significantly lower blastocyst development (≤ 0.9% compared to highly proliferative cultures (11.8%. Chromosome stability and sample collection technique were significant factors in determining blastocyst development outcome. Conclusion These data demonstrate the influence of culture establishment techniques on cell culture characteristics, including the viability, longevity and normality of cells. The identification of a quantifiable marker associated with SCNT embryo developmental potential, chromosome stability, provides a means by which cell culture conditions can be monitored and improved.

  15. Absence of nucleolus formation in raccoon dog-porcine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos results in embryonic developmental failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Nam, Yeong-Hee; Cheong, Seung-A; Kwak, Seong-Sung; Lee, Eunsong; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-08-25

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) can be a solution for preservation of endangered species that have limited oocytes. It has been reported that blastocyst production by iSCNT is successful even if the genetic distances between donors and recipients are large. In particular, domestic pig oocytes can support the development of canine to porcine iSCNT embryos. Therefore, we examined whether porcine oocytes may be suitable recipient oocytes for Korean raccoon dog iSCNT. We investigated the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on iSCNT embryo developmental patterns and nucleolus formation. Enucleated porcine oocytes were fused with raccoon dog fibroblasts by electrofusion and cleavage, and blastocyst development and nucleolus formation were evaluated. To our knowledge, this study is the first in which raccoon dog iSCNT was performed using porcine oocytes; we found that 68.5% of 158 iSCNT embryos had the ability to cleave. However, these iSCNT embryos did not develop past the 4-cell stage. Treatment with TSA did not affect iSCNT embryonic development; moreover, the nuclei failed to form nucleoli at 48 and 72 h post-activation (hpa). In contrast, pig SCNT embryos of the control group showed 18.8% and 87.9% nucleolus formation at 48 and 72 hpa, respectively. Our results demonstrated that porcine cytoplasts efficiently supported the development of raccoon dog iSCNT embryos to the 4-cell stage, the stage of porcine embryonic genome activation (EGA); however, these embryos failed to reach the blastocyst stage and showed defects in nucleolus formation.

  16. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Rita SF

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appropriately established during nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. A panel of imprinted, non-imprinted genes and satellite repeat sequences was examined in tissues collected from viable and failing mid-gestation SCNT foetuses and compared with similar tissues from gestation-matched normal foetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI. Results Most of the genomic regions examined in tissues from viable and failing SCNT foetuses had DNA methylation patterns similar to those in comparable tissues from AI controls. However, statistically significant differences were found between SCNT and AI at specific CpG sites in some regions of the genome, particularly those associated with SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1, which tended to be hypomethylated in SCNT tissues. There was a high degree of variation between individuals in methylation levels at almost every CpG site in these two regions, even in AI controls. In other genomic regions, methylation levels at specific CpG sites were tightly controlled with little variation between individuals. Only one site (HAND1 showed a tissue-specific pattern of DNA methylation. Overall, DNA methylation patterns in tissues of failing foetuses were similar to apparently viable SCNT foetuses, although there were individuals showing extreme deviant patterns. Conclusion These results show that SCNT foetuses that had developed to mid-gestation had largely undergone nuclear reprogramming and that the epigenetic signature at this stage was not a

  17. Intrinsic and extrinsic molecular determinants or modulators for epigenetic remodeling and reprogramming of somatic cell-derived genome in mammalian nuclear-transferred oocytes and resultant embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiec, M; Skrzyszowska, M

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of somatic cell cloning in mammals remains disappointingly low. Incomplete and aberrant reprogramming of epigenetic memory of somatic cell nuclei in preimplantation nuclear- transferred (NT) embryos is one of the most important factors that limit the cloning effectiveness. The extent of epigenetic genome-wide alterations, involving histone or DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, that are mediated by histone-lysine methyltransferases (HMTs) or DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) can be modulated/reversed via exogenous inhibitors of these enzymes throughout in vitro culture of nuclear donor cells, nuclear recipient oocytes and/or cloned embryos. The use of the artificial modifiers of epigenomically-conditioned gene expression leads to inhibition of both chromatin condensation and transcriptional silencing the genomic DNA of somatic cells that provide a source of nuclear donors for reconstruction of enucleated oocytes and generation of cloned embryos. The onset of chromatin decondensation and gene transcriptional activity is evoked both through specific/selective inactivating HMTs by BIX-01294 and through non-specific/non-selective blocking the activity of either DNMTs by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, zebularine, S-adenosylhomocysteine or HDACs by trichostatin A, valproic acid, scriptaid, oxamflatin, sodium butyrate, m-carboxycinnamic acid bishydroxamide, panobinostat, abexinostat, quisinostat, dacinostat, belinostat and psammaplin A. Epigenomic modulation of nuclear donor cells, nuclear recipient cells and/or cloned embryos may facilitate and accelerate the reprogrammability for gene expression of donor cell nuclei that have been transplanted into a host ooplasm and subsequently underwent dedifferentiating and re-establishing the epigenetically dependent status of their transcriptional activity during pre- and postimplantation development of NT embryos. Nevertheless, a comprehensive additional work is necessary to determine

  18. Efficient generation of GGTA1-null Diannan miniature pigs using TALENs combined with somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenmin Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α1,3-Galactosyltransferase (GGTA1 is essential for the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and therefore a simple and effective target for disrupting the expression of galactose α-1,3-galactose epitopes, which mediate hyperacute rejection (HAR in xenotransplantation. Miniature pigs are considered to have the greatest potential as xenotransplantation donors. A GGTA1-knockout (GTKO miniature pig might mitigate or prevent HAR in xenotransplantation. Methods Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs were designed to target exon 6 of porcine GGTA1 gene. The targeting activity was evaluated using a luciferase SSA recombination assay. Biallelic GTKO cell lines were established from single-cell colonies of fetal fibroblasts derived from Diannan miniature pigs following transfection by electroporation with TALEN plasmids. One cell line was selected as donor cell line for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT for the generation of GTKO pigs. GTKO aborted fetuses, stillborn fetuses and live piglets were obtained. Genotyping of the collected cloned individuals was performed. The Gal expression in the fibroblasts and one piglet was analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS, confocal microscopy, immunohistochemical (IHC staining and western blotting. Results The luciferase SSA recombination assay revealed that the targeting activities of the designed TALENs were 17.1-fold higher than those of the control. Three cell lines (3/126 showed GGTA1 biallelic knockout after modification by the TALENs. The GGTA1 biallelic modified C99# cell line enabled high-quality SCNT, as evidenced by the 22.3 % (458/2068 blastocyst developmental rate of the reconstructed embryos. The reconstructed GTKO embryos were subsequently transferred into 18 recipient gilts, of which 12 became pregnant, and six miscarried. Eight aborted fetuses were collected from the gilts that miscarried. One live fetus was obtained from one surrogate by caesarean

  19. Embryo aggregation does not improve the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Andrés; De Stéfano, Adrián; Jarazo, Javier; Buemo, Carla; Karlanian, Florencia; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The low efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) makes it necessary to investigate new strategies to improve embryonic developmental competence. Embryo aggregation has been successfully applied to improve cloning efficiency in mammals, but it remains unclear whether it could also be beneficial for iSCNT. In this study, we first compared the effect of embryo aggregation over in vitro development and blastocyst quality of porcine, bovine, and feline zona-free (ZF) parthenogenetic (PA) embryos to test the effects of embryo aggregation on species that were later used as enucleated oocytes donors in our iSCNT study. We then assessed whether embryo aggregation could improve the in vitro development of ZF equine iSCNT embryos after reconstruction with porcine, bovine, and feline ooplasm. Bovine- and porcine-aggregated PA blastocysts had significantly larger diameters compared with nonaggregated embryos. On the other hand, feline- and bovine-aggregated PA embryos had higher blastocyst cell number. Embryo aggregation of equine-equine SCNT was found to be beneficial for embryo development as we have previously reported, but the aggregation of three ZF reconstructed embryos did not improve embryo developmental rates on iSCNT. In vitro embryo development of nonaggregated iSCNT was predominantly arrested around the stage when transcriptional activation of the embryonic genome is reported to start on the embryo of the donor species. Nevertheless, independent of embryo aggregation, equine blastocyst-like structures could be obtained in our study using domestic feline-enucleated oocytes. Taken together, these results reported that embryo aggregation enhance in vitro PA embryo development and embryo quality but effects vary depending on the species. Embryo aggregation also improves, as expected, the in vitro embryo development of equine-equine SCNT embryos; however, we did not observe positive effects on equine iSCNT embryo development. Among oocytes

  20. Efficient generation of P53 biallelic knockout Diannan miniature pigs via TALENs and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youfeng Shen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs have many features that make them attractive as biomedical models for various diseases, including cancer. P53 is an important tumor suppressor gene that exerts a central role in protecting cells from oncogenic transformation and is mutated in a large number of human cancers. P53 mutations occur in almost every type of tumor and in over 50% of all tumors. In a recent publication, pigs with a mutated P53 gene were generated that resulted in lymphoma and renal and osteogenic tumors. However, approximately 80% of human tumors have dysfunctional P53. A P53-deficient pig model is still required to elucidate. Methods Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs were designed to target porcine P53 exon 4. The targeting activity was evaluated using a luciferase SSA recombination assay. P53 biallelic knockout (KO cell lines were established from single-cell colonies of fetal fibroblasts derived from Diannan miniature pigs followed by electroporation with TALENs plasmids. One cell line was selected as the donor cell line for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT for the generation of P53 KO pigs. P53 KO stillborn fetuses and living piglets were obtained. Gene typing of the collected cloned individuals was performed by T7EI assay and sequencing. Fibroblast cells from Diannan miniature piglets with a P53 biallelic knockout or wild type were analyzed for the P53 response to doxorubicin treatment by confocal microscopy and western blotting. Results The luciferase SSA recombination assay revealed that the targeting activities of the designed TALENs were 55.35-fold higher than those of the control. Eight cell lines (8/19 were mutated for P53, and five of them were biallelic knockouts. One of the biallelic knockout cell lines was selected as nuclear donor cells for SCNT. The cloned embryos were transferred into five recipient gilts, three of them becoming pregnant. Five live fetuses were obtained from one surrogate by caesarean

  1. Nuclear donor cell lines considerably influence cloning efficiency and the incidence of large offspring syndrome in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Wang, Y; Su, J; Luo, Y; Quan, F; Zhang, Y

    2013-08-01

    Total five ear skin fibroblast lines (named F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5) from different newborn Holstein cows have been used as nuclear donor cells for producing cloned cows by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The effects of these cell lines on both in vitro and in vivo developmental rates of cloned embryos, post-natal survivability and incidence of large offspring syndrome (LOS) were examined in this study. We found that the different cell lines possessed the same capacity to support pre-implantation development of cloned embryos, the cleavage and blastocyst formation rates ranged from 80.2 ± 0.9 to 84.5 ± 2.5% and 28.5 ± 0.9 to 33.3 ± 1.4%, respectively. However, their capacities to support the in vivo development of SCNT embryos showed significant differences (p cloning efficiency was significantly higher in group F5 than those in group F1, F2, F3 and F4 (9.3% vs 4.1%, 1.2%, 2.0% and 5.0%, respectively, p cloned offspring from cell line F1, F2, F3 and F4 showed LOS and gestation length delay, while all cloned offspring from F5 showed normal birthweight and gestation length. We concluded that the nuclear donor cell lines have significant impact on the in vivo development of cloned embryos and the incidence of LOS in cloned calves. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. DNA methylation at a bovine alpha satellite I repeat CpG site during development following fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Couldrey

    Full Text Available Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is postulated to contribute to the low developmental success following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Here, we describe the epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation at an alpha satellite I CpG site (αsatI-5 during development of cattle generated either by artificial insemination (AI or in vitro fertilization (IVF and SCNT. Quantitative methylation analysis identified that SCNT donor cells were highly methylated at αsatI-5 and resulting SCNT blastocysts showed significantly more methylation than IVF blastocysts. At implantation, no difference in methylation was observed between SCNT and AI in trophoblast tissue at αsatI-5, however, SCNT embryos were significantly hyper-methylated compared to AI controls at this time point. Following implantation, DNA methylation at αsatI-5 decreased in AI but not SCNT placental tissues. In contrast to placenta, the proportion of methylation at αsatI-5 remained high in adrenal, kidney and muscle tissues during development. Differences in the average proportion of methylation were smaller in somatic tissues than placental tissues but, on average, SCNT somatic tissues were hyper-methylated at αsatI-5. Although sperm from all bulls was less methylated than somatic tissues at αsatI-5, on average this site remained hyper-methylated in sperm from cloned bulls compared with control bulls. This developmental time course confirms that epigenetic reprogramming does occur, at least to some extent, following SCNT. However, the elevated methylation levels observed in SCNT blastocysts and cellular derivatives implies that there is either insufficient time or abundance of appropriate reprogramming factors in oocytes to ensure complete reprogramming. Incomplete reprogramming at this CpG site may be a contributing factor to low SCNT success rates, but more likely represents the tip of the iceberg in terms of incompletely reprogramming. Until protocols ensure the epigenetic

  3. Activation of ribosomal RNA genes in porcine embryos produced in vitro or by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Jakobsen, Anne Sørig

    2007-01-01

    The onset of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis occurs during the second half of the third cell cycle, that is, at the four-cell stage, in porcine embryos developed in vivo. In the present study the onset of rRNA synthesis was investigated in porcine embryos produced in vitro (IVP) or by somatic cell...

  4. The prevalence of embryonic remnants following the recovery of post-hatching bovine embryos produced in vitro or by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Natalie I; French, Andrew J

    2009-08-01

    The reliable collection of peri-implantation embryos in the bovine has important ramifications to post-transfer consequences, particularly in the elucidation of mechanisms associated with post-hatching embryo development and to perturbations in developmental growth following transfer. This study analyzed both in vitro produced (IVP) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo-like structures (ELS) recovered at Day (D) 14 and D21. The recovered ELS were subsequently processed for histological examination. At D14 and D21, many of the embryos recovered in the IVP group conformed to the appropriate stage of development. However, a significant number of anomalies were present in the SCNT groups when examined in more detail. Histological examination revealed that irrespective of whether these embryos had undergone trophoblast expansion to an ovoid, tubular or filamentous morphology, many had a degenerated hypoblast layer and a large proportion did not possess an epiblast and therefore could not differentiate into any of the three germ layers as would be expected at the neural groove or somite stage. The prevalence of this developmental pattern was random and did not correlate with treatment (IVP or SCNT) or with types of structures recovered. The rapid embryo elongation period also coincides with the time of greatest embryonic loss and these observations could have important implications for assessing the recovery of embryos post-transfer where incorrect morphological assessment could lead to false implantation and pregnancy determination rates. The implementation of additional methodology is required to adequately characterize the quality of IVP and SCNT-derived embryos collected post-transfer.

  5. In vitro culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer affect imprinting of SNRPN gene in pre- and post-implantation stages of development in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goff Alan K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryo in vitro manipulations during early development are thought to increase mortality by altering the epigenetic regulation of some imprinted genes. Using a bovine interspecies model with a single nucleotide polymorphism, we assessed the imprinting status of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN gene in bovine embryos produced by artificial insemination (AI, in vitro culture (IVF and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT and correlated allelic expression with the DNA methylation patterns of a differentially methylated region (DMR located on the SNRPN promoter. Results In the AI group, SNRPN maternal expression is silenced at day 17 and 40 of development and a third of the alleles analyzed are methylated in the DMR. In the IVF group, maternal transcripts were identified at day 17 but methylation levels were similar to the AI group. However, day-40 fetuses in the IVF group showed significantly less methylation when compared to the AI group and SNRPN expression was mostly paternal in all fetal tissues studied, except in placenta. Finally, the SCNT group presented severe loss of DMR methylation in both day-17 embryos and 40 fetuses and biallelic expression was observed in all stages and tissues analyzed. Conclusion Together these results suggest that artificial reproductive techniques, such as prolonged in vitro culture and SCNT, lead to abnormal reprogramming of imprinting of SNRPN gene by altering methylation levels at this locus.

  6. Deregulated Expression of Mitochondrial Proteins Mfn2 and Bcnl3L in Placentae from Sheep Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT Conceptuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Czernik

    Full Text Available In various animal species, the main cause of pregnancy loss in conceptuses obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT are placental abnormalities. Most abnormalities described in SCNT pregnancies (such as placentomegaly, reduced vascularisation, hypoplasia of trophoblastic epithelium suggest that placental cell degeneration may be triggered by mitochondrial failure. We hypothesized that placental abnormalities of clones obtained by SCNT are related to mitochondrial dysfunction. To test this, early SCNT and control (CTR, from pregnancies obtained by in vitro fertilization placentae were collected from pregnant ewes (at day 20 and 22 of gestation and subjected to morphological, mRNA and protein analysis. Here, we demonstrated swollen and fragmented mitochondria and low expression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2, the protein which plays a crucial role in mitochondrial functionality, in SCNT early placentae. Furthermore, reduced expression of the Bcnl3L/Nix protein, which plays a crucial role in selective elimination of damaged mitochondria, was observed and reflected by the accumulation of numerous damaged mitochondria in SCNT placental cells. Likely, this accumulation of damaged organelles led to uncontrolled apoptosis in SCNT placentae, as demonstrated by the high number of apoptotic bodies, fragmented cytoplasm, condensed chromatin, lack of integrity of the nuclear membrane and the perturbed mRNA expression of apoptotic genes (BCL2 and BAX. In conclusion, our data indicate that deregulated expression of Mfn2 and Bcnl3L is responsible for placental abnormalities in SCNT conceptuses. Our results suggest that some nuclear genes, that are involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function, do not work well and consequently this influence the function of mitochondria.

  7. Effect of calf death loss on cloned cattle herd derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer: clones with congenital defects would be removed by the death loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinya

    2013-09-01

    To increase public understanding on cloned cattle derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the present review describes the effect of calf death loss on an SCNT cattle herd. The incidence of death loss in SCNT cattle surviving more than 200 days reached the same level as that in conventionally bred cattle. This process could be considered as removal of SCNT cattle with congenital defects caused by calf death loss. As a result of comparative studies of SCNT cattle and conventionally bred cattle, the substantial equivalences in animal health status, milk and meat productive performance have been confirmed. Both sexes of SCNT cattle surviving to adulthood were fertile and their reproductive performance, including efficiency of progeny production, was the same as that in conventionally bred cattle. The presence of substantial equivalence between their progeny and conventionally bred cattle also existed. Despite these scientific findings, the commercial use of food products derived from SCNT cattle and their progeny has not been allowed by governments for reasons including the lack of public acceptance of these products and the low efficiency of animal SCNT. To overcome this situation, communication of the low risk of SCNT technology and research to improve SCNT efficiency are required. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Death losses due to stillbirth, neonatal death and diseases in cloned cattle derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer and their progeny: a result of nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Nagai, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    To obtain the data concerning death losses due to stillbirth, neonatal death and diseases in cloned cattle derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and their progeny produced by Japanese institutions, a nationwide survey was carried out in July-August, 2006. As a result, lifetime data concerning 482 SCNT cattle (97.5% of cattle produced in the country at that time) and 202 progeny of SCNT cattle were accumulated and the death loss of these cattle was analyzed. Although 1/3 of delivered SCNT calves died during the perinatal period due to stillbirth and neonatal death, incidence of death loss due to diseases in SCNT cattle surviving more than 200 days after birth seems to be the same as these in conventionally bred cattle. In contrast, progeny of SCNT cattle showed the same level in death loss as observed in conventionally bred cattle throughout their lifetime. These results suggest that robust health would be expected in SCNT cattle surviving to adulthood and their progeny.

  9. Culture medium composition affects the gene expression pattern and in vitro development potential of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, María E; Ross, Pablo J; Felmer, Ricardo N

    2013-01-01

    Different culture systems have been studied that support development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos up to the blastocyst stage. However, the use of sequential and two-step culture systems has been less studied. The objective of the present study was to examine the developmental potential and quality of bovine SCNT embryos cultured in different two-step culture media based on KSOM, SOF and the macromolecules FBS and BSA (K-K/FBS, K-S/BSA and K-K/BSA, respectively). No differences were observed in the cleavage rate for any of the culture systems. However, there was a significant difference (Pculture system yielding a higher rate of blastocysts (28%) compared to other treatments (18 and 15%, for K-S/BSA and K-K/BSA, respectively). Although quality of embryos, as assessed by the total number of cells, was not different, the apoptosis index was significantly affected in the sequential culture system (K-S/BSA). Gene expression analysis showed alterations of DNMT1, IGF2, LIF, and PRDX6 genes in embryos cultured in K-S/FBS and of SOD2 in embryos cultured in K-K/BSA. In conclusion, we demonstrated that culture medium may affect not only the developmental potential of SCNT embryos but also, more importantly, the gene expression pattern and apoptotic index, presenting the possibility to manipulate the culture medium composition to modulate global gene expression and improve the overall efficiency of this technique.

  10. TSA and BIX-01294 Induced Normal DNA and Histone Methylation and Increased Protein Expression in Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zubing; Hong, Renyun; Ding, Biao; Zuo, Xiaoyuan; Li, Hui; Ding, Jianping; Li, Yunsheng; Huang, Weiping; Zhang, Yunhai

    2017-01-01

    The poor efficiency of animal cloning is mainly attributed to the defects in epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells' chromatins during early embryonic development. Previous studies indicated that inhibition of histone deacetylases or methyltransferase, such as G9A, using Trichostatin A (TSA) or BIX-01294 significantly enhanced the developmental efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, potential mechanisms underlying the improved early developmental competence of SCNT embryos exposed to TSA and BIX-01294 are largely unclear. Here we found that 50 nM TSA or 1.0 μM BIX-01294 treatment alone for 24 h significantly elevated the blastocyst rate (P TSA treatment alone significantly reduced H3K9me2 level at the 4-cell stage, which is comparable with that in in vivo and in vitro fertilized counterparts. However, only co-treatment significantly decreased the levels of 5mC and H3K9me2 in trophectoderm lineage and subsequently increased the expression of OCT4 and CDX2 associated with ICM and TE lineage differentiation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that co-treatment of TSA and BIX-01294 enhances the early developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos via improvements in epigenetic status and protein expression.

  11. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  12. Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos.

  13. Morphological characterization of pre- and peri-implantation in vitro cultured, somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vivo derived ovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Peura, T.T.; Hartwich, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    The processes of cellular differentiation were studied in somatic cell nuvlear transfer (SCNT), in vitro cultured (IVC) and in vivo developed (in vivo) ovine embryos on days 7, 9, 11, 13, 17 and 19. SCNT embryos were constructed from in vitro matured oocytes and granulosa cells, and IVC embryos...... were produced by in vitro culture of in vivo fertilized zygotes. Most SCNT and IVC embryos were transferred to recipients on day 6 while some remained in culture for day 7 processing. In vivo embryos were collected as zygotes, transferred to intermediate recipients and retransferred to final recipients...

  14. First cloned Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) calf produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer: A step towards preserving the critically endangered wild Bactrian camels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettical, Binoy S.; Hong, Seung B.

    2017-01-01

    Studies were conducted to explore the possibility of employing dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) oocytes as recipient cytoplasts for the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos using skin fibroblast cells of an adult Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and Llama (Llama glama) as donor nuclei. Also, the embryos reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred into the uterus of synchronized dromedary camel recipients to explore the possibility of using them as surrogate mothers. Serum-starved skin fibroblast cells were injected into the perivitelline space of enucleated mature oocytes, collected from super-stimulated dromedary camels, and fused using an Eppendorf electroporator. After activation with 5μM ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine, they were cultured at 38.5°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2 in air. In experiment 1, Day 7 blastocysts were stained with Hoechst to count their cell numbers, while in experiment 2, they were transferred to synchronized dromedary recipients. A lower number (P < 0.05) of blastocysts were obtained from reconstructs utilizing fibroblast cells from Llama when compared with those reconstructed with dromedary and Bactrian fibroblast cells. However, no difference was observed in their cell numbers. In experiment 2, a higher (P < 0.05) proportion of blastocysts were obtained from the cleaved embryos reconstructed with Bactrian fibroblast cells when compared to those reconstructed with dromedary cells. Twenty-six Day 7 blastocysts reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred to 23 synchronized dromedary recipients with 5 pregnancies established on Day 30, however, only one of the pregnancies developed to term and a healthy calf weighing 33 kgs was born after completing 392 days of gestation. Unfortunately, the calf died on day 7 due to acute septicemia. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, birth of a cloned Bactrian calf by iSCNT using dromedary camel

  15. First cloned Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus calf produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer: A step towards preserving the critically endangered wild Bactrian camels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ahmad Wani

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to explore the possibility of employing dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius oocytes as recipient cytoplasts for the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT embryos using skin fibroblast cells of an adult Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus and Llama (Llama glama as donor nuclei. Also, the embryos reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred into the uterus of synchronized dromedary camel recipients to explore the possibility of using them as surrogate mothers. Serum-starved skin fibroblast cells were injected into the perivitelline space of enucleated mature oocytes, collected from super-stimulated dromedary camels, and fused using an Eppendorf electroporator. After activation with 5μM ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine, they were cultured at 38.5°C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2 in air. In experiment 1, Day 7 blastocysts were stained with Hoechst to count their cell numbers, while in experiment 2, they were transferred to synchronized dromedary recipients. A lower number (P < 0.05 of blastocysts were obtained from reconstructs utilizing fibroblast cells from Llama when compared with those reconstructed with dromedary and Bactrian fibroblast cells. However, no difference was observed in their cell numbers. In experiment 2, a higher (P < 0.05 proportion of blastocysts were obtained from the cleaved embryos reconstructed with Bactrian fibroblast cells when compared to those reconstructed with dromedary cells. Twenty-six Day 7 blastocysts reconstructed with Bactrian cells were transferred to 23 synchronized dromedary recipients with 5 pregnancies established on Day 30, however, only one of the pregnancies developed to term and a healthy calf weighing 33 kgs was born after completing 392 days of gestation. Unfortunately, the calf died on day 7 due to acute septicemia. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, birth of a cloned Bactrian calf by iSCNT using

  16. Anti-Bacterial Activity of Recombinant Human β-Defensin-3 Secreted in the Milk of Transgenic Goats Produced by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengquan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Quan, Fusheng; Gao, Mingqing; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether recombinant human β-defensin-3 (rHBD3) in the milk of transgenic goats has an anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) that could cause mastitis. A HBD3 mammary-specific expression vector was transfected by electroporation into goat fetal fibroblasts which were used to produce fourteen healthy transgenic goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The expression level of rHBD3 in the milk of the six transgenic goats ranged from 98 to 121 µg/ml at 15 days of lactation, and was maintained at 90–111 µg/ml during the following 2 months. Milk samples from transgenic goats showed an obvious inhibitory activity against E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of rHBD3 in milk against E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae were 9.5–10.5, 21.8–23.0 and 17.3–18.5 µg/mL, respectively, which was similar to those of the HBD3 standard (P>0.05). The in vivo anti-bacterial activities of rHBD3 in milk were examined by intramammary infusion of viable bacterial inoculums. We observed that 9/10 and 8/10 glands of non-transgenic goats infused with S. aureus and E. coli became infected. The mean numbers of viable bacteria went up to 2.9×103 and 95.4×103 CFU/ml at 48 h after infusion, respectively; the mean somatic cell counts (SCC) in infected glands reached up to 260.4×105 and 622.2×105 cells/ml, which were significantly higher than the SCC in uninfected goat glands. In contrast, no bacteria was presented in glands of transgenic goats and PBS-infused controls, and the SSC did not significantly change throughout the period. Moreover, the compositions and protein profiles of milk from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were identical. The present study demonstrated that HBD3 were an effective anti-bacterial protein to enhance the mastitis resistance of dairy animals. PMID:23799010

  17. Culture medium composition affects the gene expression pattern and in vitro development potential of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Arias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Different culture systems have been studied that support development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos up to the blastocyst stage. However, the use of sequential and two-step culture systems has been less studied. The objective of the present study was to examine the developmental potential and quality of bovine SCNT embryos cultured in different two-step culture media based on KSOM, SOF and the macromolecules FBS and BSA (K-K/FBS, K-S/BSA and K-K/BSA, respectively. No differences were observed in the cleavage rate for any of the culture systems. However, there was a significant difference (P<0.01 in the rate of blastocyst development, with the K-K/ FBS culture system yielding a higher rate of blastocysts (28% compared to other treatments (18 and 15%, for K-S/BSA and K-K/BSA, respectively. Although quality of embryos, as assessed by the total number of cells, was not different, the apoptosis index was significantly affected in the sequential culture system (K-S/BSA. Gene expression analysis showed alterations of DNMT1, IGF2, LIF, and PRDX6 genes in embryos cultured in K-S/FBS and of SOD2 in embryos cultured in K-K/BSA. In conclusion, we demonstrated that culture medium may affect not only the developmental potential of SCNT embryos but also, more importantly, the gene expression pattern and apoptotic index, presenting the possibility to manipulate the culture medium composition to modulate global gene expression and improve the overall efficiency of this technique.

  18. Expression profile of genes as indicators of developmental competence and quality of in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer bovine embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cánepa

    Full Text Available Reproductive biotechnologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT enable improved reproductive efficiency of animals. However, the birth rate of in vitro-derived embryos still lags behind that of their in vivo counterparts. Thus, it is critical to develop an accurate evaluation and prediction system of embryo competence, both for commercial purposes and for scientific research. Previous works have demonstrated that in vitro culture systems induce alterations in the relative abundance (RA of diverse transcripts and thus compromise embryo quality. The aim of this work was to analyze the RA of a set of genes involved in cellular stress (heat shock protein 70-kDa, HSP70, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress (immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein, Bip; proteasome subunit β5, PSMB5 and apoptosis (BCL-2 associated X protein, Bax; cysteine aspartate protease-3, Caspase-3 in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF or SCNT and compare it with that of their in vivo counterparts. Poly (A + mRNA was isolated from three pools of 10 blastocysts per treatment and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The RA of three of the stress indicators analyzed (Bax, PSMB5 and Bip was significantly increased in SCNT embryos as compared with that of in vivo-derived blastocysts. No significant differences were found in the RA of HSP70 and Caspase-3 gene transcripts. This study could potentially complement morphological analyses in the development of an effective and accurate technique for the diagnosis of embryo quality, ultimately aiding to improve the efficiency of assisted reproductive techniques (ART.

  19. Generation of GHR-modified pigs as Laron syndrome models via a dual-sgRNAs/Cas9 system and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Honghao; Long, Weihu; Zhang, Xuezeng; Xu, Kaixiang; Guo, Jianxiong; Zhao, Heng; Li, Honghui; Qing, Yubo; Pan, Weirong; Jia, Baoyu; Zhao, Hong-Ye; Huang, Xingxu; Wei, Hong-Jiang

    2018-02-27

    Laron syndrome is an autosomal disease resulting from mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. The only therapeutic treatment for Laron syndrome is recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which has been shown to have various side effects. The improved Laron syndrome models are important for better understanding the pathogenesis of the disease and developing corresponding therapeutics. Pigs have become attractive biomedical models for human condition due to similarities in anatomy, physiology, and metabolism relative to humans, which could serve as an appropriate model for Laron syndrome. To further improve the GHR knockout (GHRKO) efficiency and explore the feasibility of precise DNA deletion at targeted sites, the dual-sgRNAs/Cas9 system was designed to target GHR exon 3 in pig fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). The vectors encoding sgRNAs and Cas9 were co-transfected into PFFs by electroporation and GHRKO cell lines were established by single cell cloning culture. Two biallelic knockout cell lines were selected as the donor cell line for somatic cell nuclear transfer for the generation of GHRKO pigs. The genotype of colonies, cloned fetuses and piglets were identified by T7 endonuclease I (T7ENI) assay and sequencing. The GHR expression in the fibroblasts and piglets was analyzed by confocal microscopy, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The phenotype of GHRKO pigs was recapitulated through level detection of IGF-I and glucose, and measurement of body weight and body size. GHRKO F1 generation were generated by crossing with wild-type pigs, and their genotype was detected by T7ENI assay and sequencing. GHRKO F2 generation was obtained via self-cross of GHRKO F1 pigs. Their genotypes of GHRKO F2 generation was also detected by Sanger sequencing. In total, 19 of 20 single-cell colonies exhibited biallelic modified GHR (95%), and the efficiency of DNA deletion mediated by dual

  20. Numerical chromosome errors in day 7 somatic nuclear blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Viuff, Dorthe; Tan, Shijian J

    2003-01-01

    Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona-free manipulat......Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona...... families, consisting of 112 blastocysts reconstructed from five different primary granulosa cell cultures, were examined. Overall, the mean chromosome complement within embryos was 86.9 +/- 3.7% (mean +/- SEM) diploid, 2.6 +/- 0.5% triploid, 10.0 +/- 3.1% tetraploid, and 0.5 +/- 0.2% pentaploid or greater......; the vast majority (>75%) of the abnormal nuclei were tetraploid. Completely diploid and mixoploid embryos represented 22.1 +/- 4.5% and 73.7 +/- 5.5%, respectively, of all clones. Six totally polyploid blastocysts, containing or=5N chromosome complements, respectively) between two clone families were...

  1. Oversight framework over oocyte procurement for somatic cell nuclear transfer: comparative analysis of the Hwang Woo Suk case under South Korean bioethics law and U.S. guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    We examine whether the current regulatory regime instituted in South Korea and the United States would have prevented Hwang's potential transgressions in oocyte procurement for somatic cell nuclear transfer, we compare the general aspects and oversight framework of the Bioethics and Biosafety Act in South Korea and the US National Academies' Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, and apply the relevant provisions and recommendations to each transgression. We conclude that the Act would institute centralized oversight under governmental auspices while the Guidelines recommend politically-independent, decentralized oversight bodies including a special review body for human embryonic stem cell research at an institutional level and that the Guidelines would have provided more vigorous protection for the women who had undergone oocyte procurement for Hwang's research than the Act. We also suggest additional regulations to protect those who provide oocytes for research in South Korea.

  2. A protocol for adult somatic cell nuclear transfer in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) with a high rate of viable clone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenshchikova, Ekaterina; Kaftanovskaya, Elena; Adachi, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Kinoshita, Masato; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2013-12-01

    Previously, we successfully generated fully grown, cloned medaka (the Japanese rice fish, Oryzias latipes) using donor nuclei from primary culture cells of adult caudal fin tissue and nonenucleated recipient eggs that were heat shock-treated to induce diploidization of the nuclei. However, the mechanism of clone formation using this method is unknown, and the rate of adult clone formation is not high enough for studies in basic and applied sciences. To gain insight into the mechanism and increase the success rate of this method of clone formation, we tested two distinct nuclear transfer protocols. In one protocol, the timing of transfer of donor nuclei was changed, and in the other, the size of the donor cells was changed; each protocol was based on our original methodology. Ultimately, we obtained an unexpectedly high rate of adult clone formation using the protocol that differed with respect to the timing of donor nuclei transfer. Specifically, 17% of the transplants that developed to the blastula stage ultimately developed into adult clones. The success rate with this method was 13 times higher than that obtained using the original method. Analyses focusing on the reasons for this high success rate of clone formation will help to elucidate the mechanism of clone formation that occurs with this method.

  3. Production of cloned NIBS (Nippon Institute for Biological Science) and α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout MGH miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the NIBS breed as surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Horii, Wataru; Hirakata, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Waki, Shiori; Sano, Junichi; Saitoh, Toshiki; Sahara, Hisashi; Shimizu, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Sachs, David H.; Nunoya, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear transfer (NT) technologies offer a means for producing the genetically modified pigs necessary to develop swine models for mechanistic studies of disease processes as well as to serve as organ donors for xenotransplantation. Most previous studies have used commercial pigs as surrogates. Method and Results In this study, we established a cloning technique for miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using Nippon Institute for Biological Science (NIBS) miniature pigs as surrogates. Moreover, utilizing this technique, we have successfully produced an α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) miniature swine. Fibroblasts procured from a NIBS miniature pig fetus were injected into 1312 enucleated oocytes. The cloned embryos were transferred to 11 surrogates of which five successfully delivered 13 cloned offspring; the production efficiency was 1.0% (13/1312). In a second experiment, lung fibroblasts obtained from neonatal GalT-KO MGH miniature swine were used as donor cells and 1953 cloned embryos were transferred to 12 surrogates. Six cloned offspring were born from five surrogates, a production efficiency of 0.3% (6/1953). Conclusions These results demonstrate successful establishment of a miniature pig cloning technique by SCNT using NIBS miniature pigs as surrogates. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of successful production of GalT-KO miniature swine using miniature swine surrogates. This technique could help to ensure a stable supply of the cloned pigs through the use of miniature pig surrogates and could expand production in countries with limited space or in facilities with special regulations such as specific pathogen-free or good laboratory practice. PMID:23581451

  4. Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer in Asiatic cheetah using nuclei derived from post-mortem frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulavi, F; Hosseini, S M; Tanhaie-Vash, N; Ostadhosseini, S; Hosseini, S H; Hajinasrollah, M; Asghari, M H; Gourabi, H; Shahverdi, A; Vosough, A D; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2017-03-01

    Recent accomplishments in the field of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) hold tremendous promise to prevent rapid loss of animal genetic resources using ex situ conservation technology. Most of SCNT studies use viable cells for nuclear transfer into recipient oocytes. However, preparation of live cells in extreme circumstances, in which post-mortem material of endangered/rare animals is improperly retained frozen, is difficult, if not impossible. This study investigated the possibility of interspecies-SCNT (iSCNT) in Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), a critically endangered subspecies, using nuclei derived from frozen tissue in absence of cryo-protectant at -20 °C and in vitro matured domestic cat oocytes. No cells growth was detected in primary culture of skin and tendon pieces or following culture of singled cells prepared by enzymatic digestion. Furthermore, no live cells were detected following differential viable staining and almost all cells had ruptured membrane. Therefore, direct injection of donor nuclei into enucleated cat oocytes matured in vitro was carried out for SCNT experiments. Early signs of nuclear remodeling were observed as early as 2 h post-iSCNT and significantly increased at 4 h post-iSCNT. The percentages of iSCNT reconstructs that cleaved and developed to 4-16 cell and morula stages were 32.3 ± 7.3, 18.2 ± 9.8 and 5.9 ± 4.3%, respectively. However, none of the iSCNT reconstructs developed to the blastocyst stage. When domestic cat somatic and oocytes were used for control SCNT and parthenogenetic activation, the respective percentages of oocytes that cleaved (51.3 ± 13.9 and 77.3 ± 4.0%) and further developed to the blastocyst stage (11.3 ± 3.3 and 16.8 ± 3.8%) were comparable. In summary, this study demonstrated that enucleated cat oocytes can partially remodel and reactivate non-viable nuclei of Asiatic cheetah and support its reprogramming back to the embryonic stage. To our knowledge, this is

  5. The Number of Point Mutations in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer Embryonic Stem Cells Depends on the Method and Somatic Cell Type Used for Their Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Ryoko; Mizutani, Eiji; Hoki, Yuko; Sunayama, Misato; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Kasama, Yasuji; Nakamura, Miki; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Abe, Masumi

    2017-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine but point mutations have been identified in these cells and have raised serious concerns about their safe use. We generated nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (ntESCs) from both mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs) and by whole genome sequencing found fewer mutations compared with iPSCs generated by retroviral gene transduction. Furthermore, TTF-derived ntESCs showed only a very small number of point mutations, approximately 80% less than the number observed in iPSCs generated using retrovirus. Base substitution profile analysis confirmed this greatly reduced number of point mutations. The point mutations in iPSCs are therefore not a Yamanaka factor-specific phenomenon but are intrinsic to genome reprogramming. Moreover, the dramatic reduction in point mutations in ntESCs suggests that most are not essential for genome reprogramming. Our results suggest that it is feasible to reduce the point mutation frequency in iPSCs by optimizing various genome reprogramming conditions. We conducted whole genome sequencing of ntES cells derived from MEFs or TTFs. We thereby succeeded in establishing TTF-derived ntES cell lines with far fewer point mutations. Base substitution profile analysis of these clones also indicated a reduced point mutation frequency, moving from a transversion-predominance to a transition-predominance. Stem Cells 2017;35:1189-1196. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Nuclear and nuclear reprogramming during the first cell cycle in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Petrovicova, Ida; Strejcek, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The immediate events of genomic reprogramming at somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are to high degree unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the nuclear and nucleolar changes during the first cell cycle. Bovine SCNT embryos were produced from starved bovine fibroblasts and fixed......, somatic cell nuclei introduced into enucleated oocytes displayed chromatin condensation, partial nuclear envelope breakdown, nucleolar desegregation and transcriptional quiescence already at 0.5 hpa. Somatic cell cytoplasm remained temporally attached to introduced nucleus and nucleolus was partially...... restored indicating somatic influence in the early SCNT phases. At 1-3 hpa, chromatin gradually decondensed toward the nucleus periphery and nuclear envelope reformed. From 4 hpa, the somatic cell nucleus gained a PN-like appearance and displayed NPBs suggesting ooplasmic control of development....

  7. ¿Es posible la recuperación de especies silvestres extintas a través de la transferencia somática nuclear? Is the recovery of extinct wild species through somatic nuclear transfer possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet López-Saucedo

    2010-08-01

    technology approaches. However, considering that Mexico is one of the megadiverse countries with a great number of species of threatened mammals, biotechnological tools are urgently needed for conservation research of Mexican species. Furthermore, these tools need to be utilized and developed by our own scientific Latin-American community. In this note, we discuss the scientific advances that have proposed the use of somatic nuclear transfer as a conservation tool, its real possibilities, the needs and suggestions for its development in threatened Mexican / Latin-American mammal species that should allow modern biotechnology to turn into one more tool in the battle of biological conservation.

  8. Developmental potential of human oocytes reconstructed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into polyspermic zygote cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yong; Chen, Xinjie; Luo, Yumei; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Shaoying; Huang, Yulin; Sun, Xiaofang

    2009-01-01

    The generation of patient-specific nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells holds huge promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. Since human in vivo matured oocytes are not readily available, human therapeutic cloning is developing slowly. Here, we investigated for the first time whether human polyspermic zygotes could support preimplantation development of cloned embryos. Our results showed that polyspermic zygotes could be used as recipients for human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The preimplantation developmental potential of SCNT embryos from polyspermic zygotes was limited to the 8-cell stage. Since ES cell lines can be derived from single blastomeres, these results may have important significance for human ES cells derived by SCNT. In addition, confocal images demonstrated that all of the SCNT embryos that failed to cleave showed abnormal microtubule organization. The results of the present study suggest that polyspermic human zygotes could be used as a potential source of recipient cytoplasm for SCNT.

  9. Developmental potential of human oocytes reconstructed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into polyspermic zygote cytoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yong; Chen, Xinjie; Luo, Yumei; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Shaoying; Huang, Yulin [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Sun, Xiaofang, E-mail: xiaofangsun@hotmail.com [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2009-04-24

    The generation of patient-specific nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells holds huge promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. Since human in vivo matured oocytes are not readily available, human therapeutic cloning is developing slowly. Here, we investigated for the first time whether human polyspermic zygotes could support preimplantation development of cloned embryos. Our results showed that polyspermic zygotes could be used as recipients for human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The preimplantation developmental potential of SCNT embryos from polyspermic zygotes was limited to the 8-cell stage. Since ES cell lines can be derived from single blastomeres, these results may have important significance for human ES cells derived by SCNT. In addition, confocal images demonstrated that all of the SCNT embryos that failed to cleave showed abnormal microtubule organization. The results of the present study suggest that polyspermic human zygotes could be used as a potential source of recipient cytoplasm for SCNT.

  10. Transcriptional reprogramming of gene expression in bovine somatic cell chromatin transfer embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Page Grier P

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reprogramming of a somatic genome to produce a healthy clone by somatic cells nuclear transfer (SCNT is a rare event and the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly defined. When serial or successive rounds of cloning are performed, blastocyst and full term development rates decline even further with the increasing rounds of cloning. Identifying the "cumulative errors" could reveal the epigenetic reprogramming blocks in animal cloning. Results Bovine clones from up to four generations of successive cloning were produced by chromatin transfer (CT. Using Affymetrix bovine microarrays we determined that the transcriptomes of blastocysts derived from the first and the fourth rounds of cloning (CT1 and CT4 respectively have undergone an extensive reprogramming and were more similar to blastocysts derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF than to the donor cells used for the first and the fourth rounds of chromatin transfer (DC1 and DC4 respectively. However a set of transcripts in the cloned embryos showed a misregulated pattern when compared to IVF embryos. Among the genes consistently upregulated in both CT groups compared to the IVF embryos were genes involved in regulation of cytoskeleton and cell shape. Among the genes consistently upregulated in IVF embryos compared to both CT groups were genes involved in chromatin remodelling and stress coping. Conclusion The present study provides a data set that could contribute in our understanding of epigenetic errors in somatic cell chromatin transfer. Identifying "cumulative errors" after serial cloning could reveal some of the epigenetic reprogramming blocks shedding light on the reprogramming process, important for both basic and applied research.

  11. International nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, P.; Rocchio, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Light water reactors (LWRs), originally developed in the United States, became the nuclear workhorses for utilities in Europe and Japan largely because the U.S. industry was willing and able to transfer its nuclear know-how abroad. In this international effort, the industry had the encouragement and support of the U.S. governement. In the case of the boiling water reactor (BWR) the program for technology transfer was developed in response to overseas customer demands for support in building local designs and manufacturing capabilities. The principal vehicles have been technology exchange agreements through which complete engineering and manufacturing information is furnished covering BWR systems and fuel. Agreements are held with companies in Germany, Japan, Italy, and Sweden. In recent years, a comprehensive program of joint technology development with overseas manufacturers has begun. The rapidly escalating cost of nuclear research and development make it desirable to minimize duplication of effort. These joint programs provide a mechanism for two or more parties jointly to plan a development program, assign work tasks among themselves, and exchange test results. Despite a slower-than-hoped-for start, nuclear power today is playing a significant role in the economic growth of some developing countries, and can continue to do so. Roughly half of the 23 free world nations that have adopted LWRs are developing countries

  12. Nucleolar remodeling in nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurincik, Jozef; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2007-01-01

    Transcription of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes occurs in the nucleolus and results in ribosome biogenesis. The rRNA gene activation and the associated nucleolus formation may be used as a marker for the activation of the embryonic genome in mammalian embryos and, thus serve to evaluate the devel......Transcription of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes occurs in the nucleolus and results in ribosome biogenesis. The rRNA gene activation and the associated nucleolus formation may be used as a marker for the activation of the embryonic genome in mammalian embryos and, thus serve to evaluate...... nucleoli are not apparent until the 5th cell cycle, whereas in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos the functional nucleoli emerge already during the 3rd cell cycle. Intergeneric reconstructed embryos produced by the fusion of bovine differentiated somatic cell to a nonactivated ovine cytoplast fail...

  13. Assignment of electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) to human chromosome 4q33 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, E B; Seltzer, W K; Goodman, S I

    1999-08-01

    Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a nuclear-encoded protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Inherited defects of ETF-QO cause glutaric acidemia type II. We here describe the localization of the ETF-QO gene to human chromosome 4q33 by somatic cell hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine

  15. Differential nuclear remodeling of mammalian somatic cells by Xenopus laevis oocyte and egg cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberio, Ramiro; Johnson, Andrew D.; Stick, Reimer; Campbell, Keith H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms governing nuclear reprogramming have not been fully elucidated yet; however, recent studies show a universally conserved ability of both oocyte and egg components to reprogram gene expression in somatic cells. The activation of genes associated with pluripotency by oocyte/egg components may require the remodeling of nuclear structures, such that they can acquire the features of early embryos and pluripotent cells. Here, we report on the remodeling of the nuclear lamina of mammalian cells by Xenopus oocyte and egg extracts. Lamin A/C is removed from somatic cells incubated in oocyte and egg extracts in an active process that requires permeable nuclear pores. Removal of lamin A/C is specific, since B-type lamins are not changed, and it is not dependent on the incorporation Xenopus egg specific lamin III. Moreover, transcriptional activity is differentially regulated in somatic cells incubated in the extracts. Pol I and II transcriptions are maintained in cells in oocyte extracts; however, both activities are abolished in egg extracts. Our study shows that components of oocyte and egg extracts can modify the nuclear lamina of somatic cells and that this nuclear remodeling induces a structural change in the nucleus which may have implications for transcriptional activity. These experiments suggest that modifications in the nuclear lamina structure by the removal of somatic proteins and the incorporation of oocyte/egg components may contribute to the reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei and may define a characteristic configuration of pluripotent cells

  16. Nuclear fuel powder transfer device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A pair of parallel rails are laid between a receiving portion to a molding portion of a nuclear fuel powder transfer device. The rails are disposed to the upper portion of a plurality of parallel support columns at the same height. A powder container is disposed while being tilted in the inside of the vessel main body of a transfer device, and rotational shafts equipped with wheels are secured to right and left external walls. A nuclear powder to be mixed, together with additives, is supplied to the powder container of the transfer device. The transfer device engaged with the rails on the receiving side is transferred toward the molding portion. The wheels are rotated along the rails, and the rotational shafts, the vessel main body and the powder container are rotated. The nuclear powder in the tilted powder container disposed is rotated right and left and up and down by the rotation, and the powder is mixed satisfactory when it reaches the molding portion. (I.N.)

  17. The development of nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nack-chung Sung

    1987-01-01

    Korea, as a recipient of nuclear technology transfer, has good experience of progressively building up its indigeneous capability of nuclear technology through three stages of technology transfer, namely: technology transfer under the turnkey approach, component approach, and integrated technology transfer with a local prime contractor. Here, each stage of experience of technology transfer, with Korea as a recipient, is presented. (author)

  18. Nuclear fuel pellet transfer escalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, T.B. Sr.; Roberts, E.; Edmunds, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel pellet escalator for loading nuclear fuel pellets into a sintering boat. It comprises a generally horizontally-disposed pellet transfer conveyor for moving pellets in single file fashion from a receiving end to a discharge end thereof, the conveyor being mounted about an axis at its receiving end for pivotal movement to generally vertically move its discharge end toward and away from a sintering boat when placed below the discharge end of the conveyor, the conveyor including an elongated arm swingable vertically about the axis and having an elongated channel recessed below an upper side of the arm and extending between the receiving and discharge ends of the conveyor; a pellet dispensing chute mounted to the arm of the conveyor at the discharge end thereof and extending therebelow such that the chute is carried at the discharge end of the conveyor for generally vertical movement therewith toward and away from the sintering boat

  19. Transfer of nuclear technology from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, G.

    1985-01-01

    Technology transfer from Spain is possible in several fields of nuclear technology ranging from the head end of the fuel cycle (ENUSA) to the back end (ENRESA). The advantages of such a transfer are emphasized

  20. Review of somatic cell nuclear transfer in pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... considered to better understanding of pig embryonic development. .... Booth PJ, Tan SJ, Holm P, Callesen H (2001). Application of the .... Li GP, Tan JH, Sun QY, Meng QG, Yue KZ, Sun XS, Li ZY, Wang HB,. Xu LB (2000).

  1. Nuclear energy technology transfer: the security barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1975-08-01

    The problems presented by security considerations to the transfer of nuclear energy technology are examined. In the case of fusion, the national security barrier associated with the laser and E-beam approaches is discussed; for fission, the international security requirements, due to the possibility of the theft or diversion of special nuclear materials or sabotage of nuclear facilities, are highlighted. The paper outlines the nuclear fuel cycle and terrorist threat, examples of security barriers, and the current approaches to transferring technology. (auth)

  2. The transfer from nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's task of cleaning up the extensive nuclear weapons complex is of such enormous proportions that there can be no definitive solution that can be adjusted to a predictable cost. The cleanup and disposition of hazardous wastes in many cases will take thirty or more years. In the near term, the economic impact affecting the communities and large number of displaced workers is a significant concern to the Department and the nation. However, before a useful transfer of DOE land, facilities, and sites to the public for economic development can be realized, a consistent and comprehensive process of compliance with regulatory requirements needs to be established. The simultaneous pursuit of these goals creates an unprecedented challenge to the Department of Energy and the US

  3. Interspecies somatic cell nucleus transfer with porcine oocytes as recipients: A novel bioassay system for assessing the competence of canine somatic cells to develop into embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, S; Narita, K; Yamashiro, H; Sugawara, A; Shoji, T; Terashita, Y; Nishimori, K; Konno, T; Yoshida, M; Sato, E

    2009-09-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nucleus transfer (iSCNT) could be a useful bioassay system for assessing the ability of mammalian somatic cells to develop into embryos. To examine this possibility, we performed canine iSCNT using porcine oocytes, allowed to mature in vitro, as recipients. Canine fibroblasts from the tail tips and dewclaws of a female poodle (Fp) and a male poodle (Mp) were used as donors. We demonstrated that the use of porcine oocytes induced blastocyst formation in the iSCNT embryos cultured in porcine zygote medium-3. In Fp and Mp, the rate of blastocyst formation from cleaved embryos (Fp: 6.3% vs. 22.4%; and Mp: 26.1% vs. 52.4%) and the number of cells at the blastocyst stage (Fp: 30.7 vs. 60.0; and Mp: 27.2 vs. 40.1) were higher in the embryos derived from dewclaw cells than in those derived from tail-tip cells (Ptip cells of Fp. Only blastocysts derived from dewclaw cells of Mp developed outgrowths. However, outgrowth formation was retrieved in the embryos derived from dewclaw cells of Fp by aggregation at the 4-cell stage. We inferred that iSCNT performed using porcine oocytes as recipients could represent a novel bioassay system for evaluating the developmental competence of canine somatic cells.

  4. Pakistan's experience in transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Khan, Nunir

    1977-01-01

    Of all technologies, nuclear technology is perhaps the most interdisciplinary in character as it encompasses such varied fields as nuclear physics, reactor physics, mechanical, electrical electronics controls, metallurgical and even civil and geological engineering. When we speak of transfer of acquisition of nuclear technology we imply cumulative know-how in many fields, most of which are not nuclear per se but are essential for building the necessry infrastructure and back-up facilities for developing and implementing any nuclear energy program. In Pakistan, efforts on utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful applications were initiated about twenty years ago. During these years stepwise development of nuclear technology has taken place. The experience gained by Pakistan so far in transfer of nuclear technology is discussed. Suggestions have been made for continuing the transfer of this most essential technology from the advanced to the developing countries while making sure that necessary safeguard requirements are fullfilled

  5. Proliferative lifespan is conserved after nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A John; Ferrier, Patricia; Aslam, Samena; Burl, Sarah; Denning, Chris; Wylie, Diana; Ross, Arlene; de Sousa, Paul; Wilmut, Ian; Cui, Wei

    2003-06-01

    Cultured primary cells exhibit a finite proliferative lifespan, termed the Hayflick limit. Cloning by nuclear transfer can reverse this cellular ageing process and can be accomplished with cultured cells nearing senescence. Here we describe nuclear transfer experiments in which donor cell lines at different ages and with different proliferative capacities were used to clone foetuses and animals from which new primary cell lines were generated. The rederived lines had the same proliferative capacity and rate of telomere shortening as the donor cell lines, suggesting that these are innate, genetically determined, properties that are conserved by nuclear transfer.

  6. Propagation of senescent mice using nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Eiji; Ono, Tetsuo; Li, Chong; Maki-Suetsugu, Rinako; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-09-01

    Senescent mice are often infertile, and the cloning success rate decreases with age, making it almost impossible to produce cloned progeny directly from such animals. In this study, we tried to produce offspring from such "unclonable" senescent mice using nuclear transfer techniques. Donor fibroblasts were obtained from the tail tips of mice aged up to 2 years and 9 months. Although most attempts failed to produce cloned mice by direct somatic cell nuclear transfer, we managed to establish nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cell lines from all aged mice with an establishment rate of 10-25%, irrespective of sex or strain. Finally, cloned mice were obtained from these ntES cells by a second round of nuclear transfer. In addition, healthy offspring was obtained from all aged donors via germline transmission of ntES cells in chimeric mice. This technique is thus applicable to the propagation of a variety of animals, irrespective of age or fertile potential.

  7. JAERI Nuclear Engineering School and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kazuaki; Kawaguchi, Chiyoji

    1978-01-01

    A method is introduced to evaluate the degree of nuclear technology transfer; that is, the output powers of Japanese nuclear reactors constructed in these 20 years are chronologically plotted in a semi-log figure. All reactors plotted are classified into imported and domestic ones according to a value of domestication factor. A space between two historical trajectories of reactor construction may be interpreted as one of the measures indicating the degree of nuclear technology transfer. In connection with this method, historical change of educational and training courses in Nuclear Engineering School of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is reviewed in this report. (author)

  8. Canadian Experience in Nuclear Power Technology Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, J.

    1987-01-01

    Technology transfer has and will continue to play a major role in the development of nuclear power programs. From the early beginnings of the development of the peaceful uses of nuclear power by just a few nations in the mid-1940s there has been a considerable transfer of technology and today 34 countries have nuclear programs in various stages of development. Indeed, some of the major nuclear vendors achieves their present position through a process of technology transfer and subsequent development. Canada, one of the early leaders in the development of nuclear power, has experience with a wide range of programs bout within its own borders and with other countries. This paper briefly describes this experience and the lessons learned from Canada's involvement in the transfer of nuclear power technology. Nuclear technology is complex and diverse and yet it can be assimilated by a nation given a fire commitment of both suppliers and recipients of technology to achieve success. Canada has reaped large benefits from its nuclear program and we believe this has been instrumentally linked to the sharing of goals and opportunity for participation over extended periods of time by many interests within the Canadian infrastructure. While Canada has accumulated considerable expertise in nuclear technology transfer, we believe there is still much for US to learn. Achieving proficiency in any of the many kinds of nuclear related technologies will place a heavy burden on the financial and human resources of a nation. Care must be taken to plan carefully the total criteria which will assure national benefits in industrial and economic development. Above all, effective transfer of nuclear technology requires a long term commitment by both parties

  9. Nuclear reorganization barriers to electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.; Creutz, C.; Winkler, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear barrier to electron transfer arises from the need for reorganization of intramolecular and solvent internuclear distances prior to electron transfer. For reactions with relatively small driving force (''normal'' free-energy region) the nuclear factors and rates increase as intrinsic inner-shell and outer-shell barriers decrease; this is illustrated by data for transition metal complexes in their ground electronic states. By contrast, in the inverted free-energy region, rates and nuclear factors decrease with decreasing ''intrinsic'' barriers; this is illustrated by data for the decay of charge-transfer excited states. Several approaches to the evaluation of the outer-shell barrier are explored in an investigation of the distance dependence of the nuclear factor in intramolecular electron-transfer processes. 39 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Technology transfer from nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A number of processes, components and instruments developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, (BARC), Bombay, find application in industry and are available for transfer to private or public sector undertakings for commercial exploitation. The Technology Transfer Group (TTG) constituted in January 1980 identifies such processes and prototypes which can be made available for transfer. This catalogue contains brief descriptions of such technologies and they are arranged under three groups, namely, Group A containing descriptions of technologies already transferred, Group B containing descriptions of technologies ready for transfer and Group C containing descriptions of technology transfer proposals being processed. The position in the above-mentioned groups is as on 1 March 1989. The BARC has also set up a Technology Corner where laboratory models and prototypes of instruments, equipment and components are displayed. These are described in the second part of the catalogue. (M.G.B.)

  11. Transfer of Canadian nuclear regulatory technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.D.

    1985-10-01

    This paper discusses the Canadian approach to the regulation of nuclear power reactors, and its possible application to CANDU reactors in other countries. It describes the programs which are in place to transfer information on licensing matters to egulatory agencies in other countries, and to offer training on nuclear safety regulation as it is practised in Canada. Experience to date in the transfer of regulatory technology is discussed. 5 refs

  12. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanka, J; Smith, S D; Soloy, E

    1999-01-01

    in nuclear morphology as a transformation of the nucleolus precursor body into a functional rRNA synthesising nucleolus with a characteristic ultrastructure. We examined nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine in vitro produced (control) embryos and in nuclear transfer embryos reconstructed from a MII phase...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  13. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  14. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  15. Cloning of ES cells and mice by nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Sayaka; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2009-01-01

    We have been able to develop a stable nuclear transfer (NT) method in the mouse, in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. Although the piezo unit is a complex tool, once mastered it is of great help not only in NT experiments, but also in almost all other forms of micromanipulation. Using this technique, embryonic stem (ntES) cell lines established from somatic cell nuclei can be generated relatively easily from a variety of mouse genotypes and cell types. Such ntES cells can be used not only for experimental models of human therapeutic cloning but also as a means of preserving mouse genomes instead of preserving germ cells. Here, we describe our most recent protocols for mouse cloning.

  16. Cloning of an endangered species (Bos gaurus) using interspecies nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, R P; Cibelli, J B; Diaz, F; Moraes, C T; Farin, P W; Farin, C E; Hammer, C J; West, M D; Damiani, P

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 100 species become extinct a day. Despite increasing interest in using cloning to rescue endangered species, successful interspecies nuclear transfer has not been previously described, and only a few reports of in vitro embryo formation exist. Here we show that interspecies nuclear transfer can be used to clone an endangered species with normal karyotypic and phenotypic development through implantation and the late stages of fetal growth. Somatic cells from a gaur bull (Bos gaurus), a large wild ox on the verge of extinction, (Species Survival Plan cloned animals was gaurus in origin. The gaur nuclei were shown to direct normal fetal development, with differentiation into complex tissue and organs, even though the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within all the tissue types evaluated was derived exclusively from the recipient bovine oocytes. These results suggest that somatic cell cloning methods could be used to restore endangered, or even extinct, species and populations.

  17. Experience in transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckurts, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany was initiated in 1955. In spite of this late start, the country now has a broad potential in all branches of peaceful nuclear technology. Turkey nuclear power plants are erected by German industry, and the country has the basic technology at its disposal for all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. In the areas of uranium enrichment and reprocessing, multilateral joint ventures with European countries have been formed. The country also has an active development program for advanced reactors. In general areas of technology transfer and development aid, in the nuclear field, there are interrelated activities of both government and industry. The government has concluded bilateral agreements with a number of countires e.g. Argentina, Brazil, India, Iran and Pakistan, covering the general field of nuclear science; in the framework of these agreements, which are being carried out mainly by the nuclear research centers at Juelich and Karlsruhe, active cooperation in research, development, education, and training are being pursued. The nonproliferation of nuclear weapons is a major objective of the Federal government which strongly affects its policies for international nuclear trade. The paper describes the nuclear technology potential available in the Federal Republic of Germany and reviews experience gathered in cooperation with developing countries. Future policies for nuclear technology transfer are discussed with special reference to the role of national R and D laboratories

  18. Technology transfer from Canadian nuclear laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.D.; Evans, W.; MacEwan, J.R.; Melvin, J.G.

    1985-09-01

    Canada has developed a unique nuclear power system, the CANDU reactor. AECL - Research Company (AECL-RC) has played a key role in the CANDU program by supplying its technology to the reactor's designers, constructors and operators. This technology was transferred from our laboratories to our sister AECL companies and to domestic industries and utilities. As CANDUs were built overseas, AECL-RC made its technology available to foreign utilities and agencies. Recently the company has embarked on a new transfer program, commercial R and D for nuclear and non-nuclear customers. During the years of CANDU development, AECL-RC has acquired the skills and technology that are especially valuable to other countries embarking on their own nuclear programs. This report describes AECL-RC's thirty years' experience with the transfer of technology

  19. Transferring nuclear knowledge - An international partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.I.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The fast decrease of coal, oil and natural gas as energy resources is pushing the world towards the use of nuclear energy. The expectation of growth in the nuclear field seems to be a great challenge -specially- in developing countries which are in hard need of acquiring nuclear knowledge and nuclear technology as well. In this situation, various factors would have great influence on the implementation of nuclear projects -in particular- for electricity generation. As a matter of fact, it is essential for each country to have its own strategy for national development. In practice, the implementation of such a strategy would need the collective efforts of specialized and efficient human resources for executing the tasks. This would need cooperation with, and/or technical aid of developed countries and international organizations. There are various parameters that may contribute in the national development in a country, the most important of which are the development in science and technology. Then, the industrial development becomes essential for the nuclear industry. In order to achieve this, the information acquiring and knowledge transfer are fundamental tools. The partnership between developed and developing countries would mean cooperation and aid directed to nuclear technology and knowledge transfer; and specialized technical training in the nuclear industry. Supplier countries might need to use high technology in implementing nuclear safeguards commitments, but with minimum side effects. This paper investigates some factors that may have influence on transferring peaceful uses of nuclear knowledge and/or nuclear technology; such as establishing and sustaining the national nuclear workforce, building of public understanding and public acceptance of nuclear science and technology. Also, it discusses the importance of activating and strengthening the international regime of partnership for the welfare and prosperity of human kind; with specific

  20. Technology transfer in the Spanish nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Naredo, F.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes the process of technology transfer under the Spanish nuclear programme and its three generations of nuclear power plants during the last 20 years, with special reference to the nine new plants equipped with Westinghouse pressurized water reactors and the rising level of national involvement in these stations. It deals with the development of Westinghouse Nuclear's organization in Spain, referring to its staff and to the manufacturers who supply equipment for the programme, going into particular detail where problems of quality assurance are concerned. In conclusion, it summarizes the present capacity of Spanish industry in various areas connected with the design, manufacture and construction of nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. People transfer-sinequanon for nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.

    1977-01-01

    The main obstacles facing the developing countries which wish to adopt sophisticated nuclear technology can be the following: lack of trained personnel, lack of entrepreneurs and capital, and bureaucracy. Of these the greatest problem is undoubtedly the lack of trained manpower. Urgently required skilled manpower may be obtained through training of selected persons in foreign countries on a crash program of nuclear energy. Exchange of expertise can also take place among the developing countries themselves. Another problem particularly peculiar to the poor developing countries is the lack of entrepreneurs and capital. It therefore becomes necessary to attract entrepreneurs from abroad with all the benefit of managerial know-how and capital transfer that it entails. Exchange of scientist, teachers, managerial and administrative personnel between the developed and developing countries and also among the developing countries themselves is therefore essential for an effective transfer of nuclear technology

  2. Effective Methods of Nuclear Power Technology Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shave, D. F.; Kent, G. F.; Giambusso, A.

    1987-01-01

    An effective technology transfer program is a necessary and significant step towards independence in nuclear power technology. Attaining success in the conduct of such a program is a result of a) the donor and recipient jointly understanding the fundamental concepts of the learning process, b) sharing a mutual philosophy involving a partnership relationship, c) joint and careful planning, d) rigorous adherence to proven project management techniques, and e) presence of adequate feedback to assure continuing success as the program proceeds. Several years ago, KEPCO President Park, Jung-KI presented a paper on technology in which he stated, 'Nuclear technology is an integration of many unit disciplines, and thus requires extensive investment and training in order to establish the base for efficient absorption of transferred technology.' This paper addresses President Park's observations by discussing the philosophy, approach, and mechanisms that are necessary to support an efficient and effective process of nuclear power technology transfer. All technical content and presentation methods discussed are based on a technology transfer program developed by Stone and Webster, as an Engineer/Constructor for nuclear power plants, and are designed and implemented to promote the primary program goal - the ability of the trainees and the organization to perform specific nuclear power related multi-discipline function independently and competitively

  3. An Effective Method For Nuclear Technology Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jan Pung

    1987-01-01

    Three basic entities involved in the implementation of nuclear projects are the Owner, Regulatory Authority and Nuclear Industry. Their ultimate objective is to secure the safe, reliable and economical nuclear energy. For s successful nuclear power program, the owner should maintain a good relationship with the other entities and pursue an optimization of the objectives. On the other hand, he should manage projects along the well - planned paths in order to effectively learn the nuclear technology. One of the problems in the nuclear projects of developing countries was the absence of long - term technology development program, a limited local participation and the technical incapability. For the effective technology transfer, a motivation of the technology supplier and a readiness of the recipient to accommodate such technologies are required. Advanced technology is usually developed at considerable expense with the expectation that the developer will use it in furthering his own business. Therefore, he tends to be reluctant to transfer it to the others, particularly, to the potential competitors. There is a disinclination against further technology transfer beyond the minimum contractual obligation or the requirements by Government Regulatory. So, an additional commercial incentive must be provided to the developer

  4. SOMATIC-CELL NUCLEAR TRANSFER: AUTOLOGOUS EMBRYONIC INTRA-SPINAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANT IN A CHRONIC COMPLETE QUADRIPLEGIC PATIENT. NEURO-ANATOMICAL OUTCOME AFTER ONE YEAR. Transferencia de núcleos de células madre: Transplante embriónico autólogo intraesp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don F Du Toit

    2016-03-01

    en la escala ASIA aumentaron de 29/112 a 64/112 a los 6 meses después del tratamiento y se ganó al menos un nivel de la escala ASIA. Conclusión: En comparación con los hallazgos iniciales, se documentó mejoría neurológica cuantificada en la cintura escapular y las extremidades superiores, entre 6 y 12 meses después del trasplante celular autólogo intralesional con SCNT en un caso de cuadriplejia crónica. The scientific literature reports that about 180,000 cases of spinal-cord injuries (SCI occur yearly in the world. Recent publications show neurological benefit in selected quadriplegics undergoing intra-lesion transplantation of autologous cultured bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Objectives: This case-study reports level–III objective evidence and partial neurological clinical recovery in a 32-year old-male with chronic complete quadriplegia that underwent somatic nuclear cell transfer (SCNT and embryonic cell therapy for traumatic spinal-cord injury (SCI sustained 6-years previously. The research question was: “Can autologous SCNT cell-therapy improve extremity motor and sensory impairment in chronic quadriplegia?” The hypothesis tested: “SCNT cell-therapy is unable to improve severe motor and sensory impairment in selected persons with chronic complete quadriplegia and unable to improve functional outcome or independence”. Material and methods: Cell-transplantation was by neuro-surgical implantation into the damaged cervical cord 6-years after SCI that rendered the patient a complete quadriplegic confirmed on neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Neurologic assessment, restoration of dermatomes and myotomes were evaluated post-procedurally for 12-months together with MRI, and American Spinal Injury Association grading (ASIA. Results: Neurological improvement was asymmetrically improved in the shoulder girdle, upper extremity bilaterally and trunk without dramatic change in leg-function at 12-months. ASIA

  5. Development of nuclear technology transfer - Korea as a recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    Korea, as a recipient of nuclear technology transfer, has good experience of progressively building up its indigenous capability of nuclear technology through three stages of technology transfer, namely: technology transfer under the turn-key approach, component approach, and integrated technology transfer with a local prime contractor. Here, each stage of experience of technology transfer, with Korea as a recipient, is presented

  6. Macrosystems management approach to nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Maultsby, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    The world of the 1980s will be a world of diminishing resources, shifting economic bases, rapidly changing cultural and societal structures, and an ever increasing demand for energy. A major driving function in this massive redistribution of global power is man's ability to transfer technology, including nuclear technology, to the developing nations. The major task facing policy makers in planning and managing technology transfer is to avoid the difficulties inherent in such technology exploitation, while maximizing the technical, economic, social, and cultural benefits brought about by the technology itself. But today's policy makers, using industrial-style planning, cannot adequately deal with all the complex, closely-coupled issues involved in technology transfer. Yet, policy makers within the developing nations must be capable of tackling the full spectrum of issues associated with technology transfer before committing to a particular course of action. The transfer and acceptance of complex technology would be significantly enhanced if policy makers followed a macrosystems management approach. Macrosystems management is a decision making methodology based on the techniques of macrosystems analysis. Macrosystems analysis combines the best quantitative methods in systems analysis with the best qualitative evaluations provided by multidisciplined task teams. These are focused in a project management structure to produce solution-oriented advice to the policy makers. The general relationships and management approach offered by macrosystems analysis are examined. Nowhere are the nuclear power option problems and issues more complex than in the transfer of this technology to developing nations. Although many critical variables of interest in the analysis are generic to a particular importer/exporter relationship, two specific issues that have universally impacted the nuclear power option, namely the fuel cycle, and manpower and training, are examined in the light of

  7. A swivelling transfer device for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, Albert; Mulot, Pierre; Filloleau, Etienne

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a swivelling transfer device for fuel-assemblies. According to the invention, the device comprises, within a protective enclosure, a swivelling system comprising two sets of rails rotatable about an axis and so arranged that the lower and thereof penetrates into the extensions of the extremities of ramps dipped into the reactor and into a storage enclosure. This can apply to the transfer of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies, in particular for reactors of the molten sodium fast neutron type [fr

  8. Fuel transfer system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, L.R.; Marshall, J.R.; Desmarchais, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel transfer system for moving nuclear reactor fuel assemblies from a new fuel storage pit to a containment area containing the nuclear reactor, and for transferring spent fuel assemblies under water from the reactor to a spent fuel storage area. The system includes an underwater track which extends through a wall dividing the fuel building from the reactor containment and a car on the track serves as the vehicle for moving fuel assemblies between these two areas. The car is driven by a motor and linkage extending from an operating deck to a chain belt drive on the car. A housing pivotally mounted at its center on the car is hydraulically actuated to vertically receive a fuel assembly which then is rotated to a horizontal position to permit movement through the wall between the containment and fuel building areas. Return to the vertical position provides for fuel assembly removal and the reverse process is repeated when transferring an assembly in the opposite direction. Limit switches used in controlling operation of the system are designed to be replaced from the operating deck when necessary by tools designed for this purpose. 5 claims, 8 figures

  9. Nuclear technology transfer adapted to the needs of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Nentwich, D.

    1983-01-01

    The paper explains the build-up of nuclear know-how in the Federal Republic of Germany after 1955, when activities in the nuclear field became permitted. Furthermore, it shows the development of nuclear technology transfer via the increasing number of nuclear power plants exported. The inevitable interrelationship between the efficient transfer of know-how and long-term nuclear co-operation is demonstrated. Emphasis is put on the adaptation of nuclear technology transfer to the needs of the recipient countries. Guidelines to achieve the desired goal are given. (author)

  10. Additional mitochondrial DNA influences the interactions between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in a bovine embryo model of nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; St John, Justin C

    2018-05-08

    We generated cattle embryos using mitochondrial supplementation and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), named miNT, to determine how additional mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) modulates the nuclear genome. To eliminate any confounding effects from somatic cell mtDNA in intraspecies SCNT, donor cell mtDNA was depleted prior to embryo production. Additional oocyte mtDNA did not affect embryo development rates but increased mtDNA copy number in blastocyst stage embryos. Moreover, miNT-derived blastocysts had different gene expression profiles when compared with SCNT-derived blastocysts. Additional mtDNA increased expression levels of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, cell cycle and DNA repair. Supplementing the embryo culture media with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A (TSA), had no beneficial effects on the development of miNT-derived embryos, unlike SCNT-derived embryos. When compared with SCNT-derived blastocysts cultured in the presence of TSA, additional mtDNA alone had beneficial effects as the activity of glycolysis may increase and embryonic cell death may decrease. However, these beneficial effects were not found with additional mtDNA and TSA together, suggesting that additional mtDNA alone enhances reprogramming. In conclusion, additional mtDNA increased mtDNA copy number and expression levels of genes involved in energy production and embryo development in blastocyst stage embryos emphasising the importance of nuclear-mitochondrial interactions.

  11. Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrick Jason R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer in cats offers a useful tool for the generation of valuable research models. However, low birth rates after nuclear transfer hamper exploitation of the full potential of the technology. Poor embryo development after activation of the reconstructed oocytes seems to be responsible, at least in part, for the low efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the response of cat oocytes to various stimuli in order to fine-tune existing and possibly develop new activation methods for the generation of cat disease models by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Methods First, changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in the oocytes induced by a number of artificial stimuli were characterized. The stimuli included electroporation, ethanol, ionomycin, thimerosal, strontium-chloride and sodium (Na+-free medium. The potential of the most promising treatments (with or without subsequent incubation in the presence of cycloheximide and cytochalasin B to stimulate oocyte activation and support development of the resultant parthenogenetic embryos was then evaluated. Finally, the most effective methods were selected to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer with fibroblasts from mucopolysaccharidosis I- and alpha-mannosidosis-affected cats. Results All treatments were able to elicit a [Ca2+]i elevation in the ooplasm with various characteristics. Pronuclear formation and development up to the blastocyst stage was most efficiently triggered by electroporation (60.5 +/- 2.9 and 11.5 +/- 1.7% and the combined thimerosal/DTT treatment (67.7 +/- 1.8 and 10.6 +/- 1.9%; incubation of the stimulated oocytes with cycloheximide and cytochalasin B had a positive effect on embryo development. When these two methods were used to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer, up to 84.9% of the reconstructed oocytes cleaved. When the 2 to 4-cell embryos (a total of 220 were

  12. Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hossein, M Shamim; Shamim, M Hossein; Kim, Jung Ju; Kang, Sung Keun; Schatten, Gerald; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-04

    Several mammals--including sheep, mice, cows, goats, pigs, rabbits, cats, a mule, a horse and a litter of three rats--have been cloned by transfer of a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell (oocyte) that has had its nucleus removed. This technology has not so far been successful in dogs because of the difficulty of maturing canine oocytes in vitro. Here we describe the cloning of two Afghan hounds by nuclear transfer from adult skin cells into oocytes that had matured in vivo. Together with detailed sequence information generated by the canine-genome project, the ability to clone dogs by somatic-cell nuclear transfer should help to determine genetic and environmental contributions to the diverse biological and behavioural traits associated with the many different canine breeds.

  13. The transfer of nuclear technology: necessities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunschild, H.-H.

    1978-01-01

    Political and economical importance of the transfer of nuclear technologies to less developed countries is examined. Energy needs of the world create the necessity of technology transfer. Three levels are distinguished: 1) Basic elements of cooperation are agreed between the two Governments, 2) scientific cooperation and 3) industrial cooperation. Technology transfer is more than mere technology export. Limitations of nuclear technology transfer are: the lack of infrastructure, the high price of a nuclear power station but above all the problem of proliferation. In conclusion the solution of international problems of nuclear energy is the concept of cooperation on the basis of equal rights

  14. Nuclear reprogramming of somatic nucleus hybridized with embryonic stem cells by electrofusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Masako; Tada, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Cell fusion is a powerful tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming. In hybrid cells of somatic cells and pluripotential stem cells, including embryonic stem (ES) and embryonic germ cells, somatic nuclei acquire pluripotential competence. ES and embryonic germ cells retain intrinsic trans activity to induce epigenetic reprogramming. For generating hybrid cells, we have used the technique of electrofusion. Electrofusion is a highly effective, reproducible, and biomedically safe in vitro system. For successful cell fusion, two sequential steps of electric pulse stimulation are required for the alignment (pearl chain formation) of two different types of cells between electrodes in response to alternating current stimulation and for the fusion of cytoplasmic membranes by direct current stimulation. Optimal conditions for electrofusion with a pulse generator are introduced for ES and somatic cell fusion. Topics in the field of stem cell research include the successful production of cloned animals via the epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cells and contribution of spontaneous cell fusion to generating intrinsic plasticity of tissue stem cells. Cell fusion technology may make important contributions to the fields of epigenetic reprogramming and regenerative medicine.

  15. Somatic hybridization of sexually incompatible petunias: Petunia parodii, Petunia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J B; Berry, S F; Chapman, J V; Cocking, E C

    1980-01-01

    Somatic hybrid plants were regenerated following the fusion of leaf mesophyll protoplasts of P. parodii with those isolated from a nuclear-albino mutant of P. parviflora. Attempts at sexual hybridization of these two species repeatedly failed thus confirming their previously established cross-incompatibility. Selection of somatic hybrid plants was possible since protoplasts of P. parodii would not develop beyond the cell colony stage, whilst those of the somatic hybrid and albino P. parviflora produced calluses. Green somatic hybrid calluses were visible against a background of albino cells/calluses, and upon transfer to regeneration media gave rise to shoots. Shoots and the resultant flowering plants were confirmed as somatic hybrids based on their growth habit, floral pigmentation and morphology, leaf hair structure, chromosome number and Fraction 1 protein profiles. The relevance of such hybrid material for the development of new, and extensively modified cultivars, is discussed.

  16. Legal aspects of the transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartorelli, C.

    1980-03-01

    The paper stresses the importance of nuclear technology transfer and describes the legal instruments for transfer of technical and scientific technology, particularly from the contractual viewpoint. A description follows of the setting-up of national joint ventures for nuclear power plant projects with emphasis on technological know-how to enable operation of plants in compliance with safety standards. The possibility is discussed of the export of nuclear technology, and finally mention is made of a proposal for a 'code of conduct' on such transfers in the framework of the United Nations, having regard to the 'London agreements' on nuclear exports. (NEA) [fr

  17. Success in nuclear technology transfer: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, D.S.; Stevens, J.E.S.; Boulton, J.

    1986-10-01

    Technology transfer has played a significant part in the expansion of nuclear power to many countries of the world. Canada's involvement in nuclear technology transfer spans four decades. The experience gained through technology transfer, initially to Canadian industry and then to other countries in association with the construction of CANDU nuclear power plants, forms a basis from which to assess the factors which contribute to successful technology transfer. A strong commitment from all parties, in terms of both financial and human resources, is essential to success. Detailed planning of both the scope and timing of the technology transfer program is also required together with an assessment of the impact of the introduction of nuclear power on other sectors of the economy. (author)

  18. Ex-vessel nuclear fuel transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    A system for transferring fuel assemblies between a fuel transfer area and a fuel storage area while the fuel assemblies remain completely submerged in a continuous body of coolant is described. A fuel transfer area filled with reactor coolant communicating with the reactor vessel below the reactor coolant level provides a transfer area for fuel assemblies in transit to and from the reactor vessel. A positioning mechanism comprising at least one rotatable plug disposed on a fuel transfer tank located outside the reactor vessel cooperates with either the fuel transfer area or the fuel storage area to position a fuel assembly in transit. When in position, a transporting mechanism cooperating with the positioning mechanism lifts or lowers a chosen fuel assembly. The transporting mechanism together with the positioning mechanism are capable of transferring a fuel assembly between the fuel transfer area and the fuel storage area

  19. Siemens technology transfer and cooperation in the nuclear fuel area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley, H.-P.; Fuchs, J. H.; Rothenbuecher, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Siemens is a full-range supplier in the area of nuclear power generation with broad experience and activities in the field of nuclear fuel. Siemens has developed advanced fuel technology for all types fuel assemblies used throughout the world and has significant experience worldwide in technology transfer in the field of nuclear fuel. Technology transfer and cooperation has ranged between the provision of mechanical design advice for a specific fuel design and the erection of complete fabrication plants for commercial operation in 3 countries. In the following the wide range of Siemens' technology transfer activities for both fuel design and fuel fabrication technologies are shown

  20. Technology transfer assessment in the nuclear agreement Brazil-Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchi, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    The three main arguments utilized in the Nuclear Brazil-Germany Agreement celebrated in 1975 were the following: a) the low Brazilian hydroelectric potential insufficient to attend the increasing of electrical energy demand; b) the low cost of nuclear energy related to hydroelectric energy: c) and finally, the nuclear technology transfer, involving inclusive the fuel cycle and that could permit to Brazil self-sufficiency in the nuclear energy field. Thus, this work intends to describe and discussing the 'technology transfer strategy' trying to understand and showing which are its main characteristics, and also which are the real actuals results. (author) [pt

  1. Transfer of nuclear technology: A designer-contractor's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See Hoye, D.; Hedges, K.R.; Hink, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the successful Canadian experience in developing a nuclear power technology - CANDU - and exporting it. Consideration is paid to technology that has to be transferred, receiver country objectives and mechanisms and organizational framework. (author)

  2. Supercritical heat transfer phenomena in nuclear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyoung Woo; Kim, Moo Hwan; Anderson, Mark H.; Corradini, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    A supercritical water (SCW) power cycle has been considered as one of the viable candidates for advanced fission reactor designs. However, the dramatic variation of thermo-physical properties with a modest change of temperature near the pseudo-critical point make existing heat transfer correlations such as the Dittus-Boelter correlation not suitably accurate to calculate the heat transfer in supercritical fluid. Several other correlations have also been suggested but none of them are able to predict the heat transfer over a parameter range, needed for reactor thermal-hydraulics simulation and design. This has prompted additional research to understand the characteristic of supercritical fluid heat transfer

  3. Ex-vessel nuclear fuel transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A system is described for transferring reactor fuel assemblies between a fuel storage area and a fuel transfer area while the fuel assemblies remain completely submerged in a continuous body of coolant. The invention relates particularly to sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (UK)

  4. Facilities of fuel transfer for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. It particularly concerns facilities for the transfer of fuel assemblies between the reactor core and a fuel transfer area. The installation is simple in construction and enables a relatively small vessel to be used. In greater detail, the invention includes a vessel with a head, fuel assemblies housed in this vessel, and an inlet and outlet for the coolant covering these fuel assemblies. The reactor has a fuel transfer area in communication with this vessel and gear inside the vessel for the transfer of these fuel assemblies. These facilities are borne by the vessel head and serve to transfer the fuel assemblies from the vessel to the transfer area; whilst leaving the fuel assemblies completely immersed in a continuous mass of coolant. A passageway is provided between the vessel and this transfer area for the fuel assemblies. Facilities are provided for closing off this passageway so that the inside of the reactor vessel may be isolated as desired from this fuel transfer area whilst the reactor is operating [fr

  5. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.K.

    2015-01-01

    The auxiliary power system of many generating stations consists of offsite power supply system and onsite power supply system, including emergency diesel generators (EDG) to provide secure power to auxiliary loads. If a normal power supply fails to supply power, then the power source is transferred to a standby power supply. In the case of nuclear power plants (NPP), the unit auxiliary transformer (UAT) and standby auxiliary transformer (SAT) - or station service transformer - are installed and powered from 2 offsite power circuits to meet regulatory requirements. The transfer methods of a motor bus from a normal source to a standby source used in power generating stations are fast bus transfer, in-phase transfer, or residual transfer. Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, un-interruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS (Un-interruptible Power Supply) is discussed and elaborated

  6. Technical knowledge/skill transfer in nuclear power plant manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Wataru; Ogawa, Yukio

    2009-01-01

    Due to environmental concerns such as global warming, needs for nuclear power is increasing. However, many expert engineers and technicians are now entering a period of retirement. And due to weak demands of new plant construction for long years, opportunity for technology learning/experience had been lost. Therefore, to secure human resource and to develop their ability are urgent issues for nuclear industries. Hitachi nuclear division continues efforts for technology transfer and human resource training. This paper describes the following two activities. (1) Improvement of common technical basis, and implementation of PDCA cycle, (2) Development of supporting tools to accelerate technology transfer through OJT (On the Job Training). (author)

  7. Nuclear response functions at large energy and momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, W.; Moniz, E.J.; Lourie, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Quasifree nucleon processes are expected to dominate the nuclear electromagnetic response function for large energy and momentum transfers, i.e., for energy transfers large compared with nuclear single particle energies and momentum transfers large compared with typical nuclear momenta. Despite the evident success of the quasifree picture in providing the basic frame work for discussing and understanding the large energy, large momentum nuclear response, the limits of this picture have also become quite clear. In this article a selected set of inclusive and coincidence data are presented in order to define the limits of the quasifree picture more quantitatively. Specific dynamical mechanisms thought to be important in going beyond the quasifree picture are discussed as well. 75 refs, 37 figs

  8. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2014-01-01

    Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence e...

  9. Transfer factors for nuclear emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E.; Haenninen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland); Rosen, K.; Haak, E.; Eriksson, Aa. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science (Sweden); Nielsen, S.P.; Keith-Roach, M. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Salbu, B. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway (Norway)

    2002-12-01

    This report by the NKS/BOK-1.4 project subgroup describes transfer factors for radiocaesium and radiostrontium for the fallout year and the years after the fallout. The intention has been to collect information on tools to assess the order of magnitude of radioactive contamination of agricultural products in an emergency situation in Nordic environment. The report describes transfer paths from fallout to plant, from soil to plant and to animal products. The transfer factors of radionuclides (Sr, Cs, I) given in the report are intended to be used for making rough estimates of the contamination of agricultural products soon after the heaviness and composition of the deposition (Bq m{sup -2}) is known. (au)

  10. Transfer factors for nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiainen, E.; Haenninen, R.; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.; Eriksson, Aa.; Nielsen, S.P.; Keith-Roach, M.; Salbu, B.

    2002-12-01

    This report by the NKS/BOK-1.4 project subgroup describes transfer factors for radiocaesium and radiostrontium for the fallout year and the years after the fallout. The intention has been to collect information on tools to assess the order of magnitude of radioactive contamination of agricultural products in an emergency situation in Nordic environment. The report describes transfer paths from fallout to plant, from soil to plant and to animal products. The transfer factors of radionuclides (Sr, Cs, I) given in the report are intended to be used for making rough estimates of the contamination of agricultural products soon after the heaviness and composition of the deposition (Bq m -2 ) is known. (au)

  11. Heat transfer and fluid flow in nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fenech, Henri

    1982-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid in Flow Nuclear Systems discusses topics that bridge the gap between the fundamental principles and the designed practices. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover analysis of the predicting thermal-hydraulics performance of large nuclear reactors and associated heat-exchangers or steam generators of various nuclear systems. Chapter 1 tackles the general considerations on thermal design and performance requirements of nuclear reactor cores. The second chapter deals with pressurized subcooled light water systems, and the third chapter covers boiling water reacto

  12. Transferring Nuclear Knowledge by NPP Simulators Developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchenko, A.; Duginov, O.; Levchenko, V.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In relation to nuclear power, safety is closely linked with the human factor. Knowledge and skills of staff should more closely match the needs of the industry and employers. This can be achieved through more efficient training using simulators. Such simulators must be available at all stages of study and cover the needs of trainees with different levels of knowledge. Simulator developers can solve this problem by implement knowledge management in the using of simulators for practical training. Due to the nature of their activities, they have everything needed for this. This paper describes the solutions of Simulation Systems Ltd Company for nuclear power plants, universities and other parties. (author

  13. Long island to Limerick, nuclear fuel transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Bill

    1999-01-01

    The issue described is: how to move 33 shipments of radioactive nuclear fuel - 200 tons of enriched uranium pellets - on rail cars through the heart of Philadelphia, without upsetting politicians, the media and anti-nuclear activists, after a similar plan to move the fuel through New York City had been rejected in a political disaster. The answer to this is: Strategic Communications Planning. At PECO Energy's department of Corporate and Public Affairs, the research is quite clear that in risk management situations like this, the side that gets out front with the most credible information inevitably wins. That is exactly what was set out to do

  14. Transfer of bacterial blight resistance from Oryza meyeriana to O.Sativa L.by asymmetric somatic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yongsheng; CHEN Baotang; YU Shunwu; ZHANG Duanpin; ZHANG Xueqin; YAN Qiusheng

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetric somatic hybrid plants were produced between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wild species [O. Meyeriana (Zoll. etMor, exSteud.)] with high resistance to rice bacterial blight. X-ray-irradiated protoplasts of the wild species were used as donor and chemically fused with iodoacetamide-inactivated protoplasts of rice cv. 02428to produce hybrids. Seventy-two plants were regenerated from 623 calli based on metabolic complementation. The morphological characters of the plants closely resembled that of the rice. Simple sequence repeats were employed to identify their hybridity. Cytological analysis of root-tips revealed that their chromosome number varied in the range of 27-38. The somatic hybrids were inoculated with strains of Xanthamonas oryzae pv. Oryzae at adult growth stage and demonstrated the resistance to bacterial blight introgression from the O. Meyeriana.

  15. [Product safety analysis of somatic cell cloned bovine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Song; Lan, Jie; Song, Yongli; Lu, Chenglong; Zhang, Yong

    2010-05-01

    Somatic cell cloning (nuclear transfer) is a technique through which the nucleus (DNA) of a somatic cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte for the generation of a new individual, genetically identical to the somatic cell donor. It could be applied for the enhancement of reproduction rate and the improvement of food products involving quality, yield and nutrition. In recent years, the United States, Japan and Europe as well as other countries announced that meat and milk products made from cloned cattle are safe for human consumption. Yet, cloned animals are faced with a wide range of health problems, with a high death rate and a high incidence of disease. The precise causal mechanisms for the low efficiency of cloning remain unclear. Is it safe that any products from cloned animals were allowed into the food supply? This review focuses on the security of meat, milk and products from cloned cattle based on the available data.

  16. Regeneration of somatic hybrids in relation to the nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes of wheat and Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fengning; Xia, Guangmin; Zhi, Daying; Wang, Jing; Nie, Hui; Chen, Huimin

    2004-08-01

    Somatic hybridization via PEG (Polyethylene 6000)-mediated protoplast fusion was achieved between two different wheat culture lines (Triticum aestivum L., "Jinan"177, T1 and T2) and Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. The T1 recipient originated from non-regenerable long-term cell suspensions, while T2 was derived from embryogenic calli with a high regeneration capacity. Donor protoplasts were obtained from embryogenic calli of S. italica (S) (with low regeneration capacity) irradiated with different doses of ultraviolet light. Twenty-three putative hybrid cell lines were produced in fusion combinations with the donor protoplasts treated with UV light for 30 s (combination I) and 1 min (combination II), but only one (from combination II) differentiated into green plants. Three cell lines from combination I and five cell lines from combination II possessed the nuclear genomes of T1, T2, and S. italica as revealed by cytological, isozyme, RAPD, and 5S rDNA spacer sequence analyses. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis showed that most hybrid cell lines had 22-36 wheat chromosomes, 0-2 S. italica chromosomes, and 1-6 wheat - S. italica recombinant chromosomes, whereas the regenerable cell line had 44-56 wheat chromosomes and 3-6 recombinant chromosomes, but no intact S. italica chromosomes. RFLP analysis of organellar DNA revealed that mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA of both parents coexisted in all hybrid cell lines and recombined in most hybrid cell lines. These results indicate that the regeneration of hybrid plants involves not only the integration of S. italica nuclear and organellar DNA, but also the genome complementation of T1 and T2.

  17. Heat transfer and mechanical interactions in fusion nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    This general review of design issues in heat transfer and mechanical interactions of the first wall, blanket and shield systems of tokamak and mirror fusion reactors begins with a brief introduction to fusion nuclear systems. The design issues are summarized in tables and the following examples are described to illustrate these concerns: the surface heating of limiters, heat transfer from solid breeders, MHD effects in liquid metal blankets, mechanical loads from electromagnetic transients and remote maintenance

  18. Nuclear transfer in peripheral heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the whole thesis is to understand the experimental results of N. Frascaria et al. (1980), namely structures in the cross section as function of the excitation energy for the reaction 40 Ca + 40 Ca at 400 MeV incident energy. We present therefore in chapter 1 a simple model of two identical potentials with only two energy levels. On the base of statistically independent T-L excitations and by fitting a two parameters to the experiments it succeeds to reproduce sufficiently the experimental results. The next step is a microscopical treatment of these parameters for the understanding and the foundation of the fitted values. For this we develop in chapter 2 a theory of collective variables in the framework of TDHF which allows to perform in chapter 3 in a very transparent way microscopical calculations and especially to understand the transfer behaviour in peripheral heavy ion reactions. This transfer behaviour will also be the key for the understanding of the experimental structures. (orig.) [de

  19. Application of the Zona-Free Manipulation Technique to Porcine Somatic Nuclear Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Tan, Shijian J; Holm, Peter

    2001-01-01

    cytoplast was agglutinated to a single granulosa cell (primary cultures grown in 0.5% serum for 2-5 days prior to use) in phytohaemagglutinin-P. Subsequently, each half cytoplast-granulosa cell couplet was simultaneously electrofused together and to another half cytoplast. Reconstructed embryos were...... activated in calcium ionophore A23187 followed by DMAP and were then individually cultured in microwells in NCSU-23 medium. On day 7 after activation, blastocyst yield and total cell numbers were counted. Of 279 attempted reconstructed NT embryos, 85.0 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM; n = 5 replicates) successfully...... fused and survived activation. The blastocyst rate (per successfully fused and surviving embryo) was 4.8 +/- 2.3% (11/236; range, 0-12.8. Total blastocyst cell count was 36.0 +/- 4.5 (range, 18-58 cells). The blastocyst rate and total cell numbers of parthenogenetically activated and zona-free control...

  20. Handling and transfer operations for partially-spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, J K [PUSPATI, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1983-12-01

    This project involved the handling and transfer of partially-spent reactor fuel from the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor in Corvallis, Oregon to Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The method of handling is dependent upon the burn-up history of the fuel elements. Legal constraints imposed by standing U.S. nuclear regulations determine the selection of transport containers, transportation procedures, physical security arrangements in transit and nuclear material accountability documentation. Results of in-house safety evaluations of the project determine the extent of involvement of pertinent nuclear regulatory authorities. The actual handling activities and actual radiation dose rates are also presented.

  1. Nuclear power costs in the build, operate, transfer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aybers, M.N.; Sahin, B.

    1990-01-01

    The costs of nuclear power are discussed with special reference to the economic problems faced by developing countries, and the relative merit of a new accounting approach, viz., the build, operate, transfer contract model, which was proposed in Turkey for the Akkuyu nuclear power project, is illustrated. In this context, the general methodology of calculating nuclear power costs is summarized and a capital cost analysis for a 986 MW pressurized water reactor plant is given in terms of constant monetary units for the above contract model and the turnkey contract model. Adjustment of the costs taking into account regional conditions such as inflation and higher interest rates is also indicated. (orig.) [de

  2. Handling and transfer operations for partially-spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    This project involved the handling and transfer of partially-spent reactor fuel from the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor in Corvallis, Oregon to Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The method of handling is dependent upon the burn-up history of the fuel elements. Legal constraints imposed by standing U.S. nuclear regulations determine the selection of transport containers, transportation procedures, physical security arrangements in transit and nuclear material accountability documentation. Results of in-house safety evaluations of the project determine the extent of involvement of pertinent nuclear regulatory authorities. The actual handling activities and actual radiation dose rates are also presented (author)

  3. Ploidy of Bovine Nuclear Transfer Blastocysts Blastomere Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; VIUFF, D; THOMSEN, P D

    2000-01-01

    The higher rate of embryonic loss in nuclear transfer compared to in vitro produced embryos may be due to chromosome abnormalities that occur during preimplantation in vitro devel- opment. Because little is known about ploidy errors in nuclear transfer embryos, this was ex- amined using embryos...... cultured until day 7 at which time blastocyst nuclei were extracted and chromosome abnormalities were evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization using two probes that bind to the subcentromeric regions on chromosomes 6 and 7. In 16 nuclear transfer blastocysts generated from 5 donor embryos, 53.8 6 20...... comprised mainly triploid (8.2 6 10.3 [0–26.3]: SD [range]) and tetraploid (10.6 6 19.9 [0–54.9]) nuclei with other ploidy com- binations accounting for only 0.9 6 2.1 [0–2.1]% of deviant nuclei. The proportion of com- pletely normal nuclear transfer embryos was no less than those produced by in vitro...

  4. Fuel transfer manipulator for liquid metal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturges, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A manipulator for transferring fuel assemblies between inclined fuel chutes of a liquid metal nuclear reactor installation. Hoisting means are mounted on a mount supported by beams pivotably attached by pins to the mount and to the floor in such a manner that pivoting of the beams causes movement and tilting of a hoist tube between positions of alignment with the inclined chutes. (author)

  5. Technology transfer. Its contribution to the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perryman, E.C.W.

    1977-01-01

    Technology transfer from the Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is discussed in relation to the birth and growth of the Canadian Nuclear Industry. The evolution of the laboratories and their changing emphasis during the commercialization of the CANDU reactor system is described

  6. Transfer of industry-oriented nuclear technology at NUCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jesus, A.S.M.

    1983-10-01

    The transfer of industry-oriented nuclear technology at the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd (NUCOR) is centred in a few divisions only, as most of the NUCOR's program is internally oriented. The industry-oriented activities include radiation technology, production of radioisotopes and application of nuclear techniques in solving problems of industry. The study is concerned mainly with the last of these activities. The general problem of transferring innovative technology is reviewed and a systems approach is used to analyse the transfer process at NUCOR, in terms of the organisation itself and its environment. Organisational strengths and weaknesses are identified and used as a basis to determine opportunities and threats. Possible objectives are formulated and a strategy to meet them is suggested. 'Demand-pull' as opposed to 'technology-push' is advanced as the main triggering mechanism in the transfer of industry-oriented nuclear technology. The importance of marketing this technology, as well as its commercialization, are discussed

  7. Sex-reversed somatic cell cloning in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Mekada, Kazuyuki; Yoshiki, Atsushi; Sado, Takashi; Ogura, Atsuo

    2009-10-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer has many potential applications in the fields of basic and applied sciences. However, it has a disadvantage that can never be overcome technically-the inflexibility of the sex of the offspring. Here, we report an accidental birth of a female mouse following nuclear transfer using an immature Sertoli cell. We produced a batch of 27 clones in a nuclear transfer experiment using Sertoli cells collected from neonatal male mice. Among them, one pup was female. This "male-derived female" clone grew into a normal adult and produced offspring by natural mating with a littermate. Chromosomal analysis revealed that the female clone had a 39,X karyotype, indicating that the Y chromosome had been deleted in the donor cell or at some early step during nuclear transfer. This finding suggests the possibility of resuming sexual reproduction after a single male is cloned, which should be especially useful for reviving extinct or endangered species.

  8. International co-operation and the transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    di Primio, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The transfer of technology from developed countries is usually done through industrial enterprises. The local industrialization of imported technology does not necessarily imply that full benefit is extracted from its application. A pre-established scientific and technical infrastructure is needed to understand and incorporate it, and to develop methods for improvement and use at the industrial level, in the frame of national conditions. The transference of nuclear technology has recently shown new concepts for implementation. It is becoming a rule that massive industrial nuclear technology transfer to developing nations is tied to a requirement for simultaneous assistance in creating or promoting the infrastructure. An example of international co-operation to meet this requirement is the Argentine-German Agreement for the Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Energy. Since 1971 this has been used to strengthen the scientific and technical programmes of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission in the relevant fields of industrial applications. The objectives and implementation of the agreement are described: co-operative actions were initially directed to the infrastructure needed to support the nuclear fuel cycle industry. The results achieved during the period 1971-1976 are critically analysed. This analysis has influenced the selection of future co-operative projects as well as the extension of the co-operation to other nuclear fields of common interest. (author)

  9. Cloning endangered gray wolves (Canis lupus) from somatic cells collected postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H J; Kim, M K; Jang, G; Kim, H J; Hong, S G; Park, J E; Park, K; Park, C; Sohn, S H; Kim, D Y; Shin, N S; Lee, B C

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether nuclear transfer of postmortem wolf somatic cells into enucleated dog oocytes, is a feasible method to produce a cloned wolf. In vivo-matured oocytes (from domestic dogs) were enucleated and fused with somatic cells derived from culture of tissue obtained from a male gray wolf 6h after death. The reconstructed embryos were activated and transferred into the oviducts of naturally synchronous domestic bitches. Overall, 372 reconstructed embryos were transferred to 17 recipient dogs; four recipients (23.5%) were confirmed pregnant (ultrasonographically) 23-25 d after embryo transfer. One recipient spontaneously delivered two dead pups and three recipients delivered, by cesarean section, four cloned wolf pups, weighing 450, 190, 300, and 490g, respectively. The pup that weighed 190g died within 12h after birth. The six cloned wolf pups were genetically identical to the donor wolf, and their mitochondrial DNA originated from the oocyte donors. The three live wolf pups had a normal wolf karyotype (78, XY), and the amount of telomeric DNA, assessed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization, was similar to, or lower than, that of the nuclear donor. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the successful cloning of an endangered male gray wolf via interspecies transfer of somatic cells, isolated postmortem from a wolf, and transferred into enucleated dog oocytes. Therefore, somatic cell nuclear transfer has potential for preservation of canine species in extreme situations, including sudden death.

  10. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology. Nuclear Transfers and Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 5 March 1993 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic. The purpose of the Note Verbale is to provide information on that Governments' guidelines for Nuclear Transfers and for Transfers of of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Note Verbale is annexed hereto [fr

  11. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology. Nuclear Transfers and Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Director General has received a Note Ver bale dated 5 March 1993 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic. The purpose of the Note Ver bale is to provide information on that Governments' guidelines for Nuclear Transfers and for Transfers of of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Ver bale, the text of the Note Ver bale is annexed hereto

  12. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology. Nuclear Transfers and Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 5 March 1993 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic. The purpose of the Note Verbale is to provide information on that Governments' guidelines for Nuclear Transfers and for Transfers of of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Note Verbale is annexed hereto [es

  13. A practical approach to the transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segerberg, F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals specifically with the transfer of light-water reactor technology to a developing country. The technology transfer scheme presented assumes that Sweden is the supplier of this technology. The basis of the proposed approach is that hardware deliveries for nuclear power plants in the recipient country should constitute an activity in parallel with the general technology transfer. It is pointed out that the developing countries form a very heterogeneous group with respect to industrial capability. On the other hand the supplier nations are not a homogeneous group. Sweden's most relevant characteristics as supplier nation can be summarized under the following headings: (i) fairly small and highly industrialized country; (ii) concentration on nuclear power to cover increasing electricity demands; (iii) independent reactor technology; (iv) well-established infrastructure with regard to component manufacturing; (v) political neutrality. It follows that each combination of two countries constitutes a unique example. The nuclear technology transfer schemes must consequently be extremely flexible. The paper outlines a 'modular' system. This concept means that the supplier offers a great variety of independent courses, training opportunities, facilities etc. which can then be combined into a package meeting the wishes of the recipient nation. The components in a Swedish package of this kind are elaborated. The paper ends with the general conclusion that Sweden has so far been successful in combining high national ambitions with limited manpower and limited financial resources. The underlying efficiency and flexibility will hopefully make Sweden an attractive partner for developing countries. (author)

  14. INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND LOCALIZATION: SUCCESS STORIES IN NUCLEAR BRANCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Chernyakhovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available countries are considering nuclear power industry development [2, p. 3; 3, p. 3; 4]. For newcomer-countries it is of great importance to stimulate the national industry through NPP projects implementation based on technology transfer and localization (TTL. The study and systematization of world experience is useful in purpose to elaborate the national industry development programs. Objectives. The aim of article is to determine success factors of TTL; tasks: 1 to study TTL international experience in the fi eld of nuclear power technologies; 2 on the ground of the world practice to analyze preconditions, contents, stages, arrangement modes, formats and results of TTL. Methods. The following methods are utilized in the study: analysis and synthesis including problem-chronological, cause and eff ect and logical analysis and historical-diachronic method (method of periodization. Results. The following conclusions presented below have been made on the basis of the three cases study related to nuclear industry development using TTL (France, South Korea and China. Conclusions. The TTL success factors includes: Government support that provides long-term governmental development plan of nuclear power and industry for nuclear power based on TTL, and an appropriate international cooperation (under favorable conditions of “NPP buyers market”; Complex approach to implementation of the national TTL program and NPP construction projects: signing of NPP construction contracts with vendors stipulating technology transfer; NPP designing and constructing should be performed jointly with training and transferring of technical documentation and software. Technology transfer cooperation should be implemented through the licenses agreements and setting up joint ventures; Public acceptance and support.

  15. Mouse cloning and somatic cell reprogramming using electrofused blastomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Amjad; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Dai, Xiangpeng; Li, Wei; Liu, Lei; Wan, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi

    2011-05-01

    Mouse cloning from fertilized eggs can assist development of approaches for the production of "genetically tailored" human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines that are not constrained by the limitations of oocyte availability. However, to date only zygotes have been successfully used as recipients of nuclei from terminally differentiated somatic cell donors leading to ES cell lines. In fertility clinics, embryos of advanced embryonic stages are usually stored for future use, but their ability to support the derivation of ES cell lines via somatic nuclear transfer has not yet been proved. Here, we report that two-cell stage electrofused mouse embryos, arrested in mitosis, can support developmental reprogramming of nuclei from donor cells ranging from blastomeres to somatic cells. Live, full-term cloned pups from embryonic donors, as well as pluripotent ES cell lines from embryonic or somatic donors, were successfully generated from these reconstructed embryos. Advanced stage pre-implantation embryos were unable to develop normally to term after electrofusion and transfer of a somatic cell nucleus, indicating that discarded pre-implantation human embryos could be an important resource for research that minimizes the ethical concerns for human therapeutic cloning. Our approach provides an attractive and practical alternative to therapeutic cloning using donated oocytes for the generation of patient-specific human ES cell lines.

  16. Transferring nuclear power technology to foster Chinese self-reliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, J-D.

    1998-01-01

    Being convinced that nuclear energy will play an important role in meeting its huge future energy demands, China considers that the development of a very strong national nuclear industry capable of covering all aspects of a major national power program is of paramount importance.In this context, China has invited its foreign partners to propose contributions to the studies for this development, in view of establishing a suitable cooperation program with the entire Chinese nuclear power industry, including design institutes, equipment manufacturers, construction companies and plant operators.One of the main objectives defined by the Chinese authorities for the further development of their nuclear industry with some international cooperation is the achievement of a very high level of self-reliance by Chinese industry in all of the following areas: project management, design and engineering, construction, equipment design and manufacturing,operation and maintenance. The major key to reaching this target of overall and long term self reliance lies in the implementation of thorough design know how transfer towards all partners of the Chinese nuclear industry, who shall acquire the necessary capabilities so as to completely master nuclear engineering. While this policy might entail fairly high front end investments by the technology receivers, in terms of industrial infrastructure nad engineering capabilities it is expected to pay off over the long term with the development of a substantial nuclear power plant construction program.(DM)

  17. Heat Transfer Coefficient Variations in Nuclear Fuel Rod Bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, Michael E.; Holloway, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    The single-phase heat transfer performance of a PWR nuclear fuel rod bundle is enhanced by the use of mixing vanes attached to the downstream edges of the support grid straps. This improved single-phase performance will delay the onset of nucleate boiling, thereby reducing corrosion and delaying crud-related issues. This paper presents the variation in measured single-phase heat transfer coefficients (HTC) for several grid designs. Then, this variation is compared with observations of actual in-core crud patterns. While crud deposition is a function of a number of parameters including rod heat flux, the HTC is assumed to be a primary factor in explaining why crud deposition is a local phenomenon on nuclear fuel rods. The data from this study will be used to examine this assumption by providing a comparison between HTC variations and crud deposition patterns. (authors)

  18. Nuclear Effects in Neutrino Interactions at Low Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miltenberger, Ethan Ryan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This is a study to identify predicted effects of the carbon nucleus environment on neutrino - nucleus interactions with low momentum transfer. A large sample of neutrino interaction data collected by the MINERvA experiment is analyzed to show the distribution of charged hadron energy in a region with low momentum transfer. These distributions reveal a major discrepancy between the data and a popular interaction model with only the simplest Fermi gas nuclear effects. Detailed analysis of systematic uncertainties due to energy scale and resolution can account for only a little of the discrepancy. Two additional nuclear model effects, a suppression/screening effect (RPA), and the addition of a meson exchange current process (MEC), are shown to improve the description of the data.

  19. Apparatus for transferring nuclear fuel pellets to a plate loader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus is described for transferring nuclear fuel pellets from a grinding machine to a plate loader. It includes a frame, an endless belt fitted to the frame, a control system provided on it for actuating the belt at a preset speed, a V shaped vessel fitted directly above the belt and extending along its length to guide the pellets on the belt and a device to receive the pellets coming from the belt [fr

  20. Radioactive droplet moisture transfer from nuclear power plant spray pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elokhin, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Problem on transfer of radioactive droplet moisture with an account of its evaporation from the nuclear power plant spray pool (NPP coolant) is considered. Formulae enabling evaluation of droplet and radioactive water admixture lifetime as a whole, as well as the maximum distance (by wind), over which it can extend, are obtained. Recommendations for decrease in the droplet dispersed composition and reduction in scale of radioactive contamination of underlying surface are given. 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  1. The effect of the number of transferred embryos, the interval between nuclear transfer and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern on pig cloning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Chol Ho; Fu, Zhixin; Bao, Lei; Chen, Haide; Zhang, Dan; Luo, Qiong; Ri, Hak Chol; Huang, Hefeng; Luan, Zhidong; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Chun; Xiao, Lei; Jong, Ui Myong

    2013-12-01

    To improve the efficiency of producing cloned pigs, we investigated the influence of the number of transferred embryos, the culturing interval between nuclear transfer (NT) and embryo transfer, and the transfer pattern (single oviduct or double oviduct) on cloning efficiency. The results demonstrated that transfer of either 150-200 or more than 200NT embryos compared to transfer of 100-150 embryos resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate (48 ± 16, 50 ± 16 vs. 29 ± 5%, pcloning efficiency is achieved by adjusting the number and in vitro culture time of reconstructed embryos as well as the embryo transfer pattern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Internal transfers of special nuclear material - March 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Paragraph 70.51(e) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires, with certain exceptions stated in the rule, that each licensee authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material (SNM) maintain certain procedures. These procedures are to include: (1) records of the quantities of SNM added to or removed from the process; (2) documentation of all transfers of SNM between material-balance areas to show the identity and quantity of SNM transferred; (3) requirements for authorized signatures on each document used to record the transfer of SNM between material-balance areas; and (4) means for control of and accounting for internal transfer documents. Paragraph 70.58(e) requires licensees to establish, maintain, and follow a system for measuring the SNM transferred between material-balance areas and item-control areas. Paragraph 70.58(f) requires that licensees have a program that evaluates and controls the quality of their measurement system. Additionally, all licensees authorized to possess SNM must comply with paragraph 70.51(b) of 10 CFR Part 70. That rule requires licensees to keep records showing, among other things, the inventory of all SNM in their possession and its location. This guide sets forth acceptable methods for controlling and documenting transfers of SNM within a plant site in order to meet the requirements listed above

  3. Expression of a transferred nuclear gene in a mitochondrial genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Qiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of mitochondrial genes to the nucleus, and subsequent gain of regulatory elements for expression, is an ongoing evolutionary process in plants. Many examples have been characterized, which in some cases have revealed sources of mitochondrial targeting sequences and cis-regulatory elements. In contrast, there have been no reports of a nuclear gene that has undergone intracellular transfer to the mitochondrial genome and become expressed. Here we show that the orf164 gene in the mitochondrial genome of several Brassicaceae species, including Arabidopsis, is derived from the nuclear ARF17 gene that codes for an auxin responsive protein and is present across flowering plants. Orf164 corresponds to a portion of ARF17, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences are 79% and 81% identical, respectively. Orf164 is transcribed in several organ types of Arabidopsis thaliana, as detected by RT-PCR. In addition, orf164 is transcribed in five other Brassicaceae within the tribes Camelineae, Erysimeae and Cardamineae, but the gene is not present in Brassica or Raphanus. This study shows that nuclear genes can be transferred to the mitochondrial genome and become expressed, providing a new perspective on the movement of genes between the genomes of subcellular compartments.

  4. Nuclear transfer to prevent mitochondrial DNA disorders : revisiting the debate on reproductive cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A. L.; Dondorp, W.; Pennings, G.; De Wert, G.

    Preclinical experiments are currently performed to examine the feasibility of several types of nuclear transfer to prevent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorders. Whereas the two most promising types of nuclear transfer to prevent mtDNA disorders, spindle transfer and pronuclear transfer, do not amount

  5. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  6. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low Earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to Earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant

  7. Theory of nuclear heavy-ion direct transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, B.J.B.

    1979-01-01

    We review the distorted-wave approach to direct transfer reactions and draw attention to some of the shortcomings of current theories. We show that a reformulated form of the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) for transfer can lead to important simplifications of the theory, which are valid for nuclear heavy-ion induced reactions at energies > or approx. =MeV/nucleon. In particular, in the semiclassical limit, it leads to a new and simple formula for the transfer t-matrix which includes all the essential physics while offering several important advantages over standard ''full-recoil finite-range'' DWBA. One such advantage is that the new formula is more transparent in that it is amendable to interpretation and analytical manipulation. At high-energy it is shown to reduce to one earlier deduced using eikonal-DWBA. The conditions for the validity of the new theory are discussed in detail. They are shown to be generally well satisfied for small-mass transfer between heavy-ions at energies at or above those particularly favour transfer (> or approx. =10 MeV/nucleon for transfer of valence nucleons). The restriction to small mass is not due to any recoil approximation; in fact, it is only a necessary restriction at certain energies. The theory treats recoil exactly. Consideration of the optimum dynamical conditions for transfer leads to a set of matching conditions. The presence of hitherto neglected absorption, arising from dynamical effects of poor matching, it suggested and qualitatively discussed. Condition under which such absorption may be neglected are derived. Results of numerical calculations are presented showing that the theory is capable of good agreement with standard full-recoil finite-range DWBA, and that it is capable of giving at least as good an account of experimental data for nucleon-transfer between heavy-ions at energies approx.10 MeV/nucleon

  8. Design considerations for Mars transfer vehicles using nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The design of a Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) utilizing nuclear propulsion will require that careful consideration be given to the nuclear radiation environment in which it will operate. The extremely high neutron and gamma fluxes characteristic of nuclear thermal propulsion systems will cause significant heating of the fluid systems in close proximity to the reactor, especially in the lower propellant tanks. Crew radiation doses are also a concern particularly late in a mission when there is less shielding from the propellant tanks. In this study, various vehicle configuration and shielding strategies were examined and the resulting time dependent radiation fields evaluated. A common cluster of three particle bed reactor (PBR) engines were used in all configurations examined. In general, it appears that long, relatively narrow vehicles perform the best from a radiation standpoint, however, good shield optimization will be critical in maintaining a low radiation environment while minimizing the shield weight penalty.

  9. Romanian knowledge transfer network in nuclear physics and engineering - REFIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitescu, Petre; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2007-01-01

    According to the requirements of the Romanian Nuclear Programme regarding the education and training of the skilled personnel for the nuclear facilities, a knowledge transfer network named REFIN (in Romanian: Retea Educationala in Fizica si Ingineria Nucleara) was developed since 2005. The knowledge target field is nuclear physics and engineering. The main objective of this network is to develop an effective, flexible and modern educational system in the nuclear physics and engineering area which could meet the requirements of all known types of nuclear facilities and therewith be redundant with the perspectives of the European Research Area (FP7, EURATOM). A global strategy was proposed in order to harmonize the curricula between the network facilities to implement pilot modern teaching programs (courses/modules), to introduce advanced learning methods (as Systematic Approach to Training, e-learning and distance-learning), to strengthen and better use the existing research infrastructures of the research institutes in network. The education and training strategy is divided into several topics: university engineering , master, post-graduate, Ph.D. degree, post-doctoral activity, training for industry, improvement. For the first time in our country, a modular scheme is used allowing staff with different technical background to participate at different levels. In this respect, the European system with transferable credits (ECTS) is used. Based on this strategy, courses in 'Radioactive Waste Management' and 'Numerical and Experimental Methods in Reactor Physics' for both MS students and for industry. This way the training activity which a student attends will allow him or her to be involved, depending on specific professional needs, into a flexible educational scheme. This scheme will ensure competence and enhancement and also the possibility of qualification development and a better mobility on labour market. This kind of activity is already in progress in the

  10. β-Cell Replacement in Mice Using Human Type 1 Diabetes Nuclear Transfer Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Lina; Danzl, Nichole; Campbell, Sean R; Viola, Ryan; Williams, Damian; Xing, Yuan; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Neil; Poffenberger, Greg; Johannesson, Bjarki; Oberholzer, Jose; Powers, Alvin C; Leibel, Rudolph L; Chen, Xiaojuan; Sykes, Megan; Egli, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    β-Cells derived from stem cells hold great promise for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here we examine the ability of nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (NT-ESs) derived from a patient with type 1 diabetes to differentiate into β-cells and provide a source of autologous islets for cell replacement. NT-ESs differentiate in vitro with an average efficiency of 55% into C-peptide-positive cells, expressing markers of mature β-cells, including MAFA and NKX6.1. Upon transplantation in immunodeficient mice, grafted cells form vascularized islet-like structures containing MAFA/C-peptide-positive cells. These β-cells adapt insulin secretion to ambient metabolite status and show normal insulin processing. Importantly, NT-ES-β-cells maintain normal blood glucose levels after ablation of the mouse endogenous β-cells. Cystic structures, but no teratomas, were observed in NT-ES-β-cell grafts. Isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed greater variability in β-cell differentiation. Even though different methods of somatic cell reprogramming result in stem cell lines that are molecularly indistinguishable, full differentiation competence is more common in ES cell lines than in induced pluripotent stem cell lines. These results demonstrate the suitability of NT-ES-β-cells for cell replacement for type 1 diabetes and provide proof of principle for therapeutic cloning combined with cell therapy. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2014-01-01

    Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence expensive compared to the generation of iPSC. Even with the latest SCNT technology, we are not sure whether one can make therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cell from any patient's somatic cells or by using oocytes from any donor. Combining iPSC technology with SCNT, that is, by using the nucleus of the candidate somatic cell which got reprogrammed to pluripotent state instead that of the unmodified nucleus of the candidate somatic cell, would boost the efficiency of the technique, and we would be able to generate therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cell nuclear transfer (iPSCNT) combines the efficiency of iPSC generation with the speed and natural reprogramming environment of SCNT. The new technique may be called iPSCNT. This technique could prove to have very revolutionary benefits for humankind. This could be useful in generating organs for transplantation for patients and for reproductive cloning, especially for childless men and women who cannot have children by any other techniques. When combined with advanced gene editing techniques (such as CRISPR-Cas system) this technique might also prove useful to those who want to have healthy children but suffer from inherited diseases. The current code of ethics may be against reproductive cloning. However, this will change with time as it happened with most of the revolutionary scientific breakthroughs. After all, it is the right of every human to have healthy offspring and it is the question of

  12. The project of Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center (ENTEC) and the transfer of nuclear tecnology in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaneh, Reza

    1977-01-01

    In 1974, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) decided to set up a Nuclear Technology Center on Esfahan (ENTEC) in collaboration with France's Technicatome Company and the CEA. This center is scheduled to go into operation during 1976-1980. The purposes for setting up ENTEC are threefold: a. to give scientific and technical support to the operation of nuclear power plants and nuclear industries in Iran. b. to carry out research and development in the area of nuclear technology on an industrial level. c. to give supplementary education and training to the manpower needs for the AEOI. To carry out the program of technology transfer, temporary laboratories have been set up in Tehran for engineers, technicians and training programs have been organized primarily in France. The ENTEC project will also include a school for education of junior scientists and engineers in the field of nuclear technology

  13. Endangered wolves cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hwang, Woo Suk; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Kim, Joung Joo; Shin, Nam Shik; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2007-01-01

    Over the world, canine species, including the gray wolf, have been gradually endangered or extinct. Many efforts have been made to recover and conserve these canids. The aim of this study was to produce the endangered gray wolf with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for conservation. Adult ear fibroblasts from a female gray wolf (Canis lupus) were isolated and cultured in vitro as donor cells. Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used. After removing the cumulus cells, the oocyte was enucleated, microinjected, fused with a donor cell, and activated. The reconstructed cloned wolf embryos were transferred into the oviducts of the naturally synchronized surrogate mothers. Two pregnancies were detected by ultrasonography at 23 days of gestation in recipient dogs. In each surrogate dog, two fetal sacs were confirmed by early pregnancy diagnosis at 23 days, but only two cloned wolves were delivered. The first cloned wolf was delivered by cesarean section on October 18, 2005, 60 days after embryo transfer. The second cloned wolf was delivered on October 26, 2005, at 61 days postembryo transfer. Microsatellite analysis was performed with genomic DNA from the donor wolf, the two cloned wolves, and the two surrogate female recipients to confirm the genetic identity of the cloned wolves. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned wolves were genetically identical to the donor wolf. In conclusion, we demonstrated live birth of two cloned gray wolves by nuclear transfer of wolf somatic cells into enucleated canine oocyte, indicating that SCNT is a practical approach for conserving endangered canids.

  14. Improvement of mouse cloning using nuclear transfer-derived embryonic stem cells and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Sayaka; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear transfer-derived ES (ntES) cell lines can be established from somatic cell nuclei with a relatively high success rate. Although ntES cells have been shown to be equivalent to ES cells, there are ethical objections concerning human cells, such as the use of fresh oocyte donation from young healthy woman. In contrast, the use of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for cloning poses few ethical problems and is a relatively easy technique compared with nuclear transfer. Therefore, although there are several reports proposing the use of ntES cells as a model of regenerative medicine, the use of these cells in preliminary medical research is waning. However, in theory, 5 to 10 donor cells can establish one ntES cell line and, once established, these cells will propagate indefinitely. These cells can be used to generate cloned animals from ntES cell lines using a second round of NT. Even in infertile and "unclonable" strains of mice, we can generate offspring from somatic cells by combining cloning with ntES technology. Moreover, cloned offspring can be generated potentially even from the nuclei of dead bodies or freeze-dried cells via ntES cells, such as from an extinct frozen animal. Currently, only the ntES technology is available for this purpose, because all other techniques, including iPS cell derivation, require significant numbers of living donor cells. This review describes how to improve the efficiency of cloning, the establishment of clone-derived embryonic stem cells and further applications.

  15. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear... PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28 Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. Licensees are excepted from the security...

  16. Transferring aviation human factors technology to the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemerlo, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the availability of aviation safety technology and research on problems which are sufficiently similar to those faced by the nuclear power industry that an agressive effort to adapt and transfer that technology and research is warranted. Because of time and space constraints, the scope of this paper is reduced from a discussion of all of aviation safety technology to the human factors of air carrier safety. This area was selected not only because of similarities in the human factors challenges shared by both industries (e.g. selection, training, evaluation, certification, etc.) but because experience in aviation has clearly demonstrated that human error contributes to a substantially greater proportion of accidents and incidents than does equipment failure. The Congress of the United States has placed a great deal of emphasis on investigating and solving human factors problems in aviation. A number of recent examples of this interest and of the resulting actions are described. The opinions of prominent aviation organizations as to the human factors problems most in need of research are presented, along with indications of where technology transfer to the nuclear power industry may be viable. The areas covered include: fatigue, crew size, information transfer, resource management, safety data-bases, the role of automation, voice and data recording systems, crew distractions, the management of safety regulatory agencies, equipment recertification, team training, crew work-load, behavioural factors, human factors of equipment design, medical problems, toxicological factors, the use of simulators for training and certification, determining the causes of human errors, the politics of systems improvement, and importance of both safety and public perception of safety if the industry is to be viable. (author)

  17. Transfer of nuclear technology to the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisse, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The increased Agency assistance for transfer of nuclear technology is essential for the developing countries and especially Africa. It would have a beneficial effect on the implementation of training programmes. The introduction of teaching in nuclear physics at universities in Nigeria, Tanzania and Madagascar should be extended to other universities in order further to orientate African students towards nuclear sciences. In the peaceful uses of atomic energy the African States are concentrating their activities in the spheres of agriculture and medicine. The Agency assists these countries in programmes in agriculture and the exploitation of natural resources, including water. The introduction of radioisotope techniques should be accelerated at all existing agricultural research centres. Services of this kind exist in a few countries, including Senegal, Kenya, the Ivory Coast, Morocco and the Sudan. Radioisotopes employed there make it possible, in particular, to trace the movement of fertilizers from soil to plant and to measure soil humidity. Ionizing radiations can be used to produce genetic effects for the purpose of creating hew varieties of important crop plants and selecting varieties requiring less water for their growth. Such activities are naturally of the greatest interest to the African continent which, as a whole, lives basically from agriculture. The guarantee of food supplies during the next decade is a subject of concern for Africa, and the prevention of losses of foodstuffs is one of the main objectives of African policy.Food irradiation projects are being conducted in Ghana (on cocoa beans) and in Nigeria (on sweet potatoes) with the support of Agency research projects. The Agency's project on the radiation preservation of fish, at present being implemented in countries in Asia, could - provided that the results are satisfactory - have important economic repercussions for the African countries.In the medical sphere, the improvement in health

  18. Charged-particle transfer reactions and nuclear astrophysics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemov, S.V.; Yarmukhamedov, R.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Burtebaev, N.; Duysebaev, A.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    In the report a review of the recent results of calculation of the astrophysical S-factors S(E) for the D(α, γ) 6 Li, 3 He(α, γ) 7 Be, 7 Be(p, γ) 8 Be, 12,13 C(p, γ) 13, 14 N and 12 C(p,γ) 16 O* reactions at extremely low energies E, including value E=0 , performed within the framework of a new method taking into account the additional information about the nuclear vertex constant (Nc) (or the respective asymptotic normalization coefficient) are presented. The required values of Nc can be obtained from an analysis of measured differential cross-sections of proton and α-particle transfer reactions (for example A( 3 He,d)B, 6 Li(d, 6 Li)d, 6 Li(α, 6 Li)α, 12 C( 6 Li, d) 16 O* etc.). A comparative analysis between the results obtained by different authors is also done. Taking into account an important role of the NVC's values for the nuclear astrophysical A(p, γ)B and A(α, γ)B reactions, a possibility of obtaining the reliable NVC values for the virtual decay B→A+p and B→A+α from the analysis of differential cross sections both sub- and above-barrier A( 3 He, d) and A( 6,7 Li, 2,3 H)B reactions is discussed in detail. In this line the use the isochronous cyclotron U-150 M, the 'DC-60' heavy ion machine and electrostatic charge-exchanging accelerator UKP-2-1 of Institute of Nuclear Physics of National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan for carrying out the needed experiments is considered and the possibility of the obtained data application for the astrophysical interest is also discussed

  19. Somatic symptom disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Somatic symptom disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . ...

  20. Role of national centers of research and development in nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, J.-J.; Millies, Pierre.

    1977-01-01

    National Research Centers are shown to play a leading role in nuclear technology transfer, whatever may be the directing scheme of nuclear development in the country envisaged. The first act of the Center consists in training specialists in the various nuclear fields. It must ensure the transfer of technological knowledge towards industry (in metallurgy, mechanics, electronics) and other nuclear auxiliary techniques, together with the transfer towards administration (laws). A simplified scheme of nuclear development strategy based on the French scheme (the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) with its subsidiary Companies) is presented that is usable for developing countries [fr

  1. Prediction of heat and mass transfer in innovative nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, W.; Forgione, N.; Manfredini, A.; Oriolo, F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a short review of the different forms adopted to express the analogy between heat and mass transfer for application in correlating data from condensation and evaporation experiments. In particular, the assumptions at the basis of the various forms presented by classical textbooks as well as recent research work are qualitatively discussed, proposing a unified treatment of the different models. On this background, the results of the application of one of the considered forms of the analogy to a problem having relevance for nuclear reactor safety are then discussed. The work performed in this frame is related to condensation on finned tube heat exchangers, proposed as key components in passive containment cooling systems adopted in some innovative reactor concepts. The application of the model to the experimental dana also allowed to obtain interesting information about the effect of different parameters on the cooling capabilities of this compact heat exchangers. (author)

  2. Dual winch nuclear fuel transfer system providing more reliable fuel transfer during refueling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuschke, R.E.; Harper, M.J.; Stefko, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a nuclear power plant having an auxiliary building, a containment building having the wall, a track extending through a transfer tube within the containment wall, and a fuel transfer system for moving fuel assemblies along the track between the auxiliary building side and the containment building side of the containment wall. It comprises: a car having wheels for movement along spaced rails of the track and further having a carrying basket for one or more fuel assemblies; winch means located on the auxiliary building side of the containment wall and above the water level existing over the track during refueling operations to drive the car along the track; first cable means and second cable means extending substantially vertically downward from the winch means to the tack level; first sheave means for directing the first and the second cable means substantially in the horizontal direction along the track; means for securing the first cable means to the car so that winch pulling force on the first cable means drives the car away from the containment building; second sheave means located near the containment end of the transfer tube

  3. Design guide for heat transfer equipment in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Information pertaining to design methods, material selection, fabrication, quality assurance, and performance tests for heat transfer equipment in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems is given in this design guide. This information is intended to assist those concerned with the design, specification, and evaluation of heat transfer equipment for nuclear service and the systems in which this equipment is required. (U.S.)

  4. Heat and mass transfer and hydrodynamics in two-phase flows in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styrikovich, M.A.; Polonskii, V.S.; Tsiklauri, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    This book examines nuclear power plant equipment from the point of view of heat and mass transfer and the behavior of impurities contained in water and in steam, with reference to real water regimes of nuclear power plants. The transfer processes of equipment are considered. Heat and mass transfer are analyzed in the pre-crisis regions of steam-generating passages with non-permeable surfaces, and in capillary-porous structures. Attention is given to forced convection boiling crises and top post-DNB heat transfer. Data on two-phase hydrodynamics in straight and curved channels are correlated and safety aspects of nuclear power plants are discussed

  5. Formation of nucleoli in interspecies nuclear transfer embryos derived from bovine, porcine, and rabbit oocytes and nuclear donor cells of various species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagutina, Irina; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Fulka, Helena; Colleoni, Silvia; Wolf, Eckhard; Fulka, Josef; Lazzari, Giovanna; Galli, Cesare

    2011-04-01

    The most successful development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos has been achieved in closely related species. The analyses of embryonic gene activity in iSCNT embryos of different species combinations have revealed the existence of significant aberrations in expression of housekeeping genes and genes dependent on the major embryonic genome activation (EGA). However, there are many studies with successful blastocyst (BL) development of iSCNT embryos derived from donor cells and oocytes of animal species with distant taxonomical relations (inter-family/inter-class) that should indicate proper EGA at least in terms of RNA polymerase I activation, nucleoli formation, and activation of genes engaged in morula and BL formation. We investigated the ability of bovine, porcine, and rabbit oocytes to activate embryonic nucleoli formation in the nuclei of somatic cells of different mammalian species. In iSCNT embryos, nucleoli precursor bodies originate from the oocyte, while most proteins engaged in the formation of mature nucleoli should be transcribed from genes de novo in the donor nucleus at the time of EGA. Thus, the success of nucleoli formation depends on species compatibility of many components of this complex process. We demonstrate that the time and cell stage of nucleoli formation are under the control of recipient ooplasm. Oocytes of the studied species possess different abilities to support nucleoli formation. Formation of nucleoli, which is a complex but small part of the whole process of EGA, is essential but not absolutely sufficient for the development of iSCNT embryos to the morula and BL stages.

  6. Heat transfer and fluid flow in nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, H.

    1981-01-01

    The present publication is an attempt to provide a bridge between fundamental principles and current design practice. It is intended to serve the need of: engineers, scientists and graduate students active in thermal and hydraulics problems and to those interested to keep abreast of the field. The text is addressed to readers with previous knowledge in heat transfer and fluid flow equvalent to a one year university graduate course in that field. Because of the high degree of specialization covered in the six chapters of the book, individual authors of international reputation and active in their respective area of specialization were selected to contribute their knowledge. Each of the six chapters or sub-chapters are self-contained. They are followed by problem sets to enable the reader to check his level of comprehension of the material presented. The nuclear systems covered in separate chapters include: the pressurized and boiling water reactors (PWR, BWR), the helium cooled high temperature reactors (HTGR and HTR), the breeders helium cooled (GCFR) and sodium cooled (LMFBR). In addition the heat-exchangers and steam generators commonly associated with the above systems are covered in Chapter 6

  7. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array

  8. Nuclear Transparency in Large Momentum Transfer Quasielastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardor, I.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Kosonovsky, E.; Mardor, Y.; Navon, I.; Piasetzky, E.; Durrant, S.; Barton, D.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.; Gushue, S.; Makdisi, Y.; Roser, T.; Tanaka, M.; Christensen, N.; Courant, H.; Marshak, M.; White, C.; Heppelmann, S.; Minor, E.D.; Wu, J.; Nicholson, H.; Sutton, C.S.; Russell, J.

    1998-01-01

    We measured simultaneously pp elastic and quasielastic (p,2p) scattering in hydrogen, deuterium, and carbon for momentum transfers of 4.8 to 6.2 (GeV/c) 2 at incoming momenta of 5.9 and 7.5 GeV/c and center-of-mass scattering angles in the range θ c.m. =83.7 degree - 90 degree . The nuclear transparency is defined as the ratio of the quasielastic cross section to the free pp cross section. At incoming momentum of 5.9 GeV/c , the transparency of carbon decreases by a factor of 2 from θ c.m. ≅85 degree to θ c.m. ≅89 degree . At the largest angle the transparency of carbon increases from 5.9 to 7.5 GeV/c by more than 50%. The transparency in deuterium does not depend on incoming momentum nor on θ c.m. . copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  9. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 4: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  10. Considerations on technology transfer process in nuclear power industry for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, I.P.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear know-how cannot possibly be developed globally in developing countries, so technology transfer is the only conceivable way to make nuclear power accessible to these countries. Technology transfer process accounts for three mayor steps, namely acquisition, assimilation and diffusion, so a serious nuclear power program should comprise all of them. Substantial national efforts should be made by developing countries in financial, industrial, scientific, organizational and many other aspects in order to succeed a profitable technology transfer, but developing countries cannot make it by themselves. Finance is the biggest problem for developing world nuclear power projects. Human resource qualification is another important aspect of the nuclear power technology transfer, where technology receptor countries should prepare thousands of professionals in domestic and foreign schools. Challenge for nuclear power deployment is economical, but also social and political. Developed countries should be open to cooperate with developing countries in meeting their needs for nuclear power deployment that should be stimulated and coordinated by an international body which should serve as mediator for nuclear power technology transfer. This process must be carried out on the basis of mutual benefits, in which the developed world can exploit the fast growing market of energy in the developing world, but with the necessary condition of the previous preparation of our countries for this technology transfer. (author)

  11. Advances in reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal; Yang, Shuying

    2010-09-01

    Traditionally, nuclear reprogramming of cells has been performed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into oocytes, by combining somatic and pluripotent cells together through cell fusion and through genetic integration of factors through somatic cell chromatin. All of these techniques changes gene expression which further leads to a change in cell fate. Here we discuss recent advances in generating induced pluripotent stem cells, different reprogramming methods and clinical applications of iPS cells. Viral vectors have been used to transfer transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, c-myc, Klf4, and nanog) to induce reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts, neural stem cells, neural progenitor cells, keratinocytes, B lymphocytes and meningeal membrane cells towards pluripotency. Human fibroblasts, neural cells, blood and keratinocytes have also been reprogrammed towards pluripotency. In this review we have discussed the use of viral vectors for reprogramming both animal and human stem cells. Currently, many studies are also involved in finding alternatives to using viral vectors carrying transcription factors for reprogramming cells. These include using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. Applications of these techniques have been discussed in detail including its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, current clinical applications of induced pluripotent stem cells and its limitations have also been reviewed. Thus, this review is a summary of current research advances in reprogramming cells into induced pluripotent stem cells.

  12. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germination and that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol of regeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculated on WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D (22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed casein or glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture medium containing NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction (8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein and the development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promoted in WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containing hydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. During the maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages. The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histological studies.

  13. SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND MORPHOANATOMY OF Ocotea porosa SOMATIC EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Luiza Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812343Ocotea porosa seeds have strong tegument dormancy, recalcitrant behavior, low and irregular germinationand that makes its natural propagation difficult. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol ofregeneration of Ocotea porosa from somatic embryogenesis. Immature embryonic axes were inoculatedon WPM culture medium supplemented with 2.4-D (200 μM combined or not with hydrolyzed casein orglutamine (0.5 or 1 g l-1, during 90 days. The repetitive embryogenesis was induced on medium with 2.4-D(22.62 μM combined with 2-iP (2.46 μM followed by transfer to culture medium with hydrolyzed caseinor glutamine (1 g l-1 during 90 days. The maturation of somatic embryos was tested in culture mediumcontaining NAA (0.5 μM and 2-iP (5; 10 and 20 μM. The highest percentage of somatic embryos induction(8.3% was observed in WPM culture medium containing 200 μM 2.4-D and 1 g L-1 hydrolyzed casein andthe development of somatic embryos occurred indirectly. Repetitive somatic embryogenesis was promotedin WPM medium containing hydrolyzed casein or glutamine. However, the culture medium containinghydrolyzed casein promoted the maintenance of embryogenic capacity for more than two years. Duringthe maturity phase, there was a low progression of globular embryos to cordiform and torpedo stages.The different ontogenetic stages of somatic embryos of Ocotea porosa were characterized by histologicalstudies.

  14. Two-phase flow heat transfer in nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncar, Bostjan; Krepper, Eckhard; Bestion, Dominique; Song, Chul-Hwa; Hassan, Yassin A.

    2013-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Heat transfer and phase change phenomena in two-phase flows are often encountered in nuclear reactor systems and are therefore of paramount importance for their optimal design and safe operation.The complex phenomena observed especially during transient operation of nuclear reactor systems necessitate extensive theoretical and experimental investigations. This special issue brings seven research articles of high quality. Though small in number, they cover a wide range of topics, presenting high complexity and diversity of heat transfer phenomena in two-phase flow. In the last decades a vast amount of research has been devoted to theoretical work and computational simulations, yet the experimental work remains indispensable for understanding of two-phase flow phenomena and for model validation purposes. This is reflected also in this issue, where only one article is purely experimental, while three of them deal with theoretical modelling and the remaining three with numerical simulations. The experimental investigation of the critical heat flux (CHF) phenomena by means of photographic study is presented in the paper of J. Park et al. They have used a high-speed camera system to observe the transient boiling characteristics on a thin horizontal cylinder submerged in a pool of water or highly wetting liquid. Experiments show that the initial boiling process is strongly affected by the properties and wettability of the liquid. The authors have stressed the importance of the local scale observation leading to better understanding of the transient CHF phenomena. In the article of G. Espinosa-Paredes et al. a theoretical work concerning the derivation of transport equations for two-phase flow is presented. The author proposes a novel approach based on derivation of nonlocal volume averaged equations which contain new terms related to nonlocal transport effects. These non-local terms act as coupling elements between the phenomena

  15. Crosstalk between a nuclear receptor and beta-catenin signaling decides cell fates in the C. elegans somatic gonad

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Asahina, Masako; Valenta, Tomáš; Šilhánková, M.; Kořínek, Vladimír; Jindra, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2006), s. 203-211 ISSN 1534-5807 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB5022303; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk 2B06129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : nuclear receptor * beta-catenin signaling * Caenorhabditis elegans Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 13.523, year: 2006

  16. Cortisol and somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, W; Auer, C

    2000-05-01

    Somatization symptoms are frequently associated with depression, anxiety, and feelings of distress. These features interact with the activity of the HPA-axis. Therefore we investigated relationships between somatization symptoms and cortisol. Seventy-seven participants were classified into three groups: somatization syndrome (at least eight physical symptoms from the DSM-IV somatization disorder list), somatization syndrome combined with major depression, and healthy controls. The following data were collected: salivary cortisol at three time points (morning, afternoon, evening), nighttime urinary cortisol, serum cortisol after the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, somatization, and hypochondriasis. Salivary cortisol showed typical diurnal variations. However, the groups did not differ on any of the cortisol variables. A possible explanation may be counteracting effects of somatization and depression. Exploratory correlational analyses revealed that associations between cortisol and psychopathological variables were time-dependent. DST results correlated with psychological aspects of somatization, but not with the number of somatoform symptoms per se.

  17. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudana Girija Sanal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC, we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence expensive compared to the generation of iPSC. Even with the latest SCNT technology, we are not sure whether one can make therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cell from any patient’s somatic cells or by using oocytes from any donor. Combining iPSC technology with SCNT, that is, by using the nucleus of the candidate somatic cell which got reprogrammed to pluripotent state instead that of the unmodified nucleus of the candidate somatic cell, would boost the efficiency of the technique, and we would be able to generate therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cell nuclear transfer (iPSCNT combines the efficiency of iPSC generation with the speed and natural reprogramming environment of SCNT. The new technique may be called iPSCNT. This technique could prove to have very revolutionary benefits for humankind. This could be useful in generating organs for transplantation for patients and for reproductive cloning, especially for childless men and women who cannot have children by any other techniques. When combined with advanced gene editing techniques (such as CRISPR-Cas system this technique might also prove useful to those who want to have healthy children but suffer from inherited diseases. The current code of ethics may be against reproductive cloning. However, this will change with time as it happened with most of the revolutionary scientific breakthroughs. After all, it is the right of every human to have healthy offspring and it is

  18. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    on the recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides...

  19. Model of tritium transfer into environment by the personnel of nuclear enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalin, J.; Krechetova, A.

    2004-01-01

    One of the ways of radionuclide transfer from a nuclear enterprise into an environment is analysed. This way of transfer is the transport of radionuclides by the personnel of a nuclear enterprise. During an active work in a nuclear enterprise the personnel accumulate radionuclides from the air of industrial premises. Accumulated radionuclides are released from the organism into an environment according to the effective period of half-draw. The main part of radionuclides is transferred from the organism of professional workers into an environment: first of all into the air and on furniture of their dwellings and later - into the organisms of their family members. In this way contamination of workers' dwellings and irradiation of their family members exceed the contamination through air and water. The model is confirmed as an example of tritium transfer from nuclear enterprises. (author)

  20. Taking a Dive for a Friend - The Decision to Transfer Nuclear Submarine Technology to Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brubaker, Gerald L

    1990-01-01

    .... national security bureaucracy: President Reagan had approved the transfer of U.S.-developed nuclear submarine propulsion technology to Canada and would inform Prime Minister Brian Mulroney during his visit to Washington later that month...

  1. Multiple nucleon transfer in damped nuclear collisions. [Lectures, mass charge, and linear and angular momentum transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randrup, J.

    1979-07-01

    This lecture discusses a theory for the transport of mass, charge, linear, and angular momentum and energy in damped nuclear collisions, as induced by multiple transfer of individual nucleons. 11 references.

  2. Heat Transfer Phenomena in Supercritical Water Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark H. Anderson; MichaelL. Corradini; Riccardo Bonazza; Jeremy R. Licht

    2007-01-01

    A supercritical water heat transfer facility has been built at the University of Wisconsin to study heat transfer in a circular and square annular flow channel. A series of integral heat transfer measurements has been carried out over a wide range of heat flux, mass velocity and bulk water temperatures at a pressure of 25 MPa. The circular annular test section geometry is a 1.07 cm diameter heater rod within a 4.29 diameter flow channel

  3. Heat Transfer Phenomena in Supercritical Water Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark H. Anderson; MichaelL. Corradini; Riccardo Bonazza; Jeremy R. Licht

    2007-10-03

    A supercritical water heat transfer facility has been built at the University of Wisconsin to study heat transfer in ancircular and square annular flow channel. A series of integral heat transfer measurements has been carried out over a wide range of heat flux, mas velocity and bulk water temperatures at a pressure of 25 MPa. The circular annular test section geometry is a 1.07 cm diameter heater rod within a 4.29 diameter flow channel.

  4. Molten Chloride Salts for Heat Transfer in Nuclear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosek, James Wallace

    2011-12-01

    A forced convection loop was designed and constructed to examine the thermal-hydraulic performance of molten KCl-MgCl2 (68-32 at %) salt for use in nuclear co-generation facilities. As part of this research, methods for prediction of the thermo-physical properties of salt mixtures for selection of the coolant salt were studied. In addition, corrosion studies of 10 different alloys were exposed to the KCl-MgCl2 to determine a suitable construction material for the loop. Using experimental data found in literature for unary and binary salt systems, models were found, or developed to extrapolate the available experimental data to unstudied salt systems. These property models were then used to investigate the thermo-physical properties of the LINO3-NaNO3-KNO 3-Ca(NO3), system used in solar energy applications. Using these models, the density, viscosity, adiabatic compressibility, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and melting temperatures of higher order systems can be approximated. These models may be applied to other molten salt systems. Coupons of 10 different alloys were exposed to the chloride salt for 100 hours at 850°C was undertaken to help determine with which alloy to construct the loop. Of the alloys exposed, Haynes 230 had the least amount of weight loss per area. Nickel and Hastelloy N performed best based on maximum depth of attack. Inconel 625 and 718 had a nearly uniform depletion of Cr from the surface of the sample. All other alloys tested had depletion of Cr along the grain boundaries. The Nb in Inconel 625 and 718 changed the way the Cr is depleted in these alloys. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. A high temperature pump, thermal flow meter, and pressure differential device was designed, constructed and tested for use in the loop, The heat transfer of the molten chloride salt was found to

  5. Somatic cell nuclear transfer followed by CRIPSR/CAS9 microinjection results in highly efficient genome editing in cloned pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestic pig is an ideal “dual purpose” animal model for agricultural and biomedical research. With the availability of genome editing tools [e.g. clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and associated nuclease Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9)] it is now possible to perform site-sp...

  6. Generation of minipigs with targeted transgene insertion by recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Johansen, Marianne Gregers; Schmidt, Mette

    2012-01-01

    minicircles in RMCE in fibroblasts with all four acceptor loci and followed by SCNT, we produced piglets with a single copy of a transgene incorporated into one of the transcriptionally active acceptor loci. The transgene, consisting of a cDNA of the Alzheimer’s disease-causing gene PSEN1M146I driven...

  7. Developmental disparity between in vitro-produced and somatic cell nuclear transfer bovine days 14 and 21 embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexopoulos, Natalie I.; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde

    2008-01-01

    , immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy to establish in vivo developmental milestones. Following morphological examination, samples were characterized for the presence of epiblast (POU5F1), mesoderm (VIM), and neuroectoderm (TUBB3). On D14, only 25, 15, and 7% of IVP, SUZI, and HMC embryos were...

  8. Heat transfer burnout in tube-type fuel elements of nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, V.; Alexeev, G.; Peskov, O.; Sapankevic, A.

    1976-01-01

    The conditions are formulated under which the results of the experimental research of the boilino. water heat transfer burnout carried out on models may be applied to fuel elements of nuclear reactors. Experimental material providing data on the heat transfer burnout was expanded by the results of measurements of the uneven (cosine) longitudinal distribution of heat sources. The results of the effects of helical fins or wires on heat transfer burnout are presented. (F.M.)

  9. Heat transfer burnout in tube-type fuel elements of nuclear power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbotin, V; Alexeev, G; Peskov, O; Sapankevic, A

    1976-08-01

    The conditions are formulated under which the results of the experimental research of the boiling. water heat transfer burnout carried out on models may be applied to fuel elements of nuclear reactors. Experimental material providing data on the heat transfer burnout was expanded by the results of measurements of the uneven (cosine) longitudinal distribution of heat sources. The results of the effects of helical fins or wires on heat transfer burnout are presented.

  10. Technology transfer of nuclear power development in developing countries: Case study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiachen; Shen Wenquan; Zhang Luqing

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the specific experiences in the technology transfer of nuclear power in China, a country that both imported and developed indigenous nuclear technology. Based on this experience some recommendations are presented that should be considered particularly by the developing countries. (author)

  11. Nuclear transfer to prevent mitochondrial DNA disorders: revisiting the debate on reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenoord, A L; Dondorp, W; Pennings, G; De Wert, G

    2011-02-01

    Preclinical experiments are currently performed to examine the feasibility of several types of nuclear transfer to prevent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorders. Whereas the two most promising types of nuclear transfer to prevent mtDNA disorders, spindle transfer and pronuclear transfer, do not amount to reproductive cloning, one theoretical variant, blastomere transfer does. This seems the most challenging both technically and ethically. It is prohibited by many jurisdictions and also the scientific community seems to avoid it. Nevertheless, this paper examines the moral acceptability of blastomere transfer as a method to prevent mtDNA disorders. The reason for doing so is that most objections against reproductive cloning refer to reproductive adult cloning, while blastomere transfer would amount to reproductive embryo cloning. After clarifying this conceptual difference, this paper examines whether the main non-safety objections brought forward against reproductive cloning also apply in the context of blastomere transfer. The conclusion is that if this variant were to become safe and effective, dismissing it because it would involve reproductive cloning is unjustified. Nevertheless, as it may lead to more complex ethical appraisals than the other variants, researchers should initially focus on the development of the other types of nuclear transfer to prevent mtDNA disorders. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A stochastic model of cell replicative senescence based on telomere shortening, oxidative stress, and somatic mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozou, P D; Kirkwood, T B

    2001-12-21

    Human diploid fibroblast cells can divide for only a limited number of times in vitro, a phenomenon known as replicative senescence or the Hayflick limit. Variability in doubling potential is observed within a clone of cells, and between two sister cells arising from a single mitotic division. This strongly suggests that the process by which cells become senescent is intrinsically stochastic. Among the various biochemical mechanisms that have been proposed to explain replicative senescence, particular interest has been focussed on the role of telomere reduction. In the absence of telomerase--an enzyme switched off in normal diploid fibro-blasts-cells lose telomeric DNA at each cell division. According to the telomere hypothesis of cell senescence, cells eventually reach a critically short telomere length and cell cycle arrest follows. In support of this concept, forced expression of telomerase in normal fibroblasts appears to prevent cell senescence. Nevertheless, the telomere hypothesis in its basic form has some difficulty in explaining the marked stochastic variations seen in the replicative lifespans of individual cells within a culture, and there is strong empirical and theoretical support for the concept that other kinds of damage may contribute to cellular ageing. We describe a stochastic network model of cell senescence in which a primary role is played by telomere reduction but in which other mechanisms (oxidative stress linked particularly to mitochondrial damage, and nuclear somatic mutations) also contribute. The model gives simulation results that are in good agreement with published data on intra-clonal variability in cell doubling potential and permits an analysis of how the various elements of the stochastic network interact. Such integrative models may aid in developing new experimental approaches aimed at unravelling the intrinsic complexity of the mechanisms contributing to human cell ageing. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Technical knowledge/skill transfer in nuclear division of Hitachi group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Due to environmental concerns such as global warming, needs the nuclear power is increasing. However, many expert engineers and technicians are now entering a period of retirement. And due to weak demands of new plant construction for long years, opportunity for technology learning/experience had been lost. Therefore, to secure human resource and to develop their ability are urgent issues for nuclear industries. Hitachi nuclear division continues efforts for technology transfer and human resource training. This paper describes the following two activities. (1) Improvement of common technical basis, and implementation of PDCA cycle. (2) Development of supporting tools to accelerate technology transfer through OJT (On the Job Training). (author)

  14. Fuel assembly transfer and storage system for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, Albert; Thomas, Claude.

    1981-01-01

    Transfer and storage system on a site comprising several reactors and at least one building housing the installations common to all these reactors. The system includes: transfer and storage modules for the fuel assemblies comprising a containment capable of containing several assemblies carried on a transport vehicle, a set of tracks for the modules between the reactors and the common installations, handling facilities associated with each reactor for moving the irradiated assemblies from the reactor to a transfer module placed in loading position on a track serving the reactor and conversely to move the new assemblies from the transfer module to the reactor, and at least one handling facility located in the common installation building for loading the modules with new assemblies [fr

  15. Nuclear EMP: stripline test method for measuring transfer impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1975-11-01

    A method for measuring the transfer impedance of flat metal joints for frequencies to 100 MHz has been developed which makes use of striplines. The stripline method, which has similarities to the quadraxial method used for cylindrical components, is described and sets of test results are given. The transfer impedance of a simple joint is modeled as a spurious hyperbolic curve, and a close curve fit to transfer impedance test data from various samples is demonstrated for both the stripline and the quadraxial methods. Validity checks of the test data are discussed using the curve model and other criteria. The method was developed for testing riveted joints which form the avionics bays on B-1s. The joints must provide shielding from EMP currents

  16. Replication of somatic micronuclei in bovine enucleated oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canel Natalia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT was developed to introduce a low number of chromosomes into a host cell. We have designed a novel technique combining part of MMCT with somatic cell nuclear transfer, which consists of injecting a somatic micronucleus into an enucleated oocyte, and inducing its cellular machinery to replicate such micronucleus. It would allow the isolation and manipulation of a single or a low number of somatic chromosomes. Methods Micronuclei from adult bovine fibroblasts were produced by incubation in 0.05 μg/ml demecolcine for 46 h followed by 2 mg/ml mitomycin for 2 h. Cells were finally treated with 10 μg/ml cytochalasin B for 1 h. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were mechanically enucleated and intracytoplasmatically injected with one somatic micronucleus, which had been previously exposed [Micronucleus- injected (+] or not [Micronucleus- injected (−] to a transgene (50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP during 5 min. Enucleated oocytes [Enucleated (+] and parthenogenetic [Parthenogenetic (+] controls were injected into the cytoplasm with less than 10 pl of PVP containing 50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP. A non-injected parthenogenetic control [Parthenogenetic (−] was also included. Two hours after injection, oocytes and reconstituted embryos were activated by incubation in 5 μM ionomycin for 4 min + 1.9 mM 6-DMAP for 3 h. Cleavage stage and egfp expression were evaluated. DNA replication was confirmed by DAPI staining. On day 2, Micronucleus- injected (−, Parthenogenetic (− and in vitro fertilized (IVF embryos were karyotyped. Differences among treatments were determined by Fisher′s exact test (p≤0.05. Results All the experimental groups underwent the first cell divisions. Interestingly, a low number of Micronucleus-injected embryos showed egfp expression. DAPI staining confirmed replication of micronuclei in most of the evaluated embryos. Karyotype analysis revealed that all Micronucleus-injected embryos had

  17. Westinghouse experience in the transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Westinghouse experience with transfer of technical information is two-sided. First is our experience in learning, and the second is our experience in teaching others. Westinghouse conducts a special school to which government, academic and industry people are invited. There are many problems involved in all technology transfers; these include: keeping information current, making certain changes are compatible with the supplier's manufacturing capability and also suitable to the receiver, patent right and proprietary information. The building, testing and maintenance of the unit on the line - and then a succession of its sister plant is the basis for the Westinghouse leadership

  18. The United States experience in the transfer of nuclear tecnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper surveys U.S. public policies and program for nuclear energy development. In the U.S., nuclear technology has been applied for public benefit. Today it is being relied on to meet electrical power requirements. Radioisotope technology is being applied in industry, agriculture and medicine. In 1947 when AEC was established, nuclear technologies moved from research and development phase to useful products and processes. After energy shortages in 1974, a new agency (ERDA) was created, which brought together research and development programs in solar, geothermal and fossil, as well as energy systems. The Atomic Energy Act was amended in 1954 to permit cooperation with foreign countries. Domestically, the AEC engaged in a series of Power Reactor Demonstration with U.S. industry that in a decade led to the demonstration of proven and economic light-water reactors. In 1957 IAEA was established, and then the whole series of AEC policy changed by a strong information dissemination program. ERDA unified the Government's effort to provide a variety of energy choices in nuclear and non-nuclear areas

  19. Korean system of export control to support the commercial nuclear transfer to UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Ho

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009, the Republic of Korea won the contract to build 4 1,400 MW nuclear power reactors worth USD 20 billion in the UAE. The states-owned KEPCO will complete the turnkey project to the UAE including design, engineering, construction, nuclear fuel, operations, maintenance and technical support. Since sensitive nuclear technologies convertible to military purpose can be spread by the transfer of commercial nuclear power plant, it is essential prerequisite to implement nuclear export control tenaciously and effectively. About twenty years have passed since the Republic of Korea introduced export control system in domestic laws and regulations. Marking a major historical milestone in 2009 by ranking among global nuclear suppliers, the Korean government made a major step forward in export control framework to support its next nuclear export goal. (orig.)

  20. Royal order relating to the transfer of nuclear materials and technology to non-nuclear weapon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    In implementation of the Act of 1981 on conditions for the export of nuclear materials, equipment and technological data, this Order sets down the detailed mechanisms for such transfers. Its object is to ensure that they will be carried out exclusively for peaceful purposes and in conformity with the NPT [fr

  1. Squids, supercurrents, and slope anomalies: Nuclear structure from heavy-ion transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Within the past five years we have developed experimental techniques to study heavy-ion transfer reactions to high spin states in deformed nuclei. These methods have been turned into a quantitative tool to assess the influence of collective excitation on single-particle and pairing structure. I discuss some of the nuclear structure questions which are being answered in these experiments: How strong is ground state pairing? How does pairing change with angular momentum? Why is two-neutron transfer much stronger than expected at large radial separation? What is the evidence for a nuclear Josephson Effect? What is the evidence for a nuclear Berry phase effect (nuclear SQUID)? Why does one-neutron transfer populate much higher spins than would be naively expected? Conversely, why does two-neutron transfer populate much lower spins than anyone expected? The answer to each of these questions involves the influence of detailed nuclear structure on transfer reactions, and represents quantitative new information about the effect of angular momentum and excitation energy on many-body systems with a finite number of particles. 8 refs., 6 figs

  2. Agreement between the government of Australia and the government of the Republic of Korea concerning cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the transfer of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The agreement contains fourteen articles under which the parties will cooperate in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including transfer of nuclear materials, research and development, exchange of unclassified information, technical training, visits by scientists and projects of mutual interest

  3. Thermoacoustic sensor for nuclear fuel temperaturemonitoring and heat transfer enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Randall A. Alli; Steven L. Garrett

    2013-05-01

    A new acoustical sensing system for the nuclear power industry has been developed at The Pennsylvania State University in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratories. This sensor uses the high temperatures of nuclear fuel to convert a nuclear fuel rod into a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine. When a standing wave is generated, the sound wave within the fuel rod will be propagated, by acoustic radiation, through the cooling fluid within the reactor or spent fuel pool and can be monitored a remote location external to the reactor. The frequency of the sound can be correlated to an effective temperature of either the fuel or the surrounding coolant. We will present results for a thermoacoustic resonator built into a Nitonic-60 (stainless steel) fuel rod that requires only one passive component and no heat exchangers.

  4. Retrofitting Trojan Nuclear Plant's spent resin transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The spent resin slurry transport system at the Trojan Nuclear Plant operated by Portland General Electric Company is one of the most advanced systems of its type in the nuclear industry today. The new system affords the plant's operators safe remote sonic indication for spent resin and cover water levels, manual remote dewatering and watering capability to establish desirable resin-to-water volumetric ratios, reliable non-mechanical resin agitation utilizing fixed spargers, and controllable process flow utilizing a variable speed recessed impeller pump

  5. Studies of nuclear structure via polarization transfer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Inelastic scattering and charge exchange reactions at medium energies are discussed. Theoretical treatments of these phenomena based on the Dirac equation are presented. A LAMPF experiment in which polarization observables were employed in the search for collective effects in the nuclear pion field is discussed. This experiment is compared with the EMC (European Muon Collaboration) effect. 37 refs., 11 figs

  6. Modeling transient heat transfer in nuclear waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2009-09-30

    The heat of high-level nuclear waste may be generated and released from a canister at final disposal sites. The waste heat may affect the engineering properties of waste canisters, buffers, and backfill material in the emplacement tunnel and the host rock. This study addresses the problem of the heat generated from the waste canister and analyzes the heat distribution between the buffer and the host rock, which is considered as a radial two-layer heat flux problem. A conceptual model is first constructed for the heat conduction in a nuclear waste repository and then mathematical equations are formulated for modeling heat flow distribution at repository sites. The Laplace transforms are employed to develop a solution for the temperature distributions in the buffer and the host rock in the Laplace domain, which is numerically inverted to the time-domain solution using the modified Crump method. The transient temperature distributions for both the single- and multi-borehole cases are simulated in the hypothetical geological repositories of nuclear waste. The results show that the temperature distributions in the thermal field are significantly affected by the decay heat of the waste canister, the thermal properties of the buffer and the host rock, the disposal spacing, and the thickness of the host rock at a nuclear waste repository.

  7. Nuclear structure effects in multi-nucleon transfer and sequential fission reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    The role of the nuclear structure in multi-nucleon transfer and sequential fission reactions has been discussed. The recent results on multi-nucleon transfer and transfer induced fission reaction, have brought out many interesting features in understanding the reaction mechanism and collective dynamics of heavy ion reactions. The structure of the projectile nucleus has strong influence on the transfer of multi-nucleons and/or clusters from the projectile to the target. The mechanism of multi-nucleon transfer between two heavy nuclei is a complex process which has a strong dependence on the ground state Q-value of the reaction as well as on the number of transferred nucleons

  8. Health status and productive performance of somatic cell cloned cattle and their offspring produced in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Nagai, Takashi

    2008-02-01

    Since the first somatic cell cloned calves were born in Japan in 1998, more than 500 cloned cattle have been produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and many studies concerning cloned cattle and their offspring have been conducted in this country. However, most of the results have been published in Japanese; thus, the data produced in this country is not well utilized by researchers throughout the world. This article reviews the 65 reports produced by Japanese researchers (62 written in Japanese and 3 written in English), which employed 171 clones and 32 offspring, and categorizes them according to the following 7 categories: (1) genetic similarities and muzzle prints, (2) hematology and clinical chemistry findings, (3) pathology, (4) growth performance, (5) reproductive performance, (6) meat production performance and (7) milk production performance. No remarkable differences in health status or reproductive performance were found among conventionally bred cattle, somatic cell cloned cattle surviving to adulthood and offspring of somatic cell cloned cattle. Similarities in growth performance and meat quality were observed between nuclear donor cattle and their clones. The growth curves of the offspring resembled those of their full siblings.

  9. Role of a national research organization in the transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Ishaq

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear technology holds great promise for developing countries because it can contribute to national development. The developing countries, however, lack the resources and expertise to develop nuclear technology through their own efforts. A national research organization devoted to the promotion and utilization of nucler technology can provide an effective channel for the transfer of nuclear technology. The problems which the national research organization is likely to face in executing its tasks as an agent for the transfer of technology are discussed. An appreciation of these problems would enable the organization to restructure its priorities so as to achieve maximum effectiveness. The various ways by which the national research organization can speed up the task of transfer of technology are also discussed

  10. Nuclear squid: Diabolic pair transfer in rotating nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikam, R S; Ring, P; Canto, L F

    1987-02-19

    A new unexpected behavior of pair transfer matrix elements in superfluid rotating nuclei is predicted. With increasing angular velocity they drop to zero, change their sign and in some cases even oscillate between positive and negative values. This effect is related to diabolical points in rotating quasiparticle spectra and is closely analogous to the DC-Josephson effect in superconductors in the presence of a magnetic field.

  11. Nuclear engineering and manufacturing technology transfer coproduction with technical assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marillier, J.C.; Boury, C.

    1985-10-01

    This paper emphasizes in the specific areas of design, engineering, and component production. This paper presents what Framatome has to offer in these areas and its export oriented philosophy. Then, a typical example of successful implementation of this technology transfer philosophy is the collaboration with the South Korean firm, Korea Heavy Industries Corporation (KHIC) for the supply of KNU 9 and KNU 10 power stations

  12. Nuclear Knowledge Creation and Transfer in Enriched Learning Environments: A Practical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, F.; Gonzalez, J.; Delgado, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Technology, the social nature of learning and the generational learning style are conforming new models of training that are changing the roles of the instructors, the channels of communication and the proper learning content of the knowledge to be transferred. New training methodologies are being using in the primary and secondary education and “Vintage” classroom learning does not meet the educational requirements of these methodologies; therefore, it’s necessary to incorporate them in the Knowledge Management processes used in the nuclear industry. This paper describes a practical approach of an enriched learning environment with the purpose of creating and transferring nuclear knowledge. (author

  13. Transfer parameters of fission and activation products present in effluents of nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Menossi, C.A.; Ciallella, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents results of research carried out in Argentina on transfer parameters of fission and activation products which may be present in the effluents of nuclear power reactors. For some nuclides, as Sr-90, Co-137 and I-131, the parameters were obtained by studies of the fallout, from measurements of integrated levels in the environment and in the food chains. Other values are concentration factors derived from laboratory and field experiments. They refer to fish, molluscs, crustaces and fresh water plants, for several fission and activation nuclides. Transfer parameters obtained have been of significant importance for environmental assessments, relating to nuclear installations in Argentina. (author)

  14. Compartment modelling in nuclear medicine: a new program for the determination of transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallstadius, L.

    1986-01-01

    In many investigations concerning transport/exchange of matter in a natural system, e.g. functional studies in nuclear medicine, it is advantageous to relate experimental results to a model of the system. A new computer program is presented for the determination of linear transfer coefficients in a compartment model from experimentally observed time-compartment content curves. The program performs a least-square fit with the specified precision of the observed values as weight factors. The resulting uncertainty in the calculated transfer coefficients may also be assessed. The application of the program in nuclear medicine is demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  15. The main achievements of the 'Systematic approach for nuclear knowledge transfer and preservation in Romania' project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaceanu, V.; Constantin, M.; Apostol, M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the main results of the Contract No. 13971/RO which was performed in the frame of the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on 'Comparative Analysis of Methods and Tools for Nuclear Knowledge Preservation'. The title of the Romanian project was 'Systematic approach for Nuclear Knowledge Transfer and Preservation in Romania'. The partners which were involved in this Program: Bulgaria (Kozloduy NPP and Technical University of Sofia), Canada (Chalk River Laboratories, AECL), Jordan (Water Authority of Jordan), the Philippines (Philippines Nuclear Research Institute), Romania (Institute for Nuclear Research), the Russian Federation (Inter DCM. Corp., a subsidiary of RRC Kurchatov Institute) and the European Commission (Institute of Energy, DG Joint Research). Among the main results obtained in this work we must specify the development of an INR short/medium strategy concerning the professional knowledge management, based on an assessment of the status of the knowledge transfer and preservation. This documentation was made using some adequate tools like a specific questionnaire for highlighting the experts' motivation for transferring their knowledge and an appropriate method for the knowledge loss risk assessment. Therewith, we mention our participation in the developing of an IAEA TEC-DOC concerning the problem of nuclear knowledge transfer and preservation. (authors)

  16. Knowledge transfer in Swedish Nuclear Power Plants in connection with retirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Annika; Ohlsson, Kjell; Roos, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This report displays how the Swedish nuclear power plants Forsmark, Oskarshamn and Ringhals work with knowledge management. The report also consists of a literature review of appropriate ways to extract tacit knowledge as well as methods to transfer competence. The report is made up of a smaller number of interviews at the nuclear power plants in combination with a questionnaire distributed to a larger number of people at the plants. The results of the interview study is that only one of the Swedish nuclear power plants have a programme to transfer knowledge from older staff to newer. This is, however, not a programme for everyone. Another plant has a programme for knowledge building, but only for their specialists. At both plants, which lack a programme, the interviewees request more structure in knowledge transfer; even though they feel the current way of transferring knowledge with mentors works well. Besides more structure, interviewees present a wish to have more time for knowledge transfer as well as the opportunity to recruit more than needed. Recruiting more than needed is however not very simple due to multiple causes such as nominal sizing departments and a difficulty of recruiting people to work far from larger cities. The way things are now, many feel too under-staffed and under a lot of time pressure daily to also have time for knowledge transfer besides their normal work

  17. Transference of know-how for the fabrication of heavy components for nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, F.

    1977-01-01

    1) Heavy components for nuclear power reactors. Reactor pressure vessels with total weight of 540 tons; steam generators: heat exchangers with U-type tube bundles, total weight 420 tons. 2) Choice of know-how recipient. Technical criteria, i.e. manufacturing facilities, existing quality assurance system, location of the workshops, possibilities for training, infrastructures. 3. Measures for transferring know-how to a newly established company. Planning and erection of the factory: organisational set up of the company; personnel selection and training; transfer of documentation; transfer of know-how that cannot be transferred in a written form. 4) Contracts for assuring the transfer of know-how. Stipulation of mutual rights and obligations of the know-how owner and receiver in individual contracts: engineering services contract, technical information contract, personnel training contract, license contract. (orig.) [de

  18. Heat transfer coefficient testing in nuclear fuel rod bundles with mixing vane grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, Michael E.; Smith, L. David III; Holloway, Mary V.; Beasley, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    An air heat transfer test facility was developed to test the heat transfer downstream of support grids in simulated PWR nuclear fuel rod bundles. The goal of this testing is to study the single-phase heat transfer coefficients downstream of grids with mixing vanes in a square-pitch rod bundle. The technique developed utilizes fully-heated grid spans and a specially designed thermocouple holder that can be moved axially down the rod bundle and aximuthally within a test rod. From this testing, the axial and aximuthally varying heat transfer coefficient can be determined. Different grid designs are tested and compared to determine the heat transfer enhancement associated with key grid features such as mixing vanes. (author)

  19. Order of 28 March 1980 on the transfer to ENUSA of duties of the Junta de Energia Nuclear connected with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In implementation of the Royal Decree of 7 December 1979 the Minister of Industry and Energy made this Order regulating the transfer to ENUSA (National Uranium Undertaking) of the Junta de Energia Nuclear's duties relating to the nuclear fuel cycle. The Order sets up, within the Ministry of Industry and Energy, a Transfer Commission responsible for establishing the directives prior to the measures to be taken by the Ministry concerning the transfer to ENUSA of the duties, personnel and establishments of the Junta connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. It will also determine the dates of such transfer, according to the order of priority laid down in the Order. (NEA) [fr

  20. Handmade cloning: the future way of nuclear tranfer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vajta, Gabor

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this review is an alternative technique for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Removal of the zona pellucida facilitates manipulations of mammalian oocytes and early embryos, and problems related to their subsequent culture are commonly overestimated. This approach enables radical...... modifications to somatic cell nuclear transfer, and the   handmade cloning (HMC) technique is now successfully applied to an increasing numbers of species. HMC radically decreases costs and the need for a skilled workforce; furthermore, it increases productivity, enables cryopreservation, and results in birth...

  1. Knowledge Transfer and Leadership Development in Coordination with Young Generation in Nuclear (YGN) Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Chirayu; Janin, Denis

    2017-01-01

    IYNC in a Nutshell: The mission - IYNC (International Youth Nuclear Congress) is the global network of a new generation of nuclear professionals to: •Communicate the benefits of nuclear science and applications •Promote the peaceful use of nuclear power •Provide a platform for networking •Facilitate knowledge transfer between generations and across boundaries; The structure - IYNC is a non-profit organization run by: •11 Officers •Board of Directors •50 National Representatives (e.g. YGN) •20 Members at Large •Dedicated committees and team for projects (30+) → more than 80 volunteers; The activities - •Biannual Congress (IYNCWiN18) •Grants Committee •YGN Startup & Support •Bulletin, Newsletter – sign up www.iync.org •Innovation4Nuclear (I4N) •Nuclear4Climate •Annual Board of Directors. YGN (Young Generation Network): What is a YGN? • A group of young professionals and students interested in nuclear science and technology; Benefits: •Knowledge transfer •Train the future international leaders •Networking •Attracts, develops and retains young professionals

  2. Technology transfer by industry for the construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frewer, H.; Altvater, W.

    1977-01-01

    The construction of nuclear power plants call for a wide sphere of industrial activities, nuclear as well as conventional. For a specific country the ways and methods of developing an industrial nuclear power program and reaching the target of independence, will widely differ, depending on the size of the country, the economic situation, the already existing industrial manufacturing and engineering capacities, the time schedule of the program and the type of contracting. The experience in effective technology transfer for the strengthening and setting up the national industry, and the engineering capacities, needed for the construction of nuclear power plants up to the largest size existing today are considered. The German nuclear power industry gained this experience in connection with the turn-key supply of the first units in various countries. The prerequisites and national nuclear power programs were different. Based on a successful technological development, including standardization, the German nuclear power industry could meet the demand and different approaches in these countries. The main features and practices followed for the transfer of technology is described for three different cases, namely Argentina, Brazil and Iran. (author)

  3. Radioactive fallout in France after the second Chinese nuclear explosion: atmospheric transfer processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doury, A.; Bourgeon, P.

    1966-05-01

    The products released into the atmosphere by the second Chinese nuclear explosion were detected and measured in France during the months of May, June and July 1965. The main results are presented here and discussed. They are considered in particular in the light of the meteorological conditions as a function of the most recent hypotheses concerning transfer processes. (authors) [fr

  4. 10 CFR 770.8 - May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... facilities for economic development at less than fair market value? 770.8 Section 770.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRANSFER OF REAL PROPERTY AT DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT § 770.8 May DOE transfer real property at defense nuclear facilities for economic development at less than fair market...

  5. Device for transferring fast nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plagnard, Andre.

    1982-01-01

    The description is given of a device for transferring fuel assemblies between a storage position near the reactor vessel and a position where the irradiated assemblies are evacuated and the provision of new assemblies for the reactor. This device can be dismantled and is movable as a whole for its successive use on several reactors and includes: - a platform mounted so as to rotate on a support made to rest on the structure of the reactor, the platform having at least one opening then being horizontal and mobile about a vertical axis to bring the opening successively in position with vertical wells giving access to the storage and evacuation positions of the assemblies provided in the reactor structure, - at least one hopper that can contain one assembly in a vertical position, located on the upper surface of the platform around the opening provided in it and fitted with a winch for the vertical moving of the assemblies inside the wells and the hopper, when these follow each other by rotation of the platform, - at least one connecting device carried on the platform for connecting the hopper and wells when these are in line [fr

  6. E-learning modules for nuclear reactor heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Praveen Bharadwaj

    E learning in engineering education is becoming popular at several universities as it allows instructors to create content that the students may view and interact with at his/her own convenience. Web-based simulation and what-if analysis are examples of such educational content and has proved to be extremely beneficial for engineering students. Such pedagogical content promote active learning and encourage students to experiment and be more creative. The main objective of this project is to develop web based learning modules, in the form of analytical simulations, for the Reactor Thermal Hydraulics course offered by the College of Engineering at UT Arlington. These modules seek to comprehensively transform the traditional education structure. The simulations are built to supplement the class lectures and are divided into categories like Fundamentals, Heat generation, Heat transfer and Heat removal categories. Each category contains modules which are sub-divided chapter wise and further into section wise. Some of the important sections from the text book are taken and calculations for a particular functionality are implemented. Since it is an interactive tool, it allows user to input certain values, which are then processed with the traditional equations, and output results either in the form of a number or graphs.

  7. Modularization and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Modularization Task Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This report describes the results of the work performed by the Technology Transfer Task Team on Modularization. This work was performed as part of the Technology Transfer work being performed under Department of Energy Contract 54-7WM-335406, between December, 1984 and February, 1985. The purpose of this task team effort was to briefly survey the current use of modularization in the nuclear and non-nuclear industries and to assess and evaluate the techniques available for potential application to nuclear power. A key conclusion of the evaluation was that there was a need for a study to establish guidelines for the future development of Light Water Reactor, High Temperature Gas Reactor and Liquid Metal Reactor plants. The guidelines should identify how modularization can improve construction, maintenance, life extension and decommissioning

  8. Interim transfer canister for consolidating nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formanek, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a canister for receiving and consolidating a group of uniformly spaced apart nuclear fuel rods, comprising: a rectangular, vertically oriented straight back panel; a pair of oppositely disposed side panels connected perpendicularly to the back panel, having a vertical straight upper portion and an inwardly tapered lower portion; a front panel opposite the back panel and connected to the side panels, having a straight vertical upper portion and inwardly tapered lower portion; whereby the back, side and front panels define a rectangular upper opening at the upper end of the canister and a generally rectangular lower opening at the other end, the lower opening having a cross-sectional area less than one-half that of the upper opening; parallel plate members spanning the canister from the front panel to the back panel, each plate spaced from the other the same uniform distance, the plates extending downwardly into the tapered portion of the canister while remaining spaced above the tapered sidewalls; first base means at the lower end of the canister, removably mounted and having an oblique orientation generally downward from the front panel to the back panel, for guiding the fuel rods to be inserted preferentially toward the lower portion of the back panel; and second base means removably mounted within the canister below first base means and oriented transversely to the longitudinal extent of the canister, for supporting the fuel rods when the first base means is removed from the canister

  9. Nuclear analysis software. Pt. 1: Spectrum transfer and reformatting (SPEDAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    GANAAS (Gamma, Activity, and Neutron Activation Analysis System) is one in the family of software packages developed under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Primarily, the package was intended to support the IAEA Technical Assistance and Cooperation projects in developing countries. However, it is open domain software that can be copied and used by anybody, except for commercial purposes. All the nuclear analysis software provided by the IAEA has the same design philosophy and similar structure. The intention was to provide the user with maximum flexibility, at the same time with a simple and logical organization that requires minimum digging through the manuals. GANAAS is a modular system. It consists of several programmes that can be installed on the hard disk as the are needed. Obviously, some parts of they system are required in all cases. Those are installed at the beginning, without consulting the operator. GANAAS offers the opportunity to expand and improve the system. The gamma spectrum evaluation programmes using different fitting algorithms can be added to GANAAS, under the condition that the format of their input and output files corresponds to the rules of GANAAS. The same applies to the quantitative analysis parts of the programme

  10. Seismic analysis with FEM for fuel transfer system of PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xiaofeng; Liu Pengliang; Bi Xiangjun; Ji Shunying

    2012-01-01

    In the PWR nuclear power plant, the function of the fuel transfer system (FTS) is to transfer the fuel assembly between the reactor building and the fuel building. The seismic analysis of the transfer system structure should be carried out to ensure the safety under OBE and SSE. Therefore, the ANASYS 12.0 software is adopted to construct the finite element analysis model for the fuel transfer system in a million kilowatt nuclear power plant. For the various configurations of FTS in the operating process, the stresses of the main structures, such as the transfer tube, fuel assembly container, fuel conveyor car, lifting frame in the reactor building, lifting frame in the fuel building, support and guide structure of conveyor car and the lifting frame in both buildings, are computed. The stresses are combined with the method of square root of square sum (SRSS) and assessed under various seismic conditions based on RCCM code, the results of the assessment satisfy the code. The results show that the stresses of the fuel transfer system structure meet the strength requirement, meanwhile, it can withstand the earthquake well. (authors)

  11. The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA type are correlated with the nuclear composition of somatic hybrid calli of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, A M; Koornneef, M; Gilissen, L J

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the analysis of chloroplast (cp) DNA and mitochondrial (mt) DNA in 21 somatic hybrid calli of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia by means of Southern-blot hybridization. Each of these calli contained only one type of cpDNA; 14 had the N. plumbaginifolia (Np) type and seven the S. tuberosum (St) type. N. plumbaginifolia cpDNA was present in hybrids previously shown to contain predominantly N. plumbaginifolia chromosomes whereas hybrids in which S. tuberosum chromosomes predominated possessed cpDNA from potato. We have analyzed the mtDNA of these 21 somatic hybrid calli using four restriction enzyme/probe combinations. Most fusion products had only, or mostly, mtDNA fragments from the parent that predominated in the nucleus. The hybrids containing mtDNA fragments from only one parent (and new fragments) also possessed chloroplasts from the same species. The results suggest the existence of a strong nucleo-cytoplasmic incongruity which affects the genome composition of somatic hybrids between distantly related species.

  12. Near Infrared Microspectroscopy, Fluorescence Microspectroscopy, Infrared Chemical Imaging and High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Soybean Seeds, Somatic Embryos and Single Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C; Hofmann, N E; Korban, S S; Lozano, P; You, T; AOCS 94th Meeting, Kansas

    2002-01-01

    Novel methodologies are currently being developed and established for the chemical analysis of soybean seeds, embryos and single cells by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) Microspectroscopy, Fluorescence and High-Resolution NMR (HR-NMR). The first FT-NIR chemical images of biological systems approaching one micron resolution are presented here. Chemical images obtained by FT-NIR and FT-IR Microspectroscopy are presented for oil in soybean seeds and somatic embryos under physiological conditions. FT-NIR spectra of oil and proteins were obtained for volumes as small as two cubic microns. Related, HR-NMR analyses of oil contents in somatic embryos are also presented here with nanoliter precision. Such 400 MHz 1H NMR analyses allowed the selection of mutagenized embryos with higher oil content (e.g. ~20%) compared to non-mutagenized control embryos. Moreover, developmental changes in single soybean seeds and/or somatic embryos may be monitored by FT-NIR with a precision ...

  13. Somatization in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Bech, Per; Patierno, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The current systematic review study is aimed at critically analyzing from a clinimetric viewpoint the clinical consequence of somatization in Parkinson's Disease (PD). By focusing on the International Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we...... consequence of such psychiatric symptom should be further evaluated by replacing the clinically inadequate diagnostic label of psychogenic parkinsonism with the psychosomatic concept of persistent somatization as conceived by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR)....

  14. Transferring knowledge and know-how from the nuclear power community to the research reactor community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijtsma, F.J.

    2002-01-01

    Question What is the best way of transferring knowledge and know-how from the nuclear power community to the research reactor community, e.g. in the fields of quality assurance, safety culture, etc.? To answer the question on how to transfer knowledge and know-how from the nuclear power community to the research reactor community, one should first try to establish what are the differences and similarities between these types of nuclear facilities. Despite the big difference between the primary objectives of these two kinds of facilities, i.e. electricity production versus providing irradiation services, the underlying safety culture should be comparable. For historical reasons, nuclear power plant management took the lead in establishing fully accepted safety standards. However, research reactors can avail themselves of the wide body of nuclear safety experience accumulated at nuclear power plants. This should be applicable to all nuclear facilities. Nonetheless, in transferring their know-how, safety specialists should take into account the huge differences between critical assemblies, university reactors, small research reactors and multi-purpose high power research reactors. The goal to which a specific facility is dedicated bears heavily upon the outlook of its management Question: How can well run research reactors help problem research reactors? To answer this, a basic question should in turn be posed: Should one help a research reactor with operational difficulties? And, if so, to what extent? Who will benefit? Within the framework of this meeting, one should concentrate on nuclear safety, which is determined by: Safety culture (including quality assurance); The level of training of all staff; Ageing (installation, staff and documentation); The front/back end of the fuel cycle; A strong programme versus extended shutdown; Regulatory (nuclear regulatory) inspectorates; National (international) co-operation; The financial situation prevailing at the

  15. Perspectives of heat transfer enhancement in nuclear reactors toward nanofluids applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Marcelo S.; Cabral, Eduardo L.L.; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2013-01-01

    Nanofluids are colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in a base fluid with interesting physical properties and large potential for heat transfer enhancement in thermal systems among other applications. There are an increasing number of nanofluids investigations concerning many aspects of synthesis and fabrication technologies, physical properties, and special applications. Results demonstrate that physical properties like high thermal conductivities and high critical heat flux (CHF) of some nanofluids classifies them as potential working fluids for high heat flux transportation in special systems, including thermal management of microelectronic devices (MEMS) and nuclear reactors. Understanding the importance of such investigations for the knowledge development of nuclear engineering a new research is being conducted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN) of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) to analyze the application potentiality of some nanofluids in nuclear systems for heat transfer enhancement under ionizing radiation influence. In this work a revision of theoretical and experimental studies of nanofluids is performed and its potentiality for using in future generations of nuclear reactors is highlighted showing the status of the research at present. (author)

  16. Research on transfer rule of the monitoring of operator in digital main control room of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Li Linfeng; Li Pengcheng; Lu Changshen; Huang Weigang; Dai Zhonghua; Huang Yuanzheng; Chen Qingqing

    2013-01-01

    In the digital main control room of nuclear power plants, monitoring the operating status of the system of reactor is not only one of the most important tasks of the operators, but also the basis and premise of controlling the system of reactor running correctly. After analyzing, inducing, summarizing the data obtained, we found the operators' monitor behavior could be classified as procedure transfer, abnormal transfer, and exchange transfer. The times of exchange transfer is 29% of the total transfer times, abnormal transfer is 14%, regulation transfer is 36%, and others are 21%. (authors)

  17. Heat transfer and friction correlations required to describe steam--water behavior in nuclear safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, C.W.; McFadden, J.H.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Hughes, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    The description of two-phase flow is important in nuclear safety studies. Recent two-phase flow descriptions are based upon unequal phase velocities and unequal phase temperatures (UVUT) theories with interphase interaction terms. These theories are more mechanistic than homogeneous theories and require more and different types of correlations than homogeneous theories. The UVUT theories require correlations (or models) which describe wall and interphase mass transfer, friction, momentum transfer, and heat transfer for all flow regimes and heat transfer regimes. A set of correlations is presented in this paper which can be used with UVUT theories. These correlations cover the complete range of parameters needed and in all cases are expected to yield reasonable numbers. (U.S.)

  18. Transfer of technology in the French-Iranian study for a nuclear research center in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1977-01-01

    Economic wealth is the result of the three factors: natural resources, human work and technological know-how; the last being essential to make full use of the first two. The transfer of technology is not only a matter of training engineers or technicians but of creating a real network of knowledge and abilities so that the technologies can be fully assimilated and used according to the specific goals of the country, so a basic nuclear education is absolutely necessary, so the operation of a raining and research centre is essential. For this reason the CEA and its subsidary Technicatome have undertaken the study and construction of the Esfahan Nuclear Technology Centre (ENTEC). The main objectives of this centre are: the nuclear reactors, the study of nuclear fuels and industrial applications

  19. An improved heat transfer configuration for a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.S.; Walton, J.T.; Mcguire, M.L.

    1992-07-01

    Interrupted flow, impingement cooling, and axial power distribution are employed to enhance the heat-transfer configuration of a solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engine. Impingement cooling is introduced to increase the local heat-transfer coefficients between the reactor material and the coolants. Increased fuel loading is used at the inlet end of the reactor to enhance heat-transfer capability where the temperature differences are the greatest. A thermal-hydraulics computer program for an unfueled NERVA reactor core is employed to analyze the proposed configuration with attention given to uniform fuel loading, number of channels through the impingement wafers, fuel-element length, mass-flow rate, and wafer gap. The impingement wafer concept (IWC) is shown to have heat-transfer characteristics that are better than those of the NERVA-derived reactor at 2500 K. The IWC concept is argued to be an effective heat-transfer configuration for solid-core nuclear thermal rocket engines. 11 refs

  20. Technology transfer in the CNEA: Between 'supply-slide' and nuclear plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enriquez, Santiago N

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on linkage activities and technology transfer of Atomic Energy National Commission (CNEA). Given that the CNEA was a S and T institution, which was pioneer in activities to reach out the productive sector; it will show that, since 1961, the year of the creation of the Service of Technical Assistance to Industry (SATI) -; until today -where the Law 23.877 of Promotion of the Technological Innovation is fully implemented, different modes of technology transfer based on certain S and T policies are detected. First, it will describe the characteristics of the technology transfer made by SATI, and its connection with the political decisions made by the Department of Metallurgy of CNEA to relate the domestic industry and the Nuclear Plan. In a second instance, it will describe the effects on the technology transfer after the disabling of the Nuclear Plan in 1994, the enforcement of Law 23,877 in CNEA and progressive deactivation of SATI. Finally, it will reflect on the two main stages of technology transfer in CNEA for potential S and T policies (author)

  1. Energy dependence of the Coulomb-nuclear interference at small momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyugin, O.V.

    1997-01-01

    The analyzing power of the elastic proton-proton scattering at small momentum transfers and the effect of the Coulomb-nuclear interference are examined on the basis of the available experimental data at p L from 6 up to 200 GeV/c taking account of a phenomenological analysis at p L =6 GeV/c and of the dynamic high energy spin model. The structure of the spin-dependent elastic scattering amplitude at small momentum transfers is obtained. The predictions for the analyzing power at RHIC energies are made

  2. Technology transfer of the systematic approach to training to Soviet designed nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Yoder, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    International Nuclear Safety Program initiated by US DOE in 1992 in Russia and Ukraine was expanded to include Armenia (together with IAEA), Bulgaria, Lithuania and Slovak Republic. Presentation describes the background, objectives, activities and key accomplishments of technology transfer of SAT to Soviet designed NPPs. High level of cooperation between countries was achieved showing mutual commitment of US and the countries involved to improve the quality of training of NPP personnel. Technology transfer will succeed because of the efforts and dedication of personnel from the initial sites in Russia and Ukraine

  3. Nuclear rotational population patterns in heavy-ion scattering and transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J O; Stoyer, M A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Canto, L F; Donangelo, R [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ring, P [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    1991-05-01

    A model of {sup 239}Pu with decoupled neutron is used for theoretical calculations of rotational population patterns in heavy ion inelastic scattering and one-neutron transfer reactions. The system treated in {sup 90}Zr on {sup 239}Pu at the near-barrier energy of 500 MeV and backscattering angles of 180deg and 140deg. The influence of the complex nuclear optical potential is seen to be very strong, and the Nilsson wave function of the odd neutron produces a distinctive pattern in the transfer reaction. (orig.).

  4. Technical support to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, R.E.

    1976-09-01

    Results are presented of studies conducted by Aerojet Nuclear Company (ANC) in FY 1975 to support the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the boiling water reactor blowdown heat transfer (BWR-BDHT) program. The support provided by ANC is that of an independent assessor of the program to ensure that the data obtained are adequate for verification of analytical models used for predicting reactor response to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The support included reviews of program plans, objectives, measurements, and actual data. Additional activity included analysis of experimental system performance and evaluation of the RELAP4 computer code as applied to the experiments

  5. Cryopreservation of Arachis pintoi (leguminosae) somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, H Y; Faloci, M; Medina, R; Dolce, N; Engelmann, F; Mroginski, L

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we successfully cryopreserved cotyledonary somatic embryos of diploid and triploid Arachis pintoi cytotypes using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. The highest survival rates were obtained when somatic embryos were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads and precultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid establishment medium (EM) with daily increasing sucrose concentration (0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 M). The encapsulated somatic embryos were then dehydrated with silica gel for 5 h to 20% moisture content (fresh weight basis) and cooled either rapidly (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen, LN) or slowly (1 degree C per min from 25 degree C to -30 degree C followed by immersion in LN). Beads were kept in LN for a minimum of 1 h and then were rapidly rewarmed in a 30 degree C water-bath for 2 min. Finally, encapsulated somatic embryos were post-cultured in agitated (80 rpm) liquid EM with daily decreasing sucrose concentration (0.75 and 0.5 M) and transferred to solidified EM. Using this protocol, we obtained 26% and 30% plant regeneration from cryopreserved somatic embryos of diploid and triploid cytotypes. No morphological abnormalities were observed in any of the plants regenerated from cryopreserved embryos and their genetic stability was confirmed with 10 isozyme systems and nine RAPD profiles.

  6. Hypochondriasis and somatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, R

    1987-11-20

    Between 60% and 80% of healthy individuals experience somatic symptoms in any one week. About 10% to 20% of a random sample of people worry intermittently about illness. A substantial proportion of patients present physicians with somatic complaints for which no organic cause can be found. Patients who are hypochondriacal do not understand the benign nature of functional somatic symptoms and interpret these as evidence of disease. Hypochondriacal concerns range from common short-lived worries to persistent and distressing fears or convictions of having a disease. Hypochondriasis can be secondary to other psychiatric disorders (eg, melancholia or panic disorder), and hypochondriacal attitudes remit when the primary disorder is successfully treated. Patients with primary hypochondriasis are also anxious or depressed, but the fear of disease, or the false belief of having a disease, persists and is the most important feature of their psychopathology. There are substantial differences among hypochondriacal patients in their personalities and psychopathologies. Psychotherapy as well as psychotropic drugs are effective in the treatment of functional somatic symptoms. There are no adequate controlled studies on the value of psychotherapy in hypochondriasis; the recommended guidelines are based on uncontrolled studies of hypochondriasis and on controlled studies of the psychotherapy in similar disorders. The prognosis of functional somatic symptoms as well as that of hypochondriasis is good in a substantial proportion of patients.

  7. Governmental Decree No. 224/1997 of 13 August 1997 on fees levied on nuclear waste producers and on the transfer of such fees to the Nuclear Account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are obliged to pay a fee of CZK 50 per MWe produced. This amount is transferred to the Nuclear Account. The fee return is filed with the Czech Radioactive Repositories Administration. Minor radioactive waste producers only pay the radioactive waste storage cost; this sum is also transferred to the Nuclear Account. Each entity applying with the State Office for Nuclear Safety for a licence regarding activities which are associated with the production of radioactive wastes shall register with the Radioactive Repositories Administration as a prospective radioactive waste producer. (P.A.)

  8. New developments in two-phase flow heat transfer with emphasis on nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayinger, F.

    1987-01-01

    The literature on two-phase flow - with and without heat transfer - shows an explosive-like growth of published papers within the last ten years. Many of these papers were published as a result of nuclear safety research. It is impossible to deal with all new developments reported in this extensive literature. So one has to ask: Are there trends of special interest, where this report could be concentrated on? Looking over the situation, there seem to be three very promising fields of research having high actuality, especially for nuclear safety, namely: fluiddynamic and thermodynamic nonequilibrium in steady state, transient conditions, and scaling. The discussion on new developments in two-phase flow heat transfer, therefore, is limited on these subjects

  9. Regional Cooperation Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA). A mechanism for nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin Muslim, N.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the regional cooperation programs of the IAEA which have as purpose to promote the applications of peaceful uses of atomic energy and to transfer technology to the developing countries. The paper focusses on the (RCA) program for Asia and the Pacific, it is considered the most important mechanism for genuine technology transfer. The annex no 1 lists the full text of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (13 articles). The annex no.3 lists also the full text of the African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (14 articles). 11 refs., 17 tabs

  10. Polarization transfer from polarized nuclear spin to μ- spin in muonic atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka; Nagamine, Kanetada; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1987-02-01

    A theoretical study of polarization transfer from an initially-polarized nuclear spin to a μ - spin in a muonic atom is given. The switching of the hyperfine interaction at excited muonic states as well as at the ground 1s state is taken into account. The upper state of hyperfine doublet at the muonic 1s state is considered to proceed down to the lower state. It is found that as the hyperfine interaction becomes effective at higher excited muonic orbitals, a less extent of polarization is transferred from the nuclear spin to the μ - spin. The theoretical values obtained are compared with the recent experiment of μ - repolarization in a polarized 209 Bi target. (author)

  11. Nuclear prehistory influence on transfer velocity of 54Mn impurity 'hot' atoms in irradiated metallic iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, I.E.

    2007-01-01

    Influence of nuclear prehistory on transfer velocity of 54 Mn impurity 'hot'-atoms - got by different nuclear channels: 56 Fe(d, α), 54 Fe(n,p) in irradiated metallic iron - is studied. Irradiation of targets were carried out in U-120 accelerator (energy range 7.3/5.3 MeV, deuteron beam current makes up 5 μA). Mean density of thermal neutron (WWR-M reactor) makes up 8.6·10 13 neutron·cm -2 ·s -1 . It is shown, that transfer velocity of 54 Mn 'hot' atoms is defining by rate of radiation damage of targets in the irradiation process at that a key importance has a bombarding particles type applied for radioactive label getting

  12. Legal aspects of nuclear technology transfer in connection with Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaldivar, E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns technology and technology transfers which are becoming increasingly important for developing countries, especially those in South America. The author also points out that developed countries have not implemented the United Nations resolutions concerning dissemination of knowledge on advanced technologies. He stresses that if South American States wish to obtain assistance with nuclear technology from developed countries they should sign and ratify the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty. (NEA) [fr

  13. Transfer coefficients to terrestrial food products in equilibrium assessment models for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.

    1980-09-01

    Transfer coefficients have become virtually indispensible in the study of the fate of radioisotopes released from nuclear installations. These coefficients are used in equilibrium assessment models where they specify the degree of transfer in food chains of individual radioisotopes from soil to plant products and from feed or forage and drinking water to animal products and ultimately to man. Information on transfer coefficients for terrestrial food chain models is very piecemeal and occurs in a wide variety of journals and reports. To enable us to choose or determine suitable values for assessments, we have addressed the following aspects of transfer coefficients on a very broad scale: (1) definitions, (2) equilibrium assumption, which stipulates that transfer coefficients be restricted to equilibrium or steady rate conditions, (3) assumption of linearity, that is the idea that radioisotope concentrations in food products increase linearly with contamination levels in the soil or animal feed, (4) methods of determination, (5) variability, (6) generic versus site-specific values, (7) statistical aspects, (8) use, (9) sources of currently used values, (10) criteria for revising values, (11) establishment and maintenance of files on transfer coefficients, and (12) future developments. (auth)

  14. Modeling of the heat transfer performance of plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong; Yan, XiaoQing

    2009-08-01

    Considering the mutual actions between fuel particles and the metal matrix, the three-dimensional finite element models are developed to simulate the heat transfer behaviors of dispersion nuclear fuel plates. The research results indicate that the temperatures of the fuel plate might rise more distinctly with considering the particle swelling and the degraded surface heat transfer coefficients with increasing burnup; the local heating phenomenon within the particles appears when their thermal conductivities are too low. With rise of the surface heat transfer coefficients, the temperatures within the fuel plate decrease; the temperatures of the fuel plate are sensitive to the variations of the heat transfer coefficients whose values are lower, but their effects are weakened and slight when the heat transfer coefficients increase and reach a certain extent. Increasing the heat generation rate leads to elevating the internal temperatures. The temperatures and the maximum temperature differences within the plate increase along with the particle volume fractions. The surface thermal flux goes up along with particle volume fractions and heat generation rates, but the effects of surface heat transfer coefficients are not evident.

  15. Effect of two activation treatments and age of blastomere karyoplasts on in vitro development of bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Holm, Peter; Vajta, Gabor

    2001-01-01

    The yield and quality of (a) parthenogenetic blastocysts produced by two activation treatments (cycloheximide [CHX] or 6-dimethylaminopurine [DMAP]) and (b) nuclear transfer blastocysts generated using these two activation treatments and three different ages of karyoplast derived from day 3, 4......, or 5 in vitro produced donor embryos, were examined in order to define an optimal nuclear transfer protocol. The two activation protocols comprised calcium ionophore followed by either CHX or DMAP. Parthenogenetic blastocyst yields were greater (P ....7 +/- 5.1 vs. 31.4 +/- 4.5 [mean +/- SEM]). In contrast, nuclear transfer blastocyst rates per fused embryo were lower (P

  16. Communication received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. Nuclear transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The Director General has received notes verbales dated 30 June 1995 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. The purpose of the notes verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each note verbale, the text of the notes verbales is annexed hereto. The enclosure to these notes verbales is also reproduced in full in the Annex

  17. Communication received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. Nuclear transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Director General has received notes verbales dated 30 June 1995 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. The purpose of the notes verbales is to provide further information on those Governments` Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each note verbale, the text of the notes verbales is annexed hereto. The enclosure to these notes verbales is also reproduced in full in the Annex.

  18. Studies for Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweet Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L(Lam)). Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 mg/L). Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryogenesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  19. Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis in Sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. Rasheed; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the somatic embryo (SE) system for plant production of sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas L.(Lam)l. Explants isolated from SE-derived sweet potato plants were compared with control (non SE-derived) plants for their competency for SE production. Leaf explants were cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.2 mg/L) and 6-benzylaminopurine (2.5 mg/L) for 2 weeks in darkness and transferred to MS medium with abscisic acid (2.5 Explants isolated from those plants developed through somatic embryo-genesis produced new somatic embryos rapidly and in higher frequency than those isolated from control plants. They also appeared to grow faster in tissue culture than the control plants. Current studies in the laboratory are examining whether plants derived from a cyclical embryogenesis system (five cycles) would have any further positive impact on the rapidity and frequency of somatic embryo development. More detailed studies using electron microscopy are expected to show the point of origin of the embryos and to allow determination of their quality throughout the cyclical process. This study may facilitate improved plant micropropagation, gene transfer and germplasm conservation in sweet potato.

  20. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Ki [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sorrell, Alice M. [Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jae-Seok [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bong-Hwan [Genomics and Bioinformatics Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won-Kyong [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hosup, E-mail: shim@dku.edu [Department of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. {yields} hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. {yields} hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  1. Production of human CD59-transgenic pigs by embryonic germ cell nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Sung; Won, Ji Young; Park, Jin-Ki; Sorrell, Alice M.; Heo, Soon Young; Kang, Jee Hyun; Woo, Jae-Seok; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Chang, Won-Kyong; Shim, Hosup

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Human CD59 (hCD59) gene was introduced into porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells. → hCD59-transgenic EG cells were resistant to hyperacute rejection in cytolytic assay. → hCD59-transgenic pigs were produced by EG cell nuclear transfer. -- Abstract: This study was performed to produce transgenic pigs expressing the human complement regulatory protein CD59 (hCD59) using the nuclear transfer (NT) of embryonic germ (EG) cells, which are undifferentiated stem cells derived from primordial germ cells. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may provide an inexhaustible source of nuclear donor cells for NT to produce transgenic pigs. A total of 1980 NT embryos derived from hCD59-transgenic EG cells were transferred to ten recipients, resulting in the birth of fifteen piglets from three pregnancies. Among these offspring, ten were alive without overt health problems. Based on PCR analysis, all fifteen piglets were confirmed as hCD59 transgenic. The expression of the hCD59 transgene in the ten living piglets was verified by RT-PCR. Western analysis showed the expression of the hCD59 protein in four of the ten RT-PCR-positive piglets. These results demonstrate that hCD59-transgenic pigs could effectively be produced by EG cell NT and that such transgenic pigs may be used as organ donors in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

  2. Studies of heat transfer having relevance to nuclear reactor containment cooling by buoyancy-driven air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. D.; Li, J.; Wang, J. [The Univ., of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Two separate effects experiments concerned with buoyancy-influenced convective heat transfer in vertical passages which have relevance to the problem of nuclear reactor containment cooling by means of buoyancy-driven airflow are described. A feature of each is that local values of heat transfer coefficient are determined on surfaces maintained at uniform temperature. Experimental results are presented which highlight the need for buoyancy-induced impairment of turbulent convective heat transfer to be accounted for in the design of such passive cooling systems. A strategy is presented for predicting the heat removal by combined convective and radiative heat transfer from a full scale nuclear reactor containment shell using such experimental results.

  3. Artificial intelligence and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Artificial Intelligence Task Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Task Team was organized to review the status of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, identify guidelines for AI work, and to identify work required to allow the nuclear industry to realize maximum benefit from this technology. The state of the nuclear industry was analyzed to determine where the application of AI technology could be of greatest benefit. Guidelines and criteria were established to focus on those particular problem areas where AI could provide the highest possible payoff to the industry. Information was collected from government, academic, and private organizations. Very little AI work is now being done to specifically support the nuclear industry. The AI Task Team determined that the establishment of a Strategic Automation Initiative (SAI) and the expansion of the DOE Technology Transfer program would ensure that AI technology could be used to develop software for the nuclear industry that would have substantial financial payoff to the industry. The SAI includes both long and short term phases. The short-term phase includes projects which would demonstrate that AI can be applied to the nuclear industry safely, and with substantial financial benefit. The long term phase includes projects which would develop AI technologies with specific applicability to the nuclear industry that would not be developed by people working in any other industry

  4. Technology transfer of nuclear techniques and nucleonic control systems in the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    Among the many beneficial applications of radiation and radioisotopes in industry which are now well established in advanced countries, the applications of nuclear techniques and nucleonic control systems in the mineral industry have great potential for developing Member States. The use of nucleonic on-stream analyzers in the coal industry has resulted in enormous technical and economic benefits in addition to minimization of environmental pollution. Large savings have also resulted from the use of such analyzers in the processing of other minerals. Nuclear borehole logging techniques have demonstrated great potential in oil and gas evaluation. Radiotracer investigations have led to process optimisation and trouble shooting in various stages in ore processing and metallurgy. Though the technical and economic benefits of applications of nuclear techniques in the mineral industry are well recognised, technology transfer in these areas has been hampered by a variety of factors. In order to review the status and trends in nuclear techniques and nucleonic control systems in the mineral industry and the problems and considerations in their technology transfer to developing Member States, the IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting in Bombay, India, 15-19 January 1990. The present publication is based on the 7 contributions presented at this meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Transfer hook for nuclear fuel assemblies and nuclear reactor having a such hook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenot, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    For removing irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies above the level of the liquid metal in the vessel without loss of cooling, the hook mechanism has a guide tube with two annular cavities and a pump to circulate the reactor cooling fluid which flows out by gravity. A such hook used in a LMFBR reduces the height of the reactor vessel and consequently the initial capital cost [fr

  6. Enhancement of nuclear heat transfer in a typical pressurized water reactor by new spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazifi, M.; Nematollahi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The fuel element geometry typically used in nuclear reactor is rod bundle whose rod-to-rod clearance is maintained by grid spacer. The heat generated in the rod by nuclear reaction is removed by coolant, usually in turbulent flow. The coolant moves axially through the subchannels. Fuel spacer grid affects the coolant flow distribution in a fuel rod bundle, and so spacer geometry has a strong influence on a bundle's thermal-hydraulic characteristics such as critical heat flux and pressure drop. An understanding of the detailed structure of the turbulent flow and heat transfer in the rod bundle, used especially as nuclear fuel elements, is of major interest to the nuclear power industry for their safe and reliable operation. The flow mixing devices on grid spacer would enhance the mixing rate between sub-channels and promote the turbulence in subchannel. The present study evaluates the effects of mixing vane shape on flow structure and heat transfer downstream of mixing vane in a sub-channel of fuel assembly, by obtaining velocity and pressure fields, turbulent intensity, flow mixing factors, heat transfer coefficient and friction factor using three-dimensional RANS analysis. Six new shapes mixing vane designed by the authors, are simulated numerically to evaluate the performance in enhancing the heat transfer, in comparison with commercialized split vane. Standard K-epsilon model are used as a turbulence closure model and periodic and symmetry condition are set as boundary conditions. The capability of the model to predict the coolant flow distribution inside rod bundles is shown and discussed on the base of comparison with experimental data for a variety of geometrical and Reynolds number conditions. It is conformed that the turbulence in the sub-channel was significantly promoted by spacer and mixing devices but rapidly decreased to a fully developed level approximately 10 time of hydraulic diameter downstream of the top of spacer. Ring type mixer showed a high

  7. Forced convection heat transfer in rectangular ducts - general case of wall resistances and peripheral conduction for ventilation cooling of nuclear waste repositories [ heat transfer and nuclear disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyczkowski, R. W.; Solbrig, C. W.; Gidaspow, D.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions which may arise in nuclear waste repository ventilation corridors. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Simplifications are made to decouple the convective heat transfer problem for the far field conduction problem, but peripheral conduction is retained. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition. Nusselt numbers for the case of constant temperature on the top and bottom walls and constant heat flux on the side walls exhibited unexpected behavior.

  8. Poor embryo development in post-ovulatory in vivo-aged mouse oocytes is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, but mitochondrial transfer from somatic cells is not sufficient for rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Hideki; Takahashi, Toshifumi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Osamu; Nagase, Satoru

    2016-10-01

    Does in vivo aging of mouse oocytes affect mitochondrial function? Mitochondrial function was impaired in post-ovulatory in vivo-aged mouse oocytes and microinjection of somatic cell mitochondria did not rescue poor fertilization and embryonic development rates. The mechanisms underlying the decline in oocyte quality associated with oocyte aging remain unknown, although studies have suggested that the decline is regulated by mitochondrial dysfunction. However, only a limited number of studies have provided direct evidence implicating mitochondrial dysfunction in oocyte quality during the aging of oocytes. We used post-ovulatory, in vivo-aged mouse oocytes as a model for studying low-quality oocytes in oocyte aging. Superovulated oocytes released from the oviduct at 14 h and 20-24 h post-hCG injection were designated as 'fresh' and 'aged' oocytes, respectively. Membrane potentials and oxygen consumption in single oocytes were evaluated as measures of mitochondrial function in fresh and aged oocytes. Mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM) expression levels were examined by western blotting, and colocalization of mitochondria and TFAM was analyzed by measuring immunofluorescence in fresh and aged oocytes. IVF and blastocyst formation rates were calculated after oocyte microinjection with mitochondria derived from liver cells. The average mitochondrial membrane potential in fresh oocytes was significantly higher than that in aged oocytes (P transfer of cytosolic factors or cellular organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria, from specific cell types. This study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for General Science Research to Toshifumi Takahashi (No. 25462550) and Hideki Igarashi (No. 26462474). The funding source played no role in study design in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. The authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.

  9. Technology transfer on long-term radioactive waste management - a feasible option for small nuclear programmes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.; Mathieson, J.

    2007-01-01

    The EU project CATT - Co-operation and technology transfer on long-term radioactive waste management for Member States with small nuclear programmes investigated the feasibility of countries with small nuclear programmes implementing long-term radioactive waste management solutions within their national borders, through collaboration on technology transfer with those countries with advanced disposal concepts. The main project objective was to analyse the existing capabilities of technology owning Member States and the corresponding requirements of potential technology acquiring Member States and, based on the findings, to develop a number of possible collaboration models and scenarios that could be used in a technology transfer scheme. The project CATT was performed as a specific support action under the EU sixth framework programme and it brought together waste management organisations from six EU Member States: UK, Bulgaria, Germany, Lithuania, Slovenia and Sweden. In addition, the EC Joint Research Centre from the Netherlands also participated as a full partner. The paper summarises the analyses performed and the results obtained within the project. (author)

  10. The transfer of the nuclear supervision into the federal self-administration in the view of the constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is focussed on the question of a possible transfer of the nuclear supervision from the federal executive administration into a federal self-administration. The discussed topics include the characterization of the nuclear supervision tasks, the relation between administrative tasks and the type of administration, an assessment of the precondition of centrality with respect to the nuclear supervision and a possible accomplishment of the so called centrality

  11. Effects of stabilizers on the heat transfer characteristics of a nuclear waste canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafai, K.; Ettefagh, J.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes the feasibility and the effectiveness of using stabilizers (internal metal structural components) to augment the heat transfer characteristics of a nuclear waste canister. The problem was modeled as a transient two-dimensional heat transfer in two physical domains - the stabilizer and the wedge (a 30-degree-angle canister segment), which includes the heat-producing spent-fuel rods. This problem is solved by a simultaneous and interrelated numerical investigation of the two domains in cartesian and polar coordinate systems. The numerical investigations were performed for three cases. In the first case, conduction was assumed to be the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The second case assumed that radiation was the dominant mechanism, and in the third case both radiation and conduction were considered as mechanisms of heat transfer. The results show that for typical conditions in a waste package design, the stabilizers are quite effective in reducing the overall temperature in a waste canister. Furthermore, the results show that increasing the stabilizer thickness over the thickness specified in the present design has a negligible effect on the temperature distribution in the canister. Finally, the presence of the stabilizers was found to shift the location of the peak temperature areas in the waste canister

  12. Parameter Data on the Radiocesium Transfer to Korean Staple Food Crops Following a Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    In order to decide an optimum countermeasure against farmland contaminations following a severe NPP accident, it is necessary to have a reliable tool for predicting the concentrations of radiocesium in crop plants. For the estimation of radionuclide concentrations in crop plants, various transfer parameters, which quantify the radionuclide transfer from one compartment to the next, are used in general. Some amount of transfer parameter data has been produced at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) over the last 30 years. The present work was conducted to collate the KAERI data on radiocesium in staple food crops and to suggest effective ways of using them for assessing the environmental impact of a nuclear accident. The transfer parameter values of radiocesium for rice, Chinese cabbage and radish varied considerably with soils and times of its deposition. The proposed representative values were mostly based on a limited amount of data so they cannot be considered to have a high representativeness. Accordingly, they are intended for provisional use and a continuous improvement should be made. It is necessary to produce a sufficient amount of additional domestic data on the indirect pathway by conducting root-uptake experiments with as many types of soil as possible

  13. Parameter Data on the Radiocesium Transfer to Korean Staple Food Crops Following a Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to decide an optimum countermeasure against farmland contaminations following a severe NPP accident, it is necessary to have a reliable tool for predicting the concentrations of radiocesium in crop plants. For the estimation of radionuclide concentrations in crop plants, various transfer parameters, which quantify the radionuclide transfer from one compartment to the next, are used in general. Some amount of transfer parameter data has been produced at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) over the last 30 years. The present work was conducted to collate the KAERI data on radiocesium in staple food crops and to suggest effective ways of using them for assessing the environmental impact of a nuclear accident. The transfer parameter values of radiocesium for rice, Chinese cabbage and radish varied considerably with soils and times of its deposition. The proposed representative values were mostly based on a limited amount of data so they cannot be considered to have a high representativeness. Accordingly, they are intended for provisional use and a continuous improvement should be made. It is necessary to produce a sufficient amount of additional domestic data on the indirect pathway by conducting root-uptake experiments with as many types of soil as possible.

  14. Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  15. Ftreign system studieo of hydrodynamics and heat-mass transfer at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltanov, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Status and the main problems of system studies on hydrodynamics and heat-and-mass transfer at nuclear power plant transients and accidents are considered. Experimental benchmarks used for studying the loss of coolant accidents are described. The conclusion is made that contemporary level of measuring apparatus development and a large number of fast-response monitors of temperature, pressure and coolant level at most of described benchmarks permit to obtain sufficiently complete information of the behaviour of most important parts of a reactor unit during transients and accidents of different type [ru

  16. Blended learning concept for the support of know-how transfer in a nuclear company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberger, Nina

    2010-01-01

    AREVA is the largest growing nuclear company. Development and construction of new power plants, sustainment and maintenance of existing installations require many professionally trained personnel, more than 800 new appointments per year trigger the in-plant training and education. The AREVA NP Training Center is in charge of the education and training of the personnel. The contribution deals with the applied blended learning concept and the know-how transfer within AREVA NP. Web-based training and the virtual class room are part of the concept.

  17. Heat transfer analysis of ZnO-water nanofluid for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanayak, Bikash; Mund, Abhishek; Jayakumar, J.S.; Chaudhuri, P.; Parashar, Kajal; Parashar, S.K.S.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of traditional heat transfer fluids is inherently low. Metals or metal oxide in ultra-fine form have orders of magnitudes higher thermal conductivity of those of fluids. So it is a need to understand the fundamental behavior of the metals or metal oxides nanoparticles in base fluids. ZnO is a semiconductor but has a wide range of application. In this study the thermal conductivity and viscosity will be discussed in details with experimental and theoretical models. The application of ZnO based nanofluids will be very much useful in nuclear fusion

  18. Impacts on health and safety from transfer/consolidation of nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1994-11-01

    Environmental restoration plans at the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Hanford Site calls for transfer/consolidation of ''targets/threats,'' namely nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals. Reductions in the health and safety hazards will depend on the plans implemented. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) estimated these potential impacts, assuming implementation of the current reference plan and employing ongoing risk and safety analyses. The results indicated the potential for ''significant'' reductions in health and safety hazards in the long term (> 25 years) and a potentially ''noteworthy'' reduction in health hazard in the short term (≤ 25 years)

  19. Nuclear propulsion systems for orbit transfer based on the particle bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Horn, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The technology of nuclear direct propulsion orbit transfer systems based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is described. A 200 megawatt illustrative design is presented for LEO to GEO and other high ΔV missions. The PBR-NOTV can be used in a one-way mode with the shuttle or an expendable launch vehicle, e.g., the Titan 34D7, or as a two-way reusable space tug. In the one-way mode, payload capacity is almost three times greater than that of chemical OTV's. PBR technology status is described and development needs outlined

  20. Somatic and genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on somatic and genetic effects of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: haematopoietic and immune systems, mechanisms of late effects in various tissues, endogenous and exogenous factors in radiation carcinogenesis, teratogenic effects, genetic effects, in vitro transformation, tumour induction in different tissues, carcinogenesis in incorporated tissues, cancer epidemology and risk assessment. refs.; figs.; tabs

  1. Successful transfer of nuclear technology by the aid of scientific and technological cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, H.J.; Nentwich, D.

    1977-01-01

    The good results obtained with the nuclear power plants in operation and especially the world-wide increase of prices of fossile energy sources have caused many developing countries to take a special interest in the use of nuclear energy for a long-term energy supply and the set-up and extension of their own industry as a means to ameliorate the living standard. On the other hand, the pre-conditions for the preparation, planning and the economical use of nuclear energy which cannot be realized by simply purchasing a modern nuclear power station are lacking in most of these countries. A timely and careful preparation is therefore imperative to realize the plan of introducing nuclear energy. This can certainly be done only with the help of international support in the frame of bilateral or multilateral agreements. Without going into details of the variety of possibilities within international organizations, such as IAEA, this paper shows examples of successfully carried out bilateral cooperation between the Federal Republic of Germany and a number of developing countries of very different characteristics. A basic requirement for a successful transfer of technology is a high knowledge level of the indigenous scientists and engineers. Therefore, programmes for training and education and for information exchange in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as in the partner country are presented. Based on these, the means and methods of planning, performance and quality assurance are explained by practical examples and are related to the progress achieved in the use of nuclear energy and in establishing a national industry in the developing countries. Finally, the achieved results are critically analyzed, recommendations for future projects with other countries are given, and the successful interconnection of bilateral efforts with multilaterial projects of IAEA, UNDP, etc., is shown as a particularly promising method

  2. Meeting the manpower challenge in the transfer of nuclear power to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chewning, J.S.; Couchman, D.L.; Kaiz, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    The global needs for staffing personnel of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities to 1990 indicate continued stress on the international technical manpower supply. When considering the manpower and training necessary for the execution of a country's first nuclear project, the burden imposed on the purchaser's organization needs to be clearly understood. The work load and the responsibilities that cannot be transferred to other organizations are usually underestimated. In assessing the magnitude of the workload, four important points should be emphasized: (1) The responsibility for the ultimate success or failure of the nucler project must be borne by the purchaser's organization. Contractors can assume responsibility for the performance of specific tasks but not for the entire project. (2) Even in a turnkey contract, the prime contractor normally will not assume financial responsibility for the performance of the local subcontractors. (3) Many areas of a nuclear project involving domestic bureaucracy, politics, regulations, etc., can be dealt with effectively only be nationals. (4) The most serious problems experienced in developing country projects to date have not been the type which require additional personnel with advanced academic training in nuclear science and technology, but rather (a) personnel with practical experience and training in the organizational, contractual, and administrative aspects of large projects, and (b) technicians and skilled craft labour. (author)

  3. Heat transfer and fluid flow research relevant to India's nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.; Venkatraj, V.

    1988-01-01

    The Indian Nuclear Power Programme envisages three important stages viz., installation of thermal reactors, fast reactors and utilization of Thorium. By the year 2000 AD, it is proposed to have an installed total capacity of nuclear power of about 10,000 MWe. Starting from the present installed capacity of 1330 MWe, the additional contribution will be mainly made by thermal power reactors of the Pressurized Heavy Water type (PHWR). Apart from the reactors presently under construction about 12 numbers of 235 MWe units are planned to be constructed, which will be based on the standardized design of the reactors at Narora Atomic Power Project (NAPP). In addition, 10 units of 500 MWe capacity each, the design for which is currently under progress, will also be installed. The design, construction and operating agency is the Nuclear Power Board (NPB), while the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is responsible for the research and development work required. In addition to the programme on thermal power reactors, a thermal research reactor (DHRUVA) of 100 MWth capacity has been designed, constructed and has been commissioned. Some of the important heat transfer and fluid flow research problems relevant to the Indian nuclear power and research reactors are discussed in this paper

  4. Nuclear event time histories and computed site transfer functions for locations in the Los Angeles region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A.M.; Covington, P.A.; Park, R.B.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Perkins, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a collection of Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosion recordings obtained at sites in the greater Los Angeles, Calif., region. The report includes ground velocity time histories, as well as, derived site transfer functions. These data have been collected as part of a study to evaluate the validity of using low-level ground motions to predict the frequency-dependent response of a site during an earthquake. For this study 19 nuclear events were recorded at 98 separate locations. Some of these sites have recorded more than one of the nuclear explosions, and, consequently, there are a total of 159, three-component station records. The location of all the recording sites are shown in figures 1–5, the station coordinates and abbreviations are given in table 1. The station addresses are listed in table 2, and the nuclear explosions that were recorded are listed in table 3. The recording sites were chosen on the basis of three criteria: (1) that the underlying geological conditions were representative of conditions over significant areas of the region, (2) that the site was the location of a strong-motion recording of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, or (3) that more complete geographical coverage was required in that location.

  5. Meeting the manpower challenge in the transfer of nuclear power to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chewning, J.S.; Couchman, D.L.; Kaiz, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    One of the constraints to meeting projections of nuclear power's share of energy needs in the United States has been the various manpower problems, ranging from idling of construction manpower because of disruptions in the flow of materials and construction scheduling to the comptetition between various segments of the nuclear industry, government, and educational institutions for the available supply of experienced nuclear-oriented engineering personnel. Similar problems have been encountered in other countries which are presently partially dependent upon nuclear power for energy, and the competition for qualified personnel has become international in scope with considerable migrating of engineers among these nations. The global needs for staffing personnel of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities to 1990 indicate continued stress on the international technical manpower supply. When considering the manpower and training necessary for the execution of a country's first nuclear project, the burden imposed on the purchaser's organization needs to be clearly understood. The work load and the responsibilities that cannot be transferred to other organizations is usually underestimated. In assessing the magnitude of the workload, four important points should be emphasized: (1) The responsibility for the ultimate success or failure of the nuclear project must be borne by the purchaser's organization. Contractors can assume responsibility for the performance of specific tasks but not for the entire project; (2) Even in a turnkey contact, the prime contractor normally will not assume financial responsibility for the performance of the local subcontractors, whose performance must be monitored and controlled by the purchaser's organization; (3) Many areas of a nuclear project involving domestic bureaucracy, politics, regulations, etc., can be dealt with effectively only by nationals. Examples of such areas are customs clearances and import licenses, visas, housing

  6. Interspecific transfer of only part of genome by fusion between non-irradiated protoplasts of Nicotiana glauca and X-ray irradiated protoplasts of N. Langsdorffii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Futsuhara, Y.

    1983-01-01

    To transfer only part of genome, X-ray irradiated suspension cell protoplasts of N. langsdorffii were fused with suspension cell protoplasts of N. glauca by polyethylene glycol. Somatic hybrid calli were selected by the growth in the hormone-free medium. Some of somatic hybrid calli from fusion with irradiated protoplasts indicated the loss of small subunit polypeptide of fraction 1 protein which was coded by N. langsdorffii nuclear DNA. Cytological analysis provided an information on significant decrease of chromosomes in somatic hybrid calli from fusion with irradiated protoplasts, compared with the somatic hybrid calli from fusion with non-irradiated protoplasts. In addition, isozyme analysis revealed that somatic hybrid calli from fusion with irradiated protoplasts lost particular bands of N. langsdorffli. These results demonstrate the tranfer of only part of genome from N, langsdorffii to N, glauca by fusion with X-ray irradiated protoplasts

  7. The nuclear spin response to intermediate energy protons and deuterons at low momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.T.; Djalali, C.; Glashausser, C.; Lenske, H.; Love, W.G.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Wambach, J.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of polarization transfer in the inelastic scattering of intermediate energy protons and deuterons have yielded a wealth of data on the spin response of nuclei. This work complements the well-known studies of Gamow-Teller strength in charge-exchange reactions. The emphasis here is on a consistent determination of the S=1, T=0 response, practical only with deuterons, and on the proper separation of S=0 and S=1 strength in proton spectra for appropriate comparison with sum rules. We concentrate on two nuclei, 40 Ca and 12 C, at momentum transfers below about 1 fm -1 and on excitations up to about 50 MeV. The continuum second random phase approximation provides the primary theoretical tool for calculating and interpreting the response in terms of properties of the nucleon-nucleon force inside the nuclear medium. The reaction mechanism is described by the DWIA, applied here to continuum proton scattering almost as rigorously as it is usually applied to low energy excitations. A new DWIA formalism for the description of spin observables in deuteron scattering is used. Comparison of the proton and deuteron data with each other and with RPA/DWIA calculations yields interesting insights into the current state of understanding of collectivity and the nuclear spin response. (orig.)

  8. Device for horizontal transfer between two enclosures of nuclear fuel elements stored in vertical position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucond, J.

    1986-01-01

    The invention involves a device for horizontal transfer between two enclosures of nuclear fuel elements stored in vertical position. This device is specifically applicable to nuclear power plants of the pressurized water type (PWR), in which the fuel elements are in the form of bars with, for example, a length of two meters and a rectangular cross-section of approximately 200 x 100 mm. When they are placed in service, these elements are introduced vertically, using a loading machine, into the reactor core contained in a pressure vessel. When they are spent, they are removed by the same machine and deposited temporarily, element by element, still in the vertical position, in an unloading basin above the reactor vessel. They are then transferred to a spent fuel pit located, for example, at a distance of 10 meters from the unloading basin, at practically the same level, where they are stored in vertical position until the natural decay of their radioactivity allows them to be removed from the power plant. Water, in fact, serves the function of cooling the elements and protecting the external environment against part of the radiation

  9. Heat Transfer in Pebble-Bed Nuclear Reactor Cores Cooled by Fluoride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddar, Lakshana Ravindranath

    With electricity demand predicted to rise by more than 50% within the next 20 years and a burgeoning world population requiring reliable emissions-free base-load electricity, can we design advanced nuclear reactors to help meet this challenge? At the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) Fluoride-salt-cooled High Temperature Reactors (FHR) are currently being investigated. FHRs are designed with better safety and economic characteristics than conventional light water reactors (LWR) currently in operation. These reactors operate at high temperature and low pressure making them more efficient and safer than LWRs. The pebble-bed FHR (PB-FHR) variant includes an annular nuclear reactor core that is filled with randomly packed pebble fuel. It is crucial to characterize the heat transfer within this unique geometry as this informs the safety limits of the reactor. The work presented in this dissertation focused on furthering the understanding of heat transfer in pebble-bed nuclear reactor cores using fluoride salts as a coolant. This was done through experimental, analytical and computational techniques. A complex nuclear system with a coolant that has never previously been in commercial use requires experimental data that can directly inform aspects of its design. It is important to isolate heat transfer phenomena in order to understand the underlying physics in the context of the PB-FHR, as well as to make decisions about further experimental work that needs to be done in support of developing the PB-FHR. Certain organic oils can simulate the heat transfer behaviour of the fluoride salt if relevant non-dimensional parameters are matched. The advantage of this method is that experiments can be done at a much lower temperature and at a smaller geometric scale compared to FHRs, thereby lowering costs. In this dissertation, experiments were designed and performed to collect data demonstrating similitude. The limitations of these experiments were also elucidated by

  10. Test facility for investigation of heat transfer of promising coolants for the nuclear power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, I. A.; Sviridov, V. G.; Batenin, V. M.; Biryukov, D. A.; Nikitina, I. S.; Manchkha, S. P.; Pyatnitskaya, N. Yu.; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, E. V.

    2017-11-01

    The results are presented of experimental investigations into liquid metal heat transfer performed by the joint research group consisting of specialist in heat transfer and hydrodynamics from NIU MPEI and JIHT RAS. The program of experiments has been prepared considering the concept of development of the nuclear power industry in Russia. This concept calls for, in addition to extensive application of water-cooled, water-moderated (VVER-type) power reactors and BN-type sodium cooled fast reactors, development of the new generation of BREST-type reactors, fusion power reactors, and thermonuclear neutron sources. The basic coolants for these nuclear power installations will be heavy liquid metals, such as lead and lithium-lead alloy. The team of specialists from NRU MPEI and JIHT RAS commissioned a new RK-3 mercury MHD-test facility. The major components of this test facility are a unique electrical magnet constructed at Budker Nuclear Physics Institute and a pressurized liquid metal circuit. The test facility is designed for investigating upward and downward liquid metal flows in channels of various cross-sections in a transverse magnetic field. A probe procedure will be used for experimental investigation into heat transfer and hydrodynamics as well as for measuring temperature, velocity, and flow parameter fluctuations. It is generally adopted that liquid metals are the best coolants for the Tokamak reactors. However, alternative coolants should be sought for. As an alternative to liquid metal coolants, molten salts, such as fluorides of lithium and beryllium (so-called FLiBes) or fluorides of alkali metals (so-called FLiNaK) doped with uranium fluoride, can be used. That is why the team of specialists from NRU MPEI and JIHT RAS, in parallel with development of a mercury MHD test facility, is designing a test facility for simulating molten salt heat transfer and hydrodynamics. Since development of this test facility requires numerical predictions and verification

  11. Targeted Gene Knockin in Porcine Somatic Cells Using CRISPR/Cas Ribonucleoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Eun Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The pig is an ideal large animal model for genetic engineering applications. A relatively short gestation interval and large litter size makes the pig a conducive model for generating and propagating genetic modifications. The domestic pig also shares close similarity in anatomy, physiology, size, and life expectancy, making it an ideal animal for modeling human diseases. Often, however, the technical difficulties in generating desired genetic modifications such as targeted knockin of short stretches of sequences or transgenes have impeded progress in this field. In this study, we have investigated and compared the relative efficiency of CRISPR/Cas ribonucleoproteins in engineering targeted knockin of pseudo attP sites downstream of a ubiquitously expressed COL1A gene in porcine somatic cells and generated live fetuses by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. By leveraging these knockin pseudo attP sites, we have demonstrated subsequent phiC31 integrase mediated integration of green fluorescent protein (GFP transgene into the site. This work for the first time created an optimized protocol for CRISPR/Cas mediated knockin in porcine somatic cells, while simultaneously creating a stable platform for future transgene integration and generating transgenic animals.

  12. Exchange of notes constituting an implementing arrangement, concerning international obligation exchanges, to the agreement between the Government of Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) concerning transfers of nuclear material of 21 September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The implementing arrangement which entered into force on 8 September 1993, concerns the safeguard obligations attaching to nuclear material transferred or re transferred pursuant to the Agreement on Nuclear Transfers between Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community

  13. The nuclear power industry's ageing workforce: Transfer of knowledge to the next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This report is intended primarily for senior and middle level managers in nuclear power plant operating organizations. It is intended to provide them practical information they can use to improve the transfer of knowledge from the current generation of NPP operating organization personnel to the next generation in an effective manner. The information provided in this report is based upon the experience of Member State operating organizations as well as other related industries. In September 2000, the IAEA held a technical meeting on the topic of an ageing workforce and declining educational infrastructures. The proceedings of this meeting were distributed on CD-ROM as Working Material. Several recent IAEA meetings including a senior level meeting held in June 2002 in Vienna and a technical session of the IAEA General Conference in September 2002 addressed methods of knowledge transfer. This is the first IAEA report published on this specific topic. In 2000, the IAEA Technical Working Group on the Training and Qualification of NPP Personnel (TWG-T and Q) suggested that the IAEA should develop a publication on the definition of core competencies to be maintained by an NPP operating organization. The TWG-T and Q suggested that this TECDOC should provide additional detail beyond that specified in the recently revised Safety Guide NS-G-2.8, Recruitment, Qualification and Training of Personnel for Nuclear Power Plants. This task was included in the approved programme for 2002-2003. In March 2001, IAEA-TECDOC-1204, A Systematic Approach to Human Performance Improvement: Training Solutions was published. This TECDOC provides a comprehensive list of core competencies. These competencies provide the additional detail beyond that specified in Safety Guide NS-G-2.8 that the TWG-T and Q had suggested. The aspect of core competencies that is not addressed in IAEA-TECDOC-1204 is how to effectively transfer these competencies to the generation that replaces the workforce that

  14. Application of Direct Assessment Approaches and Methodologies to Cathodically Protected Nuclear Waste Transfer Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Megan M.; Pikas, Joseph; Edgemon, Glenn L.; Philo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 54 million gallons (204 million liters) of radioactive waste generated since the site's inception in 1943. Today, the major structures involved in waste management at Hanford include 149 carbon steel single-shell tanks, 28 carbon-steel double-shell tanks, plus a network of buried metallic transfer lines and ancillary systems (pits, vaults, catch tanks, etc.) required to store, retrieve, and transfer waste within the tank farm system. Many of the waste management systems at Hanford are still in use today. In response to uncertainties regarding the structural integrity of these systems,' an independent, comprehensive integrity assessment of the Hanford Site piping system was performed. It was found that regulators do not require the cathodically protected pipelines located within the Hanford Site to be assessed by External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA) or any other method used to ensure integrity. However, a case study is presented discussing the application of the direct assessment process on pipelines in such a nuclear environment. Assessment methodology and assessment results are contained herein. An approach is described for the monitoring, integration of outside data, and analysis of this information in order to identify whether coating deterioration accompanied by external corrosion is a threat for these waste transfer lines

  15. The experimental facility for investigation of MHD heat transfer in perspective coolants in nuclear energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenin, B. M.; Belyaev, I. A.; Birukov, D. A.; Frick, P. G.; Nikitina, I. S.; Manchkha, S. P.; Pyatnitskaya, N. Yu; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, E. V.; Sviridov, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    Paper presents the current results of work conducted by a joint research group of MPEI-JIHT RAS for experimental study of liquid metals heat transfer. The team of specialists of MPEI-JIHT RAS put into operation a new mercury MHD facility RK-3. The main components of this stand are: a unique electromagnet, created by specialists of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), and a sealed liquid-metal circuit. The facility will be explored lifting and standpipe flow of liquid metal in a transverse magnetic field in channels of different forms. For the experiments on the study of heat transfer and hydrodynamics of flows for measuring characteristics such as temperature, speed, pulse characteristics, probe method is used. Presents the first experimental results obtained for a pipe in a transverse magnetic field. During the experiments with various flow parameters data was obtained and processed with constructing temperature fields, dimensionless wall temperature distributions and heat transfer coefficients along the perimeter of the work area. Modes with low frequency pulsations of temperature were discovered. The boundaries where low frequency temperature fluctuations occur were defined in a circular tube.

  16. International remote monitoring project Argentina Nuclear Power Station Spent Fuel Transfer Remote Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; Lucero, R.; Glidewell, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Autoridad Regulataria Nuclear (ARN) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. A Remote Monitoring System for spent fuel transfer will be installed at the Argentina Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing gamma and neutron sensors. This project will test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions. The Remote Monitoring System consists of gamma and neutron radiation sensors, RF systems, and video systems integrated into a coherent functioning whole. All sensor data communicate over an Echelon LonWorks Network to a single data logger. The Neumann DCM 14 video module is integrated into the Remote Monitoring System. All sensor and image data are stored on a Data Acquisition System (DAS) and archived and reviewed on a Data and Image Review Station (DIRS). Conventional phone lines are used as the telecommunications link to transmit on-site collected data and images to remote locations. The data and images are authenticated before transmission. Data review stations will be installed at ARN in Buenos Aires, Argentina, ABACC in Rio De Janeiro, IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 2 refs., 2 figs

  17. Assessment of the developmental totipotency of neural cells in the cerebral cortex of mouse embryo by nuclear transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yukiko; Makino, Hatsune; Hamaguchi-Hamada, Kayoko; Hamada, Shun; Sugino, Hidehiko; Kawase, Eihachiro; Miyata, Takaki; Ogawa, Masaharu; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Yagi, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    When neural cells were collected from the entire cerebral cortex of developing mouse fetuses (15.5–17.5 days postcoitum) and their nuclei were transferred into enucleated oocytes, 5.5% of the reconstructed oocytes developed into normal offspring. This success rate was the highest among all previous mouse cloning experiments that used somatic cells. Forty-four percent of live embryos at 10.5 days postcoitum were morphologically normal when premature and early-postmitotic neural cells from the ventricular side of the cortex were used. In contrast, the majority (95%) of embryos were morphologically abnormal (including structural abnormalities in the neural tube) when postmitotic-differentiated neurons from the pial side of the cortex were used for cloning. Whereas 4.3% of embryos cloned with ventricular-side cells developed into healthy offspring, only 0.5% of those cloned with differentiated neurons in the pial side did so. These facts seem to suggest that the nuclei of neural cells in advanced stages of differentiation had lost their developmental totipotency. The underlying mechanism for this developmental limitation could be somatic DNA rearrangements in differentiating neural cells. PMID:11698647

  18. In vitro somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, L; Hoyos, R; Roca, W

    1987-06-01

    An efficient and reproducible plant regeneration system, initiated in somatic tissues, has been devised for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Somatic embryogenesis has been induced from shoot tips and immature leaves of in vitro shoot cultures of 15 cassava genotypes. Somatic embryos developed directly on the explants when cultured on a medium containing 4-16 mg/l 2,4-D. Differences were observed with respect to the embryogenic capacity of the explants of different varieties. Secondary embryogenesis has been induced by subculture on solid or liquid induction medium. Long term cultures were established and maintained for up to 18 months by repeated subculture of the proliferating somatic embryos. Plantlets developed from primary and secondary embryos in the presence of 0.1 mg/l BAP, 1mg/l GA3, and 0.01 mg/l 2,4-D. Regenerated plants were transferred to the field, and were grown to maturity.

  19. Conversion from film to image plates for transfer method neutron radiography of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper summarizes efforts to characterize and qualify a computed radiography (CR) system for neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL has multiple programs that are actively developing, testing, and evaluating new nuclear fuels. Irradiated fuel experiments are subjected to a number of sequential post-irradiation examination techniques that provide insight into the overall behavior and performance of the fuel. One of the first and most important of these exams is neutron radiography, which provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Results from neutron radiography are often the driver for subsequent examinations of the PIE program. Features of interest that can be evaluated using neutron radiography include irradiation-induced swelling, isotopic and fuel-fragment redistribution, plate deformations, and fuel fracturing. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique with film for imaging fuel. INL is pursuing multiple efforts to advance its neutron imaging capabilities for evaluating irradiated fuel and other applications, including conversion from film to CR image plates. Neutron CR is the current state-of-the-art for neutron imaging of highly-radioactive objects. Initial neutron radiographs of various types of nuclear fuel indicate that radiographs can be obtained of comparable image quality currently obtained using film. This paper provides neutron radiographs of representative irradiated fuel pins along with neutron radiographs of standards that informed the qualification of the neutron CR system for routine use. Additionally, this paper includes evaluations of some of the CR scanner parameters and their effects on image quality.

  20. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  1. Heat Transfer Enhancement By Three-Dimensional Surface Roughness Technique In Nuclear Fuel Rod Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Umair

    This thesis experimentally investigates the enhancement of single-phase heat transfer, frictional loss and pressure drop characteristics in a Single Heater Element Loop Tester (SHELT). The heater element simulates a single fuel rod for Pressurized Nuclear reactor. In this experimental investigation, the effect of the outer surface roughness of a simulated nuclear rod bundle was studied. The outer surface of a simulated fuel rod was created with a three-dimensional (Diamond-shaped blocks) surface roughness. The angle of corrugation for each diamond was 45 degrees. The length of each side of a diamond block is 1 mm. The depth of each diamond block was 0.3 mm. The pitch of the pattern was 1.614 mm. The simulated fuel rod had an outside diameter of 9.5 mm and wall thickness of 1.5 mm and was placed in a test-section made of 38.1 mm inner diameter, wall thickness 6.35 mm aluminum pipe. The Simulated fuel rod was made of Nickel 200 and Inconel 625 materials. The fuel rod was connected to 10 KW DC power supply. The Inconel 625 material of the rod with an electrical resistance of 32.3 kO was used to generate heat inside the test-section. The heat energy dissipated from the Inconel tube due to the flow of electrical current flows into the working fluid across the rod at constant heat flux conditions. The DI water was employed as working fluid for this experimental investigation. The temperature and pressure readings for both smooth and rough regions of the fuel rod were recorded and compared later to find enhancement in heat transfer coefficient and increment in the pressure drops. Tests were conducted for Reynold's Numbers ranging from 10e4 to 10e5. Enhancement in heat transfer coefficient at all Re was recorded. The maximum heat transfer co-efficient enhancement recorded was 86% at Re = 4.18e5. It was also observed that the pressure drop and friction factor increased by 14.7% due to the increased surface roughness.

  2. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Nuclear Envelope Architecture Using Dual-Color Metal-Induced Energy Transfer Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhik, Anna M; Ruhlandt, Daja; Pfaff, Janine; Karedla, Narain; Chizhik, Alexey I; Gregor, Ingo; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-12-26

    The nuclear envelope, comprising the inner and the outer nuclear membrane, separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm and plays a key role in cellular functions. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are embedded in the nuclear envelope, control transport of macromolecules between the two compartments. Here, using dual-color metal-induced energy transfer (MIET), we determine the axial distance between Lap2β and Nup358 as markers for the inner nuclear membrane and the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, respectively. Using MIET imaging, we reconstruct the 3D profile of the nuclear envelope over the whole basal area, with an axial resolution of a few nanometers. This result demonstrates that optical microscopy can achieve nanometer axial resolution in biological samples and without recourse to complex interferometric approaches.

  3. Transfer coefficients in a four-cusp duct simulating a typical nuclear reactor channel degraded by accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Dutra, A. de.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study on forced convection in a four-cusp duct simulating a typical nuclear reactor channel degraded by accident is presented. Transfer coefficients were obtained by using the analogy between heat and mass tranfer, with the naphtalene sublimation technique. The experiment consisted in forcing air past a four-cusp naphthalene moulded duct. Mass transfer coefficients were determined in nondimensional form as Sherwood number. Experimental curves correlating the Sherwood number with a nondimensional length, x + , were obtained for Reynolds number varying from 891 to 30.374. This range covers typical flow rates that are expected to exist in a degraded nuclear reactor core. (Author) [pt

  4. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology. Nuclear Transfers and Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Transfers; Comunicaciones Recibidas De Diversos Estados Miembros Relativas A Las Directrices Para La Exportacion De Tecnologia, Equipo Y Materiales Nucleares. Transferencias Nucleares Y Transferencias De Equipo, Materiales V Tecnologia Afin Al Doble Uso En Materia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-04-15

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 5 March 1993 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic. The purpose of the Note Verbale is to provide information on that Governments' guidelines for Nuclear Transfers and for Transfers of of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Note Verbale is annexed hereto [Spanish] El Director General ha recibido una nota verbal de fecha 5 de marzo de 1993 del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de la RepUblica Eslovaca. El objetivo de la nota verbal es proporcionar informaciOn sobre las Directrices para las transferencias nucleares y las Directrices para la transferencia de equipo, materiales y tecnologia afin al doble uso en materia nuclear, de dicho Gobierno. Atendiendo a los deseos expresados al final de la nota verbal, se adjunta al presente documento el texto de la nota verbal.

  5. Gravity-driven flow and heat transfer in a spent nuclear fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    The GFLOW code analyzes a three-dimensional rectangular porous medium by dividing the porous medium into a number of nodes or cells specified by the user. The finite difference form of the fluid conservation equations is solved for each node by application of a modified ''marker and cell'' numerical technique. The existence of spent nuclear fuel in any node is modeled by using a porosity value less than unity in that node and by including a surface heat transfer term in the fluid energy equation. In addition, local pressure losses due to grid spaces or other planar flow obstructions can be modeled by local loss coefficients. Heat conduction in the fuel is simulated by a fast running implicit finite difference model of the fuel, gap, and clad regions of the fuel rod

  6. Transfer of radioactive waste management expertise from Switzerland to other countries with small nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.; Birkhaeuser, Ph.; Kickmaier, W.; Vomvoris, S.; Zuidema, P.

    2000-01-01

    A legal requirement which coupled demonstration of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal to the extension of reactor operational licenses beyond 1985 acted to force rapid development of the Swiss radioactive waste management programme. Over a period of almost 30 years and at a cost of approximately 800 M CHF Nagra has become established as a centre of excellence in this field. Resources include highly experienced manpower, literature and databases supporting development of national repositories for L/ILW and HLW/TRU and state-of-the-art R and D infrastructure (including 2 underground laboratories, hot-laboratory facilities at PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute), modelling groups at universities etc.). This paper reviews Nagra's experience and considers various ways in which expertise can be transferred to other small countries to minimise duplication of effort and optimise development of their own national programmes. (author)

  7. Study of Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Nano-fluids for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.J.; Truong, B.; Buongiorno, J.; Hu, L.W.; Bang, I.C.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-fluids are engineered colloidal suspensions of nano-particles in a base fluid. We are investigating the two-phase heat transfer behavior of water-based nano-fluids, to evaluate their potential use in nuclear applications, including the PWR primary coolant and PWR and BWR safety systems. A simple pool boiling wire experiment shows that a significant increase in Critical Heat Flux (CHF) can be achieved at modest nano-particle concentrations. For example, the CHF increases by 50% in nano-fluids with alumina nano-particles at 0.001%v concentration. The CHF enhancement appears to correlate with the presence of a layer of nano-particles that builds up on the heated surface during nucleate boiling. A review of the prevalent Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) theories suggests that an alteration of the nucleation site density (brought about by the nano-particle layer) could plausibly explain the CHF enhancement. (authors)

  8. Heat transfer effects in vertically emplaced high level nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moujaes, S.F.; Lei, Y.M.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling free convection heat transfer in an cylindrical annular enclosure is still an active area of research and an important problem to be addressed in the high level nuclear waste repository. For the vertically emplaced waste container, the air gap which is between the container shell and the rock borehole, have an important role of dissipating heat to surrounding rack. These waste containers are vertically emplaced in the borehole 300 meters below ground, and in a horizontal grid of 30 x 8 meters apart. The borehole will be capped after the container emplacement. The expected initial heat generated is between 3--4.74 kW per container depending on the type of waste. The goal of this study is to use a computer simulation model to find the borehole wall, air-gap and the container outer wall temperature distributions

  9. Transfer system development for a remote inspection robot in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, M.; Ohnuma, M.; Hamada, K.; Mizutani, T.; Shimada, A.; Segawa, M.; Kubo, K.

    1984-01-01

    A remote operated robot system has been developed for inspection inside the primary containment vessel (PCV) of nuclear power plants. This system consists of an inspection vehicle, a monorail driving system, a signal transmission system, a power supply system and an operator console.. The system has two main features. First is that the operator can transfer the vehicle at any time from outside the PCV to inside or vice versa through a personnel airlock. The second feature is that the vehicle can be transported from one inspection route to another route at junction points. A prototype inspection robot system was fabricated on a trial basis. Running and inspection performances were confirmed utilizing actual size test apparatus

  10. Live embryo imaging to follow cell cycle and chromosomes stability after nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbach, Sebastian T; Boiani, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear transfer (NT) into mouse oocytes yields a transcriptionally and functionally heterogeneous population of cloned embryos. Most studies of NT embryos consider only embryos at predefined key stages (e.g., morula or blastocyst), that is, after the bulk of reprogramming has taken place. These retrospective approaches are of limited use to elucidate mechanisms of reprogramming and to predict developmental success. Observing cloned embryo development using live embryo cinematography has the potential to reveal otherwise undetectable embryo features. However, light exposure necessary for live cell cinematography is highly toxic to cloned embryos. Here we describe a protocol for combined bright-field and fluorescence live-cell imaging of histone H2b-GFP expressing mouse embryos, to record cell divisions up to the blastocyst stage. This protocol, which can be adapted to observe other reporters such as Oct4-GFP or Nanog-GFP, allowed us to quantitatively analyze cleavage kinetics of cloned embryos.

  11. Knowledge transfer in Swedish Nuclear Power Plants in connection with retirements; Kompetensoeverfoering paa svenska kaernkraftverk i samband med pensionsavgaangar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Annika; Ohlsson, Kjell; Roos, Anna

    2007-12-13

    This report displays how the Swedish nuclear power plants Forsmark, Oskarshamn and Ringhals work with knowledge management. The report also consists of a literature review of appropriate ways to extract tacit knowledge as well as methods to transfer competence. The report is made up of a smaller number of interviews at the nuclear power plants in combination with a questionnaire distributed to a larger number of people at the plants. The results of the interview study is that only one of the Swedish nuclear power plants have a programme to transfer knowledge from older staff to newer. This is, however, not a programme for everyone. Another plant has a programme for knowledge building, but only for their specialists. At both plants, which lack a programme, the interviewees request more structure in knowledge transfer; even though they feel the current way of transferring knowledge with mentors works well. Besides more structure, interviewees present a wish to have more time for knowledge transfer as well as the opportunity to recruit more than needed. Recruiting more than needed is however not very simple due to multiple causes such as nominal sizing departments and a difficulty of recruiting people to work far from larger cities. The way things are now, many feel too under-staffed and under a lot of time pressure daily to also have time for knowledge transfer besides their normal work.

  12. BIX-01294 increases pig cloning efficiency by improving epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Hongyong; Yao, Jing; Qin, Guosong; Wang, Feng; Wang, Xianlong; Luo, Ailing; Zheng, Qiantao; Cao, Chunwei; Zhao, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that faulty epigenetic reprogramming leads to the abnormal development of cloned embryos and results in the low success rates observed in all mammals produced through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The aberrant methylation status of H3K9me and H3K9me2 has been reported in cloned mouse embryos. To explore the role of H3K9me2 and H3K9me in the porcine somatic cell nuclear reprogramming, BIX-01294, known as a specific inhibitor of G9A (histone-lysine methyltransferase of H3K9), was used to treat the nuclear-transferred (NT) oocytes for 14-16 h after activation. The results showed that the developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos was significantly enhanced both in vitro (blastocyst rate 16.4% vs 23.2%, Pcloning rate 1.59% vs 2.96%) after 50 nm BIX-01294 treatment. BIX-01294 treatment significantly decreased the levels of H3K9me2 and H3K9me at the 2- and 4-cell stages, which are associated with embryo genetic activation, and increased the transcriptional expression of the pluripotency genes SOX2, NANOG and OCT4 in cloned blastocysts. Furthermore, the histone acetylation levels of H3K9, H4K8 and H4K12 in cloned embryos were decreased after BIX-01294 treatment. However, co-treatment of activated NT oocytes with BIX-01294 and Scriptaid rescued donor nuclear chromatin from decreased histone acetylation of H4K8 that resulted from exposure to BIX-01294 only and consequently improved the preimplantation development of SCNT embryos (blastocyst formation rates of 23.7% vs 21.5%). These results indicated that treatment with BIX-01294 enhanced the developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos through improvements in epigenetic reprogramming and gene expression. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  13. Quality assurance in Spain and its transfer to nuclear projects in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez de Buergo, L.; Montes, L.; Santamaria, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Spanish nuclear programme is included in the National Energy Plan approved by parliament in 1979. It is anticipated that there will be some 11,000MW(e) of installed power around 1987. The programme is intended to ensure the availability of sources for coping with the demand for electric power and at the same time to increase national participation through the transfer of technology. In the first generation of Spanish nuclear power plants, built between 1964 and 1972 (one PWR, one BWR and one GCR), national participation in terms of value added was less than 30%. The contribution of engineering and industry was modest, with few incentives because of the diversity of the plants. The second generation consists of seven units (six PWRs and one BWR) which are in an advanced stage of construction. National participation has been extensive, exceeding 60% in real terms. Quality assurance has been the decisive instrument in the assimilation of technology, since it was a process of learning by doing, i.e. knowledge was obtained in the fabrication of goods and the performance of services of proven quality, which presupposed a multiplying factor in development. The transfer of technology achieved is the result of several concurrent circumstances, such as the creation of incentives on the part of the Government or the willingness of the supplier to make the technology available. But what is needed above all is the development in industry of a mental attitude geared to the restructuring of organizational systems and to the acquisition of the necessary equipment. For all this, however, there is a lack of training. The efforts made in this direction have been extensive and useful experience has been gained; this is being transmitted to various countries which have sent over 200 engineers to Spain

  14. Knockout of exogenous EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells using zinc-finger nucleases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Matsunari, Hitomi; Takayanagi, Shuko; Haruyama, Erika; Nakano, Kazuaki; Fujiwara, Tsukasa; Ikezawa, Yuka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → EGFP gene integrated in porcine somatic cells could be knocked out using the ZFN-KO system. → ZFNs induced targeted mutations in porcine primary cultured cells. → Complete absence of EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in ZFN-treated cells. -- Abstract: Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are expected as a powerful tool for generating gene knockouts in laboratory and domestic animals. Currently, it is unclear whether this technology can be utilized for knocking-out genes in pigs. Here, we investigated whether knockout (KO) events in which ZFNs recognize and cleave a target sequence occur in porcine primary cultured somatic cells that harbor the exogenous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. ZFN-encoding mRNA designed to target the EGFP gene was introduced by electroporation into the cell. Using the Surveyor nuclease assay and flow cytometric analysis, we confirmed ZFN-induced cleavage of the target sequence and the disappearance of EGFP fluorescence expression in ZFN-treated cells. In addition, sequence analysis revealed that ZFN-induced mutations such as base substitution, deletion, or insertion were generated in the ZFN cleavage site of EGFP-expression negative cells that were cloned from ZFN-treated cells, thereby showing it was possible to disrupt (i.e., knock out) the function of the EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that the ZFN-KO system can be applied to pigs. These findings may open a new avenue to the creation of gene KO pigs using ZFN-treated cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  15. Heat transfer effects in vertically emplaced high level nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moujaes, S.F.; Lei, Y.M.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling free convection heat transfer in a cylindrical annular enclosure is still an active area of research and an important problem to be addressed in the high level nuclear waste repository. For the vertically emplaced waste container, the air gap which is between the container shell and the rock borehole, have an important role of dissipating heat to surrounding rock. These waste containers are vertically emplaced in the borehole 300 meters just below ground, and in a horizontal grid of 30 x 8 meters apart. The borehole will be capped after the container emplacement. The expected initial heat generated is between 3-4.74 kW per container depending on the type of waste. The goal of this study is to use a computer simulation model to find the borehole wall, air-gap and the container outer wall temperature distributions. The borehole wall temperature history has been found in the previous study, and was estimated to reach a maximum temperature of about 218 degrees C after 18 years from the emplacement. The temperature history of the rock surface is then used for the air-gap simulation. The problem includes convection and radiation heat transfer in a vertical enclosure. This paper will present the results of the convection in the air-gap over one thousand years after the containers' emplacement. During this long simulation period it was also observed that a multi-cellular air flow pattern can be generated in the air gap

  16. Transfer of tritium released into the marine environment by French nuclear facilities bordering the English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiévet, Bruno; Pommier, Julien; Voiseux, Claire; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Laguionie, Philippe; Cossonnet, Catherine; Solier, Luc

    2013-06-18

    Controlled amounts of liquid tritium are discharged as tritiated water (HTO) by the nuclear industry into the English Channel. Because the isotopic discrimination between 3H and H is small, organically bound tritium (OBT) and HTO should show the same T/H ratio under steady-state conditions. We report data collected from the environment in the English Channel. Tritium concentrations measured in seawater HTO, as well as in biota HTO and OBT, confirm that tritium transfers from HTO to OBT result in conservation of the T/H ratio (ca. 1 × 10(-16)). The kinetics of the turnover of tritium between seawater HTO, biota HTO, and OBT was investigated. HTO in two algae and a mollusk is shown to exchange rapidly with seawater HTO. However, the overall tritium turnover between HTO and the whole-organism OBT is a slow process with a tritium biological half-life on the order of months. Nonsteady-state conditions exist where there are sharp changes in seawater HTO. As a consequence, for kinetic reasons, the T/H ratio in OBT may deviate transiently from that observed in HTO of samples from the marine ecosystem. Dynamic modeling is thus more realistic for predicting tritium transfers to biota OBT under nonsteady-state conditions.

  17. Solutions obtained to international heat transfer benchmarking problems for nuclear fuel casks using Q/TRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, L.C.

    1987-02-01

    In 1985 Sandia National Laboratories participated in the Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Reactor Physics (NEACRP) Specialists' Meeting on Heat Transfer Assessment of Transportation Packages. The objective of the meeting was to establish a set of model problems for use in comparing the performance of thermal analysis computer codes that may be used in the design of nuclear fuel shipping casks. The selected problems are to be used to compare code results for the thermal phenomena of conduction, convection, and radiation in cask-like problems. Two model problems were used in this study. The first problem required the determination of the steady-state temperatures of a 16 x 16 array of heated and unheated pins (representing fuel and control rod positions) of a simulated PWR fuel assembly. The second problem required the determination of transient temperatures of a finned surface (representing the external surface of a cask) subjected to an internal heat flux and to an external engulfing fire. Solutions to the problems were obtained with the code ''Q/TRAN.'' Solutions and descriptions of the necessary modeling techniques are given in this report

  18. Water-to-Wildlife Transfer of Radionuclides in Freshwater Ecosystems around the Gyeongju Nuclear Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The IAEA and ICRP have recognized that not only humans but also wildlife needs to be protected from the impact of ionizing radiations. In many advanced countries, it is legally required to evaluate the radiological impact to wildlife. Therefore, it can be expected that the wildlife dose assessment will also soon become a legal requirement in Korea. One of the key parameters in evaluating radiation doses to wildlife is the concentration ratio (CR), which is used for quantifying radionuclide transfer from an environmental medium such as soil and water to an organism. CR values can vary greatly with environmental conditions and wildlife species. Accordingly, it is important for a reliable dose assessment that site-specific CR data be used. In this study, CR values of various radionuclides were measured for several freshwater wildlife species living around the Gyeongju nuclear site. CR values of a total of 20 elements were determined for three fish species and three plant species living in freshwater ecosystems around the Gyeongju nuclear site. The CR values showed considerable variations with the elements and with wildlife species. For the establishment of a reliable input data file of K-BIOTA, a Korean wildlife dose assessment model, data on CR values needs to be increased to cover a wider range of domestic wildlife.

  19. Transfer-induced fission in inverse kinematics: Impact on experimental and evaluated nuclear data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farget, F.; Schmidt, K.H.; Clement, E.; Delaune, O.; Derkx, X.; Dijon, A.; Golabek, C.; Lemasson, A.; Roger, T.; Schmitt, C. [CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, Caen (France); Caamano, M.; Ramos, D.; Benlliure, J.; Cortina, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Paradela, C. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodriguez-Tajes, C. [CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, Caen (France); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Audouin, L. [Universite Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); Casarejos, E. [Universidade de Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Dore, D.; Salsac, M.D. [Centre de Saclay, CEA, Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gaudefroy, L. [CEA DAM Ile-de-France, BP 12, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Heinz, A. [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Fundamental Fysik, Goeteborg (Sweden); Jurado, B. [Universite Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Gradignan (France)

    2015-12-15

    Inverse kinematics is a new tool to study nuclear fission. Its main advantage is the possibility to measure with an unmatched resolution the atomic number of fission fragments, leading to new observables in the properties of fission-fragment distributions. In addition to the resolution improvement, the study of fission based on nuclear collisions in inverse kinematics beneficiates from a larger view with respect to the neutron-induced fission, as in a single experiment the number of fissioning systems and the excitation energy range are widden. With the use of spectrometers, mass and kinetic-energy distributions may now be investigated as a function of the proton and neutron number sharing. The production of fissioning nuclei in transfer reactions allows studying the isotopic yields of fission fragments as a function of the excitation energy. The higher excitation energy resulting in the fusion reaction leading to the compound nucleus {sup 250}Cf at an excitation energy of 45MeV is also presented. With the use of inverse kinematics, the charge polarisation of fragments at scission is now revealed with high precision, and it is shown that it cannot be neglected, even at higher excitation energies. In addition, the kinematical properties of the fragments inform on the deformation configuration at scission. (orig.)

  20. Water-to-Wildlife Transfer of Radionuclides in Freshwater Ecosystems around the Gyeongju Nuclear Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    The IAEA and ICRP have recognized that not only humans but also wildlife needs to be protected from the impact of ionizing radiations. In many advanced countries, it is legally required to evaluate the radiological impact to wildlife. Therefore, it can be expected that the wildlife dose assessment will also soon become a legal requirement in Korea. One of the key parameters in evaluating radiation doses to wildlife is the concentration ratio (CR), which is used for quantifying radionuclide transfer from an environmental medium such as soil and water to an organism. CR values can vary greatly with environmental conditions and wildlife species. Accordingly, it is important for a reliable dose assessment that site-specific CR data be used. In this study, CR values of various radionuclides were measured for several freshwater wildlife species living around the Gyeongju nuclear site. CR values of a total of 20 elements were determined for three fish species and three plant species living in freshwater ecosystems around the Gyeongju nuclear site. The CR values showed considerable variations with the elements and with wildlife species. For the establishment of a reliable input data file of K-BIOTA, a Korean wildlife dose assessment model, data on CR values needs to be increased to cover a wider range of domestic wildlife

  1. Totipotency, Pluripotency and Nuclear Reprogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Wolf, Don

    Mammalian development commences with the totipotent zygote which is capable of developing into all the specialized cells that make up the adult animal. As development unfolds, cells of the early embryo proliferate and differentiate into the first two lineages, the pluripotent inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. Pluripotent cells can be isolated, adapted and propagated indefinitely in vitro in an undifferentiated state as embryonic stem cells (ESCs). ESCs retain their ability to differentiate into cells representing the three major germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm or ectoderm or any of the 200+ cell types present in the adult body. Since many human diseases result from defects in a single cell type, pluripotent human ESCs represent an unlimited source of any cell or tissue type for replacement therapy thus providing a possible cure for many devastating conditions. Pluripotent cells resembling ESCs can also be derived experimentally by the nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells. Reprogrammed somatic cells may have an even more important role in cell replacement therapies since the patient's own somatic cells can be used for reprogramming thereby eliminating immune based rejection of transplanted cells. In this review, we summarize two major approaches to reprogramming: (1) somatic cell nuclear transfer and (2) direct reprogramming using genetic manipulations.

  2. Remodeling of Donor Nuclei, DNA-Synthesis, and Ploidy of Bovine Cumulus Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos: Effect of Activation Protocol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alberio, R.; Brero, A.; Motlík, Jan; Cremer, T.; Wolf, E.; Zakhartchenko, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2001), s. 371-379 ISSN 1040-452X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Grant - others:WO(DE) 685/2-1; WO(DE) 685/3-1 Keywords : nuclear transfer * cumulus cells * activation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.296, year: 2001

  3. Methodology for verification of heat transfer crisis in the nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaevsky, I. G.; Sharaevskaya, E. I.; Domashev, E. D.; Arkhypov, A. P.; Kolochko, V. N.

    2003-01-01

    Reliable operation of water-water type nuclear energy units and design of new generation reactors are not to be provided with wide application of best estimate ThermalHydraulic (TH) codes. It is accepted to consider that up-to-date versions of the codes are featured not only by wide range of NPPs equipment modeling and high ergonomic characteristics of realized in the codes interfaces but comprehensive substantiation of its governing component viz correlations and closure relations systems The pointed correlations and closure relations provide mathematical restraint of the main differential equations system which are necessary for adequate description of the main classes of two-phase flow TH regimes. The principal fact is that without physically justificated correlations and adequate closure relations first of all concerning heat transfer crisis at boiling (DNB) the acceptable reliability of numerical solutions cannot be guaranteed by the codes. But the significant part of realized in the codes correlations mainly on heat transfer crisis are based on the experimental data obtained more than 30 years ago for cylindrical channels. It is known that for TH reliability calculations of the WWERs core with rod fuel elements, such correlations can be applied with caution as it give significantly conservative values of critical heat flux especially at under pressure accident regimes. Moreover because of irregularity of the flow TH parameters on fuel rod elements cross-section distribution the heat transfer crisis regimes are originated only in separate 'hot' cells. Additionally it should be underlined that realized in the codes correlations and closure relations do not consider possibility occurring in the steam generating channels high frequency oscillation instability which poses a threat to the reactor safety. The high frequency oscillations can bring to the fuel elements destruction at heat fluxes much less than the critical ones. Now this type of oscillation

  4. Coupled quantum-classical method for long range charge transfer: relevance of the nuclear motion to the quantum electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, Robson; Hoff, Diego A; Rego, Luis G C

    2015-01-01

    Charge and excitonic-energy transfer phenomena are fundamental for energy conversion in solar cells as well as artificial photosynthesis. Currently, much interest is being paid to light-harvesting and energy transduction processes in supramolecular structures, where nuclear dynamics has a major influence on electronic quantum dynamics. For this reason, the simulation of long range electron transfer in supramolecular structures, under environmental conditions described within an atomistic framework, has been a difficult problem to study. This work describes a coupled quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method that aims at describing long range charge transfer processes in supramolecular systems, taking into account the atomistic details of large molecular structures, the underlying nuclear motion, and environmental effects. The method is applied to investigate the relevance of electron–nuclei interaction on the mechanisms for photo-induced electron–hole pair separation in dye-sensitized interfaces as well as electronic dynamics in molecular structures. (paper)

  5. Osteoporosis and Somatization of Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papanikou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress can now be physiologically traced as a significant player in the creation of osteoporotic bones. The present pilot study involved 100 women (N = 42 have been diagnosed with osteopenia, N = 21 have been diagnosed with osteoporosis, N = 37 had a non-osteoporotic condition who participated in the Hellenic Society of Osteoporosis Association Support. Correlations between somatic symptoms of anxiety and osteoporosis, and among medications and somatization in women were explored. Assessments were based on a self-report demographic questionnaire and on the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST administered for detection of anxiety disorder and somatization. Statistical analysis detected non-significant differences regarding the correlation between anxiety symptomatology or somatization due to osteoporosis and osteopenia diagnosis. The same pattern is observed among women’s age group, the occupational and marital status. Hypothesis that the osteoporosis and osteopenia group would manifest significant relationships with the age group and medicines was confirmed, as well as between somatization and medicines that women with osteoporosis and osteopenia undertake. The results suggest that women are not prone to manifest anxiety or somatization in relation to the osteoporosis condition. However, the majority of women with osteoporosis and osteopenia consume more than two medicines other than those for osteoporosis. This quantity and combination they undertake appear to contribute and deteriorate their anxiety/somatization symptomatology. Further research based on a larger sample would give more definite results.

  6. Analysis on the revision of the United States authorizing procedure for the transfer of unclassified nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-ho; Seo, Hana; Lee, Chansuh; Kim, Jong-sook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The DOE (Department Of Energy) has not comprehensively update 10CFR810 since 1986. Since then, the global civil nuclear market has expanded, particularly in China, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe, with vendors from France, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Russia, and Canada. In result, DOE issued revised 810 in respond to comments received from the public and commercial nuclear market changes. This regulation revision improves the efficiency of authorization process to promote national nuclear industry while maintaining nonproliferation control. Even though ROK has initiated a legal basis for Intangible technology transfer (ITT) for nuclear export control, working implementation system is not set up. This research proposes recommendable ITT implementation of the ROK according to the analysis result of the US regulation. In this revision, of 124 countries had been classified as general authorization under 10CFR810, 80 countries reclassified into the specific authorization. By remaining 'fast track' for specific authorization, in particular, time frames for internal DOE and interagency reviews are reduced. This means the US government actively copes with commercial nuclear market expands to promote their industry. Meanwhile, by remaining some of nuclear-weapon states (China, Russia, India) as specific authorization maintaining that the determinations are consistent with current US national security, diplomatic, and trade policy. By benchmarking the US regulation, Korea can improve the efficiency of the technology transfer authorization process easing the regulatory burden by reducing uncertainty and timelines while maintaining the highest level of nonproliferation control.

  7. Analysis on the revision of the United States authorizing procedure for the transfer of unclassified nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sung-ho; Seo, Hana; Lee, Chansuh; Kim, Jong-sook

    2015-01-01

    The DOE (Department Of Energy) has not comprehensively update 10CFR810 since 1986. Since then, the global civil nuclear market has expanded, particularly in China, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe, with vendors from France, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Russia, and Canada. In result, DOE issued revised 810 in respond to comments received from the public and commercial nuclear market changes. This regulation revision improves the efficiency of authorization process to promote national nuclear industry while maintaining nonproliferation control. Even though ROK has initiated a legal basis for Intangible technology transfer (ITT) for nuclear export control, working implementation system is not set up. This research proposes recommendable ITT implementation of the ROK according to the analysis result of the US regulation. In this revision, of 124 countries had been classified as general authorization under 10CFR810, 80 countries reclassified into the specific authorization. By remaining 'fast track' for specific authorization, in particular, time frames for internal DOE and interagency reviews are reduced. This means the US government actively copes with commercial nuclear market expands to promote their industry. Meanwhile, by remaining some of nuclear-weapon states (China, Russia, India) as specific authorization maintaining that the determinations are consistent with current US national security, diplomatic, and trade policy. By benchmarking the US regulation, Korea can improve the efficiency of the technology transfer authorization process easing the regulatory burden by reducing uncertainty and timelines while maintaining the highest level of nonproliferation control

  8. Function of donor cell centrosome in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhisheng; Zhang Gang; Meng Xiaoqian; Zhang Yanling; Chen Dayuan; Schatten, Heide; Sun Qingyuan

    2005-01-01

    Centrosomes, the main microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most animal cells, are important for many cellular activities such as assembly of the mitotic spindle, establishment of cell polarity, and cell movement. In nuclear transfer (NT), MTOCs that are located at the poles of the meiotic spindle are removed from the recipient oocyte, while the centrosome of the donor cell is introduced. We used mouse MII oocytes as recipients, mouse fibroblasts, rat fibroblasts, or pig granulosa cells as donor cells to construct intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos in order to observe centrosome dynamics and functions. Three antibodies against centrin, γ-tubulin, and NuMA, respectively, were used to stain the centrosome. Centrin was not detected either at the poles of transient spindles or at the poles of first mitotic spindles. γ-tubulin translocated into the two poles of the transient spindles, while no accumulated γ-tubulin aggregates were detected in the area adjacent to the two pseudo-pronuclei. At first mitotic metaphase, γ-tubulin was translocated to the spindle poles. The distribution of γ-tubulin was similar in mouse intraspecies and rat-mouse interspecies embryos. The NuMA antibody that we used can recognize porcine but not murine NuMA protein, so it was used to trace the NuMA protein of donor cell in reconstructed embryos. In the pig-mouse interspecies reconstructed embryos, NuMA concentrated between the disarrayed chromosomes soon after activation and translocated to the transient spindle poles. NuMA then immigrated into pseudo-pronuclei. After pseudo-pronuclear envelope breakdown, NuMA was located between the chromosomes and then translocated to the spindle poles of first mitotic metaphase. γ-tubulin antibody microinjection resulted in spindle disorganization and retardation of the first cell division. NuMA antibody microinjection also resulted in spindle disorganization. Our findings indicate that (1) the donor cell centrosome, defined as

  9. Transference patron for the calibration of activemeters for use in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes P, A.; Garcia D, O.C.; Ortiz P, I.; Becerril V, A.

    2000-01-01

    With the object to improve the calibration service of the activemetersof the users (nuclear medicine centres) so internal as external users at ININ and initiating the establishment of the traceability of the activity measures that carry out in the country, with respect to the National Patron of Nuclear Activity No. ININ-PNM-2, it is initiated the characterization and the performance control of the activemeter make Capintec, model CRC-7BT of the laboratory of Radioactive Patrons (LPR) of the Department of Metrology for to convert it in a transference patron. This characterization and control are based in the sustained review of the activemeter calibration for the I-131, Mo-99 and Sm-153 radioisotopes with activities from 100 mCi until some μ Ci and the Tc-99m, In-111, Tl-201, Ga-67, Cs-137, Co-60, and Ba-133 with activities of the range of some μ Ci. To verify the good performance of the instrument it was revised the linearity of its scale, the stability of readings, the variation of readings respect of the source position inside the activemeter well and it was determined the calibration factors for each one of the radiosotopes mentionated. The radioactive sources of mid-short life that are used which consist in radioactive solutions of 10 cm 3 contained in polyethylene small bottles of 25 cm 3 elaborated in the LPR and whose activity is measured with respect to the National Patron ININ-PNM-2. The sources of mid-large life are ampoules with 5 cm 3 of radioactive solution, calibrated in activity by the primary laboratory, LNHB (formerly LMRI) of France. (Author)

  10. Culture, characteristics and chromosome complement of Siberian tiger fibroblasts for nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jimei; Hua, Song; Song, Kai; Zhang, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) is a characteristic species of Asia, which is in severe danger. Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is the largest one of the five existent tiger subspecies. It is extremely endangered. One new way for tiger protection and rescue is to study interspecies cloning. But there is few research data about Siberian tiger. In this study, we cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro, analyzed their biological characteristics, chromosomes, and cell cycles, to provide not only nuclear donors with good morphology, normal biological characteristics, and chromosome quantity for tiger interspecies cloning, but also reliable data for further studying Siberian tiger. The results indicated that Siberian tiger ear fibroblasts can be successfully obtained by tissue culture either with or without overnight cold digestion, the cultured cells were typical fibroblasts with normal morphology, growth curve, and chromosome quantity; G0/G1 percentage increased and S percentage decreased with the confluence of cells. G0/G1 and S stage rate was significantly different between 40-50% and 80-90%, 95-100% confluence; there is no distinct difference between 80-90% and 95-100% confluence. The cells at the same density (80-90% confluence) were treated with or without 0.5% serum starving, GO/G1 rate of the former was higher than the latter, but the difference was not significant. GO/G1 proportion of 95-100% confluence was slightly higher than serum starving (80-90% confluence), but no significant difference. Therefore, the Siberian tiger fibroblasts we cultured in vitro can be used as donor cells, and the donor cells do not need to be treated with normal serum starvation during nuclear transfer; if we will just consider the rate of the G0/G1 stage cells, serum starvation can be replaced by confluence inhibition when cultured cells were more than 80-90% confluence.

  11. Nuclear overhauser enhancement mediated chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging at 7 Tesla in glioblastoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paech

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE mediated chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST is a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique on the basis of saturation transfer between exchanging protons of tissue proteins and bulk water. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the information provided by three dimensional NOE mediated CEST at 7 Tesla (7T and standard MRI in glioblastoma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with newly diagnosed histologically proven glioblastoma were enrolled in this prospective ethics committee-approved study. NOE mediated CEST contrast was acquired with a modified three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence and asymmetry analysis was conducted at 3.3 ppm (B1 = 0.7 µT to calculate the magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTR(asym. Contrast enhanced T1 (CE-T1 and T2-weighted images were acquired at 3T and used for data co-registration and comparison. RESULTS: Mean NOE mediated CEST signal based on MTR(asym values over all patients was significantly increased (p<0.001 in CE-T1 tumor (-1.99 ± 1.22%, tumor necrosis (-1.36 ± 1.30% and peritumoral CEST hyperintensities (PTCH within T2 edema margins (-3.56 ± 1.24% compared to contralateral normal appearing white matter (-8.38 ± 1.19%. In CE-T1 tumor (p = 0.015 and tumor necrosis (p<0.001 mean MTR(asym values were significantly higher than in PTCH. Extent of the surrounding tumor hyperintensity was smaller in eight out of 12 patients on CEST than on T2-weighted images, while four displayed at equal size. In all patients, isolated high intensity regions (0.40 ± 2.21% displayed on CEST within the CE-T1 tumor that were not discernible on CE-T1 or T2-weighted images. CONCLUSION: NOE mediated CEST Imaging at 7 T provides additional information on the structure of peritumoral hyperintensities in glioblastoma and displays isolated high intensity regions within the CE-T1 tumor that cannot be acquired on CE-T1 or T2

  12. Anisotropy and buoyancy in nuclear turbulent heat transfer - critical assessment and needs for modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groetzbach, G.

    2007-12-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) programs have a wide application field in reactor technique, like to diverse flow types which have to be considered in Accelerator Driven nuclear reactor Systems (ADS). This requires turbulence models for the momentum and heat transfer with very different capabilities. The physical demands on the models are elaborated for selected transport mechanisms, the status quo of the modelling is discussed, and it is investigated which capabilities are offered by the market dominating commercial CFD codes. One topic of the discussion is on the already earlier achieved knowledge on the distinct anisotropy of the turbulent momentum and heat transport near walls. It is shown that this is relevant in channel flows with inhomogeneous wall conditions. The related consequences for the turbulence modelling are discussed. The second topic is the turbulent heat transport in buoyancy influenced flows. The only turbulence model for heat transfer which is available in the large commercial CFD-codes is based on the Reynolds analogy. This means, it is required to prescribe suitable turbulent Prandtl number distributions. There exist many correlations for channel flows, but they are seldom used in practical applications. Here, a correlation is deduced for the local turbulent Prandtl number which accounts for many parameters, like wall distance, molecular Prandtl number of the fluid, wall roughness and local shear stress, thermal wall condition, etc. so that it can be applied to most ADS typical heat transporting channel flows. The spatial dependence is discussed. It is shown that it is essential for reliable temperature calculations to get accurate turbulent Prandtl numbers especially near walls. If thermal wall functions are applied, then the correlation for the turbulent Prandtl number has to be consistent with the wall functions to avoid unphysical discretisation dependences. In using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data for horizontal fluid layers it

  13. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested t...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  14. Somatic embryogenesis of Carica Papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvina Lindsay Mijen; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the somatic embryogenesis of Carica papaya. Culture medium used was1/2 strength MS basal medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, 0.27 % agar, glutamine and various concentrations of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After 8 weeks in culture, the best concentration of 2,4-D to induce somatic embryo is at 45.2 μM. (Author)

  15. Accuracy in the quantification of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) saturation transfer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Feng; Li, Hua; Xu, Junzhong; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C; Zu, Zhongliang

    2017-07-01

    Accurate quantification of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effects, including dipole-dipole mediated relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) saturation transfer, is important for applications and studies of molecular concentration and transfer rate (and thereby pH or temperature). Although several quantification methods, such as Lorentzian difference (LD) analysis, multiple-pool Lorentzian fits, and the three-point method, have been extensively used in several preclinical and clinical applications, the accuracy of these methods has not been evaluated. Here we simulated multiple-pool Z spectra containing the pools that contribute to the main CEST and rNOE saturation transfer signals in the brain, numerically fit them using the different methods, and then compared their derived CEST metrics with the known solute concentrations and exchange rates. Our results show that the LD analysis overestimates contributions from amide proton transfer (APT) and intermediate exchanging amine protons; the three-point method significantly underestimates both APT and rNOE saturation transfer at -3.5 ppm (NOE(-3.5)). The multiple-pool Lorentzian fit is more accurate than the other two methods, but only at lower irradiation powers (≤1 μT at 9.4 T) within the range of our simulations. At higher irradiation powers, this method is also inaccurate because of the presence of a fast exchanging CEST signal that has a non-Lorentzian lineshape. Quantitative parameters derived from in vivo images of rodent brain tumor obtained using an irradiation power of 1 μT were also compared. Our results demonstrate that all three quantification methods show similar contrasts between tumor and contralateral normal tissue for both APT and the NOE(-3.5). However, the quantified values of the three methods are significantly different. Our work provides insight into the fitting accuracy obtainable in a complex tissue model and provides guidelines for evaluating other newly developed

  16. Operational safety enhancement of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors via development of nuclear power plant simulators and transfer of related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Epel, L.G.; Tutu, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under the US government's International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), is implementing a program of developing and providing simulators for many of the Russian and Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) manage and provide technical oversight of the various INSP simulator projects for DOE. The program also includes a simulator technology transfer process to simulator design organizations in Russia and Ukraine. Training programs, installation of new simulators, and enhancements in existing simulators are viewed as providing a relatively fast and cost-effective technology transfer that will result in measurable improvement in the safety culture and operation of NPPs. A review of this program, its present status, and its accomplishments are provided in this paper

  17. Accelerating two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance correlation spectroscopy via selective coherence transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qimiao; Chen, Lin; Qiu, Wenqi; Lin, Liangjie; Sun, Huijun; Cai, Shuhui; Wei, Zhiliang; Chen, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy serves as an important tool for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of various systems in chemistry, biology, and medicine. However, applications of one-dimensional 1H NMR are often restrained by the presence of severe overlap among different resonances. The advent of two-dimensional (2D) 1H NMR constitutes a promising alternative by extending the crowded resonances into a plane and thereby alleviating the spectral congestions. However, the enhanced ability in discriminating resonances is achieved at the cost of extended experimental duration due to necessity of various scans with progressive delays to construct the indirect dimension. Therefore, in this study, we propose a selective coherence transfer (SECOT) method to accelerate acquisitions of 2D correlation spectroscopy by converting chemical shifts into spatial positions within the effective sample length and then performing an echo planar spectroscopic imaging module to record the spatial and spectral information, which generates 2D correlation spectrum after 2D Fourier transformation. The feasibility and effectiveness of SECOT have been verified by a set of experiments under both homogeneous and inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Moreover, evaluations of SECOT for quantitative analyses are carried out on samples with a series of different concentrations. Based on these experimental results, the SECOT may open important perspectives for fast, accurate, and stable investigations of various chemical systems both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  18. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  19. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Medium Range Missiles, Rocket Engine, Nuclear Submarine, Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Inspection, Nuclear Weapons, Transfer Technology, Scud, Safety, Nuclear Power, Chernobyl Trial, ,CHemical Weapons...

  20. Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines concerning co-operation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the transfer of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Australia and the Philippines, both parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, have agreed to cooperate in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including research and training, exchange of unclassified information, and projects of mutual interest. The agreement applies to all nuclear material transferred for peaceful purposes between the two countries and to material derived from that transferred material. The treaty entered into force on the 11th May 1982

  1. 4 years of successful knowledge transfer - the nuclear technology training center of the TUeV Nord Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willenbockel, I.; Tietze, U.

    2007-01-01

    In connection with the 2002 amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act, the topics of generational change and maintenance of competence grew in importance and necessitated new solution approaches. To this end, various activities were launched, with the aim of conducting conceptual analyses of these topics. Examples include the 'National Competence Network for Nuclear Technology' (Nationaler Kompetenzverbund fuer Kerntechnik), various networks established by colleges and universities, the 'Knowledge Management for the Maintenance and Transfer of Competence in Reactor Safety' (Wissensmanagement zum Kompetenzerhalt und -transfer in der Reaktorsicherheit) workshop held in 2001 in Garching near Munich (Germany) and the 'Ad-hoc Workgroup on the Maintenance of Competence' (Ad-hoc-Arbeitskreis Kompetenzerhalt) of the VdTUeV. The nuclear technology departments of the TUeV Nord Group were aware of te challenges associated with the generational change early on. By establishing the 'Nuclear Technology Training Center' (Ausbildungszentrum fuer Kerntechnik, AfK), the TUeV Nord Group intended to ensure the required knowledge transfer during the generational change as well as maintain the renowned high qualification as regards the subject of nuclear technology and thus continue to provide - in the sense of social responsibility - crucial contribution to the long-term safety of nuclear plants. Four years have passed since the training center held the first courses in the fall of 2002. Up to now, more than 350 participants have been trained in the courses conducted by the AfK. In the opinion of the TUeV Nord Group, the activities of the AfK have laid the foundation for a successful change of generations within the group's nuclear technology organizations. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of the impacts of transferring certain nuclear reactor technologies to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, J.W. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    The Office of International Security Affairs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) researchers to assist in evaluating the impact that transfer of specific nuclear reactor technologies may have on US national security interests. The evaluation is intended to be used as a technical basis and guideline to approve or disapprove requests from government and industry to transfer a specific technology to Soviet countries. The US Government has a responsibility to review such requests. For the post-Chernobyl information-gathering and dissemination process, the DOE is serving as the US Government's point of contact with private industry. It is DOE's policy to encourage and assist the Eastern Bloc countries to enhance the safety, reliability, and safe operation of civil nuclear reactor power plant facilities worldwide consistent with US national security and nonproliferation interests. Any requests from industry for the supply of nuclear reactor technology, equipment, and services will be considered in accordance with existing nuclear export policy, law, and regulations. All requests and proposals, whether discussed in this document or not, will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. It should be noted that this is the initial version of the report. Subsequent, updated versions are expected to follow. Design and operation of nuclear reactor power plants involves an extensive array of technologies, not all of which have been addressed here

  3. The role of tacit knowledge and the challenges in transferring it in the nuclear power plant context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyttinen, L.; Helminen, N.

    2004-01-01

    Explicit knowledge and implementation of proper IT systems have been of concern of many organizations which recognize the importance of managing knowledge for safety operation and sustainable competitive advantage. Data and document management systems have been implemented to capture, store and distribute explicit knowledge. However, recently also awareness of the existence of tacit knowledge in organizations has arisen. What kind of role this undocumented knowledge, which the employees have acquired through their careers, plays in nuclear power plant context? This paper explores the role of tacit knowledge and the challenges related to its transfer at the two Finnish nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Are we Genomic Mosaics? Variations of the Genome of Somatic Cells can Contribute to Diversify our Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, P A; Salamini, F; Sgaramella, V

    2010-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental evidences support the hypothesis that the genomes and the epigenomes may be different in the somatic cells of complex organisms. In the genome, the differences range from single base substitutions to chromosome number; in the epigenome, they entail multiple postsynthetic modifications of the chromatin. Somatic genome variations (SGV) may accumulate during development in response both to genetic programs, which may differ from tissue to tissue, and to environmental stimuli, which are often undetected and generally irreproducible. SGV may jeopardize physiological cellular functions, but also create novel coding and regulatory sequences, to be exposed to intraorganismal Darwinian selection. Genomes acknowledged as comparatively poor in genes, such as humans', could thus increase their pristine informational endowment. A better understanding of SGV will contribute to basic issues such as the "nature vs nurture" dualism and the inheritance of acquired characters. On the applied side, they may explain the low yield of cloning via somatic cell nuclear transfer, provide clues to some of the problems associated with transdifferentiation, and interfere with individual DNA analysis. SGV may be unique in the different cells types and in the different developmental stages, and thus explain the several hundred gaps persisting in the human genomes "completed" so far. They may compound the variations associated to our epigenomes and make of each of us an "(epi)genomic" mosaic. An ensuing paradigm is the possibility that a single genome (the ephemeral one assembled at fertilization) has the capacity to generate several different brains in response to different environments.

  5. Transcript levels of several epigenome regulatory genes in bovine somatic donor cells are not correlated with their cloning efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenli; Sadeghieh, Sanaz; Abruzzese, Ronald; Uppada, Subhadra; Meredith, Justin; Ohlrichs, Charletta; Broek, Diane; Polejaeva, Irina

    2009-09-01

    Among many factors that potentially affect somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo development is the donor cell itself. Cloning potentials of somatic donor cells vary greatly, possibly because the cells have different capacities to be reprogrammed by ooplasma. It is therefore intriguing to identify factors that regulate the reprogrammability of somatic donor cells. Gene expression analysis is a widely used tool to investigate underlying mechanisms of various phenotypes. In this study, we conducted a retrospective analysis investigating whether donor cell lines with distinct cloning efficiencies express different levels of genes involved in epigenetic reprogramming including histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1), -2 (HDAC2); DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1), -3a (DNMT3a),-3b (DNMT3b), and the bovine homolog of yeast sucrose nonfermenting-2 (SNF2L), a SWI/SNF family of ATPases. Cell samples from 12 bovine donor cell lines were collected at the time of nuclear transfer experiments and expression levels of the genes were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results show that there are no significant differences in expression levels of these genes between donor cell lines of high and low cloning efficiency defined as live calving rates, although inverse correlations are observed between in vitro embryo developmental rates and expression levels of HDAC2 and SNF2L. We also show that selection of stable reference genes is important for relative quantification, and different batches of cells can have different gene expression patterns. In summary, we demonstrate that expression levels of these epigenome regulatory genes in bovine donor cells are not correlated with cloning potential. The experimental design and data analysis method reported here can be applied to study any genes expressed in donor cells.

  6. Transfer of suspended particles from liquid effluents of nuclear generating stations through the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereaux, F.J.

    1989-07-01

    Due to the complexity of the environmental transfer of suspended particles in aquatic systems, the available literature usually deals with specific pathways and mechanisms of the transfer process. This paper attempts to give a brief overview of the entire transfer process. Potential routes of transfer in both the marine and freshwater environments are examined, and tentative conclusions presented. This work was performed while the author was employed by Atomic Energy Control Board under the McMaster University cooperative program

  7. Predictions of hydrodynamic vibrations for some cylindrical structures of nuclear reactors in contact with the heat-transferring fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milan, D.; Berthollon, G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the vibratory behaviour of thin cylindrical structures under the turbulence of the heat transferring fluid. These simple structures constitute an idealization, often adequate, of several structures used in nuclear hydraulics. It is shown that an empiric representation of the excitation spatial field makes it possible, in the experimented cases, to predict with a fair accuracy the vibratory response of the first modes. The cases of application of such an approach are discussed. (author)

  8. Efficient and Adaptive Methods for Computing Accurate Potential Surfaces for Quantum Nuclear Effects: Applications to Hydrogen-Transfer Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Nicole; Iyengar, Srinivasan S

    2018-01-09

    We present two sampling measures to gauge critical regions of potential energy surfaces. These sampling measures employ (a) the instantaneous quantum wavepacket density, an approximation to the (b) potential surface, its (c) gradients, and (d) a Shannon information theory based expression that estimates the local entropy associated with the quantum wavepacket. These four criteria together enable a directed sampling of potential surfaces that appears to correctly describe the local oscillation frequencies, or the local Nyquist frequency, of a potential surface. The sampling functions are then utilized to derive a tessellation scheme that discretizes the multidimensional space to enable efficient sampling of potential surfaces. The sampled potential surface is then combined with four different interpolation procedures, namely, (a) local Hermite curve interpolation, (b) low-pass filtered Lagrange interpolation, (c) the monomial symmetrization approximation (MSA) developed by Bowman and co-workers, and (d) a modified Shepard algorithm. The sampling procedure and the fitting schemes are used to compute (a) potential surfaces in highly anharmonic hydrogen-bonded systems and (b) study hydrogen-transfer reactions in biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene) where the transferring hydrogen atom is found to demonstrate critical quantum nuclear effects. In the case of isoprene, the algorithm discussed here is used to derive multidimensional potential surfaces along a hydrogen-transfer reaction path to gauge the effect of quantum-nuclear degrees of freedom on the hydrogen-transfer process. Based on the decreased computational effort, facilitated by the optimal sampling of the potential surfaces through the use of sampling functions discussed here, and the accuracy of the associated potential surfaces, we believe the method will find great utility in the study of quantum nuclear dynamics problems, of which application to hydrogen-transfer reactions and hydrogen

  9. Influence of convective-energy transfer on calculated temperature distributions in proposed hard-rock nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, R R; Reda, D C [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1982-06-01

    This study assesses the relative influence of convective-energy transfer on predicted temperature distributions for a nuclear-waste repository located in water-saturated rock. Using results for energy transfer by conduction only (no water motion) as a basis of comparison, it is shown that a considerable amount of energy can be removed from the repository by pumping out water that migrates into the drift from regions adjacent to the buried waste canisters. Furthermore, the results show that the influence of convective-energy transfer on mine drift cooling requirements can be significant for cases where the in-situ permeability of the rock is greater than one millidarcy (a regime potentially encountered in repository scenarios).

  10. Flow cytometric and morphological analyses of Pinus pinaster somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, Liliana; Loureiro, João; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Santos, Conceição; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-09-25

    An approach combining morphological profiling and flow cytometric analysis was used to assess genetic stability during the several steps of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus pinaster. Embryogenic cell lines of P. pinaster were established from immature zygotic embryos excised from seeds obtained from open-pollinated trees. During the maturation stage, phenotype of somatic embryos was characterized as being either normal or abnormal. Based upon the prevalent morphological traits, different types of abnormal embryos underwent further classification and quantification. Nuclear DNA content of maritime pine using the zygotic embryos was estimated to be 57.04 pg/2C, using propidium iodide flow cytometry. According to the same methodology, no significant differences (P< or =0.01) in DNA ploidy were detected among the most frequently observed abnormal phenotypes, embryogenic cell lines, zygotic and normal somatic embryos, and somatic embryogenesis-derived plantlets. Although the differences in DNA ploidy level do not exclude the occurrence of a low level of aneuploidy, the results obtained point to the absence of major changes in ploidy level during the somatic embryogenesis process of this economically important species. Therefore, our primary goal of true-to-typeness was assured at this level.

  11. Conventional and Bimodal Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Artificial Gravity Mars Transfer Vehicle Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of countermeasures have been developed to address the debilitating physiological effects of zero-gravity (0-g) experienced by cosmonauts and astronauts during their approximately 0.5 to 1.2 year long stays in low Earth orbit (LEO). Longer interplanetary flights, combined with possible prolonged stays in Mars orbit, could subject crewmembers to up to approximately 2.5 years of weightlessness. In view of known and recently diagnosed problems associated with 0-g, an artificial gravity (AG) spacecraft offers many advantages and may indeed be an enabling technology for human flights to Mars. A number of important human factors must be taken into account in selecting the rotation radius, rotation rate, and orientation of the habitation module or modules. These factors include the gravity gradient effect, radial and tangential Coriolis forces, along with cross-coupled acceleration effects. Artificial gravity Mars transfer vehicle (MTV) concepts are presented that utilize both conventional NTR, as well as, enhanced bimodal nuclear thermal rocket (BNTR) propulsion. The NTR is a proven technology that generates high thrust and has a specific impulse (Isp) capability of approximately 900 s-twice that of today's best chemical rockets. The AG/MTV concepts using conventional Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) carry twin cylindrical International Space Station (ISS)- type habitation modules with their long axes oriented either perpendicular or parallel to the longitudinal spin axis of the MTV and utilize photovoltaic arrays (PVAs) for spacecraft power. The twin habitat modules are connected to a central operations hub located at the front of the MTV via two pressurized tunnels that provide the rotation radius for the habitat modules. For the BNTR AG/MTV option, each engine has its own closed secondary helium(He)-xenon (Xe) gas loop and Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) that can generate 10s of kilowatts (kWe) of spacecraft electrical power during the mission coast phase

  12. Soil- to-Whole Body Transfer Factors of Radionuclides for Terrestrial Wild Animals Living around the Gyeongju Nuclear Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In the Gyeongju nuclear site, a low and medium level radioactive waste repository and five nuclear reactors are currently operating. The IAEA and ICRP consider it necessary to demonstrate that not only men but also wild organisms are protected from ionizing radiations. Therefore, it may not be long before the dose assessment for wildlife should be carried out in Korea. The transfer factor (TF) defined as the concentration ratio between an organism and an environmental medium is a key parameter in assessing the radiation dose to wildlife. For eight animal species inhabiting mountainous areas around the Gyeongju nuclear site, the TF values of 22 stable elements were measured. The acquired values varied considerably with the elements and animal species. Further TF data need to be produced for various Korean wild animal and plant species in preparation for future governmental regulations of wildlife exposure to ionizing radiations.

  13. Plastid, nuclear and reverse transcriptase sequences in the mitochondrial genome of Oenothera: is genetic information transferred between organelles via RNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, W; Brennicke, A

    1987-01-01

    We describe an open reading frame (ORF) with high homology to reverse transcriptase in the mitochondrial genome of Oenothera. This ORF displays all the characteristics of an active plant mitochondrial gene with a possible ribosome binding site and 39% T in the third codon position. It is located between a sequence fragment from the plastid genome and one of nuclear origin downstream from the gene encoding subunit 5 of the NADH dehydrogenase. The nuclear derived sequence consists of 528 nucleotides from the small ribosomal RNA and contains an expansion segment unique to nuclear rRNAs. The plastid sequence contains part of the ribosomal protein S4 and the complete tRNA(Ser). The observation that only transcribed sequences have been found i more than one subcellular compartment in higher plants suggests that interorganellar transfer of genetic information may occur via RNA and subsequent local reverse transcription and genomic integration. PMID:14650433

  14. In vitro culture of skin fibroblast cells for potential cloning by nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.C.; Gupta, N.; Ahlawat, S.P.S.; Kumar, A.; Taneja, R.; Sharma, R.; Sunder, S.; Tantia, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Donor cell lines were developed from skin tissue for the conservation of the endangered Jaiselmeri camel breed of India. Average cell proliferation rates varied from 0.82 to 0.69 in different passages, and population doubling time from 29.3 h to 34.8 h. Around 15 population doublings were accomplished during this culturing. Cell viability was 97 to 99% in different passages. Growth curves of cells from the JC-5 cell line reached a plateau on day 7, while the slower-growing cultures of JC-3 showed elevation even on day 10, possibly due to donor age differences. Cell proliferation rates by both cell count and MTT absorbance showed similar patterns, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79. MTT assay, a colorimetric method, can handle large samples in somatic cell cultures. Diploid chromosomal counts in passages 1, 3 and 5 were normal (2N=74, XY) in 97% of the cells. Occasional metaphase plates showed polyploidy. The present baseline data on standard growth curve, linear relationship in colorimetric assay for estimation of cell proliferation rate, and normal ploidy and karyological levels in camel skin fibroblast cells in multiplication could be useful in developing competent donor somatic cell lines for conservation now and revival of this camel breed by cloning in the future. (author)

  15. Theoretical analysis and numerical modelling of heat transfer and fuel migration in underlying soils and constructive elements of nuclear plants during an accident release from the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutunjan, R.V.; Bolshov, L.A.; Vitukov, V.V.; Goloviznin, V.M.; Dykhne, A.M.; Kiselev, V.P.; Klementova, S.V.; Krayushkin, I.E.; Moskovchenko, A.V.; Pismennii, V.D.; Popkov, A.G.; Chernov, S.Y.; Chudanov, V.V.; Khoruzhii, O.V.; Yudin, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Migration of fuel fragments and core fission products during severe accidents on nuclear plants is studied analytically and numerically. The problems of heat transfer and migration of volume heat sources in construction materials and underlying soils are considered

  16. Transfer factor for 210Pb from soil to vegetables in the surrounding environment of Kaiga nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Chetan; Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed study on site specific soil to vegetable (leafy, fruit and root) transfer factors for 210 Pb for Kaiga region, India where a PHWR, nuclear power plant is in operation. An experimental vegetable field was developed at about 500 m aerial distance from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site at Kaiga to study the site-specific soil to plant transfer factors. Different types of vegetables were grown in the experimental field, during different seasons of the year, using the discharge water from the Kaiga nuclear power plant. The development of the experimental vegetable fields helped in evaluating accurate site-specific data. For a comparative study of the transfer factors obtained for the experimental field, samples cultivated using normal water resources by the local farmers of nearby villages, were also collected and analysed. The soil to leafy vegetable transfer factor of 210 Pb varied in the range of < 1.5 x 10 -2 - 1.6 x 10 -1 with a mean value of 6.0 x 10 -2 . Similarly the soil to fruit vegetable varied in the range of < 1.0 x 10 -2 - 3.4 x 10 -1 and the soil to root vegetable varied in the range of < 1.0 x 10 -2 - 4.0 x 10 -2 with corresponding mean values of 6.0 x 10 -2 and 3.0 x 10 -2 respectively. The annual effective dose due to intake of 210 Pb through leafy vegetables varied in the range of 7.9 - 76.0 μSv a -1 with a mean value of 35.2 ìSv a -1 . And through fruit and root vegetables, it varied in the range of 34.9 - 207 μSv a -1 with a mean value of 119 ìSv a -1 . It was found that radionuclide concentration in plants was not linearly related to soil concentration. (author)

  17. Somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Australian fan flower, Scaevola aemula R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-H; Bhalla, P L

    2004-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Scaevola aemula R. Br. was achieved. Somatic embryos were induced from explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/ 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.2-0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Various developmental stages of somatic embryos were found on this medium-from globular embryos to germinated embryos. The transfer of globular embryos to MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP resulted in a high frequency of shoot regeneration. Leaf explants cultured on MS medium containing different combinations of BAP and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid formed adventitious shoots and roots. Histological examination confirmed the process of somatic embryogenesis. Induction of somatic embryogenesis in Scaevola provides a system for studying embryogenesis in Australian native plants and will facilitate the improvement of these plants using genetic transformation techniques.

  18. Late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.

    1985-01-01

    A model is provided for estimating risks of late effects resulting from low-LET radiation exposure likely to be received in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. Separate estimates are provided for risks of leukemia, cancers of the bones, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, skin, and the residual group of all other cancers; estimates of leukemia and other cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. Risks are expressed in absolute terms as the number of cancer deaths (or cases) per million persons exposed to a particular dose. In addition, the number of years of life lost and the number of years of life lived after the occurrence of cancer are also estimated. The model used in the earlier Reactor Safety Study has been modified to reflect additional epidemiological data and these changes are described in detail. 37 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  19. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S., E-mail: tiina.tuovinen@uef.fi [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tervahauta, Arja [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box FI-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. - Highlights: • We studied transfer of elements in boreal food chain using meso- and microcosms. • Elements related to nuclear fuel cycle and mining were examined. • Higher uptake at lower soil concentrations was observed for primary producers. • Snails took up elements mainly from food but for U also soil was an element source. • Non-linear transfer of essential elements was observed for herbivore and decomposer.

  20. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. Nuclear-related dual-use transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Director General has received notes verbales dated 30 June 1995 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. The purpose of the notes verbales is to provide further information on those Governments` Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each note verbale, the text of the notes verbales is annexed hereto. The enclosure to these notes verbales is also reproduced in full in the Annex.

  1. Communications received from certain Member States regarding guidelines for the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. Nuclear-related dual-use transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The Director General has received notes verbales dated 30 June 1995 from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America relating to the export of nuclear material, equipment and technology. The purpose of the notes verbales is to provide further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each note verbale, the text of the notes verbales is annexed hereto. The enclosure to these notes verbales is also reproduced in full in the Annex

  2. The European Nuclear Education Network: Towards Harmonisation of Education, Training, and Transfer of Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomisto, F.; Cizelj, L.; Dieguez Porras, P.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association strives to develop a more harmonized approach for education in the nuclear sciences and nuclear engineering in Europe and to integrate European education and training in nuclear safety and radiation protection. Improved co-operation and sharing of academic resources and capabilities at the national and international level is an important long-term objective. With respect to stakeholders, such as nuclear industries, research centers, regulatory bodies and other nuclear infrastructures, the primary objectives of ENEN are to create a secure basis of skills and knowledge of value to the EU, and to maintain a high-quality supply of qualified human resources for design, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear infrastructures, industries and power plants. ENEN supports activities aimed at maintaining the necessary competence and expertise for the continued safe use of nuclear energy and applications of radiation and nuclear techniques in agriculture, industry and medicine. In this technical brief we describe selected activities pursued to reach these goals. (author

  3. Overview of the French offer in nuclear training: 60 years to serve development and knowledge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanjas, Y.; Navon-Gross, A.; Mougel, B.; Verdier, A.

    2017-01-01

    As early as the beginning of its nuclear program, France has developed a wide range of higher education programs and occupational training in nuclear sciences, nuclear technologies and nuclear engineering. INSTN (Institute for Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Technologies) was founded in 1956 inside CEA premises at Saclay to issue the diploma of 'ingenieur en genie atomique'. This diploma is still delivered and celebrated its 60. anniversary in 2016. A large course offering has been added to the sole initial INSTN diploma. Throughout France and each year about 2000 students are awarded a diploma opening the gates of nuclear industry or research from vocational baccalaureates (130) to doctoral thesis (200) via engineer/master degrees (1270). Continuous training has also been developed, employees from the nuclear industry benefit from 16 days a year of training in average. French high education systems are open to foreign students and 9 master degrees in nuclear engineering are entirely taught in English. (A.C.)

  4. Late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Late effects are by definition effects that occur at least one year, and in most cases decades, after the time of exposure. The late effects considered in this chapter are limited to latent cancer incidence and mortality, and benign thyroid disease. A model is provided for estimating risks of late effects resulting from the radiation exposure likely to be received in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. It is assumed that exposure to high-LET radiation would be negligible in such an accident, and thus only risks from low-LET exposure are evaluated. Separate estimates are provided for risks of leukemia, bone cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, thyroid cancer, skin cancer, and the residual group of all other cancers; estimates of leukemia and other cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. Risks are expressed in absolute terms as the number of cancer deaths (or cases) per million persons exposed to a particular dose. Because the time of death is also important in assessing the impact of an accident, and because the quality of life after the occurrence of cancer will often be reduced, the number of years of life lost and the number of years of life lived after the occurrence of cancer are also estimated

  5. Isolation, culture and characterisation of somatic cells derived from semen and milk of endangered sheep and eland antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel-Themaat, L; Gómez, M C; Damiani, P; Wirtu, G; Dresser, B L; Bondioli, K R; Lyons, L A; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2007-01-01

    Semen and milk are potential sources of somatic cells for genome banks. In the present study, we cultured and characterised cells from: (1) cooled sheep milk; (2) fresh, cooled and frozen-thawed semen from Gulf Coast native (GCN) sheep (Ovis aries); and (3) fresh eland (Taurotragus oryx) semen. Cells attached to the culture surface from fresh (29%), cooled (43%) and slow-frozen (1 degrees C/min; 14%) ram semen, whereas no attachment occurred in the fast-frozen (10 degrees C/min) group. Proliferation occurred in fresh (50%) and cooled (100%) groups, but no cells proliferated after passage 1 (P1). Eland semen yielded cell lines (100%) that were cryopreserved at P1. In samples from GCN and cross-bred milk, cell attachment (83% and 95%, respectively) and proliferation (60% and 37%, respectively) were observed. Immunocytochemical detection of cytokeratin indicated an epithelial origin of semen-derived cells, whereas milk yielded either fibroblasts, epithelial or a mixture of cell types. Deoxyribonucleic acid microsatellite analysis using cattle-derived markers confirmed that eland cells were from the semen donor. Eland epithelial cells were transferred into eland oocytes and 12 (71%), six (35%) and two (12%) embryos cleaved and developed to morulae or blastocyst stages, respectively. In conclusion, we have developed a technique for obtaining somatic cells from semen. We have also demonstrated that semen-derived cells can serve as karyoplast donors for nuclear transfer.

  6. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Schröder, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms. METHODS: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population...

  7. Transfer of Knowledge Management Methods and Tools to and from the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztory, Z.; Gyulay, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The discipline of the knowledge management was firstly introduced in Japan by the leading technology companies like Toyota, Canon, Honda, Mitsubishi, Sharp and others. It means outside the nuclear industry. The nuclear industry organizations including the IAEA started to deal with the knowledge management about ten years later and adapted those approaches, methods and tools developed and used in other industry organizations. After more than fifteen-years of its programmatic existence of the nuclear knowledge management in the IAEA, the trend is turn round in many topics. The nuclear industry organizations have more and more good practices to share with other industries. Meanwhile the world leading companies working in a quickly changing market environment are still developing and using KM practices which can be useful also in the “slowly-changing” nuclear industry environment. In this article we would like to pay attention—through some examples—to the importance of the benchmarking with companies outside the nuclear industry for the further safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities and to educate and train the next nuclear generation. (author

  8. Radiation heat transfer calculations for the uranium fuel-containment region of the nuclear light bulb engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R. J.; Latham, T. S.; Krascella, N. L.

    1971-01-01

    Calculation results are reviewed of the radiant heat transfer characteristics in the fuel and buffer gas regions of a nuclear light bulb engine based on the transfer of energy by thermal radiation from gaseous uranium fuel in a neon vortex, through an internally cooled transparent wall, to seeded hydrogen propellant. The results indicate that the fraction of UV energy incident on the transparent walls increases with increasing power level. For the reference engine power level of 4600 megw, it is necessary to employ space radiators to reject the UV radiated energy absorbed by the transparent walls. This UV energy can be blocked by employing nitric oxide and oxygen seed gases in the fuel and buffer gas regions. However, this results in increased UV absorption in the buffer gas which also requires space radiators to reject the heat load.

  9. Prospects for the use of thermionic nuclear power plants for interorbital transfers of space vehicles in near space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, P.V.; Zhabotinskii, E.E.; Nikonov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In a previous study the authors considered the use of thermionic nuclear power plants with a thermal reactor for interorbital transfers of space vehicles by electrojet propulsion systems (EJPSs), opening up broad prospects for putting payloads into a high orbit with relatively inexpensive means for a launch into a reference orbit, e.g., the Proton launch vehicle. This is of major importance for the commercial use of space technology, in particular, for erecting technological platforms for the production of various materials. In the work reported here the authors continue the study of interorbital transfers and explore the potentialities of thermionic NPPs with a thermal reactor and with a fast reactor. In boosted operation the electrical power of the latter may reach several hundred kilowatts. What type of NPP is desirable for testing an electrojet propulsion system in interorbital transfers from a reference orbit to a high orbit, providing that the time is limited, depends on the class of the launch vehicle characterized by the mass M o that the vehicle can carry into the reference orbit, where radiation safety conditions allow the NPP to be started up. Results of studies are presented that give an idea of the rational choice of type of thermionic NPP for the organization in interorbital transfers

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of charge transfer complex formation between Silver Nitrate and Benzylcyanide in Solvent Ethylene Glycol

    CERN Document Server

    Modarress, H

    2003-01-01

    The formation constant for charge transfer complexes between electron acceptor (AgNo sub 3) and electron donor benzylcyanide (C sub 6 H sub 5 -CH sub 2 -C ident to N) in solvent ethyleneglycol [(CH sub 2 OH) sub 2] has been evaluated by using the nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of aromatic group of benzylcyanide measured against external references, tetramethylsilane, hexamethyldisilane and cyclohexane at 20 sup d ig sup C. The external referencing procedure eliminated the interference of internal reference in the course of complexation. The necessary bulk magnetic susceptibility corrections on the measured chemical shifts have been made. The solution nationalised and their effects on the formation constant have been considered and a new equation has been suggested to obtain the main ionic activity coefficient of AgNO sub 3 from nuclear magnetic resonance results. The mean ionic activity coefficient has been taken into account in the formation constant calculations. The results indicated that the a...

  11. Report of the Nuclear Energy Agency expert group on gut transfer factors: implications for dose per unit intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This note describes the gut transfer factors recommended by an Expert Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency for intakes of certain important elements in food and drinking water. The evidence behind the recommendations is discussed and their implications for dose per unit intake is investigated. It is found that in many cases the dose per unit intake calculated using the gut uptake factor recommended by the Expert Group is similar to that calculated using the recommendations of ICRP Publication 30. However, in some cases there are substantial increases in dose per unit intake. The largest increases are by a factor of fifty for intakes of certain thorium isotopes by infants. (author)

  12. Chemical treatments to reduce the transfer of caesium radioisotopes to the human foodchain after a serious nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the project is to produce a reduction of the transfer factors of radiocesium in plants, milk and meat owing to a deposition of radioactive products following a severe nuclear accident. The project includes two distinct working departments. The first studies the possibility to reduce the translocation of radiocesium from the areal parts to the edible products of crops. The second studies the possibility to reduce the radiocesium in the milk and in the meat as a consequence of the feeding with contaminated fodder. (R.P.) 4 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Sensors and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Sensors Task Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    The existing sensor systems for the basic process parameters in nuclear power plant operation have limitations with respect to accuracy, ease of maintenance and signal processing. These limitations comprise the economy of nuclear power generation. To reduce the costs and improve performance of nuclear power plant fabrication, operation, maintenance and repair we need to advance the sensor technology being applied in the nuclear industry. The economic viability and public acceptance of nuclear power will depend on how well we direct and apply technological advances to the industry. This report was prepared by a team with members representing a wide range of the nuclear industry embracing the university programs, national laboratories, architect engineers and reactor manufacturers. An intensive effort was made to survey current sensor technology, evaluate future trends and determine development needs. This included literature surveys, visits with utilities, universities, laboratories and organizations outside the nuclear industry. Several conferences were attended to take advantage of the access to experts in selected topics and to obtain opinions. Numerous telephone contacts and exchanges by mail supplemented the above efforts. Finally, the broad technical depth of the team members provided the basis for the stimulating working sessions during which this report was organized and drafted.

  14. Analysis of cytoplasmic genomes in somatic hybrids between navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb.) and 'Murcott' tangor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Ohgawara, T; Fujiwara, K; Oiyama, I

    1991-07-01

    Somatic hybrid plants were produced by protoplast fusion of navel orange and 'Murcott' tangor. Hybridity of the plants was confirmed by the restriction endonuclease analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA. All of the plants (16 clones) were normal, uniform, and had the amphidiploid chromosome number of 36 (2n=2x=18 for each parent). The cpDNA analysis showed that each of the 16 somatic hybrids contained either one parental chloroplast genome or the other. In all cases, the mitochondrial genomes of the regenerated somatic hybrids were of the navel orange type.

  15. Establishment of pregnancy after the transfer of nuclear transfer embryos produced from the fusion of argali (Ovis ammon) nuclei into domestic sheep (Ovis aries) enucleated oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K L; Bunch, T D; Mitalipov, S; Reed, W A

    1999-01-01

    Cloning mammalian species from cell lines of adult animals has been demonstrated. Aside from its importance for cloning multiple copies of genetically valuable livestock, cloning now has the potential to salvage endangered or even extinct species. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the bovine and domestic (Ovis aries) ovine oocyte cytoplasm on the nucleus of an established cell line from an endangered argali wild sheep (Ovis ammon) after nuclear transplantation. A fibroblast cell line was established from skin biopsies from an adult argali ram from the People's Republic of China. Early karyotype analysis of cells between 3-6 passages revealed a normal diploid chromosome number of 56. The argali karyotype consisted of 2 pairs of biarmed and 25 pairs of acrocentric autosomes, a large acrocentric and minute biarmed Y. Bovine ovaries were collected from a local abattoir, oocytes aspirated, and immediately placed in maturation medium consisting of M-199 containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 IU/mL penicillin, 100 microg/mL streptomycin, 0.5 microg/mL follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 5.0 microg/mL luetinizing hormone (LH) and 1.0 microg/mL estradiol. Ovine (O. aries) oocytes were collected at surgery 25 hours postonset of estrus from the oviducts of superovulated donor animals. All cultures were carried out at 39 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and air. In vitro matured MII bovine oocytes were enucleated 16-20 hours after onset of maturation and ovine oocytes within 2-3 hours after collection. Enucleation was confirmed using Hoechst 33342 and UV light. The donor argali cells were synchronized in G0-G1 phase by culturing in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) plus 0.5% fetal bovine serum for 5-10 days. Fusion of nuclear donor cell to an enucleated oocyte (cytoplast) to produce nuclear transfer (NT) embryos was induced by 2 electric pulses of 1.4 kV/cm for 30 microsc. Fused NT embryos were activated after 24 hours of maturation

  16. ARMS CONTROL: U.S. Efforts to Control the Transfer of Nuclear-Capable Missile Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plunkett, R

    1990-01-01

    ...). Through the MTCR, the United States and seven of its allies are attempting to limit the availability of certain systems, equipment, and technologies necessary for developing nuclear-capable missiles...

  17. A review of liquor transfer systems for use in nuclear reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1982-01-01

    Liquor pumping systems for use in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are described. Comparison of the operating characteristics and system constants are made between the air lift/Vacuum Operated Slug Lift, power fluidics and ejector pump systems. (author)

  18. The Transfer and diffusion of Cesium 137 within forest ecosystem in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Murakami, Masashi [Community Ecology Lab., Biology Course, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Among the variety of radionuclides released from FDNPP, cesium 137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the most worrying radionuclide in the environment, with a half-life of 30 years. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest, the distribution and transportation of radioactive materials within forest ecosystems should be conscientiously monitored. In Europe, many studies reported that the {sup 137}Cs deposition caused by the Chernobyl accident has still been distributed in the litter and soil layers and has become a source for the soil-to-plant transfer. Most of these studies emphasize the 'stability' of {sup 137}Cs within forest ecosystems, because {sup 137}Cs are considered to be strongly and immediately fixed in clay minerals. Even though there are many studies of the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs in forest after several years of Chernobyl accident, very initial distribution and transfer of {sup 137}Cs in food web within one to two years after the deposition in forest ecosystems have never been examined. The evaluation of the initial dynamics of {sup 137}Cs in forest ecosystems should be quite important because of the increasing stability of {sup 137}Cs after the deposition. The accumulation and transfer of {sup 137}Cs through food web within forest ecosystems were examined by collecting various organisms at forests in Fukushima. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations, natural Cs and K concentrations, and delta {sup 15}N of the specimens were measured to evaluate the occurrence of bioaccumulation or bio-diffusion of {sup 137}Cs through tropic interaction within forest ecosystem. {sup 137}Cs was highly concentrated on leaf litters which had been deposited in autumn 2010, before the accident. This accumulated {sup 137}Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through

  19. Computations of steam flow and heat transfer in nuclear power plant condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, A.

    1997-01-01

    To improve performance of its PWR nuclear power plants, Electricite de France has developed a performance monitoring system that checks simultaneously the operation of the components of the secondary system. The performance monitoring system is based on a computational software CITER for steady state runs. A one-dimensional condenser model has been developed. Application of this code to a nuclear power plant condenser shows that predicted values in good agreement with the design values

  20. [Somatization disorders of the urogenital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthert, E A

    2002-11-01

    Diffuse symptoms in the urogenital region can frequently be explained by somatization disorders. Since they cannot be proven either by laboratory tests or with common technical diagnostic methods, somatization disorders should always be taken into consideration. Somatization disorders are to be considered functional disorders. Since somatization disorders due to muscular tension prevail in the urogenital region, the functional disturbance can be explained by the muscular tension. Subsequently, muscular tension causes the pathophysiological development of symptoms. As a rule they appear as myofascial pain or disorder. Muscular tension can have a psychic origin. The absence of urological findings is typical. Males and females between the ages of 16 and 75 can be affected by somatization disorders in the urogenital region. Somatization disorders due to muscular tension belong to the large group of symptoms due to tension. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as well as the pathophysiology of somatization disorders due to muscular tension are illustrated by two detailed case-reports.

  1. Hemoglobin promotes somatic embryogenesis in peanut cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, N; Anthony, P; Davey, M R; Power, J B; Lowe, K C

    2004-02-01

    Critical parameters influencing somatic embryogenesis include growth regulators and oxygen supply. Consequently, the present investigation has focused on optimization of a somatic embryogenic system for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) through media supplementation with the auxin, picloram. The latter at 30 mg L(-1) was optimal for inducing regeneration of somatic embryos from cultured explants of zygotic embryos. In contrast, somatic embryogenesis did not occur in the absence of this growth regulator. An assessment has also been made of the beneficial effect on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of the commercial hemoglobin (Hb) solution, Erythrogen. Hemoglobin at 1:50 and 1:100 (v:v) stimulated increases in mean fresh weight (up to a maximum of 57% over control), mean number of explants producing somatic embryos (15%) and mean number of somatic embryos per explant (29%).

  2. Workshop to exchange and transfer knowledge for the purpose of increasing public understanding relating to nuclear safety and to provide a forum for discussion of alternatives available to promote revitalization of nuclear power in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranston, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper proposes an information dissemination program to adequately familiarize the public with the actual health and safety risks of nuclear energy development. It plans for a discussion panel for alternatives available to promote revitalization of nuclear power in the US. It also provides for technology transfer between contractors, designers, and training staff. It recognizes problem areas in licensing and certification by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and ways to standardize the administrative procedures

  3. Efeito do número da passagem e do gênero das células doadoras de núcleo no desenvolvimento de bovinos produzidos por transferência nuclear Effect of culture time and gender of nuclei donor cells on bovine development produced by nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Krempel Fonseca Merighe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito do número da passagem e do sexo das células doadoras de núcleo no desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal após transferência nuclear. Para isso, oócitos bovinos foram maturados, enucleados e reconstruídos com células somáticas de animal adulto. Após a fusão e ativação química, os zigotos reconstituídos foram cultivados em Charles Rosenkranz 2 (CR2 com monocamada de células da granulosa a 38,8ºC em atmosfera umidificada a 5% de CO2 em ar, durante sete dias, e transferidos para receptoras sincronizadas. As taxas de clivagem e desenvolvimento a blastocisto de embriões reconstruídos com células cultivadas por tempo maior foram inferiores às obtidas com os demais tempos de cultivo. Além disso, os blastocistos produzidos não resultaram no desenvolvimento de uma gestação a termo. Embora a taxa de clivagem em embriões fêmeas tenha sido maior, o número de embriões que atingiram o estádio de blastocisto foi maior nos embriões machos. No período gestacional, fêmeas apresentaram maior taxa de aborto entre 90 e 120 dias de gestação. Esses resultados indicam que células doadoras de núcleos cultivados por longos períodos dificultam a produção de blastocistos e aumentam as chances de perdas durante a gestação. Embriões clonados machos têm maior competência para se desenvolver a blastocisto e resultam em menor taxa de perda gestacional.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of culture time and sex of nuclei donor cells on embryo and fetal development after nuclear transfer. Thus, bovine oocytes were matured, enucleated and reconstructed with somatic cells from an adult animal. After fusion and chemical activation, the reconstituted zygotes were cultured in Charles Rosenkranz 2 (CR2 on a granular monolayer cell at 38.8ºC in a humidified atmosphere 5% CO2 in air for seven days, and transferred to synchronized receptors. Cleavage rates and development to

  4. Dimensions of somatization and hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C V

    1995-05-01

    A significantly large group of patients who communicate their psychosocial distress in the form of physical symptoms are called somatizers. They tend to overuse medical services. The syndromes with which they present have indistinct boundaries, and there tends to be some fluidity of their symptomatic presentations. Underlying psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders (including obsessive compulsive disorder), and personality disorders are frequently present.

  5. Transfer of 137Cs to agricultural products in southern Sweden after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haak, E.; Eriksson, Aake; Loensjoe, H.; Rosen, K.

    1998-12-01

    This report contains calculations of expected 137 Cs transfer from contaminated agricultural land to crop and animal products in the southern part of Sweden; Skaane and Blekinge. The fallout has been simulated to be 1 MBq per m 2 , uniformly deposited on the ground surface in the spring of 1995. The report covers a period of 20 years or the years 1996-2015. The calculations of 137 Cs transfer to crop products are based on official crop statistics of the year 1996 and earlier observed soil/plant transfer ratios. These ratios vary with crop and soil type. The sensitivity for 137 Cs-transfer from soil to plant varies between the counties. This variability depends on smaller root uptake in loamy than in sandy soils and less in sandy than in organic soils, and to a different distribution of these three soil types. The 137 Cs-transfer to crop products decreases considerably during a 20 years period. This depends on nuclide decay and on decreased root availability. As shown in tables and figures, the decrease is larger during the first years after fallout than later. This depends on successive ploughing of grass land during the crop rotation, which drastically decreases the root availability. Agricultural land is used for cultivating sale and fodder crops. The fodder crops are the main bases for transfer to animal products. The passage through the animal body will cause the main part of the 137 Cs intake to be linked off before the transfer to the animal products. The 137 Cs-content in a certain product will finally determine if it can be used for human intake. The 137 Cs-transfer to cow feed in MBq per 100 hectare decreases with time and, in analogy with the mean transfer to all crop products, more in the first years than in later years due to successive ploughing of grassland in the existing crop rotations. The calculations for the counties, which were made against the background of earlier Swedish micro plot and field experiments, clearly show that it will be effective

  6. Condensation heat transfer with noncondensable gas for passive containment cooling of nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardi, Tauna [Schlumberger, 14910 Airline Rd., Rosharon, TX 77583 (United States)]. E-mail: Tleonardi@slb.com; Ishii, Mamoru [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)]. E-mail: Ishii@ecn.purdue.edu

    2006-09-15

    Noncondensable gases that come from the containment and the interaction of cladding and steam during a severe accident deteriorate a passive containment cooling system's performance by degrading the heat transfer capabilities of the condensers in passive containment cooling systems. This work contributes to the area of modeling condensation heat transfer with noncondensable gases in integral facilities. Previously existing correlations and models are for the through-flow of the mixture of steam and the noncondensable gases and this may not be applicable to passive containment cooling systems where there is no clear passage for the steam to escape. This work presents a condensation heat transfer model for the downward cocurrent flow of a steam/air mixture through a condenser tube, taking into account the atypical characteristics of the passive containment cooling system. An empirical model is developed that depends on the inlet conditions, including the mixture Reynolds number and noncondensable gas concentration.

  7. Probing nuclear shell structure beyond the N=40 subshell using multiple Coulomb excitation and transfer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellgartner, Stefanie Christine

    2015-11-13

    In this work, the N=40 subshell closure is investigated with two complementary methods using a radioactive {sup 72}Zn ISOLDE beam: One- and two-neutron transfer reactions and multiple Coulomb excitation. In the one-neutron transfer reaction, two new levels of {sup 73}Zn were discovered. The two-neutron transfer channel allowed to study the differential cross section of the ground state and the 2{sup +}{sub 1} state of {sup 74}Zn. In the Coulomb excitation experiment, the measured B(E2) values and quadrupole moments of {sup 72}Zn showed that the yrast states 0{sup +}{sub 1}, 2{sup +}{sub 1} and 4{sup +}{sub 1} are moderately collective. Contrary, the 0{sup +}{sub 2} state has a different structure, since it features a stronger closed N=40 configuration compared to the ground state.

  8. Nuclear fragmentation energy and momentum transfer distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.

  9. A high speed, selective multi-ADC to computer data transfer interface, for nuclear physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arctaedius, T.; Ekstroem, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    A link connecting up to fifteen Analog to Digital Converters with a computer, through a Direct Memory Access interface, is described. The interface decides which of the connected ADC:s that participate in an event, and transfers the output-data from these to the computer, accompanied with a 2-byte word identifying the participating ADC:s. This data format can be recorded on tape without further transformations, and is easy to unfold at the off-line analysis. Data transfer is accomplished in less than a few microseconds, which is made possible by the use of high speed TTL circuits. (authors)

  10. Robotics and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Robotics Task Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    A task team was formed at the request of the Department of Energy to evaluate and assess technology development needed for advanced robotics in the nuclear industry. The mission of these technologies is to provide the nuclear industry with the support for the application of advanced robotics to reduce nuclear power generating costs and enhance the safety of the personnel in the industry. The investigation included robotic and teleoperated systems. A robotic system is defined as a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. A teleoperated system includes an operator who remotely controls the system by direct viewing or through a vision system

  11. Mass transfer coefficient in disturbed flow due to orifice for flow accelerated corrosion in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Mahendra; Gaikwad, Avinash J.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Parida, Smrutiranjan

    2015-01-01

    The flow of fluid in pipes cause corrosion wherein the inner surface of pipe becomes progressively thinner and susceptible to failure. This form of corrosion dependent on flow dynamics is called Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) and has been observed in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Mass transfer coefficient (MTC) is related to extent of wall thinning and it changes from its value in a straight pipe (with same fluid parameters) for flow in orifices, bends, junctions etc. due to gross disturbance of the velocity profile. This paper presents two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for an orifice configuration in a straight pipe. Turbulent model K- ω with shear stress transport and transition flow was the model used for simulation studies. The mass transfer boundary layer (MTBL) thickness δ mtbl is related to the Schmidt number (Sc) and hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness δ h , as δ mtbl ~ δh/(Sc 1/3 ). MTBL is significantly smaller than δ h and hence boundary layer meshing was carried out deep into δ mtbl . Uniform velocity profile was applied at the inlet. Post orifice fluid shows large recirculating flows on the upper and lower wall. At various locations after orifice, mass transfer coefficient is calculated and compared with the value in straight pipe with fully developed turbulent flow. The MTC due to the orifice increases and it is correlated with enhanced FAC in region after orifice. (author)

  12. Do we under-invest in nuclear energy research in the world? Lessons learned from a transferred macro-economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popiolek, N.; Devezeaux, J.G.; ABAD, A.; Berwald, A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors first present the Jones-and-Williams model which aims at assessing the socially optimal allowance ratio of R and D resources with respect to private allowance in order to see whether public power should 'dope' research. Then, they present the results obtained by transferring this model to nuclear electricity: values of estimated parameters, results of numerous simulations aimed at ensuring the model robustness. The influence of the main parameters (life duration, share of work in nuclear electricity production, global productivity of production factors in nuclear industry, substitution elasticity between production goods, and growth rate of nuclear R and D expenses) are graphically represented and discussed [fr

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of charge transfer complex formation between Silver Nitrate and Benzylcyanide in Solvent Ethylene Glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarress, H.; Shekaari, H.

    2003-01-01

    The formation constant for charge transfer complexes between electron acceptor (AgNo 3 ) and electron donor benzylcyanide (C 6 H 5 -CH 2 -C≡N) in solvent ethyleneglycol [(CH 2 OH) 2 ] has been evaluated by using the nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of aromatic group of benzylcyanide measured against external references, tetramethylsilane, hexamethyldisilane and cyclohexane at 20 d ig C . The external referencing procedure eliminated the interference of internal reference in the course of complexation. The necessary bulk magnetic susceptibility corrections on the measured chemical shifts have been made. The solution nationalised and their effects on the formation constant have been considered and a new equation has been suggested to obtain the main ionic activity coefficient of AgNO 3 from nuclear magnetic resonance results. The mean ionic activity coefficient has been taken into account in the formation constant calculations. The results indicated that the appropriate formation constant should be expressed in terms of activities. Also an equation have been derived to eliminate the undesirable effects on the nuclear magnetic resonance measured chemical shifts in calculating the constant. The selection of concentration domains and its effect on the calculated formation constant has been discussed and the new equation is modified to be independent of the concentration domains. In this equation the solution nationalised, by considering coefficients, have been taken in to account

  14. Nuclear reactions with large momentum transfers as a source of information about multiquark states in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    We give a criterion which picks out a region of nuclear reactions where the quark-gluon degrees of freedom are predominant. The aim of the present talk is to show that the study of this region gives evidence of the quark-parton structure functions of nuclei as independent (irreducible to one-nucleon) objects of hadron physics. (orig./HSI)

  15. Experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of a nuclear reactor containment wall cooled by gravitationally falling water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Ari D.; Umar, Efrison; Suwono, Aryadi; Manalu, Reinhard E. E.

    2012-06-01

    Gravitationally falling water cooling is one of mechanism utilized by a modern nuclear Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) for its Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). Since the cooling is closely related to the safety, water film cooling characteristics of the PCCS should be studied. This paper deals with the experimental study of laminar water film cooling on the containment model wall. The influences of water mass flow rate and wall heat rate on the heat transfer characteristic were studied. This research was started with design and assembly of a containment model equipped with the water cooling system, and calibration of all measurement devices. The containment model is a scaled down model of AP 1000 reactor. Below the containment steam is generated using electrical heaters. The steam heated the containment wall, and then the temperatures of the wall in several positions were measure transiently using thermocouples and data acquisition. The containment was then cooled by falling water sprayed from the top of the containment. The experiments were done for various wall heat rate and cooling water flow rate. The objective of the research is to find the temperature profile along the wall before and after the water cooling applied, prediction of the water film characteristic such as means velocity, thickness and their influence to the heat transfer coefficient. The result of the experiments shows that the wall temperatures significantly drop after being sprayed with water. The thickness of water film increases with increasing water flow rate and remained constant with increasing wall heat rate. The heat transfer coefficient decreases as film mass flow rate increase due to the increases of the film thickness which causes the increasing of the thermal resistance. The heat transfer coefficient increases slightly as the wall heat rate increases. The experimental results were then compared with previous theoretical studied.

  16. Multiple horizontal transfers of nuclear ribosomal genes between phylogenetically distinct grass lineages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahelka, Václav; Krak, Karol; Kopecký, David; Fehrer, Judith; Šafář, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Hobza, Roman; Blavet, Nicolas; Blattner, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 7 (2017), s. 1726-1731 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GA13-04454S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : Triticeae * Panicoideae * horizantal genen transfer Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany; Plant sciences, botany (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  17. Participation of the national industry within a nuclear power plant program by technology transfer from the point of view of the main contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, H.

    1986-04-01

    The broad scope of components needed in a nuclear power plant with various technical requirements offer a big opportunity for the participation of local industries in the construction of such plants. Depending on the existing capability of the industrial enterprises, the scope of national participation can be increased by technology transfer on all technical areas to be applied for the construction of NPPs. Such technology requires as basis a nuclear program of the country determined and supported by the government and the utilities. This program has to be defined as realistic as even possible adjoined to the future energy demand of the country. Furthermore the available capability, existing qualifications and equipment of the national industry have to be considered. On the basis of these fundamental requirements a tailormade technology transfer program has to be elaborated in close cooperation with an experienced main contractor of the plant and his partners for such technology transfer and should be established afterwards. This program has to consider not only the goal to achieve finally the independent production of components and equipment for NPPs or the construction of complete power plant units itself, but also the economic benefit of such a program for the country. The costs of technology transfer and the necessary investment of the national industry required for the manufacture of nuclear components have to be thoroughly investigated, based on the expected scope of products to be manufactured for the nuclear power plants according to the nuclear program. Furthermore the application of the technology transferred for other components e.g. for conventional power stations, mineral-oil or chemical industrial plants has to be considered. By a tailormade nuclear technology transfer program, executed by qualified and experienced partners not only the quality of the products of the national industry for NPPs will be improved, but also the general standard regarding

  18. Restriction endonuclease analysis of chloroplast DNA in interspecies somatic Hybrids of Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Cocking, E C; Bovenberg, W A; Kool, A J

    1982-12-01

    Restriction endonuclease cleavage pattern analysis of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of three different interspecific somatic hybrid plants revealed that the cytoplasms of the hybrids contained only cpDNA of P. parodii. The somatic hybrid plants analysed were those between P. parodii (wild type) + P. hybrida (wild type); P. parodii (wild type)+P. inflata (cytoplasmic albino mutant); P. parodii (wild type) + P. parviflora (nuclear albino mutant). The presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in the somatic hybrid of P. parodii + P. inflata is possibly due to the stringent selection used for somatic hybrid production. However, in the case of the two other somatic hybrids P. parodii + P. hybrida and P. parodii + P. parviflora it was not possible to determine whether the presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in these somatic hybrid plants was due to the nature of the selection schemes used or simply occurred by chance. The relevance of such somatic hybrid material for the study of genomic-cytoplasmic interaction is discussed, as well as the use of restriction endonuclease fragment patterns for the analysis of taxonomic and evolutionary inter-relationships in the genus Petunia.

  19. The transfer of computer processed pictures for nuclear medicine to cassette VTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaya, Akio; Takahashi, Kazue; Suzuki, Toshi

    1980-01-01

    With the increasing clinical importance of data-processing computers in nuclear medicine, the applications are now widely established. As for the output methods and output devices of data, processed pictures, and animation pictures, contrivance is necessary for the easy appreciation and utilization of the information obtained. In the cine-mode display of heart wall motion in particular, it is desirable to reproduce conveniently the output images as animated for image reading at any time or place. The apparatus for this purpose has been completed by using an ordinary home-use cassette VTR and a video monitor. The computer output pictures as nuclear medicine data are recorded in the VTR. Recording and reprocuction are possible only by a few additional components and some adjustments. Animation pictures such as the cine-mode display of heart wall motion can be conveniently reproduced for image reading, away from computers. (J.P.N.)

  20. Transfer of computer processed pictures for nuclear medicine to cassette VTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaya, A; Takahashi, K; Suzuki, T [Yamagata Univ. (Japan)

    1980-05-01

    With the increasing clinical importance of data-processing computers in nuclear medicine, the applications are now widely established. As for the output methods and output devices of data, processed pictures, and animation pictures, contrivance is necessary for the easy appreciation and utilization of the information obtained. In the cine-mode display of heart wall motion in particular, it is desirable to reproduce conveniently the output images as animated for image reading at any time or place. The apparatus for this purpose has been completed by using an ordinary home-use cassette VTR and a video monitor. The computer output pictures as nuclear medicine data are recorded in the VTR. Recording and reprocuction are possible only by a few additional components and some adjustments. Animation pictures such as the cine-mode display of heart wall motion can be conveniently reproduced for image reading, away from computers.

  1. Nuclear technology transfer via standards: the OMB Circular A-119 in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) has 23 nuclear energy (NE) standards in some phase of conversion to the national consensus standards, and identified three new NE standards for possible conversion. The author describes the methods of developing a consensus for standards through the use of working groups and ballots and the process of adopting a standard. Voluntary NE standards categories cover operation, instrumentation and controls, equipment, programs and procedures, materials, electrical, and structures and building. 4 references, 2 tables

  2. Personality characteristics in patients with somatized disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Anatolyevna Tolkach

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study personality characteristics, behavioral style, and modes of relations with their people in patients with somatized disorder. Subjects and methods. Eighty-six patients diagnosed as having somatized disorder were examined using Leary's interpersonal diagnosis system. Results. The author revealed the following personality characteristics and behavioral styles: a depressed need for authoritarianism, dominance, autonomy, aggressiveness, a display of qualities, such as superfriendliness, benevolence, submissiveness, dependency, and suspiciousness. These characteristics give an insight into the development of somatization in patients with somatized disorder.

  3. Somatic cell cloning in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): effects of interspecies cytoplasmic recipients and activation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiyanant, Y; Saikhun, J; Chaisalee, B; White, K L; Pavasuthipaisit, K

    2001-01-01

    Successful nuclear transfer (NT) of somatic cell nuclei from various mammalian species to enucleated bovine oocytes provides a universal cytoplast for NT in endangered or extinct species. Buffalo fetal fibroblasts were isolated from a day 40 fetus and were synchronized in presumptive G(0) by serum deprivation. Buffalo and bovine oocytes from abattoir ovaries were matured in vitro and enucleated at 22 h. In the first experiment, we compared the ability of buffalo and bovine oocyte cytoplasm to support in vitro development of NT embryos produced by buffalo fetal fibroblasts as donor nuclei. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the NT embryos derived from buffalo and bovine oocytes, in fusion (74% versus 71%) and cleavage (77% versus 75%) rates, respectively. No significant differences were also observed in blastocyst development (39% versus 33%) and the mean cell numbers of day 7 cloned blastocysts (88.5 +/- 25.7 versus 51.7 +/- 5.4). In the second experiment, we evaluated the effects of activation with calcium ionophore A23187 on development of NT embryos after electrical fusion. A significantly higher (p cloned buffalo blastocysts similar to those transferred into buffalo oocytes. Calcium ionophore used in conjunction with 6-DMAP effectively induces NT embryo development.

  4. The International Stripa Project: Technology transfer from cooperation in scientific and technological research on nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levich, R.A.; Ferrigan, P.M.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency of the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA) sponsors the International Stripa Project. The objectives of the Stripa Project are to develop techniques for characterizing sites located deep in rock formations that are potentially suitable for the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to evaluate particular engineering design considerations that could enhance the long-term safety of a high-level radioactive waste repository in a geologic medium. The purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize the research conducted at Stripa and discuss the ways in which the technology developed for the Stripa Project has been and will be transfered to the United States Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program's Yucca Mountain Project. 3 refs., 2 figs

  5. Dynamical evolution of angular momentum in damped nuclear reactions. I. Accumulation of angular momentum by nucleon transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doessing, T.; Randrup, J.

    1984-01-01

    An important goal in the theory of nuclear dynamics is to understand the observed transport phenomena in terms of the basic microscopic processes in the system. For this purpose a model was developed in which the dissipative mechanism responsible for the transport process is the transfer of nucleons between the two reacting nuclides. Until now, most efforts to confront that theory with data have concentrated on the evolution of the charge and mass distribution with energy loss, and overall good agreement has been obtained for a variety of features. While this success lends strong support to the theory, it is important to broaden the contact with experiment by considering also other aspects of the data. Therefore the authors have undertaken a comprehensive study of the angular momentum variables which represent six additional observables (three for each fragment spin) and thus provide a rich testing ground for the theory

  6. Single nuclear transfer strengths and sum rules in the interacting boson-fermion model and in the spectral averaging theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kota, V.K.B.

    1991-01-01

    In the interacting boson-fermion model of collective nuclei, in the symmetry limits of the model appropriate for vibrational, rotational and γ-unstable nuclei, for one-particle transfer, the selection rules, model predictions for the allowed strengths and comparison of theory with experiment are briefly reviewed. In the spectral-averaging theory, with the specific example of orbit occupancies, the smoothed forms (linear or better ratio of Gaussians) as determined by central limit theorems, how they provide a good criterion for selecting effective interactions and the convolution structure of occupancy densities in huge spaces are described. Complementary information provided by nuclear models and statistical laws is broughtout. (author). 63 refs., 5 figs

  7. Nuclear boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux in titanium dioxide-water nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Tomio; Takamura, Masahiro; Kamiya, Takahito

    2011-01-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer was experimentally studied for saturated pool boiling of water-based nanofluids. Since significant nanoparticle deposition on the heated surface was observed after the nucleate boiling in nanofluids, measurement of CHF was also carried out using the nanoparticle deposited heated surface; pure water was used in the CHF measurement. In the present work, the heated surface was a 20 mm diameter cupper surface, and titanium-dioxide was selected as the material of nanoparticles. Experiments were performed for upward- and downward-facing surfaces. Although the CHFs for the downward-facing surface were generally lower than those for the upward-facing surface, the CHFs for the nanoparticle deposited surface were about 1.9 times greater than those for the bare surface in both the configurations. The CHF improvement corresponded well to the reduction of the surface contact angle. During the nucleate boiling in nanofluids, the boiling heat transfer showed peculiar behavior; it was first deteriorated, then improved, and finally approached to an equilibrium state. This observation indicated that the present nanofluid had competing effects to deteriorate and improve the nucleate boiling heat transfer. It was assumed that the wettability and the roughness of the heated surface were influenced by the deposited nanoparticles to cause complex variation of the number of active nucleation sites. During the nucleate boiling of pure water using the downward-facing surface, a sudden increase in the wall temperature was observed stochastically probably due to the accumulation of bubbles beneath the heated surface. Such behavior was not observed when the pure water was replaced by the nanofluid. (author)

  8. Transfer hood for handling fuel assemblies in nuclear reactors and especially fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, M.; Merland, D.; Renaux, C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a hood for transferring fuel assemblies between two or more separate guide ramps inclined to the vertical at the same angle of slope and extending respectively through a first passage into the reactor vessel and through a second passage into a fuel-assembly storage chamber. The hood comprises at least one shielded duct joined to a flanged rotating portion which is so arranged that the open lower end of the shielded duct is positioned in the line of extension of one guide ramp and then the other as a result of displacement of the rotating portion

  9. Radiation heat transfer within and from high temperature plumes composed of steam and molten nuclear debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condiff, D.W.

    1987-03-01

    The Differential Approximation of Radiation Heat Transfer which includes anisotropic scattering is formulated to account for multiple source and temperature fields of multiphase flow. The formulation is applied to a simplified model of a plume consisting of high temperature emissive particles in steam at parametrically variable lower temperatures. Parametric model calculations are presented which account for spectral emission and absorption by steam using a band approximation as well as emission, absorption and scattering by the debris. The results are found to be far more sensitive to emission properties of individual particles, than to their scattering properties at high temperatures

  10. High energy approximations for nuclear knockout form factors at small momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, R.D.; Cannata, F.; Dedonder, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    We obtain an explicit approximate expression for the nucleon knockout form factor at small momentum transfer induced by a scalar probe in a single particle model in terms of the momentum space bound state wave function. Our form preserves the orthogonality constraint without using explicitly the final state scattering wave function. We examine the leading large momentum behavior of the momentum space wave function and of correction terms to our expression for the form factor in the case where the bound state is an s state

  11. Freon Rig design for performing to heat transfer experiments for nuclear reactors fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, L.F.V.

    1981-01-01

    The main features of a Freon Rig design for performing to heat transfer experiments for PWR and BWR fuel bundles, are presented. The project is based on a Freon Rig pressurized at 30 bar with a flow rate up to 80 m 3 /h. The maximum power fed to test sections is of about 420 KW D.C. The rig was designed to use scaling techniques wich would enable a fluid of low latente heat to be used in place of water, thereby reducing the cost of testes. (Author) [pt

  12. The transfer of strontium-90 and caesium-137 to milk in a dairy herd grazing near a major nuclear installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumerling, T J; Dodd, N J; Green, N

    1984-03-01

    A field investigation of the transfer of artificially produced radionuclides in the pasture--cow--milk pathway has been made at a farm close to the nuclear fuel reprocessing installation at Sellafield on the north-west coast of England. This paper reports results from analyses of samples collected during 1981, reports transfers coefficients for /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs from various types of feed to milk, and discusses factors that affect the transfer of these radionuclides. It is shown that during 1981 a large proportion of the /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs consumed by cattle grazing near Sellafield was derived from activity deposited in previous years. Transfer coefficients to milk, Fm, have been derived which are within the ranges of those observed in tracer and fallout studies. There are significant seasonal changes in transfer. For /sup 90/Sr, values of Fm between 9 X 10(-4)d 1(-1) and 4 X 10(-3)d 1(-1) have been obtained. It is concluded that this large range arises because daily intakes of /sup 90/Sr by the herd during the winter months are lower (by a factor of about 3) than intakes during the summer months and that the concentration of /sup 90/Sr in milk is not in equilibrium with intake, that is, the concentration of /sup 90/Sr in milk is maintained both by recent intakes and by remobilisation of activity that has been accumulated in bone from earlier intakes. For /sup 137/Cs, values of Fm between 3 X 10(-3)d 1(-1) and 9 X 10(-3)d 1(-1) have been obtained. It is concluded that this range most probably occurs because during the summer months, when the cows are grazing, a substantial proportion of the /sup 137/Cs intake is associated with soil on the surface of herbage and that, in this form, the /sup 137/Cs is less available for uptake from the digestive tract of the cows.

  13. Transfer of nuclear engineering knowledge at Hanoi University of Technology: Lessons learned and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, P. van; Anh, P.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Hanoi University of Technology (HUT) has been being the most important polytechnic education centre of the country for half a century. Nuclear Engineering Education Programme (NEEP) was started at HUT since the year 1970, right after establishment of Department of Nuclear Engineering at the University according to the initiative of the first Minister of Ministry of Higher Education of the country. Since the year 2000 the Department changed its education programme to adapt it to the actual circumstances in the country and renamed as Department of Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Physics (DONEEP). The objectives of the HUT's NEEP are as follows: 1. To train up nuclear technical manpower for development of peaceful uses of atomic energy in Vietnam. 2. To prepare initial nuclear technical human resources for introduction of Nuclear Power into the country. Aiming at these objectives, the Programme achieved remarkable results such as inestimable contributions to introducing and then developing the NDT radiography method in Vietnam, to improving and developing the atomic energy applications in the country, to providing important parts of technical human resources for strengthening the nuclear community of the country. The duration of 37 years of implementation of the Programme may be divided by 3 periods: from 1970 to 1989, 1990-2000 and from the year 2001 up to now. During the first period, the Programme was fully supported by the leadership of the University and the Ministry of Higher Education. The second period was full of difficulties. This was the period of searching the ways for preserving and adapting the Programme to the new circumstances in the country. The present period is the one of searching the ways for developing the NEEP at HUT. The lessons learned from 37-year implementation of the HUT's NEEP are as follows: 1. To establish proper objectives aiming to satisfy the urgent short term and/or long term demands of the country is the most

  14. Photoprotection and triplet energy transfer in higher plants: the role of electronic and nuclear fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupellini, Lorenzo; Jurinovich, Sandro; Prandi, Ingrid G; Caprasecca, Stefano; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2016-04-28

    Photosynthetic organisms employ several photoprotection strategies to avoid damage due to the excess energy in high light conditions. Among these, quenching of triplet chlorophylls by neighboring carotenoids (Cars) is fundamental in preventing the formation of singlet oxygen. Cars are able to accept the triplets from chlorophylls by triplet energy transfer (TET). We have here studied TET rates in CP29, a minor light-harvesting complex (LHC) of the Photosystem II in plants. A fully atomistic strategy combining classical molecular dynamics of the LHC in its natural environment with a hybrid time-dependent density functional theory/polarizable MM description of the TET is used. We find that the structural fluctuations of the pigment-protein complex can largely enhance the transfer rates with respect to those predicted using the crystal structure, reducing the triplet quenching times in the subnanosecond scale. These findings add a new perspective for the interpretation of the photoprotection function and its relation with structural motions of the LHC.

  15. A Multi-Dimensional Heat Transfer Model of a Tie-Tube and Hexagonal Fuel Element for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, C. F.; Mireles, O. R.; Stewart, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Capable Cryogenic Thermal Engine (SCCTE) effort considers a nuclear thermal rocket design based around a Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) design fission reactor. The reactor core is comprised of bundled hexagonal fuel elements that directly heat hydrogen for expansion in a thrust chamber and hexagonal tie-tubes that house zirconium hydride moderator mass for the purpose of thermalizing fast neutrons resulting from fission events. Created 3D steady state Hex fuel rod model with 1D flow channels. Hand Calculation were used to set up initial conditions for fluid flow. The Hex Fuel rod uses 1D flow paths to model the channels using empirical correlations for heat transfer in a pipe. Created a 2-D axisymmetric transient to steady state model using the CFD turbulent flow and Heat Transfer module in COMSOL. This model was developed to find and understand the hydrogen flow that might effect the thermal gradients axially and at the end of the tie tube where the flow turns and enters an annulus. The Hex fuel rod and Tie tube models were made based on requirements given to us by CSNR and the SCCTE team. The models helped simplify and understand the physics and assumptions. Using pipe correlations reduced the complexity of the 3-D fuel rod model and is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The 2-D axisymmetric tie tube model can be used as a reference "Virtual test model" for comparing and improving 3-D Models.

  16. Water-soluble phosphine-protected Au9 clusters: Electronic structures and nuclearity conversion via phase transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Shuhei

    2017-08-01

    In this article, isolation, exploration of electronic structures, and nuclearity conversion of water-soluble triphenylphosphine monosulfonate (TPPS)-protected nonagold (Au9) clusters are outlined. The Au9 clusters are obtained by the reduction of solutions containing TPPS and HAuCl4 and subsequent electrophoretic fractionation. Mass spectrometry and elemental analysis reveal the formation of [Au9(TPPS)8]5- nonagold cluster. UV-vis absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of aqueous [Au9(TPPS)8]5- are quite similar to those of [Au9(PPh3)8]3+ in organic solvent, so the solution-phase structures are likely similar for both systems. Simultaneous deconvolution analysis of absorption and MCD spectra demonstrates the presence of some weak electronic transitions that are essentially unresolved in the UV-vis absorption. Quantum chemical calculations for a model compound [Au9(pH3)8]3+ show that the possible (solution-phase) skeletal structure of the nonagold cluster has D2h core symmetry rather than C4-symmetrical centered crown conformation, which is known as the crystal form of the Au9 compound. Moreover, we find a new nuclearity conversion route from Au9 to Au8; that is, phase transfer of aqueous [Au9(TPPS)8]5- into chloroform using tetraoctylammonium bromide yields [Au8(TPPS)8]6- clusters in the absence of excess phosphine.

  17. Transfer of infrared thermography predictive maintenance technologies to Soviet-designed nuclear power plants: experience at Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Ray; Huff, Roy

    1999-03-01

    The importance of infrared (IR) technology and analysis in today's world of predictive maintenance and reliability- centered maintenance cannot be understated. The use of infrared is especially important in facilities that are required to maintain a high degree of equipment reliability because of plant or public safety concerns. As with all maintenance tools, particularly those used in predictive maintenance approaches, training plays a key role in their effectiveness and the benefit gained from their use. This paper details an effort to transfer IR technology to Soviet- designed nuclear power plants in Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania. Delivery of this technology and post-delivery training activities have been completed recently at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. Many interesting challenges were encountered during this effort. Hardware procurement and delivery of IR technology to a sensitive country were complicated by United States regulations. Freight and shipping infrastructure and host-country customs policies complicated hardware transport. Training activities were complicated by special hardware, software and training material translation needs, limited communication opportunities, and site logistical concerns. These challenges and others encountered while supplying the Chornobyl plant with state-of-the-art IR technology are described in this paper.

  18. Development of the process of energy transfer from a nuclear Power Plant to an intermediate temperature electrolyse; Desarrollo del proceso de transferencia de energia desde una central nuclear a un electrolizador de temperatura intermedia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Cervantes, A.; Cuadrado Garcia, P.; Soraino Garcia, J.

    2013-07-01

    Fifty million tons of hydrogen are consumed annually in the world in various industrial processes. Among them, the ammonia production, oil refining and the production of methanol. One of the methods to produce it is the electrolysis of water, oxygen and hydrogen. This process needs electricity and steam which a central nuclear It can be your source; Hence the importance of developing the transfer process energy between the two. The objective of the study is to characterize the process of thermal energy transfer from a nuclear power plant to an electrolyzer of intermediate temperature (ITSE) already defined. The study is limited to the intermediate engineering process, from the central to the cell.

  19. Nuclear thermal source transfer unit, post-blast soil sample drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ralph S.; Valencia, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory states that its mission is ''To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.'' The Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) programs exists to engage undergraduate students in STEM work by providing opportunity to work at DOE facilities. As an undergraduate mechanical engineering intern under the SULI program at Los Alamos during the fall semester of 2016, I had the opportunity to contribute to the mission of the Laboratory while developing skills in a STEM discipline. I worked with Technology Applications, an engineering group that supports non-proliferation, counter terrorism, and emergency response missions. This group specializes in tool design, weapons engineering, rapid prototyping, and mission training. I assisted with two major projects during my appointment Los Alamos. The first was a thermal source transportation unit, intended to safely contain a nuclear thermal source during transit. The second was a soil drying unit for use in nuclear postblast field sample collection. These projects have given me invaluable experience working alongside a team of professional engineers. Skills developed include modeling, simulation, group design, product and system design, and product testing.

  20. Nuclear thermal source transfer unit, post-blast soil sample drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ralph S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valencia, Matthew J [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Los Alamos National Laboratory states that its mission is “To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.” The Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) programs exists to engage undergraduate students in STEM work by providing opportunity to work at DOE facilities. As an undergraduate mechanical engineering intern under the SULI program at Los Alamos during the fall semester of 2016, I had the opportunity to contribute to the mission of the Laboratory while developing skills in a STEM discipline. I worked with Technology Applications, an engineering group that supports non-proliferation, counter terrorism, and emergency response missions. This group specializes in tool design, weapons engineering, rapid prototyping, and mission training. I assisted with two major projects during my appointment Los Alamos. The first was a thermal source transportation unit, intended to safely contain a nuclear thermal source during transit. The second was a soil drying unit for use in nuclear postblast field sample collection. These projects have given me invaluable experience working alongside a team of professional engineers. Skills developed include modeling, simulation, group design, product and system design, and product testing.

  1. Analytical methods of heat transfer compared with numerical methods as related to nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada-Gasca, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical methods were applied to the prediction of the far-field thermal impact of a nuclear waste repository. Specifically, the transformation of coordinates and the Kirchhoff transformation were used to solve one-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems. Calculations for the HLW and TRU nuclear waste with initial areal thermal loadings of 12 kW/acre and 0.7 kW/acre, respectively, are carried out for various models. Also, finite difference and finite element methods are applied. The last method is used to solve two-dimensional linear and nonlinear heat conduction problems. Results of the analysis are temperature distributions and temperature histories. Explicit analytical expressions of the maximum temperature rise as a function of the system parameters are presented. The theoretical approaches predict maximum temperature increases in the overburden with an error of 10%. When the finite solid one-dimensional NWR thermal problem is solved with generic salt and HLW thermal load as parameters, the maximum temperature rises predicted by the finite difference and finite element methods had maximum errors of 2.6 and 6.7%, respectively. In all the other cases the finite difference method also gave a smaller error than the finite element method

  2. Quantification of ion or atom transfer phenomena in materials implanted by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudadesse, Hassane

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of transfer of the constituents of a system from regions of higher to lower concentration is of interest for implanted bio-materials. It allows determining the rate at which this material is integrated in a living material. To evaluate the ossification kinetics and to study the bio-functionality in corals of Ca and Sr, irradiations with a 10 13 n.cm -2 .s -1 was performed, followed by the examination of changes in the localization of these elements. By using PIXE analysis method the distribution of Ca, P, Sr, Zn and Fe in the implant, bone and bone-implant interfaces were determined. Thus, it was shown that resorption of coral in sheep is achieved in 5 months after implantation and is identical to the cortical tissues 4 months after implantation in animals as for instance in hares. We have analyzed the tissues from around the prostheses extracted from patients. The samples were calcined and reduced to powder weighting some milligrams. We have adopted for this study the PIXE analysis method. The samples were irradiated by a proton beam of 3 MeV and about 400 μm diameter. The results show the presence of the elements Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni or Zn according to the type of the implanted prosthesis. This dispersal of the metallic ions and atoms contaminate the tissues. The transfer factors translate the exchanges between bone and the implanted material. The solvatation phenomenon and the electric charge equilibrium explain the transfer order of cations Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ and of the anion PO 4 3- . We have also determined these factors for the elements Ti, Cr and Ni. An original technique to study the bone bio-functionality was used. Use of phosphate derivatives labelled by 99m Tc allows obtaining information about the fixation of radioactive tracer. It was found that only after the eighth month at the implantation the neo-formed bone fixes the MDP (methyl diphosphate) labelled by 99m Tc in a similar way as in the control sample. Starting from this moment the

  3. Study of nuclear isovector spin responses from polarization transfer in (p,n) reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasa, Tomotsugu

    1997-01-01

    We have measured a complete set of polarization transfer observables has been measured for quasi-free (p vector, n vector) reactions on 2 H, 6 Li, 12 C, 40 Ca, and 208 Pb at a bombarding energy of 346MeV and a laboratory scattering angle of 22deg (q=1.7 fm -1 ). The polarization transfer observables for all five targets are remarkably similar. These polarization observables yield separated spin-longitudinal (σ·q) and spin-transverse (σxq) nuclear responses. These results are compared to the spin-transverse responses measured in deep-inelastic electron scattering as well as to nuclear responses based on the random phase approximation. Such a comparison reveals an enhancement in the (p vector, n vector) spin-transverse channel, which masks the effect of pionic correlations in the response ratio. Second, the double differential cross sections at θ lab between 0deg and 12.3deg and the polarization transfer D NN at 0deg for the 90 Zr(p,n) reaction are measured at a bombarding energy of 295MeV. The Gamow-Teller(GT) strength B(GT) in the continuum deduced from the L=0 cross section is compared both with the perturbative calculation by Bertsch and Hamamoto and with the second-order random phase approximation calculation by Drozdz et al. The sum of B(GT) values up to 50MeV excitation becomes S β- =28.0±1.6 after subtracting the contribution of the isovector spin-monopole strength. This S β- value of 28.0±1.6 corresponds to about (93±5)% of the minimum value of the sum-rule 3(N-Z)=30. Last, first measurements of D NN (0deg) for (p vector, n vector) reactions at 295MeV yield large negative values up to 50MeV excitation for the 6 Li, 11 B, 12 C, 13 C(p vector, n vector) reactions. DWIA calculations using the Franey and Love (FL) 270MeV interaction reproduce differential cross sections and D NN (0deg) values, while the FL 325MeV interaction yield D NN (0deg) values less negative than the experimental values. (J.P.N.)

  4. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Finland and the Government of Australia concerning the transfer of nuclear material between Finland and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Agreement between two non-nuclear weapon States was signed on 20 July 1978 under the Non-proliferation Treaty. It lays down that nuclear material may only be transferred to a body duly authorised by the recipient Party's appropriate Governmental Authority; such material may not be used for nuclear weapons or diverted to military purposes and is subject to IAEA safeguards and physical protection measures. Provision is made for regular consultation between both Parties on effective implementation of the Agreement which will remain in force for 30 years. (NEA) [fr

  5. Communication received from the permanent mission of Austria regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Director General received a note verbale of 13 June 1996 from Permanent Mission of Austria regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material. In the light of the request expressed at the end of the note verbale, the text of the note verbale is being circulated

  6. Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Sweden regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a note verbale dated 28 June 1996 received by the Director General of IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Sweden through which the Government of Sweden provides, on a voluntary basis, certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material, in order to assist the Agency in the discharge of its safeguards responsibilities

  7. Communication received from the permanent mission of Finland regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Director General received a note verbale of 8 February 1996 from Permanent Mission of Finland regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material. In the light of the request expressed at the and of the note verbale, the text of the note verbale is being circulated

  8. Nuclear polarization potential due to particle transfer in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landowne, S.; Dasso, C.H.; Winther, A.; Pollarolo, G.

    1986-01-01

    The effective interaction which determines the elastic scattering of heavy composite systems consists of a ''bare'' real potential V, noramally identified with the folding model, a renormalization term or ''polarization potential'' ΔV and an imaginary ''absorptive potential'' iW. The latter contributions originate from the couplings to intrinsic degrees of freedom. While iW is a conspicuous feature of all optical model analyses, the related term ΔV has received relatively little attention until recently. The microscopic structure of ΔV + iW is examined using second-order semi-classical perturbation theory. Focus is on the long-range part of ΔV which is governed by single-particle transfer reactions between the colliding systems

  9. Nuclear polarization potential due to particle transfer in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landowne, S.; Dasso, C.H.; Winther, A.; Pollarolo, G.

    1986-01-01

    The effective interaction which determines the elastic scattering of heavy composite systems consists of a bare real potential V, normally identified with the folding model, a renormalization term or polarization potential ΔV and an imaginary absorptive potential iW. The latter contributions originate from the couplings to intrinsic degrees of freedom. While iW is a conspicuous feature of all optical model analyses, the related term ΔV has received relatively little attention until recently. Here the authors examine the microscopic structure of ΔV + IW using second-order semi-classical perturbation theory. In particular, they focus on the long-range part of ΔV which is governed by single-particle transfer reactions between the colliding systems

  10. Fast tracking nuclear safeguards knowledge transfer through virtual and real-world engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, A.; Marin-Ferrer, M.; Peerani, P.; Janssens, W.

    2014-01-01

    This Paper focuses on analysing and comparing two main paradigms adopted to tackle the question of knowledge transfer, i.e. a top-down approach versus a bottom-up grassroots approach. This is done without excluding the fact that the two approaches can ultimately complement each other in effectively bringing about a sustainable method to improve interaction between the experienced workforce with the newcomers. The study examines the context and the method on which these two approaches are based (online and real life interaction). The examples we will be using are the NuSaSET Portal, with its community driven knowledge network, the ESARDA Course, which adopts a conservative 'Lecture' approach and the INNM Student Chapters. Both former activities are hosted by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. (authors)

  11. Heat transfer in the core graphite structures of RBMK nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoglinger, E., E-mail: ernst.knoglinger@a1.net [Am Winklerwald 15, A 4020 Linz (Austria); Wölfl, H., E-mail: herbert.woelfl@tele2.at [Berg, Im Weideland 19, A 4060 Linz (Austria); Kaliatka, A., E-mail: algirdas.kaliatka@lei.lt [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Proposed solution of heat transfer model from a hollow cylinder to a fluid through narrow duct. • Thermal conductance of annular gaps, filled by two component gas was discussed. • Xenon transient preceding the Chernobyl Accident was analyzed. • Reactivity balance during power manoeuvres and potenrial causes of the accident were discussed. - Abstract: Conductive and combined radiative/conductive gap conductance models are presented and discussed in great detail. The heat resistance concept and an exact solution to the one dimensional heat conduction equation for a 3-region composite hollow cylinder are used to calculate gap conductance in function of gap gas composition and fuel burn up. The study includes the back calculation of a reactor experiment performed at the Ignalina NPP Unit-1 which provides some insight in the function of the RBMK nitrogen supply and regulating device and an investigation of the role the graphite temperature played during the power manoeuvres preceding the Chernobyl Accident.

  12. Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkolÿ Thege Barna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.

  13. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool for Theobroma cacao improvement and propagation. Depending on culture medium composition, different morphogenetic structures (including somatic embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns and biochemical changes. The effect of SO42- ion deficiency ...

  14. Optimization of somatic embryogenesis procedure for commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first objective of this study was to assess and optimize somatic embryo production in a genetically diverse range of cacao genotypes. The primary and secondary somatic embryogenesis response of eight promising cacao clones and a positive control was evaluated using modified versions of standard protocols.

  15. Direct somatic embryogenesis in Swietenia macrophylla King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Collado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla King is difficult to be propagated by tissue culture and there is not an efficient system via organogenesis, due to problems of microbial contamination, phenolic oxidation and death of tissue in the phase of in vitro establishment of explants. In order to establish a protocol for obtaining somatic embryos, zygotic embryos were used as initial plant material. Three combinations of 2,4-D with kinetin were studied, to obtain the formation of somatic embryos. After six weeks of culture, the number of explants with high and low somatic embryogenesis frequency were determined. So that the somatic embryos in globular stage reach the final stages of torpedo and cotyledonal, these were placed in three treatments with 6-BAP (0.2, 0.4 y 0.6 mg.l-1. The number of somatic embryos that reached the torpedo and cotyledonal stages were evaluated after 30 days of culture. Results demonstrated that direct somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryos is obtained in the culture medium composed by MS salts with 4.0 mg.l-1 of 2,4-D and 1.0 mg.l-1 of kinetin. Higher percentage of somatic embryos in cotiledonal stage (91.7 %, was obtained with 0.4 mg.l-1 of 6-BAP. Key word: forestry, growth regulator, mahogany, somatic embryo, tissue culture

  16. Analysis of heat and mass transfer in sub-seabed disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickox, C.E.; Gartling, D.K.; McVey, D.F.; Russo, A.J.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical basis is developed for the prediction of thermal and radionuclide transport in marine sediments. The theory is applied to the study of radioactive waste disposal by emplacement, in specially designed containers, well below the sediment/water interface. Numerical results are obtained for a specified model problem through use of two computer programs designed primarily for the analysis of waste disposal problems. One program (MARIAH) provides descriptions of the temperature and velocity fields induced by the presence of a container of thermally active nuclear waste. A second program (IONMIG), which utilizes the results of the thermal analysis, is used to provide predictions for the migration of four representative radionuclides: 239 Pu, 137 Cs, 129 I, and 99 Tc

  17. Agreement between the Government of Australia and the European Atomic Energy Community concerning transfer of nuclear material from Australia to the European Atomic Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This agreement applies to nuclear material transferred from Australia to the Community for peaceful purposes. Provisions of the Agreement are complementary to the provisions of any bilateral agreements in force and shall, where appropriate, supersede the provisions of those agreements. The agreement entered into force on 15th January 1982

  18. MMPI screening scales for somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, R D; Brim, J; Guze, S B; Cloninger, C R; Martin, R L; Clayton, P J

    1999-08-01

    44 items on the MMPI were identified which appear to correspond to some of the symptoms in nine of the 10 groups on the Perley-Guze checklist for somatization disorder (hysteria). This list was organized into two scales, one reflecting the total number of symptoms endorsed and the other the number of organ systems with at least one endorsed symptom. Full MMPIs were then obtained from 29 women with primary affective disorder and 37 women with somatization disorder as part of a follow-up study of a consecutive series of 500 psychiatric clinic patients seen at Washington University. Women with the diagnosis of somatization disorder scored significantly higher on the somatization disorder scales created from the 44 items than did women with only major depression. These new scales appeared to be slightly more effective in identifying somatization disorder than the use of the standard MMPI scales for hypochondriasis and hysteria. Further development is needed.

  19. Selection of Norway spruce somatic embryos by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Jari J.; Jokinen, Kari J.

    1993-05-01

    A computer vision system was developed for the classification of plant somatic embryos. The embryos are in a Petri dish that is transferred with constant speed and they are recognized as they pass a line scan camera. A classification algorithm needs to be installed for every plant species. This paper describes an algorithm for the recognition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos. A short review of conifer micropropagation by somatic embryogenesis is also given. The recognition algorithm is based on features calculated from the boundary of the object. Only part of the boundary corresponding to the developing cotyledons (2 - 15) and the straight sides of the embryo are used for recognition. An index of the length of the cotyledons describes the developmental stage of the embryo. The testing set for classifier performance consisted of 118 embryos and 478 nonembryos. With the classification tolerances chosen 69% of the objects classified as embryos by a human classifier were selected and 31$% rejected. Less than 1% of the nonembryos were classified as embryos. The basic features developed can probably be easily adapted for the recognition of other conifer somatic embryos.

  20. Transference patron for the calibration of activemeters for use in nuclear medicine; Patron de transferencia para la calibracion de activimetros de uso en medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A; Garcia D, O C; Ortiz P, I; Becerril V, A [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Patrones Radiactivos, Departamento de Metrologia, A.P. 18-1027. C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    With the object to improve the calibration service of the activemetersof the users (nuclear medicine centres) so internal as external users at ININ and initiating the establishment of the traceability of the activity measures that carry out in the country, with respect to the National Patron of Nuclear Activity No. ININ-PNM-2, it is initiated the characterization and the performance control of the activemeter make Capintec, model CRC-7BT of the laboratory of Radioactive Patrons (LPR) of the Department of Metrology for to convert it in a transference patron. This characterization and control are based in the sustained review of the activemeter calibration for the I-131, Mo-99 and Sm-153 radioisotopes with activities from 100 mCi until some {mu} Ci and the Tc-99m, In-111, Tl-201, Ga-67, Cs-137, Co-60, and Ba-133 with activities of the range of some {mu} Ci. To verify the good performance of the instrument it was revised the linearity of its scale, the stability of readings, the variation of readings respect of the source position inside the activemeter well and it was determined the calibration factors for each one of the radiosotopes mentionated. The radioactive sources of mid-short life that are used which consist in radioactive solutions of 10 cm{sup 3} contained in polyethylene small bottles of 25 cm{sup 3} elaborated in the LPR and whose activity is measured with respect to the National Patron ININ-PNM-2. The sources of mid-large life are ampoules with 5 cm{sup 3} of radioactive solution, calibrated in activity by the primary laboratory, LNHB (formerly LMRI) of France. (Author)