WorldWideScience

Sample records for somalia east africa

  1. Global media and violence in Africa : The case of Somalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued that Africa has been sidelined in the global ICT revolution and that African societies appear to be cut off from global flows of information. Nevertheless, the manner in which war was waged in Somalia between 1991 and 1994 indicates that this global revolution has affected the

  2. The present-day epidemiological situation in the Horn of Africa on the example of Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    This article presents information on the environmental hazards prevailing in Somalia and recommends a health prophylaxis in connection with a potential deployment of Polish Military Contingent to this part of the world. Somalia is a country located in the eastern part of Africa, in the so-called Horn of Africa. The country has been continuously at war for over two decades. Because of its much-devastated municipal and industrial infrastructure, widespread famine and limited access of the local people to healthcare it is considered one of the countries where living conditions are extremely difficult. Epidemiological indexes in Somalia are the worst in the world, and the Somali citizens are entirely dependent on foreign humanitarian assistance. At present, three different military operations, under the auspices of international organizations, have been carried out on the soil and the territorial waters: the European Union Naval Force Somalia--Operation Atlanta, the NATO Operation Ocean Shield, and the biggest of the three--the UN peacekeeping mission AMISOM with 9,5 thousand African troops, mainly from Uganda and Burundi). Despite their presence, the situation of the civilian population is critical. If the number ofpeacekeeping and stabilization troops deployed to the Horn of Africa is increased, it is very likely that Polish soldiers will also get involved in the military operations in Somalia. because of a strong possibility that following European military contingents are going to be relocated to East Africa to carry out the mandatory tasks, in relation to the occurrence of difficult climatic conditions and low sanitary standards, it is necessary to undertake appropriate preventive measures before the departure (compulsory/recommended vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, stocks of medicines to be taken by soldiers for an extended period of time, prevention and treatment kits), throughout the deployment (acclimatization, avoiding alcohol, water and

  3. Kinematics of the Ethiopian Rift and Absolute motion of Africa and Somalia Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Ethiopian Rift (ER), in the northern part of East African Rift System (EARS), forms a boundary zone accommodating differential motion between Africa and Somalia Plates. Its orientation was influenced by the inherited Pan-African collisional system and related lithospheric fabric. We present the kinematics of ER derived from compilation of geodetic velocities, focal mechanism inversions, structural data analysis, and construction of geological profiles. GPS velocity field shows a systematic eastward magnitude increase in NE direction in the central ER. In the same region, incremental extensional strain axes recorded by earthquake focal mechanism and fault slip inversion show ≈N1000E orientation. This deviation between GPS velocity trajectories and orientation of incremental extensional strain is developed due to left lateral transtensional deformation. This interpretation is consistent with the en-échelon pattern of tensional and transtensional faults, the distribution of the volcanic centers, and the asymmetry of the rift itself. Small amount of vertical axis blocks rotation, sinistral strike slip faults and dyke intrusions in the rift accommodate the transtensional deformation. We analyzed the kinematics of ER relative to Deep and Shallow Hot Spot Reference Frames (HSRF). Comparison between the two reference frames shows different kinematics in ER and also Africa and Somalia plate motion both in magnitude and direction. Plate spreading direction in shallow HSRF (i.e. the source of the plumes locates in the asthenosphere) and the trend of ER deviate by about 27°. Shearing and extension across the plate boundary zone contribute both to the style of deformation and overall kinematics in the rift. We conclude that the observed long wavelength kinematics and tectonics are consequences of faster SW ward motion of Africa than Somalia in the shallow HSRF. This reference frame seems more consistent with the geophysical and geological constraints in the Rift. The

  4. Somalia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    Dette brief vil forsøge at give et overblik over den nyeste udvikling i konfl ikten i Somalia samt give et bud på, hvilke perspektiver konfl ikten giver for USA og Danmark. Transitional Federal Government (TFG) har vundet en klar militær sejr over United Islamic Courts (UIC), men der udestår nogle...... væsentlige udfordringer. De to vigtigste er etablering af lov og orden, begyndende i de store byer, dernæst skabe legitimitet og accept i den somaliske befolkning, blandt andet via frigørelse af etiopisk støtte og afholdelse af valg. Somalia slipper ikke for udenlandsk indblanding fra den ene dag til den...... anden, men der kan være et håb om, at IGAD1 Peace Support Operation to Somalia2 (IGASOM) kommer ind hurtigst muligt med solid støtte, idet en effektiv indsættelse vil være et markant signal i hele regionen. Den amerikanske strategi i Afrika peger i retning af en markant tilstedeværelse og støtte på...

  5. Brief communication: Drought likelihood for East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Huntingford, Chris

    2018-02-01

    The East Africa drought in autumn of year 2016 caused malnutrition, illness and death. Close to 16 million people across Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya needed food, water and medical assistance. Many factors influence drought stress and response. However, inevitably the following question is asked: are elevated greenhouse gas concentrations altering extreme rainfall deficit frequency? We investigate this with general circulation models (GCMs). After GCM bias correction to match the climatological mean of the CHIRPS data-based rainfall product, climate models project small decreases in probability of drought with the same (or worse) severity as 2016 ASO (August to October) East African event. This is by the end of the 21st century compared to the probabilities for present day. However, when further adjusting the climatological variability of GCMs to also match CHIRPS data, by additionally bias-correcting for variance, then the probability of drought occurrence will increase slightly over the same period.

  6. Brief communication: Drought likelihood for East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The East Africa drought in autumn of year 2016 caused malnutrition, illness and death. Close to 16 million people across Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya needed food, water and medical assistance. Many factors influence drought stress and response. However, inevitably the following question is asked: are elevated greenhouse gas concentrations altering extreme rainfall deficit frequency? We investigate this with general circulation models (GCMs. After GCM bias correction to match the climatological mean of the CHIRPS data-based rainfall product, climate models project small decreases in probability of drought with the same (or worse severity as 2016 ASO (August to October East African event. This is by the end of the 21st century compared to the probabilities for present day. However, when further adjusting the climatological variability of GCMs to also match CHIRPS data, by additionally bias-correcting for variance, then the probability of drought occurrence will increase slightly over the same period.

  7. Islamic NGOs in Africa and their notion of development. The case of Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Saggiomo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available After briefly describing the origins of Islamic NGOs in Africa and the factors that boosted their growth during the last three decades, this chapter will discuss their notion of development and their understanding of basic development concepts such as the human rights and the needs’ approach. It will then review the strategic approaches used by Islamic NGOs to achieve development, using Somalia as a case study for confirming the nexus between migrations and the diffusion of Islamic NGOs in Africa, identified by Salih and Weiss, and for advancing the thesis that Islamic NGOs promote a private welfare system in developing countries.

  8. Immunizing nomadic children and livestock--Experience in North East Zone of Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Abshir Hirsi, Abdirisak; Belayneh, Asalif; Clark-Hattingh, Marianne; Adams, Clement; Abed, Payenda; Kyeyune, Brenda; Ahmed, Tajudin; Salih, Mohamed; Biaou, Cyprien; Toure, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Nomads and pastoralists represent around 30% of the population of North East zone of Somalia (Puntland) and have very limited access to basic health including immunization. During the 2013-2014 polio outbreak in Somalia, an increase number of polio cases notified health services among these underserved communities highlighted the urgent need to devise innovative strategies to reach them. Harnessing the high demand for veterinary services among pastoralist communities, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Livestock, with support from UNICEF, WHO and FAO launched an integrated human and animal vaccination campaign on 19 October 2014. Over 30 days, 20 social mobilizers conducted shelter to shelter social mobilization and interpersonal communication for nomadic/pastoralist hamlets, 20 human vaccination teams, accompanied by local community elders, traveled with animal vaccination teams to administer polio and measles vaccination to pastoralist communities in the 5 regions of Puntland. 26,393 children (0 to 10 years) received Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) out of which 34% for the first time ever; 23,099 were vaccinated against measles. and 12,556 Vitamin A. Despite various operational challenges and a significantly higher operational cost of $6.2 per child reached with OPV, the integrated human and animal vaccination campaign was effective in reaching the unvaccinated children from nomadic and pastoralist communities of Somalia.

  9. Immunizing nomadic children and livestock – Experience in North East Zone of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Abshir Hirsi, Abdirisak; Belayneh, Asalif; Clark-Hattingh, Marianne; Adams, Clement; Abed, Payenda; Kyeyune, Brenda; Ahmed, Tajudin; Salih, Mohamed; Biaou, Cyprien; Toure, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Nomads and pastoralists represent around 30% of the population of North East zone of Somalia (Puntland) and have very limited access to basic health including immunization. During the 2013–2014 polio outbreak in Somalia, an increase number of polio cases notified health services among these underserved communities highlighted the urgent need to devise innovative strategies to reach them. Harnessing the high demand for veterinary services among pastoralist communities, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Livestock, with support from UNICEF, WHO and FAO launched an integrated human and animal vaccination campaign on 19 October 2014. Over 30 days, 20 social mobilizers conducted shelter to shelter social mobilization and interpersonal communication for nomadic/pastoralist hamlets, 20 human vaccination teams, accompanied by local community elders, traveled with animal vaccination teams to administer polio and measles vaccination to pastoralist communities in the 5 regions of Puntland. 26,393 children (0 to 10 years) received Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) out of which 34% for the first time ever; 23,099 were vaccinated against measles. and 12,556 Vitamin A. Despite various operational challenges and a significantly higher operational cost of $6.2 per child reached with OPV, the integrated human and animal vaccination campaign was effective in reaching the unvaccinated children from nomadic and pastoralist communities of Somalia. PMID:26365693

  10. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, Somalia, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindani, Ireneaus; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Falzon, Dennis; Suleiman, Bashir; Arube, Peter; Adam, Ismail; Baghdadi, Samiha; Bassili, Amal; Zignol, Matteo

    2013-03-01

    In a nationwide survey in 2011, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was found in 5.2% and 40.8% of patients with new and previously treated TB, respectively. These levels of drug resistance are among the highest ever documented in Africa and the Middle East. This finding presents a serious challenge for TB control in Somalia.

  11. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Somalia, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindani, Ireneaus; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Falzon, Dennis; Suleiman, Bashir; Arube, Peter; Adam, Ismail; Baghdadi, Samiha; Bassili, Amal

    2013-01-01

    In a nationwide survey in 2011, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was found in 5.2% and 40.8% of patients with new and previously treated TB, respectively. These levels of drug resistance are among the highest ever documented in Africa and the Middle East. This finding presents a serious challenge for TB control in Somalia. PMID:23621911

  12. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The workshop is part of the project: 'Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  13. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  14. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  15. Kulturlandestudie Somalia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokke, Daniel; Bartels, John

    Rapporten er baseret på forskningspublikationer om Somalia og den nord- og østafrikanske region. Rapporten giver baggrundsviden om kulturelle faktorer i Somalia og sammenhænge med den nuværende konflikt.......Rapporten er baseret på forskningspublikationer om Somalia og den nord- og østafrikanske region. Rapporten giver baggrundsviden om kulturelle faktorer i Somalia og sammenhænge med den nuværende konflikt....

  16. Terrorism, War and Conflict, an analysis into the Horn of Africa - Al Shabaab in Somalia; US and UN efforts to reduce violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tase

    2013-01-01

    The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.

  17. Somalia-Yemen links: refugees and returnees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimuna Mohamud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of Yemeni refugees in Somalia are extensively based on the social networks and cultural linkages that exist between the Horn of Africa and Yemen. Meanwhile, Somali refugees returning from Yemen need to find safer areas within Somalia

  18. East Africa Evaluation Hub - Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outcome Mapping is a planning, monitoring and evaluation methodology developed by IDRC and its partners. There is an active global community of Outcome Mapping users, but few of them are in East Africa. A survey of evaluation experts and development organizations in East Africa showed some familiarity with and ...

  19. Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East : Current Practices and Future Needs. Couverture du livre Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East : Current Practices. Directeur(s) : David B. Brooks, Eglal Rached et Maurice Saade. Maison(s) d'édition : CRDI. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Épuisé.

  20. Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East : Current Practices and Future Needs. Couverture du livre Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East : Current Practices. Editor(s):. David B. Brooks, Eglal Rached et Maurice Saade. Publisher(s):. CRDI. January 1, 1997. ISBN: Épuisé. 78 pages.

  1. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports studies have focused on all parts of the world with one exception: the Middle East and North Africa. Nonetheless, sports and particularly soccer has been in various parts of the Middle East key to ...

  2. Dollarization in East Africa: Causes, Consequences, and Future Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sayid Hassan Musse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The dollarization phenomenon has been widespread among the East African countries for many decades. This trend results in several consequences that might be either beneficial or harmful to these countries and their likes.The objective of this research was to empirically examine the causes, consequences and the future scenarios of dollarization in one of the leading regional countries such as Somalia. The research used a survey of over 100respondents and applied descriptive statistics and t-tests to achieve the above objectives. The findings show that the main causes of Dollarization in Somalia are the implementation of the Hawallah (money transfer system,the remarkable absence of the central bank and other monitoring financial authorities, the increasing exports and imports of the Somalian economy, the loss of confidence in the local Somalian Shilling, and the relative ease atwhich the Somalian Shilling can be printed and manipulated by selected market players. These causes are found to be mainly triggered by the revenue from exports, the policies and regulations implemented by the Somali government, the Somali Diaspora, and the international aid organizations. This has resulted in the foreign traders buying Somali goods at a relatively lower price and taking advantage of the depreciated Somali Shilling against most international currencies.

  3. Water Management in Africa and the Middle East: Challenges and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Water Management in Africa and the Middle East: Challenges and ... key issues and trends, and map out strategies for further research and action. ... and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  4. Decision enhancement for poultry farmers in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwebaze, Rebecca Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to economic viability towards agriculture has seen commercial poultry farms in East Africa evolve from the previously common small holder/backyard poultry production operations. These poultry farms have however been faced with numerous challenges including high disease

  5. The gravity field of the Red Sea and East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Jannis; Henke, Christian H.; Egloff, Frank; Akamaluk, Thomas

    1991-11-01

    Reevaluation of all gravity data from the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden and East Africa permitted the compilation of a new Bouguer anomaly map. The intensity of the gravity field and its regional pattern correlate closely with the topographic features of the region. The maximum Bouguer values (> + 100 mGal) are located over the median troughs of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Dense juvenile oceanic crust in these rifts and intruding magmas in stretched continental areas produce excess mass responsible for the anomaly highs. In the Red Sea the orientation of the gravity highs is NW-SE in the south, turning to NE-SW in the north, almost parallel to the Aqaba-Dead Sea strike. This pattern reveals that the present basin axis is not identical with that which formed the Tertiary coastal margins and the pre-Red Sea zones of crustal weakness. In the Gulf of Aden, new oceanic crust along the Tadjura Trench and its eastward extension is also expressed in the Bouguer anomaly map by gravity highs and a sharp bending of the isolines. A maximum of approx. +150 mGal is located over the central section of the Sheba Ridge. Bouguer gravity values over the East African and Yemen Plateaus are of the order of -180 to -240 mGal, indicating significant crustal thickening. On the Somali Plateau, the Marda Fault also has a strong gravity signature that can be traced towards Somalia. By constraining crustal thickness and structure with seismic data and density values from the velocity distribution by means of the Nafe-Drake and Birch relationships, we computed density models for the crust and upper mantle. The crustal thickness is of the order of 40 km beneath the plateaus and only 5 to 6 km at the oceanized parts in the central and southern portions of the Red Sea median trough. The flanks of the southern Red Sea and the corresponding Arabian side are underlain by 12 to 16 km thick stretched continental type crust. Oceanization offshore Sudan and Egypt is asymmetrical. The continental crust

  6. Protected Areas: Mixed Success in Conserving East Africa's Evergreen Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D.; Swetnam, Ruth D.; Platts, Philip J.; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa ...

  7. Firm Productivity and Infrastructure Costs in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Iimi, Atsushi; Humphrey, Richard Martin; Melibaeva, Sevara

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructure is an important driving force for economic growth. It reduces trade and transaction costs and stimulates the productivity of the economy. Africa has been lagging behind in the global manufacturing market. Among others, infrastructure is an important constraint in many African countries. Using firm-level data for East Africa, the paper reexamines the relationship between firm ...

  8. Management of Water Demand in Africa and the Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Throughout Africa and the Middle East, supplies of fresh water for growing and ... As well, additional sources of supply are becoming scarce and more expensive to ... This publication documents WDM research activities in North Africa and the ... Adaptation strategies for two Colombian cities were discussed at ADAPTO's ...

  9. Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence in East Africa: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Empirical data on malaria endemicity are rarely available for public domain use to guide effective malaria control. This paper describes the work carried in East Africa since 1997 as part of a pan-African collaboration to map the risk of malaria, Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa (MARA) aimed at redressing deficiency ...

  10. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports

  11. Urban Chikungunya in the Middle East and North Africa: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Humphrey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA is not well characterized despite increasing recognition of its expanding infection and disease burden in recent years.Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed records describing the human prevalence and incidence, CHIKV prevalence/infection rates in vectors, outbreaks, and reported cases for CHIKV across the MENA region. We identified 29 human seroprevalence measures, one human incidence study, one study reporting CHIKV infection rates in Aedes, and nine outbreaks and case reports/series reported in the MENA from 1970-2015. Overall, anti-CHIKV antibody or reports of autochthonous transmission were identified from 10 of 23 countries in the MENA region (Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen, with seroprevalence measures among general populations (median 1.0%, range 0-43% and acute febrile illness populations (median 9.8%, range 0-30%. Sudan reported the highest number of studies (n = 11 and the highest seroprevalence among general populations (median 12%, range 0-43% and undifferentiated acute febrile illness populations (median 18%, range 10-23%. CHIKV outbreaks were reported from Djibouti, Pakistan, Sudan, and Yemen.Seroprevalence studies and outbreak reports suggest endemic transmission of urban cycle CHIKV in at least the Red Sea region and Pakistan. However, indications of seroprevalence despite a low quantity of CHIKV epidemiologic research from the region suggests that CHIKV transmission is currently underrecognized.

  12. Somalia ... From the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    p. 35. 9. Sahnoun, Somalia, pp. 6–8. 10. Ibid., pp. 9–10; Abul Fazal Md Sanaullah, United Nations’ Operation in Somalia: The Possibility of Success...Abul Fazal Md. United Nations’ Op- eration in Somalia: The Possibility of Success with a Different Approach or Application. Fort Leavenworth, Kans

  13. La Somalia coloniale: una storia ai margini della memoria italiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pandolfo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The historical connection between Somalia and Italy was born in the second half of the XIX century, when Italy showed for the first time interest in the Horn of Africa. Following the establishment of the first colony, the Eritrea, Italians settled along the coast of Somalia and built trading outposts. The effective control of the whole colony came only with the fascist regime, through a harsh military repression. At the end of the Second World War, the United Nations entrusted to Italy a special protectorate over the country: the Italian Fiduciary Government of Somalia (Trust Territory of Somalia.

  14. Portulacaria afra in East AFrica | Newton | Journal of East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. East African Journal of Natural History Vol. 96 (1) 2007: pp. 107-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/0012-8317(2007)96[107:PAIEA]2.0.CO;2 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  15. Hantavirus strains in East Africa related to Western African hantaviruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšíková, Jana; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2017), s. 278-280 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * East Africa * hantavirus * phylogeny * rodents Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016

  16. Middle East and North Africa Data Book, September 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Devarajan, Shanta; Mottaghi, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) data book serves as a quick reference and a reliable dataset for monitoring economic and social developments in the region. The data are drawn from the 2014 World Bank's World Development Indicators (WDI) and International Monetary Fund's (IMF's) direction of trade statistics. It contains macroeconomic, sectoral, and social indicators for 19 countrie...

  17. Seed trichome variation in Hibiscus section Furcaria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The micromorphology of the seed trichomes in Hibiscus section Furcaria in Tropical East Africa was surveyed. The structure of the trichomes was found to be unique for each species examined, where such trichomes are present. Seed trichomes of specimens of H. altissimus Horny from the Kenya and Tanzania coasts were ...

  18. Piracy around Africa's west and east coasts: a comparative political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of politics, or political science, focuses on both the abstract theories and practical operation of government and politics. The phenomenon of piracy on the east and west coasts of Africa brings an important scholarly issue to the fore, namely the significant roles of non-state actors in national, regional and global ...

  19. Reducing the Burden of Cancer in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of CGH is to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to reduce cancer deaths worldwide. To carry out that mission, we facilitate the sharing of knowledge and expertise. CGH's latest effort, the East Africa Cancer Control Leadership Forum, carried out this mission by helping African partners develop their own individual cancer control programs.

  20. Commercial collaborations in East Africa - a partnership perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Ivan Harry; Jørgensen, Birgitte Hvingel

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the accumulation of knowledge gathered by researching in an Action Research perspective, a context specific situation where UCN International Marketing and Trade students interact with commercial businesses with the intention of identifying market opportunities in East Africa...

  1. Middle East and North Africa | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Across the Middle East and North Africa, local economies are under strain, often relying too heavily on the oil industry. ... Our programming is designed to bring together the right partners for the most impact, in areas such as social and economic policy, the environment, politics and governance, information and ...

  2. Consolidating Science Journalism in Africa and the Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to promote health and sustainable development in Africa and the Middle East by building the capacity of the media to inform public opinion and promote evidence-based policymaking. The project will involve training 60 journalists in science reporting and 15 experienced science journalists as trainers in ...

  3. East Africa's diminishing bird habitats and bird species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    foreign exchange earnings for each national exchequer. However, recent national census records have .... Dar-es-. Salaam: Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania. Bennun, L & Njoroge, P. 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya, Nairobi: East Africa Natural. History Society. Byaruhanga, A, Kasoma, P. & Pomeroy, D. 2001.

  4. Social Protection and Vulnerable Communities in East Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social protection mechanisms can reduce poverty and vulnerability, increase work and educational achievement, and promote economic growth. Formal social protection initiatives cover only a small proportion of the population in East Africa - those working in the formal sector. Vulnerable groups - such as the poor and ...

  5. Towards Integrated Pest Management in East Africa : a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Bremmer, J.; Kerklaan, E.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk reduction through registration of less hazardous pesticides and the promotion of nonchemical pest and disease control approaches such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is essential for a more sustainable plant production in East Africa in order to enhance both export market access

  6. Research for Development in the Middle East and North Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book explores the current challenges and opportunities of research for development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. Experts from the region and ... HarassMap et Uber Égypte nouent un partenariat pour sensibiliser la population à la question du harcèlement sexuel. L'organisation HarassMap ...

  7. Water Management in Africa and the Middle East: Challenges and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Water Management in Africa and the Middle East: Challenges and Opportunities. Directeur(s) : Eglal Rached, Eva Rathgeber, and David B. ... HarassMap et Uber Égypte nouent un partenariat pour sensibiliser la population à la question du harcèlement sexuel. L'organisation HarassMap, soutenue par le CRDI, ...

  8. Multiscale perspectives of species richness in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Said, M.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation describes and analyses animal species richness in East Africa from a multi-scale perspective. We studied diversity patterns at sub-continental, national and sub-national level. The study demonstrated that species diversity patterns were scale-dependent. Diversity patterns varied

  9. Geographical imagination and technological connectivity in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark; Andersen, Casper; Mann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares two transformative moments of technologically-mediated change in East Africa, the construction of the Uganda railway between Mombasa and Lake Victoria (1896-1903) and the introduction of fibre-optic cables that landed into the ports of Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa...

  10. Women of the World: Near East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamie, Mary

    The third in a series of five handbooks designed to present and analyze statistical data on women in various regions of the world, this handbook focuses on women in 14 countries in the Near East and North Africa. Beginning with an overview of population distribution and changes in the region, the analysis continues with a description of women's…

  11. Perceptions and Misperceptions: The Middle East and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Tyson, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    Reports findings of a study examining the opinions and awareness level of South African, Israeli, and United States undergraduates about conflicts in either the Middle East or South Africa. Finds religious and racial characteristics determining differences in knowledge level and political support. Reveals South African Blacks and U.S. students…

  12. Zoogeography and biodiversity of syrphidae (Diptera) in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the occurrence of Syrphidae in East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda), based on 5,600 specimen records incorporated in the biodiversity database of the National Museums of Kenya. In total, 219 species are reported from the region with 171 in Kenya, 123 in Tanzania and 127 in Uganda.

  13. Botanical aspects of aloes of north East Africa | Demissew | Bulletin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (1996) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Botanical aspects of aloes of north East Africa.

  14. Analyzing sanitation characteristics in the urban slums of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.C.; Tukahirwa, J.; Mgana, S.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban slums in East Africa exhibit deplorable sanitary conditions. Despite (inter)national efforts, slum sanitation provision remains inadequate and the projected population growth forecasts a worsening of this crisis. The core of the problem is that available knowledge about the local feasibility

  15. Ethnic entrepreneurship and internationalisation in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendert de Bell; Hein Roelfsema; Khalidi Swabiri

    Using the World Bank Enterprise Surveys panel data for the East African Community, this paper analyses the influence of ethnic origin of entrepreneurs on internationalisation and firm performance. Using traditional probit and OLS estimation techniques in combination with matching strategies to

  16. Book Review: Flora of Tropical East Africa | Bytebier | Journal of East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa Edited by H.J. Beentje & S.A. Ghazanfar. Polygalaceae by J. Paiva. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK, 2007. ISBN- 978 1 84246 191 4 (softbound). 61 pages. Dryopteridaceae by J.P. Roux, M. Shaffer-Fehre & B. Verdcourt. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK, 2007.

  17. Danish Interests in Regional Security Institutions in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    For the past decade, peace and security in East Africa have gained increasing focus internationally. The region has experienced armed conflicts, civil wars, rebellion, drought and famine. Yet, at the same time, there is an emerging ambition among a number of African states to handle security issues...... on the continent independently. Such ambitions have fostered a variety of military capacity building programmes supported by external donors. The present report explores how up until now Denmark has sought to contribute to strengthening political and military security in East Africa. This has mainly been done...... through capacity building projects anchored in different regional security institutions. The report illuminates some of the risks that such capacity building projects might confront. Furthermore the report points out some of the challenges that exist in the cooperation between the Ministry of Foreign...

  18. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts.

  19. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pfeifer

    Full Text Available In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2, but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan. We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks. Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337, Nature Reserves (six out of 12 and Game Parks (24 out of 26 were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts.

  20. Great Power Concert: Competition, Cooperation, and Stability in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sudan’s southern areas, prices of white sorghum and wheat flour , a main staple in the country, saw an 80 percent increase from 2011 to 2012, because of...States Agency for International Development, “conflict, constrained access to humanitarian assistance, rising food and non-food prices and an upsurge...world/east.africa.drought_1_food-shortages-al-shabab-food- prices ?_s=PM:WORLD (accessed 18 February 2013). 22 United States Agency for International

  1. At the Crossroads : ICT Policy Making in East Africa | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At the Crossroads : ICT Policy Making in East Africa. Couverture du livre At the Crossroads : ICT Policymaking in East Africa. Directeur(s) : Florence Etta et Laurent Elder. Maison(s) d'édition : East African Educational Publishers, CRDI. 1 janvier 2005. ISBN : 9966254390. 336 pages. e-ISBN : 1552502198. Téléchargez le ...

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report from Sub-Saharan Africa, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa...

  3. Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture

    Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile

  4. Counterinsurgency in Somalia: Lessons Learned from the African Union Mission in Somalia, 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    a lack of proper diet and hygiene.236 The mission’s personnel were left to carry out a hugely dangerous set of tasks without key enablers including...Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Malaysia , Netherlands, Norway, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan

  5. DOES FAMILY BACKGROUND MATTER FOR LEARNING IN EAST AFRICA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Schipper, Youdi

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which differences in family background characteristics explain differences in learning outcomes between children captures the extent of equality in educational opportunities. This study uses large-scale data on literacy and numeracy outcomes for children of school age across East....... Even so, family background does not fully explain why children of school starting age display large differences in learning between countries....... Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) to investigate the contribution of family background to learning differences. We find that learning differences between children from less-advantaged households and those from more-advantaged households equals around one year or more of effective learning on average...

  6. Plio-Pleistocene aardvarks (Mammalia, Tubulidentata from East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lehmann

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tubulidentata are unique among mammals for being the only order represented nowadays by a single living species, Orycteropus afer: the aardvark. Nevertheless, it is one of the least studied mammalian orders. Aardvarks are currently distributed all over sub-Saharan Africa, but the fossil record extends their spatial range to Europe and Asia. The earliest known Tubulidentata are ca. 20 million years old. About 14 species and three to four genera have been recognised so far, but since the late Pliocene, aardvarks have only been represented by a single genus and are restricted to Africa. The extant aardvark is the only species of Tubulidentata with a large distribution area, i.e. the African continent. There are three known Plio-Pleistocene African species of aardvark: Orycteropus afer (Pallas, 1766, O. crassidens MacInnes, 1956, and O. djourabensis Lehmann et al., 2004. Fossils of these species have been discovered in North-Africa, Kenya, and Chad respectively. The present study is focused on the aardvark material found in the Plio-Pleistocene of East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya. New specimens from Asa Issie (Ethiopia and East Turkana (Kenya are described, and published ones are re-examined in the light of the latest discoveries. This study demonstrates that Kenyan specimens identified as O. crassidens are in fact representatives of the Chadian O. djourabensis. Moreover, additional material from Ethiopia and Kenya shows a close relationship with the latter species too. The presence of specimens of O. djourabensis in Chad and in Kenya during the Plio-Pleistocene implies that this taxon is the oldest-known species of aardvark to have experienced a continental dispersal. It also shows that Tubulidentates were able to cross Africa from east-west during Plio-Pleistocene times, despite the presence of the Rift Valley. It is however not possible to infer the centre of origin of O. djourabensis. Finally, this study suggests that two species of aardvark

  7. Mineral facilities of Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eros, J.M.; Candelario-Quintana, Luissette

    2006-01-01

    This map displays over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. The data used in this poster were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbook (Africa and Middle East volume), Minerals Statistics and Information from the USGS Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists. See Table 1 for general information about each mineral facility site including country, location and facility name, facility type, latitude, longitude, mineral commodity, mining method, main operating company, status, capacity, and units.

  8. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield; Funk, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period

  9. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.

  10. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Anderson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010–2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI surface energy balance algorithm, and physically based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the

  11. The springboks in East Africa: the role of 1 SA Survey Company ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The springboks in East Africa: the role of 1 SA Survey Company (SAEC) in the East African campaign of World War II, 1940–1941. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... As a member of the British Commonwealth, South Africa was part of Britain's war effort from September 1939 onward. When Italy ...

  12. Crustal evolution in north-east and east Africa from model Nd ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, N.B.W.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Ries, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors present the results of an Nd isotope study on the major rock units of the Pan-African (1,100-500 Myr BP) terrane. Charnockites from Jabel Uweinat, a basement inlier at the junction of Egypt, Libya and the Sudan, yield middle Archaean model Nd ages, whilst model ages of < 1,200 Myr have been obtained in a belt from the Eastern Desert of Egypt to north-west Kenya. Overall, the Pan-African rocks from north-east and east Africa and those from the Damara of Namibia exhibit a wide range of epsilonsub(Nd)(T) from +7.5 to -18.0 which reflects regional changes in tectonic style and is not readily reconciled with simple models for the evolution of average continental crust. (author)

  13. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Chaabna

    Full Text Available To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen.Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five.We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%, 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9% and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%, respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4% in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients, pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2% in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men, pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9% in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8% in Sudan.National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

  14. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabna, Karima; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five. We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%), 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9%) and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%), respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4%) in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients), pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2%) in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men), pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9%) in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8%) in Sudan. National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

  15. Coronary artery disease in Africa and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurdi MI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wael Almahmeed1, Mohamad Samir Arnaout2, Rafik Chettaoui3, Mohsen Ibrahim4, Mohamed Ibrahim Kurdi5, Mohamed Awad Taher6, Giuseppe Mancia71Heart and Vascular Institute, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 2American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 3General and Cardiovascular Clinic of Tunis, Tunisia; 4Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 5King Khalid University Hospital and The Kingdom Hospital, Saudi Arabia; 6Ain Shams University School of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 7University of Milan, Bicocca, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Countries in Africa and the Middle East bear a heavy burden from cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of coronary heart disease is promoted in turn by a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and sedentary lifestyles. Patients in Africa and the Middle East present with myocardial infarction at a younger age, on average, compared with patients elsewhere. The projected future burden of mortality from coronary heart disease in Africa and the Middle East is set to outstrip that observed in other geographical regions. Recent detailed nationally representative epidemiological data are lacking for many countries, and high proportions of transient expatriate workers in countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates complicate the construction of such datasets. However, the development of national registries in some countries is beginning to reveal the nature of coronary heart disease. Improving lifestyles (reducing calorie intake and increasing physical activity in patients in the region will be essential, although cultural and environmental barriers will render this difficult. Appropriate prescribing of pharmacologic treatments is essential in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. In particular, recent controversies relating to the therapeutic profile of beta-blockers may have reduced their use. The

  16. Predictability of rainy season onset and cessation in east Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, B.-M.

    2012-04-01

    PREDICTABILITY OF RAINY SEASONS ONSET AND CESSATION IN EAST AFRICA Boyard-Micheau Joseph, joseph.boyard-micheau@u-bourgogne.fr Camberlin Pierre, Kenya and northern Tanzania mainly display bimodal rainfall regimes, which are controlled by the annual migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone on both sides of the equator. In the low-income, semi-arid areas, food security is highly dependent on cereal yields (maize, millet and sorghum). Vulnerability is aggravated by the fact that these crops are mostly rainfed, and rely on the performance of the two, relatively brief rainy seasons. This performance depends on a combination of several rainy season characteristics, or rainfall descriptors, such as the onset and cessation dates of the rains, the frequency of rainy days, their intensity and the occurrence of wet/dry spells. The prediction of these descriptors some time (>15 days) before the real onset of the rainy season can be seen as a useful tool to help in the establishment of agricultural adaptation strategies. The main objective consists to understand linkages between regional variability of these rainfall descriptors and global modes of the climate system, in order to set up efficient predictive tools based on Model Output Statistics (MOS). The rainfall descriptors are computed from daily rainfall data collected for the period 1961-2001 from the Kenya Meteorological Department, the IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Center and the Tanzania Meteorological Agency. An initial spatial coherence analysis assesses the potential predictability of each descriptor, permitting eventually to eliminate those which are not spatially coherent, on the assumption that low spatial coherence denotes low potential predictability. Rainfall in East Africa simulated by a 24-ensemble member of the ECHAM 4.5 atmospheric general circulation model is compared with observations, to test the reproducibility of the rainfall descriptors. Canonical Correlation Analysis is next used to

  17. Astronomy in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Recent turbulent events in the Middle East and North Africa have influenced all aspects of life. Education in general, including astronomy, teaching and research has all been greatly affected. In this presentation, the current situation regarding astronomy in this region is reviewed in detail. This is based on visits made to Tunisia and Algeria recently on behalf of the IAU and other visits to Iraq, Qatar, Egypt and Jordan in recent years, as well as on discussions and communications with astronomers, officials and astronomical and educational institutes in the region. Discussions have also been established with astronomers from Iran, Oman and Morocco. Ideas and proposals will be presented on the best ways for the IAU and the international academic community to help under these circumstances.

  18. Natural gas survey, middle east and North Africa, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This book provides an exhaustive, unrivaled and quarterly updated analysis of the gas industry in the Arab countries and Iran. In addition to the country-by-country reports, it includes a regional overview section on the objectives and priorities of the national companies: ADNOC, EGAS, NIGC, NOC, PDO, QATARGAS, RASGAS, SAUDI ARAMCO, SONATRACH, etc... It includes: 18 country reports, 51 maps illustrating gas fields and facilities, as well as 62 tables and 87 graphs, and 2420 addresses of oil and gas companies operating in the Middle East and North Africa, with contact names, e-mail, phone and fax numbers. Each country report outlines the government policy, reserves, production, field development, foreign companies involved, export schemes, domestic consumption, etc

  19. Seasonal Forecast Skill And Teleconnections Over East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, D.; Palmer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Many people living in East Africa are significantly exposed to risks arising from climate variability. The region experiences two rainy seasons and poor performance of either or both of these (such as seen recently in 2016/17) reduces agricultural productivity and threatens food security. In combination with other factors this can lead to famine. By utilizing seasonal climate forecasts, preparatory actions can be taken in order to mitigate the risks arising from such climate variability. As part of the project ForPAc: "Towards forecast-based preparedness action", we are working with humanitarian agencies in Kenya to build such early warning systems on subseasonal-to-seasonal timescales. Here, the seasonal predictability and forecast skill of the two East African rainy seasons will be presented. Results from the new ECMWF operational forecasting system SEAS5 will be shown and compared to the previous System 4. Analysis of a new 110 year long atmosphere-only simulation will also be discussed, demonstrating impacts of atmosphere-ocean coupling as well as putting operational forecast skill in a long-term context. Particular focus will be given to the model representation of teleconnections of seasonal climate with global sea surface temperatures; highlighting sources of forecast error and informing future model development.

  20. A spring forward for hominin evolution in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Mark O; Ashley, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa.

  1. Somalia: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Somalia begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Somali, the official language, and three languages previously used officially: English, Italian, and Arabic. The cultural context that for many years has supported the usage of a single native language for communication and administration is also…

  2. CASE STUDY: North Africa and Middle East — Breeding better barley

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: North Africa and Middle East — Breeding better barley — together ... In Syria, for example, "host farmers" in nine communities were ... and Yemen, the same approach is being applied to research on lentils.

  3. Water: The Hydraulic Parameter of Conflict in the Middle East and North Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiser, Stephen D

    2000-01-01

    ...). Water is a primary concern of most governments in the Middle East and North Africa. A myriad of synergistic variables are exponentially increasing demands for water, while simultaneously decreasing the region's ability to supply...

  4. Evaluating ESA CCI Soil Moisture in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), however these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we use East Africa as a case study to evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM). Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we found substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies were well correlated (R greater than 0.5) with modeled, seasonal soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons at seasonal time scales to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can add information to a convergence of evidence framework that traditionally relies on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  5. Natural gas in the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enay, P.

    1997-02-01

    Natural Gas in the Middle East and North Africa gives an in-depth country-by-country survey of both the region's ambitious gas development plans and the problems it faces. It provides details of production costs, the extent and accessibility of gas reserves and the degree of host government support. The report addresses all the essential questions surrounding investment opportunities in this area and guides you through gas demand in the region. It also includes a detailed study of 11 major gas producing and consuming countries in the area, covering: Algeria; Egypt; Iran; Kuwait; Libya; Oman; Qatar; Saudia Arabia; Syria; UAE; Yemen. The report is divided into two sections for ease of use. The first section examines the demand factors for the region's gas exports, the second provides details of gas exploitation programmes in individual countries. The report also provides you with details of: gas reserves, production and use - a country-by-country review; maps of major pipelines - internal networks and export routes; growth in international gas trade; political and fiscal analysis - key to measuring investment risk and short- to medium-term political stability; and major limitations to the region's gas development - geography, political instability and US geopolitical influence in the region. (author)

  6. Participatory Aspirations of Environmental Governance in East Africa - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas N. Kimani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available New ways of thinking about governance are challenging our basic understandings about how we organise ourselves in a world that is increasingly characterised by uncertainty, ambiguity and unpredictability, and about how we should organise ourselves (emphasis added. Through consideration of developments in East Africa under the auspices of a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP-administered project, the Partnership for Development of Environmental Laws and Institutions (PADELIA, two important considerations clearly stand out. First, in regional approaches to environmental governance law-makers and policy-makers need to go beyond a formalist understanding of governance which lays sole emphasis upon respective countries' institutions and legal frameworks. An appreciation of the extent to which shared understandings and common approaches to problem-solving may be tempered by contingent social, cultural and political circumstances is also necessary. Secondly, given the present trend in environmental governance where governmental authority is increasingly shifting away from state institutions towards civil actors, ever-increasing opportunities are presented to civil actors to shape and reshape their environmental laws and policy. As a result, what is left is for these actors is to be proactive and to take more initiative in safeguarding their own environment.

  7. Conservation as a Core Asset for Livelihood Security in East Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to help rural households and decision-makers better understand conservation and biodiversity as key components of rural livelihood improvement strategies and security in East Africa and the Horn of Africa. It will do so by documenting lessons learned by rural communities on the linkages between ...

  8. African Postal Heritage : Tanzania 1885-1920s : part I : German East Africa, 1885-1914

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    An earlier version of this African Postal Heritage Paper was published as African Studies Centre Leiden Working Paper 119 / 2015: "A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies; III Deutsch Ostafrika / German East Africa", written by Ton Dietz.

  9. Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jager, de, A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile soil and balanced soil nutrient management are major foundations for sustainable food production, contribute to a sound management of natural resources and assist in controlling environmental degradation such ...

  10. Climate change in Africa and the Middle East in light of health ubuntu and Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus Metz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article principally addresses the likely effects of global warming on health in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, northern Africa and the Middle East as well as how medical professionals, such as doctors, nurses, bioethicists and public health researchers, should respond to them in light of ubuntu and Islam, values characteristically held in those regions.

  11. Climate change in Africa and the Middle East in light of health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article principally addresses the likely effects of global warming on health in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, northern Africa and the Middle East as well as how medical professionals, such as doctors, nurses, bioethicists and public health researchers, should respond to them in light of ubuntu and Islam, ...

  12. Climate change in Africa and the Middle East in light of health, ubuntu and Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus Metz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article principally addresses the likely effects of global warming on health in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, northern Africa and the Middle East as well as how medical professionals, such as doctors, nurses, bioethicists and public health researchers, should respond to them in light of ubuntu and Islam, values characteristically held in those regions.

  13. Natural hybrids in the genus of Aloe (Aloeaceae) in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural hybrids can arise in the genus Aloe because their chief pollinators, sunbirds, are not species-specific when feeding on nectar. From literature and the observations of the writer and others, 16 cases of known or suspected natural interspecific hybrids in East Africa are recorded. Journal of East African Natural History ...

  14. Neonatal mortality in East Africa and West Africa: a geographic analysis of district-level demographic and health survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue C. Grady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Under-five child mortality declined 47% since 2000 following the implementation of the United Nation’s (UN Millennium Development Goals. To further reduce under-five child mortality, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs will focus on interventions to address neonatal mortality, a major contributor of under-five mortality. The African region has the highest neonatal mortality rate (28.0 per 1000 live births, followed by that of the Eastern Mediterranean (26.6 and South-East Asia (24.3. This study used the Demographic and Health Survey Birth Recode data (http://dhsprogram.com/data/File-Types-and-Names.cfm to identify high-risk districts and countries for neonatal mortality in two sub-regions of AfricaEast Africa and West Africa. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were estimated to capture the spatially varying relationships between neonatal mortality and dimensions of potential need i care around the time of delivery, ii maternal education, and iii women’s empowerment. In East Africa, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with home births, mothers without an education and mothers whose husbands decided on contraceptive practices, controlling for rural residency. In West Africa, neonatal mortality was also significantly associated with home births, mothers with a primary education and mothers who did not want or plan their last child. Importantly, neonatal mortality associated with home deliveries were explained by maternal exposure to unprotected water sources in East Africa and older maternal age and female sex of infants in West Africa. Future SDG-interventions may target these dimensions of need in priority high-risk districts and countries, to further reduce the burden of neonatal mortality in Africa.

  15. Case Studies on Africa and the Middle East | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2016 ... Participatory GIS for resource management in Africa: Taking stock. This ICT4D article series features results from innovative research on participatory geographic information systems (P-GIS) in Africa. View moreParticipatory GIS for resource management in Africa: Taking stock ...

  16. Rethinking health sector procurement as developmental linkages in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Maureen; Tibandebage, Paula; Karimi Njeru, Mercy; Kariuki Kungu, Joan; Israel, Caroline; Mujinja, Phares G M

    2018-03-01

    Health care forms a large economic sector in all countries, and procurement of medicines and other essential commodities necessarily creates economic linkages between a country's health sector and local and international industrial development. These procurement processes may be positive or negative in their effects on populations' access to appropriate treatment and on local industrial development, yet procurement in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains under-studied: generally analysed, when addressed at all, as a public sector technical and organisational challenge rather than a social and economic element of health system governance shaping its links to the wider economy. This article uses fieldwork in Tanzania and Kenya in 2012-15 to analyse procurement of essential medicines and supplies as a governance process for the health system and its industrial links, drawing on aspects of global value chain theory. We describe procurement work processes as experienced by front line staff in public, faith-based and private sectors, linking these experiences to wholesale funding sources and purchasing practices, and examining their implications for medicines access and for local industrial development within these East African countries. We show that in a context of poor access to reliable medicines, extensive reliance on private medicines purchase, and increasing globalisation of procurement systems, domestic linkages between health and industrial sectors have been weakened, especially in Tanzania. We argue in consequence for a more developmental perspective on health sector procurement design, including closer policy attention to strengthening vertical and horizontal relational working within local health-industry value chains, in the interests of both wider access to treatment and improved industrial development in Africa. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. A long-standing Pleistocene refugium in southern Africa and a mosaic of refugia in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline; Masembe, Charles; Arctander, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Aim Previous genetic studies of African savanna ungulates have indicated Pleistocene refugial areas in East and southern Africa, and recent palynological, palaeovegetation and fossil studies have suggested the presence of a long-standing refugium in the south and a mosaic of refugia in the east....... Phylogeographic analysis of the common eland antelope, Taurotragus oryx (Bovidae), was used to assess these hypotheses and the existence of genetic signatures of Pleistocene climate change. Location The sub-Saharan savanna biome of East and southern Africa. Methods Mitochondrial DNA control-region fragments (414...... bp) from 122 individuals of common eland were analysed to elucidate the phylogeography, genetic diversity, spatial population structuring, historical migration and demographic history of the species. The phylogeographic split among major genetic lineages was dated using Bayesian coalescent...

  18. The influence of European pollution on ozone in the Near East and northern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Duncan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50–150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average >120 μg/m3 or ~60 ppbv in northern Africa and the Near East. We estimate that European ozone pollution is responsible for 50 000 premature mortalities globally each year, of which the majority occurs outside of Europe itself, including 37% (19 000 in northern Africa and the Near East. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern Africa and the Near East, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern Africa and the Near East likely needs to address European emissions.

  19. The Influence of European Pollution on Ozone in the Near East and Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B. N.; West, J. J.; Yoshida, Y.; Fiore, A. M.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50-150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution) of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average greater than 120 micrograms per cubic meters or approximately 60 ppbv) in northern Africa and the Near East. We estimate that European ozone pollution is responsible for 50 000 premature mortalities globally each year, of which the majority occurs outside of Europe itself, including 37% (19 000) in northern Africa and the Near East. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern Africa and the Near East, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern Africa and the Near East likely needs to address European emissions.

  20. Economic analysis of milk production and consumption in the Middle East and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk products are considered as the essential food commodities for humans. Milk products contain essential elements for the human body such as protein, glucose, minerals and vitamins. Moreover, milk is considered the cheapest source of animal protein, an important resource for some related transformation industries and provides employment opportunities for a large number of small producers in both rural and urban areas. The aim of this paper is to analyze the factors which determine the supply and demand for liquid milk (henceforth milk in the Middle East and North Africa in order to point out the main problems and constraints obstructing the milk production in this region. The research also attempts to understand the drivers for the development in milk production in the Middle East and North Africa.Total milk production in the Middle East and North Africa increased from about 12.57 million tons in 1990 to about 25.18 millions tons in 2008. This paper attempts to identify the factors which influence the effectiveness of production, consumption and foreign trade of milk in the Middle East and North Africa. The most important factors affecting consumption is the population, per capita income and produced quantity where a 1% increase in all of them results in increasing the quantity consumed by 1.3%, 2.86% and 0.611%, respectively. Milk sector provides employment opportunities for more than 25% of the working force in some Middle East and North Africa countries.

  1. The Late Quaternary history of climate and vegetation in East and southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. van Zinderen Bakker Sr

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available In the vast region of East and southern Africa the alternating glacial and interglacial periods of the Quaternarv were characterized by considerable changes in temperature and precipitation. During the last glacial maximum the influence of the ITCZ was limited, while the circulation systems were strengthened. The ocean surface waters were cooler and the Benguela Current was activated. In the montane areas of East Africa and also in southern Africa the temperature dropped by about 6°C. During this hypothermal period, rainfall on the east African plateau and mountains diminished. Summer precipitation could still penetrate the eastern half of southern Africa from the Indian Ocean, while the western half was arid to semi-arid. Cyclonic winter rain migrated further north beyond the latitude of the Orange River. The consequences of these climatic changes during the last glacial maximum were that the woodlands of East Africa opened up. On the plateau of South Africa austro-afroalpine vegetation dominated. The south coastal plain was very windy and cold to temperate, while the Namib and Kalahari were respectively hyper-arid and semi-humid. During hyperthermals the vegetation pattern resembled present-day conditions more closely.

  2. PROSECUTING SOMALIA PIRATES AS TERRORISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODHIAMBO E.O.S., ONKWARE K., KASSILLY J., NTABO O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the assumption that piracy resembles terrorism in many aspects and attempts to support it through both a theoretical investigation and practical examples. The argument it makes is that Somali pirates should be prosecuted as terrorists. Moreover, it emphasizes the idea that for Somalia’s neighboring countries and not only the implementation of such an approach consists in resorting to the antiterrorist conventions already in place. Thus, for example, Kenya Navy as a piracyfi ghting agency should rely on these conventions to justify the capture and prosecution of pirates in Kenyan courts. In this respect, we emphasize the idea that only by resorting to an established international legal framework can Kenya identify the tools to counter pirates’ actions within legal limits. Moreover, this should be paralleled by efforts towards rebuilding Somalia and its institutions if long-term solutions are to be envisaged in the eradication of piracy in the Indian Ocean. In conclusion, the article looks at the concepts of piracy, terrorism and development in the Horn of Africa, suggests that piracy is a form of Terrorism and, makes a series of recommendations.

  3. Measuring Entrepreneurial Activity in the Middle East and North Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Total funding. CA$ 678,500. Country(s). Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Project Leader. Dr. Mohamed Derrabi. Institution. Al Akhawayn University. Institution Country. Morocco. Institution Website. http://www.aui.ma. Project Leader. Abedou Abderrahamne. Institution.

  4. Using Satellite Data to Build Climate Resilience: A Novel East Africa Drought Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinski, K.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    East Africa is affected by recurrent drought. The 2015-2016 El Niño triggered a severe drought across East Africa causing serious impacts to regional water security, health, and livelihoods. Ethiopia was the hardest hit, with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs calling the recent drought the worst in 50 years. Resources to monitor the severity and progression of droughts are a critical component to disaster risk reduction, but are challenging to implement in regions with sparse data collection networks such as East Africa. Satellite data is used by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Global Information and Early Warning System, the USAID Famine Early Warning System, and the Africa Drought and Flood Monitor. These systems use remotely sensed vegetation, soil moisture, and meteorological data to develop drought indices. However, they do not directly monitor impacts to water resources, which is necessary to appropriately target drought mitigation efforts. The current study combines new radar data from the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 mission with satellite imagery to perform a retrospective analysis of the impact of the 2015-2016 drought in East Africa on regional surface water. Inland water body extents during the drought are compared to historical trends to identify the most severely impacted areas. The developed tool has the potential to support on-the-ground humanitarian relief efforts and to refine predictions of water scarcity and crop impacts from existing hydrologic models and famine early warning systems.

  5. International trends in health science librarianship part 14: East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathoni, Nasra; Kamau, Nancy; Nannozi, Judith; Singirankabo, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    This is the 14th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. This is the second of four articles pertaining to different regions in the African continent. The present issue focuses on countries in East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda). The next feature column will investigate trends in West Africa. JM. © 2015 Health Libraries Group.

  6. Water Management: in Africa and the Middle East

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There too, despite this availability, numerous water-related problems exist. ... The analogy may be particularly useful for Africa, where a relatively high proportion of ...... The water could then be sold by the pail or other conventional container.

  7. At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in East Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ) policymaking, e-strategies, or indeed e-government implementations have a recent history in Africa, not many countries have fully developed working policies ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  8. Spatial Metadata in Africa and the Middle East

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available , Israel, Jordan, Madagas- car, Morocco, Nigeria, Qatar, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda, Yemen). We have also used the best practices studies of the Environmental Information System Programme for Sub-Saharan Africa (EIS) [EIS 1999..., the governmental authorities responsible for the management and distribution of digital spatial data (from remote sensing sources), on behalf of the public sector, are: • ASECNA: for data with low resolution (e.g.: NOAA and METEOSAT); and • CENATEL: for data...

  9. Creating opportunities for youth in East Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Youth employment is crucial to the development of the East African ... Even those with university degrees and college diplomas often fall ... However, the study shows that there is limited awareness of the benefits of career ...

  10. 2nd East Africa Regional Workshop Report: Conservation Agriculture in AFRICA - Analysing and Foreseeing its Impact - Comprehending its Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Apina, T.; Mkomwa, S.; Mutai, W.; Njeri, A.

    2011-01-01

    This resource provides a summary of the 2nd East Africa Sub-regional workshop held in Nanyuki, Kenya, on 28-30 March 2011. Attendees included the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute (TSBF/AFNET), Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD), LEIBNIZ-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Agricultural Research Institute (ARI) UYOLE, SELIAN Agricultural Research Institute (SARI-MAFC), Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Agr...

  11. Investigating Students' Behavioural Intention to Adopt and Use Mobile Learning in Higher Education in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Raisamo, Roope

    2014-01-01

    Recent penetration of mobile technologies and its services in East Africa has provided a new platform for institutions to widen access to education through mobile learning. Mobile technologies provide learners with flexibility and ubiquity to learn anytime and anywhere via wireless Internet. However, far too little research has been conducted to…

  12. Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Development: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.; Mgana, S.

    2014-01-01

    Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures

  13. Can Your Child Read and Count? Measuring Learning Outcomes in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Schipper, Youdi; Ruto, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The last 15 years have seen major changes to education systems in East Africa. Superficially, there is much to commend. Net primary enrolment rates have risen to over 90% alongside significant improvements in gender equity. Nonetheless, there are growing concerns that better access is not adding ...

  14. Beyond the desertification narrative: a framework for agricultural drought in semi-arid East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, M.F.W.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the 20th century, much research was done on desertification. Desertification developed into a complex and vague construct that means land degradation under specific conditions. Projects focusing on land degradation in semiarid East Africa have met with limited success because farmers prioritize

  15. Coffee Certification in East Africa: Impact on Farmers, Families and Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Donovan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Coffee Certification in East Africa: Impact on Farmers, Families and Cooperatives. Edited by Ruerd Ruben and Paul Hoebink. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2015. 262 pp. US $ 62.00, € 45.00. ISBN 978-90-8686-255-9.

  16. Complete sequence and diversity of a maize-associated Polerovirus in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2011-2012, Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged in East Africa, causing massive yield loss and propelling research to identify viruses and virus populations present in maize. As expected, next generation sequencing (NGS) has revealed diverse and abundant viruses from the family Potyviridae,...

  17. A Developmental Assets Approach in East Africa: Can Swahili Measures Capture Adolescent Strengths and Supports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Christopher F.; Johnson, Laura R.; Kurz, A. Solomon; Scales, Peter C.; Kiliho, Ray P.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Assets-based approaches are well-suited to youth living in majority world contexts, such as East Africa. However, positive psychology research with African adolescents is rare. One hindering factor is the lack of translated measures for conducting research. Objective: This study builds capacity for positive youth development research…

  18. Agroforestry, livestock, fodder production and climate change adaptation and mitigation in East Africa: issues and options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Ian K; Carsan, Sammy; Franzel, Steve

    Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support...

  19. Dietary trends in the Middle East and North Africa: an ecological study (1961 to 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzarand, Mahdieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Jessri, Mahsa; Toolabi, Karamollah; Mojarrad, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-10-01

    Middle Eastern and North African countries are undergoing nutrition transition, a transition which is associated with an increased burden of non-communicable diseases. This necessitates the evaluation of dietary patterns in these regions. The present study aimed to assess changes in dietary patterns in Middle Eastern and North African countries between 1961 and 2007. Availability of energy and fifteen main food items during 1961-2007 was examined using FAO food balance sheets from the FAOSTAT database. Fifteen countries including nine in the Middle East and six in North Africa were selected and the average availability of total energy and different food items in these regions were compared. Over the 47 years studied, energy and food availability (apart from animal fats and alcoholic beverages) has increased in the Middle East and North Africa. In both regions the proportion of energy derived from meat and vegetable oils has increased significantly while that from cereals decreased significantly. In addition, the proportion of energy from milk and dairy products and vegetables has shown an ascending trend in North Africa while the proportion of energy from fruits has shown a descending trend in the Middle East. The study results reveal an unfavourable trend towards a Westernized diet in the Middle East and, to a certain extent, in North Africa. Tailored nutritional education encouraging healthy eating for prevention of the burden of chronic diseases in these countries seems essential.

  20. Water Hyacinth in Africa and the Middle East: A Survey of Problems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... Freshwater infestation by the water hyacinth weed has reached crisis proportions in many areas of Africa and the Middle East. Accumulated environmental, economic, and social damages to date are estimated in the billions of dollars. Most severely affected are riparian communities and those people who ...

  1. Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Middle East and North Africa Climate

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2016-01-01

    Dust-climate interaction over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has long been studied, as it is the "dustiest" region on earth. However, the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the role of dust direct radiative effect on MENA climate

  2. Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shikuku, Kelvin M.; Winowiecki, Leigh; Twyman, Jennifer; Eitzinger, Anton; Perez, Juan G.; Mwongera, Caroline; Läderach, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Adapting to climate risks is central to the goal of increasing food security and enhancing resilience of farming systems in East Africa. We examined farmers’ attitudes and assessed determinants of adaptation using data from a random sample of 500 households in Borana, Ethiopia; Nyando, Kenya;

  3. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In East Africa, Nile perch fish processing into chilled fish fillet for export along Lake Victoria generate large proportions of both solid and liquid wastes. However, no thorough auditing and characterization of the waste has been done that would guide potential value addition through bioconversions and waste management.

  4. An Assessment of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Products Relative to Ground Observations over East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimani, M.W.; Hoedjes, Johannes Cornelis Bernardus; Su, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and consistent rainfall observations are vital for climatological studies in support of better agricultural and water management decision-making and planning. In East Africa, accurate rainfall estimation with an adequate spatial distribution is limited due to sparse rain gauge networks.

  5. Sensors, empowerment, and accountability: a Digital Earth view from East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadou, P.Y.; Bana, Benson; Becht, Robert; Hoppe, Robertus; Ikingura, Justinian; Kraak, M.J.; Lance, Kate; Lemmens, R.; Lungo, Juma Hemed; McCall, M.K.; Miscione, Gianluca; Verplanke, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Several innovative ‘participatory sensing’ initiatives are under way in East Africa. They can be seen as local manifestations of the global notion of Digital Earth. The initiatives aim to amplify the voice of ordinary citizens, improve citizens' capacity to directly influence public service delivery

  6. Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, P.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Terink, W.; Hoogeveen, J.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Debele, B.

    Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. An

  7. Water as a Human Right for the Middle East and North Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-07-11

    Jul 11, 2008 ... Water as a Human Right for the Middle East and North Africa ... Asit K. Biswas is President of the Third World Centre for Water Management, Atizapan, Mexico. ... the International Centre for Water, Zaragoza, Spain and President, International Water Resources Association. ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  8. Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nile perch fish processing waste along Lake Victoria in East Africa: Auditing and characterization. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  9. The determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East North Africa region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogmans, T.J.; Ebbers, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although, there has been increasing interest in the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in emerging markets, FDI into the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region has so far received little attention among academics. The MENA region provides a useful ground for the testing of traditional

  10. Resenha de: Sidney Webb and East Africa: Lavour's Experiment with the doctrine of Native Paramountoy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Fernanda de Almeida Wright

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available GREGORY (Robert G.. — Sidney Webb and East Africa. Lavour's' Experiment with the doctrine of Native Paramountoy. University of California Publications in History. Vol. 72, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1962. Publicação simultânea da Cambridge University Press, London, 1962.

  11. Risk scores for diabetes and impaired glycaemia in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To develop risk scores for diabetes and diabetes or impaired glycaemia for individuals living in the Middle East and North Africa region. In addition, to derive national risk scores for Algeria, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and to compare the performance of the regional risk...

  12. Dengue in the Middle East and North Africa: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphrey, J.M. (John M.); N.B. Cleton (Natalie); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); Glesby, M.J. (Marshall J.); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); L.J. Abu-Raddad (Laith J)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Dengue virus (DENV) infection is widespread and its disease burden has increased in past decades. However, little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Methodology / Principal Findings: Following Cochrane Collaboration

  13. International Terrorism in East Africa: The Case of Kenya 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International terrorism is a significant threat to world peace and security, and as such remains high on the agenda within policy and intelligence circles. In Africa, the notion of terrorism itself can be traced back to anti-colonial struggles whilst the more recent terrorist attacks in Kenya and Tanzania give some indication of the ...

  14. Traditional Music of East Africa: Experiencing "Ngoma" in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ngoma is present throughout Eastern and Southern Africa. Ngoma refers to the tradition of expression via music, drumming, dance, and storytelling. History, values, education, and even identity can be transmitted between generations. This article traces the experiences of a music teacher from the United States traveling and studying…

  15. Further remarks concerning the Little Egret complex in East Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little Egret-like birds that occur in Africa have been the subject of debate for decades, and remain ... morph birds are always present. ii) Bill shape and colour: Little Egret has a long, narrow, straight, black bill compared ... appeared identical with the all-white garzetta, led Hancock & Kushlan (1984) to the hypothesis that they ...

  16. Gender, Land, and Livelihoods in East Africa: Through Farmers' Eyes

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... a professional engineer who has worked on international development projects in both Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. From 1997 to 1999, she worked as a researcher and intern for the International Development Research Centre, in cooperation with the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Programme (UNESCO) in Nairobi, ...

  17. Water Hyacinth in Africa and the Middle East

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mats of floating plants may become stranded on banks and shorelines when the ... fish production and resulting in unemployment and diminished incomes and food for ...... South Africa now hosts the headquarters of the Aquatic Weeds Sector of the ...... Dr A.I. Mograby, Hydrobiological Research Unit, Faculty of Science.

  18. Monitoring inequities in East and Southern Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... While sub-Saharan Africa struggles to improve the health of its women and ... Wealth matters of course – children from the poorest homes are three times ... for its efforts to improve health service provision and the monitoring of ...

  19. Monitoring inequities in East and Southern Africa | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2016 ... While sub-Saharan Africa struggles to improve the health of its women and children, there are great differences within and among countries. The EQUINET research ... And while overall fertility rates are falling, they remain higher among teenage girls from poor and rural areas. Besides tracking these trends, ...

  20. Electricity in the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKie, Alan

    1999-06-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: The Market Private; Power politics: the role of the private sector; Resource base and power options; Finance: Putting together the deal; Regional integration private; Iran; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey Private North Africa; Algeria; Egypt Private; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia GCC and Yemen; Bahrain; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; United Emirates; Yemen Private. (Author)

  1. Adaptation is.... Predicting malaria's changing course in East Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    Health experts say controlling malaria is crucial if the three East African nations are to achieve the UN Millennium. Development Goal of halving the incidence of infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS by 2015. Looking ahead:Prevention and treatment. Improved malaria prediction will be an.

  2. East Africa Evaluation Hub - Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outcome Mapping is a planning, monitoring and evaluation methodology developed by IDRC and its partners. There is an active ... This project will adapt training resources to the East African context and build the capacity of IIRR to become a regional centre of Outcome Mapping training and support. It will also promote the ...

  3. THE INTRASTATE CONFLICT AND ITS EFFECTS TO THE INTERNATIONAL SECURITY: SOMALIA BETWEEN 2007 AND 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO AMIGO TOSSI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current international system there are a number of intra-state situations that prevent the consolidation of a safe global environment. These states are stage of a series of events whose effects go beyond its borders. Somalia represented one of these cases between 2007 and 2010 as a series of internal events generated impacts in its neighbors, the region, and the international system. According to the above, the purpose of this article is “to analyze the cause-effect relationship between phenomena occurring within Somalia and stability of neighboring countries, the Horn of Africa and international security. As a methodology, in a first phase it is described the historical background of Somalia prior to the period analyzed, then it is analyzed internal phenomena that occurred in Somalia relevant from the perspective of international security, and finally, it is stated how these phenomena caused effects on neighboring states, the region’s stability and international security.

  4. Study of the genetic heterogeneity of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-Saharan Africa with specific focus on East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sahle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of serotype SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease was investigated in sub-Saharan Africa by phylogenetic analysis using the 1D gene encoding the major antigenic determinant. Fourteen genotypes were identified of which three are novel and belong to East Africa, bringing the total number of genotypes for that region to eight. The genotypes clustered into three lineages that demonstrated surprising links between East, southern and south-western Africa. One lineage was unique to West Africa. These results established numerous incursions across country borders in East Africa and long term conservation of sequences for periods up to 41 years. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda have all experienced outbreaks from more than one unrelated strain, demonstrating the potential for new introductions. The amount of variation observed within this serotype nearly equalled that which was found between serotypes; this has severe implications for disease control using vaccination.

  5. Near East/North Africa Report, Number 2603

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-17

    Electricity Stations 118 Gum Arabic Belt 118 Popular Development 118 Foreign Exchange Regulating Measures 118 Tombura on HEC Policy 119...Middle East and that this underlines the need for a just solution to the Palestinian problem—a solution that guar - antees the legitimate rights of the...last months of 1360. It must be noted that prices of a number of goods & services, such as cold drinks, washing powder , some cigarettes and telephone

  6. Precipitation Characteristics in West and East Africa from Satellite and in Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Amin K.; Ichoku, Charles M.; Mohr, Karen I.; Huffman, George J.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ data, three precipitation classes are identified for rainy seasons of West and East Africa: weak convective rainfall (WCR), strong convective rainfall (SCR), and mesoscale convective systems (MCSs).Nearly 75% of the total seasonal precipitation is produced by the SCR and MCSs, even though they represent only 8% of the rain events. Rain events in East Africa tend to have a longer duration and lower intensity than in West Africa, reflecting different characteristics of the SCR and MCS events in these two regions. Surface heating seems to be the primary convection trigger for the SCR, particularly in East Africa, whereas the WCR requires a dynamical trigger such as low-level convergence. The data are used to evaluate the performance of the recently launched Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG)project. The IMERG-based precipitation shows significant improvement over its predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), particularly in capturing the MCSs, due to its improved temporal resolution.

  7. Somalia år 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosdal, Anders Glosimodt

    Briefet analyserer den seneste politiske og sikkerhedsmæssige udvikling i Somalia. Bl.a. er en ny præsident, Sharif Sheikh Ahmed med baggrund i de magtfulde islamiske domstole (ICU), blevet valgt og Etiopien har trukket sine styrker ud af landet. Med valget af Ahmed er Somalia tilbage ved...... udgangspunktet i 2006, hvor Ahmed ledte den moderate del af ICU i Somalia. Der er flere positive tegn ved denne nye proces end i 2006, men Ahmed står overfor enorme udfordringer, som ikke helt ligner udfordringerne fra 2006. USA, Etiopien og andre regionale aktører vil holde et vågent øje med udviklingen i...

  8. Security Threats Emerging from the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Çınar, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    The main security threats affecting the Middle East and North African (MENA) region arise from energy insecurity, immigration and terrorism. These threats would remain if authorities and other stake holders do not address the root causes of the problems, which are artificial national borders, authoritarian regimes and lack of pluralist education. This paper suggests that lifting state borders and setting up regional economic communities such as the EU may ease conflicts in the region which ca...

  9. Toward an Ethnoarchaeomalacology of Achatina in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Walz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land snail shell is a material commonly identified in the Late Holocene archaeological record of eastern Africa. Typically, archaeologists designate land snail shell as a natural occurrence or as debris produced from human subsistence. Ethnographic observations in lowland northeastern Tanzania show that contemporary communities employ the soft parts and shells of land snails, particularly Achatina fulica, for a range of everyday and special purposes. The array of land snail uses by mixed subsistence farmers and agropastoralists in the area documents the significance of A. fulica and other robust land snail species. Present uses of land snails observed in Tanzania offer a set of analogies that, when critically applied, can enrich archaeologists’ interpretations of land snail debris in antiquity.

  10. Thermal sensitivity of the crab Neosarmatium africanum in tropical and temperate mangroves on the east coast of Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco; Babbini, Simone; Giomi, Folco; Fratini, Sara; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Daffonchio, Daniele; McQuaid, Christopher David; Porri, Francesca; Cannicci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests are amongst the tropical marine ecosystems most severely affected by rapid environmental change, and the activities of key associated macrobenthic species contribute to their ecological resilience. Along the east coast of Africa

  11. a Heritage Inventory for Documenting Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrick, N.; Zerbini, A.

    2017-08-01

    The heritage of the Middle East and North Africa is under growing threat from a variety of factors, including agricultural expansion, urban development, looting, and conflict. Recording and documenting this heritage is therefore a key priority to aid heritage practitioners tasked with protecting sites and evaluating their condition on the ground. The Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa (EAMENA) project has developed a methodology for the identification, documentation, analysis, and monitoring of sites across the region to aid heritage professionals in these efforts. The project uses remote sensing techniques along with traditional archaeological research and prospection methods to collect data, which are stored and managed in a custom-designed database adapted from open-source Arches v.3 software, using CIDOC CRM standards and controlled vocabularies. In addition to these activities, the EAMENA project has initiated an international conference series and training workshops to support and establish partnerships with heritage professionals and institutions across the region.

  12. A HERITAGE INVENTORY FOR DOCUMENTING ENDANGERED ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sheldrick

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The heritage of the Middle East and North Africa is under growing threat from a variety of factors, including agricultural expansion, urban development, looting, and conflict. Recording and documenting this heritage is therefore a key priority to aid heritage practitioners tasked with protecting sites and evaluating their condition on the ground. The Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa (EAMENA project has developed a methodology for the identification, documentation, analysis, and monitoring of sites across the region to aid heritage professionals in these efforts. The project uses remote sensing techniques along with traditional archaeological research and prospection methods to collect data, which are stored and managed in a custom-designed database adapted from open-source Arches v.3 software, using CIDOC CRM standards and controlled vocabularies. In addition to these activities, the EAMENA project has initiated an international conference series and training workshops to support and establish partnerships with heritage professionals and institutions across the region.

  13. Panorama 2012 - The oil and gas producing countries of North Africa and the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueille, Jean-Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Despite the extent of their reserves, oil production in most countries of the Middle East and North Africa is not likely to increase significantly in the years ahead. Exports from the Middle East, 75% of which are to Asia, and those from North Africa, most of which are focused on Europe, should remain stable overall. The increase in gas production will contribute more to meeting fast-growing domestic demand than to boosting exports. Indeed, many Middle Eastern countries are paradoxically experiencing strains on domestic energy supplies due to energy demand stimulated by energy prices that are generally - and artificially - very low, and the adoption of economic development models based on energy-intensive industries. (author)

  14. East Africa, an oil geopolitics at high risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2012-11-01

    As the Sub-Saharan African oil production has been concentrated in the Guinea Gulf countries since the 1950's, as this region remains the main African oil producer (Maghreb excluded), and as new discoveries has been made in Uganda in 2006 and exploration has been extended to neighbouring countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique), this report first questions the situation of the exploration of the Albert Lake by proposing an overview of intervening actors, by commenting the political use of the debate about oil, by commenting the situation on the Congolese side of the lake, and by commenting how the lake is shared between Uganda and the Republic of Congo. In the next part, the author discusses the use and future of the Ugandan oil by outlining the role of the Essar company in the regional refining, and by evoking projects of regional pipelines. The last part addresses the status of exploration in other East African countries (Kenya, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Mozambique)

  15. Oil and natural gas prospects: Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    The MENA region is endowed with enormous resources of oil and gas, rendering it the world′s richest region in this regard. Endowment differs from one country to another with few countries are almost dry; however the economic benefits proliferated to almost every country in the region. In spite of some doubts being cast about the amount of proven oil reserves, these with improved technology and new discoveries are increasing year after another. With no long term feasible alternatives to oil for transport and the increasing trade in LNG, the region′s importance as a world′s leading supplier of fossil fuels will continue for decades to come. However, these favourable prospects hide many challenges facing the MENA region, among them is the difficulty in mobilizing investment funds for sustaining and increasing output to feed growing global demand. Growing local demand, due to the proliferation of subsides, is another worrying aspect that already caused few countries with modest resources to become oil importers instead of exporters, with larger exporters decreasing their surplus output. The region is also still mainly dependant on foreign technologies and skilled manpower. Regional cooperation in oil and gas networks and electricity interconnections is still modest. The region has a long history of conflict; correspondingly it is a major importer of armaments which is increasingly eating a lot of its surplus income. With the political and social changes presently taking place in many MENA countries, due to the Arab spring and continuation of local conflicts, the sustainability of supplies from the region are increasingly a source of worry to MENA exporters and its many importers. It is also causing increasing involvement of the super powers in regional affairs. - Highlights: • Global oil and gas reserves and prices. • Energy sustainability and the Middle East. • Energy economics and investments in the Middle East

  16. Jobs for Shared Prosperity : Time for Action in the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gatti, Roberta; Morgandi, Matteo; Grun, Rebekka; Brodmann, Stefanie; Angel-Urdinola, Diego; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Marotta, Daniela; Schiffbauer, Marc; Mata Lorenzo, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Arab Spring, when thousands of young women and men fought for the opportunity to realize their aspirations and potential, the question of jobs continues to be crucial in the Middle East and North Africa region. This report uses jobs as a lens to weave together the complex dynamics of employment creation, skills supply, and the institutional environment of labor markets. Consistent with the framework of the 2013 World Development Report on jobs, of which this report is...

  17. Initial impact of integrated agricultural research for development in East and Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nkonya, Ephraim; Kato, Edward; Oduol, Judith; Pali, Pamela; Farrow, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Conventional agricultural research approaches have generated research results with limited adoption rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Recently, a new research approach – integrated agricultural research for development (IAR4D) was introduced in SSA. The IAR4D approach goes beyond the conventional research focus on agricultural production technologies, as it includes marketing and development activities. This paper analyses the impact of IAR4D in the East and Central African region using pa...

  18. Humans and Seagrasses in East Africa : A social-ecological systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela

    2006-01-01

    The present study is one of the first attempts to analyze the societal importance of seagrasses (marine flowering plants) from a Natural Resource Management perspective, using a social-ecological systems (SES) approach. The interdisciplinary study takes place in East Africa (Western Indian Ocean, WIO) and includes in-depth studies in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Natural and social sciences methods were used. The results are presented in six articles, showing that seagrass ecosystems are ri...

  19. Low cost carriers in the Middle East and North Africa: Prospects and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, W.G.; Mason, Keith J.

    2016-01-01

    We examine socio-economic indicators relevant to ‘low cost carriers’ (LCCs) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and review the evolution of air transport liberalization and air service agreements in the region. We analyse the business strategies of MENA-based LCCs and using a benchmarking methodology, we compare the business strategy of Air Arabia Group with those of dominant European LCCs EasyJet and Ryanair. Our economic development indicators suggest future potential for...

  20. An Assessment of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Products Relative to Ground Observations over East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kimani, M.W.; Hoedjes, Johannes Cornelis Bernardus; Su, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and consistent rainfall observations are vital for climatological studies in support of better agricultural and water management decision-making and planning. In East Africa, accurate rainfall estimation with an adequate spatial distribution is limited due to sparse rain gauge networks. Satellite rainfall products can potentially play a role in increasing the spatial coverage of rainfall estimates; however, their performance needs to be understood across space–time scales and factors...

  1. Evolutionary analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 1 isolates from east africa suggests two independent introductions from southern africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangula, Abraham K.; Belsham, Graham; Muwanika, Vincent B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In East Africa, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 1 is responsible for occasional severe outbreaks in livestock and is known to be maintained within the buffalo populations. Little is known about the evolutionary forces underlying its epidemiology in the region. To enhance our...... 1 FMD viruses from East Africa has been determined and compared with known sequences derived from other SAT 1 viruses from sub-Saharan Africa. Purifying (negative) selection and low substitution rates characterized the SAT 1 virus isolates in East Africa. Two virus groups with probable independent...... appreciation of the epidemiological status of serotype SAT 1 virus in the region, we inferred its evolutionary and phylogeographic history by means of genealogy-based coalescent methods using 53 VP1 coding sequences covering a sampling period from 1948-2007. Results: The VP1 coding sequence of 11 serotype SAT...

  2. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  3. Examining the impact of climate change and variability on sweet potatoes in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ddumba, S. D.; Andresen, J.; Moore, N. J.; Olson, J.; Snapp, S.; Winkler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to food security for the rapidly increasing population of East Africa. Rainfall is becoming more variable and temperatures are rising, consequently leading to increased occurrence of droughts and floods, and, changes in the timing and length of growing seasons. These changes have serious implications on crop production with the greatest impact likely to be on C4 crops such as cereals compared to C3 crops such as root tubers. Sweet potatoes is one the four most important food crops in East Africa owing to its high nutrition and calorie content, and, high tolerance to heat and drought, but little is known about how the crop will be affected by climate change. This study identifies the major climatic constraints to sweet potato production and examines the impact of projected future climates on sweet potato production in East Africa during the next 10 to 30 years. A process-based Sweet POTato COMputer Simulation (SPOTCOMS) model is used to assess four sweet potato cultivars; Naspot 1, Naspot 10, Naspot 11 and SPK 004-Ejumula. This is work in progress but preliminary results from the crop modeling experiments and the strength and weakness of the crop model will be presented.

  4. Time series analysis of precipitation and vegetation to detect food production anomalies in the Horn of Africa. The case of Lower Shabelle (Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Belenguer-Plomer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Horn of Africa is one of the most food-insecure locations around the world due to the continuous increase of its population and the practice of the subsistence agriculture. This causes that much of the population cannot take the minimum nutritional needs for a healthy life. Moreover, this situation of food vulnerability may be seriously affected in the coming years due to the effects of climate change. The aim of this work is combine the information about the state of the vegetation that offers the NDVI with rainfall data to detect negative anomalies in food production. This work has been used the monthly products of NDVI MOD13A3 of MODIS and the rainfall estimation product TAMSAT, both during the period 2001-2015. With these products we have calculated the average of the entire time period selected and we have detected the years whose NDVI values were further away from the average, being these 2010, 2011 and 2014. Once detected the years with major anomalies in NDVI, there has been an exclusive monthly analysis of those years, where we have analysed the relationships between the value of NDVI and monthly rainfall, obtaining a direct relationship between the two values. It also has been used crop calendar to focus the analysis in the months of agricultural production and finding that the main cause of anomalies in vegetation is a decrease in the registration of rainfall during the months of agricultural production. This reason explains the origin of the food shortages that occurred in 2010 and 2011 that generated an enormous humanitarian crisis in this area.

  5. Early diagnosis and treatment of ankylosing spondylitis in Africa and the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Bahiri; El Zorkany, Bassel; Youseif, Ehab; Tikly, Mohammed

    2012-11-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the prototype for spondyloarthritis primarily affecting young men. Geographic and ethnic variations exist in the prevalence and severity of AS and relate to the wide disparity in the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27, a major genetic risk factor. The strength of the disease association with HLA-B27 is lower in most Arab populations (25-75 %) than in Western European populations (>90 %), and there is no association in sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of HLA-B27 is Africa, and the high rate of spondyloarthropathies associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Diagnosis of AS is often delayed 8-10 years; potential reasons for the delay in Africa and the Middle East include low awareness among physicians and patients, the requirement for radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis for diagnosis, and limited access to magnetic resonance imaging in some countries. Treatment should be initiated early to prevent or reduce skeletal deformity and physical disability. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are effective first-line treatment and anti-tumor necrosis factor-α drugs are indicated for patients who have an inadequate response to first-line therapy. In Africa and the Middle East, such treatments may be precluded either by cost or contraindicated because of the high prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection. Research is sorely needed to develop cost-effective tools to diagnose AS early as well as effective, inexpensive, and safe treatments for these developing regions.

  6. Role of mantle flow in Nubia-Somalia plate divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Iaffaldano, G.; Calais, E.

    2015-01-01

    Present-day continental extension along the East African Rift System (EARS) has often been attributed to diverging sublithospheric mantle flow associated with the African Superplume. This implies a degree of viscous coupling between mantle and lithosphere that remains poorly constrained. Recent advances in estimating present-day opening rates along the EARS from geodesy offer an opportunity to address this issue with geodynamic modeling of the mantle-lithosphere system. Here we use numerical models of the global mantle-plates coupled system to test the role of present-day mantle flow in Nubia-Somalia plate divergence across the EARS. The scenario yielding the best fit to geodetic observations is one where torques associated with gradients of gravitational potential energy stored in the African highlands are resisted by weak continental faults and mantle basal drag. These results suggest that shear tractions from diverging mantle flow play a minor role in present-day Nubia-Somalia divergence.

  7. SPECIFICS OF GERMAN FOREIGN POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г А Ханнанова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an analysis of the main factors, determining German policy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA. More active German military-technical engagement in the settlement of the crises in the region on the modern stage determines relevance of this article’s topic. Based on historical method, author considers the development of German foreign policy in the Arab world, examining the main aspects of the colonial policy of German empire on the threshold of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the prerequisites of the intensification of German-Arabic contacts in the period of Cold War. In accordance with the principals of system analysis Germany’s Middle East policy was investigated in complex, given geopolitical, economic and military aspects. Special emphasis is put on the problem of transformation of Middle East regional order as a factor of political instability. Notwithstanding the rea-sonableness of Germany’s standing for stable and predictable regional order, these goals were challenged owing to the fact that Germany benefits from the regional disorder in terms of increase of its influence. In reliance on the German goals in the Middle East and North Africa, mentioned in the Coalition Agreement of 2013, the author points out the priority of crisis management. At the same time the ethno-confessional conflict potential of the region meets the interests of German military-industrial complex. Increase of Germany’s export of weapons to the Arab states as well as neglecting the restrictions on export go to prove that Germany backs the armaments race in the Middle East. In this regard, German policy is characterized by “double standards” and inconsistency. These specifics can be explained by the ongoing process of Middle East policy shift and searching for new priorities on a long-term horizon. In the conclusion, the author analyzes the specifics and prospects of German policy in MENA region.

  8. Spatial prediction of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Clements, Archie C A; Gething, Peter W; Moloney, Grainne; Borle, Mohammed; Shewchuk, Tanya; Hay, Simon I; Snow, Robert W

    2008-08-21

    Maps of malaria distribution are vital for optimal allocation of resources for anti-malarial activities. There is a lack of reliable contemporary malaria maps in endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem is particularly acute in low malaria transmission countries such as those located in the horn of Africa. Data from a national malaria cluster sample survey in 2005 and routine cluster surveys in 2007 were assembled for Somalia. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to examine the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in finger-prick blood samples obtained from individuals across all age-groups. Bayesian geostatistical models, with environmental and survey covariates, were used to predict continuous maps of malaria prevalence across Somalia and to define the uncertainty associated with the predictions. For analyses the country was divided into north and south. In the north, the month of survey, distance to water, precipitation and temperature had no significant association with P. falciparum prevalence when spatial correlation was taken into account. In contrast, all the covariates, except distance to water, were significantly associated with parasite prevalence in the south. The inclusion of covariates improved model fit for the south but not for the north. Model precision was highest in the south. The majority of the country had a predicted prevalence of or = 5% prevalence were predominantly in the south. The maps showed that malaria transmission in Somalia varied from hypo- to meso-endemic. However, even after including the selected covariates in the model, there still remained a considerable amount of unexplained spatial variation in parasite prevalence, indicating effects of other factors not captured in the study. Nonetheless the maps presented here provide the best contemporary information on malaria prevalence in Somalia.

  9. Spatial prediction of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewchuk Tanya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maps of malaria distribution are vital for optimal allocation of resources for anti-malarial activities. There is a lack of reliable contemporary malaria maps in endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem is particularly acute in low malaria transmission countries such as those located in the horn of Africa. Methods Data from a national malaria cluster sample survey in 2005 and routine cluster surveys in 2007 were assembled for Somalia. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to examine the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in finger-prick blood samples obtained from individuals across all age-groups. Bayesian geostatistical models, with environmental and survey covariates, were used to predict continuous maps of malaria prevalence across Somalia and to define the uncertainty associated with the predictions. Results For analyses the country was divided into north and south. In the north, the month of survey, distance to water, precipitation and temperature had no significant association with P. falciparum prevalence when spatial correlation was taken into account. In contrast, all the covariates, except distance to water, were significantly associated with parasite prevalence in the south. The inclusion of covariates improved model fit for the south but not for the north. Model precision was highest in the south. The majority of the country had a predicted prevalence of Conclusion The maps showed that malaria transmission in Somalia varied from hypo- to meso-endemic. However, even after including the selected covariates in the model, there still remained a considerable amount of unexplained spatial variation in parasite prevalence, indicating effects of other factors not captured in the study. Nonetheless the maps presented here provide the best contemporary information on malaria prevalence in Somalia.

  10. East Africa-India Security Relations/China-Africa Partnership: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenyan media as well as international media such as VOX Africa continue to report that Uhuru Kenyatta returned this week with an investment package totaling 425 billion shillings (5 billion dollars) from China. The target domains are railroad from Mombasa to Kisumu and energy generation. The move is interpreted as the ...

  11. Water Uses and Children's Lives in East Africa. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Robert

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  12. The epidemiology of noncommunicable respiratory disease in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rana; Robinson, Ryan; Mortimer, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a major and increasing global health issue. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that NCDs represent 63% of all global deaths of which 3.9 million are due to chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in particular. COPD is now the third most common cause of death globally; 90% of these deaths occur in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). COPD affects 329 million people, almost 5% of the world's population. In addition, asthma affects 334 million people, again representing almost 5% of the world's population. There is limited literature published on the epidemiology of COPD and Asthma from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Both diseases are under-diagnosed and underestimated in both SSA and MENA regions. The burden of COPD in sub-Saharan Africa is disputed and reports offer variable prevalence estimates, ranging from 4.1% to almost 22.2%. SSA and MENA countries report similar mortality rates from COPD of 18 per 100,000 population (2001 data). Asthma is a less common cause of death than COPD but is a major cause of morbidity; WHO estimates that there are 250,000 deaths per year from asthma, mainly in LMICs and it remains in the top twenty causes of disability in children globally. Risk factors for CRD are genetic and environmental; the latter dominated by air pollution exposures including tobacco smoke, household air pollution, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures.

  13. The East Asian Development Experience: Policy Lessons, Implications, and Recommendations for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) Global Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ashford C. Chea

    2012-01-01

    The paper looks at the development experience of East Asia and draws lessons for Sub-Saharan Africa in building global competitiveness. It starts with a historical perspective of both regions’ developmental trajectories. This is followed by an analysis of the causes of East Asia’s superior economic performance and development and SSA underdevelopment. The article also draws policy lessons from East Asia development strategies for SSA global competitiveness. The paper ends with a presentation ...

  14. Harnessing the sun. The economics of solar photovoltaic electricity in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondraczek, Janosch

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I address four distinct - yet closely linked - research questions related to the adoption of solar energy technologies in East Africa, which will be summarized in the following section. Chapter 2 starts with an analysis of the history, status and prospects of solar energy markets in Kenya and Tanzania, and a comparison of both countries. Chapter 3 investigates the main determinants of solar home system (SHS) adoption in Kenya, and lighting fuel choices among Kenyan households. Chapter 4 examines the cost of (and potential for) large-scale, grid-connected solar PV adoption in Kenya, and Chapter 5 looks at the influence of financing costs on the economics of solar PV on a global level. With my research I therefore contribute to the policy debate surrounding the African energy challenge by looking at two countries in particular, namely Kenya and Tanzania. I have chosen this geographic focus deliberately, as both countries - while well-endowed with sunshine - at present use only very little solar energy. Thus, while the practical focus on East Africa in three of the four chapters implies that the wider African energy challenge is not tackled head on, many of the findings and conclusions from the study of Kenya and Tanzania are in my view transferable to other countries in Africa, and probably even beyond that continent. In conducting research on the solar energy markets of East Africa over the past five years (2009-2014) I have certainly learnt that this continent does not offer the easiest research environment, and a clear focus on a small set of countries and only one renewable energy technology has been very important. Rigorous, high-quality research requires good information, such as data and statistics, as well as appropriate methods; and while the latter are in good supply, the former are painfully lacking for many aspects of life in East Africa. This poses a major challenge for (quantitative) research and has greatly impacted what I could and

  15. Harnessing the sun. The economics of solar photovoltaic electricity in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondraczek, Janosch

    2014-08-29

    In this thesis, I address four distinct - yet closely linked - research questions related to the adoption of solar energy technologies in East Africa, which will be summarized in the following section. Chapter 2 starts with an analysis of the history, status and prospects of solar energy markets in Kenya and Tanzania, and a comparison of both countries. Chapter 3 investigates the main determinants of solar home system (SHS) adoption in Kenya, and lighting fuel choices among Kenyan households. Chapter 4 examines the cost of (and potential for) large-scale, grid-connected solar PV adoption in Kenya, and Chapter 5 looks at the influence of financing costs on the economics of solar PV on a global level. With my research I therefore contribute to the policy debate surrounding the African energy challenge by looking at two countries in particular, namely Kenya and Tanzania. I have chosen this geographic focus deliberately, as both countries - while well-endowed with sunshine - at present use only very little solar energy. Thus, while the practical focus on East Africa in three of the four chapters implies that the wider African energy challenge is not tackled head on, many of the findings and conclusions from the study of Kenya and Tanzania are in my view transferable to other countries in Africa, and probably even beyond that continent. In conducting research on the solar energy markets of East Africa over the past five years (2009-2014) I have certainly learnt that this continent does not offer the easiest research environment, and a clear focus on a small set of countries and only one renewable energy technology has been very important. Rigorous, high-quality research requires good information, such as data and statistics, as well as appropriate methods; and while the latter are in good supply, the former are painfully lacking for many aspects of life in East Africa. This poses a major challenge for (quantitative) research and has greatly impacted what I could and

  16. A Somalia mission experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-06-28

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  17. Simultaneous Inversion of Receiver Functions, Multi-Mode Dispersion, and Travel-Time Tomography for Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Middle East and North Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ammon, Charles J; Kosarian, Minoo; Hermann, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    .... Towards this goal, we perform receiver function analysis using teleseismic waveforms recorded at permanent and temporary broadband seismic stations located in Middle East, Europe, Asia, and North Africa...

  18. Somalia Piracy: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    agricultural goods are the most threatened. Agricultural goods like mangoes, avocadoes and canned beans are exported by sea. 9 The value of these...imported and exported goods. 1 It is of international strategic importance because of the importance of the sea lanes off the Somalia coast (roughly...vessels re-route to avoid the HOA, and increased delays in delivery of goods.31 Kenya’s major exported items, including tea, coffee, and other

  19. Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verónica; Pala, Maria; Salas, Antonio; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Amorim, António; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Carracedo, Ángel; Clarke, Douglas J; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Dunne, David W; Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vânia; Prata, Maria João; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rito, Teresa; Soares, Pedro; Gusmão, Leonor; Richards, Martin B

    2015-09-01

    The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago.

  20. Community-based carbon sequestration in East Africa: Linking science and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, N. E.

    2004-12-01

    International agreements on climate change have set the stage for an expanding market for greenhouse gas emissions reduction credits. Projects that can generate credits for trading are diverse, but one of the more controversial types involve biological carbon sequestration. For several reasons, most of the activity on these "sinks" projects has been in Latin America and Southeast Asia. Yet people in sub-saharan Africa could benefit from properly implemented projects. This poster will discuss estimates of the potential and risks of such projects in East Africa, and will describe in detail a case study located in central Tanzania and now part of the World Bank's BioCarbon Fund portfolio. Understanding climate variability and risk can effectively link international agreements on climate change, local realities of individual projects, and the characteristics of targeted ecosystems.

  1. How boys become dogs: stigmatization and marginalization of uninitiated xhosa males in East London, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavundla, Thandisizwe R; Netswera, Fulufhelo G; Toth, Ferenc; Bottoman, Brian; Tenge, Stembele

    2010-07-01

    Male circumcision is practiced in South Africa among the Xhosa people as a rite of passage from boyhood to manhood. The manhood status achieved after the ritual accords men power and authority in the community over women and uncircumcised men. Therefore, uninitiated men experience great pressures to get circumcised. We describe the experience of newly initiated Xhosa men in East London, South Africa. Interpretive phenomenology was used as the inquiry of choice. Data were collected through focus group discussions in which 14 men participated. The theme of marginalization of uninitiated Xhosa males emerged with two categories: (a) rejection, and (b) lack of respect. The participants revealed that uninitiated men are rejected by the community, their own families, friends, and women. We frame the discussion around the concept of stigma. Acknowledging that uninitiated males are stigmatized can help mitigate stigma, and in turn, the incidence of medical complications from botched circumcisions.

  2. Agricultural nematology in East and Southern Africa: problems, management strategies and stakeholder linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwana, Herbert; Sibanda, Zibusiso; Wanjohi, Waceke; Kimenju, Wangai; Luambano-Nyoni, Nessie; Massawe, Cornel; Manzanilla-López, Rosa H; Davies, Keith G; Hunt, David J; Sikora, Richard A; Coyne, Danny L; Gowen, Simon R; Kerry, Brian R

    2016-02-01

    By 2050, Africa's population is projected to exceed 2 billion. Africa will have to increase food production more than 50% in the coming 50 years to meet the nutritional requirements of its growing population. Nowhere is the need to increase agricultural productivity more pertinent than in much of Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is currently static or declining. Optimal pest management will be essential, because intensification of any system creates heightened selection pressures for pests. Plant-parasitic nematodes and their damage potential are intertwined with intensified systems and can be an indicator of unsustainable practices. As soil pests, nematodes are commonly overlooked or misdiagnosed, particularly where appropriate expertise and knowledge transfer systems are meager or inadequately funded. Nematode damage to roots results in less efficient root systems that are less able to access nutrients and water, which can produce symptoms typical of water or nutrient deficiency, leading to misdiagnosis of the underlying cause. Damage in subsistence agriculture is exacerbated by growing crops on degraded soils and in areas of low water retention where strong root growth is vital. This review focuses on the current knowledge of economically important nematode pests affecting key crops, nematode control methods and the research and development needs for sustainable management, stakeholder involvement and capacity building in the context of crop security in East and Southern Africa, especially Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Challenges of Agro-Food Standards Conformity: Lessons from East Africa and Policy Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Riisgaard, Lone; Gibbon, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Standards are used to govern an increasing share of global food trade, and have been interpreted by academics both as market access barriers and opportunities for low-income country producers, exporters and workers. Donors have mostly chosen to treat them as opportunities and today finance...... of a research programme on standards conformity in East Africa. These demonstrate that most interventions underestimate the nature of the challenges faced and that significant impacts are achieved only under rather restricted conditions. The solutions lay not only in more selective support to standard...... development and better-informed interventions, but also to focus more squarely on supply capacity and welfare outcomes in project planning....

  4. Technology, Political Economy, and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    Comparing the pace and extent of economic development across the developing regions yields that Arab countries have displaced a weak economic performance over the past 20 years, despite their favorable geo-strategic location and a high density of national and international structural adjustment...... efforts. Using cross-country regressions, this paper identifies two binding constraints to economic development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): 1) Most countries are not able to apply or adopt existing technologies efficiently and 2) The economically inefficient...

  5. Physical, psychological, sexual, and systemic abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa: Mapping the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Niall; Langer, Laurenz; Geniets, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Children with disabilities (CWDs) are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE) were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of children with

  6. Physical, psychological, sexual, and systemic abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa: Mapping the evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Winters

    Full Text Available Children with disabilities (CWDs are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of

  7. The role of computers in developing countries with reference to East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayo, L.K.

    1984-01-01

    The role of computers in economic and technological development is examined with particular reference to developing countries. It is stressed that these countries must exploit the potential of computers in their strive to catch-up in the development race. The shortage of qualified EDP personnel is singled out as one of the most critical factors in any unsatisfactory state of computer applications. A computerization policy based on the demands for information by the sophistication of the development process, and supported by a sufficient core of qualified local manpower, is recommended. The situation in East Africa is discussed and recommendations for training and production of telematics equipment are made. (author)

  8. Honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Andrzej; Windle, Sarah

    2011-11-01

    A systematic review of the research literature on honor killings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) indicates a paucity of studies relative to the presumed magnitude of the problem. Forty articles were reviewed and critically appraised, of which only 9 contained primary data and 11 presented original secondary analyses. Despite a recent increase in published studies, persistent methodological limitations restrict the generalizability of findings. Most studies focus on legal aspects, determinants, and characteristics of victims and perpetrators. Victims are mostly young females murdered by their male kin. Unambiguous evidence of a decline in tolerance of honor killings remains elusive.

  9. A biocultural framework for examining maternal cravings and aversions among pastoral women in east Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alyson G; Pike, Ivy L

    2012-01-01

    Food preferences during pregnancy result from a complex set of biocultural interactions with important implications for maternal and child health. This article explores the social context of maternal food choice in marginal environments of East Africa. Biocultural data collected among Turkana and Datoga women living in Kenya and Tanzania indicate there is a significant social context to food choice that influences the types of food that women report craving and the food that is consumed. Our framework argues for a deeper understanding of how culture shapes food preferences and how marginalization can constrain access to favored and healthy foods.

  10. Progress toward polio eradication--Somalia, 1998-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Webeck, Jenna; Ehrhardt, Derek; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1988 resolution of the World Health Assembly to eradicate polio, significant progress has been made toward achieving this goal, with the result that only Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never successfully interrupted endemic transmission of wild poliovirus. However, one of the greatest challenges of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has been that of maintaining the polio-free status of countries in unstable regions with weak healthcare infrastructure, a challenge exemplified by Somalia, a country in the Horn of Africa region. Somalia interrupted indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus in 2002, 4 years after the country established its national polio eradication program. But political instability and protracted armed conflict, with significant disruption of the healthcare system, have left Somalia vulnerable to 2 imported outbreaks of wild poliovirus. The first occurred during 2005-2007, resulting in >200 cases of paralytic polio, whereas the second, which began in 2013, is currently ongoing. Despite immense challenges, the country has a sensitive surveillance system that has facilitated prompt detection of outbreaks, but its weak routine immunization system means that supplementary immunization activities constitute the primary strategy for reaching children with polio vaccines. Conducting vaccination campaigns in a setting of conflict has been at times hazardous, but the country's polio program has demonstrated resilience in overcoming many obstacles to ensure that children receive lifesaving polio vaccines. Regaining and maintaining Somalia's polio-free status will depend on finding innovative and lasting solutions to the challenge of administering vaccines in a setting of ongoing conflict and instability. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  12. Stabilization, Extraversion and Political Settlements in Somalia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    -central Somalia. Existing analyses have focused predominantly on local actors and internal dynamics to account for the continuous political disorder in the former Somali Democratic Republic since 1991. In contrast, this study highlights the role of external aid in dysfunctional statebuilding efforts in Somalia...

  13. Summary of the East Africa Training Consortium Biorisk Management Practices and Training Needs Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, Julie; Mancini, Giulio M.; Wakabi, Timothy; Boggs, Susan E.

    2017-03-01

    A survey was designed to query former Biorisk management (BRM) trainees in the East Africa region about their practices post-training and their perceived future training needs. A subset of those surveyed had been trained as BRM trainers. The survey was conducted to obtain a baseline of BRM practices that can serve as a benchmark for performance monitoring, to identify priorities for future BRM training and to gauge local BRM trainers' abilities to deliver effective training. The survey revealed that less than 50% of the respondents could identify evidence of a BRM system in their institute. Coaching and mentoring by BRM experts was identified as being of highest benefit to enable success as BRM practitioners. Local trainers reached 1538 trainees in the previous year and reported that trainings positively correlated with desired BRM behavior. Acknowledgements The authors wish to sincerely thank all of the former biorisk management trainees in East Africa who agreed to participate in this survey. Their candid and honest input was extremely insightful. We also thank Lora Grainger (06826) and Ben Brodsky (Manager, 06824) for careful and critical review of the report. We are grateful for the financial support of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Cooperative Biological Engagement Program.

  14. Cases of human brucellosis in Sweden linked to Middle East and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Fasanella, Antonio; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Platone, Ilenia; Sacchini, Lorena; Persiani, Tiziana; Boskani, Talar; Rizzardi, Kristina; Wahab, Tara

    2016-05-17

    Human brucellosis cases are still reported each year in Sweden despite eradication of the disease in animals. Epidemiological investigation has never been conducted to trace back the source of human infection in the country. The purpose of the study was to identify the source of infection for 16 human brucellosis cases that occurred in Sweden, during the period 2008-2012. The isolates were identified as Brucella melitensis and MLVA-16 genotyping revealed 14 different genotypes of East Mediterranean and Africa lineages. We also reported one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis (LAB) that was shown to be epidemiological linked to one of the cases in the current study. Brucella melitensis was the only species diagnosed, confirming its highest zoonotic potential in the genus Brucella, and MLVA-16 results demonstrated that the cases of brucellosis in Sweden herein investigated, are imported and linked to travel in the Middle East and Africa. Due to its zoonotic concerns, any acute febrile illness linked to recent travel within those regions should be investigated for brucellosis and samples should be processed according to biosafety level 3 regulations.

  15. Prevalence and Severity of Oral Diseases in the Africa and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, A; Maatouk, F; Berrezouga, L; Azodo, C; Uti, O; El-Shamy, H; Oginni, A

    2015-07-01

    This review aims to determine the prevalence and severity of oral health diseases in the Africa and Middle East region (AMER). The profile of oral diseases is not homogeneous across the AMER. There are large disparities between groups. Reliable data are scarce. The prevalence and severity of oral diseases appear to be increasing in the African region, as does associated morbidity. There are substantial differences in inequalities in oral health. Dental caries prevalence is less severe in most African countries than in developed countries, but the high rate of untreated caries reflects the limited resources available and difficulties of access and affordability to essential oral health care services. The prevalence of gingival inflammation is very high in all age groups in several African countries. The prevalence of maxillofacial trauma has increased in many countries, with a wide variation of the incidence and high prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary and permanent teeth. Orofacial clefts are among the most common birth defects. Annual incidence of oral cancer is estimated as 25 cases per 100,000 people in Africa. Noma is a major public health problem for the Middle East and North African (MENA) region. Data about human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS are limited, particularly in the MENA region. According to the World Health Organization Regional Committee for Africa report, some fundamental key basic knowledge gaps need to be underlined. They include inequalities in oral health, low priority for oral health, lack of adequate funding, inadequate dental student training, obstacles to medical and dental research, and poor databases. There are very few effective public prevention and oral health promotion programs in the AMER. Universal health coverage is not achievable without scientific research on the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  16. Reconstructing the origin and dispersal patterns of village chickens across East Africa: insights from autosomal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwacharo, J M; Nomura, K; Hanada, H; Han, J L; Amano, T; Hanotte, O

    2013-05-01

    Unravelling the genetic history of any livestock species is central to understanding the origin, development and expansion of agricultural societies and economies. Domestic village chickens are widespread in Africa. Their close association with, and reliance on, humans for long-range dispersal makes the species an important biological marker in tracking cultural and trading contacts between human societies and civilizations across time. Archaezoological and linguistic evidence suggest a complex history of arrival and dispersion of the species on the continent, with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop analysis revealing the presence of five distinct haplogroups in East African village chickens. It supports the importance of the region in understanding the history of the species and indirectly of human interactions. Here, through a detailed analysis of 30 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 657 village chickens from four East African countries (Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Sudan), we identify three distinct autosomal gene pools (I, II and III). Gene pool I is predominantly found in Ethiopia and Sudan, while II and III occur in both Kenya and Uganda. A gradient of admixture for gene pools II and III between the Kenyan coast and Uganda's hinterland (P = 0.001) is observed, while gene pool I is clearly separated from the other two. We propose that these three gene pools represent genetic signatures of separate events in the history of the continent that relate to the arrival and dispersal of village chickens and humans across the region. Our results provide new insights on the history of chicken husbandry which has been shaped by terrestrial and maritime contacts between ancient and modern civilizations in Asia and East Africa. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Measurement and evaluation of digital cervicography programs in two cervical cancer screening camps in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Curtis W.; Mink, Jonah; Levitz, David

    2017-03-01

    Cervical cancer disproportionately affects women living in low- and middle-income countries. To address this global crisis, many governments and NGOs have implemented community-based screening and treatment programs at outreach camps. Here, high volumes of patients are able to access care: screening and diagnosis followed by immediate treatment of precancerous lesions onsite. However, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of these efforts presents challenges, since each event typically relies on a different health workforce, and refers patients to different facilities for follow up and advanced care. To address these challenges, a digital imaging intervention was deployed at several screening camps in East Africa. Trained nurses screened women using a connected low-cost mobile colposcope built around a smartphone. A decision support job aid was integrated into the app controlling the device, guiding nurses and recording their diagnosis and treatment decisions. Aggregating the data from the job aid allowed M&E of the screening camp in real-time. In this paper, the M&E data from 2 different screening camps in East Africa are compared. Additionally, screening camps are compared to stationary clinics. Differences in the patient screening times, treatment rates, and individual nurse statistics were all documented through the job aid allowing for much improved epidemiological information following outreach events thus enabling targeted program improvements and provider training. Reporting data from screening camps were also shared online via public web pages, facilitating broader dissemination of health needs in specific East African communities, and sparking conversations with regional stakeholders about local disease burden.

  18. Complete sequence and diversity of a maize-associated Polerovirus in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, Deogracious P; Stewart, Lucy R; Kamatenesi, Jovia; Asiimwe, Theodore; Redinbaugh, Margaret G

    2018-06-01

    Since 2011-2012, Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged in East Africa, causing massive yield loss and propelling research to identify viruses and virus populations present in maize. As expected, next generation sequencing (NGS) has revealed diverse and abundant viruses from the family Potyviridae, primarily sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), and maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) (Tombusviridae), which are known to cause MLN by synergistic co-infection. In addition to these expected viruses, we identified a virus in the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae) in 104/172 samples selected for MLN or other potential virus symptoms from Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Tanzania. This polerovirus (MF974579) nucleotide sequence is 97% identical to maize-associated viruses recently reported in China, termed 'maize yellow mosaic virus' (MaYMV) and maize yellow dwarf virus (MaYMV; KU291101, KU291107, MYDV-RMV2; KT992824); and 99% identical to MaYMV (KY684356) infecting sugarcane and itch grass in Nigeria; 83% identical to a barley-associated polerovirus recently identified in Korea (BVG; KT962089); and 79% identical to the U.S. maize-infecting polerovirus maize yellow dwarf virus (MYDV-RMV; KT992824). Nucleotide sequences from ORF0 of 20 individual East African isolates collected from Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Tanzania shared 98% or higher identity, and were detected in 104/172 (60.5%) of samples collected for virus-like symptoms, indicating extensive prevalence but limited diversity of this virus in East Africa. We refer to this virus as "MYDV-like polerovirus" until symptoms of the virus in maize are known.

  19. Mapping and quantification of organic agro-industrial residues in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and water ways, but, at the same time they constitute a large potential for production of bioenergy through anaerobic digestion as well as potential substrate for other biological fermentation processes. The utilization of these resources for production of valuable products would contribute significantly to: Improvement of the local energy supply, through production of bio-energy; Improvement of the economy of the East African agro-industry; Reduction of the environmental impact from the agro-industrial sector. Except for production of cane sugar, most agro-industrial residues are generated from cash crops, which are produced and processed in the developing countries and where the final products mainly are used for export. In the East-African Region the most important of these crops are: Sisal, coffee, Cashew nuts and Pineapple. In addition significant quantities of organic residues are generated from other food processing activities like breweries, consumption of bananas etc. The total potential methane production of the residues available for use in biomethanization systems in East Africa is 189.61 million m{sup 3} of methane per year. Converted to diesel oil equivalents and including the residues only feasible for combustion systems, the total bioenergy potential of agro-industrial residues in Eastern Africa is 279,176 TOE. If this potential was fully utilized for production of electricity, it would correspond to installed effects of 37,68 and 31 MW in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, respectively, equivalent to 10%, 11% and 18% of the currently installed effect is these countries. Residues from sisal and coffee processing constitute the main part of the bioenergy potential, on average approximately 75%, while the remaining 25% of the potential are formed by the

  20. Preclinical antivenom-efficacy testing reveals potentially disturbing deficiencies of snakebite treatment capability in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Harrison

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antivenom is the treatment of choice for snakebite, which annually kills an estimated 32,000 people in sub-Saharan Africa and leaves approximately 100,000 survivors with permanent physical disabilities that exert a considerable socioeconomic burden. Over the past two decades, the high costs of the most polyspecifically-effective antivenoms have sequentially reduced demand, commercial manufacturing incentives and production volumes that have combined to create a continent-wide vacuum of effective snakebite therapy. This was quickly filled with new, less expensive antivenoms, many of which are of untested efficacy. Some of these successfully marketed antivenoms for Africa are inappropriately manufactured with venoms from non-African snakes and are dangerously ineffective. The uncertain efficacy of available antivenoms exacerbates the complexity of designing intervention measures to reduce the burden of snakebite in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to preclinically determine the ability of antivenoms available in Kenya to neutralise the lethal effects of venoms from the most medically important snakes in East Africa.We collected venom samples from the most medically important snakes in East Africa and determined their toxicity in a mouse model. Using a 'gold standard' comparison protocol, we preclinically tested the comparative venom-neutralising efficacy of four antivenoms available in Kenya with two antivenoms of clinically-proven efficacy. To explain the variant efficacies of these antivenoms we tested the IgG-venom binding characteristics of each antivenom using in vitro IgG titre, avidity and venom-protein specificity assays. We also measured the IgG concentration of each antivenom.None of the six antivenoms are preclinically effective, at the doses tested, against all of the most medically important snakes of the region. The very limited snake polyspecific efficacy of two locally available antivenoms is of concern. In vitro

  1. Molecular records of climate variability and vegetation response since the Late Pleistocene in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berke, M.A.; Johnson, T.C.; Werne, J.P.; Grice, K.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    New molecular proxies of temperature and hydrology are helping to constrain tropical climate change and elucidate possible forcing mechanisms during the Holocene. Here, we examine a similar to 14,000 year record of climate variability from Lake Victoria, East Africa, the world's second largest

  2. Trust and tolerance across the Middle East and North Africa: A comparative perspective on the impact of the Arab uprisings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, N.

    2017-01-01

    The protests that swept the Arab Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are expected to have influenced two key civic attitudes fundamental to well-functioning democracies: trust and tolerance. However, systematic comparative assessments of the general patterns and particularities in this region are

  3. A Human Economy: A "Third Way" for the Future of Young People in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in…

  4. Exploring the strategies for households to adapt to climate-change in arid and semiarid East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'ang'a, Stanley K.

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis I set out to investigate how households cope and adapt to climate change in the context of arid and semi-arid areas of East Africa. This research fits well in the wider literature on the relationship between climate change and variability and household responses in term of coping

  5. Climate change impacts in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region and their implications for vulnerable population groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waha, Katharina; Krummenauer, Linda; Adams, Sophie; Aich, Valentin; Baarsch, Florent; Coumou, Dim; Fader, Marianela; Hoff, Holger; Jobbins, Guy; Marcus, Rachel; Mengel, Matthias; Otto, Ilona M.; Perrette, Mahé; Rocha, Marcia; Robinson, Alexander; Schleussner, Carl Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region emerges as one of the hot spots for worsening extreme heat, drought and aridity conditions under climate change. A synthesis of peer-reviewed literature from 2010 to date and own modeling work on biophysical impacts of climate change on selected sectors

  6. Gender and Transport in the Middle East and North Africa Region : Case Studies from the West Bank and Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Mobility is a major factor of access to economic resources, education, health, and other key elements influencing women's empowerment. In the Middle East and North Africa's countries, like in many other developing economies, women's mobility is constrained not only by the limited, sometimes unaffordable transport supply but also by social and cultural factors that frame women's access to t...

  7. The internet and business process outsourcing in East Africa : value chains and connectivity-based enterprises in Kenya and Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, L.E.; Graham, M.; Friederici, N.

    2014-01-01

    Internet connectivity is widely considered to be a game changer for knowledge economies of developing countries. The arrival of submarine fibre-optic underwater cables in East Africa in 2009 and 2010 is seen by many as a strong case in point. The fast evolution of the information and communication

  8. Climate change projections of precipitation and reference evapotranspiration for the Middle East and Northern Africa until 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terink, W.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Droogers, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region can be considered as the most water-scarce region of the world. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects strong changes in climate across MENA, further exacerbating pressure on available water resources. The objective of this study is to

  9. A Cause for Concern The Spread of Militant Islam in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-11

    Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM).30 This Western intervention further cemented Bin Laden’s hatred of the United States, and ultimately led to his decision to...Western-owned businesses and have had a profoundly detrimental impact on the tourism industry in Kenya.48 This was evident during our recent travel to...ownership is yet another destabilizing factor used to incite violence along the coast and the MRC has used this topic around Mombasa to attract supporters

  10. Europe, Middle East and North Africa Conference on Technology and Security to Support Learning 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Serrhini, Mohammed; Felgueiras, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This book contains a selection of articles from The Europe, Middle East and North Africa Conference on Technology and Security to Support Learning 2016 (EMENA-TSSL'16), held between the 3th and 5th of October at Saidia, Oujda, Morocco. EMENA-TSSL'16 is a global forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss recent results and innovations, current trends, professional experiences and challenges in Information & Communication Technologies, and Security to support Learning. The main topics covered are: A) Online Education; B) Emerging Technologies in Education; C) Artificial Intelligence in Education; D) Gamification and Serious games; E) Network & Web Technologies Applications; F) Online experimentation and Virtual Laboratories; G) Multimedia Systems and Applications; H) Security and Privacy; I) Multimedia, Computer Vision and Image Processing; J) Cloud, Big Data Analytics and Applications; K) Human-Computer Interaction; L) Software Systems, Architectures, Applications and Tools; M) Onli...

  11. Design and field testing of Savonius wind pump in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, K.V.O.; Osawa, B.M.

    1995-04-01

    We present here improvements in the wind-scoop geometry and efficiency of a double-stack Savonius rotor, developed through a series of wind tunnel and field testing in East Africa. On an aerodynamic performance basis, the Savonius rotor cannot generally compete with other types of wind turbines. This is entirely due to its mode of operation. Unlike its counter-parts that operate by rotating around a horizontal axis, it rotates around a vertical axis. This has the unfortunate effect of lowering its efficiency, but it has several compensating factors. Its main advantages are that it has better starting torque performance with operating characteristics independent of the wind direction. In addition, it is simple in structure and the fabrication technology required is less sophisticated when compared to similar types of windmills. This makes it a suitable system for small scale applications in wind energy conversion; especially in remote rural regions in developing countries. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  12. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Climatic changes and water resources in the Middle East and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zereini, Fathi [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences; Hoetzl, Heinz (eds.) [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. Geologie

    2008-07-01

    ''Climatic Change and Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa'' is dedicated to high-priority topics related to the impact of climate change on water resources in a water scarce region. The subject is described and discussed in three main chapters and different case studies. The three main chapters are (1) Climatic changes - sources and effects on the water cycle, (2) Impact of climate change on water resources, (3) Water resources and water management. These chapters are split up into further 26 sections. A total of 64 individuals from many countries have made contributions to this book. All topics in this book are complimentary and contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between global climate change, world water cycle and water resources. A valuable and meaningful interdisciplinary mixture of topics is combined in this book which will be of great interest to many scientists. (orig.)

  14. Energy infrastructure in the Middle East and North Africa to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enav, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2010, the 19 countries of the Middle East and North Africa will need to spend approximately $500bn on new energy infrastructure to meet their declared needs and priorities. Private sector involvement will be inevitable with many countries operating under strict budgetary limitations. The opportunities this represents for foreign investment cannot be ignored. This report assesses both power generation and hydrocarbon financing needs on a country-by-country basis. It also identifies the likely financing modalities for each country with a detailed appraisal of country credit-worthiness, highlighting risks and opportunities for outside investors. For each country, the report examines: macro-economic profiles; political risk profiles; prospects for hydrocarbon; and electricity infrastructure development. (author)

  15. Modification and implementation of NCCN guidelines on lymphomas in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbachi, Ali; Azim, Hamdy A; Alizadeh, Hussain; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Barista, Ibrahim; Chaudhri, Naeem A; Fahed, Zahira; Fahmy, Omar A; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Khalaf, Mohamed H; Khatib, Sami; Kutoubi, Aghiad; Paydas, Semra; Elayoubi, Hanadi Rafii; Zaatari, Ghazi; Zawam, Hamdy M; Zelenetz, Andrew D

    2010-07-01

    In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, cancer has many epidemiologic and clinical features that are different from those in the rest of the world. Additionally, the region has a relatively young population and large disparities in the availability of resources at diagnostic and treatment levels. A critical need exists for regional guidelines on cancer care, including those for lymphoid malignancies. A panel of lymphoma experts from MENA reviewed the 2009 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Hodgkin Lymphoma and suggested modifications for the region that were discussed with the United States NCCN Lymphoma Panels. This article presents the consensus recommendations.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Torini Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) from the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkenhagen, Kai

    2017-02-22

    Freshwater fishes of the cyprinid tribe Torini are widespread in Africa the Middle East and Indomalaya. The relationships of Middle-Eastern Torini are analysed based on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b, ND4) of the majority of relevant species. I present a larely well resolved phylogeny, which confirms the validity of the morphologically defined genera Arabibarbus, Carasobarbus, Mesopotamichthys and Pterocapoeta. The Torini originated in Indomalaya and colonised Africa via the Middle East. Morocco was colonised two times independently, first from sub-Saharan Africa and secondly along the southern margin of the Mediterranean Sea. The Tigris-Euphrates system is an important crossroad for the colonisation of the Jordan River, the Orontes River and the watercourses of the Arabian Peninsula by freshwater fishes. The Jordan lost its connection to the Euphrates earlier than the Orontes. The Arabian Peninsula was colonised from the Tigris-Euphrates system in at least two independent events.

  17. Regulating the for-profit private health sector: lessons from East and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased

  18. Distribution of Blue Gum Chalcid, Leptocybe invasa and it's Damage on Eucalyptus in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutitu, K.E; Otieno, B.O; Oeba, V.O; Nyeko, P.; Day, R.K

    2007-01-01

    Blue Gum chalcid is a gall-forming wasp, which causes an extensive damage to Eucalyptus. It attacks mostly seedlings and field saplings. It causes damage on it's host by forming massive typical bump-shaped galls on trees canopy, specifically on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems of new growths. The pest was first reported in Kenya and Uganda in 2002 attacking the three major commercially grown Eucalyptus species; Eucalyptus grandis, E. camaldulennsis, E. saligna in East Africa. Eucalyptus is fast growing and widely planted in both plantations and farmers' woodlots. It is important for both industrial and domestic use. It is a major source of income generation for rural poor families. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution, incidence and severity patterns of L. invasa and possible relationship to environment and biophysical factors in East Africa. Over 312 randomly selected stands were assessed for BGC incidence to it's distribution. In each identified stand 60 trees were selected from 3 randomly established plots of 20 trees each and BGC damage/incidence assessed on a 4-point scale. This was to determine the incidence and severity patterns. ANOVA using generalized linear procedures, regression analysis and correlation were done to determine the relationship between the percentage incidence of L. invasa infestation against altitude, age interval, agro-ecological zones and topography. There was widespread of pest in all the districts sampled. There was significant difference (p 0.05) on L. invasa incidence among the three species. The study recommends that. further studies on damage and L. invasa population dynamics relationship to environment and biophysical factors should be conducted

  19. Climate risk management information, sources and responses in a pastoral region in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Egeru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastoralists in East Africa face a range of stressors, climate variability and change being one of them. Effective climate risk management involves managing the full range of variability and balancing hazard management with efforts to capitalise on opportunity; climate risk management information is central in this process. In this study, pastoralists’ perceptions of climate change, climate risk management information types, sources and attendant responses in a pastoral region in East Africa are examined. Through a multi-stage sampling process, a total of 198 heads of households in three districts were selected and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 29 focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews were conducted to generate qualitative information to supplement survey data. Descriptive and thematic analysis were utilised in summarizing the data. Ninety-nine percent of the pastoralists noted that the climate had changed evidenced by high but erratic rainfall, occurrence of floods and variation in rainfall onset and cessation among other indicators. This change in climate had led to emergence of ‘new’ livestock and crop diseases, crop failure and low yields leading to frequent food shortages, water shortages, poor market access, and variation in pasture availability among other effects. Climate risk management information was received from multiple sources including; radio, diviners, community meetings, shrine elders, humanitarian agencies, and Uganda People’s defence forces (UPDF. Community meetings were however perceived as most accessible, reliable and dependable sources of information. Shifting livestock to dry season grazing and watering areas, selling firewood and charcoal, seeking for military escorts to grazing areas, purchasing veterinary drugs, shifting livestock to disease ‘free’ areas, and performing rituals (depending on the perceived risk constituted a set of responses undertaken in

  20. The Intertropical Convergence Zone over the Middle East and North Africa: Detection and Trends

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Anna A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of identifying the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The ITCZ is a zone of wind convergence around the equator that coincides with an area of intense precipitation that is commonly termed a tropical rainbelt. In Africa, these two concepts are frequently confounded. This work studies the correlation between precipitation and commonly used ITCZ indicators. A further attempt is made to detect movement in the African ITCZ, based on earlier paleontological studies showing historical changes in precipitation. Zonally averaged wind convergence is found to be the most reliable indicator of the African ITCZ, one having a low correlation with zonally averaged precipitation. Precipitation is found only to be a reliable indicator for the African ITCZ in zones near the wind convergence, which reaches as far north as 20_N in the summer. No secular change in location of the African ITCZ is found for the time of available data. Finally, historical data shows that any increase in precipitation in the Sahel, a region where precipitation is driven by the ITCZ, is mildly negatively correlated with precipitation in the rainbelt area, suggesting that shifts in the ITCZ result in a widening of the precipitation profile as well as a shift of the entire zone.

  1. The Intertropical Convergence Zone over the Middle East and North Africa: Detection and Trends

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Anna A.

    2013-05-01

    This thesis provides an overview of identifying the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The ITCZ is a zone of wind convergence around the equator that coincides with an area of intense precipitation that is commonly termed a tropical rainbelt. In Africa, these two concepts are frequently confounded. This work studies the correlation between precipitation and commonly used ITCZ indicators. A further attempt is made to detect movement in the African ITCZ, based on earlier paleontological studies showing historical changes in precipitation. Zonally averaged wind convergence is found to be the most reliable indicator of the African ITCZ, one having a low correlation with zonally averaged precipitation. Precipitation is found only to be a reliable indicator for the African ITCZ in zones near the wind convergence, which reaches as far north as 20_N in the summer. No secular change in location of the African ITCZ is found for the time of available data. Finally, historical data shows that any increase in precipitation in the Sahel, a region where precipitation is driven by the ITCZ, is mildly negatively correlated with precipitation in the rainbelt area, suggesting that shifts in the ITCZ result in a widening of the precipitation profile as well as a shift of the entire zone.

  2. The importance of context in delivering effective EIA: Case studies from East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marara, Madeleine; Okello, Nick; Kuhanwa, Zainab; Douven, Wim; Beevers, Lindsay; Leentvaar, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares the condition of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in three countries in the East Africa region: Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. The criteria used for the evaluation and the comparison of each system are based on the elements of the legal, administrative and procedural frameworks, as well as the context in which they operate. These criteria are adapted from the evaluation and quality control criteria derived from a number of literature sources. The study reveals that the EIA systems of Kenya and Tanzania are at a similar stage in their development. The two countries, the first to introduce the EIA concept into their jurisdiction in this part of Africa, therefore have more experience than Rwanda in the practice of environmental impact assessment, where the legislation and process requires more time to mature both from the governmental and societal perspective. The analysis of the administrative and procedural frameworks highlights the weakness in the autonomy of the competent authority, in all three countries. Finally a major finding of this study is that the contextual set up i.e. the socio-economic and political situation plays an important role in the performance of an EIA system. The context in developing countries is very different from developed countries where the EIA concept originates. Interpreting EIA conditions in countries like Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania requires that the analysis for determining the effectiveness of their systems should be undertaken within a relevant framework, taking into account the specific requirements of those countries.

  3. Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-10-15

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10

  4. What factors influence the production of orthopaedic research in East Africa? A qualitative analysis of interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Iain S; Sonshine, Daniel B; Akhavan, Sina; Slade Shantz, Angelique; Caldwell, Amber; Slade Shantz, Jesse; Gosselin, Richard A; Coughlin, R Richard

    2015-06-01

    Research addressing the burden of musculoskeletal disease in low- and middle-income countries does not reflect the magnitude of the epidemic in these countries as only 9% of the world's biomedical resources are devoted to addressing problems that affect the health of 90% of the world's population. Little is known regarding the barriers to and drivers of orthopaedic surgery research in such resource-poor settings, the knowledge of which would help direct specific interventions for increasing research capacity and help surgeons from high-income countries support the efforts of our colleagues in low- and middle-income countries. We sought to identify through surveying academic orthopaedic surgeons in East Africa: (1) barriers impeding research, (2) factors that support or drive research, and (3) factors that were identified by some surgeons as barriers and others as drivers (what we term barrier-driver overlap) as they considered the production of clinical research in resource-poor environments. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 orthopaedic surgeon faculty members at four academic medical centers in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Qualitative content analysis of the interviews was conducted using methods based in grounded theory. Grounded theory begins with qualitative data, such as interview transcripts, and analyzes the data for repeated ideas or concepts which then are coded and grouped into categories which allow for identification of subjects or problems that may not have been apparent previously to the interviewer. We identified and quantified 19 barriers to and 21 drivers of orthopaedic surgery research (mentioned n = 1688 and n = 1729, respectively). Resource, research process, and institutional domains were identified to categorize the barriers (n = 7, n = 5, n = 7, respectively) and drivers (n = 7, n = 8, n = 6, respectively). Resource barriers (46%) were discussed more often by interview subjects compared with the

  5. Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briot, P.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia are of the valley-fill calcrete type and occur in the arid Mudugh Province of the Dusa Mareb-El Bur region. They are located in a belt about 240 km in length which is orientated parallel to the north-south regional tectonic framework. The uranium resources of the region amount to about 5,000 t U 3 O 8 at an average grade of 0.1% U 3 O 8 . Basement rocks constitute a 7,000 m thick succession of Jurassic to Quaternary sediments of the Somalian Basin. Uranium mineralization in the form of carnotite occurs in the uppermost Mercia Series. The origin of the uranium and vanadium is unclear due to a shortage of the favourable source rocks. (author)

  6. Foreign Direct Investment and Energy Supply in the Middle East and North Africa: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghali, Siddig

    Middle East and North Africa countries have been criticized for failing to utilize foreign direct investment energy resources efficiently. The changing of energy resources environment of the past decades with its growing emphasis on the importance of imminent energy supply challenges require strategists to consider different types of energy resources investment to improve energy supply. One type of energy investment will show effectiveness and efficiency in utilizing foreign direct investment in exposing RE, fossil fuels, natural gas, and reducing CO2 emissions. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to utilize foreign direct investment to predict total primary energy supply in the Middle East and North Africa region between 1971 and 2013. The study was conducted using a sample size of 43 years of energy supply resources and foreign direct investment from 1971 to 2013, which includes all of the years for which FDI is available. RE potential may equip Middle East and North Africa countries with sustainable and clean electricity for centuries to come, as non-renewable energy resources may not meet the demands globally and domestically or environmentally. As demands for fossil fuels grow, carbon emissions will increase. RE may be a better option of CO 2 emissions sequestration and will increase electricity to rural areas without government subsidies and complex decision-making policies. RE infrastructure will reduce water desalinization costs, cooling systems, and be useful in heating. Establishing concentrated solar power may be useful for the region cooperation, negotiations, and integration to share this energy. The alternative sought to fossil fuels was nuclear power. However, nuclear power depends on depleting, non-renewable uranium resources. The cost of uranium will increase if widely used and the presence of a nuclear plant in an unstable region is unsafe. Thus, renewable energy as a long-term option is efficient. A nonlinear regression

  7. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Somalia. Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-15

    salt water lagoons and transmits malaria along coastal areas. At least 75% of the population suffers from one or more types of intestinal parasites ...public health status and medical developments. Current disease risk assessments, additional information on other parasitic and infectious diseases, and...Horn of Africa is bordered by the Gulf of Aden on the north, the Indian Ocean on the east and south, and Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya on the west

  8. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    At least six glaciations are purported to have affected North Africa and the Middle East region over the last one billion years, including two in the Cryogenian (Neoproterozoic), Hirnantian (Late Ordovician), Silurian, Carboniferous and Early Permian events. The sedimentary record associated with these glaciations, together with the intensity to which each has been investigated, is highly variable. As hydrocarbon exploration proceeds aggressively across the North Africa and Middle East regions, we review the relationship between glaciation and hydrocarbon accumulations. With the exception of Oman, and locally Egypt, which were tectonically active both during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic all glaciations took place along an essentially stable passive continental margin. During the Neoproterozoic, two glaciations are recognised, referred to as older and younger Cryogenian glaciations respectively. Both of these Cryogenian events are preserved in Oman; only the younger Cryogenian has been reported in North Africa in Mauritania and Mali at the flanks of the Taoudenni Basin. The process of initial deglaciation in younger Cryogenian glaciations resulted in incision, at least locally producing large-bedrock palaeovalleys in Oman, and the deposition of glacial diamictites, gravels, sandstones and mudstones. As deglaciation progressed "cap carbonates" were deposited, passing vertically into shale with evidence for deposition in an anoxic environment. Hence, younger Cryogenian deglaciation may be associated with hydrocarbon source rock deposits. Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) glaciation was short lived (economic significance across central North Africa. Therefore, an appreciation of the processes of ice sheet growth and decay provides significant insights into the controls on large-scale heterogeneities within these sediments, and in analogue deposits produced by glaciations of different ages. Deglacial, Early Silurian black shale represents the most important

  9. Somalia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dynamics sustain it, of what reality on the ground looks like in collapsed states, and of how the international ... displaced persons as well as disease, poverty and hunger. ... Recall that after 1989, former superpower proxies lost vital ..... 2007). Months of tense co-existence between the antagonists ensued: while the UIC.

  10. Somalia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conception of “Failed States” and the implications of such reductionist view on the .... killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings. Both towers collapsed within two hours, destroying nearby buildings and damaging others. ... intervention (Operation Restore Hope) to save life, property and restore calm ...

  11. Meta-analysis of proportion estimates of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonda, Tolbert; Kumburu, Happiness; van Zwetselaar, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: A high proportion of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae is causing common infections in all regions of the world. The burden of antibiotic resistance due to ESBL in East Africa is large but information is scarce and thus it is unclear how big the prob......Background: A high proportion of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae is causing common infections in all regions of the world. The burden of antibiotic resistance due to ESBL in East Africa is large but information is scarce and thus it is unclear how big...... the problem really is. To gain insight into the magnitude and molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa a literature search was performed in PubMed on 31 July 2015 to retrieve articles with relevant information on ESBL. Methods and results: Meta-analysis was performed...... to determine overall proportion estimate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 4076 bacterial isolates were included in the analysis. The overall pooled proportion of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among included surveys done in East African hospitals was found to be 0. 42 (95 % CI: 0...

  12. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  13. Oil and Gas in Eastern Africa: Current Developments and Future Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    The position of oil companies toward East Africa has changed considerably since 2006 when the first reserves in Uganda came to light. However, for many investors interested in the region, it remains difficult to get a clear picture of the scale of developments of this sector. This paper will discuss the locations of reserves, their volumes, when they will be developed, what they will be used for, and possible impediments to their development. In addition to Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which already have ample hydrocarbon resources, it will be useful to address the future of certain countries such as Ethiopia, Somalia, Madagascar, and the Comoro Islands, which have largely underestimated potentials. (author)

  14. An Assessment of Satellite-Derived Rainfall Products Relative to Ground Observations over East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Wambui Kimani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and consistent rainfall observations are vital for climatological studies in support of better agricultural and water management decision-making and planning. In East Africa, accurate rainfall estimation with an adequate spatial distribution is limited due to sparse rain gauge networks. Satellite rainfall products can potentially play a role in increasing the spatial coverage of rainfall estimates; however, their performance needs to be understood across space–time scales and factors relating to their errors. This study assesses the performance of seven satellite products: Tropical Applications of Meteorology using Satellite and ground-based observations (TAMSAT, African Rainfall Climatology And Time series (TARCAT, Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM-3B43, Climate Prediction Centre (CPC Morphing technique (CMORPH, Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR, CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP, and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, using locally developed gridded (0.05° rainfall data for 15 years (1998–2012 over East Africa. The products’ assessments were done at monthly and yearly timescales and were remapped to the gridded rain gauge data spatial scale during the March to May (MAM and October to December (OND rainy seasons. A grid-based statistical comparison between the two datasets was used, but only pixel values located at the rainfall stations were considered for validation. Additionally, the impact of topography on the performance of the products was assessed by analyzing the pixels in areas of highest negative bias. All the products could substantially replicate rainfall patterns, but their differences are mainly based on retrieving high rainfall amounts, especially of localized orographic types. The products exhibited systematic errors, which

  15. The Rovuma Transform Margin: the enigmatic continent-ocean boundary of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phethean, Jordan; Kalnins, Lara; van Hunen, Jeroen; McCaffrey, Ken; Davies, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The N-S trending Davie Fracture Zone (DFZ) is often assumed to form the continent-ocean transform margin (COTM) of the Western Somali Basin. However, multiple plate tectonic reconstructions favour a pre-breakup location for Madagascar that crosses the DFZ, incompatible with its interpretation as the COTM (e.g., Lottes & Rowley, 1990; Reeves, 2014; Phethean et al., 2016). For the first time, we have identified classic COTM features in seismic reflection data from the Southern Rovuma Basin, to the west and inboard of the DFZ. These suggest a NNW trend to the margin, consistent with the tectonic reconstructions. 2D gravity models, with the seabed and top basement constrained by seismic data, are used to investigate the Moho structure across the Rovuma margin and are best fit using steep 'transform style' geometries, confirming the nature of the margin. We thus model generic COTM geometries elsewhere along the East African and Madagascan transform margins to locate best-fitting positions for these conjugate COTMs. This analysis confirms that the COTMs follow a NNW trend along the Rovuma Basin and Southern Madagascar, respectively, and allows a restoration of the conjugate COTMs. This restoration is used alongside geological maps and satellite imagery from Madagascar and East Africa to refine early plate motions and further constrain the precise origin of Madagascar within Gondwana. Our refined plate tectonic model independently predicts major observations made from seismic reflection and gravity data across the basin, including: regions of major transpression/transtension along the DFZ, merging of fracture zones to form the DFZ, oceanic crust on either side of the DFZ and within the Tanzania coastal basin, and the location of an abandoned MOR within the Tanzania coastal basin. We believe that this study finally provides conclusive evidence that Madagascar originated from within the Tanzania Coastal Basin, inboard of the DFZ, after some 30 years of debate regarding this

  16. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  17. The Origins of the Acheulean at Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania: A New Paleoanthropological Project in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio de la Torre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The disappearance of the earliest human culture, the Oldowan, and its substitution by a new technology, the Acheulean, is one of the main topics in modern Paleoanthropology. Recent research has established that the Acheulean emerged originally in East Africa around 1.7–1.6 million years ago, and from that area expanded across the rest of Africa, Europe and parts of Asia. Despite the great relevance of the Oldowan-Acheulean transition, little is known about the biological and cultural evolutionary mechanisms underlying this process. Traditionally, it has been assumed that this major cultural change was ignited by the emergence of a new human species, Homo ergaster/erectus, and that there was a steady technological evolution during the Oldowan that eventually led to the emergence of the Acheulean handaxes. However, these assumptions are not grounded in the current available evidence, but rooted in cultural-history paradigms that should now be superseded. Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania is the site where the traditional view of the Oldowan-Acheulean transition was established. The aim of the recently launched Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project is to tackle this question by conducting a comprehensive research program at Olduvai, based on the retrieval of fresh data derived from new laboratory and fieldwork research. The multidisciplinary character of this ongoing study is providing an integrative perspective to the analysis of the paleoecology, archaeology, geology and geochronology of the transition to the Acheulean at Olduvai. Using an innovative theoretical perspective that combines interests in cultural change, ecological adaptations, and biological evolution, and state-of-the-art methods in archaeology, geology and taphonomy, this project aims to make Olduvai one of the world’s best references for the understanding of the evolutionary processes that led to the emergence of the Acheulean, the longest lasting culture in the history of

  18. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam

    2018-02-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  19. Capacity Building in NASA Remote Sensing Data for Meteorological and Agricultural Communities in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K.; Das, N. N.; Macharia, D.

    2015-12-01

    Across the globe, planners and decision makers are hampered by a lack of historic data and scant in situ observations on which to base policy and action plans. Data is often sorely lacking in poorly developed regions such as East Africa where people are vulnerable to a changing climate, extreme weather events, and economies and food security are tied directly to rain fed agriculture or pastoral cultures. NASA global remote sensing observations and research are promising in this regard, as they have great potential to inform policy- and decision-making at global, regional and even local scales the world over, However that potential is not realized as often as it should for a variety of reasons: the data stores are often impenetrable requiring special expertise to "crack the code", sustainability of observations remains a concern, and research and data are not focused on applications, thus results don't "fit" in existing tools or are developed for a short-term science objective without long-term use in mind. Although there are good examples of the use of NASA Earth Science research and observations for applications, capacity is lacking and must be built to advance the use of remote sensing for applications and to ease transition of research to the stakeholder. Capacity building is a critical component to transition Earth science research results to stakeholder communities, and is more than traditional training,, it has been described as…."the process of developing and strengthening the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt, and thrive in the fast-changing world. Best practices and lessons learned from recent capacity building efforts for Agricultural and Environmental Ministires in East African in support of a NASA-SERVIR Applied Science Project to provide estimates of hydrologic extremes tied to crop yield are described.

  20. Mapping the receptivity of malaria risk to plan the future of control in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegana, Victor Adagi; Patil, Anand Prabhakar; Moloney, Grainne; Borle, Mohammed; Yusuf, Fahmi; Amran, Jamal; Snow, Robert William

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To measure the receptive risks of malaria in Somalia and compare decisions on intervention scale-up based on this map and the more widely used contemporary risk maps. Design Cross-sectional community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data for the period 2007–2010 corrected to a standard age range of 2 to Somalia. Participants Randomly sampled individuals of all ages. Main outcome measure Cartographic descriptions of malaria receptivity and contemporary risks in Somalia at the district level. Results The contemporary annual PfPR2–10 map estimated that all districts (n=74) and population (n=8.4 million) in Somalia were under hypoendemic transmission (≤10% PfPR2–10). Of these, 23% of the districts, home to 13% of the population, were under transmission of 10%–50% PfPR2–10) and the rest as hypoendemic. Conclusion Compared with maps of receptive risks, contemporary maps of transmission mask disparities of malaria risk necessary to prioritise and sustain future control. As malaria risk declines across Africa, efforts must be invested in measuring receptivity for efficient control planning. PMID:22855625

  1. Mapping the receptivity of malaria risk to plan the future of control in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Abdisalan Mohamed; Alegana, Victor Adagi; Patil, Anand Prabhakar; Moloney, Grainne; Borle, Mohammed; Yusuf, Fahmi; Amran, Jamal; Snow, Robert William

    2012-01-01

    To measure the receptive risks of malaria in Somalia and compare decisions on intervention scale-up based on this map and the more widely used contemporary risk maps. Cross-sectional community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data for the period 2007-2010 corrected to a standard age range of 2 to contemporary (2010) mean PfPR(2-10) and the maximum annual mean PfPR(2-10) (receptive) from the highest predicted PfPR(2-10) value over the study period as an estimate of receptivity. Randomly sampled communities in Somalia. Randomly sampled individuals of all ages. Cartographic descriptions of malaria receptivity and contemporary risks in Somalia at the district level. The contemporary annual PfPR(2-10) map estimated that all districts (n=74) and population (n=8.4 million) in Somalia were under hypoendemic transmission (≤10% PfPR(2-10)). Of these, 23% of the districts, home to 13% of the population, were under transmission of 10%-50% PfPR(2-10)) and the rest as hypoendemic. Compared with maps of receptive risks, contemporary maps of transmission mask disparities of malaria risk necessary to prioritise and sustain future control. As malaria risk declines across Africa, efforts must be invested in measuring receptivity for efficient control planning.

  2. Simulation of synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena over East Africa and Arabian Peninsula for current and future climate using a high resolution AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Jerry; Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2015-01-01

    between regional and global scale processes. Our initial results show that HiRAM simulations for historic period well reproduce the regional climate in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with their complex interplay of regional and global processes. Our

  3. Entrepreneurs’ gender, age and education affecting their networks in private and public spheres: Denmark, Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative of t....... Education influences networking in the way that networking in the public sphere is especially extensive among educated entrepreneurs.......The purpose is to account for entrepreneurs’ networking in private and public spheres, as influenced by gender, age and education in the context of culture. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has surveyed 17,742 entrepreneurs’ networking for advice in Denmark and 14 countries representative...... of the Middle East and North Africa. Analyses show that entrepreneurs are networking in the private sphere of family and friends, especially in traditional culture in Middle East and North Africa, and are networking in public spheres, especially in secular-rational culture in Denmark. Male entrepreneurs network...

  4. Exploring Evidence of Land Surface Dynamics of River Basin Development in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluwa, C.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    Improving the productivity of agricultural lands in Africa in the face of climate variability and change is vital to achieving food security. A variety of possible approaches exist, many of which focus on the development and expansion of irrigation - at times associated with dam construction to provide co-benefits of hydropower and water supply. Optimal development of river basin infrastructure such as this has long been a topic of interest in water resources systems analysis. Recent advances have focused on addressing the uncertainty associated with climate change in the development of river basin plans. However, such studies rarely consider either the uncertainty from changing local surface-atmosphere interactions via basin development or the attendant effects on local ecosystems, precipitation, evapotranspiration and consequently the availability of water for the proposed projects. Some numerical experiments have described and reproduced the mechanisms via which river basin infrastructure influences local climatology in Sahelian Africa. However, no studies have explored available data for evidence of land-atmosphere interactions associated with actual development projects. This study explores the correlation of seasonal soil moisture and latent heat flux over currently dammed/irrigated areas on downwind precipitation in the East Africa region (bounded by 0N, -15N, 25E, 40E) at the mesoscale (30km - 100km) to unearth evidence of local climatological effects of river basin development (irrigation schemes). The adopted process is (1) use reanalysis data to derive mean wind directions at 800hPa for selected regions (2) use mean wind directions (and orthogonal directions) to locate high (and low) impact areas 30 -100km downwind (3) extract precipitation time series for downwind locations from three different gridded products (CRU, GCPC, PRINCETON) (4) compare precipitation time series across datasets in high/low impact areas and correlate with upwind latent heat flux

  5. JUS AD BELLUM AND INTERVENTION IN SOMALIA: WHY A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) interventions to stabilise the failed state, ... intervention into Somalia using “just-war” theory, particularly that of jus ad bellum .... Aideed himself and his staff, the Blackhawk Down disaster of 3 October 1993 .... justifying a case for intervention in Somalia is in no significant way impeded by the.

  6. Who Goes to School? School Enrollment Patterns in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Somalia gained its independence in 1960; however, civil conflict broke out in 1991. The outbreak of civil conflict was the final blow for already collapsed education in Somalia. The civil conflict completely destroyed the remaining educational structure. Despite the protracted nature of the conflict Somalia has slowly been pushed out of the active…

  7. Effects of cattle and manure management on the nutrient economy of mixed farms in East Africa: A scenario study

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Meer, van der, H.G.; Onduru, D.D.; Ebanyat, P.; Ergano, K.; Zake, J.Y.K.; Wouters, A.P.; Gachimbi, L.N.; Keulen, van, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores effects of animal and manure management in a dairy unit on the nutrient economy of crop-livestock farms in East Africa. For this purpose, 8 cattle management scenarios have been developed based on farming systems in Mbeere, Kenya (extensive), Wakiso, Uganda (semi-intensive) and Kibichoi, Kenya (intensive). Three baseline scenarios represent present-day cattle management; five improved scenarios use the same dairy breeds but have improved nutrition, using younger grass, mor...

  8. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto

  9. Opportunities and constraints in the subsistence production and marketing of indigenous vegetables in East and Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Rudy; Fereday, Nicholas

    1998-01-01

    This report summarises the results of market and production surveys carried out in both the dry and wet seasons in Cameroon and Uganda during 1997/98 as part of the DFID fimded project "Opportunities and constraints in the subsistence production and marketing of indigenous vegetables in East and Central Africa (A0699)". The main objective of the study was to establish the socio-economic significance of indigenous vegetables compared to exotic ones. This project is a follow up to the strategy ...

  10. International cooperation workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    In pursuant to its 2002 programme of work, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization organized a workshop on CTBTO international cooperation and national implementation for states from East and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya, from 18 to 20 June 2002. The summary report on the workshop has been provided, covering ways and means of promoting regional cooperation. The list of participants and the programme outline are annexed thereto.

  11. Transnational terrorism in East Africa: a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the recent rise in Kenyan violence

    OpenAIRE

    Muhwezi, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes recent trends of transnational terrorism in East Africa. It assesses the background of domestic and international terrorist attacks in the region from 1998 to 2012. The study then quantitatively analyzes regional trends, using data drawn from the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) showing dramatic increases in levels of terrorist violence from terrorist organizations like Al-Shabaab. Based on Al-Shabaab’s propaganda, ...

  12. From age-sets to friendship networks in contemporary sociology : The continuity of soda among the Boorana of East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Mario I

    2011-01-01

    This paper re-assesses a comparative sociology of kinship and friendship in East Africa with a particular focus on the Boorana Oromo of Kenya. It argues that the study of kinship dominated the developments of a comparative sociology during colonial times and that the post-colonial influences of war, the market and globalization have increased the role of the individual. As a result a comparative sociology of African kinship needs to be understood in relation to comparative sociological studie...

  13. Mobile Phones as a Citizen-Controlled Anti-corruption Tool in East Africa - A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Strand , Cecilia; Hatakka , Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Part 14: Current Issues; International audience; Despite agreement amongst donors, business and political leaders concerning the negative effects of corruption, levels have not fallen in East Africa. The continued high levels of corruption, reassert the need for a better understanding if mobile phones, if prolific enough, can be an effective tool against corruption. Through a literature review of ten years M4D and ICT4D research on mobiles as a citizens-controlled tool for (a) accessing gover...

  14. Snowpack Variation and Hydrologic Impacts across the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. A.; Ward, M. N.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle East is a region historically sensitive to climate variability and change, and contains snowpacks that have been shown to be important inputs to key regional water resources, including the Tigris-Euphrates river system. Focusing on the Middle East (and the smaller snowpacks of northwestern Africa), this presentation aims to (i) quantify each year's snowpack development and recession over recent decades, highlighting interannual to decadal variability, and (ii) advance understanding on the connection between the snowpack variations and aspects of regional hydrology. The presentation draws on satellite-based products, station data, and model reanalyses. Variation is summarized using space-time statistical techniques, as well as simpler regional indices: Northwestern Iran / Southern Caucasus (NWIC, includes Zagros Mountains); Eastern Turkey (ETKY, includes Taurus Mountains); and smaller scale indices for Lebanon and the Atlas Mountains. The Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System archives daily snow cover extent at 24 km resolution for 1999-present (primarily from visible satellite imagery). These data show that for both NWIC and ETKY, the mean snow extent peaks in late January with substantial coverage ( 300,000 km2 in each region), contracting to near zero by late June. A very large mid-winter interannual variance is also shown, implying substantial variation in hydrologic impacts during spring melt. Variability and decadal trends are compared with station snow depth reports (Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily). Strong agreement gives confidence in data quality, as well as, indicating high covariation of depth and extent. The connection with hydrologic impacts is investigated using reanalysis products, including the Global Land Data Assimilation System V2, which for the Middle East, shows broad agreement with observed maximum snow extent and spring retreat. The connections internal to the reanalysis between snow cover, melt and

  15. Genetic and antigenic characterization of serotype O FMD viruses from East Africa for the selection of suitable vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Katie; Mahapatra, Mana; Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Paton, David J; Babu, Aravindh; Hutchings, Geoff; Parida, Satya

    2017-12-14

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Eastern Africa with circulation of multiple serotypes of the virus in the region. Most of the outbreaks are caused by serotype O followed by serotype A. The lack of concerted FMD control programmes in Africa has provided little incentive for vaccine producers to select vaccines that are tailored to circulating regional isolates creating further negative feedback to deter the introduction of vaccine-based control schemes. In this study a total of 80 serotype O FMD viruses (FMDV) isolated from 1993 to 2012 from East and North Africa were characterized by virus neutralisation tests using bovine antisera to three existing (O/KEN/77/78, O/Manisa and O/PanAsia-2) and three putative (O/EA/2002, O/EA/2009 and O/EA/2010) vaccine strains and by capsid sequencing. Genetically, these viruses were grouped as either of East African origin with subdivision into four topotypes (EA-1, 2, 3 and 4) or of Middle-East South Asian (ME-SA) topotype. The ME-SA topotype viruses were mainly detected in Egypt and Libya reflecting the trade links with the Middle East countries. There was good serological cross-reactivity between the vaccine strains and most of the field isolates analysed, indicating that vaccine selection should not be a major constraint for control of serotype O FMD by vaccination, and that both local and internationally available commercial vaccines could be used. The O/KEN/77/78 vaccine, commonly used in the region, exhibited comparatively lower percent in vitro match against the predominant topotypes (EA-2 and EA-3) circulating in the region whereas O/PanAsia-2 and O/Manisa vaccines revealed broader protection against East African serotype O viruses, even though they genetically belong to the ME-SA topotype. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost of illness due to typhoid Fever in pemba, zanzibar, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Piatti, Moritz; Ley, Benedikt; Deen, Jacqueline; Thriemer, Kamala; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Salehjiddawi, Mohammad; Busch, Clara Jana-Lui; Schmied, Wolfgang H; Ali, Said Mohammed; The Typhoid Economic Study Group GiDeok Pak Leon R Ochiai Mahesh K Puri Na Yoon Chang Thomas F Wierzba And John D Clemens

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden of typhoid fever in Pemba, Zanzibar, East Africa. This study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis from a societal perspective. It covered new episodes of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in patients presenting at the outpatient or inpatient departments of three district hospitals between May 2010 and December 2010. Cost of illness was the sum of direct costs and costs for productivity loss. Direct costs covered treatment, travel, and meals. Productivity costs were loss of income by patients and caregivers. The analysis included 17 episodes. The mean age of the patients, was 23 years (range=5-65, median=22). Thirty-five percent were inpatients, with a mean of 4.75 days of hospital stay (range=3-7, median=4.50). The mean cost for treatment alone during hospital care was US$ 21.97 at 2010 prices (US$ 1=1,430.50 Tanzanian Shilling─TSH). The average societal cost was US$ 154.47 per typhoid episode. The major expenditure was productivity cost due to lost wages of US$ 128.02 (83%). Our results contribute to the further economic evaluation of typhoid fever vaccination in Zanzibar and other sub-Saharan African countries.

  17. Socially Inclusive Development: The Foundations for Decent Societies in East and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Pamela; Wallace, Claire; Sapsford, Roger

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with how social processes and social provision are conceptualised and measured in societies in order to offer guidance on how to improve developmental progress. Significant advances have been made in developing multidimensional measures of development, but they provide little guidance to governments on how to build sustainable societies. We argue for the need to develop a theoretically informed social and policy framework that permits the foundations for building decent societies to be put in place by governments. In our view the recently developed Decent Society Model provides such a framework. Our example is the assessment of government provision, by function, within fourteen countries of East and Southern Africa. The context is the current debates about socially inclusive development, but we argue that it is necessary to range more widely, as social processes of different kinds are multiply interrelated. Social inclusion is recognised by governments as well as international agencies, including the World Bank and the United Nations, as not only an ethical imperative but smart economics; socially inclusive societies are more stable and have greater potential for economic growth. Societies that can develop sustainably need not only to be inclusive, however, but to provide economic security for all, to be socially cohesive and to empower citizens so that as individuals and communities they can take control over their own lives.

  18. Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.; Orris, Greta; Denning, Paul; Kirschbaum, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A nation's endowment of nonfuel mineral resources, relative to the world's endowment, is a fundamental consideration in decisions related to a nation's economic and environmental well being and security. Knowledge of the worldwide abundance, distribution, and general geologic setting of mineral commodities provides a framework within which a nation can make decisions about economic development of its own resources, and the economic and environmental consequences of those decisions, in a global perspective. The information in this report is part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) endeavor to evaluate the global endowment of both identified and undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources. The results will delineate areas of the world that are geologically permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered selected nonfuel mineral resources together with estimates of the quantity and quality of the resources. The results will be published as a series of regional reports; this one provides basic data on the identified resources and geologic setting, together with a brief appraisal of the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in Africa and the Middle East. Additional information, such as production statistics, economic factors that affect the mineral industries of the region, and historical information, is available in U.S. Geological Survey publications such as the Minerals Yearbook and the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals).

  19. A review and assessment of energy policy in the Middle East and North Africa region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The energy landscape of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has undergone a significant transformation in recent years as a result of intersecting technological, economic and political trends, both regional and international. The evolving dynamics of international energy markets, increased diversification of energy sources, global concerns for climate change, and regional conflict are among the leading factors impacting the evolution of MENA energy policy. This paper provides an assessment and outlook for energy policy in the MENA region within the context of the myriad factors impacting policy design and implementation. A review and analysis of the social, political and economic factors that are impacting regional energy policy is provided and followed by analysis of regional energy policy with consideration of hydrocarbon exploration and production, regional energy trade, demand management and clean energy production. The findings show that the MENA region is in the midst of an energy transition that has uncertain outcomes but will undoubtedly have long lasting impacts on the global energy system. - Highlights: • The MENA region is undergoing an energy transition shaped by political, social and economic dynamics. • Political, economic and social turmoil will constrain energy systems developments in many MENA countries. • MENA countries that can evolve their energy systems are prioritizing energy security and energy cost minimization. • Energy demand management, sustainable energy supply and regional cooperation are essential to achieving energy priorities.

  20. Vascular flora of Kenya, based on the Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadong Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenya, an African country with major higher plant diversity, has a corresponding diversity of plant associations, because of the wide geographic distribution, diverse climatic conditions and soil types. In this article, all vascular plants of Kenya were counted based on the completed "Flora of Tropical East Africa (FTEA", and all families and genera were revised using recent molecular systematics research, forming a "Synoptic List of Families and Genera of Kenyan Vascular Plants (SLFGKVP". In total, there are 225 families, 1538 genera and 6293 indigenous species and and 62 families, 302 genera and 588 exotic species in Kenya. The Fabaceae with 98 genera and 576 Species is the largest family. Two of the seven plant distribution regions of Kenya, K4 and K7 are the most species-richest areas with regard to both total and endemic species, with 3375 and 3191 total species and 174 and 185 endemic species in K4 and K7 respectively. While, K3 and K5 have the highest density of both total and endemic species. K1 has the lowest density of total species, and K2 has the lowest density of endemic species.

  1. Sensitivity of the Regional Climate in the Middle East and North Africa to Volcanic Perturbations

    KAUST Repository

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  2. Sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercevik Amado, Liz

    2004-05-01

    A regional workshop on sexual and bodily rights as human rights in the Middle East and North Africa was held in Malta in 2003, attended by 22 NGO representatives from Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Turkey, Pakistan and USA. The meeting aimed to develop strategies for overcoming human rights violations in the region with reference to law and social and political practices. Session topics included sexuality and gender identity; sexuality and sexual health; sexuality and comparative penal law; sexual rights in international documents; advocacy and lobbying. Sexual rights, sexual health and education, sexual violence and adolescent sexuality were explored in depth, including taboos and emerging trends. Specific areas of concern included marital rape, early marriages, temporary marriages, sexual orientation, premarital and extramarital sexuality, honour crimes, female genital mutilation, unmarried mothers, adolescent sexuality, unwanted pregnancies and safe abortion, sexuality in education and health services. An analysis of civil codes, penal codes and personal status codes indicated a clear imperative for legal reform. Participants heard about efforts to promote the right to sexual orientation which have already been initiated in Lebanon, Turkey and Tunisia. Networking within the region and with counterparts in other regions in comparable situations and conditions was deemed essential.

  3. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  4. Abortion and Islam: policies and practice in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessini, Leila

    2007-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of legal, religious, medical and social factors that serve to support or hinder women's access to safe abortion services in the 21 predominantly Muslim countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where one in ten pregnancies ends in abortion. Reform efforts, including progressive interpretations of Islam, have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. However, medical and social factors limit access to safe abortion services in all but Turkey and Tunisia. To address this situation, efforts are increasing in a few countries to introduce post-abortion care, document the magnitude of unsafe abortion and understand women's experience of unplanned pregnancy. Religious fatāwa have been issued allowing abortions in certain circumstances. An understanding of variations in Muslim beliefs and practices, and the interplay between politics, religion, history and reproductive rights is key to understanding abortion in different Muslim societies. More needs to be done to build on efforts to increase women's rights, engage community leaders, support progressive religious leaders and government officials and promote advocacy among health professionals.

  5. Realizing Universal Health Coverage in East Africa: the relevance of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Maleche, Allan

    2017-08-03

    Applying a robust human rights framework would change thinking and decision-making in efforts to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), and advance efforts to promote women's, children's, and adolescents' health in East Africa, which is a priority under the Sustainable Development Agenda. Nevertheless, there is a gap between global rhetoric of human rights and ongoing health reform efforts. This debate article seeks to fill part of that gap by setting out principles of human rights-based approaches (HRBAs), and then applying those principles to questions that countries undertaking efforts toward UHC and promoting women's, children's and adolescents' health, will need to face, focusing in particular on ensuring enabling legal and policy frameworks, establishing fair financing; priority-setting processes, and meaningful oversight and accountability mechanisms. In a region where democratic institutions are notoriously weak, we argue that the explicit application of a meaningful human rights framework could enhance equity, participation and accountability, and in turn the democratic legitimacy of health reform initiatives being undertaken in the region.

  6. Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Droogers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. An advanced, physically based, distributed, hydrological model is applied to determine the internal and external renewable water resources for the current situation and under future changes. Subsequently, a water allocation model is used to combine the renewable water resources with sectoral water demands. Results show that total demand in the region will increase to 393 km3 yr−1 in 2050, while total water shortage will grow to 199 km3 yr−1 in 2050 for the average climate change projection, an increase of 157 km3 yr−1. This increase in shortage is the combined impact of an increase in water demand by 50% with a decrease in water supply by 12%. Uncertainty, based on the output of the nine GCMs applied, reveals that expected water shortage ranges from 85 km3 yr−1 to 283 km3 yr−1~in 2050. The analysis shows that 22% of the water shortage can be attributed to climate change and 78% to changes in socio-economic factors.

  7. Decadal trends in beach morphology on the east coast of South Africa and likely causative factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corbella

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandy shorelines are dynamic with constant changes that can cause hazards in developed areas. The causes of change may be either natural or anthropogenic. This paper evaluates evidence for shoreline changes and their causative factors using a case study on the east coast of South Africa. Beach morphology trends were found to be location-specific, but overall the beaches show a receding trend. It was hypothesized that wave, tide, sea level and wind trends as well as anthropogenic influences are causative factors, and their contributions to shoreline changes were evaluated. Maximum significant wave heights, average wave direction, peak period and storm event frequencies all show weak increasing trends, but only the increases in peak period and wave direction are statistically significant. The chronic beach erosion cannot be attributed to wave climate changes since they are still too small to explain the observations. Instead, the impacts of sea level rise and reductions in the supply of beach sediments are suggested as the main causative factors. The analysis also identifies a trend in the frequency of severe erosion events due to storms that coincide with a 4.5-yr extreme tide cycle, which demonstrates the potential impact of future sea level rise.

  8. Climate variability and conflict risk in East Africa, 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, John; Witmer, Frank D W; Linke, Andrew M; Laing, Arlene; Gettelman, Andrew; Dudhia, Jimy

    2012-11-06

    Recent studies concerning the possible relationship between climate trends and the risks of violent conflict have yielded contradictory results, partly because of choices of conflict measures and modeling design. In this study, we examine climate-conflict relationships using a geographically disaggregated approach. We consider the effects of climate change to be both local and national in character, and we use a conflict database that contains 16,359 individual geolocated violent events for East Africa from 1990 to 2009. Unlike previous studies that relied exclusively on political and economic controls, we analyze the many geographical factors that have been shown to be important in understanding the distribution and causes of violence while also considering yearly and country fixed effects. For our main climate indicators at gridded 1° resolution (~100 km), wetter deviations from the precipitation norms decrease the risk of violence, whereas drier and normal periods show no effects. The relationship between temperature and conflict shows that much warmer than normal temperatures raise the risk of violence, whereas average and cooler temperatures have no effect. These precipitation and temperature effects are statistically significant but have modest influence in terms of predictive power in a model with political, economic, and physical geographic predictors. Large variations in the climate-conflict relationships are evident between the nine countries of the study region and across time periods.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amjad M; Hersi, Ahmad; Mashhoud, Walid; Arafah, Mohammed R; Abreu, Paula C; Al Rowaily, Mohammed Abdullah; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2017-10-01

    Limited data exist on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia, particularly in relation to the differences between Saudi nationals and expatriates in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this analysis was to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics across Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional epidemiological analysis of the Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) study, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, abdominal obesity) was evaluated in adults attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Group comparisons were made between patients of Saudi ethnicity (SA nationals) and patients who were not of Saudi ethnicity (expatriates). A total of 550 participants were enrolled from different clinics across Saudi Arabia [aged (mean ± standard deviation) 43 ± 11 years; 71% male]. Nearly half of the study cohort (49.8%) had more than three cardiovascular risk factors. Dyslipidemia was the most prevalent risk factor (68.6%). The prevalence of hypertension (47.5%) and dyslipidemia (75.5%) was higher among expatriates when compared with SA nationals (31.4% vs. 55.1%, p  = 0.0003 vs. p  Saudi Arabia. Improving primary care services to focus on risk factor control may ultimately decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life. The ACE trial is registered under NCT01243138.

  10. Shoreline recovery from storms on the east coast of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, S.; Stretch, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic extreme waves due to sea storms can cause severe coastal erosion. The recovery times of such events are important for the analysis of risk and coastal vulnerability. The recovery period of a storm damaged coastline represents a time when the coastline is most vulnerable and nearby infrastructure is at the greatest risk. We propose that identification of the beach recovery period can be used as a coastal management tool when determining beach usage. As a case study, we analyse 37 yr of beach profile data on the east coast of South Africa. Considering beach length and cross-sectional area, we establish a global recovery period and rate and identify the physical characteristics of the coastlines that either accelerate or retard recovery. The beaches in the case study were found to take an average of two years to recover at a rate of approximately 90 m3 m-1 yr-1. Beach profiles with vegetated dunes recovered faster than urbanized beaches. Perpendicular beach structures have both positive and negative effects on beach recovery. Coastlines with rock outcrops in the surf zone tend to recover slowly and long-term sediment loss was identified in cases where storm damaged beaches have not recovered to pre-erosion levels.

  11. Shoreline recovery from storms on the east coast of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corbella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Episodic extreme waves due to sea storms can cause severe coastal erosion. The recovery times of such events are important for the analysis of risk and coastal vulnerability. The recovery period of a storm damaged coastline represents a time when the coastline is most vulnerable and nearby infrastructure is at the greatest risk. We propose that identification of the beach recovery period can be used as a coastal management tool when determining beach usage. As a case study, we analyse 37 yr of beach profile data on the east coast of South Africa. Considering beach length and cross-sectional area, we establish a global recovery period and rate and identify the physical characteristics of the coastlines that either accelerate or retard recovery. The beaches in the case study were found to take an average of two years to recover at a rate of approximately 90 m3 m−1 yr−1. Beach profiles with vegetated dunes recovered faster than urbanized beaches. Perpendicular beach structures have both positive and negative effects on beach recovery. Coastlines with rock outcrops in the surf zone tend to recover slowly and long-term sediment loss was identified in cases where storm damaged beaches have not recovered to pre-erosion levels.

  12. Sensitivity of the regional climate in the Middle East and North Africa to volcanic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon, and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  13. INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mahbubur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC were requested to communicate intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs in a clear, transparent and understandable way before the Conference of the Parties (known as COP21 held in Paris in 2015. The Contributions were supposed to be balanced and comprehensive to ensure sustainable development and expected to include finance, technology requires, technology transfer and capacity building aiming at mitigation and adaptation. This research focuses on investigating the INDCs prepared by countries from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA, one of the most water-scarce and dry regions in the world. Following a content analysis, this research has found that INDCs from the region have not been able to reflect the desired output. Submissions were also not timely and not sufficiently ahead of time. Many countries were not able to disclose the current status. INDCs can play a significant role by providing objective, timely, and reliable information, which is missing at present in the countries from MENA.

  14. Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; Brandt, Patric; Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana C.; Robinson, Timothy; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Using the net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach we estimated the N budget for the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa. The NANI of the basin ranged from 887 to 3008 kg N km-2 yr-1 (mean: 1827 kg N km-2 yr-1) for the period 1995-2000. The net nitrogen release at basin level is due primarily to livestock and human consumption of feed and foods, contributing between 69% and 85%. Atmospheric oxidized N deposition contributed approximately 14% to the NANI of the Lake Victoria Basin, while either synthetic N fertilizer imports or biological N fixations only contributed less than 6% to the regional NANI. Due to the low N imports of feed and food products (export to Lake Victoria accounted for 16%, which is much lower than for watersheds located in Europe and USA (25%). A significant reduction of the uncertainty of our N budget estimate for Lake Victoria Basin would be possible if better data on livestock systems and riverine N export were available. Our study indicates that at present soil N mining is the main source of nitrogen in the Lake Victoria Basin. Thus, sustainable N management requires increasing agricultural N inputs to guarantee food security and rehabilitation and protection of soils to minimize environmental costs. Moreover, to reduce N pollution of the lake, improving management of human and animal wastes needs to be carefully considered in future.

  15. Neoproterozoic collision tectonics in the Mozambique Belt of East Africa: evidence from the Uluguru mountains, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhongo, Sospeter

    1994-10-01

    The fault-bounded Proterozoic metamorphic terranes lying to the E of the Tanzanian craton make up the Usagara tectonic domain and are a part of the transcontinental Mozambique Orogenic Belt (MB). The lithotectonic units in the MB of the East Africa consist of comparable rock assembles which underwent the same complex deformational history and are thought to represent large thrust sheets or nappes. Their shelf- and fore-deep terranes border the Tanzanian craton and make up the foreland terranes of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt. Granulite-gneiss nappes are ubiquitous in the orogen. Granulite-facies metamorphism, associated with recumbent folds, was due to crustal thickening, which took place during the collision between Gondwana fragments. Isotope data suggest a collision (and concomitant granulite-facies metamorphism) age of between 700 and 550 Ma. The orientations of planar and linear fabrics in the granulite-facies rocks of the Uluguru mountains are used to infer the relative crustal block motions during this collisional event. This Pan-African collisional event was characterized by NW-directed movements, oblique to the N-S trend of the orogen, and involved SE-directed backthrusting. The Ubendian Belt of Tanzania and the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda and Kenya, which both bifurcate around the Tanzania craton, accommodated the tectonically thickened crust, created by the collisional event, through NW-SE sinistral strike-slip movements.

  16. Innovative landfill bioreactor systems for municipal solid waste treatment in East Africa aimed at optimal energy recovery and minimal greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salukele, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Landfilling is currently the dominant disposal method for municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries. Approximately 50% of the MSW generated in East Africa is disposed in landfills. Low costs and availability of land have made landfilling the most common waste management option in East

  17. Development of the Bosaso Port Somalia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1988-01-01

    The first stage of the port of Bosaso will be completed within half a year's time. It offers accomodation for one general cargo/Ro-Ro vessel of 5,000 DWT plus 350 meters of quays for small cargo vessels and fishing boats. Hinterlands for handling of the goods are arranged along the quays. Areas...... for long term storage of goods and storage of oil are not yet provided. The first stage represents a significant development in the transport system of Somalia in being the most prosperous port in the northern Somalia because of its position at the terminal of the new north-south national main road and its...

  18. A Survey of the Literature on Local Content Policies in the Oil and Gas Industry in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilenye Nwapi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although oil and gas exploration has been going on in East Africa for decades, until recently exploration activities grew more slowly compared to other regions in Africa. Today, there has been a series of oil and gas discoveries in several East African countries, including Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda. Debate is however mounting over what effect the new oil and gas discoveries would have on East Africa, given the trajectory of older oil-producing countries in Africa, particularly Angola, Nigeria and Sudan. The challenge for East Africa is, therefore, how to maximize the potential benefits from the resources to avoid the under-developmental path that these other countries followed. There is general consensus that lack of specialized skills is a major obstacle to Africa’s realization of its resource potentials. One instrument currently being adopted by most oil and gas resource-rich countries (both in and outside Africa to deal with the skills problem and to enhance linkages between the oil and gas sector and other sectors of the economy is the formulation of local content policies (LCPs. Typically, LCPs require companies to give preferential treatment to nationals of the country in which they operate in matters of employment and in the procurement of goods and services. It is believed that this would result in technology transfer and facilitate the ability of the country to take charge of its own development. But LCPs come with certain tradeoffs: Their potential incompatibility with international trade agreements threatens their sustenance; they can create unrealistic expectations capable of discouraging investment; and they are easily prone to corruption. However, there is a strong case for emerging oil and gas-producing East African countries to consider adopting the LCP. The nascent nature of the oil and gas industry in the region means that these countries would not have the technical and even managerial expertise to

  19. An updated atlas of human helminth infections: the example of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanja Peris

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable and updated maps of helminth (worm infection distributions are essential to target control strategies to those populations in greatest need. Although many surveys have been conducted in endemic countries, the data are rarely available in a form that is accessible to policy makers and the managers of public health programmes. This is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa, where empirical data are seldom in the public domain. In an attempt to address the paucity of geographical information on helminth risk, this article describes the development of an updated global atlas of human helminth infection, showing the example of East Africa. Methods Empirical, cross-sectional estimates of infection prevalence conducted since 1980 were identified using electronic and manual search strategies of published and unpublished sources. A number of inclusion criteria were imposed for identified information, which was extracted into a standardized database. Details of survey population, diagnostic methods, sample size and numbers infected with schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths were recorded. A unique identifier linked each record to an electronic copy of the source document, in portable document format. An attempt was made to identify the geographical location of each record using standardized geolocation procedures and the assembled data were incorporated into a geographical information system. Results At the time of writing, over 2,748 prevalence surveys were identified through multiple search strategies. Of these, 2,612 were able to be geolocated and mapped. More than half (58% of included surveys were from grey literature or unpublished sources, underlining the importance of reviewing in-country sources. 66% of all surveys were conducted since 2000. Comprehensive, countrywide data are available for Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda. In contrast, information for Kenya and Tanzania is typically clustered in specific regions of

  20. Designing a Frost Forecasting Service for Small Scale Tea Farmers in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, E. C.; Nyaga, J. W.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Limaye, A. S.; Mugo, R. M.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Irwin, D.; Case, J.; Malaso, S.; Sedah, A.

    2017-12-01

    our partner network developed at the stakeholder engagement meeting. This presentation will illustrate the efficacy of our frost forecasting algorithm, and a way forward for incorporating these forecasts in a meaningful way to the key decision makers - the small-scale farmers of East Africa.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of dog rabies vaccination programs in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borse, Rebekah H.; Atkins, Charisma Y.; Gambhir, Manoj; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Kahn, Emily B.; Dyer, Jessie L.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2018-01-01

    Background Dog rabies annually causes 24,000–70,000 deaths globally. We built a spreadsheet tool, RabiesEcon, to aid public health officials to estimate the cost-effectiveness of dog rabies vaccination programs in East Africa. Methods RabiesEcon uses a mathematical model of dog-dog and dog-human rabies transmission to estimate dog rabies cases averted, the cost per human rabies death averted and cost per year of life gained (YLG) due to dog vaccination programs (US 2015 dollars). We used an East African human population of 1 million (approximately 2/3 living in urban setting, 1/3 rural). We considered, using data from the literature, three vaccination options; no vaccination, annual vaccination of 50% of dogs and 20% of dogs vaccinated semi-annually. We assessed 2 transmission scenarios: low (1.2 dogs infected per infectious dog) and high (1.7 dogs infected). We also examined the impact of annually vaccinating 70% of all dogs (World Health Organization recommendation for dog rabies elimination). Results Without dog vaccination, over 10 years there would a total of be approximately 44,000–65,000 rabid dogs and 2,100–2,900 human deaths. Annually vaccinating 50% of dogs results in 10-year reductions of 97% and 75% in rabid dogs (low and high transmissions scenarios, respectively), approximately 2,000–1,600 human deaths averted, and an undiscounted cost-effectiveness of $451-$385 per life saved. Semi-annual vaccination of 20% of dogs results in in 10-year reductions of 94% and 78% in rabid dogs, and approximately 2,000–1,900 human deaths averted, and cost $404-$305 per life saved. In the low transmission scenario, vaccinating either 50% or 70% of dogs eliminated dog rabies. Results were most sensitive to dog birth rate and the initial rate of dog-to-dog transmission (Ro). Conclusions Dog rabies vaccination programs can control, and potentially eliminate, dog rabies. The frequency and coverage of vaccination programs, along with the level of dog rabies

  2. Sensitivity of the Regional Climate in the Middle East and North Africa to Volcanic Perturbations

    KAUST Repository

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar

    2017-07-27

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory\\'s High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  3. Smallholder farmers’ attitudes and determinants of adaptation to climate risks in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin M. Shikuku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adapting to climate risks is central to the goal of increasing food security and enhancing resilience of farming systems in East Africa. We examined farmers’ attitudes and assessed determinants of adaptation using data from a random sample of 500 households in Borana, Ethiopia; Nyando, Kenya; Hoima, Uganda; and Lushoto, Tanzania. Adaptation was measured using a livelihood-based index that assigned weights to different individual strategies based on their marginal contributions to a household’s livelihood. Results showed that farmers’ attitudes across the four sites strongly favored introduction of new crops, changes in crop varieties, and changes in planting times. Farmers disfavored soil, land, and water management practices. At lower levels of adaptation (25% quantile, adaptation index correlated positively with membership to farmers’ groups, household size, sex of the household head, and number of months of food shortage. Farmer group membership enhanced adaptation at intermediate (50% quantile level whereas access to credit increased adaptation at high (75% quantile level. Food insecurity, however, correlated negatively with the likelihood to choose individual adaptation strategies suggesting that although households adapted to improve food security status of their households, hunger was a barrier to adaptation. Our findings suggest that providing climate information to inform timely planting, promoting crop diversification, and encouraging adoption of adapted varieties of crops might be successful to enhancing resilience of farming systems in the short-term. In the long-term, increased investment in reducing hunger, encouraging groups formation, and easing liquidity constraints will be required to promote adaptation through implementation of soil, water, and land management strategies.

  4. Sustainable Management of Climate Change: The Case of the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Al Taweel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world. Particularly vulnerable are arid and low-laying coastal areas, conditions that prevail through most of the Middle East and North Africa [MENA]. This region is an economically diverse one, including both the oil-rich economies in the Gulf and countries that are resource-scarce in relation to their population.  However, with about 23 percent of MENA’s population living on less than $2 a day, it is imperative that the climate change management strategies adopted be cost-effective and emphasize economic, social and human development while addressing the concerns arising from anthropogenic climate change.Over the past decades several national and international mechanisms were developed in an attempt to reduce the emissions considered to be mainly responsible for climate change, and to assist in coping with the adverse effects that are beginning to occur as a result of climate change. Unfortunately, many of these approaches are presently associated with economic penalties that often adversely affect the socio-economic welfare of the populace, particularly in low-, and medium-income countries. In this regard, it is informative to note the experience recently gained by Trinidad and Tobago [T&T] in its attempt to reduce GHG emissions without affecting the competitiveness of the industrial and agricultural sectors. Using appropriate decision making tools and a policy environment based on a combination of regulations and incentives, the environmental challenges can be turned into a vehicle for sustainable development.This paper discusses the factors that need to be considered while developing a sustainable climate change management approach for the MENA region and develops some recommendations that may be essential for achieving the desired climate change mitigation/adaptation actions while minimizing social disruption.

  5. Evaluation of CMIP5 twentieth century rainfall simulation over the equatorial East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongoma, Victor; Chen, Haishan; Gao, Chujie

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the performance of 22 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) historical simulations of rainfall over East Africa (EA) against reanalyzed datasets during 1951-2005. The datasets were sourced from Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and Climate Research Unit (CRU). The metrics used to rank CMIP5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) based on their performance in reproducing the observed rainfall include correlation coefficient, standard deviation, bias, percentage bias, root mean square error, and trend. Performances of individual models vary widely. The overall performance of the models over EA is generally low. The models reproduce the observed bimodal rainfall over EA. However, majority of them overestimate and underestimate the October-December (OND) and March-May (MAM) rainfall, respectively. The monthly (inter-annual) correlation between model and reanalyzed is high (low). More than a third of the models show a positive bias of the annual rainfall. High standard deviation in rainfall is recorded in the Lake Victoria Basin, central Kenya, and eastern Tanzania. A number of models reproduce the spatial standard deviation of rainfall during MAM season as compared to OND. The top eight models that produce rainfall over EA relatively well are as follows: CanESM2, CESM1-CAM5, CMCC-CESM, CNRM-CM5, CSIRO-Mk3-6-0, EC-EARTH, INMCM4, and MICROC5. Although these results form a fairly good basis for selection of GCMs for carrying out climate projections and downscaling over EA, it is evident that there is still need for critical improvement in rainfall-related processes in the models assessed. Therefore, climate users are advised to use the projections of rainfall from CMIP5 models over EA cautiously when making decisions on adaptation to or mitigation of climate change.

  6. How critical are wetlands for provisioning ecosystem services in East Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettel, G. M.; van Dam, A. A.; Hes, E.; Irvine, K.

    2017-12-01

    East Africa is rapidly losing wetlands as the region intensifies agricultural development in rice, sugarcane, and aquaculture production. However, these wetlands are critically important to the livelihoods of region's most vulnerable smallholders, who depend on them for fisheries, water abstraction, and dry-season subsistence agriculture, including livestock grazing. At the same time, wetlands are used for their regulating services, including for water purification of waste-water in some of the region's largest capital cities (e.g. Kampala and Kigali). They also store an enormous, but poorly quantified amount of below-ground carbon and prevent excess nitrogen inputs to sensitive downstream ecosystems. Our research in papyrus wetlands in the Lake Victoria Basin aims to quantify trade-offs in provisioning and regulating services and link these services to socio-economic conditions of the smallholders. We present a framework for evaluating these trade-offs, which can ultimately be used for more informed management decisions for sustainable wetland management and for evaluating impacts on livelihoods. Specifically, we have found that papyrus wetlands can maintain many of their regulating functions, including high plant productivity and denitrification rates when native vegetation is allowed to grow back during wet-seasons, while during dry seasons they can be developed for economically important agricultural activities, including livestock grazing and crop production. This shows the possibility to include wetlands in management plans aimed to increase agricultural production without jeopardizing their ability to maintain other important regulating services. These patterns highlight the need to evaluate the regional importance of these wetlands for both food production and regulating services.

  7. Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment: Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardashti, Sara; Samaei, Mehrnoosh; Firouzeh, Mona Mohammadi; Mirshahvalad, Seyed Ali; Pahlaviani, Fatemeh Golsoorat; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad

    2015-05-12

    New World Health Organization guidelines recommend the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for asymptomatic patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of ≤ 500 cells/mm(3). Substantial reduction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is addressed as a major public health outcome of this new approach. Middle East and North Africa (MENA), known as the area of controversies in terms of availability of comprehensive data, has shown concentrated epidemics among most of it's at risk population groups. Serious challenges impede the applicability of new guidelines in the MENA Region. Insufficient resources restrict ART coverage to less than 14%, while only one fourth of the countries had reportable data on patients' CD4 counts at the time of diagnosis. Clinical guidelines need to be significantly modified to reach practical utility, and surveillance systems have not yet been developed in many countries of MENA. Based on available evidence in several countries people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men are increasingly vulnerable to HIV and viral hepatitis, while their sexual partners - either female sex workers or women in monogamous relationships with high-risk men - are potential bridging populations that are not appropriately addressed by regional programs. Research to monitor the response to ART among the mentioned groups are seriously lacking, while drug resistant HIV strains and limited information on adherence patterns to treatment regimens require urgent recognition by health policymakers. Commitment to defined goals in the fight against HIV, development of innovative methods to improve registration and reporting systems, monitoring and evaluation of current programs followed by cost-effective modifications are proposed as effective steps to be acknowledged by National AIDS Programs of the countries of MENA Region.

  8. Kanda fault: A major seismogenic element west of the Rukwa Rift (Tanzania, East Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittori, Eutizio; Delvaux, Damien; Kervyn, François

    1997-09-01

    The NW-SE trending Rukwa Rift, part of the East African Rift System, links the approximately N-S oriented Tanganyika and Nyassa (Malawi) depressions. The rift has a complex half-graben structure, generally interpreted as the result of normal and strike-slip faulting. Morphological and structural data (e.g. fault scarps, faceted spurs, tilting of Quaternary continental deposits, volcanism, seismicity) indicate Late Quaternary activity within the rift. In 1910 an earthquake of M = 7.4 (historically the largest felt in Africa) struck the Rukwa region. The epicentre was located near the Kanda fault, which affects the Ufipa plateau, separating the Rukwa depression from the south-Tanganyika basin. The geomorphic expression of the Kanda fault is a prominent fresh-looking scarp more than 180 km long, from Tunduma to north of Sumbawanga, that strikes roughly NW-SE, and dips constantly northeast. No evidence for horizontal slip was observed. Generally, the active faulting affects a very narrow zone, and is only locally distributed over several subparallel scarps. The height of the scarp progressively decreases towards the northwest, from about 40-50 m to a few metres north of Sumbawanga. Faulted lacustrine deposits exposed in a road cut near Kaengesa were dated as 8340 ± 700 and 13 600 ± 1240 radiocarbon years. These low-energy deposits now hang more than 15 m above the present-day valley floor, suggesting rapid uplift during the Holocene. Due to its high rate of activity in very recent times, the Kanda Fault could have produced the 1910 earthquake. Detailed paleoseismological studies are used to characterize its recent history. In addition, the seismic hazard posed by this fault, which crosses the fast growing town of Sumbawanga, must be seriously considered in urban planning.

  9. The competitiveness of domestic rice production in East Africa: A domestic resource cost approach in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Kikuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of rice imports in sub-Saharan Africa under the unstable situation in the world rice market during the 2000s has made it an important policy target for the countries in the region to increase self-sufficiency in rice in order to enhance food security. Whether domestic rice production can be competitive with imported rice is a serious question in East African countries that lie close, just across the Arabian Sea, to major rice exporting countries in South Asia. This study investigates the international competitiveness of domestic rice production in Uganda in terms of the domestic resource cost ratio. The results show that rainfed rice cultivation, which accounts for 95% of domestic rice production, does not have a comparative advantage with respect to rice imported from Pakistan, the largest supplier of imported rice to Uganda. However, the degree of non-competitiveness is not serious, and a high possibility exists for Uganda’s rainfed rice cultivation to become internationally competitive by improving yield levels by applying more modern inputs and enhancing labour productivity. Irrigated rice cultivation, though very limited in area, is competitive even under the present input-output structure when the cost of irrigation infrastructure is treated as a sunk cost. If the cost of installing irrigation infrastructure and its operation and maintenance is taken into account, the types of irrigation development that are economically feasible are not large-scale irrigation projects, but are small- and microscale projects for lowland rice cultivation and rain-water harvesting for upland rice cultivation.

  10. Monitoring Water Resources in Pastoral Areas of East Africa Using Satellite Data and Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, H.; Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N.; Asante, K. O.

    2008-12-01

    The nomadic pastoral communities in East Africa heavily depend on small water bodies and artificial lakes for domestic and livestock uses. The shortage of water in the region has made these water resources of great importance to them and sometimes even the reason for conflicts amongst rival communities in the region. Satellite-based data has significantly transformed the way we track and estimate hydrological processes such as precipitation and evapotranspiration. This approach has been particularly useful in remote places where conventional station-based weather networks are scarce. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data were extracted for the study region. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) data were used to extract the climatic parameters needed to calculate reference evapotranspiration. The elevation data needed to delineate the watersheds were extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with spatial resolution of 90m. The waterholes (most of which have average surface area less than a hectare) were identified using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images with a spatial resolution of 15 m. As part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) funded enhancement to a livestock early warning decision support system, a simple hydrologic water balance model was developed to estimate daily waterhole depth variations. The model was run for over 10 years from 1998 till 2008 for 10 representative waterholes in the region. Although there were no independent datasets to validate the results, the temporal patterns captured both the seasonal and inter-annual variations, depicting known drought and flood years. Future research includes the installation of staff-gauges for model calibration and validation. The simple modeling approach demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating dynamic coarse resolution datasets such as TRMM with

  11. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improve seed set and yield. Field trials were conducted during 2008 and 2009; flowers were examined for short stamen height, long stamen height, pistil height, and silliqua for seed weight, seeds/silliqua and silliqua/plant. Results were largely consistent between years, indicating that the variation measured was mainly controlled by genetic factors. High genetic variation for seed characters and reproductive phenology among the accessions was noted. The number of days to appearance of flowers showed high discriminatory ability among the accessions. A wide continuous variation was observed among accessions for anther-stigma separation. Accessions 1, 3 and 14 were identified as early flowering. A significant and positive correlation coefficient between short stamen height and seed weight indicated a substantial complementation among these characters for seed yield improvement. The short stamen height is a good indicator for selection in favour of seed commercialization and indices for selection of pollen parent for seed yield improvement. Accessions 5, 7, 14, 16 and 22 are best for multiple characters and are recommended for seed production for any of the seasons in Arusha, Tanzania.

  12. The epidemiology of Norovirus in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidieh, Khalil; Charide, Rana; Dbaibo, Ghassan; Melhem, Nada M

    2017-11-10

    Norovirus (NoV) is considered the second leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE). To our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews assessing the role of NoV in AGE in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Consequently, we conducted an extensive systematic literature review on articles studying NoV in the 24 countries of the MENA region during the past 15 years (2000-2015). The methods and reporting were set according to the 2015 PRISMA-P and based on the elements from the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). We retrieved 38 studies meeting our predefined inclusion criteria and were used to extract full data. Studies reporting on NoV were conducted in 15 out of the 24 countries of the region. The reported NoV infection rates in MENA countries ranged between 0.82% and 36.84%. The majority of studies were clinical observational studies assessing NoV rates mainly among children. Participants were recruited from in- and outpatient clinics. NoV infection was reported all year round with with peaks observed mainly during cold months. GII.4 was the predominant genotype detected in stool of participants as reported by 16 out of 25 studies (64%). Overall, there is an increasing recognition of NoV as an important causative agent of AGE across all age groups in the MENA region. Further studies are needed to assess the national and the regional burden of NoV among different age groups, its molecular diversity and seasonal variability.

  13. Financing concentrating solar power in the Middle East and North Africa-Subsidy or investment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trieb, Franz; Mueller-Steinhagen, Hans; Kern, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a strategy for the market introduction of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) that will not require considerable subsidization and will not constitute a significant burden for electricity consumers in the region. In the first section, the paper explains the need of MENA countries for sustainable supply of electricity and calculates the cost of electricity for a model case country. In the second part, the cost development of concentrating solar power plants is calculated on the basis of expectations for the expansion of CSP on a global level. After that, the challenges for the market introduction of CSP in MENA are explained. Finally, we present a strategy for the market introduction of CSP in MENA, removing the main barriers for financing and starting market introduction in the peak load and the medium load segment of power supply. The paper explains why long-term power purchase agreements (PPA) for CSP should be calculated on the basis of avoided costs, starting in the peak load segment. Such PPA are not yet available, the paper aims to convince policy makers to introduce them. - Research Highlights: → Concentrating Solar Power in the Mediterranean Region (MED-CSP 2005) (www.dlr.de/tt/med-csp). → Trans-Mediterranean Interconnection for Concentrating Solar Power (TRANS-CSP 2006) (www.dlr.de/tt/trans-csp). → Concentrating Solar Power for Seawater Desalination (AQUA-CSP 2007) (www.dlr.de/tt/aqua-csp). → Risk of Energy Availability: Common Corridors for Europe Supply Security (REACCESS 2009) (http://reaccess.epu.ntua.gr/). → Combined Solar Power and Desalination in the Mediterranean (MED-CSD 2010) (www.med-csd-ec.eu).

  14. Along-dip variations of structural style in the Somali Basin deep-water fold and thrust belt (East Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Francesco; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    Continental passive margins are place of extended slope-failure phenomena, which can lead to the formation of gravity-driven deep-water fold and thrust belts (DW-FTBs), in regions where no far-field compressional stress is active. These giant geological features, which are confined to the sedimentary section, consist of extensional-compressional linked systems detached over a common décollement, generally salt or shales. The continental passive margin of northern Kenya and southern Somalia is an excellent and relatively unexplored site for recognizing and understanding the DW-FTBs originated over a regional shale décollement. In this study we have interpreted a 2D seismic data-set of the 1980s, hosted by Marine Geoscience Data System at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (http://www.marine-geo.org), and recently reprocessed by ENI, in order to investigate the structural style of a DW-FTB developed offshore of northern Kenya and southern Somalia (Somali Basin). This region records the oldest sedimentary section of the Indian Ocean since the breakup of Gondwana began in the Middle-Lower Jurassic separating Madagascar from Africa. From the Upper Cretaceous to at least the Lower Miocene, the margin has been characterized by gravitational collapse leading to the formation of a DW-FTB extending more than 400 km along-strike. The northern portion of the DW-FTB is about 150 km wide, whilst in the southern portion is few tens of km wide. We analysed the northern portion along a regional seismic section. Our study represents the first detailed structural interpretation of this DW-FTB since its discovery in the 1980s. The good quality of the available reprocessed seismic data has allowed us to identify remarkable along-dip variations in the structural style. The basal detachment constantly deepens landward, in agreement with a prevailing gravity-spreading deformation process (as in the case of the Niger Delta). On the seismic data are not visible, as

  15. Patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood populations in East and southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouma, J.O.; Marquez, J.G.; Krafsur, E.S

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity and differentiation within and among nine G. morsitans morsitans populations from East and southern Africa was assessed by examining variation at seven microsatellite loci and a mitochondrial locus, cytochrome oxidase (COI). Mean COI diversity within populations was 0.63 ± 0.33 and 0.81 taken over all populations. Diversities averaged over microsatellite loci were high (mean number of alleles/locus ≥7.4; mean HE ≥ 65%) in all populations. Diversities averaged across populations were greater in East Africa (mean number of alleles = 22 ± 2.6; mean he = 0.773 ± 0.033) than in southern Africa (mean number of alleles = 18.7 ± 4.0; mean he = 0.713 ± 0.072). Differentiation among all populations was highly significant (RST = 0.25, FST = 0.132). Nei’s Gij statistics were 0.09 and 0.19 within regions for microsatellites and mitochondria, respectively; between regions, Gij was 0.14 for microsatellites and 0.23 for mitochondria. GST among populations was 0.23 for microsatellite loci and 0.40 for mitochondria. The F, G and R statistics indicate highly restricted gene flow among G. m. morsitans populations separated over geographic scales of 12–917 km. (author)

  16. The distribution of cancer cases in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baş, Yılmaz; Hassan, Hussein Abshir; Adıgüzel, Cevdet; Bulur, Oktay; Ibrahim, İkram Abdikarim; Soydan, Seçil

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and distribution of cancer cases in a defined time period in Somalia. A total of 403 cancer cases were diagnosed between January 01, 2016 and March 01, 2017 in the Department of Pathology at the Somalia Mogadishu-Turkey Education and Research Hospital or the Department of Oncology at Uniso Hospital, Somalia University. Data on cancer type, patient age, and gender were obtained from pathology reports and hospital records. Female patients totaled 49.6% (n = 200) and 50.4% of patients were male (n = 203). The youngest patient was 18 years of age, the oldest was 97, and the average age was 53.4 years. The 10 most common types of cancer were esophageal (n = 130, 32.3%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 35, 8.7%), liver (n = 26, 6.5%), breast (n = 24, 6.0%), skin (n = 17, 4.2%), thyroid (n = 13, 3.2%), brain (n = 12, 3.0%), bone (n = 11, 2.7%), colorectal (n = 11, 2.7%), and soft tissue (n = 11, 2.7%). The most common site of cancer in both males and females was the esophagus. These results show a high incidence of esophageal cancer in Somalia, and strongly suggest that environmental risk factors and nutritional habits have a strong impact in this population. Serious and extensive research on the etiology of esophageal cancer is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  18. Is There an Enabling Environment for Nutrition-Sensitive Agriculture in East Africa? Stakeholder Perspectives From Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Judith; Herforth, Anna; Gillespie, Stuart; Beyero, Mesfin; Wagah, Margaret; Semakula, Richard

    2015-12-01

    There is growing recognition that "nutrition-sensitive" development is necessary to ensure nutrition security and reduce malnutrition. While agriculture has the potential to be a strong driver of malnutrition reduction and serves as the main source of livelihood for approximately two-thirds of East Africa's population, its potential to reduce malnutrition is currently not being realized. Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition in East Africa is a research study based in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda that seeks to understand the enabling environment necessary for optimizing the contribution of the food and agriculture sector to nutrition outcomes. Its objectives were to explore stakeholder perceptions of nutrition-agriculture linkages, of political and institutional challenges and opportunities, of evidence that is available and influential for policy making, and of key issues with regard to capacity. Open-ended and semistructured interviews were conducted with 53 stakeholders from government, civil society, donors, United Nations organizations, private sector, and research/academic institutions in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda in 2014. Although policy opportunities and contexts are different between the 3 countries, stakeholders identified similar barriers to greater action, including a narrow focus on solely market-oriented and staple crop production, a lack of clarity and incentives within the agriculture sector about improving nutrition and how to translate policy into action, and lack of capacity in human and financial resources. Many actions to improve the nutrition sensitivity of agriculture were mentioned, including crop diversification, value chain activities and improved market access, nutrition education, and reduction in time and labor costs to women. Many opportunities exist to strengthen the impact of agriculture on nutrition in East Africa, but stronger formulation and implementation of policies will require adequate human resources, funds, timely data on

  19. Diversity and transboundary mobility of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus in East Africa: Implications for vaccination policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila; Sangula, Abraham; Heller, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O has been responsible for most reported outbreaks of the disease in East Africa. A sustained campaign for the past 40 years to control FMD mainly by vaccination, combined with quarantine and zoosanitary measures has been undertaken with limited success....... We investigated the genetic relationships among serotype O strains in eastern Africa using complete VP1 coding region sequences obtained from 46 FMD virus isolates collected in Kenya in the years 1964–2008 and 8 Ugandan isolates collected between 1999 and 2006. In addition, 21 selected FMDV sequences...... the dominant evolutionary force. Cross-border disease transmission within the region has been suggested with probable incursions of topotypes EA-3 and EA-4 into Kenya and Uganda from neighboring Ethiopia and Sudan. We conclude that the vaccines have probably been effective in controlling EA-1, but less so...

  20. Middle East and North Africa Region Assessment of the Local Manufacturing Potential for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzo, A.; Gousseland, P.; Verdier, J. [Ernst and Young et Associes, Neuilly-Sur-Seine (France); Kost, C.; Morin, G.; Engelken, M.; Schrof, J.; Nitz, P.; Selt, J.; Platzer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Ragwitz, M.; Boie, I.; Hauptstock, D.; Eichhammer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The MENA CSP (Middle East and North Africa - Concentrated Solar Power) plan is an ambitious scheme with an appeal to anyone concerned about climate change and convinced by the need for clean, renewable power. But what does it really mean for the average citizen of say Morocco or Tunisia? The World Bank sees potential for significant job and wealth creation in solar energy producing countries. If the CSP market grows rapidly over the next few years, equipment manufacturing will be essential to supply this new sector. This study proposes roadmaps and an action plan to help develop the potential of locally manufactured CSP components in the existing industry and for new market entrants.

  1. Labor market reforms, growth, and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik

    2007-01-01

    A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public......-enhancing job creation in the region, labor market reforms must take account of general equilibrium effects, including crowding-in effects on private investment and variations in income remittances and international migration patterns. Finally, we argue that labor market reforms should be viewed as a component...... of a more comprehensive program of structural reforms aimed at spurring growth and employment...

  2. Understanding Air Quality in East Africa: Estimating Biomass Burning and Anthropogenic Influence with Long-Term Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, L.; Gasore, J.; Rupakheti, M.; Potter, K. E.; Prinn, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution is largely unstudied in sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in a large gap in scientific understanding of emissions, atmospheric processes and impacts of air pollutants in this region. The Rwanda Climate Observatory, a joint partnership between MIT and the government of Rwanda, has been measuring ambient concentrations of key long-lived greenhouse gases and short-lived climate-forcing pollutants (CO2, CO, CH4, BC, O3) on the summit of Mt. Mugogo (1.586°S, 29.566°E, 2500 m above sea level) since May 2015. Rwanda is a small, mountainous, and densely populated country in equatorial East Africa currently undergoing rapid development. The location and meteorology of Rwanda is such that emissions transported from both the northern and southern African biomass burning seasons affect BC, CO, and O3 concentrations in Rwanda. Black carbon concentrations during Rwanda's two dry seasons are higher at Mt. Mugogo, a rural site, than in major European cities. Higher BC baseline concentrations at Mugogo are correlated with fire radiative power data for the region acquired with MODIS satellite instrument. Spectral absorption of aerosol measured with a dual-spot aethalometer also varies seasonally, likely due to change in fuel burned and direction of pollution transport to the site. Ozone concentration was found to be higher in air masses from southern Africa than from northern Africa during their respective biomass burning seasons. The higher ozone concentration in air masses from the south could be indicative of more anthropogenic influence as Rwanda is downwind of major East African capitals in this season. During the rainy seasons, local emitting activities (e.g., cooking, driving, trash burning) remain steady, regional biomass burning is low, and transport distances are shorter as rainout of pollution occurs regularly, which allows estimation of local pollution during this time period. Urban PM2.5 measurements in the capital city of Kigali and from the neighboring

  3. Progress Toward Polio Eradication — Somalia, 1998–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Webeck, Jenna; Ehrhardt, Derek; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1988 resolution of the World Health Assembly to eradicate polio, significant progress has been made toward achieving this goal, with the result that only Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never successfully interrupted endemic transmission of wild poliovirus. However, one of the greatest challenges of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has been that of maintaining the polio-free status of countries in unstable regions with weak healthcare infrastructure, a challenge exemplified by Somalia, a country in the Horn of Africa region. Somalia interrupted indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus in 2002, four years after establishing its national polio eradication programme. But political instability and protracted armed conflict, with significant disruption of the healthcare system, left the country vulnerable to two subsequent imported outbreaks of wild poliovirus. The first occurred during 2005–2007, resulting in over 200 cases of paralytic polio, while the second importation in 2013 is currently ongoing. Despite immense challenges, the country has a sensitive surveillance system that has facilitated prompt detection of outbreaks, but its weak routine immunization system means that supplementary immunization activities constitute the primary strategy for reaching children with polio vaccines. Conducting vaccination campaigns in a setting of conflict has been at times hazardous but the country’s polio programme has demonstrated resilience in overcoming many obstacles to ensure that children receive life-saving polio vaccines. Regaining and maintaining Somalia’s polio-free status will, however, depend on finding innovative and lasting solutions to the challenge of administering vaccines in a setting of ongoing conflict and instability. PMID:25316833

  4. Sustainable Electricity and Water for Europe, Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.; Trieb, F.

    2009-04-01

    Sufficient supply of energy and water are among the key requirements for a sustainable development of nations. Both depend strongly on energy carriers such as oil, gas, coal and uranium which have limited availability and a negative impact on the environment during their use. Within the framework of a series of detailed studies, conventional and renewable energy sources available for electricity production and desalination in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (EU-MENA) have been analysed. Scenarios have been developed for a sustainable electricity supply based on increased plant and user efficiency, and an accelerated introduction of renewable energy sources. Even if all potential exclusion criteria are applied and only those technologies are considered which will become economically competitive within the next decades, a potential has been identified which exceeds the present electricity demand by orders of magnitude. Solar energy is, in this context, the by far largest resource which will most economically be exploited in centralised solar thermal power plants. In combination with heat storage, these power plants can provide bulk and peak electricity, and can be combined with thermal or reverse osmosis desalination plants. At present, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity exceeding 10 GW are in operation or under construction in Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Spain and the USA. Ultimately, the increasing electricity demand of EU-MENA can only be secured in conjunction with the required climate and resource protection targets, if all renewable energy sources are exploited where appropriate, and conversion and user efficiency are increased. To utilise the enormous energy resources of the Mediterranean countries, high voltage direct current power lines will have to be built, linking the most abundant and economic resources with the load centres in the North. With electricity losses below 10% over a distance of 3000 km

  5. Holocene Millennial Time Scale Hydrological Changes In Central-east Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, D.; Bonnefille, R.; Beaufort, L.

    The Holocene hydrological changes of a tropical swamp is reconstructed using a high resolution pollen record (ca 50 yrs) from the Kuruyange valley (Burundi, Africa, 3°35'S, 29°41'E), at 2000 m elevation. The sequence was dated by 10 radiocarbon dates, allowing reconstruction between ca 12 500 and 1000 cal yr B.P. In the Kuruyange swamp, peat accumulated rapidly at a sedimentation rate varying from 0.73 (prior to 6200 cal yr B.P.) to 1.51 mm/yr (during the late Holocene). A pollen index of water table, based on a ratio of aquatic versus non-aquatic plants has been used in order to test the hypothesis of hydrological constraints on the swampy ecosystem. Eight arid phases are evidenced by the index minima at 12 200, 11 200, 9900, 8600, 6500, 5000, 3400, 1600 cal yr B.P. The good agreement existing between this index and independent data such as (i) low-resolution East-African lake level reconstruct ions (Gillespie et al., 1983) and (ii) ?18O analyses from Arabian Sea (Sirocko et al., 1993) suggests the water table level responds to the monsoon dynamic. The Index varies periodically with a combination of 1/1515, 1/880 and 1/431 years-1 frequencies, revealed by time series analyses (Blackman-Tukey and Maximum Entropy). The extrapolation of the composite curve based on these 3 periodicities show that two major climatic events defined in the high latitudes between 1000 and 660 cal yr B.P. (Medieval Warm Period) and between 500 and 100 cal yr B.P. (Little Ice Age) are recorded in our data and show respectively high and low stands of the water table. Our results support some previous pollen-derived climate estimates in Ethiopia done by Bonnefille and Umer (1994). Moreover, the "1500 year" cycle registered in our data from the tropics, already evidenced in higher latitudes (Wijmstra et al., 1984; Bondet al., 1997; Schulz et al., 1999; Bond et al., 2001) support the hypothesis of strong teleconnections between tropical/subtropical and polar climates during the deglaciation

  6. Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Middle East and North Africa Climate

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2016-11-01

    Dust-climate interaction over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has long been studied, as it is the "dustiest" region on earth. However, the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the role of dust direct radiative effect on MENA climate is still rudimentary. The present dissertation investigates dust direct radiative effect on MENA climate during summer with a special emphasis on the sensitivity of climate response to dust shortwave absorption, which is one of the most uncertain components of dust direct radiative effect. Simulations are conducted with and without dust radiative effect, to differentiate the effect of dust on climate. To elucidate the sensitivity of climate response to dust shortwave absorption, simulations with dust assume three different cases of dust shortwave absorption, representing dust as a very efficient, standard and inefficient shortwave absorber. The non-uniformly distributed dust perturb circulations at various scales. Therefore, the present study takes advantage of the high spatial resolution capabilities of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), which incorporates global and regional circulations. AMIP-style global high-resolution simulations are conducted at a spatial resolution of 25 km. A significant response in the strength and position of the local Hadley circulation is predicted in response to meridionally asymmetric distribution of dust and the corresponding radiative effects. Significant responses are also found in regional circulation features such as African Easterly Jet and West African Monsoon circulation. Consistent with these dynamic responses at various scales, the tropical rainbelt across MENA strengthens and shifts northward. Similarly, the temperature under rainbelt cools and that over subtropical deserts warms. Inter-comparison of various dust shortwave absorption cases shows that the response of the MENA tropical rainbelt is extremely sensitive to the

  7. Scientific Wealth in Middle East and North Africa: Productivity, Indigeneity, and Specialty in 1981-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Afreen; Stoppani, Jonathan; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Several developing countries seek to build knowledge-based economies by attempting to expand scientific research capabilities. Characterizing the state and direction of progress in this arena is challenging but important. Here, we employ three metrics: a classical metric of productivity (publications per person), an adapted metric which we denote as Revealed Scientific Advantage (developed from work used to compare publications in scientific fields among countries) to characterize disciplinary specialty, and a new metric, scientific indigeneity (defined as the ratio of publications with domestic corresponding authors) to characterize the locus of scientific activity that also serves as a partial proxy for local absorptive capacity. These metrics-using population and publications data that are available for most countries-allow the characterization of some key features of national scientific enterprise. The trends in productivity and indigeneity when compared across other countries and regions can serve as indicators of strength or fragility in the national research ecosystems, and the trends in specialty can allow regional policy makers to assess the extent to which the areas of focus of research align (or not align) with regional priorities. We apply the metrics to study the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)-a region where science and technology capacity will play a key role in national economic diversification. We analyze 9.8 million publication records between 1981-2013 in 17 countries of MENA from Morocco to Iraq and compare it to selected countries throughout the world. The results show that international collaborators increasingly drove the scientific activity in MENA. The median indigeneity reached 52% in 2013 (indicating that almost half of the corresponding authors were located in foreign countries). Additionally, the regional disciplinary focus in chemical and petroleum engineering is waning with modest growth in the life sciences. We find repeated

  8. A review of mercury in Lake Victoria, East Africa: implications for human and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda; Dixon, D G; Hecky, R E

    2003-01-01

    Lake Victoria, East Africa, has been the site of many recent studies measuring mercury (Hg) concentrations in water, fish, sediment, soil, and humans. Most of these studies were motivated by concerns about Hg contamination from processing of gold ore on the southern shores. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in fish were usually below permissible World Health Organization (WHO) concentrations and international marketing limits and do not threaten the lucrative export industry. Nile perch 3-10 kg and most >10 kg had THg concentrations above the WHO threshold concentrations for at-risk groups (200 ng/g). Elevated THg concentrations in large Nile perch are not of major concern because Nile perch are rarely consumed by the people living on Lake Victoria and very large Nile perch are becoming increasingly rare in catches. Water THg concentrations were below Canadian drinking water guidelines but were elevated relative to those in the northern Great Lakes. Sediment and soil THg concentrations were within inter-national guidelines and are comparable to those in northern latitudes but are lower than those in the Amazon basin. Biomass burning and soil erosion are estimated to be the major sources of THg for the lake and probably constitute a larger source of THg than gold mining in Tanzania.THg concentrations in urine and hair from human volunteers indicate that while gold miners and frequent skin-bleaching cream users are at risk of inorganic mercury poisoning, the rest of the population, including fishermen, is not. Human exposure assessments demonstrated that fish consumption and soil geophagy constitute major sources of THg for humans, but the total estimated daily intake of THg was below the Health Canada tolerable daily intake (TDI) limits. The use of beauty creams containing high inorganic Hg concentrations, however, caused the estimated THg exposure to exceed the TDI. The high THg content in the hair of regular cream users supports this assessment. The nutritional

  9. Microgrid Utilities for Rural Electrification in East Africa: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J.

    Expanding access to electricity is central to development in East Africa but massive increases in investment are required to achieve universal access. Private sector participation in electrification is essential to meeting electricity access targets. Policy makers have acknowledged that grid extension in many remote rural areas is not as cost effective as decentralized alternatives such as microgrids. Microgrid companies have been unable to scale beyond pilot projects due in part to challenges in raising capital for a business model that is perceived to be risky. This thesis aims to identify and quantify the primary sources of investment risk in microgrid utilities and study ways to mitigate these risks to make these businesses more viable. Two modeling tools have been developed to this end. The Stochastic Techno-Economic Microgrid Model (STEMM) models the technical and financial performance of microgrid utilities using uncertain and dynamic inputs to permit explicit modeling of financial risk. This model is applied in an investment risk assessment and case study in Rwanda. Key findings suggest that the most important drivers of risk are fuel prices, foreign exchange rates, demand for electricity, and price elasticity of demand for electricity. The relative importance of these factors is technology dependent with demand uncertainty figuring stronger for solar and high solar penetration hybrid systems and fuel prices driving risk in diesel power and low solar penetration hybrid systems. Considering uncertainty in system sizing presents a tradeoff whereby a decrease in expected equity return decreases downside risk. High solar penetration systems are also found to be more attractive to lenders. The second modeling tool leverages electricity consumption and demographic data from four microgrids in Tanzania to forecast demand for electricity in newly electrified communities. Using statistical learning techniques, improvements in prediction performance was achieved over

  10. Organic sedimentation in modern lacustrine systems: A case study from Lake Malawi, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Barry J. Katz,; Christopher A. Scholz,; Peter K. Swart,

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between depositional environment and sedimentary organic geochemistry in Lake Malawi, East Africa, and evaluates the relative significance of the various processes that control sedimentary organic matter (OM) in lacustrine systems. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in recent sediments from Lake Malawi range from 0.01 to 8.80 wt% and average 2.83 wt% for surface sediments and 2.35 wt% for shallow core sediments. Hydrogen index (HI) values as determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis range from 0 to 756 mg HC g−1 TOC and average 205 mg HC g−1 TOC for surface sediments and 228 mg HC g−1 TOC for shallow core samples. On average, variations in primary productivity throughout the lake may account for ~33% of the TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (as much as 1 wt% TOC), and have little or no impact on sedimentary HI values. Similarly, ~33% to 66% of the variation in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments appears to be controlled by anoxic preservation of OM (~1–2 wt% TOC), although some component of the water depth–TOC relationship may be due to physical sediment transport processes. Furthermore, anoxic preservation has a minimal effect on HI values in Lake Malawi sediments. Dilution of OM by inorganic sediment may account for ~16% of variability in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (~0.5 wt% TOC). The effect of inputs of terrestrial sediment on the organic character of surface sediments in these lakes is highly variable, and appears to be more closely related to the local depositional environment than the regional flux of terrestrial OM. Total nitrogen and TOC content in surface sediments collected throughout the lake are found to be highly correlated (r2 = 0.95), indicating a well-homogenized source of OM to the lake bottom. The recurring suspension and deposition of terrestrial sediment may account for significant amounts of OM deposited in offshore regions of the lake. This process effectively separates denser

  11. Modeling Spatial Soil Water Dynamics in a Tropical Floodplain, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geofrey Gabiri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture is critical for ecohydrological processes and for sustainable water management studies in wetlands. The characterization of soil moisture dynamics and its influencing factors in agriculturally used wetlands pose a challenge in data-scarce regions such as East Africa. High resolution and good-quality time series soil moisture data are rarely available and gaps are frequent due to measurement constraints and device malfunctioning. Soil water models that integrate meteorological conditions and soil water storage may significantly overcome limitations due to data gaps at a point scale. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the Hydrus-1D model would adequately simulate soil water dynamics at different hydrological zones of a tropical floodplain in Tanzania, to determine controlling factors for wet and dry periods and to assess soil water availability. The zones of the Kilombero floodplain were segmented as riparian, middle, and fringe along a defined transect. The model was satisfactorily calibrated (coefficient of determination; R2 = 0.54–0.92, root mean square error; RMSE = 0.02–0.11 on a plot scale using measured soil moisture content at soil depths of 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm. Satisfying statistical measures (R2 = 0.36–0.89, RMSE = 0.03–0.13 were obtained when calibrations for one plot were validated with measured soil moisture for another plot within the same hydrological zone. Results show the transferability of the calibrated Hydrus-1D model to predict soil moisture for other plots with similar hydrological conditions. Soil water storage increased towards the riparian zone, at 262.8 mm/a while actual evapotranspiration was highest (1043.9 mm/a at the fringe. Overbank flow, precipitation, and groundwater control soil moisture dynamics at the riparian and middle zone, while at the fringe zone, rainfall and lateral flow from mountains control soil moisture during the

  12. Solar electricity imports from the Middle East and North Africa to Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trieb, Franz; Schillings, Christoph; Pregger, Thomas; O'Sullivan, Marlene

    2012-01-01

    The huge solar resources in the MENA countries (Middle East and North Africa), significant improvements in concentrating solar power (CSP) technology and in power transmission technologies, and the urgent need to remove carbon emissions from the European (EU) energy system lead to an increased interest in an EU-MENA electricity grid interconnection. As contribution to the current discussions about DESERTEC, MedGrid and other initiatives this article describes the approach and results of an analysis of possible solar electricity import corridors from MENA to Europe including Turkey. The study is based on solar energy potentials of the MENA countries identified by remote sensing, reviewed performance and cost data of generation and transmission technologies, and geographic data and information systems (GIS) for the spatial analysis. CSP plants combined with high temperature heat storage and high voltage direct current (HVDC) overhead lines and sea cables represent the key technologies for implementing this promising option for renewable energy import/export. The total technical solar power generation potential from remote sensing analysis in the seven MENA countries considered was calculated to about 538,000 TWh/yr. This huge potential implies that less than 0.2% of the land suitable for CSP plants would be enough to supply 15% of the electricity demand expected in Europe in the year 2050. A GIS analysis of potential future HVDC corridors led to the description and characterization of 33 possible import routes to main European centers of demand. - Highlights: ► Concentrating Solar Power in the Mediterranean Region (MED-CSP 2005) (www.dlr.de/tt/med-csp). ► Trans-Mediterranean Interconnection for Concentrating Solar Power (TRANS-CSP 2006) (www.dlr.de/tt/trans-csp). ► Concentrating Solar Power for Seawater Desalination (AQUA-CSP 2007) (www.dlr.de/tt/aqua-csp). ► Risk of Energy Availability: Common Corridors for Europe Supply Security (REACCESS 2009) (http

  13. Renewable energy for the Middle East and North Africa. Policies for a successful transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalilvand, David Ramin [Freie Univ. Berlin (DE). Berlin Centre for Caspian Region Studies (BC CARE)

    2012-02-15

    This study was commissioned by the FES Sustainable Energy Programme in the MENA region. The programme supports the search for suitable policies to promote energy savings and energy efficiency. Moreover, it encourages a transition towards an energy supply based on renewable energy sources. While the Middle East and North Africa hold a greater potential for the use of renewable energy than any other region on the planet, it is at the same time the region with the smallest share of renewable energy in its primary energy supply. Many analysts see the way energy policies are structured in most MENA countries as the main reason for the lack of renewable energy utilities and the above-average per capita energy consumption. It is only through political will and smart policies that countries can succeed in transforming their energy sectors towards sustainability. The German Renewable Energy Act, which was introduced by a coalition government of Social Democrats and Greens in 2000, has enabled Germany to rapidly increase its sustainable energy sector. It has also created more than 370,000 new green jobs in the renewable energy industry. While many different players are already active in the wider field of renewable energy in the MENA region, their efforts have mainly focussed on facilitating business- to-business conferences, technical research, and energy financing issues. So far, little has been done in the fields of policy research, policy consulting, and public awareness to promote a sustainable use of energy in the region. The FES is ready to share some successful policy experiences by providing German and international expertise, analysis, and policy advice to interested policymakers, activists, and researchers. The Arab Spring has strengthened our belief that public opinion can change politics everywhere. Since energy questions often relate to public interest (pollution, nuclear power, pricing), it is time to use the momentum of change for introducing ideas about

  14. Cassava and soil fertility in intensifying smallholder farming systems of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cost-benefits, Crop management, Farming systems, Fertilizer, Food security, Generalizations, Income, Labour, Land pressure, Niche, Rainfall, Sub-Saharan Africa, System analysis, Yield gap.
    Cassava is an important crop in Africa. This thesis focuses on cassava production in the mid

  15. Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever with Meningeal Involvement in an Immigrant from Somalia to Italy, October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Antonelli, Alberto; Bartolini, Laura; Pecile, Patrizia; Trotta, Michele; Rogasi, Pier Giorgio; Santini, Maria Grazia; Dilaghi, Beatrice; Grifoni, Stefano; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Borrelia recurrentis, transmitted by Pediculus humanus humanus, is the etiological agent of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF). Currently the main focus of endemicity of LBRF is localized in East African countries. From July 2015 to October 2015, 36 cases of LBRF have been diagnosed in Europe in immigrants from the Horn of Africa. Here we report a case of LBRF with meningitis diagnosed in Florence, Italy, in an immigrant arrived from Somalia. In October 2015, a 19-year-old Somali male presented to the emergency department of the Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy, with a 3-day history of high fever. The patient had disembarked in Sicily 10 days before admission after a long migration trip from his country of origin. On clinical examination, neck stiffness was found. Main laboratory findings were thrombocytopenia, increased procalcitonin, and increased polymorphonucleates in the cerebrospinal fluid. Suspecting a possible meningitis, the patient was treated with ceftriaxone, pending results of laboratory testing for malaria, and developed severe hypotension that was treated with fluid resuscitation and hydrocortisone. Hemoscopic testing revealed the presence of spirochetes and no malaria parasites. The patient rapidly improved with doxycycline for 7 days and ceftriaxone for 11 days, then was lost to follow-up. Total DNA from blood was extracted, and amplification and sequencing with universal 16S rDNA primers D88 and E94 revealed a 100% identity with B. recurrentis A1. LBRF is a rare but emerging infectious disease among vulnerable displaced immigrants from the Horn of Africa. Since immigrants from endemic areas can carry the vector with them, the infection should be suspected even in subjects with compatible clinical features living in the same place where new arrival immigrants are hosted. Healthcare providers should be aware of this condition to implement adequate diagnostic, therapeutic, and public health measures.

  16. A roaring trade? The legal trade in Panthera leo bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vivienne L; Loveridge, Andrew J; Newton, David J; Macdonald, David W

    2017-01-01

    The African lion is the only big cat listed on CITES Appendix II, and the only one for which international commercial trade is legal under CITES. The trade in lion body parts, and especially the contentious trade in bones from South Africa to Asia, has raised concerns spanning continents and cultures. Debates were amplified at the 2016 CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17) when a proposal to up-list lions to Appendix I was not supported and a compromise to keep them on Appendix II, with a bone trade quota for South Africa, was reached instead. CoP17 underscored a need for further information on the lion bone trade and the consequences for lions across the continent. Legal international trade in bones to Asia, allegedly to supply the substitute 'tiger bone' market, began in South Africa in February 2008 when the first CITES permits were issued. It was initially unclear the degree to which bones were sourced from captive-origin lions, and whether trade was a threat to wild lion populations. Our original assessment of the legal CITES-permitted lion bone trade from South Africa to East-Southeast Asia was for the period 2008-2011 (published 2015). In this paper, we consolidate new information that has become available for 2012-2016, including CITES reports from other African countries, and data on actual exports for three years to 2016 supplied by a freight forwarding company. Thus, we update the figures on the legal trade in lion bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia in the period 2008-2016. We also contextualise the basis for global concerns by reviewing the history of the trade and its relation to tigers, poaching and wildlife trafficking. CITES permits issued to export bones escalated from ±314y-1 skeletons from 2008-2011, to ±1312y-1 skeletons from 2013-2015. South Africa was the only legal exporter of bones to Asia until 2013 when Namibia issued permits to export skeletons to Vietnam. While CITES permits to export ±5363 skeletons from Africa to Asia from

  17. A roaring trade? The legal trade in Panthera leo bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne L Williams

    Full Text Available The African lion is the only big cat listed on CITES Appendix II, and the only one for which international commercial trade is legal under CITES. The trade in lion body parts, and especially the contentious trade in bones from South Africa to Asia, has raised concerns spanning continents and cultures. Debates were amplified at the 2016 CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17 when a proposal to up-list lions to Appendix I was not supported and a compromise to keep them on Appendix II, with a bone trade quota for South Africa, was reached instead. CoP17 underscored a need for further information on the lion bone trade and the consequences for lions across the continent. Legal international trade in bones to Asia, allegedly to supply the substitute 'tiger bone' market, began in South Africa in February 2008 when the first CITES permits were issued. It was initially unclear the degree to which bones were sourced from captive-origin lions, and whether trade was a threat to wild lion populations. Our original assessment of the legal CITES-permitted lion bone trade from South Africa to East-Southeast Asia was for the period 2008-2011 (published 2015. In this paper, we consolidate new information that has become available for 2012-2016, including CITES reports from other African countries, and data on actual exports for three years to 2016 supplied by a freight forwarding company. Thus, we update the figures on the legal trade in lion bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia in the period 2008-2016. We also contextualise the basis for global concerns by reviewing the history of the trade and its relation to tigers, poaching and wildlife trafficking. CITES permits issued to export bones escalated from ±314y-1 skeletons from 2008-2011, to ±1312y-1 skeletons from 2013-2015. South Africa was the only legal exporter of bones to Asia until 2013 when Namibia issued permits to export skeletons to Vietnam. While CITES permits to export ±5363 skeletons from

  18. A roaring trade? The legal trade in Panthera leo bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, Andrew J.; Newton, David J.; Macdonald, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The African lion is the only big cat listed on CITES Appendix II, and the only one for which international commercial trade is legal under CITES. The trade in lion body parts, and especially the contentious trade in bones from South Africa to Asia, has raised concerns spanning continents and cultures. Debates were amplified at the 2016 CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17) when a proposal to up-list lions to Appendix I was not supported and a compromise to keep them on Appendix II, with a bone trade quota for South Africa, was reached instead. CoP17 underscored a need for further information on the lion bone trade and the consequences for lions across the continent. Legal international trade in bones to Asia, allegedly to supply the substitute ‘tiger bone’ market, began in South Africa in February 2008 when the first CITES permits were issued. It was initially unclear the degree to which bones were sourced from captive-origin lions, and whether trade was a threat to wild lion populations. Our original assessment of the legal CITES-permitted lion bone trade from South Africa to East-Southeast Asia was for the period 2008–2011 (published 2015). In this paper, we consolidate new information that has become available for 2012–2016, including CITES reports from other African countries, and data on actual exports for three years to 2016 supplied by a freight forwarding company. Thus, we update the figures on the legal trade in lion bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia in the period 2008–2016. We also contextualise the basis for global concerns by reviewing the history of the trade and its relation to tigers, poaching and wildlife trafficking. CITES permits issued to export bones escalated from ±314y-1 skeletons from 2008–2011, to ±1312y-1 skeletons from 2013–2015. South Africa was the only legal exporter of bones to Asia until 2013 when Namibia issued permits to export skeletons to Vietnam. While CITES permits to export ±5363 skeletons from Africa

  19. MARINE PIRACY IN SOMALIA – PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Gornowicz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interestingness of marine piracy issue in Somalia is caused by the fact that firstly, piracy problem is often shown and discussed in mass media and secondly because it is still an unsolved trouble. Finally pirates attacks in Somalia have a great influence on late delivery of cargo ships’ goods. Somalia is said to be the easiest and the most attractive region for pirates attacks. In fact, it is the truth because Somalia is an example of state with inner destabilization and without legal authority which would be able to face the problem. In this paper following topics will be touched: analysis of Convention on the High Seas from Geneva adopted on the 29th April 1958 (definition of piracy; genesis and history of piracy in Somalia; scale of danger from pirates side in Somalia; postulates of changes in article 100 of United Nation Convention of the Law of the Sea adopted on the 10th of December 1982; attitude of international community towards piracy in Somalia; International missions in Somalia; Somalia nowadays (statistics; prospects for the future...

  20. Psychology and modern life challenges: the 2nd Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology, Amman, Jordan, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Michael; Sabourin, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The Second Middle East and North Africa Regional Conference of Psychology was held in Amman from 27 April - 1 May 2007 under the Royal Patronage of Her Majesty Queen Rania Al-Abdullah and the auspices of the International Union of Psychological Science, the International Association of Applied Psychology, and the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology. It was hosted by the Jordanian Psychological Association whose President was Dr. Asaad Zuby. The President of the Conference and the Local Organizing Committee was Dr. Adnan Farah, the Chair of the Scientific Program Committee was Dr. Mohammad Rimawi, and the Chair of the Regional Advisory Committee was Dr. Marwan Dwairy. The Conference succeeded in attracting participants from 28 countries, including 15 from the Middle East and North Africa region. The Scientific Program explored ways and means to promote the role of psychology in meeting life challenges at regional and international levels. The Conference concluded with the signing of a formal Declaration which called upon governments, academic and professional institutions and organizations, non-governmental organization and other civil society groups, and the United Nations, to work together and to make every possible effort individually and collectively to achieve these goals.

  1. What was tropical about tropical neurasthenia? The utility of the diagnosis in the management of British East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Anna

    2009-10-01

    During the first quarter of the twentieth century, tropical neurasthenia was a popular diagnosis for a nervous condition experienced by Europeans in the topics. Tropical neurasthenia was not psychosis or madness, but was rather an ennui or loss of "edge" brought about by the strains of tropical life, especially the unfamiliar, hot climate. A catch-all for a wide range of symptoms, many missionaries, colonial staff, and settlers throughout Empire were repatriated because of it, although this article concentrates on Colonial Service employees working in British East Africa. While histories of tropical neurasthenia have usefully (and correctly) explained this diagnosis as an expression of the anxieties of the colonial regime, this article adds a new dimension to the historiography by arguing that tropical neurasthenia can only be properly understood as a hybrid form, dependent not only upon the peculiarities of the colonial situation, but also descended from British and American clinical understandings of neurasthenia. Moreover, once tropical neurasthenia is properly acknowledged as being typical of clinical understandings of the time, other reasons for its comparatively long endurance in the colonial situation emerge. This article shows that tropical neurasthenia remained a popular diagnosis in East Africa not only because (as historians have argued previously) it dovetailed with prevalent ideas of colonial acclimatization, but also because it was a practically useful tool in the management and regulation of colonial personnel.

  2. APPLYING THE VERNACULAR MODEL TO HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Al-Jokhadar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the age of globalisation and continuous urbanisation, architects have a greater responsibility to design residential buildings with comfortable and sustainable environments. However, sustainable solutions should not concern themselves only with utilising technology, but also with creating synergies amongst a community’s social, cultural, historical, and environmental aspects. This research focuses on the implications of this wider definition of sustainability within the hot-arid climates of the Middle East and North Africa. Most of the current high-rise residential buildings in these regions do not promote social cohesion as they have been constructed without consideration for local identity and lifestyle. In contrast, vernacular courtyard dwellings and neighbourhoods offer good examples of socially cohesive and healthy environments. Yet, vernacular houses might not be compatible with pressures of modern construction. The question then becomes how to maintain the relationship between the spatial, social and environmental aspects while employing the latest technologies and materials. This paper presents the different qualities of vernacular houses and neighbourhoods in the different regions of the Middle East and North Africa. Social and spatial relationships of different cases are assessed, through a typological analysis approach using a developed syntactic-geometric model, to trace the lifestyle and the cultural values of the society. The aim is a parametric exploration of appropriate sustainable solutions that facilitate the synergy of socio-climatic requirements, the well-being qualities of the residents, and the specifics of culture, time and people while designing sustainable high-rise developments.

  3. [Dysphagia in a young woman from Somalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Suzanne; van Altena, Richard; van Steenwijk, Reindert P; Rauws, Erik A J; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, Jan Karel M

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing worldwide. The determination of possible resistance is essential for adequate treatment. Tuberculosis is common amongst immigrants from Somalia and extra-pulmonary localisation is often seen. A 21-year-old woman from Somalia presented with progressive dysphagia and severe weight loss. Endoscopy revealed two ulcers in the mid-oesophagus. A chest x-ray showed enlarged lymph nodes in the right hilar and mediastinal regions. The Ziehl-Neelsen stain and PCR for mycobacteria were negative. Sputum samples and oesophageal biopsies were cultured. Quadruple tuberculostatic therapy was started empirically. After five weeks, a sputum culture grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which was resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid. She was treated with second-line anti-tuberculous therapy and eventually recovered. Tuberculosis can manifest in many ways. It is important to obtain patient material for culture; not only to confirm the diagnosis but also for the determination of possible resistance which is necessary for adequate therapy.

  4. New Evidence for the Expansion of an Upper Pleistocene Population out of East Africa, from the Site of Station One, Northern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Jeffrey I.

    2004-01-01

    Evidence for a hunter-gatherer range-expansion is indicated by the site of Station One in the northern Sudan, a surface scatter of chipped stone debris systematically collected almost 40 years ago, though not studied until present. Based on technological and typological correlates in East Africa, the predominant use of quartz pebbles for raw material, and the production of small bifacial tools, the site can be classified as Middle Stone Age. While often appearing in East African assemblages, ...

  5. Early childhood obesity: a survey of knowledge and practices of physicians from the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Inge; AlSaleem, Bader; Olang, Beheshteh; Karima, Berkouk; Samy, Gamal; Husain, Khaled; Elhalik, Mahmoud; Miqdady, Mohamad; Rawashdeh, Mohamad; Salah, Mohamed; Mouane, Nezha; Rohani, Pejman; Singhal, Atul; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2017-04-28

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health issues of the twenty-first century affecting even low- and middle-income countries. Overweight and obese children are more likely to stay obese into adulthood. Due to the paucity of data on local practices, our study aimed to assess the knowledge and practices of physicians from the Middle East and North Africa region with respect to early-onset obesity. A specific questionnaire investigating the perception and knowledge on early-onset obesity was circulated to healthcare providers (general physicians, pediatricians, pediatric gastroenterologist, neonatologists) practicing in 17 Middle East and North African countries. A total of 999/1051 completed forms (95% response) were evaluated. Of all respondents, 28.9% did not consistently use growth charts to monitor growth during every visit and only 25.2% and 46.6% of respondents were aware of the correct cut-off criterion for overweight and obesity, respectively. Of those surveyed, 22.3, 14.0, 36.1, 48.2, and 49.1% of respondents did not consider hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, fatty liver disease, and decreased life span, respectively, to be a long-term complication of early childhood obesity. Furthermore, only 0.7% of respondents correctly answered all survey questions pertaining to knowledge of early childhood overweight and obesity. The survey highlights the low use of growth charts in the evaluation of early childhood growth in Middle East and North Africa region, and demonstrated poor knowledge of healthcare providers on the short- and long-term complications of early-onset obesity. This suggests a need for both continued professional education and development, and implementation of guidelines for the prevention and management of early childhood overweight and obesity.

  6. Power, slavery, and spirit possession in East Africa: A few reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Nicolini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirit possession and its relationship with power aims to offer here a better understanding not only of East African societies, but, most of all, of their historical role in numerous political and military conflicts and also within peace-building processes that represent a continuation of a topic of longstanding concern in East African history. The relationships between religions, local cultures and institutional powers throughout contemporary East African history will be re-read through regional and transnational, as well as international dynamics.

  7. The genus Atheris (Serpentes: Viperidae) in East Africa: phylogeny and the role of rifting and climate in shaping the current pattern of species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, M; Loader, S P; Marsden, S J; Branch, W R; Davenport, T R B; Ursenbacher, S

    2014-10-01

    Past climatic and tectonic events are believed to have strongly influenced species diversity in the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the East African genus Atheris (Serpentes: Viperidae), and explored temporal and spatial relationships between Atheris species across Africa, and the impact of palaeoclimatic fluctuations and tectonic movements on cladogenesis of the genus. Using mitochondrial sequence data, the phylogeny of East African species of Atheris shows congruent temporal patterns that link diversification to major tectonic and aridification events within East Africa over the last 15million years (my). Our results are consistent with a scenario of a delayed direct west-east colonisation of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Atheris by the formation of the western rift. Based on the phylogenetic patterns, this terrestrial, forest-associated genus has dispersed into East Africa across a divided route, on both west-southeasterly and west-northeasterly directions (a C-shaped route). Cladogenesis in the Eastern Arc Mountains and Southern Highlands of Tanzania corresponds to late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene climatic shifts. Taxonomically, our data confirmed the monophyly of Atheris as currently defined, and reveal four major East African clades, three of which occur in discrete mountain ranges. Possible cryptic taxa are identified in the Atheris rungweensis and A. ceratophora clades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Elhassan

    Full Text Available Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2, and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  9. Potential of Gdgts as Temperature Proxies Along Altitudinal Transects in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinet, Sarah; Huguet, Arnaud; Omuombo, Christine; Williamson, David; Fosse, Céline; Anquetil, Christine; Derenne, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are lipids of high molecular weight and include the isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) produced by Archaea and the branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) produced by unknown bacteria. Several indices were developed to describe the relationship between GDGT distribution and environmental parameters: the TEX86 (tetraether index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbons), based on the relative abundances of iGDGTs in sediments, and the MBT (methylation index of branched tetraethers) and CBT (cyclisation ratio of branched tetraethers), based on the relative abundance of brGDGTs in soils. The TEX86 was shown to correlate well with water surface temperature, and the MBT and CBT with mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH. The GDGTs are increasingly used as temperature proxies. In this study, 41 surface soils were sampled along two altitudinal transects, from 500 to 2800 meters in Mount Rungwe (South western, Tanzania) and from 1897 to 3268 meters in Mount Kenya (Central Kenya). MAAT was reconstructed along the two transects using the MBT/CBT proxies. A linear correlation between the MBT/CBT-derived temperatures and the altitude (R2=0.83) was obtained by combining results of the two transects. The reconstructed temperature lapse rate (0.5 ° C/100 m) was consistent with the one determined from temperature measurements at six altitudes. These results show that the MBT/CBT is a suitable and robust temperature proxy in East Africa. In Mt. Rungwe soil samples, the TEX86 index, which was mainly used to reconstruct water surface temperatures until now, was found to vary linearly with altitude (R2=0.50). Such a relationship between TEX86 and altitude in organic soils has also been recently noticed in Mt. Xiangpi, China (Liu et al., 2013; R2=0.68). The adiabatic cooling of air with altitude could explain the TEX86 variation with altitude. If such a relationship is confirmed, the use of the TEX86 as a temperature proxy could be extended to soil

  10. Somalia. Relativ orden i det statsløse samfund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2012-01-01

    Anarkiet i Somalia er til debat på dagens konference i Istanbul. Adjunkt Abdulkadir Osman Farah fra AAU, forklarer, at demokratisk udvikling, handel, rejser, iværksætterinitiativer og investeringer har resulteret i 3 pct. gennemsnitlig økonomisk vækst per år i Somalia, hvorfor de har oplevet grad...

  11. Is production intensification likely to make farm households food-adequate? A simple food availability analysis across smallholder farming systems from East and West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzema, R.S.; Frelat, R.; Douxchamps, S.; Silvestri, S.; Rufino, M.C.; Herrero, M.; Giller, K.E.; López-ridaura, S.; Teufel, N.; Paul, B.K.; Wijk, Van M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Despite considerable development investment, food insecurity remains prevalent throughout East and West Africa. The concept of ‘sustainable intensification’ of agricultural production has been promoted as a means to meet growing food needs in these regions. However, inadequate attention has been

  12. Potential Predictability of the Sea-Surface Temperature Forced Equatorial East Africa Short Rains Interannual Variability in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaga, T. K.; Gizaw, G.; Kucharski, F.; Diro, G. T.

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the predictability of the 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) forced East African short rains variability is analyzed using observational data and ensembles of long atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations. To our knowledge, such an analysis for the whole 20th century using a series of AGCM ensemble simulations is carried out here for the first time. The physical mechanisms that govern the influence of SST on East African short rains in the model are also investigated. It is found that there is substantial skill in reproducing the East African short rains variability, given that the SSTs are known. Consistent with previous recent studies, it is found that the Indian Ocean and in particular the western pole of the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) play a dominant role for the prediction skill, whereas SSTs outside the Indian Ocean play a minor role. The physical mechanism for the influence of the western Indian Ocean on East African rainfall in the model is consistent with previous findings and consists of a gill-type response to a warm (cold) anomaly that induces a westerly(easterly) low-level flow anomaly over equatorial Africa and leads to moisture flux convergence (divergence) over East Africa. On the other hand, a positive El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) anomaly leads to a spatially non-coherent reducing effect over parts of East Africa, but the relationship is not strong enough to provide any predictive skill in our model. The East African short rains prediction skill is also analyzed within a model-derived potential predictability framework and it is shown that the actual prediction skill is broadly consistent with the model potential prediction skill. Low-frequency variations of the prediction skill are mostly related to SSTs outside the Indian Ocean region and are likely due to an increased interference of ENSO with the Indian Ocean influence on East African short rains after the mid-1970s climate shift.

  13. The state of harm reduction in the Middle East and North Africa: A focus on Iran and Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmich, Hakima; Madani, Navid

    2016-05-01

    HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs are on the rise in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. But the regional response to the epidemic falls short both in terms of the quality and scale of response. From the threat of the death sentence for drug offenses to the burden of refugees fleeing conflict, there are many legal, political and social barriers that hinder the introduction and expansion of harm reduction in the region. However Iran and Morocco are two pioneering countries and over the last decade they have been providing evidence that harm reduction is feasible and acceptable in MENA. Using different approaches, these two countries have overcome various obstacles and encouraged discussion and collaboration among stakeholders, including government, health professionals, civil society and community-based organizations. In so doing they have created an enabling environment to endorse a national harm strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving the Quality and Quantity of HIV Data in the Middle East and North Africa: Key Challenges and Ways Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karamouzian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the HIV pandemic is witnessing a decline in the number of new infections in most regions of the world, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA has a rapidly growing HIV problem. While generating HIV data has been consistently increasing since 2005, MENA’s contribution to the global HIV literature is just over 1% and the existing evidence often falls behind the academic standards. Several factors could be at play that contribute to the limited quantity and quality of HIV data in MENA. This editorial tries to explore and explain the barriers to collecting high-quality HIV data and generating precise estimates in MENA. These barriers include a number of logistic and socio-political challenges faced by researchers, public health officials, and policy-makers. Looking at successful regional HIV programs, we explore examples were policies have shifted and lessons could be learned in developing appropriate responses to HIV across the region.

  15. Teachers’ Perceptions on the Use of African Languages in the Curriculum: A Case Study of Schools in Kenya, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. Njoroge

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to revitalize African languages and advocate for their use as media of instruction in Kenyan schools, it is important to investigate and document the teachers’ attitude towards the use of these languages in teaching. The research on which this paper is based set forth to explore teachers’ perceptions on the use of the mother tongue as the language of instruction in Kenya, East Africa. Six schools out of 54 public schools in the Gatundu district were randomly sampled. 32 teachers of Grades 1-3 were interviewed to find out the actual practices in their classrooms, the challenges they faced, and the perceptions they held in relation to the use of the mother tongue in their teaching. The data were qualitatively analyzed and the emergent findings support the claim that the use of learners’ mother tongue is beneficial to learners. In addition, the paper discusses the findings and proposes recommendations for pedagogy.

  16. Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurusi, Patrick T

    2013-09-01

    The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations.

  17. Designing and implementing an electronic dashboard for disease outbreaks response - Case study of the 2013-2014 Somalia Polio outbreak response dashboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Gathenji, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    In April 2013, a case of wild polio virus (WPV) was detected in the Somalia capital Mogadishu. This inaugurated what is now referred to as the 2013-2014 Horn of Africa Polio outbreak with cases reported in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia. By the notification of the last polio case in August 2014, 223 cases of WPV had been reported in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia of which 199 in Somalia alone. The outbreak response required timely exchange of information between the outbreak response coordination unit (in Nairobi) and local staff located in multiple locations inside the country. The need to track and timely respond to information requests, to satisfy the information/data needs of polio partners and to track key outbreak response performance indicators dictated the need to urgently set up an online dashboard. The Somalia Polio Room dashboard provided a graphical display of the polio outbreak data to track progress and inform decision making. The system was designed using free and open sources components and seamlessly integrated existing polio surveillance data for real time monitoring of key outbreak response performance indicators. In this article, we describe the design and operation of an electronic dashboard for disease surveillance in an outbreak situation and used the lessons learned to propose key design considerations and functional requirements for online electronic dashboards for disease outbreak response.

  18. Improving Early-Grade Literacy in East Africa: Experimental Evidence from Kenya and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Adrienne M.; McEwan, Patrick J.; Ngware, Moses; Oketch, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Primary school enrollments have increased rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, spurring concerns about low levels of learning. We analyze field experiments in Kenya and Uganda that assessed whether the Reading to Learn intervention, implemented by the Aga Khan Foundation in both countries, improved early-grade literacy as measured by common assessments.…

  19. A progressively wetter climate in Southern East Africa over the past 1.3 million years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, T.C.; Werne, J.P.; Brown, E.T.; Abbott, A; Berke, M.; Steinman, B.A.; Halbur, J.; Contreras, S.; Grosshuesch, S.; Deino, C.A.; Scholz, C.A.; Lyons, R.P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    African climate is generally considered to have evolved towards progressively drier conditions over the past few million years, with increased variability as glacial–interglacial change intensified worldwide1, 2, 3. Palaeoclimate records derived mainly from northern Africa exhibit a 100,000-year

  20. A progressively wetter climate in southern East Africa over the past 1.3 million years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, T.C.; Werne, J.P.; Brown, E.T.; Abbott, A.; Berke, M.; Steinman, B.E.; Halbur, J.; Contreras, S.; Grosshuesch, S.; Deino, A.; Lyons, R.P.; Scholz, C.A.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    African climate is generally considered to have evolved towardsprogressively drier conditions over the past few million years,with increased variability as glacial–interglacial change intensifiedworldwide1–3. Palaeoclimate records derived mainly from northernAfrica exhibit a 100,000-year

  1. Theatre Safari in East Africa: An Exploration of Theatre in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, P. William

    Six months of observation--at two universities, at a drama festival, and with several independent theatre companies--form the basis for this evaluation of theatre in Kenya, Africa. While Kenyan dramas deal with a variety of themes, the majority are topical rather than universal in their treatment of issues. In many, the emphasis is on the…

  2. Impact of climate change on human-wildlife conflicts in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change is a phenomenon that is already happening and in some areas of Africa it is taking place at an alarming rate. Climate change is expected to cause an increase in weather-related disasters and extreme weather events, such as droughts, heat waves, floods, desertification, and vector-borne infestations.

  3. Natural control of Helicoverpa armigera in smallholder crops in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.

    1993-01-01

    The African bollworm, Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) armigera , is one of the worst agricultural pests in Africa, attacking a variety of food and cash crops. For development of sustainable pest management, it is essential to study the ecology and natural

  4. Translations on Near East and North Africa. Number 1593, New Valley Development Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-17

    People’s Demo- cratic Republic of Yemen _Persian Gulf Area Qatar _Saudi Arabia _Spanish North Africa Sudan _Sultanate of Oman _Syria...and organizing the drainage situation. We have acquired the use of the highest-quality pipe materials used in wells and a knowledge of aquifers . We

  5. The south-east coast of South Africa is characterized by its high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    fisheries management in South Africa has been ex- tended to include shellfish obtained for subsistence purposes. Because human resources for law enforce- ment are limited, and in keeping with international trends, authorities are promoting partnerships with local communities and seeking sustainable harvesting practices ...

  6. 76 FR 55456 - The Trade and Investment Partnership for the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Africa (MENA) region, the President called for a Trade and Investment Partnership Initiative to explore ways to further strengthen economic ties both between the United States and MENA countries and among the MENA countries themselves. Over the coming months, the United States, partnering where possible...

  7. Access to Risk Mitigating Weather Forecasts and Changes in Farming Operations in East and West Africa: Evidence from a Baseline Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable weather currently ranks among the major challenges facing agricultural development in many African countries. Impact mitigation through access to reliable and timely weather forecasts and other adaptive mechanisms are foremost in Africa’s policy dialogues and socio-economic development agendas. This paper analyzed the factors influencing access to forecasts on incidence of pests/diseases (PD and start of rainfall (SR. The data were collected by Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS and analyzed with Probit regression separately for East Africa, West Africa and the combined dataset. The results show that 62.7% and 56.4% of the farmers from East and West Africa had access to forecasts on start of rainfall, respectively. In addition, 39.3% and 49.4% of the farmers from East Africa indicated that forecasts on outbreak of pests/diseases and start of rainfall were respectively accompanied with advice as against 18.2% and 41.9% for West Africa. Having received forecasts on start of rainfall, 24.0% and 17.6% of the farmers from East and West Africa made decisions on timing of farming activities respectively. Probabilities of having access to forecasts on PD significantly increased with access to formal education, farm income and previous exposure to climatic shocks. Furthermore, probabilities of having access to forecasts on SR significantly increased (p < 0.05 with access to business income, radio and perception of more erratic rainfall, among others. It was recommended that promotion of informal education among illiterate farmers would enhance their climatic resilience, among others.

  8. Maritime vessels carry more than half of growing U.S.-East Africa trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Trade between the United States and East African countries (defined in this special report as Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda) has grown substantially in recent years, reaching $1.3 billion in value in 2007. Between 1997 and 2007, U.S. e...

  9. Managing scalp defects in sub-Saharan Africa | Legbo | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Management of scalp defects remains a major challenge in our environment. The importance of continuing education of colleagues and other health workers in peripheral health units on the importance of proper initial wound debridement and early referral cannot be overemphasised. East African Medical ...

  10. Oil and the economic geography of the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortepeter, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book gives us the opportunity to follow the development of the field of economic geography as applied to the Middle East during the past half century. The materials are arranged under the following three headings: Geography and Petroleum: Boundaries and Boundary Disputes: and Social Geography

  11. Climate change in Africa and the Middle East in light of health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thought about how climate change, by which I primarily mean global warming, is expected to ... investment in these areas is likely to decrease,[9] which would presumably leave people in a ..... Pilifosova 0. Middle East and Arid Asia. In: Watson ...

  12. Estimating agricultural yield gap in Africa using MODIS NDVI dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Y.; Zhu, W.; Luo, X.; Liu, J.; Cui, X.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture has undergone a period of rapid intensification characterized as 'Green Revolution', except for Africa, which is the region most affected by unreliable food access and undernourishment. Increasing crop production will be one of the most challenges and most effectual way to mitigate food insecurity there, as Africa's agricultural yield is on a much lower level comparing to global average. In this study we characterize cropland vegetation phenology in Africa based on MODIS NDVI time series between 2000 and 2012. Cumulated NDVI is a proxy for net primary productivity and used as an indicator for evaluating the potential yield gap in Africa. It is achieved via translating the gap between optimum attainable productivity level in each classification of cropping systems and actual productivity level by the relationship of cumulated NDVI and cereal-equivalent production. The results show most of cropland area in Africa have decreasing trend in cumulated NDVI, distributing in the Nile Delta, Eastern Africa and central of semi-arid to arid savanna area, except significant positive cumulated NDVI trends are mainly found between Senegal and Benin. Using cumulated NDVI and statistics of cereal equivalent production, we find remarkable potential yield gap at the Horn of East Africa (especially in Somalia), Northern Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). Meanwhile, countries locating at the savanna area near Sahel desert and South Africa also show significant potential, though they already have a relatively high level of productivity. Our results can help provide policy recommendation for local government or NGO to tackle food security problems by identifying zones with high potential of yield improvement.

  13. A Geological and Geophysical Information System for the Middle East and North Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-14

    Saad, D., Sawaf, T., and Gebran, A., 1990, Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian ...that occurred between 1977 and 1992 (Figure 2). We have finished compiling a crustal scale Bouguer gravity data for Syria, Israel and Lebanon (Figure...3). This Bouguer gravity database is a part of our attempt to form a uniform grided Bouguer gravity data set for the entire Middle East, which then

  14. Feeding East Africa : are genetically modified crops part of the solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Tarjem, Ida Arff

    2017-01-01

    The African continent is faced with enormous challenges of poverty, hunger and food insecurity, which is exacerbated by climatic and environmental change, and a rapidly increasing population; and in the midst of it all is the smallholder and subsistence African farmer. Some believe that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and GM crops may offer part of the solution to some of these challenges. The GMO debate has gained considerable traction in the East African region, as recent regulat...

  15. A west-east vegetation transect through Africa south of the Tropic of Capricorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Coetzee

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in predominant vegetation physiognomy, prominent species and physiography along the route following an I 800 km transect across southern Africa near the Tropic of Capricorn, are described. Eleven main discontinuities in the structure and Holistic composition of the vegetation along the transect are related to a climatic gradient across the Continent. Floristic variation within the main structural types is largely related to rainfall, severity of frost, soil conditions, exposure, slope and aspect. The main vegetation classes distinguished coincide largely with major differences in carrying capacity of the vegetation.

  16. Relationships between crustal structure and extension in the Basin and Range Province and East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G R [University of Oklahoma, School of Geology and Geophysics, Norman, Oklahoma, 73019 (United States)], E-mail: grkeller@ou.edu

    2008-07-01

    The Basin and Range Province of the western United States and northern Mexico is often cited as a classic example of a wide rift. It is also a region where metamorphic core complexes such as the ones observed in the Aegean region are observed. On the other hand, the eastern arm (Kenya rift) of the East African rift is considered to be the classic example of a continental rift, which is by some definitions narrow. In this paper, these two features are briefly compared in terms of crustal structure and associated manifestations of extension.

  17. Meningococcal disease in the Middle East and Africa: Findings and updates from the Global Meningococcal Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, Ray; Caugant, Dominique A; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Christensen, Hannah; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Findlow, Jamie; Glennie, Linda; Von Gottberg, Anne; Kechrid, Amel; Vázquez Moreno, Julio; Razki, Aziza; Smith, Vincent; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Tali-Maamar, Hassiba; Zerouali, Khalid

    2017-07-01

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) has recently considered current issues in Middle Eastern and African countries, and produced two recommendations: (i) that vaccination of attendees should be considered for some types of mass-gathering events, as some countries mandate for the Hajj, and (ii) vaccination of people with human immunodeficiency virus should be used routinely, because of increased meningococcal disease (MD) risk. Differences exist between Middle Eastern and African countries regarding case and syndrome definitions, surveillance, and epidemiologic data gaps. Sentinel surveillance provides an overview of trends and prevalence of different capsular groups supporting vaccine selection and planning, whereas cost-effectiveness decisions require comprehensive disease burden data, ideally counting every case. Surveillance data showed importance of serogroup B MD in North Africa and serogroup W expansion in Turkey and South Africa. Success of MenAfriVac ® in the African "meningitis belt" was reviewed; the GMI believes similar benefits may follow development of a low-cost meningococcal pentavalent vaccine, currently in phase 1 clinical trial, by 2022. The importance of carriage and herd protection for controlling invasive MD and the importance of advocacy and awareness campaigns were also highlighted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Melissa A., E-mail: melissa.mckinney@uconn.edu [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Biomedical Resource Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Dudley, Sheldon F.J. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Zungu, M. Philip [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n = 283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg{sup −1} dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ{sup 15}N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ{sup 13}C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in 17 shark species from South Africa's east coast were measured. • Higher values relative to other regions suggested the importance of local

  19. Use of a crop climate modeling system to evaluate climate change adaptation practices: maize yield in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N. J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Andresen, J.; Olson, J.; Thornton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is dominated by small-scale farmers and is heavily depend on growing season precipitation. Recent studies indicate that anthropogenic- induced warming including the Indian Ocean sea surface significantly influences precipitation in East Africa. East Africa is a useful region to assess impacts of future climate because of its large rainfall gradient, large percentage of its area being sub-humid or semi-arid, complex climatology and topography, varied soils, and because the population is particularly vulnerable to shifts in climate. Agronomic adaptation practices most commonly being considered include include a shift to short season, drought resistant maize varieties, better management practices especially fertilizer use, and irrigation. The effectiveness of these practices with climate change had not previously been tested. We used the WorldClim data set to represent current climate and compared the current and future climate scenarios of 4 Global Climate Models (GCMs) including a wetter (CCSM) and drier (HadCM3) GCM downscaled to 6 km resolution. The climate data was then used in the process-based CERES maize crop model to simulate the current period (representing 1960- 1990) and change in future maize production (from 2000 to 2050s). The effectiveness of agronomic practices, including short duration maize variety, fertilizer use and irrigation, to reduce projected future yield losses due to climate change were simulated. The GCMs project an increase in maximum temperature during growing season ranging from 1.5 to 3°C. Changes in precipitation were dependent on the GCM, with high variability across different topographies land cover types and elevations. Projected warmer temperatures in the future scenarios accelerated plant development and led to a reduction in growing season length and yields even where moisture was sufficient Maize yield changes in 2050 relative to the historical period were highly varied, in excess of +/- 500 kg

  20. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E.; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P.; Dudley, Sheldon F.J.; Zungu, M. Philip; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH_3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n = 283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg"−"1 dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg"−"1 dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ"1"5N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ"1"3C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in 17 shark species from South Africa's east coast were measured. • Higher values relative to other regions suggested the importance of local emissions. • Length and

  1. Using Satellite Data and Land Surface Models to Monitor and Forecast Drought Conditions in Africa and Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, K. R.; Shukla, S.; Getirana, A.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; McNally, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Badr, H. S.; Funk, C. C.; Koster, R. D.; Narapusetty, B.; Jung, H. C.; Roningen, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Drought and water scarcity are among the important issues facing several regions within Africa and the Middle East. In addition, these regions typically have sparse ground-based data networks, where sometimes remotely sensed observations may be the only data available. Long-term satellite records can help with determining historic and current drought conditions. In recent years, several new satellites have come on-line that monitor different hydrological variables, including soil moisture and terrestrial water storage. Though these recent data records may be considered too short for the use in identifying major droughts, they do provide additional information that can better characterize where water deficits may occur. We utilize recent satellite data records of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage (TWS) and the European Space Agency's Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) soil moisture retrievals. Combining these records with land surface models (LSMs), NASA's Catchment and the Noah Multi-Physics (MP), is aimed at improving the land model states and initialization for seasonal drought forecasts. The LSMs' total runoff is routed through the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) to simulate surface water dynamics, which can provide an additional means of validation against in situ streamflow data. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) software framework drives the LSMs and HyMAP and also supports the capability to assimilate these satellite retrievals, such as soil moisture and TWS. The LSMs are driven for 30+ years with NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2), and the USGS/UCSB Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) rainfall dataset. The seasonal water deficit forecasts are generated using downscaled and bias-corrected versions of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5), and NOAA's Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) forecasts

  2. The Effort to Save Somalia, August 1992-March 1994

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poole, Walter S

    2005-01-01

    In shaping policy towards Somalia, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Vice Chairman, and the Joint Staff had to advise how US military forces could execute an evolving range of missions "other than war...

  3. Approaching Humanitarian Intervention Strategically: The Case of Somalia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, John G

    2000-01-01

    The U.S.-led military intervention in Somalia, which began in 1992, had profound consequences for how the United States would view later humanitarian operations overseas and the use of military force, in general...

  4. Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2007-01-01

    In October 2002, the Inter-Governmental Authority for Development (IGAD) launched a peace process designed to end factional fighting in Somalia, led by the government of Kenya under the leadership of Ambassador Bethuel Kiplagat...

  5. Evaluation of a regional mineral dust model over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East with AERONET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of regional and global models of the dust aerosol cycle have been developed since early 1990s. Dust models are essential to complement dust-related observations, understand the dust processes and predict the impact of dust on surface level PM concentrations. Dust generation and the parameterization of its deposition processes shows a high variability on spatial and temporal scales. It responds, in a non-linear way, to a variety of environmental factors, such as soil moisture content, the type of surface cover or surface atmospheric turbulence. Thus the modelling of this very complex process is a challenge. DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model; Nickovic et al., 2001) provides operational dust forecasts for Northern Africa, Europe and Middle East, as well as for the East-Asia regions. DREAM is operated and further developed in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. DREAM is fully inserted as one of the governing equations in the NCEP/Eta atmospheric model and simulates all major processes of the atmospheric dust cycle. In order to implement new model versions for operational applications there is a need for extensive checking and validation against real observations. The present study focuses on the evaluation of forecasting capacity of the new version of DREAM by means of a model-to-observation comparison of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East for one year. The model provides 72h forecasts initialized at 12UTC of each day with outputs every 1 hour at horizontal resolution of about 1/3° and 24 z-vertical layers in the troposphere. Comparisons against 47 selected AERONET sites are used. Eight size bins between 0.1 and 10 µm are considered, and dust-radiation interactions are included (Pérez et al., 2006). Wet deposition scheme has been also improved. The simulation has been performed over one year (2004); statistics and time series for the model outputs and AERONET data are used to evaluate the ability of

  6. The Plio-Pleistocene Evolution of the Indian Ocean Monsoonal System: Evidence from the Arabian Sea and East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.; Maslin, M. A.; Mackay, A. W.; Leng, M. J.; Kingston, J.; Deino, A.

    2011-12-01

    It is important to identify the teleconnections between high latitude forcing and tropical monsoonal circulation in order to understand climate change in East Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene. Here we present a record of aeolian dust transport to the Arabian Sea between approximately 2.9 and 2.3 million years ago (Ma), constructed from the high-resolution XRF scanning of sediment cores from ODP Sites 721 and 722. Variations in the delivery of aeolian dust to the Arabian Sea, reflected in normalised flux of titanium, show that monsoonal circulation prior to 2.6 Ma, and after 2.5 Ma, was highly variable and primarily driven by orbitally-forced changes in tropical summer insolation, strongly modulated by the 400,000 year cycle of orbital eccentricity. This is confirmed by the presence of lakes in the East African Rift Valley during key eccentricity maxima. The dust record is coupled with the analysis of a well-dated series of diatomite units from the Baringo-Bogoria Basin which document the rhythmic cycling of large, precessionally-driven freshwater lakes which periodically occupied the Central Kenyan Rift Valley between 2.7 and 2.58 Ma. Analysis of one of these lake sequences using stable oxygen isotope measurements of diatom silica, combined with the XRF analysis of whole-sample geochemistry, reveals that the deep lake phase was characterised by fluctuations in rainfall and lake depth over cycles lasting, on average, 1,400 years. The presence of these millennial-scale fluctuations is confirmed by evidence of abrupt climate cycles in the oceanic dust record from the Arabian Sea.

  7. Review of solar PV policies, interventions and diffusion in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix; Nygaard, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    from donor and government-based support to market-driven diffusion of solar PV; and (ii) a transition from small-scale, off-grid systems towards mini-grids and large-scale, grid-connected solar power plants. The paper points out three generic factors that have contributed to encouraging SHS diffusion......Previous research on the diffusion of solar PV in Africa has mainly focused on solar home systems (SHS) in individual countries and thus overlooked developments in other PV market segments that have recently emerged. In contrast this paper adopts a regional perspective by reviewing developments...... in supportive policies, donor programs and diffusion status in all PV market segments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, as well as identifying the key factors put forward in the literature to explain differences in the diffusion of SHS in these three countries. The paper finds two emerging trends: (i) a movement...

  8. Who delivers where? The effect of obstetric risk on facility delivery in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Sandra; Gon, Giorgia; Cavallaro, Francesca L; Graham, Wendy; Woodd, Susannah

    2017-09-01

    Skilled attendance at birth is key for the survival of pregnant women. This study investigates whether women at increased risk of maternal and newborn complications in four East African countries are more likely to deliver in a health facility than those at lower risk. Demographic and Health Survey data for Kenya 2014, Rwanda 2014-15, Tanzania 2015-16 and Uganda 2011 were used to study women with a live birth in the three years preceding the survey. A three-level obstetric risk index was created using known risk factors. Generalised linear Poisson regression was used to investigate the association between obstetric risk and facility delivery. We analysed data from 13 119 women across the four countries of whom 42-45% were considered at medium risk and 12-17% at high risk, and the remainder were at low risk. In Rwanda, 93% of all women delivered in facilities but this was lower (59-66%) in the other three countries. There was no association between a woman's obstetric risk level and her place of delivery in any country; greater wealth and more education were, however, independently strongly associated with facility delivery. In four East African countries, women at higher obstetric risk were not more likely to deliver in a facility than those with lower risk. This calls for a renewed focus on antenatal risk screening and improved communication on birth planning to ensure women with an increased chance of maternal and newborn complications are supported to deliver in facilities with skilled care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Increased prevalence of pregnancy and comparative risk of program attrition among individuals starting HIV treatment in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B Holmes

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART, yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition.We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The cohort consecutively included HIV-infected individuals 13 years or older starting ART 2004-2014. We examined trends over time in the proportion pregnant, their characteristics and program attrition rates compared to others initiating and already receiving ART. 156,474 HIV-infected individuals (67.0% women started ART. The proportion of individuals starting ART who were pregnant women rose from 5.3% in 2004 to 12.2% in 2014. Mean CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, weighted for annual program size, increased from 2004 to 2014, led by non-pregnant women (annual increase 20 cells/mm3 and men (17 cells/mm3 annually, with lower rates of change in pregnant women (10 cells/mm3 per year (p<0.0001. There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of program attrition at 6 months among pregnant women starting ART and non-pregnant women. However, healthy pregnant women starting ART (WHO stage 1/2 had a higher rate of attrition rate (9.6%, compared with healthy non-pregnant women (6.5%; in contrast among women with WHO stage 3/4 disease, pregnant women had lower attrition (8.4% than non-pregnant women (14.4%. Among women who initiated ART when healthy and remained in care for six months, subsequent six-month attrition was slightly higher among pregnant women at ART start (3.5% compared to those who were not pregnant (2.4%, (absolute

  10. Increased prevalence of pregnancy and comparative risk of program attrition among individuals starting HIV treatment in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Charles B; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Elul, Batya; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Ssali, John; Kambugu, Andrew; Musick, Beverly S; Cohen, Craig; Williams, Carolyn; Diero, Lameck; Padian, Nancy; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K

    2018-01-01

    The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition. We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA) to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The cohort consecutively included HIV-infected individuals 13 years or older starting ART 2004-2014. We examined trends over time in the proportion pregnant, their characteristics and program attrition rates compared to others initiating and already receiving ART. 156,474 HIV-infected individuals (67.0% women) started ART. The proportion of individuals starting ART who were pregnant women rose from 5.3% in 2004 to 12.2% in 2014. Mean CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, weighted for annual program size, increased from 2004 to 2014, led by non-pregnant women (annual increase 20 cells/mm3) and men (17 cells/mm3 annually), with lower rates of change in pregnant women (10 cells/mm3 per year) (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of program attrition at 6 months among pregnant women starting ART and non-pregnant women. However, healthy pregnant women starting ART (WHO stage 1/2) had a higher rate of attrition rate (9.6%), compared with healthy non-pregnant women (6.5%); in contrast among women with WHO stage 3/4 disease, pregnant women had lower attrition (8.4%) than non-pregnant women (14.4%). Among women who initiated ART when healthy and remained in care for six months, subsequent six-month attrition was slightly higher among pregnant women at ART start (3.5%) compared to those who were not pregnant (2.4%), (absolute

  11. Thrust-wrench interference tectonics in the Gulf of Cadiz (Africa-Iberia plate boundary in the North-East Atlantic): Insights from analog models

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte , João ,; Rosas , Filipe ,; Terrinha , Pedro; Gutscher , Marc-André ,; Malavielle , Jacques; Silva , Sonia; Matias , Luis

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In the Gulf of Cadiz key segment of the Africa-Iberia plate boundary (North-East Atlantic ocean), three main different modes of tectonic interference between a recently identified wrench system (SWIM) and the Gulf of Cadiz Accretionary Wedge (GCAW) were tested through analog sand-box modeling: a) An active accretionary wedge on top of a pre-existent inactive basement fault; b) An active strike-slip fault cutting a previously formed, inactive, accretionary wedge; and c)...

  12. A coprological survey of intestinal parasites of wild lions (Panthera leo) in the Serengeti and the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania, east Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Graf, C D

    1995-10-01

    Fecal examination on 112 and a subset of 58 wild lions (Panthera leo) in the Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania, East Africa revealed eggs, larvae, and protozoan cysts of 15 parasite taxa. The most prevalent were Spirometra sp. (63% prevalence), Taeniidae (58%), Ancylostoma sp. (56%), and a coccidian (53%). Three parasites were considered spurious. Of the hosts, 97.3% were infected with at least 1 species of parasite. Individual parasite taxa were aggregated among hosts.

  13. High growth and rapid internationalisation of firms from emerging markets: the case of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hatem, Omaima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the phenomena of the high growth and rapid internationalisation of firms from emerging markets. It explores the applicability of international entrepreneurship theory to the context of the emerging market enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It integrates the literature of strategic entrepreneurship and that of portfolio entrepreneurship with the literature of international entrepreneurship to provide a closer fi...

  14. Strengthening Local Safety Nets as a Key to Enhancing the Food Security of Pastoralists in East Africa: A Case Study of the Rendille of Northern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    The increase in climate-change-related natural disasters presents a major threat to the food security of pastoralists in East Africa. This paper explores ways of reducing the dependence on food aid and enhancing the food security of pastoralists through a case study of the Rendille in Northern Kenya. Current Rendille food systems have resulted from adapted livestock herding strategies and loss of nomadic lifestyles, as well as dependence on food aid. Although food aid is included in the livel...

  15. Analysis of the summertime buildup of tropospheric ozone abundances over the Middle East and North Africa as observed by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Worden, John R.; Noone, David; Parrington, Mark; Kar, Jay

    2009-03-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret observations of tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite instrument in summer 2005. Observations from TES reveal elevated ozone in the middle troposphere (500-400 hPa) across North Africa and the Middle East. Observed ozone abundances in the middle troposphere are at a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter, consistent with the previously predicted summertime "Middle East ozone maximum." This summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian and Sahara anticyclones, centered over the Zagros and Atlas Mountains, respectively. These anticyclones isolate the middle troposphere over northeast Africa and the Middle East, with westerlies to the north and easterlies to the south, facilitating the buildup of ozone. Over the Middle East, we find that in situ production and transport from Asia provides comparable contributions of 30-35% to the ozone buildup. Over North Africa, in situ production is dominant (at about 20%), with transport from Asia, North America, and equatorial Africa each contributing about 10-15% to the total ozone. We find that although the eastern Mediterranean is characterized by strong descent in the middle and upper troposphere in summer, transport from the boundary layer accounts for about 25% of the local Middle Eastern contribution to the ozone enhancement in the middle troposphere. This upward transport of boundary layer air is associated with orographic lifting along the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water.

  16. Simulation of synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena over East Africa and Arabian Peninsula for current and future climate using a high resolution AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Jerry

    2015-04-01

    Climate regimes of East Africa and Arabia are complex and are poorly understood. East Africa has large-scale tropical controls like major convergence zones and air streams. The region is in the proximity of two monsoons, north-east and south-west, and the humid and thermally unstable Congo air stream. The domain comprises regions with one, two, and three rainfall maxima, and the rainfall pattern over this region has high spatial variability. To explore the synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena that drive the climate of the region we conducted climate simulations using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL\\'s High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Historic simulations (1975-2004) and future projections (2007-2050), with both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 pathways, were performed according to CORDEX standard. The sea surface temperature (SST) was prescribed from the 2°x2.5° latitude-longitude resolution GFDL Earth System Model runs of IPCC AR5, as bottom boundary condition over the ocean. Our simulations were conducted at a horizontal grid spacing of 25 km, which is an ample resolution for regional climate simulation. In comparison with the regional models, global HiRAM has the advantage of accounting for two-way interaction between regional and global scale processes. Our initial results show that HiRAM simulations for historic period well reproduce the regional climate in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with their complex interplay of regional and global processes. Our future projections indicate warming and increased precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and the Greater Horn of Africa. We found significant regional differences between RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projections, e.g., west coast of the Arabian Peninsula, show anomalies of opposite signs in these two simulations.

  17. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Resilience and Livelihoods in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Herrero; Peter G Jones; Stanley Karanja; Ianetta Mutie; Mariana C Rufino; Philip K Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Climate-induced livelihood transitions in the agricultural systems of Africa are increasingly likely. A recent study by Jones and Thornton (2009) points to the possibility of such climate-induced livelihood transitions in the mixed crop-livestock rainfed arid-semiarid systems of Africa. These mixed systems cover over one million square kilometers of farmland in West Africa, Eastern Africa,...

  18. The East Africa Oligocene intertrappean beds: Regional distribution, depositional environments and Afro/Arabian mammal dispersals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Ernesto; Bruni, Piero; Ferretti, Marco Peter; Delmer, Cyrille; Laurenzi, Marinella Ada; Hagos, Miruts; Bedri, Omar; Rook, Lorenzo; Sagri, Mario; Libsekal, Yosief

    2014-11-01

    The extensive outpouring of the Oligocene Trap basalts over eastern Africa and western Arabia was interrupted by a period of quiescence marked by the deposition of terrestrial sediments. These so-called intertrappean beds are often lignitiferous and yield recurrent floras and faunas, sometimes represented by endemic mammals. We intended to highlight the peculiar features of these sedimentary intercalations using a large-scale approach including eastern Africa and the western Arabian peninsula. Starting from a new mapping in the Eritrean highland, the intertrappean beds resulted a continuous level that was a few tens of meters thick and traceable for some tens of kilometers. They consist of fluvial red, green and gray mudstones and siltstones with subordinate channelized pebbly sandstones, and lignite seams. Two new 40Ar-39Ar datings constraint the age of the intertrappean beds between 29.0 Ma and 23.6 Ma. The outcrops near Mendefera have yielded the remains of two proboscidean families, the Deinotheriidae and the Gomphoteriidae. The morphological grade of the two Mendefera proboscideans would suggest a more derived stage than that of representatives of the same families from other Oligocene African sites (e.g., Chilga, Ethiopia). An Oligocene age could be inferred for them. The occurrence of the genus Prodeinotherium at Mai Gobro possibly represents the first occurrence of this taxon, while the Gomphotheirum sp. might represent the oldest occurrence of this taxon in Africa before its dispersal towards Asia and Europe. Proboscideans have also been found in the lowland intertrappean beds of Dogali near Massawa. These sediments were contiguous with the Eritrean highland intertrappean beds during the Oligocene, but are now tectonically displaced from them by two thousand meters of vertical topographical distance. Dogali is also known for the occurrence of possible Deinotheriidae remains and the primitive elephantoid Eritreum. Entering the Ethiopian highland, an

  19. Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaboga, Evans; Njiru, Joshua; Nguu, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Herve; Tripathi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Cassava genetic transformation capacity is still mostly restricted to advanced laboratories in the USA, Europe and China; and its implementation and maintenance in African laboratories has remained scarce. The impact of transgenic technologies for genetic improvement of cassava will depend largely on the transfer of such capabilities to researchers in Africa, where cassava has an important socioeconomic niche. A major constraint to the development of genetic transformation technologies for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite the success achieved in genetic modification of few cassava cultivars, including the model cultivar 60444, transgenic cassava production remains difficult for farmer-preferred cultivars. In this study, a protocol for cultivar 60444 developed at ETH Zurich was successfully implemented and optimized to establish transformation of farmer-preferred cassava cultivars popular in east Africa. The conditions for production and proliferation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were optimized for three east African farmer-preferred cultivars (Ebwanatereka, Kibandameno and Serere). Our results demonstrated transformation efficiencies of about 14-22 independent transgenic lines per 100 mg of FEC for farmer-preferred cultivars in comparison to 28 lines per 100 mg of the model cultivar 60444. The presence, integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and histochemical GUS assay. This study reports the establishment of a cassava transformation platform at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) hosted by Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub in Kenya and provides the basis for transferring important traits such as virus resistance and prolonged shelf-life to farmer-preferred cultivars in east Africa. We anticipate that such platform will also be instrumental to transfer

  20. Efficiency Analysis of Islamic Banks in the Middle East and North Africa Region: A Bootstrap DEA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raéf Bahrini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures and analyzes the technical efficiency of Islamic banks in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region during the period 2007–2012. To do this, the bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach was employed in order to provide a robust estimation of the overall technical efficiency and its components: pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency in the case of MENA Islamic banks. The main results show that over the period of study, pure technical inefficiency was the main source of overall technical inefficiency instead of scale inefficiency. This finding was confirmed for all MENA Islamic banks as well as for the two subsamples: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC and non-GCC Islamic banks. Furthermore, our results show that GCC Islamic banks had stable efficiency scores during the global financial crisis (2007–2008 and in the early post-crisis period (2009–2010. However, a decline in overall technical efficiency of all panels of MENA Islamic banks was recorded in the last two years of the study period (2011–2012. Thus, we recommend that MENA Islamic bank managers focus more on improving their management practices rather than increasing their sizes. We also recommend that financial authorities in MENA countries implement several regulatory and financial measures in order to ensure the development of MENA Islamic banking.

  1. Short communication: Genomic selection in a crossbred cattle population using data from the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A; Ojango, J; Gibson, J; Coffey, M; Okeyo, M; Mrode, R

    2016-09-01

    Due to the absence of accurate pedigree information, it has not been possible to implement genetic evaluations for crossbred cattle in African small-holder systems. Genomic selection techniques that do not rely on pedigree information could, therefore, be a useful alternative. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using genomic selection techniques in a crossbred cattle population using data from Kenya provided by the Dairy Genetics East Africa Project. Genomic estimated breeding values for milk yield were estimated using 2 prediction methods, GBLUP and BayesC, and accuracies were calculated as the correlation between yield deviations and genomic breeding values included in the estimation process, mimicking the situation for young bulls. The accuracy of evaluation ranged from 0.28 to 0.41, depending on the validation population and prediction method used. No significant differences were found in accuracy between the 2 prediction methods. The results suggest that there is potential for implementing genomic selection for young bulls in crossbred small-holder cattle populations, and targeted genotyping and phenotyping should be pursued to facilitate this. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal sensitivity of the crab Neosarmatium africanum in tropical and temperate mangroves on the east coast of Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco

    2017-03-09

    Mangrove forests are amongst the tropical marine ecosystems most severely affected by rapid environmental change, and the activities of key associated macrobenthic species contribute to their ecological resilience. Along the east coast of Africa, the amphibious sesarmid crab Neosarmatium africanum (=meinerti) plays a pivotal role in mangrove ecosystem functioning through carbon cycling and sediment bioturbation. In the face of rapid climate change, identifying the sensitivity and vulnerability to global warming of this species is of increasing importance. Based on a latitudinal comparison, we measured the thermal sensitivity of a tropical and a temperate population of N. africanum, testing specimens at the centre and southern limit of its distribution, respectively. We measured metabolic oxygen consumption and haemolymph dissolved oxygen content during air and water breathing within a temperature range that matched the natural environmental conditions. The results indicate different thermal sensitivities in the physiological responses of N. africanum from tropical and temperate populations, especially during air breathing. The differences observed in the thermal physiology between the two populations suggest that the effect of global warming on this important mangrove species may be different under different climate regimes.

  3. Shifting boundaries of racial space in post-apartheid South Africa: The case of Afrikaner youth in East London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luvuyo Ntombana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available South African democracy has brought about changes like freedom of associations, as opposed to apartheid which emphasised separateness of races and cultures. This social change warrants new ways of living among South Africans, especially among young people. Using a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews, this study examined how white Afrikaans-speaking university students carve out their identities, given the reality that political, social and cultural circumstances have changed in the last two decades. Participants consisted of Afrikaner university students, based in East London. This study attempts to understand difficulties and privileges associated with being a young white South African 20 years after the fall of the apartheid regime. Seeing that the participants were not born during apartheid, we wanted to understand the extent to which their parents’ perception, influence and stories affected the way participants identify themselves, their place and their roles in the democratic South Africa. The study found that Afrikaner youth are caught between two worlds: the democratic and contemporary social context, and their parents’ traditional or orthodox way of seeing things. This study also found out that, in spite of some of their parents’ influence on racism and the perception of the South African community about white people, these young people are able to carve out their own identity in which they are able to shift racial space boundaries.

  4. Muslim-State Relations in East Africa Under Conditions of Military and Civilian or One-party Dictatorships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdin Chande

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo examina cómo los musulmanes de África Oriental han sido alternativamente marginados, cooptados e incluso en una ocasión favorecidos en la política de dictaduras militares o de un único partido. En respuesta a las políticas basadas en el regionalismo o en la etnia del periodo poscolonial, los grupos musulmanes han desarrollado estrategias para promover las metas o intereses de su comunidad dentro o fuera de los círculos oficiales reconocidos. Estas estrategias han oscilado entre el buscar la acomodación con los partidos gobernantes, posicionándose estos mismo como grupos de presión articulando sus intereses y objetivos a, en raras ocasiones, organizar la oposición armada contra el gobierno.____________________ABSTRACT:This paper examines how Muslims in East Africa have been alternately peripheralized, coopted and even on one occasion favored in the politics of military or one-party dictatorships. In response to the regional or ethnically-based politics of the post-colonial period, Muslim groups have devised strategies to promote their communities’ goals or interests either within or outside officially sanctioned organizational circles. These strategies have ranged from seeking accomodation with governing parties, positioning themselves as pressure groups articulating the interests and grievances of their religious constituencies to, on rare occasions, resorting to outright armed opposition against the government.

  5. Trust and Tolerance across the Middle East and North Africa: A Comparative Perspective on the Impact of the Arab Uprisings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Spierings

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The protests that swept the Arab Middle East and North Africa (MENA are expected to have influenced two key civic attitudes fundamental to well-functioning democracies: trust and tolerance. However, systematic comparative assessments of the general patterns and particularities in this region are rare. This contribution theorizes the uprisings’ impact and presents new society-level measurements of trust and tolerance for the MENA, synchronizing over 40 Arab Barometer and World Values Survey surveys on Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Tunisia, and Yemen, from before and after the uprisings. The analyses firstly show political-institutional trust falling in the uprisings’ aftermath in countries that went through democratic reform or regime change. It appears that politicians misbehaving and reforms not resolving social problems hurt people’s trust in politics. Secondly, in democratic transition countries Egypt and Tunisia, a decrease in social trust reflected the pattern of political-institutional trust indicating a spill-over effect. Thirdly, ethno-religious tolerance dropped region-wide after the uprisings, indicating that the aftermath of religious conflict impacted the entire Arab region. These results support rational-choice institutionalist theories, while at the same time refining them for the MENA context.

  6. Analysis of aerosol absorption properties and transport over North Africa and the Middle East using AERONET data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper particle categorization and absorption properties were discussed to understand transport mechanisms at different geographic locations and possible radiative impacts on climate. The long-term Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET data set (1999–2015 is used to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD, single scattering albedo (SSA, and the absorption Ångström exponent (αabs at eight locations in North Africa and the Middle East. Average variation in SSA is calculated at four wavelengths (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm, and the relationship between aerosol absorption and physical properties is used to infer dominant aerosol types at different locations. It was found that seasonality and geographic location play a major role in identifying dominant aerosol types at each location. Analyzing aerosol characteristics among different sites using AERONET Version 2, Level 2.0 data retrievals and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT backward trajectories shows possible aerosol particle transport among different locations indicating the importance of understanding transport mechanisms in identifying aerosol sources.

  7. Characterizing the Effects of Irrigation in the Middle East and North Africa Using Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Water Cycle Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, John; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffer from water scarcity due in part to widespread rainfall deficits, unprecedented levels of water demand, and the inefficient use of renewable freshwater resources. Since a majority of the water withdrawal in the MENA is used for irrigation, there is a desperate need for improved understanding of irrigation practices and agricultural water use in the region. Here, satellite-derived irrigation maps and crop-type agricultural data are applied to the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS), designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. Within MENA-LDAS, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulates the location, timing, and amount of water applied through agricultural irrigation practices over the region from 2002-2012. In addition to simulating the irrigation impact on evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff, we also investigate regional changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and simulated by CLSM.

  8. A human economy: A ``third way'' for the future of young people in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-06-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in this region. There is a consequent lack of participation at all levels, and a large number of youth are showing symptoms of low self-esteem, frustration, anger and unrest. After discussing the outcomes of years of an inhuman economic system on a global level, this article points to a more humane and empowering path. The author argues that, instead of continuing with profit-oriented capitalism or relying on the informal sector, the co-operative way represents a third alternative to existing economic sectors within the dominant contemporary economic system. The article analyses the many benefits of this path for the realisation of a humane economy. In so doing, it touches on issues of equity and social protection. Finally, the article outlines what needs to be done if this is to be a viable solution for a human economy. While giving many examples of successful co-operative enterprises worldwide, the author singles out the MENA region as one which could also benefit from the new trends outlined.

  9. A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region: Health impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrine S. Farrag

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has serious consequences both immediately and in adulthood. The rates of obesity in children and adolescents are rising rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. We systematically searched the literature to explore adverse effects associated with childhood obesity in this region and the management efforts for dealing with it. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood OR adolescence AND obesity AND (MENA or each country AND ("last five years" [PDat]. Studies that examined adverse effects of childhood obesity gave fairly consistent results, revealing associations with higher blood pressure, pre-diabetes, metabolic abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk. Little or no overall effect on rates of childhood obesity has yet been demonstrated by interventions used to manage the problem. Obesity has a considerable impact on the health of children and adolescents, and the countries of the MENA region should endorse strategies and programs to prevent and manage this problem in an effective way.

  10. A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Health impact and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, Nesrine S; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Farag, Mohamed K

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has serious consequences both immediately and in adulthood. The rates of obesity in children and adolescents are rising rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. We systematically searched the literature to explore adverse effects associated with childhood obesity in this region and the management efforts for dealing with it. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood) OR adolescence) AND obesity) AND (MENA or each country) AND ("last five years" [PDat]). Studies that examined adverse effects of childhood obesity gave fairly consistent results, revealing associations with higher blood pressure, pre-diabetes, metabolic abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk. Little or no overall effect on rates of childhood obesity has yet been demonstrated by interventions used to manage the problem. Obesity has a considerable impact on the health of children and adolescents, and the countries of the MENA region should endorse strategies and programs to prevent and manage this problem in an effective way.

  11. Escalating heat-stress mortality risk due to global warming in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2018-08-01

    Climate change will substantially exacerbate extreme temperature and heatwaves. The impacts will be more intense across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), a region mostly characterized by hot and arid climate, already intolerable for human beings in many parts. In this study, daily climate data from 17 fine-resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are acquired to calculate wet-bulb temperature and investigate the mortality risk for people aged over 65 years caused by excessive heat stress across the MENA region. Spatially adaptive temperature thresholds are implemented for quantifying the mortality risk, and the analysis is conducted for the historical period of 1951-2005 and two future scenarios of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 during the 2006-2100 period. Results show that the mortality risk will increase in distant future to 8-20 times higher than that of the historical period if no climate change mitigation is implemented. The coastal regions of the Red sea, Persian Gulf, and Mediterranean Sea indicate substantial increase in mortality risk. Nonetheless, the risk ratio will be limited to 3-7 times if global warming is limited to 2 °C. Climate change planning and adaptation is imperative for mitigating heat-related mortality risk across the region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Michael J.; Stadler, Christian; Ariño, Africa

    2017-01-01

    Context matters in the global strategy literature. We discuss how Africa, as a setting that received limited attention in the past, offers opportunity to challenge existing theory and develop new insights. The overall goal is to ask: What will the field of global strategic management look like once...

  13. A predator from East Africa that chooses malaria vectors as preferred prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena J Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All vectors of human malaria, a disease responsible for more than one million deaths per year, are female mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles. Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider (Salticidae that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by selecting blood-carrying female mosquitoes as preferred prey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By testing with motionless lures made from mounting dead insects in lifelike posture on cork discs, we show that E. culicivora selects Anopheles mosquitoes in preference to other mosquitoes and that this predator can identify Anopheles by static appearance alone. Tests using active (grooming virtual mosquitoes rendered in 3-D animation show that Anopheles' characteristic resting posture is an important prey-choice cue for E. culicivora. Expression of the spider's preference for Anopheles varies with the spider's size, varies with its prior feeding condition and is independent of the spider gaining a blood meal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first experimental study to show that a predator of any type actively chooses Anopheles as preferred prey, suggesting that specialized predators having a role in the biological control of disease vectors is a realistic possibility.

  14. Distinct subspecies or phenotypic plasticity? Genetic and morphological differentiation of mountain honey bees in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Karl; Schöning, Caspar; Otte, Marianne; Kinuthia, Wanja; Hasselmann, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the forces shaping intraspecific phenotypic and genotypic divergence are of key importance in evolutionary biology. Phenotypic divergence may result from local adaptation or, especially in species with strong gene flow, from pronounced phenotypic plasticity. Here, we examine morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the western honey bee Apis mellifera in the topographically heterogeneous East African region. The currently accepted "mountain refugia hypothesis" states that populations living in disjunct montane forests belong to a different lineage than those in savanna habitats surrounding these forests. We obtained microsatellite data, mitochondrial sequences, and morphometric data from worker honey bees collected from feral colonies in three montane forests and corresponding neighboring savanna regions in Kenya. Honey bee colonies from montane forests showed distinct worker morphology compared with colonies in savanna areas. Mitochondrial sequence data did not support the existence of the two currently accepted subspecies. Furthermore, analyses of the microsatellite data with a Bayesian clustering method did not support the existence of two source populations as it would be expected under the mountain refugia scenario. Our findings suggest that phenotypic plasticity rather than distinct ancestry is the leading cause behind the phenotypic divergence observed between montane forest and savanna honey bees. Our study thus corroborates the idea that high gene flow may select for increased plasticity.

  15. High Resolution Population Maps for Low Income Nations: Combining Land Cover and Census in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; von Hagen, Craig; Di Gregorio, Antonio; Hay, Simon I.

    2007-01-01

    Background Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania) and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps. Conclusions We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk) and are freely available. PMID:18074022

  16. High resolution population maps for low income nations: combining land cover and census in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Tatem

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas.We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps.We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km(2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk and are freely available.

  17. Boron Isotopic Composition of Metasomatized Mantle Xenoliths from the Western Rift, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, T.; Nelson, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Western Branch of the East African Rift System is known to have a thick lithosphere and sparse, alkaline volcanism associated with a metasomatized mantle source. Recent work investigating the relationship between Western Branch metasomatized mantle xenoliths and associated lavas has suggested that these metasomes are a significant factor in the evolution of the rift. Hydrous/carbonated fluids or silicate melts are potent metasomatic agents, however gaining insight into the source of a metasomatic agent proves challenging. Here we investigate the potential metasomatic fluid sources using B isotope analysis of mineral separates from Western Branch xenoliths. Preliminary SIMS analyses of phlogopite from Katwe Kikorongo and Bufumbira have and average B isotopic composition of -28.2‰ ± 5.1 and -16.4‰ ± 3.6, respectively. These values are are dissimilar to MORB (-7.5‰ ± 0.7; Marschall and Monteleone, 2015), primitive mantle (-10‰ ± 2; Chaussidon and Marty, 1995), and bulk continental crust (-9.1‰ ± 2.4; Marschall et al., 2017) and display significant heterogeneity across a relatively short ( 150km) portion of the Western Branch. Though displaying large variability, these B isotopic compositions are indicative of a metasomatic agent with a more negative B isotopic composition than MORB, PM, or BCC. These results are consistent with fluids that released from a subducting slab and may be related to 700 Ma Pan-African subduction.

  18. The Emergence of Hospital Accreditation Programs in East Africa: Lessons from Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this manuscript was to examine existing hospital accreditation systems in three East African countries (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania, assess attitudes and opinions of key stakeholders regarding hospital accreditation systems in the region, and identify lessons regarding sustainable and effective implementation of hospital accreditation systems in resource-limited countries. National hospital accreditation systems were found in Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda’s accreditation system, known as Yellow Star, had been suspended. Attitudes and opinions of key stakeholders almost unanimously supported the idea of establishing new national hospital accreditation programs, but opinions differed regarding whether that system should be operated by the government or a private independent organization. Our analysis supports the following lessons regarding accreditation systems in the region: (1 self-funding mechanisms are critical to long-term success; (2 external assessments occurred more frequently in our focus countries than accreditation systems in developed countries; (3 Kenya has established framework for providing financial incentives to highly performing hospitals, but these links need to be strengthened; and (4 automatic accreditation of governmental health facilities in Kenya and Tanzania illustrate the potential hazard of public authorities overseeing accreditation programs.

  19. The Emergence of Hospital Accreditation Programs in East Africa: Lessons from Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this manuscript was to examine existing hospital accreditation systems in three East African countries (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania, assess attitudes and opinions of key stakeholders regarding hospital accreditation systems in the region, and identify lessons regarding sustainable and effective implementation of hospital accreditation systems in resource-limited countries. National hospital accreditation systems were found in Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda’s accreditation system, known as Yellow Star, had been suspended. Attitudes and opinions of key stakeholders almost unanimously supported the idea of establishing new national hospital accreditation programs, but opinions differed regarding whether that system should be operated by the government or a private independent organization. Our analysis supports the following lessons regarding accreditation systems in the region: (1 self--‐funding mechanisms are critical to long-term success; (2 external assessments occurred more frequently in our focus countries than accreditation systems in developed countries; (3 Kenya has established framework for providing financial incentives to highly performing hospitals, but these links need to be strengthened; and (4 automatic accreditation of governmental health facilities in Kenya and Tanzania illustrate the potential hazard of public authorities overseeing accreditation programs.

  20. Geochemistry and age of the Essimingor volcano, northern Tanzania (East Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mana, S.; Mollel, G. F.; Feigenson, M.; Carr, M. J.; Turrin, B. D.; Furman, T.; Swisher, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    Essimingor is the oldest of a line of north-south trending pre-rift volcanoes in northern Tanzania associated with the opening of the southern sector of the Gregory Rift, part of the East African Rift system (EAR). Essimingor is centrally located within the present day rift, on the East-West alignment between the large volcanoes of Kilimanjaro and Ngorongoro. Based on K-Ar data of Bagdasaryan et al. (1973), Essimingor is commonly reported to be about 8 Ma, although Evans et al. (1971) reports it to be between 5 to 3 Ma. Geochemically, Essimingor is characterized by alkaline magmatism and it is compositionally similar to adjacent albeit younger volcanoes (e.g. Burko, Tarosero and Monduli). Although the regional trend in magmatic evolution is from basalt to alkaline basalt, and then to more evolved rock types enriched in alkalis (Dawson, 2008), Essimingor appears to be an exception given its age. In fact, this volcano precedes or is, perhaps, contemporaneous with the dominantly basaltic regional magmatism. Essimingor’s age and geochemistry are crucial to providing the earliest record for the tectonomagmatic reconstruction of the EAR in northern Tanzania. To better characterize this pivotal pre-rift volcano we present new 40Ar/39Ar laser-incremental heating and geochemical analyses (major, minor and trace element compositions, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data) on twelve carefully chosen lava samples. Laser-incremental heating of whole rock matrix, bulk whole rock and nepheline, yield 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 5.81±0.01 Ma to 6.20±0.03 Ma. These ages restrict the duration of volcanism of Essimingor to approximately 370 kyr, and its maximum age to about 6.2 Ma, approximately 2 myr earlier than previously considered. Preliminary geochemical data suggest the presence of large variations in radiogenic isotopes: 87Sr/86Sr ranges from 0.7036 to 0.7056, 143Nd/144Nd from 0.5124 to 0.5126 and 206Pb/204Pb are about 20-21. The isotopic and incompatible trace element variations

  1. An integrated risk and vulnerability assessment framework for climate change and malaria transmission in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Esther Achieng; Sahin, Oz; Awiti, Alex; Chu, Cordia; Mackey, Brendan

    2016-11-11

    Malaria is one of the key research concerns in climate change-health relationships. Numerous risk assessments and modelling studies provide evidence that the transmission range of malaria will expand with rising temperatures, adversely impacting on vulnerable communities in the East African highlands. While there exist multiple lines of evidence for the influence of climate change on malaria transmission, there is insufficient understanding of the complex and interdependent factors that determine the risk and vulnerability of human populations at the community level. Moreover, existing studies have had limited focus on the nature of the impacts on vulnerable communities or how well they are prepared to cope. In order to address these gaps, a systems approach was used to present an integrated risk and vulnerability assessment framework for studies of community level risk and vulnerability to malaria due to climate change. Drawing upon published literature on existing frameworks, a systems approach was applied to characterize the factors influencing the interactions between climate change and malaria transmission. This involved structural analysis to determine influential, relay, dependent and autonomous variables in order to construct a detailed causal loop conceptual model that illustrates the relationships among key variables. An integrated assessment framework that considers indicators of both biophysical and social vulnerability was proposed based on the conceptual model. A major conclusion was that this integrated assessment framework can be implemented using Bayesian Belief Networks, and applied at a community level using both quantitative and qualitative methods with stakeholder engagement. The approach enables a robust assessment of community level risk and vulnerability to malaria, along with contextually relevant and targeted adaptation strategies for dealing with malaria transmission that incorporate both scientific and community perspectives.

  2. Facility-Level Factors Influencing Retention of Patients in HIV Care in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlis, Beth; Bakoyannis, Giorgos; Easterbrook, Philippa; Genberg, Becky; Braithwaite, Ronald Scott; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kambugu, Andrew; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Somi, Geoffrey R; Geng, Elvin H; Musick, Beverly; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Losses to follow-up (LTFU) remain an important programmatic challenge. While numerous patient-level factors have been associated with LTFU, less is known about facility-level factors. Data from the East African International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (EA-IeDEA) Consortium was used to identify facility-level factors associated with LTFU in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Patients were defined as LTFU if they had no visit within 12 months of the study endpoint for pre-ART patients or 6 months for patients on ART. Adjusting for patient factors, shared frailty proportional hazard models were used to identify the facility-level factors associated with LTFU for the pre- and post-ART periods. Data from 77,362 patients and 29 facilities were analyzed. Median age at enrolment was 36.0 years (Interquartile Range: 30.1, 43.1), 63.9% were women and 58.3% initiated ART. Rates (95% Confidence Interval) of LTFU were 25.1 (24.7-25.6) and 16.7 (16.3-17.2) per 100 person-years in the pre-ART and post-ART periods, respectively. Facility-level factors associated with increased LTFU included secondary-level care, HIV RNA PCR turnaround time >14 days, and no onsite availability of CD4 testing. Increased LTFU was also observed when no nutritional supplements were provided (pre-ART only), when TB patients were treated within the HIV program (pre-ART only), and when the facility was open ≤4 mornings per week (ART only). Our findings suggest that facility-based strategies such as point of care laboratory testing and separate clinic spaces for TB patients may improve retention.

  3. Facility-Level Factors Influencing Retention of Patients in HIV Care in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Rachlis

    Full Text Available Losses to follow-up (LTFU remain an important programmatic challenge. While numerous patient-level factors have been associated with LTFU, less is known about facility-level factors. Data from the East African International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (EA-IeDEA Consortium was used to identify facility-level factors associated with LTFU in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Patients were defined as LTFU if they had no visit within 12 months of the study endpoint for pre-ART patients or 6 months for patients on ART. Adjusting for patient factors, shared frailty proportional hazard models were used to identify the facility-level factors associated with LTFU for the pre- and post-ART periods. Data from 77,362 patients and 29 facilities were analyzed. Median age at enrolment was 36.0 years (Interquartile Range: 30.1, 43.1, 63.9% were women and 58.3% initiated ART. Rates (95% Confidence Interval of LTFU were 25.1 (24.7-25.6 and 16.7 (16.3-17.2 per 100 person-years in the pre-ART and post-ART periods, respectively. Facility-level factors associated with increased LTFU included secondary-level care, HIV RNA PCR turnaround time >14 days, and no onsite availability of CD4 testing. Increased LTFU was also observed when no nutritional supplements were provided (pre-ART only, when TB patients were treated within the HIV program (pre-ART only, and when the facility was open ≤4 mornings per week (ART only. Our findings suggest that facility-based strategies such as point of care laboratory testing and separate clinic spaces for TB patients may improve retention.

  4. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okara Robi M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is the second in a series of three articles documenting the geographical distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS of human malaria. The first paper addressed the DVS of the Americas and the third will consider those of the Asian Pacific Region. Here, the DVS of Africa, Europe and the Middle East are discussed. The continent of Africa experiences the bulk of the global malaria burden due in part to the presence of the An. gambiae complex. Anopheles gambiae is one of four DVS within the An. gambiae complex, the others being An. arabiensis and the coastal An. merus and An. melas. There are a further three, highly anthropophilic DVS in Africa, An. funestus, An. moucheti and An. nili. Conversely, across Europe and the Middle East, malaria transmission is low and frequently absent, despite the presence of six DVS. To help control malaria in Africa and the Middle East, or to identify the risk of its re-emergence in Europe, the contemporary distribution and bionomics of the relevant DVS are needed. Results A contemporary database of occurrence data, compiled from the formal literature and other relevant resources, resulted in the collation of information for seven DVS from 44 countries in Africa containing 4234 geo-referenced, independent sites. In Europe and the Middle East, six DVS were identified from 2784 geo-referenced sites across 49 countries. These occurrence data were combined with expert opinion ranges and a suite of environmental and climatic variables of relevance to anopheline ecology to produce predictive distribution maps using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT method. Conclusions The predicted geographic extent for the following DVS (or species/suspected species complex* is provided for Africa: Anopheles (Cellia arabiensis, An. (Cel. funestus*, An. (Cel. gambiae, An. (Cel. melas, An. (Cel. merus, An. (Cel. moucheti and An. (Cel. nili*, and in the European and Middle Eastern Region: An. (Anopheles atroparvus

  5. 78 FR 22765 - Presidential Determination on Eligibility of the Federal Republic of Somalia To Receive Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... April 8, 2013 Presidential Determination on Eligibility of the Federal Republic of Somalia To Receive... find that the furnishing of defense articles and defense services to the Federal Republic of Somalia...

  6. GERMAN PARTICIPATION IN THE STRUGGLE WITH THE INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AT THE TERRITORY OF SOMALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ф О Трунов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Staying Somalia in a state of instability is a serious threat for the security of the international community, including countries and institutions of the West. At the modern period, its key element is the activity of the international terrorist structure Al Shabab. Germany and its EU partners face with the problem of the revitalization of Al Shabab terrorists. The methodological basis of the paper is the theories of armed conflicts resolution and the con-struction of armed forces (at the example of the Somalian national army. The key research methods are the event-analyses and the comparative analyses. The aim of the article is the research of the German approach to resolving the “Somali problem”. In this regard, the first task is to study the previous experience of Germany in counteracting with in-stability in Somalia in the 1990-s and since the late 2000-s. (in the framework of counteracting piracy. The second task, on the solution of which is paid the main attention in the article, is the research of complex usage by Germany of its political, military and economic tools for the weakening of Al Shabab. The article studies German participation in the EU mission for the reform of the security sector of Somali. At this base, the article concludes about the military participation of Germany in the struggle with the international terrorism. The article covers the course, problems and prospects of using the national army of Somalia for fighting against Al-Shabab in the south, as well as separatist currents in the northern part of the country. The paper researches German promotion in restoring the structures of power in the country and the process of federalization as the key direction of the stabilization in Somalia. The article covers the features of German economic participation in the decision of deep internal Somali problems, which mainly led to the appearance and strengthening of the Al Shabab positions. The research paper concludes about

  7. Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasman, M.; Tiberi, C.; Ebinger, C.; Gautier, S.; Albaric, J.; Peyrat, S.; Déverchère, J.; Le Gall, B.; Tarits, P.; Roecker, S.; Wambura, F.; Muzuka, A.; Mulibo, G.; Mtelela, K.; Msabi, M.; Kianji, G.; Hautot, S.; Perrot, J.; Gama, R.

    2017-07-01

    Rifting in a cratonic lithosphere is strongly controlled by several interacting processes including crust/mantle rheology, magmatism, inherited structure and stress regime. In order to better understand how these physical parameters interact, a 2 yr long seismological experiment has been carried out in the North Tanzanian Divergence (NTD), at the southern tip of the eastern magmatic branch of the East African rift, where the southward-propagating continental rift is at its earliest stage. We analyse teleseismic data from 38 broad-band stations ca. 25 km spaced and present here results from their receiver function (RF) analysis. The crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio are retrieved over a ca. 200 × 200 km2 area encompassing the South Kenya magmatic rift, the NTD and the Ngorongoro-Kilimanjaro transverse volcanic chain. Cratonic nature of the lithosphere is clearly evinced through thick (up to ca. 40 km) homogeneous crust beneath the rift shoulders. Where rifting is present, Moho rises up to 27 km depth and the crust is strongly layered with clear velocity contrasts in the RF signal. The Vp/Vs ratio reaches its highest values (ca. 1.9) beneath volcanic edifices location and thinner crust, advocating for melting within the crust. We also clearly identify two major low-velocity zones (LVZs) within the NTD, one in the lower crust and the second in the upper part of the mantle. The first one starts at 15-18 km depth and correlates well with recent tomographic models. This LVZ does not always coexist with high Vp/Vs ratio, pleading for a supplementary source of velocity decrease, such as temperature or composition. At a greater depth of ca. 60 km, a mid-lithospheric discontinuity roughly mimics the step-like and symmetrically outward-dipping geometry of the Moho but with a more slanting direction (NE-SW) compared to the NS rift. By comparison with synthetic RF, we estimate the associated velocity reduction to be 8-9 per cent. We relate this interface to melt ponding

  8. GC13I-0857: Designing a Frost Forecasting Service for Small Scale Tea Farmers in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emily C.; Wanjohi, James Nyaga; Ellenburg, Walter Lee; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Mugo, Robinson M.; Flores Cordova, Africa Ixmucane; Irwin, Daniel; Case, Jonathan; Malaso, Susan; Sedah, Absae

    2017-01-01

    through our partner network developed at the stakeholder engagement meeting. This presentation will illustrate the efficacy of our frost forecasting algorithm, and a way forward for incorporating these forecasts in a meaningful way to the key decision makers - the small-scale farmers of East Africa.

  9. A new tephrochronology for early diverse stone tool technologies and long-distance raw material transport in the Middle to Late Pleistocene Kapthurin Formation, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, Nick; Jicha, Brian R; McBrearty, Sally

    2018-05-09

    The Middle to Late Pleistocene (780-10 ka) of East Africa records evidence of significant behavioral change, early fossils of Homo sapiens, and the dispersals of our species across and out of Africa. Studying human evolution in this time period thus requires an extensive and precise chronology relating behavioral evidence from archaeological sequences to aspects of hominin biology and evidence of past environments from fossils and geological sequences. Tephrochronology provides the chronostratigraphic resolution to achieve this through correlation and dating of volcanic ashes. The tephrochronology of the Kapthurin Formation presented here, based on tephra correlations and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates, provides new ages between 395.6 ± 3.5 ka and 465.3 ± 1.0 ka for nine sites showing diverse blade and Levallois methods of core reduction. These are >110 kyr older than previously known in East Africa. New 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates provide a refined age of 222.5 ± 0.6 ka for early evidence of long-distance (166 km) obsidian transport at the Sibilo School Road Site. A tephra correlation between the Baringo and Victoria basins also provides a new date of ∼100 ka for the Middle Stone Age site of Keraswanin. By providing new and older dates for 11 sites containing several important aspects of hominin behavior and extending the chronology of the Kapthurin Formation forward by ∼130,000 years, the tephrochronology presented here contributes one of the longest and most refined chronostratigraphic frameworks of Middle through Late Pleistocene East Africa. This tephrochronology thus provides the foundation to understand the process of modern human behavioral evolution as it relates to biological and paleoenvironmental circumstances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans eNyaboga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava genetic transformation capacity is still mostly restricted to advanced laboratories in the USA, Europe and China; and its implementation and maintainance in African laboratories has remained scarce. The impact of transgenic technologies for genetic improvement of cassava will depend largely on the transfer of such capabilities to researchers in Africa, where cassava has an important socioeconomic niche. A major constraint to the development of genetic transformation technologies for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite the success achieved in genetic modification of few cassava cultivars, including the model cultivar 60444, transgenic cassava production remains difficult for farmer-preferred cultivars. In this study, a protocol for cultivar 60444 developed at ETH Zurich was successfully implemented and optimized to establish transformation of farmer-preferred cassava cultivars popular in east Africa. The conditions for production and proliferation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were optimized for three east African farmer-preferred cultivars (Ebwanatereka, Kibandameno and Serere. Our results demonstrated transformation efficiencies of about 14-22 independent transgenic lines per 100 mg of FEC for farmer-preferred cultivars in comparison to 28 lines per 100 mg of the model cultivar 60444. The presence, integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and histochemical GUS assay. This study reports the establishment of a cassava transformation platform at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA hosted by Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA hub in Kenya and provides the basis for transferring important traits such as virus resistance and prolonged shelf-life to farmer-preferred cultivars in east Africa. We anticipate that such platform will also be

  11. Greening of the Sahara - a paleo perspective on the history of water in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Matthews, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Middle-East, mostly at its southern edge together with North Africa, the northern edge of the Sahara Desert, are located at the boundary between high- to-mid latitude and tropical-subtropical climate systems. The geographical duality of desert adjacent to Mediterranean-type climate regions played and still plays a major role on the water availability. Thanks to the number of important paleoclimate studies that been made on accurate dating of cave speleothems in Southern Arabia and Oman (Fleitmann et al., 2011) and in the northeast Sahara, the Negev Desert Israel (Vaks et al., 2010) and the study of sapropels in Eastern and central Mediterranean (Almogi-Labin et al., 2009; Osborne et al, 2008), it is clear that the region was graced with water during peak interglacials when the African monsoon and westerly storm/rainfall systems intensified. Northward penetration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone over the Arabian and African continents resulted in increased discharge of the Nile River and rivers that emerged from central Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Correspondingly, enhanced westerly wind activity led to an increase in rainfall from Atlantic-Mediterranean sources over the entire Mediterranean basin, which even penetrated south into the north-east corner of the Sahara Desert. The Saharo-Arabian Desert became narrower and climatic "windows" opened for the dispersal of hominids and animals out of the African continent at 250-239, 210-193, 138-120, 108-98, 87-84 and 10-6.5 ka BP, with severe dry conditions in between. Greening of the Sahara Desert at these intervals is supported also by various marine and terrestrial records, such as corals, lakes, tufa deposits and archeological findings. Dry conditions prevailed in the Sahara desert during glacials. This is in contrast to the climatic conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean coastal region and the Jordan Rift Valley (Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Lisker et al., 2010), where water was available for

  12. A strategy to improve skills in pharmaceutical supply management in East Africa: the regional technical resource collaboration for pharmaceutical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minzi Omary

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International initiatives such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative have significantly increased availability and access to medicines in some parts of the developing world. Despite this, however, skills remain limited on quantifying needs for medications and ordering, receiving and storing medications appropriately; recording medications inventories accurately; distributing medications for use appropriately; and advising patients on how to use medications appropriately. The Regional Technical Resource Collaboration for Pharmaceutical Management (RTRC has been established to help address the problem of skills shortage in pharmaceutical management in East Africa. Methods The initiative brings together academic institutions from four East African countries to participate in skills-building activities in pharmaceutical supply management. The initiative targeted the institutions' ability to conduct assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and to develop and implement effective skills-building programmes for pharmaceutical supply chain management. Results Over a two-year period, the RTRC succeeded in conducting assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and practices in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. In 2006, the RTRC participated in a materials-development workshop in Kampala, Uganda, and contributed to the development of comprehensive HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management training materials; these materials are now widely available in all four countries. In Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been involved with the training of health care workers in HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management. In Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been conducting operations research to find solutions to their countries' skills-shortage problems. Some of the interventions tested include applying and evaluating the

  13. Effects of urban wastewater on crab and mollusc assemblages in equatorial and subtropical mangroves of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannicci, Stefano; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Fratini, Sara; Litulo, Carlos; Macia, Adriano; Mrabu, Elisha J.; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Paula, José

    2009-09-01

    Mangrove forests are known to accomplish crucial ecosystem functions and services. They are nursery areas for fish, prawns and crabs, which provide coastal communities with a variety of food, timber and chemicals, and protect coasts from catastrophic events, such as tsunamis. Recently, a novel ecological service has been proposed for mangrove systems, namely natural wastewater treatment wetlands. This hypothesis was based on experimental data collected mainly in Chinese mangrove systems, which proved that mangrove soils were efficient in absorbing nutrients. Moreover, sewage loading seemed harmless to both plants and benthic communities in these systems. However, before promoting the use of natural mangroves as pollution buffers, or constructed mangrove wetlands as sewage treatment facilities, more data are needed on their overall tolerance to organic loading. Differences in macrobenthos patterns were thus investigated between peri-urban mangroves and sites not affected by sewage disposal in East Africa. We assessed differences in epifaunal assemblages, comprising crabs and molluscs, employing multivariate ACI unbalanced analyses to compare peri-urban mangrove swamps with those characteristic of non-urban mangroves with similar ecological traits. The sampling design was spatially nested, replicates being assessed at equatorial (southern Kenya) and subtropical (southern Mozambique) sites. The results manifested a consistent increase in crab biomass at the peri-urban sites in both Kenya and Mozambique. Moreover, the peri-urban systems were richer than the non-urban mangroves, both in terms of fiddler crabs ( Uca spp.) which feed on benthic microalgae and bacteria, and sesarmids, such as Perisesarma guttatum and Neosarmatium meinerti, which feed on both substratum and leaf litter. The abundance of gastropods, in contrast, decreased significantly, especially in Kenya, mainly due to the disappearance of the mud whelk Terebralia palustris. The results thus indicate that

  14. Contribution to the Eradication of Rinderpest in Somalia: the Experience of Terra Nuova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    A mild form of rinderpest was described and diagnosed in Tsavo East National Park in Kenya in 1994, and subsequently in Nairobi National Park (in 1994 to 1996). Initially the Tsavo rinderpest outbreak was thought to have originated from southern Sudan, but molecular evidence clearly showed that the Tsavo virus was genetically very different from the isolates from Nairobi National Park and fell into the African type 2 lineage. The exact location of this focus was uncertain, but it was suspected that the virus could have remained undetected for several years in the Northeast Province of Kenya and the neighbouring Trans Juba Region of southern Somalia. When the Siad Barre regime collapsed in 1991, all public institutions, services and assets were seriously disrupted or looted. This was followed by massive displacement of people inside and outside Somalia, widespread insecurity, serious famine, and the collapse of most formal economic activities. To alleviate the consequences of the humanitarian crisis and the collapse of the Somali state, the international community launched a significant response, with peacekeeping operations, direct assistance to displaced populations, restoration of local administrations, rehabilitation of public infrastructures, and support to economic activities. Given its socio-economic importance and prominence, the livestock industry was one of the sectors targeted for relief and rehabilitation interventions, through mass vaccination campaigns against infectious diseases, curative treatments, rehabilitation of watering facilities, and training of veterinary professionals and para-veterinarians. During this period, rinderpest was one of the target diseases, especially in light of global efforts to eradicate the disease from the African continent, and particularly from Somalia, which was one of the last suspected foci of infection. Terra Nuova, one of 12 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) initially involved in the livestock

  15. 77 FR 43481 - Taking Additional Steps to Address the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Additional Steps to Address the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents... Additional Steps to Address the National Emergency With Respect to Somalia By the authority vested in me as... Somalia declared in Executive Order 13536 of April 12, 2010, in view of United Nations Security Council...

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Somalia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 107 Aeronautics... Regulation No. 107—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Somalia 1... 1 may conduct flight operations within the territory and airspace of Somalia below flight level (FL...

  17. 75 FR 19869 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... in Somalia, and acts of piracy and armed robbery at sea off the coast of Somalia, which have... determine that, among other threats to the peace, security, or stability of Somalia, acts of piracy or armed... order, and to take necessary action to give effect to that determination. Sec. 8. This order is not...

  18. Variability of extreme weather events over the equatorial East Africa, a case study of rainfall in Kenya and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongoma, Victor; Chen, Haishan; Omony, George William

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the variability of extreme rainfall events over East Africa (EA), using indices from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The analysis was based on observed daily rainfall from 23 weather stations, with length varying within 1961 and 2010. The indices considered are: wet days ( R ≥1 mm), annual total precipitation in wet days (PRCPTOT), simple daily intensity index (SDII), heavy precipitation days ( R ≥ 10 mm), very heavy precipitation days ( R ≥ 20 mm), and severe precipitation ( R ≥ 50 mm). The non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistical analysis was carried out to identify trends in the data. Temporal precipitation distribution was different from station to station. Almost all indices considered are decreasing with time. The analysis shows that the PRCPTOT, very heavy precipitation, and severe precipitation are generally declining insignificantly at 5 % significant level. The PRCPTOT is evidently decreasing over Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) as compared to other parts of EA. The number of days that recorded heavy rainfall is generally decreasing but starts to rise in the last decade although the changes are insignificant. Both PRCPTOT and heavy precipitation show a recovery in trend starting in the 1990s. The SDII shows a reduction in most areas, especially the in ASAL. The changes give a possible indication of the ongoing climate variability and change which modify the rainfall regime of EA. The results form a basis for further research, utilizing longer datasets over the entire region to reduce the generalizations made herein. Continuous monitoring of extreme events in EA is critical, given that rainfall is projected to increase in the twenty-first century.

  19. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Zungu, M Philip; Fisk, Aaron T

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n=283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg(-1) dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ(15)N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ(13)C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reproductive biology knowledge, and behaviour of teenagers in East, Central and Southern Africa: the Zimbabwe case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbizvo, M T; Kasule, J; Gupta, V; Rusakaniko, S; Gumbo, J; Kinoti, S N; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W; Sebina-Zziwa; Mwateba, R; Padayachy, J

    1995-11-01

    Sexuality in the teenager is often complicated by unplanned/unwanted pregnancy, abortion and the risks of STDs including AIDS. There is therefore a need for improved understanding of factors affecting adolescent sexuality and the implementation of programmes designed to improve their knowledge, risk awareness and subsequent behavioural outcomes. A multicentre study of reproductive health knowledge and behaviour followed by a health education intervention was undertaken amongst teenagers in selected countries of East, Central and Southern Africa. Reported here are findings at baseline derived from the Zimbabwe component on reproductive biology knowledge and behavior. A self-administered questionnaire was used among 1 689 adolescent pupils drawn from rural, urban, co-education, single sex, boarding and day secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Correct knowledge on reproductive biology as measured by the meaning and interpretation of menstruation and wet dreams varied by school from 68 pc to 86 pc, with a significant trend (p < 0,01) based on level of education at baseline. The reported mean age at which menarche took place was 13,5 years +/- 1,3 (mean +/- SD). First coitus was reported to have taken place at the mean age of 12 years for boys and 13,6 years for girls. Seventeen pc of the adolescent pupils reported that they were sexually experienced and 33,2 had relationships. There were misconceptions reported on menstruation with 23 pc reporting that it was an illness. Peers, followed by magazines were the first sources of information on various aspects of reproductive biology, both of which might not provide the correct first information. Among pupils reporting that they were sexually experienced, the largest proportion (56 pc) had unprotected sex. The findings point to the need for targeting the adolescent pupils for information on reproductive biology and increased awareness on the risks of pregnancy, STDs and HIV.

  1. Socioeconomic indicators are strong predictors of hepatitis A seroprevalence rates in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Mehmet; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Demiray, Tayfur; Ozbek, Ahmet; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Altindis, Mustafa

    The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between age-specific hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence rates and various socioeconomic indicators within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. We conducted a systematic review of all recently published studies on HAV conducted in the MENA region and identified the highest quality studies for inclusion in our analysis. We calculated the age at midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) for each study and estimated seroprevalence rates at the ages of 5, 10, and 15 years. Next, we identified the correlations between these metrics and several socioeconomic variables. HAV data collected in or after 2000 were available for 14 of the 19 countries in the MENA region. Four of the 14 included countries had intermediate HAV endemicity (Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and UAE), five had high endemicity (Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia), and five had very high endemicity (Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, Syria, and Yemen). Water and sanitation were not significant predictors of AMPI or seroprevalence, most likely because most countries in this region have high rates of access to these utilities. However, gross domestic product (GDP), gross national income (GNI), and the human development index (HDI) were all highly associated with AMPI and prevalence. The observed correlations suggest that of the MENA countries without recent HAV data, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar most likely have low endemicity, Oman likely has intermediate endemicity, and Libya likely has high endemicity. While it is unlikely that a single correlation model would be suitable for use in all world regions, the approach utilized in this analysis might provide a simple but accurate method for using economic data to impute the endemicity profiles of countries without recent data in regions where at least several neighboring countries have conducted recent serostudies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Orbital rhythms, monsoons, and playa lake response, Olduvai basin, Equatorial East Africa at 1.85-1.75 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, G. M.

    2001-12-01

    Wet-dry cycles in low latitudes are generally attributed to changes in solar radiation related to the 21 kyr tempo of orbital precession. Stronger insolation drives stronger summer monsoon maxima that increase precipitation and in closed basins produce larger lakes. However, a Plio-Pleistocene record from a closed rift-platform basin near the equator suggests that the obliquity (41 kyr) signal is also present. The 1.85-1.75 Ma sedimentary record deposited in the Olduvai basin, 3oN, reveals clear evidence of periodic expansion and contraction of paleolake Olduvai. The closed basin was 50 km wide and infilled by volcaniclastic material from Ngorongoro volcanic complex in several depositional environments.. A saline-alkaline lake expanded up to 15 km in width and deposited Mg-smectitic claystones. The lake clays in the central basin vary in clay mineralogy and the number of calcite crystal horizons reflecting compositional changes in the lake water. Lake expansions are recorded at the margins where lake clays are intercollated with deltaic and ephemeral fluvial sands and with lake margin wetland deposits. Marine dust records, off both west and east Africa, suggest that the precession signal (21kyr) dominated the climate until 2.8 Ma and the obliquity signal (41kyr) from 2.8 to 0.9 Ma (deMenocal, 1995). In contrast, the stratigraphic sequence for playa lake expansion at Olduvai, that is constrained by the tephra chronology (1.85-1.75 Ma) and paleomagnetic record, documents the combined effects of both obliquity and precession cycles.

  3. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination.

  4. Observed rainfall trends and precipitation uncertainty in the vicinity of the Mediterranean, Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittis, G.

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigates the century-long and more recent rainfall trends over the greater region of Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Five up-to-date gridded observational datasets are employed. Besides mean annual values, trends of six indices of drought and extreme precipitation are also considered in the analysis. Most important findings include the significant negative trends over the Maghreb, Levant, Arabian Peninsula, and Sahel regions that are evident since the beginning of the twentieth century and are more or less extended to today. On the other hand, for some Mediterranean regions such as the Balkans and the Anatolian Plateau, precipitation records during the most recent decades indicate a significant increasing trend and a recovering from the dry conditions that occurred during the mid-1970s and mid-1980s. The fact that over parts of the study region the selected datasets were found to have substantial differences in terms of mean climate, trends, and interannual variability, motivated the more thorough investigation of the precipitation observational uncertainty. Several aspects, such as annual and monthly mean climatologies and also discrepancies in the monthly time-series distribution, are discussed using common methods in the field of climatology but also more sophisticated, nonparametric approaches such as the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Results indicate that in the best case, the data sources are found to have statistically significant differences in the distribution of monthly precipitation for about 50% of the study region extent. This percentage is increased up to 70% when particular datasets are compared. Indicatively, the range between the tested rainfall datasets is found to be more than 20% of their mean annual values for most of the extent of MENA, while locally, for the hyper-arid regions, this percentage is increased up to 100%. Precipitation observational uncertainty is also profound for parts of southern Europe. Outlier

  5. Measuring Efficiency of Health Systems of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Using Stochastic Frontier Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Samer; Akinci, Fevzi

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of twenty health systems in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to inform evidence-based health policy decisions. In addition, the effects of alternative stochastic frontier model specification on the empirical results are examined. We conducted a stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the country-level technical efficiencies using secondary panel data for 20 MENA countries for the period of 1995-2012 from the World Bank database. We also tested the effect of alternative frontier model specification using three random-effects approaches: a time-invariant model where efficiency effects are assumed to be static with regard to time, and a time-varying efficiency model where efficiency effects have temporal variation, and one model to account for heterogeneity. The average estimated technical inefficiency of health systems in the MENA region was 6.9 % with a range of 5.7-7.9 % across the three models. Among the top performers, Lebanon, Qatar, and Morocco are ranked consistently high according to the three different inefficiency model specifications. On the opposite side, Sudan, Yemen and Djibouti ranked among the worst performers. On average, the two most technically efficient countries were Qatar and Lebanon. We found that the estimated technical efficiency scores vary substantially across alternative parametric models. Based on the findings reported in this study, most MENA countries appear to be operating, on average, with a reasonably high degree of technical efficiency compared with other countries in the region. However, there is evidence to suggest that there are considerable efficiency gains yet to be made by some MENA countries. Additional empirical research is needed to inform future health policies aimed at improving both the efficiency and sustainability of the health systems in the MENA region.

  6. Physician assessment of stroke risk in hypertensive patients in the Middle East and Africa: results of the action survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Kamal F; Boudia, Khereddine M Merad; Alami, Mohamed; Khoja, Waleed A; Belhani, Ali B; Nawar, Moustafa; Ragy, Hany; Ishaq, Mohammad; Baron, J M Muscat; Hammoudeh, Ayman J; De Mar Youssef, Suzan S; Nakhle, Reine M; Chalfoun, Amale G

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of reliable, contemporary national data, the ACTION survey was designed to: a) provide preliminary data on stroke risk in the MEA (Middle East and Africa); b) describe the contribution of specific cardiovascular risk factors; 3) assess blood pressure (BP) control. This was a multi-center observational study in nine countries in the MEA region. From 2003 to 2005, 562 physicians from a variety of specialties recorded observations of cardiovascular risk factors in 4,747 hypertensive patients, aged 54-80 years. The 10-year absolute stroke risk was calculated using a scoring system based on the Framingham Heart Study observations, and comparisons made with an age-matched cohort. The mean 10-year stroke risk was estimated at 22.7% and was significantly higher for men (25.4%) than for women (19.5%) (P age-matched Framingham cohort, the estimated stroke risk in our population was almost double, and was significantly higher for females (212%) than for males (192%) (P < .001). Hypertension, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, and smoking were major contributing risk factors, as were physical inactivity and elevated cholesterol. Blood pressure was controlled in only 18% of the population and in 12% of diabetics. Physicians of all specialties were willing to participate in stroke risk assessment. The risk of stroke in hypertensive patients in the MEA region is high, and is higher than would be predicted using Framingham data, particularly for females. Hypertension appears to be poorly controlled in more than 80% of hypertensive patients in the MEA region.

  7. Predicting distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in relation to disease epidemics in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Nyamunura Mweya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The East African region has experienced several Rift Valley fever (RVF outbreaks since the 1930s. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of potential disease vectors in relation to disease epidemics. Understanding disease vector potential distributions is a major concern for disease transmission dynamics. Methods: Diverse ecological niche modelling techniques have been developed for this purpose: we present a maximum entropy (Maxent approach for estimating distributions of potential RVF vectors in un-sampled areas in East Africa. We modelled the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex responsible for potential maintenance and amplification of the virus, respectively. Predicted distributions of environmentally suitable areas in East Africa were based on the presence-only occurrence data derived from our entomological study in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. Results: Our model predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates of 90.9% for A. aegypti and 91.6% for C. pipiens complex. Model performance was statistically significantly better than random for both species. Most suitable sites for the two vectors were predicted in central and northwestern Tanzania with previous disease epidemics. Other important risk areas include western Lake Victoria, northern parts of Lake Malawi, and the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Conclusion: Findings from this study show distributions of vectors had biological and epidemiological significance in relation to disease outbreak hotspots, and hence provide guidance for the selection of sampling areas for RVF vectors during inter-epidemic periods.

  8. Predicting distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in relation to disease epidemics in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweya, Clement Nyamunura; Kimera, Sharadhuli Iddi; Kija, John Bukombe; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2013-01-01

    The East African region has experienced several Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks since the 1930s. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of potential disease vectors in relation to disease epidemics. Understanding disease vector potential distributions is a major concern for disease transmission dynamics. DIVERSE ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELLING TECHNIQUES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED FOR THIS PURPOSE: we present a maximum entropy (Maxent) approach for estimating distributions of potential RVF vectors in un-sampled areas in East Africa. We modelled the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex) responsible for potential maintenance and amplification of the virus, respectively. Predicted distributions of environmentally suitable areas in East Africa were based on the presence-only occurrence data derived from our entomological study in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. Our model predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates of 90.9% for A. aegypti and 91.6% for C. pipiens complex. Model performance was statistically significantly better than random for both species. Most suitable sites for the two vectors were predicted in central and northwestern Tanzania with previous disease epidemics. Other important risk areas include western Lake Victoria, northern parts of Lake Malawi, and the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Findings from this study show distributions of vectors had biological and epidemiological significance in relation to disease outbreak hotspots, and hence provide guidance for the selection of sampling areas for RVF vectors during inter-epidemic periods.

  9. A New Tephrochronology for Early Diverse Stone Tool Technologies and Long-Distance Raw Material Transport in the Middle-Late Pleistocene Kapthurin Formation, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, N.; Jicha, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle to Late Pleistocene (780-10 ka) of East Africa records significant behavioral change, the earliest fossils of Homo sapiens and the dispersals of our species across and out of Africa. Studying human evolution in the Middle to Late Pleistocene thus requires an extensive and precise chronology relating the appearances of various behaviors preserved in archaeological sequences to aspects of hominin biology and evidence of past environments preserved in the fossils and geological sequences. Tephrochronology provides the chronostratigraphic resolution to achieve this through correlation and dating of volcanic ashes. The tephrochronology of the Kapthurin Formation presented here, based on tephra correlations and 40Ar/ 39Ar dates, provides new ages between 396.3 ± 3.4 ka and 465.3 ± 1.0 ka for nine sites showing some of the earliest evidence of diverse blade and Levallois methods of core reduction. These are >110 kyr older than previously known in East Africa. New 40Ar/ 39Ar dates provide a refined age of 222.5 ± 0.6 ka for early evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the Sibilo School Road Site. Long-distance tephra correlation between the Baringo and Lake Victoria basins also provides a new date of 100 ka for the Middle Stone Age site of Keraswanin. By providing new or older dates for 11 sites containing several important aspects of hominin behavior and extending the chronology of the Kapthurin Formation forward by 130,000 years, the tephrochronology presented here contributes one of the longest and most refined chronostratigraphic frameworks relevant to modern human evolution. In conjunction with recent archaeological and paleoenvironmental data, this tephrochronology provides the foundation to understand the process of modern human behavioral evolution through the East African Middle and Late Pleistocene as it relates to biological and paleoenvironmental circumstances.

  10. Some like it hot: the influence and implications of climate change on coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei and coffee production in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei, the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model. In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.

  11. Development and evaluation of tailored specific real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Mero, Herieth R.; Wadsworth, Jemma

    2016-01-01

    Rapid, reliable and accurate diagnostic methods provide essential support to programmes that monitor and control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). While pan-specific molecular tests for FMD virus (FMDV) detection are well established and widely used in endemic and FMD-free countries, current serotyping...... methods mainly rely either on antigen detection ELISAs or nucleotide sequencing approaches. This report describes the development of a panel of serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays (rRT-PCR) tailored to detect FMDV lineages currently circulating in East Africa. These assays target sequences within...... sequencing. Samples (n = 71) representing serotype A (topotype AFRICA, lineage G-I), serotype O (topotypes EA-2 and EA-4), serotype SAT 1 (topotype I (NWZ)) and serotype SAT2 (topotype IV) were correctly identified with these rRT-PCR assays. Furthermore, FMDV RNA from samples that did not contain infectious...

  12. Population History of the Red Sea. Genetic Exchanges Between the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa Signaled in the Mitochondrial DNA HV1 Haplogroup

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, E.; Fernandes, V.; Silva, N. M.; Soares, P.; Alshamali, F.; Harich, N.; Cherni, L.; El Gaaied, A. B. A.; Al-Meeri, A.; Pereira, L.; Černý, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 4 (2011), s. 592-598 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : mtDNA genomes * HV1 haplogroup * Arabian Peninsula * East Africa Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.824, year: 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.21522/abstract;jsessionid=06420E45513D054B63DFDE068F111692.d03t01

  13. Assessing drivers of the IgG4 antibody reactivity to recombinant antigen Bm14 in Wuchereria bancrofti endemic populations in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johanne Damgaard; Meyrowitsch, Dan W.; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T.

    2016-01-01

    to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14 in Wuchereria bancrofti endemic populations in East Africa. Sera collected during previous studies from 395 well characterized individuals with regard to age, sex, mf, CFA, household vector biting and household exposure to infective filarial larvae were tested for IgG4......A high proportion of the human population in lymphatic filariasis (LF) endemic areas is positive for filarial specific IgG4 antibodies, including many individuals without microfilariae (mf; circulating larvae in the human blood) or circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection...

  14. Twenty-five years of geodetic measurements along the Tadjoura-Asal rift system, Djibouti, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigny, Christophe; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Ruegg, Jean-Claude; Huchon, Philippe; Feigl, Kurt L.; Cattin, Rodolphe; Asfaw, Laike; Kanbari, Khaled

    2007-06-01

    Since most of Tadjoura-Asal rift system sits on dry land in the Afar depression near the triple junction between the Arabia, Somalia, and Nubia plates, it is an ideal natural laboratory for studying rifting processes. We analyze these processes in light of a time series of geodetic measurements from 1978 through 2003. The surveys used triangulation (1973), trilateration (1973, 1979, and 1981-1986), leveling (1973, 1979, 1984-1985, and 2000), and the Global Positioning System (GPS, in 1991, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2003). A network of about 30 GPS sites covers the Republic of Djibouti. Additional points were also measured in Yemen and Ethiopia. Stations lying in the Danakil block have almost the same velocity as Arabian plate, indicating that opening near the southern tip of the Red Sea is almost totally accommodated in the Afar depression. Inside Djibouti, the Asal-Ghoubbet rift system accommodates 16 ± 1 mm/yr of opening perpendicular to the rift axis and exhibits a pronounced asymmetry with essentially null deformation on its southwestern side and significant deformation on its northeastern side. This rate, slightly higher than the large-scale Arabia-Somalia motion (13 ± 1 mm/yr), suggests transient variations associated with relaxation processes following the Asal-Ghoubbet seismovolcanic sequence of 1978. Inside the rift, the deformation pattern exhibits a clear two-dimensional pattern. Along the rift axis, the rate decreases to the northwest, suggesting propagation in the same direction. Perpendicular to the rift axis, the focus of the opening is clearly shifted to the northeast, relative to the topographic rift axis, in the "Petit Rift," a rift-in-rift structure, containing most of the active faults and the seismicity. Vertical motions, measured by differential leveling, show the same asymmetric pattern with a bulge of the northeastern shoulder. Although the inner floor of the rift is subsiding with respect to the shoulders, all sites within the

  15. Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in settings affected by armed conflicts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Alys; Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2016-12-28

    Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation has been widely reported, especially in conflict-affected settings, which appear to increase women's and children's vulnerabilities to these extreme abuses. We conducted a systematic search of ten databases and extensive grey literature to gather evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in conflict-affected settings. International definitions of "sexual exploitation" and "sex trafficking" set the indicator parameters. We focused on sexual exploitation in forms of early or forced marriage, forced combatant sexual exploitation and sexual slavery. We extracted prevalence measures, health outcomes and sexual exploitation terminology definitions. The review adhered to PRISMA guidelines and includes quality appraisal. The search identified 29 eligible papers with evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in armed conflict settings in twelve countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The evidence was limited and not generalizable, due to few prevalence estimates and inconsistent definitions of "sexual exploitation". The prevalence estimates available indicate that females were more likely than males to be victims of sexual exploitation in conflict settings. In some settings, as many as one in four forced marriages took place before the girls reached 18 years old. Findings suggest that the vast majority of former female combatants were sexually exploited during the conflict. These studies provided various indicators of sexual exploitation compatible to the United Nation's definition of sex trafficking, but only 2 studies identified the exploitation as trafficking. None of the studies solely aimed to measure the prevalence of sex trafficking or sexual exploitation. Similar descriptions of types of sexual exploitation and trafficking were found, but the inconsistent terminology or measurements inhibited a meta-analysis. Findings indicate there are various forms of human trafficking and sexual exploitation in

  16. Seasonal scale water deficit forecasting in Africa and the Middle East using NASA's Land Information System (LIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Arsenault, K. R.; Shukla, S.; Getirana, A.; McNally, A.; Koster, R. D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Badr, H. S.; Roningen, J. M.; Kumar, S.; Funk, C. C.

    2017-12-01

    A seamless and effective water deficit monitoring and early warning system is critical for assessing food security in Africa and the Middle East. In this presentation, we report on the ongoing development and validation of a seasonal scale water deficit forecasting system based on NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and seasonal climate forecasts. First, our presentation will focus on the implementation and validation of drought and water availability monitoring products in the region. Next, it will focus on evaluating drought and water availability forecasts. Finally, details will be provided of our ongoing collaboration with end-user partners in the region (e.g., USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network, FEWS NET), on formulating meaningful early warning indicators, effective communication and seamless dissemination of the products through NASA's web-services. The water deficit forecasting system thus far incorporates NASA GMAO's Catchment and the Noah Multi-Physics (MP) LSMs. In addition, the LSMs' surface and subsurface runoff are routed through the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) to simulate surface water dynamics. To establish a climatology from 1981-2015, the two LSMs are driven by NASA/GMAO's Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2), and the USGS and UCSB Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) daily rainfall dataset. Comparison of the models' energy and hydrological budgets with independent observations suggests that major droughts are well-reflected in the climatology. The system uses seasonal climate forecasts from NASA's GEOS-5 (the Goddard Earth Observing System Model-5) and NCEP's Climate Forecast System-2, and it produces forecasts of soil moisture, ET and streamflow out to 6 months in the future. Forecasts of those variables are formulated in terms of indicators to provide forecasts of drought and water availability in the region. Current work suggests

  17. Statistical intercomparison and validation of multisensory aerosol optical depth retrievals over three AERONET sites in Kenya, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiyo, Richard; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Zhao, Tianliang

    2017-11-01

    Over the last two decades, a number of space-borne sensors have been used to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD). The reliability of these datasets over East Africa (EA), however, is an important issue in the interpretation of regional aerosol variability. This study provides an intercomparison and validation of AOD retrievals from the MODIS-Terra (DT and DB), MISR and OMI sensors against ground-based measurements from the AERONET over three sites (CRPSM_Malindi, Nairobi, and ICIPE_Mbita) in Kenya, EA during the periods 2008-2013, 2005-2009 and 2006-2015, respectively. The analysis revealed that MISR performed better over the three sites with about 82.5% of paired AOD data falling within the error envelope (EE). MODIS-DT showed good agreement against AERONET with 59.05% of paired AOD falling within the sensor EE over terrestrial surfaces with relatively high vegetation cover. The comparison between MODIS-DB and AERONET revealed an overall lower performance with lower Gfraction (48.93%) and lower correlation r = 0.58; while AOD retrieved from OMI showed less correspondence with AERONET data with lower Gfraction (68.89%) and lowest correlation r = 0.31. The monthly evaluation of AODs retrieved from the sensors against AERONET AOD indicates that MODIS-DT has the best performance over the three sites with highest correlation (0.71-0.84), lowest RMSE and spread closer to the AERONET. Regarding seasonal analysis, MISR performed well during most seasons over Nairobi and Mbita; while MODIS-DT performed better than all other sensors during most seasons over Malindi. Furthermore, the best seasonal performance of most sensors relative to AERONET data occurred during June-August (JJA) attributed to modulations induced by a precipitation-vegetation factor to AOD satellite retrieval algorithms. The study revealed the strength and weakness of each of the retrieval algorithm and forms the basis for further research on the validation of satellite retrieved aerosol products over EA.

  18. Book reviews | Lindsell | Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds of the Horn of Africa: Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia and Socotra. Nigel Redman, Terry Stevenson and John Fanshawe with contributions from Nik Borrow and Brian Finch. Illustrated by John Gale and Brian Small. 2009. Birds of Ethiopia and Eritrea: an atlas of distribution. John Ash and John Atkins.

  19. Somalia: Let’s just forget the past?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    It will be impossible to reconstruct Somalia without addressing its complex past. Yet the current definition of transitional justice appears too narrow to be beneficial, since it limits the space for local-based procedures in favour of Western concepts like the state, rule of law and democracy....

  20. Combating piracy off the coast of Somalia: current legal challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.D.; Galvin, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The ongoing maritime operations against piracy off the coast of Somalia have not only put naval enforcement against piracy at sea in the spotlight, but also the legal aftermath of what to do with pirates after their capture. While warships at sea within the current legal framework of UNCLOS and the

  1. The Food Early Warning System Project in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes shortly the objectives of a Food Early Warning System (FEWS project, as well as its organisation. The specifie case of Somalia, where the project had to evolve in increasingly difficult situations, and the solutions used so as to preserve the output, are described.

  2. Strengthening the resilience of women and youth in Somalia to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capacity development and material support were therefore identified as indispensable incentives for the sustainable production of honey and other hive products. Since 2013, FAO has intervened in apiculture in Somalia with the support of UKaid by forming rural beekeeping village groups and further supporting the groups ...

  3. Perspectives of refugees in Dadaab on returning to Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Abu Sa’Da

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available MSF recently asked Somali refugees in Dadaab’s Dagahaley camp about their living conditions and their thoughts about returning to Somalia in the near future. The responses suggest that bad living conditions in the camp are not conducive to wanting to return, despite a widespread belief to the contrary.

  4. Federalism: a valid instrument for reconciliation in Somalia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The constitution approved in 2012 represents an opportunity for Somalia to reestablish a central government which has been absent for the last two decades, and reach a stability that its society lacks since the pre-colonial era. The constitution envisages the implementation of a federalist...

  5. From Somalia to Yemen: great dangers, few prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanno (J H van Gemund

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of people are escaping conflict and poverty in Somalia and Ethiopia by making a hazardous journey across the Red Sea. Yemen, their initial destination, has signed the 195 1 Refugee Convention – unlike its Arabian peninsula neighbours – but this poorest of Arab states lacks the means to provide support.

  6. Performance of the WRF model to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in East Africa: a case study for the Tana River basin in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerandi, Noah Misati; Laux, Patrick; Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the ability of the regional climate model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in simulating the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in the Tana River basin (TRB) in Kenya, East Africa. The impact of two different land use classifications, i.e., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) at two horizontal resolutions (50 and 25 km) is investigated. Simulated precipitation and temperature for the period 2011-2014 are compared with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Climate Research Unit (CRU), and station data. The ability of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Climate Research Unit (CRU) data in reproducing in situ observation in the TRB is analyzed. All considered WRF simulations capture well the annual as well as the interannual and spatial distribution of precipitation in the TRB according to station data and the TRMM estimates. Our results demonstrate that the increase of horizontal resolution from 50 to 25 km, together with the use of the MODIS land use classification, significantly improves the precipitation results. In the case of temperature, spatial patterns and seasonal cycle are well reproduced, although there is a systematic cold bias with respect to both station and CRU data. Our results contribute to the identification of suitable and regionally adapted regional climate models (RCMs) for East Africa.

  7. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS Cov outbreak so far exempted Sub Saharan Africa; is it good news or call for action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballah Akawu Denue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported cases of MERS Cov in Arabian Peninsula and sporadic cases elsewhere except in sub Saharan Africa at present is disquieting considering its initial clinical feature that mimic flu like symptoms caused by other viruses. However MERS Cov is associated with organ dysfunction and high mortality. Although the mode of transmission is still unclear, it is postulated that it spreads through close contact, possibly via respiratory route. High similarities of MERS CoV carried by humans and camels may suggest that the diseases are zoonotic. Furthermore, airborne nosocomial transmission can occur in the room shared by the patients in the hospitals. There is still the confusion of transmission through body fluids or clinical samples, including stools and a cross transmission with medical devices or hands. Currently, all known cases can be directly or indirectly linked to Middle East from where it derives its name. Cases reported outside the Middle East first developed infection in the Middle East and then were exported outside the region. Several hospital-acquired outbreaks that resulted in upsurge of MERS Cov cases in Jeddah revealed lack of systematic implementation of infection prevention and control measures to effectively control emerging infectious diseases. The causative agent is detected and identified using Enzyme Linked Immuunosorbent Assay (ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR that is expensive and not readily available in hospitals located in resource poor settings such as sub Saharan Africa. Although, so far no case of MERS Cov has been reported from sub Saharan Africa, the devastating consequences of MERS epidemic will be more catastrophic if it emerges in developing nations especially in sub Saharan Africa where there are no up to date facilities for investigations and management of such cases. Against this backdrop, we review this hazardous and incurable disease believing that it would create the necessary

  8. Maritime Security Concerns of the East African Community (EAC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maritime domain of the East African Community (EAC) is affected by a number of maritime security threats, including piracy, armed robbery against ships and an ongoing maritime border dispute between Kenya and Somalia. Neither the EAC nor its member States have long-term and holistic maritime security policies.

  9. Development and evaluation of tailored specific real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Mero, Herieth R; Wadsworth, Jemma; Mioulet, Valerie; Sallu, Raphael; Belsham, Graham J; Kasanga, Christopher J; Knowles, Nick J; King, Donald P

    2016-11-01

    Rapid, reliable and accurate diagnostic methods provide essential support to programmes that monitor and control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). While pan-specific molecular tests for FMD virus (FMDV) detection are well established and widely used in endemic and FMD-free countries, current serotyping methods mainly rely either on antigen detection ELISAs or nucleotide sequencing approaches. This report describes the development of a panel of serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays (rRT-PCR) tailored to detect FMDV lineages currently circulating in East Africa. These assays target sequences within the VP1-coding region that share high intra-lineage identity, but do not cross-react with FMD viruses from other serotypes that circulate in the region. These serotype-specific assays operate with the same thermal profile as the pan-diagnostic tests making it possible to run them in parallel to produce C T values comparable to the pan-diagnostic test detecting the 3D-coding region. These assays were evaluated alongside the established pan-specific molecular test using field samples and virus isolates collected from Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia that had been previously characterised by nucleotide sequencing. Samples (n=71) representing serotype A (topotype AFRICA, lineage G-I), serotype O (topotypes EA-2 and EA-4), serotype SAT 1 (topotype I (NWZ)) and serotype SAT2 (topotype IV) were correctly identified with these rRT-PCR assays. Furthermore, FMDV RNA from samples that did not contain infectious virus could still be serotyped using these assays. These serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assays can detect and characterise FMDVs currently circulating in East Africa and hence improve disease control in this region. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Nigeria Between 2007 and 2014: Evidence for Epidemiological Links Between West and East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ularamu, H G; Ibu, J O; Wood, B A; Abenga, J N; Lazarus, D D; Wungak, Y S; Knowles, N J; Wadsworth, J; Mioulet, V; King, D P; Shamaki, D; Adah, M I

    2017-12-01

    This study describes the molecular characterization of 47 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses recovered from field outbreaks in Nigeria between 2007 and 2014. Antigen ELISA of viral isolates was used to identify FMD virus serotypes O, A and SAT 2. Phylogenetic analyses of VP1 nucleotide sequences provide evidence for the presence of multiple sublineages of serotype SAT 2, and O/EAST AFRICA 3 (EA-3) and O/WEST AFRICA topotypes in the country. In contrast, for serotype A, a single monophyletic cluster of viruses has persisted within Nigeria (2009-2013). These results demonstrate the close genetic relatedness of viruses in Nigeria to those from other African countries, including the first formal characterization of serotype O/EA-3 viruses in Nigeria. The introductions and persistence of certain viral lineages in Nigeria may reflect transmission patterns via nomadic pastoralism and animal trade. Continuous monitoring of field outbreaks is necessary to dissect the complexity of FMD epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Potential impacts of damming the Juba Valley, western Somalia: Insights from geomorphology and alluvial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In 1988 plans were well advanced to dam the Juba River in western Somalia. The aims of the Baardheere Dam Project were to generate hydroelectric power for the capital Mogadishu, and to provide water for irrigation in the Juba Valley. A reconnaissance survey on foot along 500 km of the river upstream of the proposed dam site at Baardheere and detailed geomorphic mapping from air photos provided a basis for reconstructing the late Quaternary alluvial history of the river and for assessing the potential impact of the proposed dam. The Juba River rises in the Ethiopian Highlands and is the only river in Somalia that flows to the sea. Its history reflects climatic events in Ethiopia, where the Rift Valley lakes were very low during the LGM (21±2 ka), and high for about 5, 000 years before and after then. Cave deposits in Somalia indicate wetter conditions at 13, 10, 7.5 and 1.5 ka. Alluvial terraces in the Juba Valley range in age from late Pleistocene to late Holocene but only attain a few metres above the present floodplain. This is because the dry tributary valleys contain limestone caves and fissures that divert any high flows from the parent river underground, a process not known when the project was first approved. The oldest preserved terrace was cemented by calcrete by 40 ka. Alluvial gravels were deposited at the outlet of dry tributary valleys during times of episodic high-energy flow between 26 ka and 28 ka. Finely laminated shelly sands accumulated at 10 ka to form the 5 m terrace. The 2 m terrace was laid down 3.2 ka ago as a slackwater deposit. The lack of high-level alluvial terraces raises doubts over plans to dam the river, since rapid leakage would occur from side valleys and the reservoir would not attain the height needed to generate hydroelectric power. It would submerge all existing arable land along the river. Finally, the presence in the late Holocene alluvium of the sub-fossil gastropods Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, which are

  12. Reflections: A Somalia mission experience | Mahomed | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an ...

  13. HIV among People Who Inject Drugs in the Middle East and North Africa: Systematic Review and Data Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Ghina R.; Weiss, Helen A.; Thomas, Sara L.; Riome, Suzanne; Setayesh, Hamidreza; Riedner, Gabriele; Semini, Iris; Tawil, Oussama; Akala, Francisca Ayodeji; Wilson, David; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is perceived that little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The primary objective of this study was to assess the status of the HIV epidemic among PWID in MENA by describing HIV prevalence and incidence. Secondary objectives were to describe the risk behavior environment and the HIV epidemic potential among PWID, and to estimate the prevalence of injecting drug use in MENA. Methods and Findings This was a systematic review following the PRISMA guidelines and covering 23 MENA countries. PubMed, Embase, regional and international databases, as well as country-level reports were searched up to December 16, 2013. Primary studies reporting (1) the prevalence/incidence of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections, or hepatitis C virus (HCV) among PWIDs; or (2) the prevalence of injecting or sexual risk behaviors, or HIV knowledge among PWID; or (3) the number/proportion of PWID in MENA countries, were eligible for inclusion. The quality, quantity, and geographic coverage of the data were assessed at country level. Risk of bias in predefined quality domains was described to assess the quality of available HIV prevalence measures. After multiple level screening, 192 eligible reports were included in the review. There were 197 HIV prevalence measures on a total of 58,241 PWID extracted from reports, and an additional 226 HIV prevalence measures extracted from the databases. We estimated that there are 626,000 PWID in MENA (range: 335,000–1,635,000, prevalence of 0.24 per 100 adults). We found evidence of HIV epidemics among PWID in at least one-third of MENA countries, most of which are emerging concentrated epidemics and with HIV prevalence overall in the range of 10%–15%. Some of the epidemics have however already reached considerable levels including some of the highest HIV prevalence among PWID globally (87.1% in Tripoli, Libya). The relatively high

  14. Seasonal scale water deficit forecasting in Africa and the Middle East using NASA's Land Information System (LIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Getirana, Augusto; Kumar, Sujay V.; Roningen, Jeanne; Zaitchik, Ben; McNally, Amy; Koster, Randal D.; Peters-Lidard, Christa

    2017-04-01

    Drought and water scarcity are among the important issues facing several regions within Africa and the Middle East. A seamless and effective monitoring and early warning system is needed by regional/national stakeholders. Such system should support a proactive drought management approach and mitigate the socio-economic losses up to the extent possible. In this presentation, we report on the ongoing development and validation of a seasonal scale water deficit forecasting system based on NASA's Land Information System (LIS) and seasonal climate forecasts. First, our presentation will focus on the implementation and validation of the LIS models used for drought and water availability monitoring in the region. The second part will focus on evaluating drought and water availability forecasts. Finally, details will be provided of our ongoing collaboration with end-user partners in the region (e.g., USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network, FEWS NET), on formulating meaningful early warning indicators, effective communication and seamless dissemination of the monitoring and forecasting products through NASA's web-services. The water deficit forecasting system thus far incorporates NOAA's Noah land surface model (LSM), version 3.3, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, version 4.12, NASA GMAO's Catchment LSM, and the Noah Multi-Physics (MP) LSM (the latter two incorporate prognostic water table schemes). In addition, the LSMs' surface and subsurface runoff are routed through the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) to simulate surface water dynamics. The LSMs are driven by NASA/GMAO's Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2), and the USGS and UCSB Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) daily rainfall dataset. The LIS software framework integrates these forcing datasets and drives the four LSMs and HyMAP. The Land Verification Toolkit (LVT) is used for the evaluation of the

  15. The Role of Education and Training in Enhancing Labour Productivity in Arab Countries in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeidy, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Labour productivity in Arab countries is low by international standards and this problem occurs in Arab countries both inside and outside Africa. There are 10 Arab countries in Africa: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Comoros. Enhancing labour productivity is a major challenge for Arab countries.…

  16. Bayesian noise-reduction in Arabia/Somalia and Nubia/Arabia finite rotations since ˜20 Ma: Implications for Nubia/Somalia relative motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Hawkins, Rhys; Sambridge, Malcolm

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge of Nubia/Somalia relative motion since the Early Neogene is of particular importance in the Earth Sciences, because it (i) impacts on inferences on African dynamic topography; and (ii) allows us to link plate kinematics within the Indian realm with those within the Atlantic basin. The contemporary Nubia/Somalia motion is well known from geodetic observations. Precise estimates of the past-3.2-Myr average motion are also available from paleo-magnetic observations. However, little is known of the Nubia/Somalia motion prior to ˜3.2 Ma, chiefly because the Southwest Indian Ridge spread slowly, posing a challenge to precisely identify magnetic lineations. This also makes the few observations available particularly prone to noise. Here we reconstruct Nubia/Somalia relative motions since ˜20 Ma from the alternative plate-circuit Nubia-Arabia-Somalia. We resort to trans-dimensional hierarchical Bayesian Inference, which has proved effective in reducing finite-rotation noise, to unravel the Arabia/Somalia and Arabia/Nubia motions. We combine the resulting kinematics to reconstruct the Nubia/Somalia relative motion since ˜20 Ma. We verify the validity of the approach by comparing our reconstruction with the available record for the past ˜3.2 Myr, obtained through Antarctica. Results indicate that prior to ˜11 Ma the total motion between Nubia and Somalia was faster than today. Furthermore, it featured a significant strike-slip component along the Nubia/Somalia boundary. It is only since ˜11 Ma that Nubia diverges away from Somalia at slower rates, comparable to the present-day one. Kinematic changes of some 20% might have occurred in the period leading to the present-day, but plate-motion steadiness is also warranted within the uncertainties.

  17. Notes from the field: outbreak of poliomyelitis--Somalia and Kenya, May 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    On May 9, 2013, the Somalia Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) reported a confirmed wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case in a girl aged 32 months from Mogadishu (Banadir Region), with onset of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) on April 18, 2013. Subsequently, eight additional WPV1 cases have been confirmed in Somalia, seven in Banadir Region and one in Bay Region. These are the first reported polio cases in Somalia since March 2007.

  18. East African cassava mosaic-like viruses from Africa to Indian ocean islands: molecular diversity, evolutionary history and geographical dissemination of a bipartite begomovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bruyn Alexandre

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta is a major food source for over 200 million sub-Saharan Africans. Unfortunately, its cultivation is severely hampered by cassava mosaic disease (CMD. Caused by a complex of bipartite cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMG species (Family: Geminivirideae; Genus: Begomovirus CMD has been widely described throughout Africa and it is apparent that CMG's are expanding their geographical distribution. Determining where and when CMG movements have occurred could help curtail its spread and reveal the ecological and anthropic factors associated with similar viral invasions. We applied Bayesian phylogeographic inference and recombination analyses to available and newly described CMG sequences to reconstruct a plausible history of CMG diversification and migration between Africa and South West Indian Ocean (SWIO islands. Results The isolation and analysis of 114 DNA-A and 41 DNA-B sequences demonstrated the presence of three CMG species circulating in the Comoros and Seychelles archipelagos (East African cassava mosaic virus, EACMV; East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus, EACMKV; and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, EACMCV. Phylogeographic analyses suggest that CMG’s presence on these SWIO islands is probably the result of at least four independent introduction events from mainland Africa occurring between 1988 and 2009. Amongst the islands of the Comoros archipelago, two major migration pathways were inferred: One from Grande Comore to Mohéli and the second from Mayotte to Anjouan. While only two recombination events characteristic of SWIO islands isolates were identified, numerous re-assortments events were detected between EACMV and EACMKV, which seem to almost freely interchange their genome components. Conclusions Rapid and extensive virus spread within the SWIO islands was demonstrated for three CMG complex species. Strong evolutionary or ecological interaction between CMG species may explain

  19. Harmonized biosafety regulations are key to trust building in regional agbiotech partnerships: the case of the Bt cotton project in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton public-private partnership (PPP project in East Africa was designed to gather baseline data on the effect of Bt cotton on biodiversity and the possibility of gene flow to wild cotton varieties. The results of the project are intended to be useful for Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania when applying for biosafety approvals. Using the backdrop of the different biosafety regulations in the three countries, we investigate the role of trust in the Bt cotton partnership in East Africa. Methods Data were collected by reviewing relevant project documents and peer-reviewed articles on Bt cotton in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda; conducting face-to-face interviews with key informants of the project; and conducting direct observations of the project. Data were analyzed based on recurring and emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We identified three factors that posed challenges to building trust in the Bt cotton project in East Africa: different regulatory regimes among the three countries; structural and management differences among the three partner institutions; and poor public awareness of GM crops and negative perceptions of the private sector. The structural and management differences were said to be addressed through joint planning, harmonization of research protocols, and management practices, while poor public awareness of GM crops and negative perceptions of the private sector were said to be addressed through open communication, sharing of resources, direct stakeholder engagement and awareness creation. The regulatory differences remained outside the scope of the project. Conclusions To improve the effectiveness of agbiotech PPPs, there is first a need for a regulatory regime that is acceptable to both the public and private sector partners. Second, early and continuous joint planning; sharing of

  20. Burden of HIV/AIDS infection before and during the civil war in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, B H; Giovagnoli, M R; Mahad, H; Tarsitani, G G

    2010-08-01

    Somalia has suffered a massive internal population displacement and exodus that began in 1988 and is still ongoing during the prolonged and intermittent civil war. This review looks at the burden of HIV infection in Somali and the impact of civil war on its epidemiology. Serosurveys have indicated that HIV was not present in Somalia before the civil war and to date Somalia has had an HIV prevalence markedly below that of its neighbours. However, due to the ongoing war HIV sentinel surveillance cannot reach most of the affected areas in Somalia and the current HIV infection problem may be greater than the figures indicate.

  1. Forced Displacement and Mixed Migration in the Horn of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group; UNHCR

    2015-01-01

    The Horn of Africa (HOA) covers Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda. Despite its rich endowment in human, social, and natural capital, the region is plagued by a complex history of weak governance, insecurity, increasing environmental degradation, entrenched poverty, and a range of persistent development challenges. Conflict remains endemic in the re...

  2. Safety and Efficacy of miltefosine alone and in combination with sodium stibogluconate and liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of primary visceral leishmaniasis in East Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omollo, Raymond; Alexander, Neal; Edwards, Tansy; Khalil, Eltahir A. G.; Younis, Brima M.; Abuzaid, Abuzaid A.; Wasunna, Monique; Njoroge, Njenga; Kinoti, Dedan; Kirigi, George; Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; Ellis, Sally; Balasegaram, Manica; Musa, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Treatment options for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in East Africa are far from satisfactory due to cost, toxicity, prolonged treatment duration or emergence of parasite resistance. Hence there is a need to explore alternative treatment protocols such as miltefosine alone or in

  3. A comparison of the heart and muscle total lipid and fatty acid profiles of nine large shark species from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Bruce; Sidell, Jonathan; Rhodes, Jeffrey; Cliff, Geremy

    2011-03-01

    We have assessed the fatty acid profiles of the hearts and different muscle tissues from nine large shark species (Carcharhinus limbatus (blacktip), Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky), Carcharhinus brevipinna (spinner), Carcharhinus leucas (Zambezi/bull), Galeocerdo cuvier (tiger), Sphyrna lewini (scalloped hammerhead), Sphyrna zygaena (smooth hammerhead), Carcharodon carcharias (great white) and Carcharias taurus (raggedtooth/grey nurse/sand tiger)) found off the east coast of South Africa. While there was generally little variation between the species, all species showed profiles rich in both n6 and n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to terrestrial commercial meats that have low n3. Thus, utilizing skeletal muscle tissues from sharks caught as part of the bycatch when fishing for teleosts would avoid unnecessary wastage of a potentially valuable resource, with all the possible health benefits of high quality protein combined with balanced polyunsaturates, although contamination with high levels of metabolic wastes, such as urea, may be a negative consideration.

  4. Renewable Energies and Water Security: Thermo Solar Energy as an Alternative for Seawater Desalination in North Africa and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Enrique Vieira de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change-related events, added to estimations about economical and population growth – tend to aggravate water scarcity, which is already affecting almost every country in the North of Africa and the Middle East. Based on a critical analysis of the “ACQUA-CSP” report, we discuss the initiatives devoted to the mitigation of water stress in these regions, with an emphasis on the seawater desalination processes. Since existing desalination plants are currently powered by fossil fuels, the use of thermo solar energy will be introduced as a sustainable strategy for the increase of water supply. We conclude that, in order to achieve the successful management of water resources, engineering and infrastructure solutions must be oriented by democratic institutions able to mediate conflicts over the allocation of water resources.

  5. Resource use associated with type 2 diabetes in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey: results from the International Diabetes Management Practice Study (IDMPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardino, Juan J; Atanasov, Petar K; Chan, Juliana C N; Mbanya, Jean C; Shestakova, Marina V; Leguet-Dinville, Prisca; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications form a global healthcare burden but the exact impact in some geographical regions is still not well documented. We describe the healthcare resource usage (HRU) associated with T2D in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey. In the fifth wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS; 2011-2012), we collected self-reported and physician-reported cross-sectional data from 8156 patients from 18 countries across 5 regions, including different types of HRU in the previous 3-6 months. Negative binomial regression was used to identify parameters associated with HRU, using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) to express associations. Patients in Africa (n=2220), the Middle East (n=2065), Eurasia (n=1843), South Asia (n=1195) and Turkey (n=842) experienced an annual hospitalization rate (mean±SD) of 0.6±1.9, 0.3±1.2, 1.7±4.1, 0.4±1.5 and 1.3±2.7, respectively. The annual number of diabetes-related inpatient days (mean±SD) was 4.7±22.7, 1.1±6.1, 16.0±30.0, 1.5±6.8 and 10.8±34.3, respectively. Despite some inter-regional heterogeneity, macrovascular complications (IRRs varying between 1.4 and 8.9), microvascular complications (IRRs varying between 3.4 and 4.3) and, to a large extent, inadequate glycemic control (IRRs varying between 1.89 and 10.1), were independent parameters associated with hospitalization in these respective regions. In non-Western countries, macrovascular/microvascular complications and inadequate glycemic control were common and important parameters associated with increased HRU.

  6. Joint atmospheric-terrestrial water balances for East Africa: a WRF-Hydro case study for the upper Tana River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerandi, Noah; Arnault, Joel; Laux, Patrick; Wagner, Sven; Kitheka, Johnson; Kunstmann, Harald

    2018-02-01

    For an improved understanding of the hydrometeorological conditions of the Tana River basin of Kenya, East Africa, its joint atmospheric-terrestrial water balances are investigated. This is achieved through the application of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and the fully coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system over the Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment (3279 km2) and its surroundings in the upper Tana River basin for 4 years (2011-2014). The model setup consists of an outer domain at 25 km (East Africa) and an inner one at 5-km (Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment) horizontal resolution. The WRF-Hydro inner domain is enhanced with hydrological routing at 500-m horizontal resolution. The results from the fully coupled modeling system are compared to those of the WRF-only model. The coupled WRF-Hydro slightly reduces precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the soil water storage but increases runoff. The total precipitation from March to May and October to December for WRF-only (974 mm/year) and coupled WRF-Hydro (940 mm/year) is closer to that derived from the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data (989 mm/year) than from the TRMM (795 mm/year) precipitation product. The coupled WRF-Hydro-accumulated discharge (323 mm/year) is close to that observed (333 mm/year). However, the coupled WRF-Hydro underestimates the observed peak flows registering low but acceptable NSE (0.02) and RSR (0.99) at daily time step. The precipitation recycling and efficiency measures between WRF-only and coupled WRF-Hydro are very close and small. This suggests that most of precipitation in the region comes from moisture advection from the outside of the analysis domain, indicating a minor impact of potential land-precipitation feedback mechanisms in this case. The coupled WRF-Hydro nonetheless serves as a tool in quantifying the atmospheric-terrestrial water balance in this region.

  7. Urban environmental services and the state in East Africa; between neo-developmental and network governance approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although governments are generally expected to provide environmental services such as sanitation and solid waste collection for their citizens, most (municipal) governments in Sub-Saharan Africa seem hardly able to take up this task. Without ignoring the lack of material resources resulting from

  8. Fish Assemblage Patterns as a Tool to Aid Conservation in the Olifants River Catchment (East), South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Africa has committed to address freshwater conservation at the catchment scale, using a combination of landscape-level and species-level features as surrogates of freshwater biodiversity. Here we examined fishes in the Olifants catchment, where multiple anthropogenic pressu...

  9. Anal intercourse among female sex workers in East Africa is associated with other high-risk behaviours for HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuijzen, Nienke J.; Ingabire, Chantal; Luchters, Stanley; Bosire, Wilkister; Braunstein, Sarah; Chersich, Matthew; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Epidemiological and HIV prevention studies in sub-Saharan Africa have almost exclusively focussed on vaginal transmission of HIV, the primary mode of transmission in the region. Little is known about the prevalence of heterosexual anal intercourse (AI), its correlates and its role in

  10. Polio outbreak investigation and response in Somalia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Webeck, Jenna; Baranyikwa, Marie Therese; Chatterjee, Anirban; Bile, Yassin Nur; Birungi, Julianne; Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    For >2 decades, conflicts and recurrent natural disasters have maintained Somalia in a chronic humanitarian crisis. For nearly 5 years, 1 million children polio once again. A case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) was defined as a child Polio cases were defined as AFP cases with stool specimens positive for WPV. From 9 May to 31 December 2013, 189 cases of WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reported from 46 districts of Somalia; 42% were from Banadir region (Mogadishu), 60% were males, and 93% were polio cases belonged to cluster N5A, which is known to have been circulating in northern Nigeria since 2011. In response to the outbreak, 8 supplementary immunization activities were conducted with oral polio vaccine (OPV; trivalent OPV was used initially, followed subsequently by bivalent OPV) targeting various age groups, including children aged polio outbreak erupted after a polio-free period of >6 years (the last case was reported in March 2007). Somalia interrupted indigenous WPV transmission in 2002, was removed from the list of polio-endemic countries a year later, and has since demonstrated its ability to control polio outbreaks resulting from importation. This outbreak reiterates that the threat of large polio outbreaks resulting from WPV importation will remain constant unless polio transmission is interrupted in the remaining polio-endemic countries. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Africa's Megafans and Their Tectonic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Burke, K.

    2016-01-01

    fans lies on the western margin of the Congo Basin (Mayombe Swell), and on the coastal slopes of the Namibia Swell. Sheer size may have militated aginst the recognition of many megafans: the largest in the Sahara are the Teghahart (378 km, Hoggar Swell, Algeria), and the Wadi Albalata (340 km, Uweinat Swell, Egypt). In southern Africa the largest are the Cubango (320 km, Bié Swell, Angola/ Namibia), and the Limpopo (230 km, Mozambique). (ii) Rift zones (a) Steer's horns basins-wide depressions centered on rifts. The largest contiguous group (n=14) developed in a steer's-horns basin occupies the wide Muglad depression (200-350 km, South Sudan). Four rift-related megafans lie SE of Lake Chad (Chad). Nine megafans occupy the complex Anza Rift in Kenya/South Somalia. The Salamat megafan (Chad), is unusual because it oriented parallel with the linked Salamat, Doseo and Doba rift axes, and is consequently one of the longest in Africa (465 km). (b) Rift depressions sensu stricto. Most rifts are too narrow to provide a transverse dimension large enough to accommodate megafans. Although well-known, the Okavango Rift (NW Botswana, NE Namibia) is unique in Africa in hosting three megafans within identifiable faulted margins. The Nile megafan is Africa's largest (476 km) and comprises the vast Sudd wetland (South Sudan). An explanation for its remarkable size may be its location in a depression at the junction of two conducive tectonic zones, the East African Swell margin and the Muglad steer's-horns depression. Discharge of the River Nile, the largest in the region, has allowed the Nile megafan to outcompete neighboring megafans for space.

  12. Comparison of environmental performance for different waste management scenarios in East Africa: The case of Kampala City, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyoo, R.; Leemans, R.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Poor waste flows management in East African cities has become an environmental and public health concerns to the city authorities and the general public. We assessed the environmental impacts of waste recycling in Kampala City, for four designed waste management scenarios, namely: (1) Scenario S1

  13. The political economy of oil and gas extraction: imperatives for fiscal and legal regimes in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael Omondi

    2018-01-01

    , cultural and environmental implications of this? This contribution examines the Production Sharing Contracts (PSCs) that result in the models for sharing production as envisaged by the three East African Countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Against these models the study unearths the interests...

  14. Challenges in groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers of East Africa: Investigations and lessons learnt in the Comoros Islands, Kenya and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Comte

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Coastal areas of Kenya (Kilifi County, Tanzania (Kilwa district and Comoros (Ngazidja island, East Africa. Study focus: Research aimed to understand the physical and societal drivers of groundwater accessibility and identify critical aspects of groundwater access and knowledge gaps that require further monitoring and research. Interdisciplinary societal, environmental and hydrogeological investigations were consistently undertaken in the three areas considered as exemplars of the diversity of the coastal fringes of the wider region. This paper focuses on the hydrogeological outcomes of the research, framed within the principal socio-environmental issues identified. New hydrological insights: Results confirm the fundamental importance of coastal groundwater resources for the development of the region and the urgent need to match groundwater development with demographic and economic growth. Hydrogeological knowledge is fragmented, groundwater lacks a long-term monitoring infrastructure and information transfer from stakeholders to users is limited. Current trends in demography, climate, sea-level and land-use are further threatening freshwater availability. Despite possessing high-productivity aquifers, water quality from wells and boreholes is generally impacted by saltwater intrusion. Shallow large-diameter wells, following the traditional model of these areas, consistently prove to be less saline and more durable than deeper small-diameter boreholes. However, promoting the use of large numbers of shallow wells poses a significant challenge for governance, requiring coherent management of the resource at local and national scales and the engagement of local communities. Keywords: Groundwater, Coastal aquifer, Eastern Africa, Environmental change, Governance, Community engagement

  15. Absence of kdr resistance alleles in the Union of the Comoros, East Africa [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5fw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoosook Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Knockdown resistance (kdr and CYP9K1 genotypes were detected by a MOLDI-TOF based SNP genotyping assay (Sequenom iPLEX in samples of Anopheles gambiae collected at 13 sites throughout the Union of the Comoros and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during February and March 2011. All A. gambiae specimens collected in the Comoros were homozygous for the susceptible kdr alleles (+/+ while 96% of A. gambiae from Dar es Salaam were homozygous for the East African kdr resistant genotype (E/E. In contrast, all specimens from Dar es Salaam and the Comoros were homozygous for the cyp3 allele (c3/c3 at the CYP9K1 locus; the locus has been implicated in metabolic resistance against pyrethroid insecticides in West Africa. All specimens had typical A. gambiae genotypes for SNPs within the divergence Islands on all three chromosomes. Although further spatial and temporal studies are needed, the distribution of kdr genotypes between the Comoros and Tanzania further supports isolation of the Comoros populations from A. gambiae populations on mainland Africa.

  16. A synthesis of Plio-Pleistocene leaf wax biomarker records of hydrological variation in East Africa and their relationship with hominin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, R.; Russell, J. M.; Campisano, C. J.; Feibel, C. S.; Deino, A. L.; Kingston, J.; Potts, R.; Cohen, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is thought to play a critical role in human evolution. However, the mechanisms behind this relationship are difficult to test due to a lack of long, high-quality paleoclimate records from hominin fossil locales. We improve the understanding of this relationship by examining Plio-Pleistocene lake sediment cores from East Africa that were drilled by the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project, an international effort to study the environment in which our hominin ancestors evolved and dispersed. We have analyzed organic geochemical signals of climate from drill cores from Ethiopia and Kenya spanning the Pliocene to recent time (from north to south: paleolake Hadar, Lake Turkana, Lake Baringo, and paleolake Koora). Specifically, we analyzed the hydrogen isotopic composition of terrestrial leaf waxes, which records changes in regional atmospheric circulation and hydrology. We reconstructed quantitative records of rainfall amount at each of the study sites, which host sediment spanning different geologic times and regions. By compiling these records, we test hominin evolutionary hypotheses as well as crucial questions about climate trend and variability. We find that there is a gradual or step-wise enrichment in δDwax, signifying a trend from a wet to dry climate, from the Pliocene to the Pleistocene, perhaps implying an influence of global temperature, ice sheet extent, and/or atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations on East African climate. However, the shift is small relative to the amplitude of orbital-scale isotopic variations. The records indicate a strong influence of eccentricity-modulated orbital precession, and imply that local insolation effects are the likely cause of East African precipitation. Several of the intervals of high isotopic variability coincide with key hominin fossil or technological transitions, suggesting that climate variability plays a key role in hominin evolution.

  17. Subsidence history, crustal structure and evolution of the Nogal Rift, Northern Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Watts, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic reflection profile, gravity anomaly, and biostratigraphic data from deep exploration wells have been used to determine the tectonic subsidence, structure and evolution of the Nogal basin, Northern Somalia, one of a number of ENE-WSW trending early Mesozoic rifts that formed prior to opening of the Gulf of Aden. Backstripping of biostratigraphic data at the Nogal-1 and Kali-1 wells provides new constraints on the age of rifting, and the amount of crustal and mantle extension. The tectonic subsidence and uplift history at the wells can be generally explained as a consequence of two, possibly three, major rifting events. The first event initiated in the Late Jurassic (~156 Ma) and lasted for ~10 Myr. We interpret the rift as a late stage event associated with the break-up of Gondwana and the separation of Africa and Madagascar. The second event initiated in the Late Cretaceous (~80 Ma) and lasted for ~20 Myr. This event probably correlates with a rapid increase in spreading rate on the ridges separating the African and Indian and African and Antarctica plates and a contemporaneous slowing down of Africa's plate motion. The backstripped tectonic subsidence data can be explained by a multi-rift extensional model with a stretching factor, β, in the range 1.17-1.38. The third and most recent event occurred in the Oligocene (~32 Ma) and lasted for ~10 Myr. This rift only developed at the centre of the basin close to Nogal-1 well, and is related to the opening of the Gulf of Aden. The amount of crustal thinning inferred at the Kali-1 well is consistent with the results of Process-Oriented Gravity and Flexure (POGM) modelling, assuming an elastic thickness of ~30 km. The thinning at the Nogal-1 well, however, is greater by ~ 7 km than predicted suggesting that the basin may be locally underplated by magmatic material. Irrespective, POGM suggests the transition between thick crust beneath Northern Somalia to thin crust beneath the Indian Ocean forms a ~500 km wide

  18. New geodetic measurements in central Afar constraining the Arabia-Somalia-Nubia triple junction kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubre, C.; Deprez, A.; Masson, F.; Socquet, A.; Lewi, E.; Grandin, R.; Calais, E.; Wright, T. J.; Bendick, R. O.; Pagli, C.; Peltzer, G.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Ibrahim Ahmed, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Afar Depression is an extraordinary submerged laboratory where the crustal mechanisms involved in the active rifting process can be studied. But the crustal movements at the regional scale are complicated by being the locus of the meeting of three divergent plate boundaries: the oceanic spreading ridges of the Red Sea and the Aden Ridge and the intra-continental East-African Rift (EAR). We present here the first GPS measurements conducted in a new network in Central Afar, complementing existing networks in Eritrea, around the Manda-Harraro 2005-2010 active segment, in the Northern part of the EAR and in Djibouti. Even if InSAR data were appropriate for mapping the deformation field, the results are difficult to interpret for analyzing the regional kinematics because of the atmospheric conditions, the lack of complete data catalogue, the acquisition configuration and the small velocity variations. Therefore, our measurements in the new sites are crucial to obtain an accurate velocity field over the whole depression, and focus specifically on the spatial organization of the deformation to characterize the tripe junction. These first results show that a small part of the motion of the Somalia plate with respect to the Nubia plate or the Arabia plate (2-3 mm/yr) occurs south of the Tadjura Gulf and East of the Adda-do segment in Southern Afar. The complex kinematic pattern involves a clockwise rotation of this Southeastern part of the Afar rift and can be related to the significant seismic activity regularly recorded in the region of Jigjiga (northern Somalia-Ethiopia border). The western continuation of the Aden Ridge into Afar extends West of the Asal rift segment and does not reach the young active segment of Manda-Inakir (MI). A slow gradient of velocity is observed across the Dobi Graben and across the large systems of faults between Lake Abhe and the MI rift segment. A striking change of the velocity direction occurs in the region of Assaïta, west of Lake

  19. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8559] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Somalia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... prior year Acts with respect to Somalia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the...

  20. 78 FR 16356 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8227] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Somalia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Somalia, and I...

  1. The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

  2. 76 FR 61135 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7627] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign... Somalia and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination shall be reported to the Congress, and...

  3. 77 FR 25723 - Extension and Redesignation of Somalia for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... unlawfully in densely populated civilian neighborhoods and at times used civilians as ``shields'' to fire... applying for an initial Attn: TPS Somalia, P.O. Box registration: 6943, Chicago, IL 60680-6943. Non-U.S. Postal Delivery Service: USCIS, Attn: TPS Somalia, 131 S. Dearborn--3rd Floor, Chicago, IL 60603-5517. If...

  4. 75 FR 67383 - Extension of the Designation of Somalia for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... designation of Somalia is effective March 18, 2011, and will remain in effect through September 17, 2012. The 60-day re-registration period begins November 2, 2010 and will remain in effect until January 3, 2011... humanitarian aid in Somalia is shrinking.'' The threat of piracy, insecurity, restrictions on movement and...

  5. Phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein coding sequences of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses in East Africa: evidence for interserotypic recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balinda Sheila N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is endemic in East Africa with the majority of the reported outbreaks attributed to serotype O virus. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein coding region of serotype O FMD viruses from Kenya and Uganda has been undertaken to infer evolutionary relationships and processes responsible for the generation and maintenance of diversity within this serotype. FMD virus RNA was obtained from six samples following virus isolation in cell culture and in one case by direct extraction from an oropharyngeal sample. Following RT-PCR, the single long open reading frame, encoding the polyprotein, was sequenced. Results Phylogenetic comparisons of the VP1 coding region showed that the recent East African viruses belong to one lineage within the EA-2 topotype while an older Kenyan strain, K/52/1992 is a representative of the topotype EA-1. Evolutionary relationships between the coding regions for the leader protease (L, the capsid region and almost the entire coding region are monophyletic except for the K/52/1992 which is distinct. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships for the P2 and P3 regions suggest that the K/52/1992 is a probable recombinant between serotypes A and O. A bootscan analysis of K/52/1992 with East African FMD serotype A viruses (A21/KEN/1964 and A23/KEN/1965 and serotype O viral isolate (K/117/1999 revealed that the P2 region is probably derived from a serotype A strain while the P3 region appears to be a mosaic derived from both serotypes A and O. Conclusions Sequences of the VP1 coding region from recent serotype O FMDVs from Kenya and Uganda are all representatives of a specific East African lineage (topotype EA-2, a probable indication that hardly any FMD introductions of this serotype have occurred from outside the region in the recent past. Furthermore, evidence for interserotypic recombination, within the non-structural protein coding regions, between FMDVs of serotypes A

  6. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  7. Kinematics of the entire East African Rift from GPS velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, M.; King, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Through a collaborative effort of the GeoPRISMS East Africa Rift GPS Working Group, we have collected and collated all of the publicly available continuous and survey-mode data for the entire rift system between 1994 and 2017 and processed these data as part of a larger velocity solution for Africa, Arabia and western Eurasia. We present here our velocity solution encompassing the major bounding plates and intervening terranes along the East African Rift from the Red Sea to the Malawi Rift and adjacent regions for GPS sites with data spans of at least 2.4 years, and north and east velocity uncertainties less than 1.5 mm/yr. To obtain realistic uncertainties for the velocity estimates, we attempted at each stage of the analysis to account for the character of the noise: During phase processing, we used an elevation-dependent weighting based on the phase residuals for each station; we then examined each position time series, removing outliers and reweighting appropriately to account for the white noise component of the errors; and e accounted for temporal correlations by estimating an equivalent random-walk magnitude for each continuous site and applying the median value (0.5 mm/√yr) to all survey-mode sites. We rigorously estimate relative rotation rates of Nubia, by choosing subset of well-determined sites such that the effective weights of western, northeastern and southern Africa were roughly equivalent, and Somalia, for which the estimate is dominated by three sites (MALI, RCMN, SEY1) whose uncertainties are a factor of 2-3 smaller than those of the other sites. For both plates, the weighted root-mean-square of the velocity residuals is 0.5 mm/yr. Our unified velocity solution provides a geodetic framework and constraints on the continental-scale kinematics of surface motions as well as more local effects both within and outside of the rift structures. Specific focus areas with denser coverage than previous fields include the Danakil block, the Afar Rift, the

  8. Status and potential of geothermal power in East Africa; Status quo und Entwicklungspotential der Geothermie in Ostafrika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraml, M.; Kessels, K.; Kalberkamp, U.; Kehrer, P.; Ochmann, N.; Reitmayr, G.; Stadtler, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Delvaux, D. [Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren (Belgium)

    2006-10-15

    Each country of the East African rift has potential sites for geothermal power generation. The biggest resources are expected in Kenya and Ethiopia, where conventional steam power plants can be constructed. In 2003, the six states of the region, i.e. Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda come together and decided, together with the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), to work on the systematic development of geothermal power in the region. Together with several investors, the ''African Rift Geothermal Development Facility'' (ARGeo) was founded with total funds of nearly 24 million US dollars. (orig.)

  9. East African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on ... research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special ... Analysis of survival patterns of TB‐HIV co‐infected patients in relation to ...

  10. Reaching out to take on TB in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A J; Granat, Simo M

    2014-01-01

    Among the many challenges facing populations disrupted by complex emergencies, personal security and food security rank much higher than access to healthcare. However, over time health needs assume increasing importance. Many complex crises occur in settings where the background incidence of TB is already high; social and economic conditions in crises are then highly conducive to amplification of the existing TB problem. Innovative approaches to delivery of diagnostic and treatment services, transition planning and integration with other healthcare providers and services are vital. In the extremely challenging environment of Somalia, multiple partners are making headway though collaboration and innovation.

  11. The Effect of Piracy on Somalia as a Failed State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    the Pan -~ab task force to join the European Union (EU), NATO and CTF. On June 10, 2010, the UN Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia...winning cooperation from local clans and business networks to provide authority and order is Mogusidshu’s best recipe for security. 103 The full U.N...21st Century Seapower. Naval War College Review 61, no. 1, (January 1): 6-19. http://www.proquest.com/ (accessed November 22, 2010). Cooke , Jennifer

  12. Providing surgical care in Somalia: A model of task shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kathryn M; Ford, Nathan P; Trelles, Miguel

    2011-07-15

    Somalia is one of the most political unstable countries in the world. Ongoing insecurity has forced an inconsistent medical response by the international community, with little data collection. This paper describes the "remote" model of surgical care by Medecins Sans Frontieres, in Guri-El, Somalia. The challenges of providing the necessary prerequisites for safe surgery are discussed as well as the successes and limitations of task shifting in this resource-limited context. In January 2006, MSF opened a project in Guri-El located between Mogadishu and Galcayo. The objectives were to reduce mortality due to complications of pregnancy and childbirth and from violent and non-violent trauma. At the start of the program, expatriate surgeons and anesthesiologists established safe surgical practices and performed surgical procedures. After January 2008, expatriates were evacuated due to insecurity and surgical care has been provided by local Somalian doctors and nurses with periodic supervisory visits from expatriate staff. Between October 2006 and December 2009, 2086 operations were performed on 1602 patients. The majority (1049, 65%) were male and the median age was 22 (interquartile range, 17-30). 1460 (70%) of interventions were emergent. Trauma accounted for 76% (1585) of all surgical pathology; gunshot wounds accounted for 89% (584) of violent injuries. Operative mortality (0.5% of all surgical interventions) was not higher when Somalian staff provided care compared to when expatriate surgeons and anesthesiologists. The delivery of surgical care in any conflict-settings is difficult, but in situations where international support is limited, the challenges are more extreme. In this model, task shifting, or the provision of services by less trained cadres, was utilized and peri-operative mortality remained low demonstrating that safe surgical practices can be accomplished even without the presence of fully trained surgeon and anesthesiologists. If security improves

  13. Vegetation, climate and fire-dynamics in East Africa inferred from the Maundi crater pollen record from Mt Kilimanjaro during the last glacial-interglacial cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Lisa; Hemp, Andreas; Zech, Wolfgang; Behling, Hermann

    2012-04-01

    The pollen, charcoal and sedimentological record from the Maundi crater, located at 2780 m elevation on the south-eastern slope of Mt Kilimanjaro, is one of the longest terrestrial records in equatorial East Africa, giving an interesting insight into the vegetation and climate dynamics back to the early last Glacial period. Our sediment record has a reliable chronology until 42 ka BP. An extrapolation of the age-depth model, as well as matching with other palaeo-records from tropical East Africa, suggest a total age of about 90 ka BP at the bottom of the record. During the last Glacial the distribution as well as the composition of the vegetation belts classified as colline savanna, submontane woodland, montane forest, ericaceous belt, and alpine vegetation changed. The early last Glacial is characterized by high amounts of Poaceae and Asteraceae pollen suggesting a climatically dry but stable phase. Based on the absence of pollen grains in samples deposited around 70 ka BP, we assume the occurrence of distinct drought periods. During the pre-LGM (Last Glacial Maximum) a higher taxa diversity of the ericaceous and montane zone is recorded and suggests a spread of forest and shrub vegetation, thus indicating a more humid period. The taxa diversity increases steadily during the recorded time span. The decent of vegetation zones indicate dry and cold conditions during the LGM and seem to have been detrimental for many taxa, especially those of the forest vegetation; however, the early last Glacial seems to have been markedly drier than the LGM. The reappearance of most of the taxa (most importantly Alchemilla, Araliaceae, Dodonea, Hagenia, Ilex, Myrsine, Moraceae, Piperaceae) during the deglacial and Holocene period suggest a shift into humid conditions. An increase in ferns and the decrease in grasses during the Holocene also indicate increasing humidity. Fire played an important role in controlling the development and elevation of the ericaceous zone and the tree

  14. Are HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men emerging in the Middle East and North Africa?: a systematic review and data synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghina Mumtaz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM bear a disproportionately higher burden of HIV infection than the general population. MSM in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA are a largely hidden population because of a prevailing stigma towards this type of sexual behavior, thereby limiting the ability to assess infection transmission patterns among them. It is widely perceived that data are virtually nonexistent on MSM and HIV in this region. The objective of this review was to delineate, for the first time, the evidence on the epidemiology of HIV among MSM in MENA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a systematic review of all biological, behavioral, and other related data on HIV and MSM in MENA. Sources of data included PubMed (Medline, international organizations' reports and databases, country-level reports and databases including governmental and nongovernmental organization publications, and various other institutional documents. This review showed that onsiderable data are available on MSM and HIV in MENA. While HIV prevalence continues at low levels among different MSM groups, HIV epidemics appear to be emerging in at least few countries, with a prevalence reaching up to 28% among certain MSM groups. By 2008, the contribution of MSM transmission to the total HIV notified cases increased and exceeded 25% in several countries. The high levels of risk behavior (4-14 partners on average in the last six months among different MSM populations and of biomarkers of risks (such as herpes simplex virus type 2 at 3%-54%, the overall low rate of consistent condom use (generally below 25%, the relative frequency of male sex work (20%-76%, and the substantial overlap with heterosexual risk behavior and injecting drug use suggest potential for further spread. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and data synthesis indicate that HIV epidemics appear to be emerging among MSM in at least a few MENA countries and could already be in a concentrated state among

  15. The Toarcian Bathonian succession of the Antsiranana Basin (NW Madagascar): Facies analysis and tectono-sedimentary history in the development of the East Africa-Madagascar conjugate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Mauro; Benvenuti, Marco

    2008-04-01

    The latest Early to Middle Jurassic succession of the Antsiranana Basin (NW Madagascar) records the complex transition from the continental rifting of Gondwana to the drifting of Madagascar-India from East Africa. The Madagascan Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic successions have been included in several paleogeographic and geodynamic models explaining the evolution of the Gondwana margins. Nevertheless, in some cases, as for the Toarcian-Bathonian deposits of the Antsiranana Basin, no significant stratigraphic revision has been carried out since the early 1970s. New field surveys allow reconsidering the stratigraphic and structural context and the palaeoenvironmental meaning of Toarcian-Bathonian successions occurring in different parts of the basin. These successions rest on the Triassic-Early Jurassic Isalo Sandstone which records pre-breakup rift events with a dominantly fluvial deposition. This situation is similar to other continental rift basins of Gondwana. After a regional Toarcian transgression the different portions of the Antsiranana Basin were characterized by significantly diversified and coeval depositional environments. The basin can be subdivided in a SW and NE part separated by a NW-SE trending structural high. In the SW part of the basin (Ampasindava sub-basin) the so-called "Jurassique paralique" [Rerat, J.C., 1964. Note sur les variations de faciès des sèries jurassiques du nord de Madagascar. Comptes Rendus Semaine gèologique, Tananarive, pp. 15-22] or " Facies Mixtes de la Presqu'ile de Ampasindava" [Besairie, H., Collignon, M., 1972. Géologie de Madagascar; I. Les terrains sédimentaires. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, 35, 1-463], a 1500 m thick prevalently terrigenous deposit, has been subdivided into four units. They document the long-lasting development of coastal-deltaic systems in a highly subsiding area. In the NE portion of the basin (Ankarana-Analamera sub-basin), a coeval mixed carbonate-terrigenous succession subdivided in five units

  16. Multidisciplinary management of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma in Africa and the Middle East: current practice and recommendations for improvement

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    Zekri J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jamal Zekri,1 Lydia M Dreosti,2 Marwan Ghosn,3 Emad Hamada,4 Mohamed Jaloudi,5 Ola Khorshid,6 Blaha Larbaoui7 1College of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Alfaisal University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Medical Oncology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 3Faculty of Medicine Hematology, Oncology Department, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Kasr Alainy, Cairo, Egypt; 5Oncology Hematology Department, Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 6National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Kasr El Ainy, Cairo, Egypt; 7Oncology Service, Université Djillali Liabés, Sidi Bel Abbés, Algeria Abstract: The management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC has evolved considerably in recent years. This report represents the consensus of 22 relevant medical specialists from Africa and the Middle East region engaged in the management of RCC. Partial or radical nephrectomy is the standard of care for most patients with localized RCC. It is essential that patients are followed up appropriately after surgery to enable local and distant relapses to be identified and treated promptly. The treatment of advanced/metastatic disease has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies. Follow-up of these patients enables therapy optimization and assessment of response to treatment. There was universal agreement on the importance of management of RCC by a multidisciplinary team supported by a multidisciplinary tumor board. Barriers hindering this approach were identified. These included lack of awareness of the benefits of multidisciplinary team role, poor communication among relevant disciplines, time constraints, and specifics of private practice. Other challenges include shortage of expert specialists as urologists and oncologists and lack of local management guidelines in some countries. Solutions were proposed and discussed. Medical

  17. Reconstruction of late Quaternary relative humidity changes on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, East Africa, using a coupled δ2H-δ18O biomarker paleohygrometer

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    Hepp, Johannes; Zech, Roland; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Tuthorn, Mario; Glaser, Bruno; Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank; Huang, Yongsong; Zech, Wolfgang; Zech, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of African paleoclimate/-hydrological history is decisively based on lake level and lake sediment studies. It furthermore improved remarkably during the last decade thanks to emerging stable isotope techniques such as compound-specific deuterium analysis of sedimentary leaf wax biomarkers (δ2Hleaf wax). Here we present results from a multi-proxy biomarker study carried out on a ~100 ka paleosol sequence developed in the Maundi crater at ~2780 m a.s.l. on the southeastern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro in equatorial East Africa. The Maundi stable isotope records established for hemicellulose-derived sugars, lignin- and pectin-derived methoxyl groups and leaf wax-derived fatty acid and n-alkane biomarkers (δ18Osugars, δ2Hmethoxyl groups, δ2Hfatty acids and δ2Hn-alkanes) reveal differences but also similar patterns. Maxima characterize the period from 70 to 60 ka, the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Younger Dryas (YD), whereas minima occur during the Holocene. The application of a 'coupled δ2Hn-alkane-δ18Osugar paleohygrometer' allows the reconstruction of the Late Quaternary relative humidity (RH) history of the Maundi study site. Accordingly, the reconstructed RH changes are well in agreement with the Maundi pollen results. Apart from the overall regional moisture availability, the intensification versus weakening of the trade wind inversion, which affects the diurnal montane atmospheric circulation on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, is suggested as local second important factor controlling the RH history at Maundi. Furthermore, the Maundi results of the coupled δ2Hn-alkane-δ18Osugar approach caution against interpreting δ2Hleaf wax (as well as δ18Osugar) records straight forwards in terms of reflecting δ2Hprec, because variably and primarily RH-dependent isotopic evapotranspirative enrichment of leaf water can mask δ2Hprec changes. Concerning the biomarker-based reconstructed Maundi δ2H/δ18Oprec record, the comparison with the

  18. Trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania: Implications for a superplume source for East Africa Rift magmatism

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    Paterno R Castillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recently discovered high, plume-like 3He/4He ratios at Rungwe Volcanic Province (RVP in southern Tanzania, similar to those at the Main Ethiopian Rift in Ethiopia, strongly suggest that magmatism associated with continental rifting along the entire East African Rift System (EARS has a deep mantle contribution (Hilton et al., 2011. New trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for high 3He/4He lavas and tephras from RVP can be explained by binary mixing relationships involving Early Proterozoic (+/- Archaean lithospheric mantle, present beneath the southern EARS, and a volatile-rich carbonatitic plume with a limited range of compositions and best represented by recent Nyiragongo lavas from the Virunga Volcanic Province also in the Western Rift. Other lavas from the Western Rift and from the southern Kenya Rift can also be explained through mixing between the same endmember components. In contrast, lavas from the northern Kenya and Main Ethiopian rifts can be explained through variable mixing between the same mantle plume material and the Middle to Late Proterozoic lithospheric mantle, present beneath the northern EARS. Thus, we propose that the bulk of EARS magmatism is sourced from mixing among three endmember sources: Early Proterozoic (+/- Archaean lithospheric mantle, Middle to Late Proterozoic lithospheric mantle and a volatile-rich carbonatitic plume with a limited range of compositions. We propose further that the African Superplume, a large, seismically anomalous feature originating in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa, influences magmatism throughout eastern Africa with magmatism at RVP and Main Ethiopian Rift representing two different heads of a single mantle plume source. This is consistent with a single mantle plume origin of the coupled He-Ne isotopic signatures of mantle-derived xenoliths and/or lavas from all segments of the EARS (Halldorsson et al., 2014.

  19. Off-axis volcano-tectonic activity during continental rifting: Insights from the transversal Goba-Bonga lineament, Main Ethiopian Rift (East Africa)

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    Corti, Giacomo; Sani, Federico; Agostini, Samuele; Philippon, Melody; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Willingshofer, Ernst

    2018-03-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift, East Africa, is characterized by the presence of major, enigmatic structures which strike approximately orthogonal to the trend of the rift valley. These structures are marked by important deformation and magmatic activity in an off-axis position in the plateaus surrounding the rift. In this study, we present new structural data based on a remote and field analysis, complemented with analogue modelling experiments, and new geochemical analysis of volcanic rocks sampled in different portions of one of these transversal structures: the Goba-Bonga volcano-tectonic lineament (GBVL). This integrated analysis shows that the GBVL is associated with roughly E-W-trending prominent volcano-tectonic activity affecting the western plateau. Within the rift floor, the approximately E-W alignment of Awasa and Corbetti calderas likely represent expressions of the GBVL. Conversely, no tectonic or volcanic features of similar (E-W) orientation have been recognized on the eastern plateau. Analogue modelling suggests that the volcano-tectonic features of the GBVL have probably been controlled by the presence of a roughly E-W striking pre-existing discontinuity beneath the western plateau, which did not extend beneath the eastern plateau. Geochemical analysis supports this interpretation and indicates that, although magmas have the same sub-lithospheric mantle source, limited differences in magma evolution displayed by products found along the GBVL may be ascribed to the different tectonic framework to the west, to the east, and in the axial zone of the rift. These results support the importance of the heterogeneous nature of the lithosphere and the spatial variations of its structure in controlling the architecture of continental rifts and the distribution of the related volcano-tectonic activity.

  20. Tie points for Gondwana reconstructions from a structural interpretation of the Mozambique Basin, East Africa and the Riiser-Larsen Sea, Antarctica

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    J. Klimke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Movements within early East Gondwana dispersal are poorly constrained, and there is debate about conjugate geologic structures and the timing and directions of the rifting and earliest seafloor spreading phases. We present a combined structural interpretation of multichannel reflection seismic profiles from offshore of northern Mozambique (East Africa and the conjugate Riiser-Larsen Sea (Antarctica. We find similar structural styles at the margins of both basins. At certain positions at the foot of the continental slope close to the continent–ocean transition, the basement is intensely deformed and fractured, a structural style very untypical for rifted continental margins. Sediments overlying the fractured basement are deformed and reveal toplap and onlap geometries, indicating a post-breakup deformation phase. We propose this unique deformation zone as a tie point for Gondwana reconstructions. Accordingly, we interpret the western flank of Gunnerus Ridge, Antarctica as a transform margin similar to the Davie Ridge offshore of Madagascar, implying that they are conjugate features. As the continental slope deformation is post-rift, we propose a two-phase opening scenario. A first phase of rifting and early seafloor spreading, likely in NW–SE direction, was subsequently replaced by a N–S-directed transform deformation phase overprinting the continent–ocean transition. From previously identified magnetic chrons and the sediment stratigraphy, this change in the spreading directions from NW–SE to N–S is suggested to have occurred by the late Middle Jurassic. We suggest that the second phase of deformation corresponds to the strike-slip movement of Madagascar and Antarctica and discuss implications for Gondwana breakup.